Sample records for droplet number concentration

  1. ARM Evaluation Product : Droplet Number Concentration Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riihimaki, Laura

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Cloud droplet number concentration is an important factor in understanding aerosol-cloud interactions. As aerosol concentration increases, it is expected that droplet number concentration, Nd, will increase and droplet size decrease, for a given liquid water path (Twomey 1977), which will greatly affect cloud albedo as smaller droplets reflect more shortwave radiation. However, the magnitude and variability of these processes under different environmental conditions is still uncertain. McComiskey et al. (2009) have implemented a method, based on Boers and Mitchell (1994), for calculating Nd from ground-based remote sensing measurements of optical depth and liquid water path. They show that the magnitude of the aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI) varies with a range of factors, including the relative value of the cloud liquid water path (LWP), the aerosol size distribution, and the cloud updraft velocity. Estimates of Nd under a range of cloud types and conditions and at a variety of sites are needed to further quantify the impacts of aerosol cloud interactions.

  2. ARM Evaluation Product : Droplet Number Concentration Value-Added Product

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Riihimaki, Laura

    Cloud droplet number concentration is an important factor in understanding aerosol-cloud interactions. As aerosol concentration increases, it is expected that droplet number concentration, Nd, will increase and droplet size decrease, for a given liquid water path (Twomey 1977), which will greatly affect cloud albedo as smaller droplets reflect more shortwave radiation. However, the magnitude and variability of these processes under different environmental conditions is still uncertain. McComiskey et al. (2009) have implemented a method, based on Boers and Mitchell (1994), for calculating Nd from ground-based remote sensing measurements of optical depth and liquid water path. They show that the magnitude of the aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI) varies with a range of factors, including the relative value of the cloud liquid water path (LWP), the aerosol size distribution, and the cloud updraft velocity. Estimates of Nd under a range of cloud types and conditions and at a variety of sites are needed to further quantify the impacts of aerosol cloud interactions.

  3. be explained by the indirect aerosol cloud effect. The use of a parcel model to determine the cloud droplet number concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiners, Peter W.

    cloud properties and their effect on the surface radiation budget: selected cases from FIRE ACE. Jbe explained by the indirect aerosol cloud effect. The use of a parcel model to determine the cloud droplet number concentration enables us to separate the effects of the cloud LWP and cloud droplet number

  4. ARM - Measurement - Particle number concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  5. A13B-0215: Case study of the 9 April 2009 `brown' cloud: Observations of unusually high cloud droplet concentrations in Saudi Arabia, David J Delene, University of North Dakota (delene@aero.und.edu; http://aerosol.atmos.und.edu)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delene, David J.

    ' cloud: Observations of unusually high cloud droplet concentrations in Saudi Arabia, David J Delene Arabia show a color change, from white during the time of low droplet number concentration, to brown by the cloud is investigated and the changes in cloud properties are documented. Conclusions The 'brown' ice

  6. Fabrication and Response of High Concentration SIMPLE Superheated Droplet Detectors with Different Liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The combined measurement of dark matter interactions with different superheated liquids has recently been suggested as a cross-correlation technique in identifying WIMP candidates. We describe the fabrication of high concentration superheated droplet detectors based on the light nuclei liquids C3F8, C4F8, C4F10 and CCl2F2, and investigation of their irradiation response with respect to C2ClF5. The results are discussed in terms of the basic physics of superheated liquid response to particle interactions, as well as the necessary detector qualifications for application in dark matter search investigations. The possibility of heavier nuclei SDDs is explored using the light nuclei results as a basis, with CF3I provided as an example.

  7. Evaluation of the aerosol indirect effect in marine stratocumulus clouds: Droplet number, size, liquid water path, and radiative impact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Lynn

    Evaluation of the aerosol indirect effect in marine stratocumulus clouds: Droplet number, size stratocumulus clouds in the northeastern Pacific Ocean were analyzed to determine the effect of aerosol particles on cloud microphysical and radiative properties. Seven nighttime and two daytime cases were

  8. DOE/SC-ARM-TR-140 Droplet Number Concentration Value-Added Product

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  9. Levitated droplet dye laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azzouz, H; Balslev, S; Johansson, J; Mortensen, N A; Nilsson, S; Kristensen, A

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the first observation, to our knowledge, of lasing from a levitated, dye droplet. The levitated droplets are created by computer controlled pico-liter dispensing into one of the nodes of a standing ultrasonic wave (100 kHz), where the droplet is trapped. The free hanging droplet forms a high quality optical resonator. Our 750 nL lasing droplets consist of Rhodamine 6G dissolved in ethylene glycol, at a concentration of 0.02 M. The droplets are optically pumped at 532 nm light from a pulsed, frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser, and the dye laser emission is analyzed by a fixed grating spectrometer. With this setup we have achieved reproducible lasing spectra in the visible wavelength range from 610 nm to 650 nm. The levitated droplet technique has previously successfully been applied for a variety of bio-analytical applications at single cell level. In combination with the lasing droplets, the capability of this high precision setup has potential applications within highly sensitive intra-cavity absorban...

  10. A study of ignition and combustion characteristics of isolated coal water slurry droplet using digital image processing technique 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhadra, Tanmoy

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    diameter and ambient oxygen concentrations. Simplified phenomen ological type models are presented in order to determine the number of particles. interparticle spacing and density of coal water slurry droplet. Finally qualitative relations between ignition...

  11. Evaporation-driven ring and film deposition from colloidal droplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Nadir Kaplan; L. Mahadevan

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Evaporating suspensions of colloidal particles lead to the formation of a variety of patterns, ranging from a left-over ring of a dried coffee drop to uniformly distributed solid pigments left behind wet paint. To characterize the transition between single rings, multiple concentric rings, broad bands, and uniform deposits, we investigate the dynamics of a drying droplet via a multiphase model of colloidal particles in a solvent. Our theory couples the inhomogeneous evaporation at the evolving droplet interface to the dynamics inside the drop, i.e. the liquid flow, local variations of the particle concentration, and the propagation of the deposition front where the solute forms an incompressible porous medium at high concentrations. A dimensionless parameter combining the capillary number and the droplet aspect ratio captures the formation conditions of different pattern types.

  12. Self-propulsion of pure water droplets by spontaneous Marangoni stress driven motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ziane Izri; Marjolein N. van der Linden; Sébastien Michelin; Olivier Dauchot

    2014-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We report spontaneous motion in a fully bio-compatible system consisting of pure water droplets in an oil-surfactant medium of squalane and monoolein. Water from the droplet is solubilized by the reverse micellar solution, creating a concentration gradient of swollen reverse micelles around each droplet. The strong advection and weak diffusion conditions allow for the first experimental realization of spontaneous motion in a system of isotropic particles at sufficiently large P\\'eclet number according to a straightforward generalization of a recently proposed mechanism. Experiments with a highly concentrated solution of salt instead of water, and tetradecane instead of squalane, confirm the above mechanism. The present swimming droplets are able to carry external bodies such as large colloids, salt crystals, and even cells.

  13. Compound droplet manipulations on fiber arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weyer, Floriane; Dreesen, Laurent; Vandewalle, Nicolas

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent works demonstrated that fiber arrays may constitue the basis of an open digital microfluidics. Various processes, such as droplet motion, fragmentation, trapping, release, mixing and encapsulation, may be achieved on fiber arrays. However, handling a large number of tiny droplets resulting from the mixing of several liquid components is still a challenge for developing microreactors, smart sensors or microemulsifying drugs. Here, we show that the manipulation of tiny droplets onto fiber networks allows for creating compound droplets with a high complexity level. Moreover, this cost-effective and flexible method may also be implemented with optical fibers in order to develop fluorescence-based biosensor.

  14. Influence of Liquid Viscosity on Droplet Impingement on Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pearson, John T; Webb, Brent W

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fluid dynamics video describes droplet impingement experiments performed on superhydrophobic surfaces. When droplets of pure water are impinged upon superhydrophobic surfaces, a region of thin coherent jets are observed for Weber numbers between 5 and 15. Also, peripheral splashing is observed for Weber numbers above about 200. When the viscosity of the droplet is increased by mixing glycerol with the water, the thin jets are not observed and peripheral splashing is delayed somewhat. In the Weber number range where pure water droplets are observed to splash peripherally, the water/glycerol droplets are observed to have two-pronged jets.

  15. acoustic droplet vaporization: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    we present detailed study of a laser irradiated droplet containing nanosilica particles. Infrared and High speed imaging of the heating process for different concentrations of...

  16. acoustically levitated droplet: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    we present detailed study of a laser irradiated droplet containing nanosilica particles. Infrared and High speed imaging of the heating process for different concentrations of...

  17. acoustically levitated droplets: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    we present detailed study of a laser irradiated droplet containing nanosilica particles. Infrared and High speed imaging of the heating process for different concentrations of...

  18. Elevated CO/sub 2/ concentration increases stomate numbers in phaseolus vulgaris leaves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Leary, J.W.; Knecht, G.N.

    1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Beans were grown under a constant CO/sub 2/ concentration of either 400 or 1200 ..mu..l liter/sup -1/. There was no significant difference in stomate density on the adaxial surface, but there was a significantly lower stomate density on the abaxial surface of leaves in the higher CO/sub 2/ concentration. The leaf area was significantly greater at the higher CO/sub 2/ concentration, and total number of stomates per leaf, calculated from the density and leaf area, was significantly greater for both surfaces of the leaf. We conclude that the observed CO/sub 2/ effect on stomatal density is the result of the large change in leaf area.

  19. Kinetics of complex plasma with liquid droplets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Misra, Shikha; Sodha, M. S. [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India)] [Centre of Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi (IITD), New Delhi 110016 (India); Mishra, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research (IPR), Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper provides a theoretical basis for the reduction of electron density by spray of water (or other liquids) in hot plasma. This phenomenon has been observed in a hypersonic flight experiment for relief of radio black out, caused by high ionization in the plasma sheath of a hypersonic vehicle, re-entering the atmosphere. The analysis incorporates a rather little known phenomenon for de-charging of the droplets, viz., evaporation of ions from the surface and includes the charge balance on the droplets and number cum energy balance of electrons, ions, and neutral molecules; the energy balance of the evaporating droplets has also been taken into account. The analysis has been applied to a realistic situation and the transient variations of the charge and radius of water droplets, and other plasma parameters have been obtained and discussed. The analysis through made in the context of water droplets is applicable to all liquids.

  20. Swimming active droplet: A theoretical analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maximilian Schmitt; Holger Stark

    2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, an active microswimmer was constructed where a micron-sized droplet of bromine water was placed into a surfactant-laden oil phase. Due to a bromination reaction of the surfactant at the interface, the surface tension locally increases and becomes non-uniform. This drives a Marangoni flow which propels the squirming droplet forward. We develop a diffusion-advection-reaction equation for the order parameter of the surfactant mixture at the droplet interface using a mixing free energy. Numerical solutions reveal a stable swimming regime above a critical Marangoni number M but also stopping and oscillating states when M is increased further. The swimming droplet is identified as a pusher whereas in the oscillating state it oscillates between being a puller and a pusher.

  1. Controlled Buckling and Crumpling of Nanoparticle-Coated Droplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Datta, Sujit S; Weitz, David A; 10.1021/la103874z

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a new experimental approach to study the structural transitions of large numbers of nanoparticle-coated droplets as their volume is reduced. We use an emulsion system where the dispersed phase is slightly soluble in the continuous phase. By adding a fixed amount of unsaturated continuous phase, the volume of the droplets can be controllably reduced, causing them to buckle or crumple, thereby becoming nonspherical. The resultant morphologies depend both on the extent of volume reduction and the average droplet size. The buckling and crumpling behavior implies that the droplet surfaces are solid.

  2. Controlled Buckling and Crumpling of Nanoparticle-Coated Droplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sujit S. Datta; Ho Cheung Shum; David A. Weitz

    2010-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a new experimental approach to study the structural transitions of large numbers of nanoparticle-coated droplets as their volume is reduced. We use an emulsion system where the dispersed phase is slightly soluble in the continuous phase. By adding a fixed amount of unsaturated continuous phase, the volume of the droplets can be controllably reduced, causing them to buckle or crumple, thereby becoming nonspherical. The resultant morphologies depend both on the extent of volume reduction and the average droplet size. The buckling and crumpling behavior implies that the droplet surfaces are solid.

  3. Modeling spray impingement using linear stability theories for droplet shattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DesJardin, Paul Edward; Yoon, Sam Sukgoo

    2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper compares several linear-theory-based models for droplet shattering employed for simulations of spray impingement on flat wall surface or a circular cylinder. Numerical simulations are conducted using a stochastic separated flow (SSF) technique that includes sub-models for droplet dynamics and impact. Results for spray impingement over a flat wall indicate that the linear theory applicable for a single droplet impact over-predicts the number of satellite (or secondary) droplets upon shattering when compared to experimental data. The causes for the observed discrepancies are discussed. Numerical simulation results for spray impingement over for a circular cylinder in cross flow are obtained and discussed.

  4. Structural morphology of acoustically levitated and heated nanosilica droplet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Ranganathan; Tijerino, Erick; Saha, Abhishek [Department of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Basu, Saptarshi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, 560012 Bangalore (India)

    2010-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the vaporization and precipitation dynamics of a nanosilica encapsulated water droplet by levitating it acoustically and heating it with a CO{sub 2} laser. For all concentrations, we observe three phases: solvent evaporation, surface agglomeration, and precipitation leading to bowl or ring shaped structures. At higher concentrations, ring reorientation and rotation are seen consistently. The surface temperature from an infrared camera is seen to be dependent on the final geometrical shape of the droplet and its rotation induced by the acoustic field of the levitator. With nonuniform particle distribution, these structures can experience rupture which modifies the droplet rotational speed.

  5. Comparison of the Vertical Velocity Used to Calculate the Cloud Droplet Number Concentration in a Cloud Resolving and a Global Climate Model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration would like submit the followingthMeasurements | SciTechComparison of the

  6. Spontaneous Charging and Crystallization of Water Droplets in Oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joost de Graaf; Jos Zwanikken; Markus Bier; Arjen Baarsma; Yasha Oloumi; Mischa Spelt; Rene van Roij

    2008-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the spontaneous charging and the crystallization of spherical micron-sized water-droplets dispersed in oil by numerically solving, within a Poisson-Boltzmann theory in the geometry of a spherical cell, for the density profiles of the cations and anions in the system. We take into account screening, ionic Born self-energy differences between oil and water, and partitioning of ions over the two media. We find that the surface charge density of the droplet as induced by the ion partitioning is significantly affected by the droplet curvature and by the finite density of the droplets. We also find that the salt concentration and the dielectric constant regime in which crystallization of the water droplets is predicted is enhanced substantially compared to results based on the planar oil-water interface, thereby improving quantitative agreement with recent experiments.

  7. Chip-based droplet sorting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Lee, Abraham; Hatch, Andrew

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-contact system for sorting monodisperse water-in-oil emulsion droplets in a microfluidic device based on the droplet's contents and their interaction with an applied electromagnetic field or by identification and sorting.

  8. Ultralocalized thermal reactions in subnanoliter droplets-in-air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bashir, Rashid

    in droplets including hybridization of low copy number DNA molecules, lysing of single cells, interrogation profiles. Previous on-chip, localized heating designs focused on peltier heaters, resistive heaters

  9. Environmental Health Perspectives volume 119 | number 8 | August 2011 1123 Predicting air pollution concentrations at reso-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Randall

    air pollution concentrations at reso- lutions capable of capturing local-scale pollut- ant gradients of approaches may be used to model air pollution over large areas, includ- ing interpolation of fixed use for producing local- scale pollution estimates. Interpolation of fixed-site air pollution

  10. Secondary atomization of single coal-water fuel droplets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassel, G.R.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The evaporative behavior of single, well characterized droplets of a lignite coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) and a carbon black in water slurry was studied as a function of heating rate and droplet composition. Induced droplet heating rates were varied from 0 to 10{sup 5} K/s. Droplets studied were between 97 and 170 {mu}m in diameter, with compositions ranging from 25 to 60% solids by weight. The effect of a commercially available surfactant additive package on droplet evaporation rate, explosive boiling energy requirements, and agglomerate formation was assessed. Surfactant concentrations were varied from none to 2 and 4% by weight solution (1.7 and 3.6% by weight of active species on a dry coal basis). The experimental system incorporated an electrodynamic balance to hold single, free droplets, a counterpropagating pulsed laser heating arrangement, and both video and high speed cinematographic recording systems. Data were obtained for ambient droplet evaporation by monitoring the temporal size, weight, and solids concentration changes. 49 refs., 31 figs.

  11. Oscillatory Flame Response in Acoustically Coupled Fuel Droplet Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sevilla Esparza, Cristhian Israel

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CombustionCombustion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Coupled Droplet Combustion . . . . . . . . . . . . Burning

  12. Hovering UFO Droplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anand, Sushant; Dhiman, Rajeev; Smith, J David; Varanasi, Kripa K

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fluid dynamics video is an entry for the Gallery of Fluid Motion of the 65th Annual Meeting of the APS-DFD. This video shows behavior of condensing droplets on a lubricant impregnated surface and a comparison with a superhydrophobic surface. On impregnated surfaces, drops appear like UFOs hovering over a surface. The videos were recorded in an Environmental SEM and a specially built condensation rig.

  13. Pre-Cloud Aerosol, Cloud Droplet Concentration, and Cloud Condensation Nuclei from the VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere Land Study (VOCALS) Field Campaign First Quarter 2010 ASR Program Metric Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleinman, LI; Springston, SR; Daum, PH; Lee, Y-N; Sedlacek, AJ; Senum, G; Wang, J

    2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In this, the first of a series of Program Metric Reports, we (1) describe archived data from the DOE G-1 aircraft, (2) illustrate several relations between sub-cloud aerosol, CCN, and cloud droplets pertinent to determining the effects of pollutant sources on cloud properties, and (3) post to the data archive an Excel spreadsheet that contains cloud and corresponding sub-cloud data.

  14. Production Mechanism, Number Concentration, Size Distribution, Chemical Composition, and Optical Properties of Sea Spray Aerosols Workshop, Summer 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meskhidze, Nicholas [NCSU] [NCSU

    2013-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this workshop was to address the most urgent open science questions for improved quantification of sea spray aerosol-radiation-climate interactions. Sea spray emission and its influence on global climate remains one of the most uncertain components of the aerosol-radiation-climate problem, but has received less attention than other aerosol processes (e.g. production of terrestrial secondary organic aerosols). Thus, the special emphasis was placed on the production flux of sea spray aerosol particles, their number concentration and chemical composition and properties.

  15. ON-DEMAND SERIAL DILUTION USING QUANTIZED NANO/PICOLITER-SCALE DROPLETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jambovane, Sachin R.; Prost, Spencer A.; Sheen, Allison M.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2014-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes a fully automated droplet-based microfluidic device for on-demand serial dilution that is capable of achieving a dilution ratio of >6000 (concentration ranges from 1 mM to 160nM) over 35 nanoliter-scale droplets. This serial diluter can be applied to high throughput and label-free kinetic assays by integrating with our previously developed on-demand droplet-based microfluidic with mass spectrometry detection.

  16. Droplet Combustion and Non-Reactive Shear-Coaxial Jets with Transverse Acoustic Excitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teshome, Sophonias

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Related Works in Droplet Combustion . . . . . . . .of Acoustics on Droplet Combustion . . . . . . . . . . . .Fuel Droplet Combustion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

  17. Lossless droplet transfer of droplet-based microfluidic analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelly, Ryan T (West Richland, WA); Tang, Keqi (Richland, WA); Page, Jason S (Kennewick, WA); Smith, Richard D (Richland, WA)

    2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A transfer structure for droplet-based microfluidic analysis is characterized by a first conduit containing a first stream having at least one immiscible droplet of aqueous material and a second conduit containing a second stream comprising an aqueous fluid. The interface between the first conduit and the second conduit can define a plurality of apertures, wherein the apertures are sized to prevent exchange of the first and second streams between conduits while allowing lossless transfer of droplets from the first conduit to the second conduit through contact between the first and second streams.

  18. a bouncing droplet Terwagne, Vandewalle, and Dorbolo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Austin. University of

    plays a key role microdevice used microfluidic applications. droplet often laid onto a substrate where

  19. Liquid Droplet Impact Dynamics on Micro-Patterned Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clavijo, Cristian; Crockett, Julie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The video exhibits experimental qualitative and quantitative results of water/glycerol (50%/50% by mass) droplet impact on two types of micro-patterned superhydrophobic surfaces. The two types of surfaces used were 80% cavity fraction ribs and posts with a periodic spacing of 40 {\\mu}m and 32 {\\mu}m, respectively. All surfaces were manufactured through photolithography. The impact Weber number is used as the dynamic parameter to compare splash and rebound behaviors between the two types of surfaces. While droplets exhibit similar dynamics at low Weber numbers, rebound jet speed (normalized by droplet impact speed) is notably higher on posts than ribs for all Weber numbers tested here (5 265. On posts, satellite droplets also follow a specific path but in a different orientation. Satellite droplets form in locations aligned with the post lattice structure. This behavior is observed for 600 < We < 750. Jet rebound exhibits an interesting phenomenon on ribs under certain conditions. Due to the uneven shear...

  20. The entrainment of oil droplets in flow beneath an oil slick

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chao, Chien-Hwa

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    velocity, wind velocity and oil specific gravity, an equilibrium oil thickness will be reached if there is no loss of oil past the barrier. As the velocity is increased, the oil up- stream of the barrier increases in thickness and decreases in for- ward... for any given oil at which droplets are first formed and entrained. Below this speed there is no droplet formation and above this speed the number of droplets formed and the volume of oil entrained increases rapidly. The critical speed for droplet for...

  1. Droplets on Inclined Plates: Local and Global Hysteresis of Pinned Capillary Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michiel Musterd; Volkert van Steijn; Chris R. Kleijn; Michiel T. Kreutzer

    2014-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Local contact line pinning prevents droplets from rearranging to minimal global energy, and models for droplets without pinning cannot predict their shape. We show that experiments are much better described by a theory, developed herein, that does account for the constrained contact line motion, using as example droplets on tilted plates. We map out their shapes in suitable phase spaces. For 2D droplets, the critical point of maximum tilt depends on the hysteresis range and Bond number. In 3D, it also depends on the initial width, highlighting the importance of the deposition history.

  2. Thermocapillary valve for droplet production and sorting Charles N. Baroud,1,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    for use as microfluidic reactors, if active control of their formation and transport can be achieved. We as a microfluidic valve for two-phase flows. A theoretical model is developed to explain the forces acting on a drop in complex droplet microfluidic systems. PACS numbers: 47.61.-k, 47.55.dm Microfluidic droplets have been

  3. Experimental test of scaling of mixing by chaotic advection in droplets moving through microfluidic channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    Experimental test of scaling of mixing by chaotic advection in droplets moving through microfluidic that predicts the scaling of chaotic mixing in a droplet moving through a winding microfluidic channel microfluidic channels.1 In microfluidic systems2,3 operating at low values of the Reynolds number Re, streams

  4. Resuspension by droplets STUART B. DALZIEL & MARTIN D. SEATON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalziel, Stuart

    Resuspension by droplets STUART B. DALZIEL & MARTIN D. SEATON Department of Applied Mathematics.dalziel@damtp.cam.ac.uk 1. Introduction Most of the work on hydrodynamic resuspension has concentrated on the lift (and drag, this hydrodynamic mechanism represents the dominant component of resuspension for most naturally occurring particle

  5. The structure of mixed {sup 3}He-{sup 4}He droplets doped with OCS: A density functional approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leal, Antonio; Mateo, David; Pi, Martí; Barranco, Manuel [Departament ECM, Facultat de Física and IN2UB, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)] [Departament ECM, Facultat de Física and IN2UB, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 645, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Navarro, Jesús [IFIC (CSIC-Universidad de Valencia), P.O. Box 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)] [IFIC (CSIC-Universidad de Valencia), P.O. Box 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated the structure and energetics of mixed {sup 3}He-{sup 4}He droplets doped with a carbonyl sulfide molecule within a density functional approach considering a small but finite temperature of 0.1 K. The molecule is treated as an external field to which the helium droplet is attached. The energetics and appearance of these droplets are discussed for selected numbers of helium atoms, identifying the first magic numbers of the fermionic component.

  6. Vortex and Droplet Engineering in Holographic Superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tameem Albash; Clifford V. Johnson

    2009-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We give a detailed account of the construction of non--trivial localized solutions in a 2+1 dimensional model of superconductors using a 3+1 dimensional gravitational dual theory of a black hole coupled to a scalar field. The solutions are found in the presence of a background magnetic field. We use numerical and analytic techniques to solve the full Maxwell--scalar equations of motion in the background geometry, finding condensate droplet solutions, and vortex solutions possessing a conserved winding number. These solutions and their properties, which we uncover, help shed light on key features of the (B,T) phase diagram.

  7. assaying perchlorate concentration: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Cheow, Lih Feng 8 Enhancing Protease Activity Assay in Droplet-Based Microfluidics Using a Biomolecule Concentrator MIT - DSpace Summary: We introduce an integrated...

  8. Breaking anchored droplets in a microfluidic Hele-Shaw cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amselem, Gabriel; Gallaire, François; Baroud, Charles N

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study microfluidic self digitization in Hele-Shaw cells using pancake droplets anchored to surface tension traps. We show that above a critical flow rate, large anchored droplets break up to form two daughter droplets, one of which remains in the anchor. Below the critical flow velocity for breakup the shape of the anchored drop is given by an elastica equation that depends on the capillary number of the outer fluid. As the velocity crosses the critical value, the equation stops admitting a solution that satisfies the boundary conditions; the drop breaks up in spite of the neck still having finite width. A similar breaking event also takes place between the holes of an array of anchors, which we use to produce a 2D array of stationary drops in situ.

  9. Concentrating Solar Power Hybrid System Study: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-13-506

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, C.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this PTS is to collaboratively leverage the collective resources at General Electric Global Research (GEGRC) and National Renewable Energy Laboratories (NREL) in the areas of concentrating solar power hybrid systems to advance state-of-the-art concentrating solar and conventional power generation system integration.

  10. Theoretical studies on hydrogen ignition and droplet combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Del Álamo, Gonzalo

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    moving luiquid fuel droplets. Journal of Fluid Mechanics,for a fuel droplet in slow viscous ?ow. Journal of Fluid

  11. Marangoni convection in droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tam, Daniel

    We consider a small droplet of water sitting on top of a heated superhydrophobic surface. A toroidal convection pattern develops in which fluid is observed to rise along the surface of the spherical droplet and to accelerate ...

  12. RESEARCH PAPER Effect of geometry on droplet formation in the squeezing regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Amit

    field Ca Capillary number = lcUc/r cs Speed of sound D Diameter of the drop ei Lattice speed that generate emul- sions of liquid droplets suspended in an outer immiscible liquid have found widespread

  13. Inhomogeneous distribution of droplets in cloud turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Itzhak Fouxon; Yongnam Park; Roei Harduf; Changhoon Lee

    2014-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We solve the problem of spatial distribution of inertial particles that sediment in turbulent flow with small ratio of acceleration of fluid particles to acceleration of gravity $g$. The particles are driven by linear drag and have arbitrary inertia. The pair-correlation function of concentration obeys a power-law in distance with negative exponent. Divergence at zero signifies singular distribution of particles in space. Independently of particle size the exponent is ratio of integral of energy spectrum of turbulence times the wavenumber to $g$ times numerical factor. We find Lyapunov exponents and confirm predictions by direct numerical simulations of Navier-Stokes turbulence. The predictions include typical case of water droplets in clouds. This significant progress in the study of turbulent transport is possible because strong gravity makes the particle's velocity at a given point unique.

  14. Ultrafine particles formed by heating droplets of simulated ash containing metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbone, F.; Barone, A.; Pagliara, R.; Beretta, F.; D'Anna, A.; D'Alessio, A. [University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy)

    2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal and biomass combustion and waste incineration produce inorganic aerosol, whose ultrafine fraction is hypothesized to be generated mainly by metal vaporization and subsequent nucleation and growth in a high-temperature atmosphere. To investigate this mechanism, we investigated nanoparticle inception and early growth processes at high temperature by spraying monodisperse droplets of simulated ash containing metals in the centerline of a laboratory ethylene/air laminar premixed flame at stoichiometric conditions. Particles were collected by thermophoresis on mica substrates for atomic force microscopy dimensional and morphological analysis. Chemical nature, volume fraction, and mean diameter of particles were evaluated by in situ UV-Vis broadband light absorption and laser light-scattering measurements. We also measured size distribution of material sampled from the flame without dilution using differential mobility analysis and scanning electron microscopy. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy provided further information on the chemical composition of particles deposited on substrates. Size distributions showed that the flame-generated aerosol have a high number concentration, are mostly smaller than 10 nm, and persist far downstream of the droplet injection point. Preliminary results showed that the coagulation rate of those nanoparticles is much slower than their collision rate, which implies that their lifetime may be long and may represent a severe problem for environmental pollution.

  15. Vortices catapult droplets in atomization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jerome, J. John Soundar, E-mail: soundar@dalembert.upmc.fr; Zaleski, Stéphane; Hoepffner, Jérôme [Institut Jean Le Rond d'Alembert, UPMC Univ. Paris 06 and CNRS-UMR 7190, F-75005 Paris (France)] [Institut Jean Le Rond d'Alembert, UPMC Univ. Paris 06 and CNRS-UMR 7190, F-75005 Paris (France); Marty, Sylvain; Matas, Jean-Philippe [Laboratoire des Écoulements Géophysiques et Industriels (LEGI), Univ. Grenoble Alpes and CNRS - UMR 5519, F-38000 Grenoble (France)] [Laboratoire des Écoulements Géophysiques et Industriels (LEGI), Univ. Grenoble Alpes and CNRS - UMR 5519, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A droplet ejection mechanism in planar two-phase mixing layers is examined. Any disturbance on the gas-liquid interface grows into a Kelvin-Helmholtz wave, and the wave crest forms a thin liquid film that flaps as the wave grows downstream. Increasing the gas speed, it is observed that the film breaks up into droplets which are eventually thrown into the gas stream at large angles. In a flow where most of the momentum is in the horizontal direction, it is surprising to observe these large ejection angles. Our experiments and simulations show that a recirculation region grows downstream of the wave and leads to vortex shedding similar to the wake of a backward-facing step. The ejection mechanism results from the interaction between the liquid film and the vortex shedding sequence: a recirculation zone appears in the wake of the wave and a liquid film emerges from the wave crest; the recirculation region detaches into a vortex and the gas flow over the wave momentarily reattaches due to the departure of the vortex; this reattached flow pushes the liquid film down; by now, a new recirculation vortex is being created in the wake of the wave—just where the liquid film is now located; the liquid film is blown up from below by the newly formed recirculation vortex in a manner similar to a bag-breakup event; the resulting droplets are catapulted by the recirculation vortex.

  16. Droplet Formation via Solvent Shifting in a Microfluidic Device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hajian, Ramin

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solvent shifting is a process in which a non-solvent is added to a solvent/solute mixture and extracts the solvent. The solvent and the non-solvent are miscible. Because of solution supersaturation a portion of the solute transforms to droplets. In this paper, based on this process, we present an investigation on droplet formation and their radial motion in a microfluidic device in which a jet is injected in a co-flowing liquid stream. Thanks to the laminar flow, the microfluidic setup enables studying diffusion mass transfer in radial direction and obtaining well-defined concentration distributions. Such profiles together with Ternary Phase Diagram (TPD) give detailed information about the conditions for droplet formation condition as well as their radial migration in the channel. The ternary system is composed of ethanol (solvent), de-ionized water (non-solvent) and divinyle benzene (solute). We employ analytical/numerical solutions of the diffusion equation to obtain concentration profiles of the component...

  17. Molecular Dynamic Approach of Enhanced Self-Propelled Nano-Droplet Motion on Wettability Gradient Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakraborty, Monojit; Bhusan, Richa; DasGupta, Sunando

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Droplet motion over a surface with wettability gradient has been simulated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to highlight the underlying physics. GROMACS and Visual Molecular Dynamics (VMD) were used for simulation and intermittent visualization of the droplet configuration respectively. The simulations mimic experiments in a comprehensive manner wherein micro-sized droplets are propelled by surface wettability gradient against a number of retarding forces. The liquid-wall Lennard-Jones interaction parameter and the substrate temperature were varied to explore their effects on the three-phase contact line friction coefficient. The contact line friction was observed to be a strong function of temperature at atomistic scales, confirming the experimentally observed inverse functionality between the coefficient of contact line friction and increase in temperatures. These MD simulation results were successfully compared with the results from a model for self-propelled droplet motion on gradient surfaces.

  18. Concentration of Cryoprotectant in water-in-oil microdroplets for single cell vitrificaton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bajpayee, Anurag

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (cont.) Droplets with an initial concentration of IM were found to be concentrated to about 3-4M in 90s while droplets starting at 2M were concentrated to 6M in about the same time. The entire process takes place over a ...

  19. Oil droplet behavior at a pore entrance in the presence of crossflow: Implications for microfiltration of oil-water dispersions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darvishzadeh, Tohid; Priezjev, Nikolai V

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The behavior of an oil droplet pinned at the entrance of a micropore and subject to clossflow-induced shear is investigated numerically by solving the Navier-Stokes equation. We found that in the absence of crossflow, the critical transmembrane pressure required to force the droplet into the pore is in excellent agreement with a theoretical prediction based on the Young-Laplace equation. With increasing shear rate, the critical pressure of permeation increases, and at sufficiently high shear rates the oil droplet breaks up into two segments. The results of numerical simulations indicate that droplet breakup at the pore entrance is facilitated at lower surface tension, higher oil-to-water viscosity ratio and larger droplet size but is insensitive to the value of the contact angle. Using simple force and torque balance arguments, an estimate for the increase in critical pressure due to crossflow and the breakup capillary number is obtained and validated for different viscosity ratios, surface tension coefficien...

  20. Theoretical studies on hydrogen ignition and droplet combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Del Álamo, Gonzalo

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.2 Droplet Combustion . . . . . . . . . . . . .Combustion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Lewis, B. and von Elbe, G. Combustion, Flames and Explosions

  1. Droplet-Based Microfluidics DOI: 10.1002/anie.200601554

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    Droplet-Based Microfluidics DOI: 10.1002/anie.200601554 Reactions in Droplets in Microfluidic · interfaces · microfluidics · microreactors · plugs R. F. Ismagilov et al.Reviews 7336 www;1. Introduction: Reactions in Droplets This Review discusses the use of droplets in microfluidic channels

  2. Laser induced rotation of trapped chiral and achiral nematic droplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marjan Mosallaeipour; Yashodhan Hatwalne; N. V. Madhusudana; Sharath Ananthamurthy

    2010-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the response of optically trapped achiral and chiralised nematic liquid crystal droplets to linear as well as circular polarised light. We find that there is internal dissipation in rotating achiral nematic droplets trapped in glycerine. We also demonstrate that some chiralised droplets rotate under linearly polarised light. The best fit to our data on chiralised droplets indicates that rotational frequency of these droplets with radius R is approximately proportional to1/R^2, rather than to 1/R^3.

  3. Capillary droplets on Leidenfrost micro-ratchets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marin, Alvaro G; Römer, Gertwillem R B E; Pathiraj, B; Veld, Albertus Huis in 't; Lohse, Detlef

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Leidenfrost ratchets are structures with the ability of transporting liquid droplets when heated over the critical Leidenfrost temperature. Once this temperature is reached, the droplet levitates over the surface and moves in the direction marked by the slope of the ratchet at terminal velocities around 10 cm/s. Here we provide new experiments with micron-sized ratchets, which have been produced with picosecond pulse laser ablation. In the following work, we use a simple method to measure the thrust driving droplets of capillary size over the micro-ratchets. The mechanism responsible for the force acting on the drop on superheated ratchets has been recently under debate. We extend the recently proposed 'viscous mechanism' proposed by Dupeaux et al. [Europhys. Lett., 96, 58001 (2011)] to capillary droplets and find good agreement with our measurements.

  4. High speed flow cytometer droplet formation system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van den Engh, Ger (Seattle, WA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A droplet forming flow cytometer system allows high speed processing without the need for high oscillator drive powers through the inclusion of an oscillator or piezoelectric crystal such as within the nozzle volume or otherwise unidirectionally coupled to the sheath fluid. The nozzle container continuously converges so as to amplify unidirectional oscillations which are transmitted as pressure waves through the nozzle volume to the nozzle exit so as to form droplets from the fluid jet. The oscillator is directionally isolated so as to avoid moving the entire nozzle container so as to create only pressure waves within the sheath fluid. A variation in substance concentration is achieved through a movable substance introduction port which is positioned within a convergence zone to vary the relative concentration of substance to sheath fluid while still maintaining optimal laminar flow conditions. This variation may be automatically controlled through a sensor and controller configuration. A replaceable tip design is also provided whereby the ceramic nozzle tip is positioned within an edge insert in the nozzle body so as to smoothly transition from nozzle body to nozzle tip. The nozzle tip is sealed against its outer surface to the nozzle body so it may be removable for cleaning or replacement.

  5. The dynamics of laser droplet generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blaz Krese; Matjaz Perc; Edvard Govekar

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose an experimental setup allowing for the characterization of laser droplet generation in terms of the underlying dynamics, primarily showing that the latter is deterministically chaotic by means of nonlinear time series analysis methods. In particular, we use a laser pulse to melt the end of a properly fed vertically placed metal wire. Due to the interplay of surface tension, gravity force and light-metal interaction, undulating pendant droplets are formed at the molten end, which eventually completely detach from the wire as a consequence of their increasing mass. We capture the dynamics of this process by employing a high-speed infrared camera, thereby indirectly measuring the temperature of the wire end and the pendant droplets. The time series is subsequently generated as the mean value over the pixel intensity of every infrared snapshot. Finally, we employ methods of nonlinear time series analysis to reconstruct the phase space from the observed variable and test it against determinism and stationarity. After establishing that the observed laser droplet generation is a deterministic and dynamically stationary process, we calculate the spectra of Lyapunov exponents. We obtain a positive largest Lyapunov exponent and a negative divergence, i.e., sum of all the exponents, thus indicating that the observed dynamics is deterministically chaotic with an attractor as solution in the phase space. In addition to characterizing the dynamics of laser droplet generation, we outline industrial applications of the process and point out the significance of our findings for future attempts at mathematical modeling.

  6. Corium droplet size in direct containment heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For those light water reactor severe accident sequences in which molten corium is postulated to melt through the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) lower head at elevated primary system pressure and enter the cavity region beneath the vessel, the flow of corium from the RPV will be followed by a sustained high-pressure blowdown of steam and hydrogen through the breach remaining in the vessel. The gases flowing from the breached vessel constitute a source of driving forces capable of dispersing corium from the cavity as droplets into other parts of the containment. An important issue is the fraction of the dispersed corium thermal and chemical energy which may be transferred directly to the containment atmosphere. An important determinant of the extent of direct containment heating is the size of the corium droplets which are dispersed into the containment atmosphere. An analysis is presented here of the mass median droplet sizes in the Argonne National Laboratory CWTI-13 and CWTI-14 reactor material-direct containment heating experiments as well as the Sandia National Laboratory SPIT-19 thermite test. The observed median droplet diameters are shown to be in good agreement with a correlation for the drop size in ordinary annular flow, and a droplet size prediction is carried out for the reactor system.

  7. Droplet sizes, dynamics and deposition in vertical annular flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopes, J C.B.; Dukler, A E

    1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The role of droplets in vertical upwards annular flow is investigated, focusing on the droplet size distributions, dynamics, and deposition phenomena. An experimental program was performed based on a new laser optical technique developed in these laboratories and implemented here for annular flow. This permitted the simultaneous measurement of droplet size, axial and radial velocity. The dependence of droplet size distributions on flow conditions is analyzed. The Upper-Log Normal function proves to be a good model for the size distribution. The mechanism controlling the maximum stable drop size was found to result from the interaction of the pressure fluctuations of the turbulent flow of the gas core with the droplet. The average axial droplet velocity showed a weak dependence on gas rates. This can be explained once the droplet size distribution and droplet size-velocity relationship are analyzed simultaneously. The surprising result from the droplet conditional analysis is that larger droplet travel faster than smaller ones. This dependence cannot be explained if the drag curves used do not take into account the high levels of turbulence present in the gas core in annular flow. If these are considered, then interesting new situations of multiplicity and stability of droplet terminal velocities are encountered. Also, the observed size-velocity relationship can be explained. A droplet deposition is formulated based on the particle inertia control. This permitted the calculation of rates of drop deposition directly from the droplet size and velocities data.

  8. Modeling of droplet breakup in a microfluidic T--shaped junction with a phase--field model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mario De Menech

    2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A phase--field method is applied to the modeling of flow and breakup of droplets in a T--shaped junction in the hydrodynamic regime where capillary and viscous stresses dominate over inertial forces, which is characteristic of microfluidic devices. The transport equations are solved numerically in the three--dimensional geometry, and the dependence of the droplet breakup on the flow rates, surface tension and viscosities of the two components is investigated in detail. The model reproduces quite accurately the phase diagram observed in experiments performed with immiscible fluids. The critical capillary number for droplet breakup depends on the viscosity contrast, with a trend which is analogous to that observed for free isolated droplets in hyperbolic flow.

  9. Sub-millimeter sized methyl butanoate droplet combustion: Microgravity experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    -dependent, sphero-symmetric droplet combustion simulation that includes detailed gas phase chemical kineticsSub-millimeter sized methyl butanoate droplet combustion: Microgravity experiments and detailed 2012 Abstract Combustion characteristics of isolated sub-millimeter sized methyl butanoate (MB

  10. Suppression and Enhancement of Boiling Associated with Multiple Droplet Impingement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Yuxuan

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are at play simultaneously. Furthermore, experiments with single streams of droplets have not been able to elucidate the effects of the onset of boiling (ONB) during the droplet impingement process. Therefore, efforts have been undertaken to consider...

  11. Phenomenology of electrostatically charged droplet combustion in normal gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Eric K.; Koch, Jeremy A.; Kyritsis, Dimitrios C. [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental findings are provided on the effect of electrostatically charging a fuel on single-burning droplet combustion in normal gravity. It was established that significant modification of the flame morphology and the droplet burning time could be achieved, solely by the droplet charge, without the application of external electric fields. Negative charging of the droplets of mixtures of isooctane with either ethanol or a commercially available anti-static additive generated intense motion of the flame and abbreviated the droplet burning time by as much as 40% for certain blend compositions. Positive charging of the droplets generated almost spherical flames, because electrostatic attraction toward the droplets countered the effect of buoyancy. By comparing combustion of droplets of the same conductivity but different compositions, coupling of electrostatics with combustion chemistry was established. (author)

  12. Jumping-Droplet-Enhanced Condensation on Scalable Superhydrophobic Nanostructured Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miljkovic, Nenad

    When droplets coalesce on a superhydrophobic nanostructured surface, the resulting droplet can jump from the surface due to the release of excess surface energy. If designed properly, these superhydrophobic nanostructured ...

  13. Anisotropic Particle Synthesis Inside Droplet Templates on Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Velev, Orlin D.

    Anisotropic Particle Synthesis Inside Droplet Templates on Superhydrophobic Surfaces Vinayak on superhydrophobic substrates can be used to fabricate both shape-anisotropic (``doughnut'') and composition anisotropic structures via droplet templates dispensed on superhydrophobic substrates. Hence, little is known

  14. Electrowetting and droplet impalement experiments on superhydrophobic multiscale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brunet, Philippe

    Electrowetting and droplet impalement experiments on superhydrophobic multiscale structures F925544c The reversible actuation of droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces under ambient conditions. Introduction The superhydrophobic character of a surface generally arises from an interplay between the surface

  15. MODELING AND CONTROLLING PARALLEL TASKS IN DROPLET-BASED MICROFLUIDIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter 12 MODELING AND CONTROLLING PARALLEL TASKS IN DROPLET-BASED MICROFLUIDIC SYSTEMS Karl F-independent models and algorithms to automate the operation of droplet-based microfluidic systems. In these systems mapping of a biochemical analysis task onto a droplet-based microfluidic system is investigated. Achieving

  16. SPECIAL TOPIC: HELIUM NANODROPLETS Experimental studies of helium droplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Northby, Jan A.

    SPECIAL TOPIC: HELIUM NANODROPLETS Experimental studies of helium droplets J. A. Northbya) Physics September 2001 In this report I will review experimental studies of free helium droplets, with the exception of spectroscopic studies of helium droplets that contain impurities. This particular topic, as well as theoretical

  17. Turbulent Transition in an Electromagnetically Levitated Droplet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mountziaris, T. J.

    Turbulent Transition in an Electromagnetically Levitated Droplet Christina R. Rizer, Robert W a marked transition from laminar to turbulent flow, which can be observed by following the movement, will oscillate and break apart, marking the transition to turbulence. Using videos taken of these metal samples

  18. An interface tracking model for droplet electrocoalescence.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erickson, Lindsay Crowl

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes an Early Career Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project to develop an interface tracking model for droplet electrocoalescence. Many fluid-based technologies rely on electrical fields to control the motion of droplets, e.g. microfluidic devices for high-speed droplet sorting, solution separation for chemical detectors, and purification of biodiesel fuel. Precise control over droplets is crucial to these applications. However, electric fields can induce complex and unpredictable fluid dynamics. Recent experiments (Ristenpart et al. 2009) have demonstrated that oppositely charged droplets bounce rather than coalesce in the presence of strong electric fields. A transient aqueous bridge forms between approaching drops prior to pinch-off. This observation applies to many types of fluids, but neither theory nor experiments have been able to offer a satisfactory explanation. Analytic hydrodynamic approximations for interfaces become invalid near coalescence, and therefore detailed numerical simulations are necessary. This is a computationally challenging problem that involves tracking a moving interface and solving complex multi-physics and multi-scale dynamics, which are beyond the capabilities of most state-of-the-art simulations. An interface-tracking model for electro-coalescence can provide a new perspective to a variety of applications in which interfacial physics are coupled with electrodynamics, including electro-osmosis, fabrication of microelectronics, fuel atomization, oil dehydration, nuclear waste reprocessing and solution separation for chemical detectors. We present a conformal decomposition finite element (CDFEM) interface-tracking method for the electrohydrodynamics of two-phase flow to demonstrate electro-coalescence. CDFEM is a sharp interface method that decomposes elements along fluid-fluid boundaries and uses a level set function to represent the interface.

  19. Sessile droplet evaporation on superheated superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hays, Robb C; Maynes, Daniel; Webb, Brent W

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This fluid dynamics video depicts the evaporation of sessile water droplets placed on heated superhydrophobic (SH) surfaces of varying cavity fraction, F_c, and surface temperature, T_s, above the saturation temperature, T_sat. Images were captured at 10,000 FPS and are played back at 30 FPS in this video. Teflon-coated silicon surfaces of F_c = 0, 0.5, 0.8, and 0.95 were used for these experiments. T_s ranging from 110{\\deg}C to 210{\\deg}C were studied. The video clips show how the boiling behavior of sessile droplets is altered with changes in surface microstructure. Quantitative results from heat transfer rate experiments conducted by the authors are briefly discussed near the end of the video.

  20. Computational Fluid Dynamics of rising droplets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, Matthew [Lake Superior State University; Francois, Marianne M. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The main goal of this study is to perform simulations of droplet dynamics using Truchas, a LANL-developed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software, and compare them to a computational study of Hysing et al.[IJNMF, 2009, 60:1259]. Understanding droplet dynamics is of fundamental importance in liquid-liquid extraction, a process used in the nuclear fuel cycle to separate various components. Simulations of a single droplet rising by buoyancy are conducted in two-dimensions. Multiple parametric studies are carried out to ensure the problem set-up is optimized. An Interface Smoothing Length (ISL) study and mesh resolution study are performed to verify convergence of the calculations. ISL is a parameter for the interface curvature calculation. Further, wall effects are investigated and checked against existing correlations. The ISL study found that the optimal ISL value is 2.5{Delta}x, with {Delta}x being the mesh cell spacing. The mesh resolution study found that the optimal mesh resolution is d/h=40, for d=drop diameter and h={Delta}x. In order for wall effects on terminal velocity to be insignificant, a conservative wall width of 9d or a nonconservative wall width of 7d can be used. The percentage difference between Hysing et al.[IJNMF, 2009, 60:1259] and Truchas for the velocity profiles vary from 7.9% to 9.9%. The computed droplet velocity and interface profiles are found in agreement with the study. The CFD calculations are performed on multiple cores, using LANL's Institutional High Performance Computing.

  1. Collective waves in dense and confined microfluidic droplet arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulf D. Schiller; Jean-Baptiste Fleury; Ralf Seemann; Gerhard Gompper

    2015-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Excitation mechanisms for collective waves in confined dense one-dimensional microfluidic droplet arrays are investigated by experiments and computer simulations. We demonstrate that distinct modes can be excited by creating specific `defect' patterns in flowing droplet trains. Excited longitudinal modes exhibit a short-lived cascade of pairs of laterally displacing droplets. Transversely excited modes obey the dispersion relation of microfluidic phonons and induce a coupling between longitudinal and transverse modes, whose origin is the hydrodynamic interaction of the droplets with the confining walls. Moreover, we investigate the long-time behaviour of the oscillations and discuss possible mechanisms for the onset of instabilities. Our findings demonstrate that the collective dynamics of microfluidic droplet ensembles can be studied particularly well in dense and confined systems. Experimentally, the ability to control microfluidic droplets may allow to modulate the refractive index of optofluidic crystals which is a promising approach for the production of dynamically programmable metamaterials.

  2. atomizing analyte droplets: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    droplet patterning and is potentially useful for many applications, such as microfluidics, thermal control and microfabrication. Style, Robert W; Park, Su Ji; Weon, Byung...

  3. atmospheric aqueous droplets: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    droplet patterning and is potentially useful for many applications, such as microfluidics, thermal control and microfabrication. Style, Robert W; Park, Su Ji; Weon, Byung...

  4. Impalement transitions in droplets impacting microstructured superhydrophobic surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Hyväluoma; J. Timonen

    2008-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid droplets impacting a superhydrophobic surface decorated with micro-scale posts often bounce off the surface. However, by decreasing the impact velocity droplets may land on the surface in a fakir state, and by increasing it posts may impale droplets that are then stuck on the surface. We use a two-phase lattice-Boltzmann model to simulate droplet impact on superhydrophobic surfaces, and show that it may result in a fakir state also for reasonable high impact velocities. This happens more easily if the surface is made more hydrophobic or the post height is increased, thereby making the impaled state energetically less favourable.

  5. A microfluidic device based on droplet storage for screening solubility diagrams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Laval; N. Lisai; J. -B. Salmon; M. Joanicot

    2007-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This work describes a new microfluidic device developed for rapid screening of solubility diagrams. In several parallel channels, hundreds of nanoliter-volume droplets of a given solution are first stored with a gradual variation in the solute concentration. Then, the application of a temperature gradient along these channels enables us to read directly and quantitatively phase diagrams, concentration vs. temperature. We show, using a solution of adipic acid, that we can measure ten points of the solubility curve in less than 1 hr and with only 250 $\\mu$L of solution.

  6. Effects of droplet size on intrusion of sub-surface oil spills

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Godine Kok Yan

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis explores the effects of droplet size on droplet intrusion in sub-surface oil spills. Laboratory experiments were performed where glass beads of various sizes, which serve to simulate oil droplets in deepsea oil ...

  7. Nonlinear electrohydrodynamics of a viscous droplet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salipante, Paul F

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A classic result due to G.I.Taylor is that a drop placed in a uniform electric field becomes a prolate or oblate spheroid, which is axisymmetrically aligned with the applied field. We report an instability and symmetry-breaking transition to obliquely oriented, steady and unsteady shapes in strong fields. Our experiments reveal novel droplet behaviors such as tumbling, shape oscillations, and chaotic dynamics even under creeping flow conditions. A theoretical model, which includes anisotropy in the polarization relaxation due to drop asphericity and charge convection due to drop fluidity, elucidates the interplay of interfacial flow and charging as the source of the rich nonlinear dynamics.

  8. Oil droplet behavior at a pore entrance in the presence of crossflow: Implications for microfiltration of oil-water dispersions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tohid Darvishzadeh; Volodymyr V. Tarabara; Nikolai V. Priezjev

    2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The behavior of an oil droplet pinned at the entrance of a micropore and subject to clossflow-induced shear is investigated numerically by solving the Navier-Stokes equation. We found that in the absence of crossflow, the critical transmembrane pressure required to force the droplet into the pore is in excellent agreement with a theoretical prediction based on the Young-Laplace equation. With increasing shear rate, the critical pressure of permeation increases, and at sufficiently high shear rates the oil droplet breaks up into two segments. The results of numerical simulations indicate that droplet breakup at the pore entrance is facilitated at lower surface tension, higher oil-to-water viscosity ratio and larger droplet size but is insensitive to the value of the contact angle. Using simple force and torque balance arguments, an estimate for the increase in critical pressure due to crossflow and the breakup capillary number is obtained and validated for different viscosity ratios, surface tension coefficients, contact angles, and drop-to-pore size ratios.

  9. Temporal and spatial study of drying of suspension and solution droplets for tablets coating purposes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sartori Velasco, Silvana

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of water- in-oil emulsion droplets,” Combustion and Flame,and combustion processes of metal, coal slurry droplets [20], water-in-oil

  10. Thermo-fluid Dynamics of Flash Atomizing Sprays and Single Droplet Impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vu, Henry

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    flashing propane jets. Part two: droplet size distribution.distribution evolution after continuous or intermittent injection of butane or propaneflashing propane jets. Part two: droplet size distribution.

  11. Thermo-fluid Dynamics of Flash Atomizing Sprays and Single Droplet Impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vu, Henry

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    T , where C is the heat capacity of the liquid. Since fluidheat capacity bubble growth constant droplet diameter mean droplet diameter nozzle diameter thermal diffusivity of liquid

  12. SHORT REPORT Open Access Nuclear lipid droplets identified by electron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    SHORT REPORT Open Access Nuclear lipid droplets identified by electron microscopy of serial that nuclear lipid droplets (LDs) are organized into domains similar to those of cytoplasmic LDs with the nuclear envelope, it could be suggested however that nuclear LDs are cytoplamic LDs trapped within

  13. Cooling of Integrated Circuits Using Droplet-Based Microfluidics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    Cooling of Integrated Circuits Using Droplet-Based Microfluidics Vamsee K. Pamula Duke University and microfluidics-based solutions were proposed in the past. We present a cooling method based on high supply of droplets without the need for external sensors and electrothermocapillary control where hot

  14. OIL DROPLET MANIPULATION USING LIQUID DIELECTROPHORESIS ON ELECTRET WITH SUPERLYOPHOBIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasagi, Nobuhide

    OIL DROPLET MANIPULATION USING LIQUID DIELECTROPHORESIS ON ELECTRET WITH SUPERLYOPHOBIC SURFACES flow friction for water and oil. Charge stability of electret in liquid is much improved with new hysteresis of SLS for oil droplets are experimentally demonstrated, indicating low motion resistance

  15. How water droplets evaporate on a superhydrophobic substrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gelderblom, Hanneke; Nair, Hrudya; van Houselt, Arie; Lefferts, Leon; Snoeijer, Jacco H; Lohse, Detlef

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Evaporation of water droplets on a superhydrophobic substrate, on which the contact line is pinned, is investigated. While previous studies mainly focused on droplets with contact angles smaller than $90^\\circ$, here we analyze almost the full range of possible contact angles (10$^\\circ$-150$^\\circ$). The greater contact angles and pinned contact lines can be achieved by the use of superhydrophobic Carbon Nanofiber substrates. The time-evolutions of the contact angle and the droplet mass are examined. The experimental data is in good quantitative agreement with the model presented by Popov (Physical Review E 71, 2005), demonstrating that the evaporation process is quasi-static, diffusion-driven, and that thermal effects play no role. Furthermore, we show that the experimental data for the evolution of both the contact angle and the droplet mass can be collapsed onto one respective universal curve for all droplet sizes and initial contact angles.

  16. Assessment of the release of atomic Na from a burning black liquor droplet using quantitative PLIF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saw, Woei L.; Nathan, Graham J. [Centre for Energy Technology, The Environment Institute, School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Ashman, Peter J.; Alwahabi, Zeyad T. [Centre for Energy Technology, The Environment Institute, School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia)

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The quantitative measurement of atomic sodium (Na) release, at high concentration, from a burning black liquor droplet has been demonstrated using a planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) technique, corrected for fluorescence trapping. The local temperature of the particle was measured to be approximately 1700 C, at a height of 10 mm above a flat flame burner. The PLIF technique was used to assess the temporal release of atomic Na from the combustion of black liquor and compare it with the Na concentration in the remaining smelt. A first-order model was made to provide insight using a simple Plug Flow Reactor model based on the independently measured concentration of residual Na in the smelt as a function of time. This model also required the dilution ratio of the combustion products in the flat flame entrained into the plume gas from the black liquor particle to be estimated. The key findings of these studies are: (i) the peak concentration of atomic Na from the combustion of the black liquor droplets is around 1.4 ppm; (ii) very little atomic Na is present during the drying, devolatilisation or char combustion stages; and (iii) the presence of atomic Na during smelt phase dominates over that from the other combustion stages. (author)

  17. Computational insights of water droplet transport on graphene sheet with chemical density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Liuyang; Wang, Xianqiao, E-mail: xqwang@uga.edu [College of Engineering and NanoSEC, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia 30602 (United States)

    2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Surface gradient has been emerging as an intriguing technique for nanoscale particle manipulation and transportation. Owing to its outstanding and stable chemical properties, graphene with covalently bonded chemical groups represents extraordinary potential for the investigation of nanoscale transport in the area of physics and biology. Here, we employ molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the fundamental mechanism of utilizing a chemical density on a graphene sheet to control water droplet motions on it. Simulation results have demonstrated that the binding energy difference among distinct segment of graphene in terms of interaction between the covalently bonded oxygen atoms on graphene and the water molecules provides a fundamental driving force to transport the water droplet across the graphene sheet. Also, the velocity of the water droplet has showed a strong dependence on the relative concentration of oxygen atoms between successive segments. Furthermore, a multi-direction channel provides insights to guide the transportation of objects towards a targeted position, separating the mixtures with a system of specific chemical functionalization. Our findings shed illuminating lights on the surface gradient method and therefore provide a feasible way to control nanoscale motion on the surface and mimic the channelless microfluidics.

  18. Tailored mixing inside a translating droplet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodolphe Chabreyrie; Dmitri Vainchtein; Cristel Chandre; Pushpendra Singh; Nadine Aubry

    2008-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Tailored mixing inside individual droplets could be useful to ensure that reactions within microscopic discrete fluid volumes, which are used as microreactors in ``digital microfluidic'' applications, take place in a controlled fashion. In this article we consider a translating spherical liquid drop to which we impose a time periodic rigid-body rotation. Such a rotation not only induces mixing via chaotic advection, which operates through the stretching and folding of material lines, but also offers the possibility of tuning the mixing by controlling the location and size of the mixing region. Tuned mixing is achieved by judiciously adjusting the amplitude and frequency of the rotation, which are determined by using a resonance condition and following the evolution of adiabatic invariants. As the size of the mixing region is increased, complete mixing within the drop is obtained.

  19. Lipid droplets fusion in adipocyte differentiated 3T3-L1 cells: A Monte Carlo simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boschi, Federico, E-mail: federico.boschi@univr.it [Department of Neurological and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 8, 37134 Verona (Italy); Department of Computer Science, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 15, 37134 Verona (Italy); Rizzatti, Vanni; Zamboni, Mauro [Department of Medicine, Geriatric Section, University of Verona, Piazzale Stefani 1, 37126 Verona (Italy); Sbarbati, Andrea [Department of Neurological and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Strada Le Grazie 8, 37134 Verona (Italy)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Several human worldwide diseases like obesity, type 2 diabetes, hepatic steatosis, atherosclerosis and other metabolic pathologies are related to the excessive accumulation of lipids in cells. Lipids accumulate in spherical cellular inclusions called lipid droplets (LDs) whose sizes range from fraction to one hundred of micrometers in adipocytes. It has been suggested that LDs can grow in size due to a fusion process by which a larger LD is obtained with spherical shape and volume equal to the sum of the progenitors’ ones. In this study, the size distribution of two populations of LDs was analyzed in immature and mature (5-days differentiated) 3T3-L1 adipocytes (first and second populations, respectively) after Oil Red O staining. A Monte Carlo simulation of interaction between LDs has been developed in order to quantify the size distribution and the number of fusion events needed to obtain the distribution of the second population size starting from the first one. Four models are presented here based on different kinds of interaction: a surface weighted interaction (R2 Model), a volume weighted interaction (R3 Model), a random interaction (Random model) and an interaction related to the place where the LDs are born (Nearest Model). The last two models mimic quite well the behavior found in the experimental data. This work represents a first step in developing numerical simulations of the LDs growth process. Due to the complex phenomena involving LDs (absorption, growth through additional neutral lipid deposition in existing droplets, de novo formation and catabolism) the study focuses on the fusion process. The results suggest that, to obtain the observed size distribution, a number of fusion events comparable with the number of LDs themselves is needed. Moreover the MC approach results a powerful tool for investigating the LDs growth process. Highlights: • We evaluated the role of the fusion process in the synthesis of the lipid droplets. • We compared the size distribution of the lipid droplets in immature and mature cells. • We used the Monte Carlo simulation approach, simulating 10 thousand of fusion events. • Four different interaction models between the lipid droplets were tested. • The best model which mimics the experimental measures was selected.

  20. Universal molecule injector in liquid helium: Pulsed cryogenic doped helium droplet source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apkarian, V. Ara

    metastable species for spectroscopic investigations;10 and the superthermal conductivity of the droplets

  1. DIGITAL CHROMATOGRAPHY AND THE FORMA-TION OF HETEROGENEOUS DROPLET LIBRARIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basu, Amar S.

    DIGITAL CHROMATOGRAPHY AND THE FORMA- TION OF HETEROGENEOUS DROPLET LIBRARIES USING University, Detroit MI, USA ABSTRACT Generating chemical libraries in droplet form is vital to the adoption in droplets (µFD), a method for generating heterogeneous droplet libraries using standard separation processes

  2. Simultaneous measurement of the surface temperature and the release of atomic sodium from a burning black liquor droplet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saw, Woei L.; Nathan, Graham J. [Centre for Energy Technology, The University of Adelaide, SA 5006 (Australia); School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide (Australia); Ashman, Peter J.; Alwahabi, Zeyad T. [Centre for Energy Technology, The University of Adelaide, SA 5006 (Australia); School of Chemical Engineering, The University of Adelaide (Australia); Hupa, Mikko [Process Chemistry Centre, Aabo Akademi, Biskopsgatan 8 FI-20500 Aabo (Finland)

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Simultaneous measurement of the concentration of released atomic sodium, swelling, surface and internal temperature of a burning black liquor droplet under a fuel lean and rich condition has been demonstrated. Two-dimensional two-colour optical pyrometry was employed to determine the distribution of surface temperature and swelling of a burning black liquor droplet while planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) was used to assess the temporal release of atomic sodium. The key findings of these studies are: (i) the concentration of atomic sodium released during the drying and devolatilisation stages was found to be correlated with the external surface area; and (ii) the insignificant presence of atomic sodium during the char consumption stage shows that sodium release is suppressed by the lower temperature and by the high CO{sub 2} content in and around the particle. (author)

  3. Droplet Bouncing Behavior in the Direct Solder Bumping Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsiao, Wayne

    This paper presents the results of an ongoing effort to develop a direct solder bumping process for electronics packaging. The proposed process entails delivering molten droplets onto specific locations on electronic devices ...

  4. Recent Progress in Droplet-Based Manufacturing Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, H.-Y.

    This article reports the recent progress of re-search made in the Droplet-Based Manufacturing Laboratory at MIT. The study has been focused on obtaining a fundamental understanding of microdroplet deposition and applying ...

  5. Droplet Impingement Cooling Experiments on Nano-structured Surfaces 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Yen-Po

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    ), was defined based on the radial temperature profiles inside the impact zone to quantify the effects of the nano-structured surface in droplet cooling. Results indicate that larger effective cooling area can be achieved using nano-structured surface...

  6. Microfluidic emulsion characterization for the development of armored droplet arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maltas, Stephen K

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental study was performed to determine the best method for using a flow-focusing device to produce monodisperse water droplets in a polymer flow with sufficient spacing to polymerize a protective shell around the ...

  7. Programmable active droplet generation enabled by integrated pneumatic micropumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Yong; Shin, Mimi; Wang, Tanyu

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    through programming the pumping configurations and the application to multi-volume digital PCR for precise and quantitative detection of genetic targets. Overall, our results suggest that the pump-based droplet microfluidics provide a robust platform...

  8. Droplet minimizers for the Cahn Hilliard free energy functional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. A. Carlen; M. C. Carvalho; R. Esposito; J. L. Lebowitz; R. Marra

    2005-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We prove theorem characterizing the minimizers in a model for condensation based on the Cahn Hilliard free energy functional. In particular, we exactly determine the critical density for droplet formation.

  9. Dryout droplet distribution and dispersed flow film boiling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, Wayne S.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dispersed flow film boiling is characterized by liquid-phase droplets entrained in a continuous vapor-phase flow. In a previous work at MIT, a model of dispersed flow heat transfer was developed, called the Local Conditions ...

  10. Evaporation-induced non-wetting droplets on superhydrophilic surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adera, Solomon (Solomon E.)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A droplet deposited on a rough, lyophilic surface satisfying the imbibition condition, results in spontaneous spreading and hence complete wetting. However, in this thesis, we demonstrate that this wetting behavior can be ...

  11. Dynamic wetting on superhydrophobic surfaces: Droplet impact and wetting hysteresis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smyth, Katherine M.

    We study the wetting energetics and wetting hysteresis of sessile and impacting water droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces as a function of surface texture and surface energy. For sessile drops, we find three wetting ...

  12. Jumping Droplet Dynamics on Scalable Nanostructured Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miljkovic, Nenad

    Environmental scanning electron microscope (ESEM) and high speed images of coalescence-induced droplet jumping on a nanostructured superhydrophobic copper oxide (CuO) surface are presented. Nanostructured CuO films were ...

  13. ARM - Measurement - Cloud particle number concentration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDC documentationBarrow,ice particle ARM Data Discovery

  14. Material forming apparatus using a directed droplet stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcomb, David E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Viswanathan, Srinath (Knoxville, TN); Blue, Craig A. (Knoxville, TN); Wilgen, John B. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Systems and methods are described for rapidly forming precision metallic and intermetallic alloy net shape parts directly from liquid metal droplets. A directed droplet deposition apparatus includes a crucible with an orifice for producing a jet of material, a jet destabilizer, a charging structure, a deflector system, and an impact zone. The systems and methods provide advantages in that fully dense, microstructurally controlled parts can be fabricated at moderate cost.

  15. Ultrasonic estimation of the contact angle of a sessile droplet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quintero, R.; Simonetti, F. [Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States)

    2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation of energy by large amplitude leaky Rayleigh waves is regarded as one of the key physical mechanisms regulating the actuation and manipulation of droplets in surface acoustic wave (SAW) microfluidic devices. The interaction between a SAW and a droplet is highly complex and is presently the subject of extensive research. This paper investigates the existence of an additional interaction mechanism based on the propagation of quasi-Stoneley waves inside sessile droplets deposited on a solid substrate. In contrast with the leaky Rayleigh wave, the energy of the Stoneley wave is confined within a thin fluid layer in contact with the substrate. The hypothesis is confirmed by three-dimensional finite element simulations and ultrasonic scattering experiments measuring the reflection of Rayleigh waves from droplets of different diameters. Moreover, real-time monitoring of the droplet evaporation process reveals a clear correlation between the droplet contact angle and the spectral information of the reflected Rayleigh signal, thus paving the way for ultrasonic measurements of surface tension.

  16. Axisymmetric oscillation modes of a double droplet system

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ramalingam, Santhosh K.; Basaran, Osman A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A double droplet system (DDS) consists of a sessile and a pendant drop that are coupled through a liquid filled cylindrical hole in a plate of thickness d. For a small hole radius R, equilibrium shapes of both drops are sections of spheres. While DDSs have a number of applications in microfluidics, a DDS oscillating about its equilibrium state can be used as a fast focusing liquid lens. Here, a DDS consisting of an isothermal, incompressible Newtonian fluid of constant density p and constant viscosity u that is surrounded by a gas is excited by oscillating in time (a) themore »pressure in the gas surrounding either drop (pressure excitation), (b) the plate perpendicular to its plane (axial excitation), and (c) the hole radius (radial excitation). In contrast to previous works that assumed transient drop shapes are spherical, they are determined here by simulation and used to identify the natural modes of axisymmetric oscillations from resonances observed during frequency sweeps with DDSs for which the combined volume V of the two drops is less than (4/3)?R3. Pressure and axial excitations are found to have identical responses but axial and radial excitations are shown to excite different modes. These modes are compared to those exhibited by single pendant (sessile) drop systems. In particular, while a single pendant (sessile) drop has one additional oscillation mode compared to a free drop, a DDS is found to exhibit roughly twice as many oscillation modes as a pendant (sessile) drop. The effects of dimensionless volume V/R3, dimensionless plate thickness d/R, and Ohnesorge number Oh =?/??R? , where ? is the surface tension of the DDS-gas interface, on the resonance frequencies are also investigated.« less

  17. Axisymmetric oscillation modes of a double droplet system

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ramalingam, Santhosh K.; Basaran, Osman A.

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A double droplet system (DDS) consists of a sessile and a pendant drop that are coupled through a liquid filled cylindrical hole in a plate of thickness d. For a small hole radius R, equilibrium shapes of both drops are sections of spheres. While DDSs have a number of applications in microfluidics, a DDS oscillating about its equilibrium state can be used as a fast focusing liquid lens. Here, a DDS consisting of an isothermal, incompressible Newtonian fluid of constant density p and constant viscosity u that is surrounded by a gas is excited by oscillating in time (a) the pressure in the gas surrounding either drop (pressure excitation), (b) the plate perpendicular to its plane (axial excitation), and (c) the hole radius (radial excitation). In contrast to previous works that assumed transient drop shapes are spherical, they are determined here by simulation and used to identify the natural modes of axisymmetric oscillations from resonances observed during frequency sweeps with DDSs for which the combined volume V of the two drops is less than (4/3)?R3. Pressure and axial excitations are found to have identical responses but axial and radial excitations are shown to excite different modes. These modes are compared to those exhibited by single pendant (sessile) drop systems. In particular, while a single pendant (sessile) drop has one additional oscillation mode compared to a free drop, a DDS is found to exhibit roughly twice as many oscillation modes as a pendant (sessile) drop. The effects of dimensionless volume V/R3, dimensionless plate thickness d/R, and Ohnesorge number Oh =?/??R? , where ? is the surface tension of the DDS-gas interface, on the resonance frequencies are also investigated.

  18. Axisymmetric oscillation modes of a double droplet system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramalingam, Santhosh K.; Basaran, Osman A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A double droplet system (DDS) consists of a sessile and a pendant drop that are coupled through a liquid filled cylindrical hole in a plate of thickness d. For a small hole radius R, equilibrium shapes of both drops are sections of spheres. While DDSs have a number of applications in microfluidics, a DDS oscillating about its equilibrium state can be used as a fast focusing liquid lens. Here, a DDS consisting of an isothermal, incompressible Newtonian fluid of constant density p and constant viscosity u that is surrounded by a gas is excited by oscillating in time (a) the pressure in the gas surrounding either drop (pressure excitation), (b) the plate perpendicular to its plane (axial excitation), and (c) the hole radius (radial excitation). In contrast to previous works that assumed transient drop shapes are spherical, they are determined here by simulation and used to identify the natural modes of axisymmetric oscillations from resonances observed during frequency sweeps with DDSs for which the combined volume V of the two drops is less than (4/3)?R3. Pressure and axial excitations are found to have identical responses but axial and radial excitations are shown to excite different modes. These modes are compared to those exhibited by single pendant (sessile) drop systems. In particular, while a single pendant (sessile) drop has one additional oscillation mode compared to a free drop, a DDS is found to exhibit roughly twice as many oscillation modes as a pendant (sessile) drop. The effects of dimensionless volume V/R3, dimensionless plate thickness d/R, and Ohnesorge number Oh =?/??R? , where ? is the surface tension of the DDS-gas interface, on the resonance frequencies are also investigated.

  19. Cylindrical acoustic levitator/concentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaduchak, Gregory (Los Alamos, NM); Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-power, inexpensive acoustic apparatus for levitation and/or concentration of aerosols and small liquid/solid samples having particulates up to several millimeters in diameter in air or other fluids is described. It is constructed from a commercially available, hollow cylindrical piezoelectric crystal which has been modified to tune the resonance frequency of the breathing mode resonance of the crystal to that of the interior cavity of the cylinder. When the resonance frequency of the interior cylindrical cavity is matched to the breathing mode resonance of the cylindrical piezoelectric transducer, the acoustic efficiency for establishing a standing wave pattern in the cavity is high. The cylinder does not require accurate alignment of a resonant cavity. Water droplets having diameters greater than 1 mm have been levitated against the force of gravity using; less than 1 W of input electrical power. Concentration of aerosol particles in air is also demonstrated.

  20. Simultaneous fog formation and thermophoretic droplet deposition in a turbulent pipe flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epstein, M.; Hauser, G.M. (Fauske and Associates, Inc., Burr Ridge, IL (USA))

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Simultaneous aerosol formation by equilibrium condensation and the migration of the resulting droplets to the cold surface by thermophoresis is studied theoretically for a turbulent pipe flow. The problem is one in which a mixture of a vapor and noncondensable gas flows into a section of pipe where the pipe wall is cooled to below the dew point of the vapor. Because the temperature gradient at the pipe wall decays to zero once the gas travels far enough into the pipe, only some fraction of the droplets formed will deposit on the pipe wall. The equations of energy and diffusion suggest that turbulence leads to a discontinuity in the aerosol (fog) concentration at the boundary between the fog and clear regions. Numerical solutions are obtained for CsOH fog formation and deposition in steam flow, a particular case of current practical interest in water reactor safety. The axial and radial variations of the aerosol and vapor concentrations are displayed graphically, as are the location of the fog boundary as a function of axial distance and the efficiency of deposition as a function of the pipe wall temperature.

  1. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS, VOL. 27, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 2008 1905 A Droplet-Manipulation Method for Achieving

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    -Referencing-Based Digital Microfluidic Biochips Tao Xu, Student Member, IEEE, and Krishnendu Chakrabarty, Fellow, IEEE Abstract--Digital microfluidic biochips are revolutionizing high-throughput DNA, immunoassays, and clinical simultaneous movement of a large number of droplets on a microfluidic array. Concurrency is enhanced through

  2. Concentrating collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Selected specifications from sixteen concentrating collector manufacturers are tabulated. Eleven are linear parabolic trough collectors, and the others include slats, cylindrical trough, linear Fresnel lens, parabolic cylindrical Fresnel lens, and two point focus parabolic dish collectors. Also included is a brief discussion of the operating temperatures and other design considerations for concentrating collectors. (LEW)

  3. An experimental investigation of acoustic cavitation as a fragmentation mechanism of molten tin droplets in water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bjørnard, Trond Arnold

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of experiments were performed where single molten tin droplets of known size, shape and temperature were dropped from a low height into a pool of distilled water. The pressure waves emanating from the hot droplets ...

  4. Droplet Combustion and Non-Reactive Shear-Coaxial Jets with Transverse Acoustic Excitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teshome, Sophonias

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ame sur- rounding an ethanol fuel droplet. The time spaname sur- rounding an ethanol fuel droplet. The time spanestablished (mm 2 /s) Fuel Ethanol Methanol JP-8 0.87,1.04 (

  5. Effects of Induced Acoustic Vibrations on Droplet Shedding on Hybrid Micro-structured Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lai, Chen-Ling

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    . In an effort to circumvent the pinning effect, a vibration-induced droplet shedding method has been explored to overcome contact angle hysteresis and facilitate droplet shedding at lower rolling angles. To understand the effects of hybrid surface morphology...

  6. The effects of deposit thermal history on microstructure produced by uniform droplet spray forming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cherng, Jean-Pei Jeanie

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uniform droplet spray forming is a process aimed at producing near-net-shape parts directly from the liquid melt by spraying micron-sized droplets onto a movable target. In spray forming, the solidification rate of the ...

  7. Emulsion Templating of Poly(lactic acid) Particles: Droplet Formation Goran T. Vladisavljevic,*,,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    be produced from monodisperse droplets. As a consequence of inhomogeneous shear field during processing, the conventional methods of droplet generation such as spray drying,22 sonication,11,23 high-shear rotor/stator

  8. Air-stable droplet interface bilayers on oil-infused surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boreyko, Jonathan B [ORNL] [ORNL; Polizos, Georgios [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)] [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Datskos, Panos G [ORNL] [ORNL; Sarles, Stephen A [ORNL] [ORNL; Collier, Pat [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Droplet interface bilayers (DIBs) are versatile model membranes useful for synthetic biology and biosensing; however, to date they have always been confined to fluid reservoirs. Here, we demonstrate that when two or more water droplets collide on an oil-infused substrate, they exhibit non-coalescence due to the formation of a thin oil film that gets squeezed between the droplets from the bottom-up. We show that when phospholipids are included in the water droplets, a stable droplet interface bilayer forms between the non-coalescing water droplets. As with traditional oil-submerged DIBs, we were able to characterize ion channel transport by incorporating peptides into each droplet. Our findings reveal that droplet interface bilayers can function in air environments, which could potentially enable biosensing of atmospheric particulates.

  9. Effects of surface properties on solder bump formation by direct droplet deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsiao, Wen Kai, 1972-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent advances in microdroplet generation and deposition processes have made it possible to directly form solder bumps on integrated circuits using micron-sized molten metal droplets. The direct droplet deposition bumping ...

  10. MEASUREMENTS AND COMPUTATIONS OF FUEL DROPLET TRANSPORT IN TURBULENT FLOWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Katz and Omar Knio

    2007-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to study the dynamics of fuel droplets in turbulent water flows. The results are essential for development of models capable of predicting the dispersion of slightly light/heavy droplets in isotropic turbulence. Since we presently do not have any experimental data on turbulent diffusion of droplets, existing mixing models have no physical foundations. Such fundamental knowledge is essential for understanding/modeling the environmental problems associated with water-fuel mixing, and/or industrial processes involving mixing of immiscible fluids. The project has had experimental and numerical components: 1. The experimental part of the project has had two components. The first involves measurements of the lift and drag forces acting on a droplet being entrained by a vortex. The experiments and data analysis associated with this phase are still in progress, and the facility, constructed specifically for this project is described in Section 3. In the second and main part, measurements of fuel droplet dispersion rates have been performed in a special facility with controlled isotropic turbulence. As discussed in detail in Section 2, quantifying and modeling the of droplet dispersion rate requires measurements of their three dimensional trajectories in turbulent flows. To obtain the required data, we have introduced a new technique - high-speed, digital Holographic Particle Image Velocimetry (HPIV). The technique, experimental setup and results are presented in Section 2. Further information is available in Gopalan et al. (2005, 2006). 2. The objectives of the numerical part are: (1) to develop a computational code that combines DNS of isotropic turbulence with Lagrangian tracking of particles based on integration of a dynamical equation of motion that accounts for pressure, added mass, lift and drag forces, (2) to perform extensive computations of both buoyant (bubbles) and slightly buoyant (droplets) particles in turbulence conditions relevant to the experiments, and (3) to explore whether the corresponding predictions can explain the experimentally-observed behavior of the rise and dispersion of oil droplets in isotropic turbulence. A brief summary of results is presented in Section 4.

  11. Bouncing or sticky droplets: impalement transitions on superhydrophobic micropatterned surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denis Bartolo; Farid Bouamrirene; Emilie Verneuil; Axel Buguin; Pascal Silberzan; Sebastien Moulinet

    2005-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    When a liquid drops impinges a hydrophobic rough surface it can either bounce off the surface (fakir droplets) or be impaled and strongly stuck on it (Wenzel droplets). The analysis of drop impact and quasi static ''loading'' experiments on model microfabricated surfaces allows to clearly identify the forces hindering the impalement transitions. A simple semi-quantitative model is proposed to account for the observed relation between the surface topography and the robustness of fakir non-wetting states. Motivated by potential applications in microfluidics and in the fabrication of self cleaning surfaces, we finally propose some guidelines to design robust superhydrophobic surfaces.

  12. Airborne agent concentration analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gelbard, Fred

    2004-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and system for inferring airborne contaminant concentrations in rooms without contaminant sensors, based on data collected by contaminant sensors in other rooms of a building, using known airflow interconnectivity data. The method solves a least squares problem that minimizes the difference between measured and predicted contaminant sensor concentrations with respect to an unknown contaminant release time. Solutions are constrained to providing non-negative initial contaminant concentrations in all rooms. The method can be used to identify a near-optimal distribution of sensors within the building, when then number of available sensors is less than the total number of rooms. This is achieved by having a system-sensor matrix that is non-singular, and by selecting that distribution which yields the lowest condition number of all the distributions considered. The method can predict one or more contaminant initial release points from the collected data.

  13. Solar Absorption by Mie Resonances in Cloud Droplets Charles S. Zender

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zender, Charles

    by cloud droplets may consti- tute a significant and unaccounted-for solar energy sink in the atmosphere

  14. Integrated Droplet Routing in the Synthesis of Microfluidic Tao Xu and Krishnendu Chakrabarty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    Integrated Droplet Routing in the Synthesis of Microfluidic Biochips* Tao Xu and Krishnendu, krish}@ee.duke.edu ABSTRACT Microfluidic biochips are revolutionizing many areas of biochemistry of droplet routing in microfluidic arrays. These methods typically rely on post-synthesis droplet routing

  15. The recoiling of liquid droplets upon collision with solid surfaces H.-Y. Kima)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Ho-Young

    solid surfaces polycarbonate and silicon oxide . The droplet dynamics are experimentally studied using of different liquid droplets water, ink, and silicone oil on different solid surfaces polycarbonate and silicon. Fukai et al.14,15 conducted a theoretical study on the spreading and recoiling of a liquid droplet upon

  16. Cross-Contamination Avoidance for Droplet Routing in Digital Microfluidic Biochips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    Cross-Contamination Avoidance for Droplet Routing in Digital Microfluidic Biochips Yang Zhao- contamination between droplets of different biomolecules can lead to erroneous outcomes for bioassays, the avoidance of cross- contamination during droplet routing is a key design challenge for biochips. We propose

  17. Droplet microfluidic technology for single-cell high-throughput screening

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perrimon, Norbert

    Droplet microfluidic technology for single-cell high-throughput screening Eric Brouzesa,b,1 (received for review March 31, 2009) We present a droplet-based microfluidic technology that enables high our droplet microfluidic platform is modular, robust, uses no moving parts, and has a wide range

  18. DROPLET-BASED HOT SPOT COOLING USING TOPLESS DIGITAL MICROFLUIDICS ON A PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    DROPLET-BASED HOT SPOT COOLING USING TOPLESS DIGITAL MICROFLUIDICS ON A PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD Phil demonstrated a cooling method on a "digital microfluidics" platform whereby discrete droplets are manipulated and the effective flow rate of the droplets. The results presented here suggest that digital microfluidics

  19. THERMAL EFFECTS ON DROPLET TRANSPORT IN DIGITIAL MICROFLUIDICS WITH APPLICATIONS TO CHIP COOLING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    THERMAL EFFECTS ON DROPLET TRANSPORT IN DIGITIAL MICROFLUIDICS WITH APPLICATIONS TO CHIP COOLING, on a platform we call "digital microfluidics," where nanoliter-sized discrete liquid droplets immersed in oil-dependent system parameters on droplet transport in this digital microfluidic platform. We demonstrate

  20. Evaporation and Condensation of Large Droplets in the Presence of Inert Admixtures Containing Soluble Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elperin, Tov

    the mutual influence of heat and mass transfer during gas absorption and evaporation or condensation transfer during gas absorption by liquid droplets and during droplets evaporation and va- por condensationEvaporation and Condensation of Large Droplets in the Presence of Inert Admixtures Containing

  1. Jumping-Droplet-Enhanced Condensation on Scalable Superhydrophobic Nanostructured Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miljkovic, N; Enright, R; Nam, Y; Lopez, K; Dou, N; Sack, J; Wang, E

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When droplets coalesce on a superhydrophobic nanostructured surface, the resulting droplet can jump from the surface due to the release of excess surface energy. If designed properly, these superhydrophobic nanostructured surfaces can not only allow for easy droplet removal at micrometric length scales during condensation but also promise to enhance heat transfer performance. However, the rationale for the design of an ideal nanostructured surface as well as heat transfer experiments demonstrating the advantage of this jumping behavior are lacking. Here, we show that silanized copper oxide surfaces created via a simple fabrication method can achieve highly efficient jumping-droplet condensation heat transfer. We experimentally demonstrated a 25% higher overall heat flux and 30% higher condensation heat transfer coefficient compared to state-of-the-art hydrophobic condensing surfaces at low supersaturations (<1.12). This work not only shows significant condensation heat transfer enhancement but also promises a low cost and scalable approach to increase efficiency for applications such as atmospheric water harvesting and dehumidification. Furthermore, the results offer insights and an avenue to achieve high flux superhydrophobic condensation.

  2. In-situ droplet monitoring for self-tuning spectrometers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montaser, Akbar (Potomac, MD); Jorabchi, Kaveh (Arlington, VA); Kahen, Kaveh (Kleinburg, CA)

    2010-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser scattering based imaging technique is utilized in order to visualize the aerosol droplets in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) torch from an aerosol source to the site of analytical measurements. The resulting snapshots provide key information about the spatial distribution of the aerosol introduced by direct and indirect injection devices: 1) a direct injection high efficiency nebulizer (DIHEN); 2) a large-bore DIHEN (LB-DIHEN); and 3) a PFA microflow nebulizer with a PFA Scott-type spray chamber. Moreover, particle image velocimetry (PIV) is used to study the in-situ behavior of the aerosol before interaction with, for example, plasma, while the individual surviving droplets are explored by particle tracking velocimetry (PTV). Further, the velocity distribution of the surviving droplets demonstrates the importance of the initial droplet velocities in complete desolvation of the aerosol for optimum analytical performance in ICP spectrometries. These new observations are important in the design of the next-generation direct injection devices for lower sample consumption, higher sensitivity, lower noise levels, suppressed matrix effects, and for developing smart spectrometers. For example, a controller can be provided to control the output of the aerosol source by controlling the configuration of the source or the gas flow rate via feedback information concerning the aerosol.

  3. Air Effects on Large Droplet Impact Frank T Smith1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Purvis, Richard

    Air Effects on Large Droplet Impact Frank T Smith1 and Richard Purvis2 UCL, London WC1E 6BT, UK A study is presented of the interaction(s) between air and water in determining the motion of a large surrounding air motion. I.Nomenclature A = magnitude of shear flow in the air c = ratio U /V D

  4. Tuning Mixing within a Droplet for Digital Microfluidics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Chabreyrie; D. Vainchtein; C. Chandre; P. Singh; N. Aubry

    2008-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The design of strategies to generate efficient mixing is crucial for a variety of applications, particularly digital microfluidic devices that use small "discrete" fluid volumes (droplets) as fluid carriers and microreactors. In recent work, we have presented an approach for the generation and control of mixing inside a translating spherical droplet. This was accomplished by considering Stokes' flow within a droplet proceeding downstream to which we have superimposed time dependent (sinusoidal) rotation. The mixing obtained is the result of the stretching and folding of material lines which increase exponentially the surface contact between reagents. The mixing strategy relies on the generation of resonances between the steady and the unsteady part of the flow, which is achieved by tuning the parameters of the periodic rotation. Such resonances, in our system, offer the possibility of controlling both the location and the size of the mixing region within the droplet, which may be useful to manufacture inhomogeneous particles (such as Janus particles). While the period and amplitude of the periodic rotation play a major role, it is shown here by using a triangular function that the particular shape of the rotation (as a function of time) has a minor influence. This finding demonstrates the robustness of the proposed mixing strategy, a crucial point for its experimental realization.

  5. Bouncing Water Droplet on a Superhydrophobic Carbon Nanotube Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aria, Adrianus I

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past few decades, superhydrophobic materials have attaracted a lot of interests, due to their numerous practical applications. Among various superhydrophobic materials, carbon nanotube arrays have gained enormous attentions simply because of their outstanding properties. The impact dynamic of water droplet on a superhydrophobic carbon nanotube array is shown in this fluid dynamics video.

  6. Particle Measurement Methods. Number Concentrations. One common method used to measure number concentrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Rodney

    , and are the surface tension, molecular weight, and density of the alcohol, R is the universal gas constant a narrow jet. Individual particles are counted by an optical device, which consists of a laser beam partial pressure (p, the amount of vapor in the gas), divided by the saturation vapor pressure, S= p

  7. Wetting kinetics of water nano-droplet containing non-surfactant nanoparticles: A molecular dynamics study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Gui [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of MOE, Beijing Key Laboratory for CO2 Utilization and Reduction Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China) [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of MOE, Beijing Key Laboratory for CO2 Utilization and Reduction Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Hu, Han; Sun, Ying, E-mail: yyduan@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: ysun@coe.drexel.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Duan, Yuanyuan, E-mail: yyduan@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: ysun@coe.drexel.edu [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of MOE, Beijing Key Laboratory for CO2 Utilization and Reduction Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)] [Key Laboratory for Thermal Science and Power Engineering of MOE, Beijing Key Laboratory for CO2 Utilization and Reduction Technology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In this Letter, dynamic wetting of water nano-droplets containing non-surfactant gold nanoparticles on a gold substrate is examined via molecular dynamics simulations. The results show that the addition of non-surfactant nanoparticles hinders the nano-second droplet wetting process, attributed to the increases in both surface tension of the nanofluid and friction between nanofluid and substrate. The droplet wetting kinetics decreases with increasing nanoparticle loading and water-particle interaction energy. The observed wetting suppression and the absence of nanoparticle ordering near the contact line of nano-sized droplets differ from the wetting behaviors reported from nanofluid droplets of micron size or larger.

  8. M.H. Sherman, J.M. Logue, B.C. Singer, Infiltration Effects on Residential Pollutant Concentrations for Continuous and Intermittent Mechanical Ventilation Approaches -LBNL Report Number 3978-E

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for Continuous and Intermittent Mechanical Ventilation Approaches - LBNL Report Number 3978-E M.H. Sherman, J and Intermittent Mechanical Ventilation Approaches - LBNL Report Number 3978-E 1 Infiltration Effects Energy Commission through Contract 500-08-06. LBNL Report Number 3978-E #12;M.H. Sherman, J.M. Logue, B

  9. Heavy electrons: Electron droplets generated by photogalvanic and pyroelectric effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Krasnoholovets; N. Kukhtarev; T. Kukhtareva

    2009-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron clusters, X-rays and nanosecond radio-frequency pulses are produced by 100 mW continuous-wave laser illuminating ferroelectric crystal of LiNbO_3. A long-living stable electron droplet with the size of about 100 mcm has freely moved with the velocity 0.5 cm/s in the air near the surface of the crystal experiencing the Earth gravitational field. The microscopic model of cluster stability, which is based on submicroscopic mechanics developed in the real physical space, is suggested. The role of a restraining force plays the inerton field, a substructure of the particles' matter waves, which a solitary one can elastically withstand the Coulomb repulsion of electrons. It is shown that electrons in the droplet are heavy electrons whose mass at least 1 million of times exceeds the rest mass of free electron. Application for X-ray imaging and lithography is discussed.

  10. Study of the Physics of Droplet Impingement Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soriano, Guillermo Enrique

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    is one of the most promising technologies in applications which require large heat removal capacity in very small areas. Previous experimental studies have suggested that one of the main mechanisms of heat removal in spray cooling is forced convection... flux behavior, critical heat flux, and film morphology were elucidated. The study showed that forced heat convection is the main heat transfer mecha- nism inside the crown formation formed by droplet impingement and impact regimes play an important...

  11. Droplet Number Prediction in the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model Steven Ghan Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEA : Papers69Christopher FeckoDraftDraft-8,Newest

  12. Thermo-fluid Dynamics of Flash Atomizing Sprays and Single Droplet Impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vu, Henry

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    speed in ambient gas sound speed in liquid force thicknessliquid density, V is the droplet impact velocity, and C l is the speed of sound

  13. Natural discharge after pulse and cooperative electrodes to enhance droplet velocity in digital microfluidics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Tianlan; Dong, Cheng; Gao, Jie; Jia, Yanwei; Mak, Pui-In, E-mail: pimak@umac.mo; Vai, Mang-I; Martins, Rui P. [State Key Laboratory of Analog and Mixed-Signal VLSI and FST-ECE, University of Macau, Macao (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Analog and Mixed-Signal VLSI and FST-ECE, University of Macau, Macao (China)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Digital Microfluidics (DMF) is a promising technology for biological/chemical micro-reactions due to its distinct droplet manageability via electronic automation, but the limited velocity of droplet transportation has hindered DMF from utilization in high throughput applications. In this paper, by adaptively fitting the actuation voltages to the dynamic motions of droplet movement under real-time feedback monitoring, two control-engaged electrode-driving techniques: Natural Discharge after Pulse (NDAP) and Cooperative Electrodes (CE) are proposed. They together lead to, for the first time, enhanced droplet velocity with lower root mean square voltage value.

  14. Robust Extraction Interface for Coupling Droplet-Based and Continuous Flow Microfluidics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xuefei; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2012-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Reliable and highly efficient extraction of droplets from oil to aqueous phase is key for downstream coupling with chemical separations and nonoptical detection methods such as amperometry and mass spectrometry. This paper presents an improved interface providing robust extraction for droplet-based poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic devices. The extraction interface consists of an array of cylindrical posts with narrow apertures in between. The aqueous flow channel into which droplets coalesced was simply and selectively modified to be hydrophilic, while the continuous oil phase flow channel that contained encapsulated aqueous droplets retained a hydrophobic surface. The different surfaces on both sides of the extraction region form a highly stable liquid interface between the two immiscible phases, allowing rapid droplet transfer to the aqueous stream. Entire droplets could be completely extracted within broad ranges of aqueous and oil flow rates (0 - 1 and 0.1 - 1 uL/min, respectively). After extraction, the droplet contents could be transported electrophoretically or by pressure-driven flow to a monolithically integrated emitter for nano-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nanoESI-MS) analysis. This interface should be amenable to the separation and identification of droplet contents and on-line monitoring of in-droplet reactions.

  15. DOE/ID-Number

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    salt droplets at process temperature to support development of material balance and control systems in a used fuel treatment facility. In FY13, the project focused on testing a...

  16. The influence of droplet size and biodegradation on the transport of subsurface oil droplets during the Deepwater Horizon: a model sensitivity study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North, Elizabeth W

    A better understanding of oil droplet formation, degradation, and dispersal in deep waters is needed to enhance prediction of the fate and transport of subsurface oil spills. This research evaluates the influence of initial ...

  17. Controlled Dispensing and Mixing of Pico- to Nanoliter Volumes Using On-Demand Droplet-Based Microfluidics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xuefei; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2013-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an integrated droplet-on-demand microfluidic platform for dispensing, mixing, incubating, extracting and analyzing by mass spectrometry pico- to nanoliter sized droplets. Droplet generation is accomplished using computer-controlled pneumatic valves. Controlled actuation of valves for different aqueous streams enables controlled dosing and rapid mixing of reagents within droplets in the droplet generation area or in a region with widening channel cross-section. Following incubation, which takes place while droplets travel in the oil stream, the droplet contents are extracted to an aqueous channel for subsequent ionization at an integrated nanoelectrospray emitter. As an initial demonstration of the platform, rapid enzymatic digestions of a model protein are performed in droplets and detected on-line by nanoelectrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

  18. Test Planning and Test Resource Optimization for Droplet-Based Microfluidic Systems*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    Test Planning and Test Resource Optimization for Droplet-Based Microfluidic Systems* Fei Su, Sule of droplet- based microfluidic systems for safety-critical biomedical applications. In order to ensure reliability, microsystems incorporating microfluidic components must be tested adequately. In this paper, we

  19. Concurrent Testing of Droplet-Based Microfluidic Systems for Multiplexed Biomedical Assays*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    Concurrent Testing of Droplet-Based Microfluidic Systems for Multiplexed Biomedical Assays* Fei Su methodology for detecting catastrophic faults in droplet-based microfluidic systems and investigate-based microfluidic array that was fabricated and used to perform multiplexed glucose and lactate assays. The test

  20. Spherically symmetric droplet combustion of three and four component miscible mixtures as surrogates for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    .48/7.28/22.83, respectively, were previously shown to replicate certain gas phase combustion properties of JetSpherically symmetric droplet combustion of three and four component miscible mixtures This study examines the droplet combustion characteristics of three and four component miscible liquid

  1. On the spherically symmetrical combustion of methyl decanoate droplets and comparisons with detailed numerical modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    .53­0.57 mm and the combustion gas is normal atmospheric pressure air. A detailed numerical simulationOn the spherically symmetrical combustion of methyl decanoate droplets and comparisons Biodiesel Biofuel Microgravity Numerical Droplet combustion a b s t r a c t This study presents

  2. Confined Dissipative Droplet Solitons in Spin-Valve Nanowires with Perpendicular Magnetic Anisotropy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoefer, Mark

    in nanoscale structures for magnetic storage and computation, but dissipative droplet studies have so far been possibilities for the study of low-dimensional solitons and droplet applications in nanostructures. DOI: 10 is achieved in devices known as spin valves (SVs) [5­8], where two magnetic layers are separated

  3. Microfluidic droplet encapsulation of highly motile single zoospores for phenotypic screening of an antioomycete chemical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhattacharyya, Madan Kumar

    Microfluidic droplet encapsulation of highly motile single zoospores for phenotypic screening for re-usable 3D polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic networks Biomicrofluidics 5, 036502 (2011://bmf.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;Microfluidic droplet encapsulation of highly motile single zoospores for phenotypic screening

  4. Simulations of the effect of final state interactions on the scattering reponses of helium droplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Jian

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    droplets. The edge function of the droplet's s-wave density matrix approaches that of the one-body density matrix of bulk Helium. We compute the scaled dynamic structure factor F =-(qlM) S (q, w) as measured in deep inelastic neutron scattering (DINS...

  5. Fatty Acid Chemistry at the Oil-Water Interface: Self-Propelled Oil Droplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ikegami, Takashi

    Fatty Acid Chemistry at the Oil-Water Interface: Self-Propelled Oil Droplets Martin M. Hanczyc transitions. Here we have explored the possibility that fatty acid systems also demonstrate movement. An oil solution. The oil droplets showed autonomous, sustained movement through the aqueous media. Internal

  6. Formation of Droplets and Mixing in Multiphase Microfluidics at Low Values of the Reynolds and the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    Formation of Droplets and Mixing in Multiphase Microfluidics at Low Values of the Reynolds to mixing. Droplet- based microfluidics offers a simple method of achieving rapid mixing and transport of using flow of immiscible fluids in microfluidic channels to form plugs containing multiple aqueous

  7. Sminaire du Groupe N2IS Manipulation of chemicals in droplet-based microfluidics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ingrand, François

    Séminaire du Groupe N2IS Manipulation of chemicals in droplet-based microfluidics Le 06 Septembre TOULOUSE Cedex 4 Résumé Droplet-based microfluidics has a tremendous potential for the miniaturization of chemicals in microfluidic systems is therefore a key to reliably downscale the assays from microtiter plates

  8. Transport of expiratory droplets in an aircraft cabin Jitendra K. Guptaa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    disease such as influenza or Tuberculosis may be the carriers of contagious agents. Indoor environments such as the airliner cabins may be susceptible to infection from such airborne contagious agents. The present of the droplets exhaled by an index passenger in an aircraft cabin. These droplets may contain active contagious

  9. Experimental Study of Water Droplet Flows in a Model PEM Fuel Cell Gas Microchannel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Experimental Study of Water Droplet Flows in a Model PEM Fuel Cell Gas Microchannel by Grant Minor Experimental Study of Water Droplet Flows in a Model PEM Fuel Cell Gas Microchannel by Grant Minor B. Eng. Mgmt Committee Member, Mechanical Engineering). Abstract Liquid water formation and flooding in PEM fuel cell gas

  10. Impact of a compound droplet on a flat surface: A model for single cell epitaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirci, Utkan

    ­10 and experimental4,11­13 points of view. In spite of a growing interest in generation and manipulation as the inner droplet and diesel oil as the encapsulating fluid, and studied the residence time of a compound­21 or to cryopreserve cells.18,22,23 The current droplet generation technologies make it possible to generate

  11. Measurement and simulation of a droplet population in a turbulent flow field Rbert Bords a,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John, Volker

    online 30 May 2012 Keywords: Two-phase turbulent flow Disperse droplet population Non-intrusive are determined by non-intrusive measurements. A direct discretization of the 4D equation for the droplet size deter- mined by means of non-intrusive measurement techniques. In this way, suitable time

  12. The dynamics of droplet formation and detachment in gas metal arc welding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, J.A.; Smartt, H.B.; Clark, D.E.; Carlson, N.M.; Watkins, A.D.; Lethcoe, B.J.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental measurements of gas metal arc welding are required for the development and confirmation of models of the process. This paper reports on two experiments that provide information for models of the arc physics and of the weld pool dynamics. The heat transfer efficiency of the spray transfer mode in gas metal arc welding was measured using a calorimetry technique. The efficiency varied from 75 to 85%. A special fixture was used to measure the droplet contribution, which is determined to be between 35 and 45% of the total input energy. A series of experiments was performed at a variety of conditions ranging from globular to spray to streaming transfer. The transfer was observed by taking high-speed movies at 500 to 5000 frames per second of the backlighted droplets. An automatic image analysis system was used to obtain information about the droplets including time between detachments, droplet size, and droplet acceleration. At the boundary between the globular and spray modes, the droplet size varies between small droplets that melt off faster than average, resulting in a smaller electrode extension, and large droplets that melt off slower than average, resulting in an increase in the electrode extension. 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 83, 026306 (2011) How water droplets evaporate on a superhydrophobic substrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snoeijer, Jacco

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PHYSICAL REVIEW E 83, 026306 (2011) How water droplets evaporate on a superhydrophobic substrate October 2010; published 17 February 2011) Evaporation of water droplets on a superhydrophobic substrate ). The greater contact angles and pinned contact lines can be achieved by use of superhydrophobic carbon

  14. Combustion characteristics of fuel droplets with addition of nano and micron-sized aluminum particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiao, Li

    Combustion characteristics of fuel droplets with addition of nano and micron-sized aluminum Aluminum nanoparticles Microexplosion Particle aggregation a b s t r a c t The burning characteristics of fuel droplets containing nano and micron-sized aluminum particles were investigated. Particle size

  15. CLOUD DROPLET SPECTRAL DISPERSION AND THE INDIRECT AEROSOL EFFECT: COMPARISON OF TWO TREATMENTS IN A GCM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to be a radiative forcing by Forster et al. [2007], but global climate models (GCMs) that include both effects canCLOUD DROPLET SPECTRAL DISPERSION AND THE INDIRECT AEROSOL EFFECT: COMPARISON OF TWO TREATMENTS effect are compared in a global climate model. The earlier scheme specifies , the ratio of droplet

  16. Cavitation within a dropletCavitation within a droplet G. L. Heijnen1,2, P. A. Quinto-Su2, X. Zhao2, C. D. Ohl1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohl, Claus-Dieter

    Cavitation within a dropletCavitation within a droplet G. L. Heijnen1,2, P. A. Quinto-Su2, X. Zhao2 University, Singapore. A cavitation bubble expanding and collapsing inside a liquid droplet creates two high jets taken 400µs after the cavitation bubble has been created. The central jet is surrounded

  17. ALARA notes, Number 8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.; Beckman, M.C. [eds.] [eds.

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains information dealing with the lessons learned from the experience of nuclear plants. In this issue the authors tried to avoid the `tyranny` of numbers and concentrated on the main lessons learned. Topics include: filtration devices for air pollution abatement, crack repair and inspection, and remote handling equipment.

  18. Bouncing of a droplet on a superhydrophobic surface in AC electrowetting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Seung Jun; Kang, Kwan Hyoung

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a droplet-jumping phenomenon on a superhydrophobic surface driven by the resonant AC electrowetting. The resonant electrical actuation enables a droplet to accumulate sufficient surface energy for jumping, and superhydrophobic surface minimizes adhesion and hysteresis effects. They provide the effective energy conversion from the surface energy to the kinetic energy and improve the stability and the reproducibility of the droplet jumping. The controlled droplet jumping made by the resonant AC electrowetting could place another milestone in digital microfluidics by establishing a potential way to realize the three-dimensional droplet manipulation based on the conventional single plate EWOD configurations. This abstract is related to a fluid dynamics video for the gallery of fluid motion 2009.

  19. Permanent Home Number: Residential Number

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viglas, Anastasios

    Permanent Home Number: Residential Number: Mobile: Please update my contact details. Signature nominated correspondence address as indicated below. Permanent Home Adress Residential Address Other Address (Must not be a PO Box) Residential Address (Must not be a PO Box) Other - Postal/Optional Address

  20. A Superheated Droplet Detector for Dark Matter Search

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamel, L A; Rainville, L; Sur, B; Zacek, V

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the operation principle of a detector based on superheated droplets of Freon-12 and its feasibility for the search of weakly interacting cold dark matter particles. In particular we are interested in a neutralino search experiment in the mass range from 10 to 10^4 GeV/c^2 and with a sensitivity of better than 10^-2 events/kg/d. We show that our new proposed detector can be operated at ambient pressure and room temperature in a mode where it is exclusively sensitive to nuclear recoils like those following neutralino interactions, which allows a powerful background discrimination. An additional advantage of this technique is due to the fact that the detection material, Freon-12, is cheap and readily available in large quantities. Moreover we were able to show that piezoelectric transducers allow efficient event localization in large volumes.

  1. A Superheated Droplet Detector for Dark Matter Search

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. A. Hamel; L. Lessard; L. Rainville; B. Sur; V. Zacek

    1996-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the operation principle of a detector based on superheated droplets of Freon-12 and its feasibility for the search of weakly interacting cold dark matter particles. In particular we are interested in a neutralino search experiment in the mass range from 10 to 10^4 GeV/c^2 and with a sensitivity of better than 10^-2 events/kg/d. We show that our new proposed detector can be operated at ambient pressure and room temperature in a mode where it is exclusively sensitive to nuclear recoils like those following neutralino interactions, which allows a powerful background discrimination. An additional advantage of this technique is due to the fact that the detection material, Freon-12, is cheap and readily available in large quantities. Moreover we were able to show that piezoelectric transducers allow efficient event localization in large volumes.

  2. Beam Measurements of a CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) Chamber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirkby, Jasper

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A striking correlation has recently been observed between global cloud cover and the flux of incident cosmic rays. The effect of natural variations in the cosmic ray flux is large, causing estimated changes in the Earth's energy radiation balance that are comparable to those attributed to greenhouse gases from the burning of fossil fuels since the Industrial Revolution. However a direct link between cosmic rays and cloud formation has not been unambiguously established. We therefore propose to experimentally measure cloud (water droplet) formation under controlled conditions in a test beam at CERN with a CLOUD chamber, duplicating the conditions prevailing in the troposphere. These data, which have never been previously obtained, will allow a detailed understanding of the possible effects of cosmic rays on clouds and confirm, or otherwise, a direct link between cosmic rays, global cloud cover and the Earth's climate. The measurements will, in turn, allow more reliable calculations to be made of the residual e...

  3. UNIT NUMBER:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    193 UNIT NUMBER: 197 UNIT NAME: CONCRETE RUBBLE PILE (30) REGULATORY STATUS: AOC LOCATION: Outside plant security fence, north of the plant on Big Bayou Creek on private property....

  4. On-Demand Generation of Monodisperse Femtoliter Droplets by Shape-Induced Shear

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collier, Pat [ORNL; Retterer, Scott T [ORNL; Jung, Seung-Yong [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a method for creating discrete femtoliter-scale water-in-oil droplets on demand, based solely on a geometrically induced reduction in oil/water interfacial area at microfabricated junction orifices. This on-demand generation method is driven by self-shear of droplets due to interfacial tension induced forces resulting from a localized transition in microchannel height. The magnitudes of shear stresses involved appear to be significantly less than the shearing instabilities used to split off daughter droplets from aqueous mother plugs at microfabricated junctions in continuous water-in-oil segmented flows, which implies that this method may be better suited for studying biochemical reactions and reaction kinetics in droplets of decreased volume without loss of chemical reactivity due to redistribution of surfactant density used to passivate the oil/water interface. Predictable droplet generation rates under constant pressure conditions or the gated formation of one, two or more droplets at a time with fixed pressure pulses have been demonstrated in a similar manner to active on-demand droplet generation strategies, but with a simpler system not needing actuation and sensing equipment beyond a pressure regulator.

  5. Self-propelled running droplets on solid substrates driven by chemical reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. John; M. Baer; U. Thiele

    2006-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We study chemically driven running droplets on a partially wetting solid substrate by means of coupled evolution equations for the thickness profile of the droplets and the density profile of an adsorbate layer. Two models are introduced corresponding to two qualitatively different types of experiments described in the literature. In both cases an adsorption or desorption reaction underneath the droplets induces a wettability gradient on the substrate and provides the driving force for droplet motion. The difference lies in the behavior of the substrate behind the droplet. In case I the substrate is irreversibly changed whereas in case II it recovers allowing for a periodic droplet movement (as long as the overall system stays far away from equilibrium). Both models allow for a non-saturated and a saturated regime of droplet movement depending on the ratio of the viscous and reactive time scales. In contrast to model I, model II allows for sitting drops at high reaction rate and zero diffusion along the substrate. The transition from running to sitting drops in model II occurs via a super- or subcritical drift-pitchfork bifurcation and may be strongly hysteretic implying a coexistence region of running and sitting drops.

  6. Oscillation and collective conveyor of water-in-oil droplets by microfluidic bolus flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohmura, Takuya; Kamei, Ken-ichiro; Maeda, Yusuke T

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microfluidic techniques have been extensively developed to realize micro-total analysis systems in a small chip. For microanalysis, the trapping or arranging of objects in a line is a critical step. Physical effects such as inertial lift force have been utilized so far, however, hydrodynamic interaction in a many body system is yet to be explored despite its relevance to pattern formation. Here, we report water-in-oil (W/O) droplets can be transported with sequential order in the grid of one-dimensional array of another large W/O droplets. As each droplet comes close to an interspace of the large droplet array, while exhibiting persistent back-and-forth motion, it is conveyed at a velocity equal to the droplet array. The droplet also makes asymmetric orbit to and from the large droplet behind, suggesting vortex like stream was involved. We confirm the appearance of closed streamlines, which called bolus flow, in numerical simulation based on lattice Boltzmann method. The existence region of bolus flow account...

  7. Evaporation of Picolitre Droplets on Surfaces with a Range of Wettabilities and Thermal Conductivities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Talbot, E.L.; Berson, A.; Brown, P.S.; Bain, C.D.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of inkjet droplets ranges between 10 µm and 100 µm. Evaporation should still be limited by dif- fusion at this scale. Convection occurs in evaporating sessile droplets [12] where, in order to conserve mass, evaporating liquid is replenished by a convective... Controller CT-M3-02). High-purity water (MilliQ) or ethanol filtered through a 0.45 µm pore filter were used as the fluids. Shadowgraph profile images of the droplets were produced using side illumination. A cold LED light source (Beaglehole instruments...

  8. Concentrating Solar Power Forum Concentrating Photovoltaics (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.

    2008-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation's summaries: a convenient truth, comparison of three concentrator technologies, value of high efficiency, and status of industry.

  9. Aerosol formation from high-velocity uranium drops: Comparison of number and mass distributions. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rader, D.J.; Benson, D.A.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of an experimental study of the aerosol produced by the combustion of high-velocity molten-uranium droplets produced by the simultaneous heating and electromagnetic launch of uranium wires. These tests are intended to simulate the reduction of high-velocity fragments into aerosol in high-explosive detonations or reactor accidents involving nuclear materials. As reported earlier, the resulting aerosol consists mainly of web-like chain agglomerates. A condensation nucleus counter was used to investigate the decay of the total particle concentration due to coagulation and losses. Number size distributions based on mobility equivalent diameter obtained soon after launch with a Differential Mobility Particle Sizer showed lognormal distributions with an initial count median diameter (CMD) of 0.3 {mu}m and a geometric standard deviation, {sigma}{sub g} of about 2; the CMD was found to increase and {sigma}{sub g} decrease with time due to coagulation. Mass size distributions based on aerodynamic diameter were obtained for the first time with a Microorifice Uniform Deposit Impactor, which showed lognormal distributions with mass median aerodynamic diameters of about 0.5 {mu}m and an aerodynamic geometric standard deviation of about 2. Approximate methods for converting between number and mass distributions and between mobility and aerodynamic equivalent diameters are presented.

  10. Integrated Droplet Routing and Defect Tolerance in the Synthesis of Digital

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    11 Integrated Droplet Routing and Defect Tolerance in the Synthesis of Digital Microfluidic Biochips TAO XU and KRISHNENDU CHAKRABARTY Duke University Microfluidic biochips are revolutionizing high to digital microfluidic platforms, the need for design automation techniques is being increasingly felt

  11. Modelin combustion of multicomponent fuel droplets: formulation and application to transportation fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vittilapuram Subramanian, Kannan

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The quasi-steady, spherically symmetric combustion of multicomponent isolated fuel droplets has been modeled using modified Shvab-Zeldovich variable mechanism. Newly developed modified Shvab-Zeldovich equations have been used to describe the gas...

  12. Collection of submicron particles with cloud droplets using the new MIT-CFC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ardon-Dryer, K.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Collection efficiency of submicron mineral dust particles by cloud droplets will be examined using the new Massachusetts Institute of Technology-Contact Freezing Chamber (MIT-CFC). Comparison of the collection efficiency ...

  13. Synchronization of Washing Operations with Droplet Routing for Cross-Contamination Avoidance in Digital Microfluidic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    in Digital Microfluidic Biochips Yang Zhao and Krishnendu Chakrabarty Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA ABSTRACT Digital microfluidic biochips are being utilized Terms Algorithms, Performance, Design. Keywords Droplet-based microfluidics, electrowetting, lab

  14. Tunable spatial heterogeneity in structure and composition within aqueous microfluidic droplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hui, Sophia Lee Su

    In this paper, we demonstrate biphasic microfluidic droplets with broadly tunable internal structures, from simple near-equilibrium drop-in-drop morphologies to complex yet uniform non-equilibrium steady-state structures. ...

  15. Ice nucleation and droplet formation by bare and coated soot particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedman, Beth

    We have studied ice formation at temperatures relevant to homogeneous and heterogeneous ice nucleation, as well as droplet activation and hygroscopicity, of soot particles of variable size and composition. Coatings of ...

  16. Modelin combustion of multicomponent fuel droplets: formulation and application to transportation fuels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vittilapuram Subramanian, Kannan

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The quasi-steady, spherically symmetric combustion of multicomponent isolated fuel droplets has been modeled using modified Shvab-Zeldovich variable mechanism. Newly developed modified Shvab-Zeldovich equations have been ...

  17. Microfluidic device incorporating closed loop feedback control for uniform and tunable production of micro-droplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothstein, Jonathan

    Microfluidic device incorporating closed loop feedback control for uniform and tunable production, we have designed a microfluidic-based technology utilizing elementary microchannel geometries initial development using flow-focusing microfluidic geometry for droplet formation, computer

  18. A trajectory equation for walking droplets : hydrodynamic pilot-wave theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oza, Anand Uttam

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Yves Couder and coworkers have demonstrated that millimetric droplets walking on a vibrating fluid bath exhibit several features previously thought to be peculiar to the microscopic quantum realm, including single-particle ...

  19. MOLECULAR DYNAMICS SIMULATION OF HETEROGENEOUS NUCLEATION OF LIQUID DROPLET ON SOLID SURFACE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maruyama, Shigeo

    such as the quantum dot generation. We have simulated the equilibrium liquid droplet on the solid surface simulation on the bubble nucleation process on the solid surface [2]. In the meantime, direct molecular

  20. Dynamic Response of Quartz Crystal Microbalances in contact with Silicone Oil Droplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Han

    Quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) in contact with liquid droplets have been used to investigate the rheological properties of liquids and the diverse solid-liquid interfacial phenomena. In this article, we first report ...

  1. Development of a uniform-droplet spray apparatus for high melting temperature metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joumaa, Hady K

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The building and operation of a high-temperature uniform droplet spraying (UDS) apparatus extend the performance and capabilities of powder based manufacturing processes. Although the main concepts of operation of the ...

  2. Studies on the ion-droplet mixed regime in colloid thrusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lozano-Tovar, Paulo César, 1970-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Colloid thrusters working with mixtures of ions and droplets are gradually becoming an alternative technology for space micro-propulsion needs in missions requiring high position controllability, compactness and low power ...

  3. Droplet-Based Microfluidics for Emulsion and Solvent Evaporation Synthesis of Monodisperse Mesoporous Silica Microspheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Engineering, UniVersity of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87131, and School of Engineering and Applied and are suspended in hexadecane as the continuous oil phase. The solvent is then expelled from the droplets, leading

  4. Experimental investigation into the evaporating behaviour of pure and nanofluid droplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moffat, John Ross

    2011-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In this experimental investigation the evaporative behaviour of liquid droplets of both pure fluids and fluids containing nanoparticles was studied. Initial tests were conducted on drops of pure volatile liquids using IR ...

  5. Physico-chemical hydrodynamics of droplets on textured surfaces with engineered micro/nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Kyoo Chul

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding physico-chemical hydrodynamics of droplets on textured surfaces is of fundamental and practical significance for designing a diverse range of engineered surfaces such as low-reflective, self-cleaning or ...

  6. Wetting hysteresis and droplet roll off behavior on superhydrophobic surfaces by Katherine Marie Smyth.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smyth, Katherine Marie

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Various states of hydrophobic wetting and hysteresis are observed when water droplets are deposited on micro-post surfaces of different post densities. Hysteresis is commonly defined as the difference between the advancing ...

  7. An AFM Study of the Deformation and Nanorheology of Cross-Linked PDMS Droplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Attard, Phil

    to understand the interaction and stability of bubbles in foams and froths, droplets in emulsions to elastic JKR theory.16 In addition the deformation and elastic vibration of glass lenses have been measured

  8. Impact of picolitre droplets on superhydrophobic surfaces with ultra-low spreading ratios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, P.S.; Berson, A.; Talbot, E.L.; Wood, T.J.; Schofield, W.C.E.; Bain, C.D.; Badyal, J.P.S.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    :24 1 IMPACT OF PICOLITRE DROPLETS ON SUPERHYDROPHOBIC SURFACES WITH ULTRA-LOW SPREADING RATIOS P. S. Brown, A. Berson, E. L. Talbot, T. J. Wood, W. C. E. Schofield, C. D. Bain†, and J. P. S. Badyal†* Department of Chemistry Science... the dynamics of wetting to be precisely controlled. Final spreading ratios as low as 0.63 can be achieved. Comparison of the maximum spreading ratio and droplet oscillation frequencies with models described in the literature shows that both are found...

  9. Local droplet etching – Nanoholes, quantum dots, and air-gap heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heyn, Ch.; Sonnenberg, D.; Graf, A.; Kerbst, J.; Stemmann, A.; Hansen, W. [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Hamburg, Jungiusstr. 11, 20355 Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Local droplet etching (LDE) allows the self-organized generation of nanoholes in semiconductor surfaces and is fully compatible with molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The influence of the process parameters as well as of droplet and substrate materials on the LDE nanohole morphology is discussed. Furthermore, recent applications of LDE, the fabrication of quantum dots by hole filling and the creation of air-gap heterostructures are addressed.

  10. System for sensing droplet formation time delay in a flow cytometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van den Engh, Ger (Seattle, WA); Esposito, Richard J. (Seattle, WA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A droplet flow cytometer system which includes a system to optimize the droplet formation time delay based on conditions actually experienced includes an automatic droplet sampler which rapidly moves a plurality of containers stepwise through the droplet stream while simultaneously adjusting the droplet time delay. Through the system sampling of an actual substance to be processed can be used to minimize the effect of the substances variations or the determination of which time delay is optimal. Analysis such as cell counting and the like may be conducted manually or automatically and input to a time delay adjustment which may then act with analysis equipment to revise the time delay estimate actually applied during processing. The automatic sampler can be controlled through a microprocessor and appropriate programming to bracket an initial droplet formation time delay estimate. When maximization counts through volume, weight, or other types of analysis exists in the containers, the increment may then be reduced for a more accurate ultimate setting. This may be accomplished while actually processing the sample without interruption.

  11. On-chip real-time single-copy polymerase chain reaction in picoliter droplets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beer, N R; Hindson, B; Wheeler, E; Hall, S B; Rose, K A; Kennedy, I; Colston, B

    2007-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The first lab-on-chip system for picoliter droplet generation and PCR amplification with real-time fluorescence detection has performed PCR in isolated droplets at volumes 10{sup 6} smaller than commercial real-time PCR systems. The system utilized a shearing T-junction in a silicon device to generate a stream of monodisperse picoliter droplets that were isolated from the microfluidic channel walls and each other by the oil phase carrier. An off-chip valving system stopped the droplets on-chip, allowing them to be thermal cycled through the PCR protocol without droplet motion. With this system a 10-pL droplet, encapsulating less than one copy of viral genomic DNA through Poisson statistics, showed real-time PCR amplification curves with a cycle threshold of {approx}18, twenty cycles earlier than commercial instruments. This combination of the established real-time PCR assay with digital microfluidics is ideal for isolating single-copy nucleic acids in a complex environment.

  12. Beam Measurements of a CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) Chamber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jasper Kirkby

    2001-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A striking correlation has recently been observed between global cloud cover and the flux of incident cosmic rays. The effect of natural variations in the cosmic ray flux is large, causing estimated changes in the Earth's energy radiation balance that are comparable to those attributed to greenhouse gases from the burning of fossil fuels since the Industrial Revolution. However a direct link between cosmic rays and cloud formation has not been unambiguously established. We therefore propose to experimentally measure cloud (water droplet) formation under controlled conditions in a test beam at CERN with a CLOUD chamber, duplicating the conditions prevailing in the troposphere. These data, which have never been previously obtained, will allow a detailed understanding of the possible effects of cosmic rays on clouds and confirm, or otherwise, a direct link between cosmic rays, global cloud cover and the Earth's climate. The measurements will, in turn, allow more reliable calculations to be made of the residual effect on global temperatures of the burning of fossil fuels, an issue of profound importance to society. Furthermore, light radio-isotope records indicate a correlation has existed between global climate and the cosmic ray flux extending back over the present inter-glacial and perhaps earlier. This suggests it may eventually become possible to make long-term (10-1,000 year) predictions of changes in the Earth's climate, provided a deeper understanding can be achieved of the ``geomagnetic climate'' of the Sun and Earth that modulates the cosmic-ray flux.

  13. Change Number

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamos LaboratoryCertified Reference6-02-01Change Number

  14. Concentrating Photovoltaics (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.

    2009-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar is growing rapidly, and the concentrating photovoltaics industry-both high- and low-concentration cell approaches-may be ready to ramp production in 2009.

  15. Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    CONCENTRATING SOLAR POWER PROGRAM REVIEW 2013 Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power Principal Investigator: Prof. Gang Chen Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA...

  16. Quantification of the relationship between pulmonary ventilation rate and vapor contaminant concentration in exposure profiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horbal, Terrence Myron

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentration in Exposure Profiles (August 1982) Terrence Myron Horbal, B. S. University of New Haven Chairman of Advisory Committee: Harry J. Suggs It is believed that present methods used to ascertain worker exposure to airborne contaminants do not... must often function within an environment contaminated with airborne emissions. Air- borne contaminants can be of two types: gases or vapors which are completely dispersed in the air, and suspended solid particles or liquid droplets in the air...

  17. Research on droplet formation for application to kraft black liquors: Final report: Tasks I and III, report No. 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stockel, I.H.

    1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project is to generate technical data with which to design nozzles for kraft black liquor recovery boilers which can reduce under and over size droplets and adjust for changing black liquor properties and production requirements. The research is organized into five tasks: Droplet formation from a single jet, theoretical and experimental--ambient gas medium; Surface tensions of black liquor; Aerodynamic/hydrodynamic stability/instability of droplets once formed; Black liquor droplet formation from a single jet--furnace gas medium; Prototype of a new nozzle design. 88 figs.

  18. Elemental diffusion during the droplet epitaxy growth of In(Ga)As/GaAs(001) quantum dots by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Z. B.; Chen, B.; Wang, Y. B.; Liao, X. Z., E-mail: xiaozhou.liao@sydney.edu.au [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Lei, W. [School of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA 6009 (Australia); Tan, H. H.; Jagadish, C. [Department of Electronic Materials Engineering, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Zou, J. [Materials Engineering and Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Ringer, S. P. [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Droplet epitaxy is an important method to produce epitaxial semiconductor quantum dots (QDs). Droplet epitaxy of III-V QDs comprises group III elemental droplet deposition and the droplet crystallization through the introduction of group V elements. Here, we report that, in the droplet epitaxy of InAs/GaAs(001) QDs using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition, significant elemental diffusion from the substrate to In droplets occurs, resulting in the formation of In(Ga)As crystals, before As flux is provided. The supply of As flux suppresses the further elemental diffusion from the substrate and promotes surface migration, leading to large island formation with a low island density.

  19. Oscillatory Flame Response in Acoustically Coupled Fuel Droplet Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sevilla Esparza, Cristhian Israel

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in a lean, premixed step combustor. Number 96-0819, 1996. [stagnation point reverse flow combustor. Proceedings of theheat transfer rates to combustor walls, and potential for

  20. Bright tunable femtosecond x-ray emission from laser irradiated micro-droplets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Tong-Pu, E-mail: tongpu@nudt.edu.cn; Hu, Li-Xiang; Yin, Yan; Shao, Fu-Qiu; Zhuo, Hong-Bin; Ma, Yan-Yun; Yang, Xiao-Hu [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Luo, Wen [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China); Pukhov, Alexander [Institut für Theoretische Physik I, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, 40225 Düsseldorf (Germany)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It is demonstrated that bright femtosecond X-rays can be obtained by irradiating a moderate laser onto a helium micro-droplet. The laser ponderomotive force continuously sweeps electrons from the droplets and accelerates them forward. The electrons exposed in the outrunning laser field oscillate transversely and emit photons in the forward direction. The total flux of photons with energies above 1?keV is as high as 10{sup 9}/shot which is about 10-fold enhancement compared with betatron oscillation under similar laser conditions. The maximum achieved peak brightness is up to 10{sup 21} photons/s/mm{sup 2}/mrad{sup 2}/0.1%BW. By adjusting laser and droplet parameters, we can get tunable X-rays with required brightness and energy.

  1. Synthesis, droplet combustion, and sooting characteristics of biodiesel produced from waste vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, T. X.; Zhu, D. L.; Akafuah, N.; Saito, K.; Law, C. K.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In light of the potential of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME, i.e. biodiesel) as a renewable energy source, an innovative acid catalyzed process was developed for the synthesis of biodiesel from waste vegetable oils. The synthesized biodiesels were analytically characterized for their major components, molar fraction and molecular weight of each component, the average molecular weight, and the heat of combustion. Their droplet combustion characteristics in terms of the burning rate, flame size, and sooting tendency were subsequently determined in a high-temperature, freely-falling droplet apparatus. Results show that the biodiesel droplet has higher burning rate, and that biodiesel in general has a lower propensity to soot because its molecular oxygen content promotes the oxidation of the soot precursors.

  2. Experimental observation of a chaos-to-chaos transition in laser droplet generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blaz Krese; Matjaz Perc; Edvard Govekar

    2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine the dynamics of laser droplet generation in dependence on the detachment pulse power. In the absence of the detachment pulse, undulating pendant droplets are formed at the end of a properly fed metal wire due to the impact of the primary laser pulse that induces melting. Eventually, these droplets detach, i.e. overcome the surface tension, because of their increasing mass. We show that this spontaneous dripping is deterministically chaotic by means of a positive largest Lyapunov exponent and a negative divergence. In the presence of the detachment pulse, however, the generation of droplets is fastened depending on the pulse power. At high powers, the spontaneity of dripping is completely overshadowed by the impact of the detachment pulse. Still, amplitude chaos can be detected, which similarly as the spontaneous dripping, is characterized by a positive largest Lyapunov exponent and a negative divergence, thus indicating that the observed dynamics is deterministically chaotic with an attractor as solution in the phase space. In the intermediate regime, i.e. for low and medium detachment pulse powers, the two chaotic states compete for supremacy, yielding an intermittent period-doubling to amplitude chaos transition, which we characterize by means of recurrence plots and their properties. Altogether, the transition from spontaneous to triggered laser droplet generation is characterized by a chaos-to-chaos transition with an intermediate dynamically nonstationary phase in-between. Since metal droplets can be used in various industrial applications, we hope that the accurate determination of the dynamical properties underlying their formation will facilitate their use and guide future attempts at mathematical modeling.

  3. Optimization of Droplet Routing for an n-Plex Bioassay on a Digital Microfluidic Lab-on-Chip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    Optimization of Droplet Routing for an n-Plex Bioassay on a Digital Microfluidic Lab-on-Chip Yang on an electrowetting-based digital microfluidic lab-on-chip. The n product droplets of the n-plex bioassay are detected for rapid and point-of-care diagnosis of such disorders. Digital microfluidic lab-on-chip is an emerging

  4. Microfluidic production of monodisperse functional o/w droplets and study of their reversible pH dependent aggregation behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cicuta, Pietro

    Microfluidic production of monodisperse functional o/w droplets and study of their reversible p DOI: 10.1039/c1sm05087g We report the use of microfluidics for the production of monodisperse oil of individual droplets. Introduction Microdroplets in microfluidics have attracted enormous atten- tion

  5. The spherically symmetric droplet burning characteristics of Jet-A and biofuels derived from camelina and tallow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walter, M.Todd

    The spherically symmetric droplet burning characteristics of Jet-A and biofuels derived from the biofuels due to its higher aromatic content. " Droplet burning rates of camelina and tallow HRJ fuel Available online 1 March 2013 Keywords: Alternative jet fuel Hydroprocessed biofuel Spherically symmetric

  6. The entrainment of oil droplets in flow beneath an oil slick 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chao, Chien-Hwa

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Trajectorie of All Different Droplets 67 LIST OP TABLES Table 1 Oil Slick Interfacial Traveling Waves 2 The Maximum Depth of the Oil Droplet Trajectory Page 53 70 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Oil spills at sea are becoming more numerous and such spills... are recognized as a ma)or environmental hazard which must be cleaned up as rapidly as possible. When oil is spilled on a body of water, it will tend to spread. In order to control such a spill, several means are available, one of the most important of which...

  7. Magnetic response of holographic Lifshitz superconductors:Vortex and Droplet solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arindam Lala

    2014-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper a holographic model of $s$-wave superconductor with anisotropic Lifshitz scaling has been considered. In the presence of an external magnetic field our holographic model exhibits both vortex and droplet solutions. Based on analytic methods we have shown that the anisotropy has no effect on the vortex and droplet solutions whereas it may affect the condensation. Our vortex solution closely resembles the Ginzburg-Landau theory and a relation between the upper critical magnetic field and superconducting coherence length has been speculated from this comparison. Using Sturm-Liouville method, the effect of anisotropy on the critical parameters in insulator/superconductor phase transitions has been analyzed.

  8. Concentrating Solar Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its concentrating solar power subprogram.

  9. Chapter 3: Evaluating the impacts of carbonaceous aerosols on clouds and climate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menon, Surabi

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cloud susceptibility and the first aerosol indirect forcing:Sensitivity to BC and aerosol concentrations. J. Geophys.of cloud droplet and aerosols number concentrations:

  10. On-chip single-copy real-time reverse-transcription PCR in isolated picoliter droplets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beer, N R; Wheeler, E; Lee-Houghton, L; Watkins, N; Nasarabadi, S; Hebert, N; Leung, P; Arnold, D; Bailey, C; Colston, B

    2007-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The first lab-on-chip system for picoliter droplet generation and RNA isolation, followed by reverse transcription, and PCR amplification with real-time fluorescence detection in the trapped droplets has been developed. The system utilized a shearing T-junction in a fused silica device to generate a stream of monodisperse picoliter-scale droplets that were isolated from the microfluidic channel walls and each other by the oil phase carrier. An off-chip valving system stopped the droplets on-chip, allowing thermal cycling for reverse transcription and subsequent PCR amplification without droplet motion. This combination of the established real-time reverse transcription-PCR assay with digital microfluidics is ideal for isolating single-copy RNA and virions from a complex environment, and will be useful in viral discovery and gene-profiling applications.

  11. Photovoltaic concentrator initiative: Concentrator cell development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wohlgemuth, J.H.; Narayanan, S. [Solarex Corp., Frederick, MD (US)

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project involves the development of a large-area, low-cost, high-efficiency concentrator solar cell for use in the Entech 22-sun linear-focus Fresnel lens concentrator system. The buried contact solar cell developed at the University of New South Wales was selected for this project. Both Entech and the University of New South Wales are subcontractors. This annual report presents the program efforts from November 1990 through December 1991, including the design of the cell, development of a baseline cell process, and presentation of the results of preliminary cell processing. Important results include a cell designed for operation in a real concentrator system and substitution of mechanical grooving for the previously utilized laser scribing.

  12. Rerngchai ArayanarakoolISBN: 978-90-365-3431-4 TowardSingleEnzymeAnalysisinaDroplet-basedMicroandNanofluidicSystemRerngchaiArayanarakool

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wieringa, Roel

    microfluidics and enzyme kinetics 6 I. Droplet-based Microfluidics 7 a. Characteristics of droplet-based microfluidics 7 b. Droplet generation 10 (1) T-junction system 10 (2) Flow-focusing system 11 (3) Co channel 45 II. Material selection 46 III. Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)based microfluidic device 49 IV

  13. air pollutant concentrations: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Environmental Health Perspectives volume 119 | number 8 | August 2011 1123 Predicting air pollution concentrations at reso- Geosciences Websites Summary: air pollution...

  14. Droplet Routing in the Synthesis of Digital Microfluidic Biochips* Fei Su, William Hwang and Krishnendu Chakrabarty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    Droplet Routing in the Synthesis of Digital Microfluidic Biochips* Fei Su, William Hwang in the IC industry.Recent advances in microfluidics are expected to lead to sensor systems for high microfluidic biochip into two major phases, i.e., architectural-level synthesis and physical design

  15. Defect-Aware Synthesis of Droplet-Based Microfluidic Biochips* , Krishnendu Chakrabarty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    Defect-Aware Synthesis of Droplet-Based Microfluidic Biochips* Tao Xu , Krishnendu Chakrabarty Corporation, Folsom, CA Abstract Recent advances in microfluidics technology have led to the emergence of miniaturized biochip devices for biochemical analysis. A promising category of microfluidic biochips relies

  16. Retinyl Ester Storage Particles (Retinosomes) from the Retinal Pigmented Epithelium Resemble Lipid Droplets in Other

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    retinosomes are structures spe- cific to the eye or similar to lipid droplets in other organs functions such as nourishing and removing metabolic waste products, absorbing excess light, phagocytosis of photoreceptor fragments, and recycling the visual chro- mophore, 11-cis-retinal (2­6). Recycling of 11-cis

  17. DROPLET FEATURES EXTRACTION WITH A DYNAMIC ACTIVE CONTOUR FOR MIG/MAG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    at high temperature, avoiding contamination of the metal by oxygen and nitrogen. The welding generatorDROPLET FEATURES EXTRACTION WITH A DYNAMIC ACTIVE CONTOUR FOR MIG/MAG WELDING MODELLING J.briand@airliquide.com, frederic-p.richard@airliquide.com Keywords: MIG/MAG welding, modelling, active con- tour, greedy algorithm

  18. Droplet impingement and vapor layer formation on hot hydrophobic surfaces Ji Yong Park1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cahill, David G.

    diameter) water droplets that bounce from hydrophobic surfaces whose temperature exceeds the boiling point angle. The residence time determined by high-speed imaging is constant at 1 msec over the temperature-speed imaging is approximately independent of the temperature of the hot surface. Measurements of thermal

  19. Journal of Power Sources 161 (2006) 333345 Liquid droplet behavior and instability in a polymer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mench, Matthew M.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    electrolyte fuel cell flow channel E.C. Kumbur, K.V. Sharp, M.M. Mench Fuel Cell Dynamics and Diagnostics electrolyte fuel cell; Droplet removal; Gas diffusion layer; Surface tension 1. Introduction Channel level elec- trolyte fuel cell (PEFC). Due to the complexity of the thin film porous media and small length

  20. Pervaporation of Emulsion Droplets for the Templated Assembly of Spherical Particles: A Population Balance Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braatz, Richard D.

    , but are immiscible with each other as the solvent volume decreases.4­9 Water-in-oil emulsions, where the water, evaporation, population balance, pervaporation, mathematical modeling, transport Introduction The emulsionPervaporation of Emulsion Droplets for the Templated Assembly of Spherical Particles: A Population

  1. Direct Detection of Membrane Channels from Gels Using Water-in-Oil Droplet Bilayers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wallace, Mark

    Direct Detection of Membrane Channels from Gels Using Water-in-Oil Droplet Bilayers Andrew J. Heron lipid bilayers serve as simplified models of biological membranes and are widely used for the electrical in many situations. Alternative emulsion-based approaches to forming bilayers have also been reported,15

  2. Local Heating of Discrete Droplets Using Magnetic Porous Silicon-Based Photonic Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhatia, Sangeeta

    Local Heating of Discrete Droplets Using Magnetic Porous Silicon-Based Photonic Crystals Ji-Ho Park and Technology (HarVard-MIT) and Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts AVenue, Building E19-502d, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 Received

  3. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of the rise and dissolution of two-1 dimensional immiscible droplets2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Dongxiao

    were in agreement with the empirical correlation derived for13 predicting bubble rise. When more than.38 39 I. INTRODUCTION40 41 The motion and dissolution of a rising droplet/bubble is an important two, including43 geological carbon sequestration, wastewater treatments, drug delivery in blood vessels, and44

  4. Study of the Effects of Surface Morphology and Droplet Growth Dynamics on Condensation Heat Transfer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Chun-Wei

    2014-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    system 2 on Sample 3 (50??m micropillar spacing hybrid surface) ............................................................................................... 66 Figure 24. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) time- sequence images... tension gradients to promote and induce a droplet removal mechanism. They concluded that their gradient surface exhibited a higher heat transfer coefficient than a hydrophobic silane based surface. More recently, environmental scanning electron...

  5. Erratum to: Neonicotinoid insecticides translocated in guttated droplets of seed-treated maize and wheat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erratum to: Neonicotinoid insecticides translocated in guttated droplets of seed-treated maize Gasur and the fungicide Efa of the treated seed in triticale have to be reduced by the factor 100 (which corresponds to the recommended application rate): Seeds of triticale were treated with a combination

  6. Fibre-optic interferometric pressure sensor based on droplet-shaped PDMS elastomer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vlachos, Kyriakos G.

    Fibre-optic interferometric pressure sensor based on droplet-shaped PDMS elastomer C. Markos1 , K *gkakaran@eie.gr Keywords: white-light interferometer, fibre-optic pressure sensor, PDMS-based Fabry progress in fiber-optic extrinsic Fabry­Perot interferometric sensors ", Optical Fiber Technology, 23, p

  7. Curvature-Dependent Surface Tension of a Growing Droplet Michael P. Moody and Phil Attard

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Attard, Phil

    Curvature-Dependent Surface Tension of a Growing Droplet Michael P. Moody and Phil Attard School-vapor interfaces. It is shown that the surface tension decreases approximately linearly with the supersaturation ratio and that it vanishes at the spinodal. The effect leads to a curvature-dependent surface tension

  8. Effective Radius of Cloud Droplets by Ground-Based Remote Sensing: Relationship to Aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwartz, Stephen E.

    albedo and radiative forcing for a given LWP are highly sensitive to effective radius; for solar zenith and the average cloud cover on earth. Additionally, reduction in cloud cover caused by absorption of solarEffective Radius of Cloud Droplets by Ground-Based Remote Sensing: Relationship to Aerosol Byung

  9. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    eere.energy.gov * energy.govsunshot DOEGO-102012-3669 * September 2012 MOTIVATION All thermal concentrating solar power (CSP) systems use solar tracking, which involves moving...

  10. Concentrated Thermoelectric Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a concentrated solar hydroelectric power project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by MIT, is working to demonstrate concentrating solar thermoelectric generators with >10% solar-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency while limiting optical concentration to less than a factor of 10 and potentially less than 4. When combined with thermal storage, CSTEGs have the potential to provide electricity day and night using no moving parts at both the utility and distributed scale.

  11. Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  12. Concentration in Green Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shewchuk, Jonathan

    , energy, infrastructure or transport. Participants in this specialization area work closely with the GreenConcentration in Green Design Research and Education Opportunities Carnegie Mellon University Civil and Environmental Engineering www.ce.cmu.edu M.S. Concentration Green Design - Course Only Track As an extension

  13. COFIN project Concentration Fluctuations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    COFIN project Concentration Fluctuations in Gas Releases by Industrial Accidents Final Summary of random concentration fluctuations in hazardous gas releases and the method was to derive empirical. In each measurement cycle the Lidar emits a short laser light pulse and detects the light Lidar reflected

  14. Detecting bacteria and Determining Their Susceptibility to Antibiotics by Stochastic Confinement in Nanoliter Droplets using Plug-Based Microfluidics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boedicker, J.; Li, L; Kline, T; Ismagilov, R

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article describes plug-based microfluidic technology that enables rapid detection and drug susceptibility screening of bacteria in samples, including complex biological matrices, without pre-incubation. Unlike conventional bacterial culture and detection methods, which rely on incubation of a sample to increase the concentration of bacteria to detectable levels, this method confines individual bacteria into droplets nanoliters in volume. When single cells are confined into plugs of small volume such that the loading is less than one bacterium per plug, the detection time is proportional to plug volume. Confinement increases cell density and allows released molecules to accumulate around the cell, eliminating the pre-incubation step and reducing the time required to detect the bacteria. We refer to this approach as stochastic confinement. Using the microfluidic hybrid method, this technology was used to determine the antibiogram - or chart of antibiotic sensitivity - of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to many antibiotics in a single experiment and to measure the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the drug cefoxitin (CFX) against this strain. In addition, this technology was used to distinguish between sensitive and resistant strains of S. aureus in samples of human blood plasma. High-throughput microfluidic techniques combined with single-cell measurements also enable multiple tests to be performed simultaneously on a single sample containing bacteria. This technology may provide a method of rapid and effective patient-specific treatment of bacterial infections and could be extended to a variety of applications that require multiple functional tests of bacterial samples on reduced timescales.

  15. Concentrating photovoltaic solar panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cashion, Steven A; Bowser, Michael R; Farrelly, Mark B; Hines, Braden E; Holmes, Howard C; Johnson, Jr., Richard L; Russell, Richard J; Turk, Michael F

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to photovoltaic power systems, photovoltaic concentrator modules, and related methods. In particular, the present invention features concentrator modules having interior points of attachment for an articulating mechanism and/or an articulating mechanism that has a unique arrangement of chassis members so as to isolate bending, etc. from being transferred among the chassis members. The present invention also features adjustable solar panel mounting features and/or mounting features with two or more degrees of freedom. The present invention also features a mechanical fastener for secondary optics in a concentrator module.

  16. Scattering Solar Thermal Concentrators

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "This fact sheet describes a scattering solar thermal concentrators project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by the Pennsylvania State University, is working to demonstrate a new, scattering-based approach to concentrating sunlight that aims to improve the overall performance and reliability of the collector field. The research team aims to show that scattering solar thermal collectors are capable of achieving optical performance equal to state-of-the-art parabolic trough systems, but with the added benefits of immunity to wind-load tracking error, more efficient land use, and utilization of stationary receivers."

  17. Spatially resolved temperature and heat flux measurements for slow evaporating droplets heated by a microfabricated heater array 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paik, Sokwon

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The evaporation phenomenon of a liquid droplet was investigated by using microfabricated heaters. All 32 microheaters were designed to have the same resistance. Gold microheaters worked both as temperature indicators and ...

  18. Study on lipid droplet dynamics in live cells and fluidity changes in model bacterial membranes using optical microscopy techniques 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Christine Shiang Yee

    2014-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis optical microscopy techniques are used to consider aspects of viral and bacterial infections. In part 1, the physical effects of cytomegalovirus on lipid droplet dynamics in live cells are studied; in part ...

  19. The interaction of radio frequency electromagnetic fields with atmospheric water droplets and application to aircraft ice prevention

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansman, Robert John

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work the physics of advanced microwave anti-icing systems, which pre-heat impinging supercooled water droplets prior to impact, is studied by means of a computer simulation and is found to be feasible. In order to ...

  20. Organic photovoltaics and concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mapel, Jonathan King

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The separation of light harvesting and charge generation offers several advantages in the design of organic photovoltaics and organic solar concentrators for the ultimate end goal of achieving a lower cost solar electric ...

  1. concentration 2-adrenoceptor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Junfeng

    inhibitor concentration agonist acid expressed region isolated treatment 2-adrenoceptor serum stimulation acid product metabolism human treatment analysis new ester metabolites derivatives content isolated expression level binding complex mrna integrin collagen genes form normal synthesis production beta 1

  2. Water Sample Concentrator

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Idaho National Laboratory

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Automated portable device that concentrates and packages a sample of suspected contaminated water for safe, efficient transport to a qualified analytical laboratory. This technology will help safeguard against pathogen contamination or chemical and biolog

  3. Joined concentric tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeJonghe, Lutgard; Jacobson, Craig; Tucker, Michael; Visco, Steven

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tubular objects having two or more concentric layers that have different properties are joined to one another during their manufacture primarily by compressive and friction forces generated by shrinkage during sintering and possibly mechanical interlocking. It is not necessary for the concentric tubes to display adhesive-, chemical- or sinter-bonding to each other in order to achieve a strong bond. This facilitates joining of dissimilar materials, such as ceramics and metals.

  4. Spatially resolved temperature and heat flux measurements for slow evaporating droplets heated by a microfabricated heater array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paik, Sokwon

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    flux datum per one droplet. No spatial or temporal heat flux information was given. Klassen et al. [12] and di Marzo et al. [13] were the first to use an infrared thermography technique to attempt to measure the spatially and temporally resolved... infrared thermography. Because of the aforementioned limitation of the IR thermography, measurements were only possible outside of the droplets. Michiyoshi and Makino [15] used a dual beam synchroscope to measure the variation of the heater supply...

  5. The influence of droplet size upon the effectiveness of herbicidal application of 2, 4-D in beans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dayhoff, Eldred Eugene

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LIBRARY 4 S IS COLLESE OF TEXAS THE INFLUENCE OF DROPLET SIZE UPON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF HERBICIDAL APPLICATION OF 2, Q-D IN BEANS By ELDRED EUGENE DAYHOFF A Thesis Submitted to ths Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College... of Texas in partial fulfillment of ths requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August, 1956 MAJOR SUBJECT: RANGE MANAGEMENT THE INFLUENCE OF DROPLET SIZE UPON THE EFFECTIVENESS HERBICIDAL APPLICATION OF 2, $ D IN BEANS A Thesis By ELDRED...

  6. Gallium surface diffusion on GaAs (001) surfaces measured by crystallization dynamics of Ga droplets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bietti, Sergio, E-mail: sergio.bietti@mater.unimib.it; Somaschini, Claudio; Esposito, Luca; Sanguinetti, Stefano [L–NESS and Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Università di Milano Bicocca, Via Cozzi 55, I–20125 Milano (Italy); Fedorov, Alexey [L–NESS and CNR–IFN, via Anzani 42, I-22100 Como (Italy)

    2014-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We present accurate measurements of Ga cation surface diffusion on GaAs surfaces. The measurement method relies on atomic force microscopy measurement of the morphology of nano–disks that evolve, under group V supply, from nanoscale group III droplets, earlier deposited on the substrate surface. The dependence of the radius of such nano-droplets on crystallization conditions gives direct access to Ga diffusion length. We found an activation energy for Ga on GaAs(001) diffusion E{sub A}=1.31±0.15 eV, a diffusivity prefactor of D{sub 0}?=?0.53(×2.1±1) cm{sup 2} s{sup ?1} that we compare with the values present in literature. The obtained results permit to better understand the fundamental physics governing the motion of group III ad–atoms on III–V crystal surfaces and the fabrication of designable nanostructures.

  7. Droplet traffic in microfluidic networks: A simple model for understanding and designing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Schindler; A. Ajdari

    2007-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a simple model to analyze the traffic of droplets in microfluidic ``dual networks''. Such functional networks which consist of two types of channels, namely those accessible or forbidden to droplets, often display a complex behavior characteristic of dynamical systems. By focusing on three recently proposed configurations, we offer an explanation for their remarkable behavior. Additionally, the model allows us to predict the behavior in different parameter regimes. A verification will clarify fundamental issues, such as the network symmetry, the role of the driving conditions, and of the occurrence of reversible behavior. The model lends itself to a fast numerical implementation, thus can help designing devices, identifying parameter windows where the behavior is sufficiently robust for a devices to be practically useful, and exploring new functionalities.

  8. Injectable Spontaneous Generation of Tremendous Self-Fueled Liquid Metal Droplet Motors in a Moment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, You-You; Liu, Jing

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Micro motors that could run in liquid environment is very important for a variety of practices such as serving as pipeline robot, soft machine, drug delivery, or microfluidics system etc. However, fabrication of such tiny motors is generally rather time and cost consumptive and has been a tough issue due to involve too many complicated procedures and tools. Here, we show a straightforward injectable way for spontaneously generating autonomously running soft motors in large quantity. A basic fabrication strategy thus enabled is established and illustrated. It was found that, injecting the GaIn alloy pre-fueled with aluminum into electrolyte would automatically split in seconds into tremendous droplet motors swiftly running here and there. The driving force originated from the galvanic cell reaction among alloy, aluminum and surrounding electrolyte which offers interior electricity and hydrogen gas as motion power. This finding opens the possibility to develop injectable tiny-robots, droplet machines or microfl...

  9. Research on droplet formation for application to kraft black liquors---Final project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bousfield, D.W.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to generate technical data to guide the design of new nozzles for kraft black liquor recovery boilers. The goal of new nozzle designs would be to narrow the droplet size distribution compared to current nozzles and to adjust for changing black liquor properties and production requirements. Uniform droplets in a recovery boiler should reduce fouling of superheater tubes and caused a more efficient burning of the black liquor, both of which result in improved energy efficiency. The research was organized into five tasks which are described in the next chapter. This fifth and final project report contains the details of Task 4 and 5 and further analysis of Task 1 results. The details of the other tasks are reported in previous technical reports. The major results from the entire project are highlighted in this section in order of significance.

  10. Nuclear mass systematics by complementing the Finite Range Droplet Model with neural networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Athanassopoulos; E. Mavrommatis; K. A. Gernoth; J. W. Clark

    2005-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A neural-network model is developed to reproduce the differences between experimental nuclear mass-excess values and the theoretical values given by the Finite Range Droplet Model. The results point to the existence of subtle regularities of nuclear structure not yet contained in the best microscopic/phenomenological models of atomic masses. Combining the FRDM and the neural-network model, we create a hybrid model with improved predictive performance on nuclear-mass systematics and related quantities.

  11. Proton transfer in histidine-tryptophan heterodimers embedded in helium droplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellina, Bruno; Kresin, Vitaly V

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We used cold helium droplets as nano-scale reactors to form and ionize, by electron bombardment and charge transfer, aromatic amino acid heterodimers of histidine with tryptophan, methyl-tryptophan, and indole. The molecular interaction occurring through an N-H...N hydrogen bond leads to a proton transfer from the indole group of tryptophan to the imidazole group of histidine in a radical cationic environment.

  12. Real-time x-ray studies of gallium nitride nanodot formation by droplet heteroepitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Yiyi; Oezcan, Ahmet S.; Sanborn, Christopher; Ludwig, Karl F.; Bhattacharyya, Anirban; Chandrasekaran, Ramya; Moustakas, Theodore D.; Zhou Lin; Smith, David J. [Physics Department, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 (United States); Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287, USA and School of Materials, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Self-organized gallium nitride nanodots have been fabricated using droplet heteroepitaxy on c-plane sapphire by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy at different substrate temperatures and Ga fluxes. Nanoscale Ga droplets were initially formed on the sapphire substrate at high temperatures by Ga deposition from an effusion cell in an ultrahigh vacuum growth chamber. Subsequently, the droplets were converted into GaN nanodots using a nitrogen plasma source. The process was monitored and controlled using real-time grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering. The samples were examined postgrowth by in situ grazing incidence x-ray diffraction and reflection high-energy electron diffraction, which confirmed the epitaxial relationship between the GaN nanodots and the sapphire surface. X-ray diffraction indicated that the wurtzite phase was dominant at higher substrate temperature (710 deg. C), but a mixture of wurtzite and zinc blende phases was present at a substrate temperature of 620 deg. C. Ex situ atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses showed that the dot size distribution was bimodal. A thin GaN continuous layer of {approx} three monolayers thick was observed by transmission electron microscopy on the sample grown at a substrate temperature of 620 deg. C, but no such layer was observed for the substrate temperature of 710 deg. C. This suggests that there is little mobility of Ga atoms in contact with the sapphire substrate at the lower temperature so that they cannot easily diffuse to nearby droplets and instead form a thin layer covering the surface.

  13. Real-Time X-ray Studies of Gallium Nitride Nanodot Formation by Droplet Heteroepitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang,Y.; Ozcan, A.; Sanborn, C.; Ludwig, K.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Chandrasekaran, R.; Moustakas, T.; Zhou, L.; Smith, D.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Self-organized gallium nitride nanodots have been fabricated using droplet heteroepitaxy on c-plane sapphire by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy at different substrate temperatures and Ga fluxes. Nanoscale Ga droplets were initially formed on the sapphire substrate at high temperatures by Ga deposition from an effusion cell in an ultrahigh vacuum growth chamber. Subsequently, the droplets were converted into GaN nanodots using a nitrogen plasma source. The process was monitored and controlled using real-time grazing-incidence small-angle x-ray scattering. The samples were examined postgrowth by in situ grazing incidence x-ray diffraction and reflection high-energy electron diffraction, which confirmed the epitaxial relationship between the GaN nanodots and the sapphire surface. X-ray diffraction indicated that the wurtzite phase was dominant at higher substrate temperature (710? C), but a mixture of wurtzite and zinc blende phases was present at a substrate temperature of 620? C. Ex situ atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy analyses showed that the dot size distribution was bimodal. A thin GaN continuous layer of ? three monolayers thick was observed by transmission electron microscopy on the sample grown at a substrate temperature of 620? C, but no such layer was observed for the substrate temperature of 710? C. This suggests that there is little mobility of Ga atoms in contact with the sapphire substrate at the lower temperature so that they cannot easily diffuse to nearby droplets and instead form a thin layer covering the surface.

  14. A hemispherical Langmuir probe array detector for angular resolved measurements on droplet-based laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gambino, Nadia, E-mail: gambinon@ethz.ch; Brandstätter, Markus; Rollinger, Bob; Abhari, Reza [ETH Zürich, Laboratory for Energy Conversion, Sonneggstrasse 3, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, a new diagnostic tool for laser-produced plasmas (LPPs) is presented. The detector is based on a multiple array of six motorized Langmuir probes. It allows to measure the dynamics of a LPP in terms of charged particles detection with particular attention to droplet-based LPP sources for EUV lithography. The system design permits to temporally resolve the angular and radial plasma charge distribution and to obtain a hemispherical mapping of the ions and electrons around the droplet plasma. The understanding of these dynamics is fundamental to improve the debris mitigation techniques for droplet-based LPP sources. The device has been developed, built, and employed at the Laboratory for Energy Conversion, ETH Zürich. The experimental results have been obtained on the droplet-based LPP source ALPS II. For the first time, 2D mappings of the ion kinetic energy distribution around the droplet plasma have been obtained with an array of multiple Langmuir probes. These measurements show an anisotropic expansion of the ions in terms of kinetic energy and amount of ion charge around the droplet target. First estimations of the plasma density and electron temperature were also obtained from the analysis of the probe current signals.

  15. Using Resonances to Control Chaotic Mixing within a Translating and Rotating Droplet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodolphe Chabreyrie; Dmitri Vainchtein; Cristel Chandre; Pushpendra Singh; Nadine Aubry

    2009-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Enhancing and controlling chaotic advection or chaotic mixing within liquid droplets is crucial for a variety of applications including digital microfluidic devices which use microscopic ``discrete'' fluid volumes (droplets) as microreactors. In this work, we consider the Stokes flow of a translating spherical liquid droplet which we perturb by imposing a time-periodic rigid-body rotation. Using the tools of dynamical systems, we have shown in previous work that the rotation not only leads to one or more three-dimensional chaotic mixing regions, in which mixing occurs through the stretching and folding of material lines, but also offers the possibility of controlling both the size and the location of chaotic mixing within the drop. Such a control was achieved through appropriate tuning of the amplitude and frequency of the rotation in order to use resonances between the natural frequencies of the system and those of the external forcing. In this paper, we study the influence of the orientation of the rotation axis on the chaotic mixing zones as a third parameter, as well as propose an experimental set up to implement the techniques discussed.

  16. Droplet minimizers for the Gates-Lebowitz-Penrose free energy functional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. A. Carlen; M. C. Carvalho; R. Esposito; J. L. Lebowitz; R. Marra

    2009-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the structure of the constrained minimizers of the Gates-Lebowitz-Penrose free-energy functional ${\\mathcal F}_{\\rm GLP}(m)$, non-local functional of a density field $m(x)$, $x\\in {\\mathcal T}_L$, a $d$-dimensional torus of side length $L$. At low temperatures, ${\\mathcal F}_{\\rm GLP}$ is not convex, and has two distinct global minimizers, corresponding to two equilibrium states. Here we constrain the average density $L^{-d}\\int_{{\\cal T}_L}m(x)\\dd x$ to be a fixed value $n$ between the densities in the two equilibrium states, but close to the low density equilibrium value. In this case, a "droplet" of the high density phase may or may not form in a background of the low density phase, depending on the values $n$ and $L$. We determine the critical density for droplet formation, and the nature of the droplet, as a function of $n$ and $L$. The relation between the free energy and the large deviations functional for a particle model with long-range Kac potentials, proven in some cases, and expected to be true in general, then provides information on the structure of typical microscopic configurations of the Gibbs measure when the range of the Kac potential is large enough.

  17. On droplet combustion of biodiesel fuel mixed with diesel/alkanes in microgravity condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Kuo-Long; Li, Je-Wei; Chen, Chien-Pei; Wang, Ching-Hua [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617 (China)

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The burning characteristics of a biodiesel droplet mixed with diesel or alkanes such as dodecane and hexadecane were experimentally studied in a reduced-gravity environment so as to create a spherically symmetrical flame without the influence of natural convection due to buoyancy. Small droplets on the order of 500 {mu}m in diameter were initially injected via a piezoelectric technique onto the cross point intersected by two thin carbon fibers; these were prepared inside a combustion chamber that was housed in a drag shield, which was freely dropped onto a foam cushion. It was found that, for single component droplets, the tendency to form a rigid soot shell was relatively small for biodiesel fuel as compared to that exhibited by the other tested fuels. The soot created drifted away readily, showing a puffing phenomenon; this could be related to the distinct molecular structure of biodiesel leading to unique soot layers that were more vulnerable to oxidative reactivity as compared to the soot generated by diesel or alkanes. The addition of biodiesel to these more traditional fuels also presented better performance with respect to annihilating the soot shell, particularly for diesel. The burning rate generally follows that of multi-component fuels, by some means in terms of a lever rule, whereas the mixture of biodiesel and dodecane exhibits a somewhat nonlinear relation with the added fraction of dodecane. This might be related to the formation of a soot shell. (author)

  18. Photovoltaic solar concentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielson, Gregory N.; Okandan, Murat; Resnick, Paul J.; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis

    2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic solar concentrator is disclosed with one or more transverse-junction solar cells (also termed point contact solar cells) and a lens located above each solar cell to concentrate sunlight onto the solar cell to generate electricity. Piezoelectric actuators tilt or translate each lens to track the sun using a feedback-control circuit which senses the electricity generated by one or more of the solar cells. The piezoelectric actuators can be coupled through a displacement-multiplier linkage to provide an increased range of movement of each lens. Each lens in the solar concentrator can be supported on a frame (also termed a tilt plate) having three legs, with the movement of the legs being controlled by the piezoelectric actuators.

  19. Lasers and Optical Engineering Concentration Technical Electives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schumacher, Russ

    Lasers and Optical Engineering Concentration Technical Electives Course Number Course Title Credits495¹ Independent Study 1-3 n/a F,S,SS ECE503 Ultrafast Optics 3 ECE 342 S ECE504 Physical Optics 3 ECE 353 F ECE506 Optical Interferometry and Laser Metrology ECE 341; ECE 342; ECE 441 F ECE507 Plasma

  20. Sandia National Laboratories: concentrating photovoltaic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    concentrating photovoltaic Sandia and EMCORE: Solar Photovoltaics, Fiber Optics, MODE, and Energy Efficiency On March 29, 2013, in Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Partnership,...

  1. Study of the Effects of Single and Double Droplets Impingement on Surface Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsai, Hsin-Min

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    and impact spacing, the coupled heat transfer-fluid dynamic behavior still is complicated and difficult to understand by considering all the above variables simultaneously. The main mechanisms which drive heat transfer performance in spray cooling... nozzle. Sprays typically consist of a wide , the droplet diameter with the same volume-to g1856g2871g2870 g3404 ? g3041g3284 g3031g3284g3119? g3041g3284 g3031g3284g3118 g1848g2868 g3404 g4674g1848g3047g3048g3029g3032g2870 g3397 g2870?g3017g3096g...

  2. Packaging a liquid metal ESD with micro-scale Mercury droplet.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnard, Casey Anderson

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid metal ESD is being developed to provide electrical switching at different acceleration levels. The metal will act as both proof mass and electric contact. Mercury is chosen to comply with operation parameters. There are many challenges surrounding the deposition and containment of micro scale mercury droplets. Novel methods of micro liquid transfer are developed to deliver controllable amounts of mercury to the appropriate channels in volumes under 1 uL. Issues of hermetic sealing and avoidance of mercury contamination are also addressed.

  3. Dispersion of Cloud Droplet Size Distributions, Cloud Parameterizations and Indirect Aerosol Effects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEA : Papers Subfolders inDiscoveryDispersion of Cloud Droplet

  4. Hyper Space Complex Number

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shanguang Tan

    2007-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A new kind of numbers called Hyper Space Complex Numbers and its algebras are defined and proved. It is with good properties as the classic Complex Numbers, such as expressed in coordinates, triangular and exponent forms and following the associative and commutative laws of addition and multiplication. So the classic Complex Number is developed from in complex plane with two dimensions to in complex space with N dimensions and the number system is enlarged also.

  5. Cell detachment and label-free cell sorting using modulated surface acoustic waves (SAW) in droplet-based microfluidics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bussonnière, Adrien; Baudoin, Michael; Bou-Matar, Olivier; Grandbois, Michel; Charette, Paul; Renaudin, Alan

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a droplet-based surface acoustic wave (SAW) system designed to viably detach biological cells from a surface and sort cell types based on differences in adhesion strength (adhesion contrast), without the need to label cells with molecular markers. The system uses modulated SAW to generate pulsatile flows in the droplets and efficiently detach the cells, thereby minimizing SAW excitation power and exposure time. As a proof-of-principle, the system is shown to efficiently sort HEK 293 from A7r5 cells based on adhesion contrast. Results are obtained in minutes with sorting purity and efficiency reaching 97 % and 95 %, respectively.

  6. High flow rate nozzle system with production of uniform size droplets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stockel, I.H.

    1990-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Method steps for production of substantially uniform size droplets from a flow of liquid include forming the flow of liquid, periodically modulating the momentum of the flow of liquid in the flow direction at controlled frequency, generating a cross flow direction component of momentum and modulation of the cross flow momentum of liquid at substantially the same frequency and phase as the modulation of flow direction momentum, and spraying the so formed modulated flow through a first nozzle outlet to form a desired spray configuration. A second modulated flow through a second nozzle outlet is formed according to the same steps, and the first and second modulated flows impinge upon each other generating a liquid sheet. Nozzle apparatus for modulating each flow includes rotating valving plates interposed in the annular flow of liquid. The plates are formed with radial slots. Rotation of the rotating plates is separably controlled at differential angular velocities for a selected modulating frequency to achieve the target droplet size and production rate for a given flow. The counter rotating plates are spaced to achieve a desired amplitude of modulation in the flow direction, and the angular velocity of the downstream rotating plate is controlled to achieve the desired amplitude of modulation of momentum in the cross flow direction. Amplitude of modulation is set according to liquid viscosity. 5 figs.

  7. High flow rate nozzle system with production of uniform size droplets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stockel, Ivar H. (Bangor, ME)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Method steps for production of substantially uniform size droplets from a flow of liquid include forming the flow of liquid, periodically modulating the momentum of the flow of liquid in the flow direction at controlled frequency, generating a cross flow direction component of momentum and modulation of the cross flow momentum of liquid at substantially the same frequency and phase as the modulation of flow direction momentum, and spraying the so formed modulated flow through a first nozzle outlet to form a desired spray configuration. A second modulated flow through a second nozzle outlet is formed according to the same steps, and the first and second modulated flows impinge upon each other generating a liquid sheet. Nozzle apparatus for modulating each flow includes rotating valving plates interposed in the annular flow of liquid. The plates are formed with radial slots. Rotation of the rotating plates is separably controlled at differential angular velocities for a selected modulating frequency to achieve the target droplet size and production rate for a given flow. The counter rotating plates are spaced to achieve a desired amplitude of modulation in the flow direction, and the angular velocity of the downstream rotating plate is controlled to achieve the desired amplitude of modulation of momentum in the cross flow direction. Amplitude of modulation is set according to liquid viscosity.

  8. Dilution-Free Analysis from Picoliter Droplets by Nano-Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, Ryan T.; Page, Jason S.; Marginean, Ioan; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The expanding role of microfluidics for chemical and biochemical analysis is due to factors including the favorable scaling of separation performance with reduced channel dimensions,[1] flexibility afforded by computer-aided device design, and the ability to integrate multiple sample handling and analysis steps into a single platform.[2] Such devices enable smaller liquid volumes and sample sizes to be handled than can be achieved on the benchtop, where sub-microliter volumes are difficult to work with and where sample losses to the surfaces of multiple reaction vessels become prohibitive. A particularly attractive microfluidic platform for sample-limited analyses employs aqueous droplets or plugs encapsulated by an immiscible oil.[3,4] Each droplet serves as a discrete compartment or reaction chamber enabling, e.g., high throughput screening[5,6] and kinetic studies[7-9] of femto- to nanoliter samples, as well as the encapsulation[10-12] and lysis[10] of individual cells with limited dilution of the cellular contents

  9. Epitaxial GaN films by hyperthermal ion-beam nitridation of Ga droplets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerlach, J. W.; Ivanov, T.; Neumann, L.; Hoeche, Th.; Hirsch, D.; Rauschenbach, B. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung (IOM), D-04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Epitaxial GaN film formation on bare 6H-SiC(0001) substrates via the process of transformation of Ga droplets into a thin GaN film by applying hyperthermal nitrogen ions is investigated. Pre-deposited Ga atoms in well defined amounts form large droplets on the substrate surface which are subsequently nitridated at a substrate temperature of 630 Degree-Sign C by a low-energy nitrogen ion beam from a constricted glow-discharge ion source. The Ga deposition and ion-beam nitridation process steps are monitored in situ by reflection high-energy electron diffraction. Ex situ characterization by x-ray diffraction and reflectivity techniques, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, and electron microscopy shows that the thickness of the resulting GaN films depends on the various amounts of pre-deposited gallium. The films are epitaxial to the substrate, exhibit a mosaic like, smooth surface topography and consist of coalesced large domains of low defect density. Possible transport mechanisms of reactive nitrogen species during hyperthermal nitridation are discussed and the formation of GaN films by an ion-beam assisted process is explained.

  10. Concentric tube support assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubio, Mark F.; Glessner, John C.

    2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An assembly (45) includes a plurality of separate pie-shaped segments (72) forming a disk (70) around a central region (48) for retaining a plurality of tubes (46) in a concentrically spaced apart configuration. Each segment includes a support member (94) radially extending along an upstream face (96) of the segment and a plurality of annularly curved support arms (98) transversely attached to the support member and radially spaced apart from one another away from the central region for receiving respective upstream end portions of the tubes in arc-shaped spaces (100) between the arms. Each segment also includes a radial passageway (102) formed in the support member for receiving a fluid segment portion (106) and a plurality of annular passageways (104) formed in the support arms for receiving respective arm portions (108) of the fluid segment portion from the radial passageway and for conducting the respective arm portions into corresponding annular spaces (47) formed between the tubes retained by the disk.

  11. Miscible droplets in a porous medium and the effects of Korteweg Ching-Yao Chen and Lilin Wang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meiburg, Eckart H.

    the growth of the viscous fingering instability, while simultaneously generating larger stabilizing Korteweg as technological situa- tions ranging from groundwater contamination and enhanced oil recovery to biomedicalARTICLES Miscible droplets in a porous medium and the effects of Korteweg stresses Ching-Yao Chen

  12. Nucleation, transition, and maturing of the self-assembled Au droplets on various type-A GaAs substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Ming-Yu, E-mail: mingyuli.oliver@gmail.com; Sui, Mao; Kim, Eun-Soo [College of Electronics and Information, Kwangwoon University, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jihoon, E-mail: jihoonleenano@gmail.com [College of Electronics and Information, Kwangwoon University, Nowon-gu, Seoul 139-701 (Korea, Republic of); Institute of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas 72701 (United States)

    2014-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, the fabrication of self-assembled Au droplets is successfully demonstrated on various type-A GaAs substrates: (711)A, (511)A, (411)A, and (311)A. The nucleation of the self-assembled tiny Au clusters is observed at 300?°C. As an intermediate stage, corrugated Au nanostructures are clearly observed at 350?°C on various type-A GaAs surfaces, rarely witnessed on other substrates. Based on the Volmer-Weber growth mode, the dome-shaped Au droplets with excellent uniformities are successfully fabricated between 500 and 550?°C. As a function of annealing temperature, the self-assembled Au droplets show the increased dimensions including average height and diameter, compensated by the decreased average density. Depending on the substrate indices utilized, the size and density of Au droplets show clear differences throughout the whole temperature range. The results are symmetrically analyzed by using atomic force microscope images, cross-sectional line-profiles, size and density plots, height distribution histograms, and Fourier filter transform power spectra.

  13. Control of Initiation, Rate, and Routing of Spontaneous Capillary-Driven Flow of Liquid Droplets through Microfluidic Channels on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    angle hysteresis, the presence or absence of a lubricating oil layer, and adsorption of surface between the plates of the SlipChip ("dead-end flow"). Rupture of the lubricating oil layer (reminiscent containing an aqueous droplet into contact with a slightly deeper channel filled with immiscible oil

  14. Reprint from RSC Advances, 4, 14962 (2014) Formation and dynamics of partially wetting droplets in square microchannels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cubaud, Thomas

    are generated by focusing water in a continuous phase of silicone oil using square microchannels. The shape and stability of the lubricating film between droplets and channel walls permit the classification of typical water hydrology,1-3 oil recovery,4-8 water-oil filtration,9-11 and fuel cells.12 Examples of basic flow

  15. Using sharp transitions in contact angle hysteresis to move, deflect, and sort droplets on a superhydrophobic surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothstein, Jonathan

    on a superhydrophobic surface Michael A. Nilsson and Jonathan P. Rothstein Citation: Phys. Fluids 24, 062001 (2012); doi droplets on a superhydrophobic surface Michael A. Nilsson and Jonathan P. Rothsteina) Department by sanding Teflon are used as the microfluidics platform. The superhydrophobic surfaces used in this study

  16. Numerical simulation of bubble and droplet deformation by a level set approach with surface tension in three dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sminchisescu, Cristian

    Numerical simulation of bubble and droplet deformation by a level set approach with surface tension-dimensional Navier­Stokes solver for incompressible two-phase flow problems with surface tension and apply is the impact of surface tension and its discretization on the overall convergence behavior and conservation

  17. Near-Global Survey of Effective Droplet Radii in Liquid Water Clouds Using ISCCP Data 1 . Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Quingyuan

    VOLUME 7 Near-Global Survey of Effective Droplet Radii in Liquid Water Clouds Using ISCCP Data 1 indicate the magnitude ofaerosol effects on clouds. A method, based on a complete radiative transfer model the radiative effects ofwater vapor and clouds and the hydrological cycle, and create several important cloud

  18. 3476 JOURNAL OF CLIMATE VOLUME 16 Sensitivity of the First Indirect Aerosol Effect to an Increase of Cloud Droplet Spectral

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    effect, but this is usually not parameterized in global climate models (GCMs). Empirical), and is usually broken down into two compo- nents. The "first indirect effect" refers to the radiative impact of a decrease in cloud droplet effective radius (re> that is associated with increased N. A decrease

  19. Project Approval Form Concentration in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Bennett

    Project Approval Form Concentration in Nanotechnology Return completed form to ENG Undergraduate of Graduation:____________________________ Instructions: Please check one of the following ways in which you Plan to complete the project as a requirement for the concentration in Nanotechnology. Depending upon

  20. Multispecies weighted Hurwitz numbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harnad, J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The construction of hypergeometric 2D Toda $\\tau$-functions as generating functions for weighted Hurwitz numbers is extended to multispecies families. Both the enumerative geometrical significance of multispecies weighted Hurwitz numbers as weighted enumerations of branched coverings of the Riemann sphere and their combinatorial significance in terms of weighted paths in the Cayley graph of $S_n$ are derived. The particular case of multispecies quantum weighted Hurwitz numbers is studied in detail.

  1. Curvature and Tachibana numbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stepanov, Sergey E [Finance Academy under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this paper is to define the rth Tachibana number t{sub r} of an n-dimensional compact oriented Riemannian manifold as the dimension of the space of conformally Killing r-forms, for r=1,2,...,n-1. We also describe properties of these numbers, by analogy with properties of the Betti numbers b{sub r} of a compact oriented Riemannian manifold. Bibliography: 25 titles.

  2. Charge tuning in [111] grown GaAs droplet quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bouet, L.; Vidal, M.; Marie, X.; Amand, T.; Wang, G.; Urbaszek, B. [INSA-CNRS-UPS, LPCNO, Université de Toulouse, 135 Ave. Rangueil, 31077 Toulouse (France); Mano, T.; Ha, N.; Kuroda, T.; Sakoda, K. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan); Durnev, M. V.; Glazov, M. M.; Ivchenko, E. L. [Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute RAS, 194021 St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2014-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate charge tuning in strain free GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots (QDs) grown by droplet epitaxy on a GaAs(111)A substrate. Application of a bias voltage allows the controlled charging of the QDs from ?3|e| to +2|e|. The resulting changes in QD emission energy and exciton fine-structure are recorded in micro-photoluminescence experiments at T?=?4?K. We uncover the existence of excited valence and conduction states, in addition to the s-shell-like ground state. We record a second series of emission lines about 25?meV above the charged exciton emission coming from excited charged excitons. For these excited interband transitions, a negative diamagnetic shift of large amplitude is uncovered in longitudinal magnetic fields.

  3. Liquid-Droplet as a model for the rotation curve problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Darabi

    2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamics of large scale gravitational structures like galaxies, local groups and clusters is studied based on the so-called {\\it Liquid-Droplet} model describing the saturation property of the nuclear force. Using the assumption that the gravitational force is also saturated over large scale structures, it is argued that the Newtonian gravitational potential may be replaced by an effective {\\it Machian} gravitational potential. Application of this new potential at these large scale structures may give the rotation curves in good agreement with observations. Then, the virial theorem for this kind of gravitational interaction is developed and also the Tully-Fisher relation is obtained. A physical explanation is given for the so-called {\\it constant} acceleration in the MOND as the {\\it effective} gravitational strength of these structures. Finally, a brief argument is given for comparison with dark matter models.

  4. Searching for universal behaviour in superheated droplet detector with effective recoil nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Mala

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy calibration of superheated droplet detector is discussed in terms of the effective recoil nucleus threshold energy and the reduced superheat. This provides a universal energy calibration curve valid for different liquids used in this type of detector. Two widely used liquids, R114 and C4F10, one for neutron detection and the other for WIMPs dark matter search experiment, have been compared. Liquid having recoil nuclei with larger values of LET provides better neutron and gamma discrimination. Gamma response of C4F10 has also been studied and the results are discussed. Behaviour of nucleation parameter with the effective recoil nucleus threshold energy and the reduced superheat have been explored.

  5. Modeled atmospheric radon concentrations from uranium mines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Droppo, J.G.

    1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium mining and milling operations result in the release of radon from numerous sources of various types and strengths. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Clean Air Act, is assessing the health impact of air emissions of radon from underground uranium mines. In this case, the radon emissions may impact workers and residents in the mine vicinity. To aid in this assessment, the EPA needs to know how mine releases can affect the radon concentrations at populated locations. To obtain this type of information, Pacific Northwest Laboratory used the radon emissions, release characteristics and local meterological conditions for a number of mines to model incremental radon concentrations. Long-term, average, incremental radon concentrations were computed based on the best available information on release rates, plume rise parameters, number and locations of vents, and local dispersion climatology. Calculations are made for a model mine, individual mines, and multiple mines. Our approach was to start with a general case and then consider specific cases for comparison. A model underground uranium mine was used to provide definition of the order of magnitude of typical impacts. Then computations were made for specific mines using the best mine-specific information available for each mine. These case study results are expressed as predicted incremental radon concentration contours plotted on maps with local population data from a previous study. Finally, the effect of possible overlap of radon releases from nearby mines was studied by calculating cumulative radon concentrations for multiple mines in a region with many mines. The dispersion model, modeling assumptions, data sources, computational procedures, and results are documented in this report. 7 refs., 27 figs., 18 tabs.

  6. Definitions Numbered Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Behmer, Spencer T.

    Definitions · Numbered Space ­ a single space marked with a number and reserved for a single permit 24/7 · Unnumbered Space ­ a space which can be used by any customer allowed to park in that lot. High Low Average Question 4: If I buy a staff permit for an UNNUMBERED* space in a non-gated surface

  7. High Aitken Nucleus Concentrations Above Cloud Tops in the Arctic Timothy J. Garrett*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    cavity by passing the air flow through a cyclone separator. The separator removes droplets larger than 5

  8. This journal is The Royal Society of Chemistry [year] [journal], [year], [vol], 0000 | 1 Droplet mobility on lubricant-impregnated surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , the surrounding gas, and the liquid that needs to be shed ­ referred hereafter for simplicity as oil, airThis journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry [year] [journal], [year], [vol], 00­00 | 1 Droplet

  9. The herbicidal effectiveness of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid and 2,3,6,-trichlorobenzoic acid on beans as influenced by relative humidity and droplet size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morgan, Page Wesley

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE HERBICIDAL EFFECTIVENESS OF 2, 4-DICHLOROPHENOXYACETIC ACID AND 2, 3, 6-TRICHLOROBENZOIC ACID ON BEANS AS INFLUENCED BY RELATIVE HUMIDITY AND DROPLET SIZE By PAGE WESLEY MORGAN A Thesis Submitted to the Graduate School... TRICHLOROBENZO IC AC ID ON BEANS AS INFLUENCED BY RELATIVE HUMIDITY AND DROPLET SIZE A Thesis By PAGE WESLEY MORGAN Approved as to style and content by: / (Chairman of Commi ee) (Head of Dep e January, 1958 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT S With deepest appreciation...

  10. Electrowetting on liquid-infused film (EWOLF): Complete reversibility and controlled droplet oscillation suppression for fast optical imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hao, Chonglei; Chen, Xuemei; He, Yuncheng; Li, Qiusheng; Li, K Y; Wang, Zuankai

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD) has emerged as a powerful tool to electrically manipulate tiny individual droplets in a controlled manner. Despite tremendous progress over the past two decades, current EWOD operating in ambient conditions has limited functionalities posing challenges for its applications, including electronic display, energy generation, and microfluidic systems. Here, we demonstrate a new paradigm of electrowetting on liquid-infused film (EWOLF) that allows for complete reversibility and tunable transient response simultaneously. We determine that these functionalities in EWOLF are attributed to its novel configuration, which allows for the formation of viscous liquid-liquid interfaces as well as additional wetting ridges, thereby suppressing the contact line pinning and severe droplet oscillation encountered in the conventional EWOD. Finally, by harnessing these functionalities demonstrated in EWOLF, we also explore its application as liquid lens for fast optical focusing.

  11. Process for concentrated biomass saccharification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hennessey, Susan M. (Avondale, PA); Seapan, Mayis (Landenberg, PA); Elander, Richard T. (Evergreen, CO); Tucker, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO)

    2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Processes for saccharification of pretreated biomass to obtain high concentrations of fermentable sugars are provided. Specifically, a process was developed that uses a fed batch approach with particle size reduction to provide a high dry weight of biomass content enzymatic saccharification reaction, which produces a high sugars concentration hydrolysate, using a low cost reactor system.

  12. Declaration of Concentration in Nanotechnology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Bennett

    Declaration of Concentration in Nanotechnology Return completed form to ENG Undergraduate Records:____________________________ Instructions: ENG students declaring a Concentration in Nanotechnology should complete this form, obtain REQUIRED COURSES (Choose 1) 1. ENG EC 481­ Fundamentals of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology 4.0 ELECTIVES

  13. Report number codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, R.N. (ed.)

    1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

  14. Splashing phenomena of room temperature liquid metal droplet striking on the pool of the same liquid under ambient air environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haiyan Li; Shengfu Mei; Lei Wang; Yunxia Gao; Jing Liu

    2013-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article, the fluid dynamics of room temperature liquid metal (RTLM) droplet impacting onto a pool of the same liquid in ambient air was investigated. A series of experiments were conducted in order to disclose the influence of the oxidation effect on the impact dynamics. The droplet shape and impact phenomenology were recorded with the aid of a high-speed digital camera. The impact energy stored in the splash structures was estimated via a theoretical model and several morphological parameters obtained from instantaneous images of the splash. It was observed that the droplet shape and the splashing morphology of RTLM were drastically different from those of water, so was the impact dynamics between room temperature LM pool and high temperature LM pool. The energy analysis disclosed that the height of the jet is highly sensitive to the viscosity of the fluid, which is subjected to the oxidation effect and temperature effect simultaneously, and thus perfectly explained the phenomena. These basic findings are important for the application of RTLM in a series of newly emerging technologies such as liquid metal based spray cooling, ink-jet printed electronics, interface material painting and coating, metallurgy, and 3D packages, etc.

  15. Automated micro-tracking planar solar concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hallas, Justin Matthew

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    E. Ford, “Reactive self-tracking solar concentration: designFord, “Reactive self- tracking solar concentration: designAutomated Micro-Tracking Planar Solar Concentrators by

  16. A number of organizations,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    installed solar electric systems on a number of the city's buildings, including the Chicago Center for Green Technology shown here. CityofChicago Aggregated Purchasing--A Clean Energy Strategy SOLAR TODAY Aggregated Purchasing--A Clean Energy Strategy by Lori A. Bird and Edward A. Holt #12;November/December 2002 35 Power

  17. Development of a prototype lignin concentration sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malito, M.L.; Jeffers, L.A.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, is sponsoring a research and development program for the development of a real-time, in-situ sensor to measure the concentration of lignin in wood pulp. The program is composed of phase I showing feasibility which is now complete, phase II for development and testing of a Field Prototype, in progress, Phase III commercialization. Phase I work (funded entirely by B W) demonstrated a correlation between the fluorescence intensity and lignin concentration (as measured by TAPPI procedure, T 236 hm-85 Kappa Number of Pulp) for undiluted wood pulp samples. In Phase II, a laboratory test program directed at characterizing the fluorescence of wood pulp has been conducted as a prelude to the design of a prototype sensor. The current report summarizes the testing completed in Phase I and documents the Phase II laboratory testing completed through December 1991. Future Phase II efforts include additional laboratory testing, design and fabrication of a prototype sensor, and field testing of the prototype sensor. Phase III of the program will concentrate on the incorporation of the sensor into a control system and commercialization of the sensor.

  18. Development of a prototype lignin concentration sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malito, M.L.; Jeffers, L.A.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, is sponsoring a research and development program for the development of a real-time, in-situ sensor to measure the concentration of lignin in wood pulp. The program is composed of phase I showing feasibility which is now complete, phase II for development and testing of a Field Prototype, in progress, Phase III commercialization. Phase I work (funded entirely by B&W) demonstrated a correlation between the fluorescence intensity and lignin concentration (as measured by TAPPI procedure, T 236 hm-85 Kappa Number of Pulp) for undiluted wood pulp samples. In Phase II, a laboratory test program directed at characterizing the fluorescence of wood pulp has been conducted as a prelude to the design of a prototype sensor. The current report summarizes the testing completed in Phase I and documents the Phase II laboratory testing completed through December 1991. Future Phase II efforts include additional laboratory testing, design and fabrication of a prototype sensor, and field testing of the prototype sensor. Phase III of the program will concentrate on the incorporation of the sensor into a control system and commercialization of the sensor.

  19. Biomedical Ethics and Medical Humanities Scholarly Concentration Concentrator's Update Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ford, James

    : Email: Today's Date: Year of Matriculation: Planned Year of Graduation: Planned concurrent degrees with MD and institution/dept: Current post-graduation plans: I am doing the (underline one) Original, number of units each BEMH project Funded by Med Scholar's Grant? Y / N If Y, number of quarter

  20. Design of inflatable solar concentrator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carrasquillo, Omar (Omar Y. Carrasquillo De Armas)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar concentrators improve the performance of solar collection systems by increasing the amount of usable energy available for a given collector size. Unfortunately, they are not known for their light weight and portability, ...

  1. Energy 101: Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    From towers to dishes to linear mirrors to troughs, concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies reflect and collect solar heat to generate electricity. A single CSP plant can generate enough power...

  2. Physics and Astronomy Geophysics Concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thaxton, Christopher S.

    Physics and Astronomy Geophysics Concentration Strongly recommended courses Credits Term Dept. to Geophysics 3 PHY 3230 Thermal Physics 3 CHE 1101 Introductory Chemistry - I 3 CHE 1110 Introductory Chemistry

  3. Optimal concentrations in transport systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Wonjung

    Many biological and man-made systems rely on transport systems for the distribution of material, for example matter and energy. Material transfer in these systems is determined by the flow rate and the concentration of ...

  4. Reversible concentric ring microfluidic interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn, 1980-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A reversible, Chip-to-Chip microfluidic interconnect was designed for use in high temperature, high pressure applications such as chemical microreactor systems. The interconnect uses two sets of concentric, interlocking ...

  5. Optimal concentrations in nectar feeding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Wonjung

    Nectar drinkers must feed quickly and efficiently due to the threat of predation. While the sweetest nectar offers the greatest energetic rewards, the sharp increase of viscosity with sugar concentration makes it the most ...

  6. Concentrated solar power on demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Codd, Daniel Shawn

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes a new concentrating solar power central receiver system with integral thermal storage. Hillside mounted heliostats direct sunlight into a volumetric absorption molten salt pool, which also functions ...

  7. Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently Leveraging Equilibrium...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently Leveraging Equilibrium Mechanisms for Engineering New Thermochemical Storage Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently Leveraging Equilibrium...

  8. NSR Key Number Retrieval

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated CodesTransparency VisitSilver Toyota PriusNSR Key Number Retrieval Pease

  9. Energy 101: Concentrating Solar Power

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    From towers to dishes to linear mirrors to troughs, concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies reflect and collect solar heat to generate electricity. A single CSP plant can generate enough power for about 90,000 homes. This video explains what CSP is, how it works, and how systems like parabolic troughs produce renewable power. For more information on the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's CSP research, see the Solar Energy Technology Program's Concentrating Solar Power Web page at http://www1.eere.energy.gov/solar/csp_program.html.

  10. Grant Application Package CFDA Number

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Talley, Lynne D.

    Grant Application Package CFDA Number: Opportunity Title: Offering Agency: Agency Contact: Opportunity Open Date: Opportunity Close Date: CFDA Description: Opportunity Number: Competition ID

  11. Grant Title: KNOWLEDGE DISSEMINATION CONFERENCE GRANTS PROGRAM ANNOUNCEMENT Funding Opportunity Number: CFDA Number(s) -93.243; Funding Opportunity Number -OA-08-002.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farritor, Shane

    Number: CFDA Number(s) - 93.243; Funding Opportunity Number - OA-08-002. Agency/Department: Department

  12. Modeling the impact of sea-spray on particle concentrations in a coastal city

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pryor, S C; Barthelmie, R J; Schoof, J T; Binkowski, F S; Monache, L D; Stull, R B

    2006-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An atmospheric chemistry-transport model is used to assess the impacts of sea-spray chemistry on the particle composition in and downwind of a coastal city--Vancouver, British Columbia. Reactions in/on sea-spray affect the entire particle ensemble and particularly the size distribution of particle nitrate. Urban air quality, and particularly airborne particles, is a major concern in terms of human health impacts. Sea-spray is known to be a major component of the particle ensemble at coastal sites yet relatively few air quality models include the interaction of gases with sea-spray and the fate of the particles produced. Sea-spray is not an inert addition to the particle ensemble because heterogeneous chemistry in/on sea-spray droplets changes the droplets composition and the particle size distribution, which impacts deposition and the ion balance in different particle size fractions. It is shown that the ISOPART model is capable of simulating gas and particle concentrations in the coastal metropolis of Vancouver and the surrounding valley. It is also demonstrated that to accurately simulate ambient concentrations of particles and reactive/soluble gases in a coastal valley it is absolutely critical to include heterogeneous chemistry in/on sea-spray. Partitioning of total particle-NO{sub 3}{sup -} between sea-spray and NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} is highly sensitive to the amount of sea-spray present, and hence the initial vertical profile, sea-spray source functions [48] and the wind speed. When a fixed wind speed is used to initialize the sea-spray vertical profiles, as expected, the sea-spray concentration decays with distance inland, but the particle-NO{sub 3}{sup -} concentration decays more slowly because it is also a function of the uptake rate for HNO{sub 3}. The simulation results imply model analyses of air quality in coastal cities conducted without inclusion of sea-spray interactions may yield highly misleading results in terms of emission sensitivities of the PM size distribution. The sensitivity of the model results to the initial sea spray profile further suggests there would be great benefit in better definition of the vertical profile of size resolved sea-spray for use in such model studies.

  13. Development of concentrator solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A limited pilot production run on PESC silicon solar cells for use at high concentrations (200 to 400 suns) is summarized. The front contact design of the cells was modified for operation without prismatic covers. The original objective of the contract was to systematically complete a process consolidation phase, in which all the, process improvements developed during the contract would be combined in a pilot production run. This pilot run was going to provide, a basis for estimating cell costs when produced at high throughput. Because of DOE funding limitations, the Photovoltaic Concentrator Initiative is on hold, and Applied Solar`s contract was operated at a low level of effort for most of 1993. The results obtained from the reduced scope pilot run showed the effects of discontinuous process optimization and characterization. However, the run provided valuable insight into the technical areas that can be optimized to achieve the original goals of the contract.

  14. Experiential Component Approval Form Concentration in Nanotechnology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldberg, Bennett

    Experiential Component Approval Form Concentration in Nanotechnology Return completed form to ENG Plan to complete the experiential component as a requirement for the concentration in Nanotechnology to complete the experiential component for the Nanotechnology Concentration by: Research Experience in Lab

  15. A high-speed beam of lithium droplets for collecting diverted energy and particles in ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Werley, K.A.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-speed (160m/s) beam (0.14 {times} 0.86m) of liquid-lithium droplets passing through the divertor region(s) below (and above) the main plasma has the potential to replace and out-perform conventional'' solid divertor plates in both heat and particle removal. In addition to superior heat-collection properties, the lithium beam would: remove impurities; require low power to circulate the lithium; exhibit low-recycle divertor operation compatible with lower-hybrid current drive, H-mode plasma confinement, and no flow reversal in the edge plasma; be insensitive to plasma shifts; and finally protect solid structures from the plasma thermal energy for those disruptions that deposit energy preferentially into the divertor while simultaneously being rapidly re-established after a major disruption. Scoping calculations identifying the beam configuration and the droplet dynamics, including formation, MHD effects, gravitational effects, thermal response and hydrodynamics, are presented. Limitations and uncertainties are also discussed. 20 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. The concrete theory of numbers: initial numbers and wonderful properties of numbers repunit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boris V. Tarasov

    2007-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work initial numbers and repunit numbers have been studied. All numbers have been considered in a decimal notation. The problem of simplicity of initial numbers has been studied. Interesting properties of numbers repunit are proved: $gcd(R_a, R_b) = R_{gcd(a,b)}$; $R_{ab}/(R_aR_b)$ is an integer only if $gcd(a,b) = 1$, where $a\\geq1$, $b\\geq1$ are integers. Dividers of numbers repunit, are researched by a degree of prime number.

  17. Automated micro-tracking planar solar concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hallas, Justin Matthew

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    System from Concentrix Solar," in Concentrator Photovoltaics,CPV systems that use arrays of optics and photovoltaics,system so that arrays of paired concentrators and photovoltaics

  18. Energy Secretary Moniz Dedicates World's Largest Concentrating...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Dedicates World's Largest Concentrating Solar Power Project Energy Secretary Moniz Dedicates World's Largest Concentrating Solar Power Project February 13, 2014 - 5:00am Addthis...

  19. Automated micro-tracking planar solar concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hallas, Justin Matthew

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar," in Concentrator Photovoltaics, A.L. Luque, and V.M.in concentrating photovoltaics using laterally movingUsing optics to boost photovoltaics,” Optics and Photonics

  20. Concentrating Solar Power Resources and Technologies | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Concentrating Solar Power Resources and Technologies Concentrating Solar Power Resources and Technologies Photo of a CSP dish glistening in the sun. Multiple solar mirrors reflect...

  1. Sandia National Laboratories: Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Concentrating Solar Power National Solar Thermal Testing Facility Beam Profiling On November 2, 2012, in Concentrating Solar Power, News, Renewable Energy, Solar On Thursday, June...

  2. Sandia National Laboratories: multiscale concentrated solar power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    concentrated solar power Solar Energy Research Institute for India and the United States Kick-Off On November 27, 2012, in Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, National Solar Thermal...

  3. Sandia National Laboratories: Concentrating Solar Power Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Concentrating Solar Power Systems Air Force Research Laboratory Testing On November 2, 2012, in Concentrating Solar Power, Facilities, National Solar Thermal Test Facility, News,...

  4. Sandia National Laboratories: Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Concentrating Solar Power Sandia Wins Funding for High-Temperature Falling-Particle Solar-Energy Receiver On August 8, 2012, in Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Facilities,...

  5. Effect of droplet size on the behavior and characteristics of emulsified acid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Almutairi, Saleh Haif

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Emulsified acids have been extensively used in the oil industry since 1933. Most of the available research and publications discussed mainly the application of emulsified acid in the field. A fair number of the published work also discussed in depth...

  6. Mixing and internal dynamics of droplets impacting and coalescing on a solid surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castrejón-Pita, J. R.; Kubiak, K. J.; Castrejón-Pita, A. A.; Wilson, M. C. T.; Hutchings, I. M.

    2013-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    on the Reynolds and Weber numbers, relevant to microfluidics and commercial inkjet printing. Experimental measurements of advancing and receding static contact angles are used to calibrate a contact angle hysteresis model within a lattice Boltzmann framework...

  7. Bayesian Prediction of Mean Indoor Radon Concentrations for Minnesota Counties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, P.N.; Nero, A.V.; Gelman, A.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Past efforts to identify areas having higher than average indoor radon concentrations by examining the statistical relationship between local mean concentrations and physical parameters such as the soil radium concentration have been hampered by the noise in local means caused by the small number of homes monitored in some or most areas, In the present paper, indoor radon data from a survey in Minnesota are analyzed in such a way as to minimize the effect of finite sample size within counties, in order to determine the true county-to-county variation of indoor radon concentrations in the state and the extent to which this variation is explained by the variation in surficial radium concentration among counties, The analysis uses hierarchical modeling, in which some parameters of interest (such as county geometric mean (GM) radon concentrations) are assumed to be drawn from a single population, for which the distributional parameters are estimated from the data. Extensions of this technique, known as a random effects regression and mixed effects regression, are used to determine the relationship between predictive variables and indoor radon concentrations; the results are used to refine the predictions of each county's radon levels, resulting in a great decrease in uncertainty. The true county-to-county variation of GM radon levels is found to be substantially less than the county-to-county variation of the observed GMs, much of which is due to the small sample size in each county. The variation in the logarithm of surficial radium content is shown to explain approximately 80% of the variation of the logarithm of GM radon concentration among counties. The influences of housing and measurement factors, such as whether the monitored home has a basement and whether the measurement was made in a basement, are also discussed. This approach offers a self-consistent statistical method for predicting the mean values of indoor radon concentrations or other geographically distributed environmental parameters.

  8. Concentrator Optics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovationinConcentrating Solar Power Basics (The following text

  9. Data Compression with Prime Numbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon Chalmers

    2005-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A compression algorithm is presented that uses the set of prime numbers. Sequences of numbers are correlated with the prime numbers, and labeled with the integers. The algorithm can be iterated on data sets, generating factors of doubles on the compression.

  10. In-flight thermal control of molten metal droplet streams B. Matthew Michaelis *, Derek Dunn-Rankin, Robert F. Smith Jr., James E. Bobrow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bobrow, James E.

    -Rankin, Robert F. Smith Jr., James E. Bobrow Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University could be controlled by super- heating the reservoir of molten metal but many metal alloys have for desired droplet arrival temperature. This ``holding" temperature varies for each alloy as a result

  11. Optically trapped aqueous droplets for single molecule studies J. E. Reiner, A. M. Crawford, R. B. Kishore, Lori S. Goldner, and K. Helmersona

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldner, Lori S.

    -of-refraction fluorocarbon medium. The index-of-refraction mismatch between the container and fluorocarbon, individual manipula- tion, and application of femtoliter aqueous droplets in an immiscible fluorocarbon and the matrix fluorocarbon. Encapsulation in liposomes re- quires the lipid membrane to surround the analyte

  12. Interfacial temperature measurements, high-speed visualization and finite-element simulations of droplet impact and evaporation on a solid surface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhardwaj, Rajneesh; Attinger, Daniel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to investigate the coupling of fluid dynamics, heat transfer and mass transfer during the impact and evaporation of droplets on a heated solid substrate. A laser-based thermoreflectance method is used to measure the temperature at the solid-liquid interface, with a time and space resolution of 100 {\\mu}s and 20 {\\mu}m, respectively. Isopropanol droplets with micro- and nanoliter volumes are considered. A finite-element model is used to simulate the transient fluid dynamics and heat transfer during the droplet deposition process, considering the dynamics of wetting as well as Laplace and Marangoni stresses on the liquid-gas boundary. For cases involving evaporation, the diffusion of vapor in the atmosphere is solved numerically, providing an exact boundary condition for the evaporative flux at the droplet-air interface. High-speed visualizations are performed to provide matching parameters for the wetting model used in the simulations. Numerical and experimental results are compar...

  13. A representative particle approach to coagulation and fragmentation of dust aggregates and fluid droplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Zsom; C. P. Dullemond

    2008-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Context: There is increasing need for good algorithms for modeling the aggregation and fragmentation of solid particles (dust grains, dust aggregates, boulders) in various astrophysical settings, including protoplanetary disks, planetary- and sub-stellar atmospheres and dense molecular cloud cores. Here we describe a new algorithm that combines advantages of various standard methods into one. Aims: The aim is to develop a method that 1) can solve for aggregation and fragmentation, 2) can easily include the effect and evolution of grain properties such as compactness, composition, etc., and 3) can be built as a coagulation/fragmentation module into a hydrodynamics simulations. Methods: We develop a Monte-Carlo method in which we follow the 'life' of a limited number of representative particles. Each of these particles is associated with a certain fraction of the total dust mass and thereby represents a large number of true particles which all are assumed to have the same properties as their representative particle. Under the assumption that the total number of true particles vastly exceeds the number of representative particles, the chance of a representative particle colliding with another representative particle is negligibly small, and we therefore ignore this possibility. This now makes it possible to employ a statistical approach to the evolution of the representative particles. Results: The method reproduces the known analytic solutions of simplified coagulation kernels, and compares well to numerical results for Brownian motion using other methods. For reasonably well-behaved kernels it produces good results even for moderate number of swarms.

  14. The Rheology of Concentrated Suspensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreas Acrivos

    2004-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Research program on the rheological properties of flowing suspensions. The primary purpose of the research supported by this grant was to study the flow characteristics of concentrated suspensions of non-colloidal solid particles and thereby construct a comprehensive and robust theoretical framework for modeling such systems quantitatively. At first glance, this seemed like a modest goal, not difficult to achieve, given that such suspensions were viewed simply as Newtonian fluids with an effective viscosity equal to the product of the viscosity of the suspending fluid times a function of the particle volume fraction. But thanks to the research findings of the Principal Investigator and of his Associates, made possible by the steady and continuous support which the PI received from the DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences, the subject is now seen to be more complicated and therefore much more interesting in that concentrated suspensions have been shown to exhibit fascinating and unique rheological properties of their own that have no counterpart in flowing Newtonian or even non-Newtonian (polymeric) fluids. In fact, it is generally acknowledged that, as the result of these investigations for which the PI received the 2001 National Medal of Science, our understanding of how suspensions behave under flow is far more detailed and comprehensive than was the case even as recently as a decade ago. Thus, given that the flow of suspensions plays a crucial role in many diverse physical processes, our work has had a major and lasting impact in a subject having both fundamental as well as practical importance.

  15. Cost effective manufacturing of the SEA 10X concentrator array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaminar, N.; McEntee, J.; Curchod, D. (Solar Engineering Applications Corp., San Jose, CA (United States))

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a low-cost, mass-producible 10X concentrator system that has been claimed to produce electricity at $0.04/kWh. It details changes in manufacturing techniques that could produce a concentrator system at a selling price of $0.71/W. (A simple design and a minimum number of parts and manufacturing steps reduced production costs.) Present production techniques, changes to improve these techniques, impediments to changes, and solutions to the impediments are described. This 10X concentrator system uses available components and manufacturing processes and one-sun solar cells in conjunction with inexpensive plastic lenses to generate about eight times the amount of electricity normally produced by these cells.

  16. Atomized Spraying of Liquid Metal Droplets on Desired Substrate Surfaces as a Generalized Way for Ubiquitous Printed Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Qin; Liu, Jing

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A direct electronics printing technique through atomized spraying for patterning room temperature liquid metal droplets on desired substrate surfaces is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for the first time. This method has generalized purpose and is highly flexible and capable of fabricating electronic components on any desired target objects, with either flat or rough surfaces, made of different materials, or different orientations from 1-D to 3-D geometrical configurations. With a pre-designed mask, the liquid metal ink can be directly deposited on the substrate to form various specific patterns which lead to the rapid prototyping of electronic devices. Further, extended printing strategies were also suggested to illustrate the adaptability of the method such that the natural porous structure can be adopted to offer an alternative way of making transparent conductive film with an optical transmittance of 47% and a sheet resistance of 5.167{\\Omega}/O. Different from the former direct writing technolog...

  17. Tuning the plasmon energy of Palladium-Hydrogen systems by varying the Hydrogen concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muiño, Ricardo Díez

    Tuning the plasmon energy of Palladium-Hydrogen systems by varying the Hydrogen concentration V M of the resonance energy on the hydrogen concentration is roughly similar to that in bulk. PACS numbers: 71.20.Be on hydrogen uptake used in Reference [8] seems well grounded [10], there is no theoretical support for its

  18. Production of fullerenes using concentrated solar flux

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fields, Clark L. (Greeley, CO); Pitts, John Roland (Lakewood, CO); King, David E. (Lakewood, CO); Hale, Mary Jane (Golden, CO); Bingham, Carl E. (Denver, CO); Lewandowski, Allan A. (Evergreen, CO)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of producing soot containing high amounts of fullerenes comprising: providing a primary concentrator capable of impingement of a concentrated beam of sunlight onto a carbon source to cause vaporization of carbon and subsequent formation of fullerenes, or providing a solar furnace having a primary concentrator with a focal point that concentrates a solar beam of sunlight; providing a reflective secondary concentrator having an entrance aperture and an exit aperture at the focal point of the solar furnace; providing a carbon source at the exit aperture of the secondary concentrator; supplying an inert gas over the carbon source to keep the secondary concentrator free from vaporized carbon; and impinging a concentrated beam of sunlight from the secondary concentrator on the carbon source to vaporize the carbon source into a soot containing high amounts of fullerenes.

  19. Direct numerical simulation and subgrid analysis of a transitional droplet laden mixing layer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Richard S.

    106 grid points are used to discretize the Eulerian gas phase equations and up to 5.7 106 initially intensities when a filter width-dependent model constant is used. The subgrid fluctuation variances acting. For these flows, large numbers ( 105 106 ) of individual dispersed particles are tracked in the Lagrangian

  20. Renormalized energy concentration in random matrices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexei Borodin; Sylvia Serfaty

    2012-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We define a "renormalized energy" as an explicit functional on arbitrary point configurations of constant average density in the plane and on the real line. The definition is inspired by ideas of [SS1,SS3]. Roughly speaking, it is obtained by subtracting two leading terms from the Coulomb potential on a growing number of charges. The functional is expected to be a good measure of disorder of a configuration of points. We give certain formulas for its expectation for general stationary random point processes. For the random matrix $\\beta$-sine processes on the real line (beta=1,2,4), and Ginibre point process and zeros of Gaussian analytic functions process in the plane, we compute the expectation explicitly. Moreover, we prove that for these processes the variance of the renormalized energy vanishes, which shows concentration near the expected value. We also prove that the beta=2 sine process minimizes the renormalized energy in the class of determinantal point processes with translation invariant correlation kernels.

  1. Compendium of Experimental Cetane Numbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanowitz, J.; Ratcliff, M. A.; McCormick, R. L.; Taylor, J. D.; Murphy, M. J.

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is an updated version of the 2004 Compendium of Experimental Cetane Number Data and presents a compilation of measured cetane numbers for pure chemical compounds. It includes all available single compound cetane number data found in the scientific literature up until March 2014 as well as a number of unpublished values, most measured over the past decade at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This Compendium contains cetane values for 389 pure compounds, including 189 hydrocarbons and 201 oxygenates. More than 250 individual measurements are new to this version of the Compendium. For many compounds, numerous measurements are included, often collected by different researchers using different methods. Cetane number is a relative ranking of a fuel's autoignition characteristics for use in compression ignition engines; it is based on the amount of time between fuel injection and ignition, also known as ignition delay. The cetane number is typically measured either in a single-cylinder engine or a constant volume combustion chamber. Values in the previous Compendium derived from octane numbers have been removed, and replaced with a brief analysis of the correlation between cetane numbers and octane numbers. The discussion on the accuracy and precision of the most commonly used methods for measuring cetane has been expanded and the data has been annotated extensively to provide additional information that will help the reader judge the relative reliability of individual results.

  2. Planar photovoltaic solar concentrator module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Clement J. (New Brunswick, NJ)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor.

  3. Planar photovoltaic solar concentrator module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, C.J.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A planar photovoltaic concentrator module for producing an electrical signal from incident solar radiation includes an electrically insulating housing having a front wall, an opposing back wall and a hollow interior. A solar cell having electrical terminals is positioned within the interior of the housing. A planar conductor is connected with a terminal of the solar cell of the same polarity. A lens forming the front wall of the housing is operable to direct solar radiation incident to the lens into the interior of the housing. A refractive optical element in contact with the solar cell and facing the lens receives the solar radiation directed into the interior of the housing by the lens and directs the solar radiation to the solar cell to cause the solar cell to generate an electrical signal. An electrically conductive planar member is positioned in the housing to rest on the housing back wall in supporting relation with the solar cell terminal of opposite polarity. The planar member is operable to dissipate heat radiated by the solar cell as the solar cell generates an electrical signal and further forms a solar cell conductor connected with the solar cell terminal to permit the electrical signal generated by the solar cell to be measured between the planar member and the conductor. 5 figs.

  4. Concentrating Solar Power (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) offers a utility-scale, firm, dispatchable renewable energy option that can help meet the nation's goal of making solar energy cost competitive with other energy sources by the end of the decade. The DOE SunShot Initiative is a collaborative national initiative to make solar energy technologies cost-competitive with other forms of energy by reducing the cost of solar energy systems by about 75% by the end of the decade. Reducing the total installed cost for utility-scale solar electricity to roughly 6 cents per kilowatt hour without subsidies will result in rapid, large-scale adoption of solar electricity across the United States. Reaching this goal will re-establish American technological leadership, improve the nation's energy security, and strengthen U.S. economic competitiveness in the global clean energy race. SunShot will work to bring down the full cost of solar - including the costs of solar cells and installation by focusing on four main pillars: (1) Technologies for solar cells and arrays that convert sunlight to energy; (2) Electronics that optimize the performance of the installation; (3) Improvements in the efficiency of solar manufacturing processes; and (4) Installation, design, and permitting for solar energy systems.

  5. Modelling the settling of suspended sediments for concentrations close to the gelling concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Modelling the settling of suspended sediments for concentrations close to the gelling concentration the sedimentation phase. In the case of cohesive sediments, the estimation of the gelling concentration, although and consolidation behaviour for concentrations close to the gelling concentration. Key words: sedimentation

  6. Number

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA groupTuba City, Arizona, DisposalFourthN V O 1 8 7 +New York, New

  7. Modeling of concentrating solar thermoelectric generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifeng

    The conversion of solar power into electricity is dominated by non-concentrating photovoltaics and concentrating solar thermal systems. Recently, it has been shown that solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) are a viable ...

  8. Quantifying nonstationary radioactivity concentration fluctuations near Chernobyl: A complete statistical description

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shlyakhter, Ilya

    Quantifying nonstationary radioactivity concentration fluctuations near Chernobyl: A complete fluctuations measured near Chernobyl after the 1986 disaster and find three new results: #i# the histogram patterns. PACS number#s#: 89.60.#x, 02.50.Fz, 05.45.Tp, 87.66.Na I. INTRODUCTION Chernobyl's No. 4 reactor

  9. Brookhaven National Laboratory Number: Revision

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohta, Shigemi

    Brookhaven National Laboratory Number: Revision: PS-ESH-0057 01 Effective: Page 1 of 9 06 Chris Weilandics Signature on file Department ES&H Approval printed name Signature Date Lori Stiegler Signature on file #12;Number: PS-ESH-0057 Revision: 01 Effective: 06/08/12 Page 2 of 9 The only official

  10. Summary of Dissolved Concentration Limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yueting Chen

    2001-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    According to the Technical Work Plan titled Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR (CRWMS M&O 2000a), the purpose of this study is to perform abstractions on solubility limits of radioactive elements based on the process-level information and thermodynamic databases provided by Natural Environment Program Operations (NEPO) and Waste Package Operations (WPO). The scope of this analysis is to produce solubility limits as functions, distributions, or constants for all transported radioactive elements identified by the Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) radioisotope screening. Results from an expert elicitation for solubility limits of most radioactive elements were used in the previous Total System Performance Assessments (TSPAs). However, the elicitation conducted in 1993 does not meet the criteria set forth by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) due to lack of documentation and traceability (Kotra et al. 1996, Section 3). Therefore, at the Waste Form Abstraction Workshop held on February 2-4, 1999, at Albuquerque, New Mexico, the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) decided to develop geochemical models to study solubility for the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository. WPO/NEPO is to develop process-level solubility models, including review and compilation of relevant thermodynamic data. PAO's responsibility is to perform abstractions based on the process models and chemical conditions and to produce solubility distributions or response surfaces applicable to the proposed repository. The results of this analysis and conceptual model will feed the performance assessment for Total System Performance Assessment--Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and Total System Performance Assessment--License Application (TSPA-LA), and to the Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report section on concentration limits.

  11. Nanofluidic Concentration Device for Biomolecules Utilizing Ion Concentration Polarization: Theory, Fabrication, and Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sung Jae

    Recently, a new type of electrokinetic concentration devices has been developed in a microfluidic chip format, which allows efficient trapping and concentration of biomolecules by utilizing ion concentration polarization ...

  12. Departmental Business Instrument Numbering System

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2000-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    To prescribe procedures for assigning identifying numbers to all Department of Energy (DOE), including the National Nuclear Security Administration, business instruments. Cancels DOE 1331.2B. Canceled by DOE O 540.1A.

  13. Departmental Business Instrument Numbering System

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2005-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Order prescribes the procedures for assigning identifying numbers to all Department of Energy (DOE) and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) business instruments. Cancels DOE O 540.1. Canceled by DOE O 540.1B.

  14. The Jacobi-Stirling Numbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrews, George E; Gawronski, Wolfgang; Littlejohn, Lance L

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Jacobi-Stirling numbers were discovered as a result of a problem involving the spectral theory of powers of the classical second-order Jacobi differential expression. Specifically, these numbers are the coefficients of integral composite powers of the Jacobi expression in Lagrangian symmetric form. Quite remarkably, they share many properties with the classical Stirling numbers of the second kind which, as shown in LW, are the coefficients of integral powers of the Laguerre differential expression. In this paper, we establish several properties of the Jacobi-Stirling numbers and its companions including combinatorial interpretations thereby extending and supplementing known contributions to the literature of Andrews-Littlejohn, Andrews-Gawronski-Littlejohn, Egge, Gelineau-Zeng, and Mongelli.

  15. The Transformation of Solid Atmospheric Particles into Liquid Droplets Through Heterogeneous Chemistry: Laboratory Insights into the Processing of Calcium Containing Mineral Dust Aerosol in the Troposphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krueger, Brenda J.; Grassian, Vicki H.; Laskin, Alexander; Cowin, James P.

    2003-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    [1] Individual calcium carbonate particles reacted with gas- phase nitric acid at 293 K have been followed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-Ray (EDX) analysis as a function of time and relative humidity (RH). The rate of calcium carbonate to calcium nitrate conversion is significantly enhanced in the presence of water vapor. The SEM images clearly show that solid CaCO3 particles are converted to spherical droplets as the reaction proceeds. The process occurs through a two-step mechanism involving the conversion of calcium carbonate into calcium nitrate followed by the deliquescence of the calcium nitrate product. The change in phase of the particles and the significant reactivity of nitric acid and CaCO3 at low RH are a direct result of the deliquescence of the product at low RH. This is the first laboratory study to show the phase transformation of solid particles into liquid droplets through heterogeneous chemistry.

  16. Colloid-Associated Radionuclide Concentration Limits: ANL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Mertz

    2000-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose and scope of this report is to describe the analysis of available colloidal data from waste form corrosion tests at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to extract characteristics of these colloids that can be used in modeling their contribution to the source term for sparingly soluble radioelements (e.g., Pu). Specifically, the focus is on developing a useful description of the following waste form colloid characteristics: (1) composition, (2) size distribution, and (3) quantification of the rate of waste form colloid generation. The composition and size distribution information are intended to support analysis of the potential transport of the sparingly soluble radionuclides associated with the waste form colloids. The rate of colloid generation is intended to support analysis of the waste form colloid-associated radionuclide concentrations. In addressing the above characteristics, available data are interpreted to address mechanisms controlling colloid formation and stability. This report was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR'' (CRWMS M&O 2000). Because the end objective is to support the source term modeling we have organized the conclusions into two categories: (1) data analysis conclusions and (2) recommendations for colloid source term modeling. The second category is included to facilitate use of the conclusions from the data analysis in the abstraction of a colloid source term model. The data analyses and conclusions that are presented in this report are based on small-scale laboratory tests conducted on a limited number of waste glass compositions and spent fuel types.

  17. Development of a prototype lignin concentration sensor. Final report. Draft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffers, L.A.

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ultimate objective of the DOE-sponsored program discussed in this report is to commercialize an instrument for real-time, in-situ measurement of lignin in wood pulp at a variety of locations in the pulp process stream. The instrument will be used as a primary sensor for process control in the pulp and paper industry. Work done by B&W prior to the initiation of this program had shown: there is a functional relationship between the fluorescence intensity and the Kappa number as measured at the pulp mill laboratory. Kappa number is a standard wet chemical method for determination of the lignin concentration; the relationship is one of decreasing intensity with Kappa number, indicating operation in the quenched fluorescence regime; a great deal of scatter in the data. Because of the preliminary nature of the study, the origin of the scatter was not identified. This report documents the results of laboratory measurements made on a variety of well defined pulp samples to generate the data necessary to: determine the feasibility of an instrument for on-line lignin concentration measurement using laser fluorescence; identify the preferred measurement strategy; define the range of applicability of the instrument; and to provide background information to guide the design of a field-worthy prototype.

  18. Funding Opportunity Announcement: CSP: Concentrating Optics for...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the 2012 SunShot CSP Research and Development funding program, the CSP: Concentrating Optics for Lower Levelized Energy Costs (COLLECTS) funding program seeks to further CSP...

  19. Concentrating Solar Power (Revised) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fact sheet summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its concentrating solar power subprogram.

  20. Sandia National Laboratories: Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia-AREVA Commission Solar ThermalMolten Salt Energy-Storage Demonstration On May 21, 2014, in Capabilities, Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Energy Storage, Facilities,...

  1. A combined microfluidic/dielectrophoretic microorganism concentrator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gadish, Nitzan

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents the development of a high-throughput microfluidic microorganism concentrator for pathogen detection applications. Interdigitated electrodes lining the bottom of the channel use positive dielectrophoretic ...

  2. Microtracking and Self-Adaptive Solar Concentration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23–25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona.

  3. Alignment method for parabolic trough solar concentrators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Diver, Richard B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A Theoretical Overlay Photographic (TOP) alignment method uses the overlay of a theoretical projected image of a perfectly aligned concentrator on a photographic image of the concentrator to align the mirror facets of a parabolic trough solar concentrator. The alignment method is practical and straightforward, and inherently aligns the mirror facets to the receiver. When integrated with clinometer measurements for which gravity and mechanical drag effects have been accounted for and which are made in a manner and location consistent with the alignment method, all of the mirrors on a common drive can be aligned and optimized for any concentrator orientation.

  4. Sandia National Laboratories: Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia and EMCORE: Solar Photovoltaics, Fiber Optics, MODE, and Energy Efficiency On March 29, 2013, in Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Partnership, Photovoltaic, Renewable...

  5. Concentrating aqueous acetate solutions with tertiary amines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Champion

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    concentrations. ) 73 FIGURE Page 47 Correlation between Kd and water concentration in the organic phase for the calcium acetate/water/amine system. (TEA:DEME mL:1 mL, initial calcium acetate= 1%(w/w)) 48 Correlation between Kd and water concentration... in the organic phase for the calcium acetate/water/amine system. (TEA;DEMAW mL:1 mL, initial calcium acetate= 2%(w/w)) 49 Correlation between Kd and water concentration in the organic phase for the calcium acetate/water/amine system. (TEA:DEMAW mL:1 m...

  6. Planar micro-optic solar concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karp, Jason Harris

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    35), "Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications1 GW of concentrator photovoltaics using multijunction solarG. , “Technology Focus: Photovoltaics”, Nature Photonics, 2,

  7. Sandia National Laboratories: Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SolarReserve Is Testing Prototype Heliostats at NSTTF On March 3, 2015, in Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Facilities, National Solar Thermal Test Facility, News, News &...

  8. Sandia National Laboratories: Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Concentrating Solar Power, Customers & Partners, Energy, News, Partnership, Renewable Energy, Solar Areva Solar is collaborating with Sandia National Laboratories on a new...

  9. Sandia National Laboratories: Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Molten Salt Test Loop Pump Installed On August 30, 2012, in Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Energy Storage Systems, News, Renewable Energy, Solar The pump was delivered and...

  10. Sandia National Laboratories: Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    heat can also be efficiently and cheaply stored to produce electricity when the sun ... Solar Energy On February 3, 2011, in Solar Programs Photovoltaics Concentrating Solar...

  11. Planar micro-optic solar concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karp, Jason Harris

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    waveguides to form a „bowtie?, joined by a SOE in thewe see visually depict the bowtie configuration and theb). As described, the bowtie concentrator no longer complies

  12. Sandia National Laboratories: Concentrating Solar Power: Efficiently...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Funding Award On June 4, 2014, in Advanced Materials Laboratory, Concentrating Solar Power, Energy, Energy Storage, Facilities, National Solar Thermal Test Facility,...

  13. Sandia National Laboratories: Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gas Sectors in the United States View all EC Publications Related Topics Concentrating Solar Power CRF CSP EFRC Energy Energy Efficiency Energy Security National Solar Thermal...

  14. Sandia National Laboratories: Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    measuring the effects of aerodynamicheating on radar transmissions ... Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) On April 13, 2011, in CSP R&D at Sandia Testing Facilities Software &...

  15. Concentrating Solar Power Resources and Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This page provides a brief overview of concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies supplemented by specific information to apply CSP within the Federal sector.

  16. Report/Product Number(s) DOE/ER/64701 DOE Award/Contract Number(s)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem Not Found Item Not Foundenhancer activity than FINAL Report/Product Number(s)

  17. Concentrating Solar Power Commercial Application Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    Concentrating Solar Power Commercial Application Study: Reducing Water Consumption of Concentrating Solar Power Electricity Generation Report to Congress U.S. Department of Energy This report is being of the Treasury and General Government Appropriations Act for Fiscal Year 2001 (Public Law 106

  18. EFFECTS OF VARIOUS CONCENTRATIONS OF DDT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EFFECTS OF VARIOUS CONCENTRATIONS OF DDT ON SEVERAL SPECIES OF FISH OF DIFFERENT SIZES Marine Biiii OF VARIOUS CONCENTRATIONS OF DDT ON SEVERAL SPECIES OF FISH OF DIFFERENT SIZES Marine Binlo^'i., i i Report - Fisheries No. U EFFECTS OF VARIOUS 0ONCENTRATI)^S OF DDT ON SEVEKAL SPECIES OF FISH OF DIFFERENT

  19. Design of wetted wall bioaerosol concentration cyclones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seo, Youngjin

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    wall bioaerosol cyclone concentrators that consume very low power and are capable of delivering very small liquid effluent flow rate of highly-concentrated hydrosol. The aerosol-to-aerosol penetration cutpoint for the cyclones is about 1µm. The aerosol...

  20. UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAM CODES MAJORS AND CONCENTRATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Steven J.

    Economics BS-ECON-3 BS Economics BS-FINM-3 BS Financial Management E132 Corporate Finance Emphasis E146 Quantitative Biology Emphasis E080 Toxicology Emphasis BS-ENR-1 BS Environmental and Natural Resources COBI Resources Management Concentration BS-FDSC-1 BS Food Science FDST Food Science and Technology Concentration

  1. Highly concentrated foam formulation for blast mitigation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tucker, Mark D. (Albuquerque, NM); Gao, Huizhen (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A highly concentrated foam formulation for blast suppression and dispersion mitigation for use in responding to a terrorism incident involving a radiological dispersion device. The foam formulation is more concentrated and more stable than the current blast suppression foam (AFC-380), which reduces the logistics burden on the user.

  2. Spatial Inference of Nitrate Concentrations in Groundwater

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    West, Mike

    Spatial Inference of Nitrate Concentrations in Groundwater DAWN B. WOODARD, ROBERT L. WOLPERT in groundwater over the mid-Atlantic states, using measurements gathered during a pe- riod of ten years. A map- trations in air, pesticide concentrations in groundwater, or any other quantity that varies over

  3. On Normal Numbers Veronica Becher

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Figueira, Santiago

    ends with all zeros; hence, q is not simply normal to base b. 3/23 #12;The problem is still open Theorem (Borel 1909) Almost all real numbers are absolutely normal. Problem (Borel 1909) Give an example transducers. Huffman 1959 calls them lossless compressors. A direct proof of the above theorem Becher

  4. Brookhaven National Laboratory Number: Revision

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohta, Shigemi

    NATIONAL LABORATORY LASER CONTROLLED AREA STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE (SOP) This document defines OPERATIONS Operation Maintenance Service Specific Operation (specify) #12;Number: PS-ESH-0083 Revision: 01 the safety management program for the laser system(s) listed below. All American National Standard Institute

  5. Effect of uterine manipulation on plasma prostaglandin F?? metabolite concentrations in the bovine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wann, Roger Allen

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    C until radioimmunoassay for 13, 14-dihydro- 15-keto-prostaglandi. n F2n (PGFM). The number and amplitude of PGFM peaks were similar (p&. l) in multiparous and primiparous C cows. The mean prepalpation PGFM concentrations were subtracted from each...EFFECT OF UTERINE MANIPULATION ON PLASMA PROSTAGLANDIN F2? METABOLITE CONCENTRATIONS IN THE BOVINE A Thesis by ROGER ALLEN WANN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A & M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  6. Goodbye Pareto Principle, Hello Long Tail: The Effect of Search Costs on the Concentration of Product Sales

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brynjolfsson, Erik

    Many markets have historically been dominated by a small number of best-selling products. The Pareto principle, also known as the 80/20 rule, describes this common pattern of sales concentration. However, information ...

  7. www.rsc.org Registered Charity Number 207890

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to stabilize the drops and make the droplet interface biocompatible. Title: Biocompatible surfactants for water-in-fluorocarbon.rsc.org/loc | Lab on a Chip Biocompatible surfactants for water-in-fluorocarbon emulsions C. Holtze,*a A. C. Rowat806706f Drops of water-in-fluorocarbon emulsions have great potential for compartmentalizing both

  8. www.rsc.org Registered Charity Number 207890

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rowat, Amy C.

    to stabilize the drops and make the droplet interface biocompatible. Title: Biocompatible surfactants for water-in-fluorocarbon Biocompatible surfactants for water-in-fluorocarbon emulsions C. Holtze *a , A. C. Rowata , J. J. Agrestia , Jth July 2008 First published on the web 2nd September 2008 Drops of water-in-fluorocarbon emulsions

  9. www.rsc.org/materials Registered Charity Number 207890

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spinu, Leonard

    , vesicles, micelles and gas bubbles.14,15 The spray-drying tech- nique and Ostwald ripening were also proven Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, China, and Department of Chemical with templating agents are aerosolized and the resulting droplets are passed through a heating tube where

  10. Requirements for Statistics Concentration The Statistics concentration or major may be tailored in accordance with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stine, Robert A.

    Requirements for Statistics Concentration 6/9/11 The Statistics concentration or major are required, with at least 3 credit units from Statistics. STAT 621 may contribute in Statistics The following courses offered by the Department of Statistics are eligible

  11. Mercury concentrations in Maine sport fishes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stafford, C.P. [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States)] [Univ. of Maine, Orono, ME (United States); Haines, T.A. [Geological Survey, Orono, ME (United States)] [Geological Survey, Orono, ME (United States)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To assess mercury contamination of fish in Maine, fish were collected from 120 randomly selected lakes. The collection goal for each lake was five fish of the single most common sport fish species within the size range commonly harvested by anglers. Skinless, boneless fillets of fish from each lake were composited, homogenized, and analyzed for total mercury. The two most abundant species, brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu, were also analyzed individually. The composite fish analyses indicate high concentrations of mercury, particularly in large and long-lived nonsalmonid species. Chain pickerel Esox niger, smallmouth bass, largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides, and white perch Morone americana had the highest average mercury concentrations, and brook trout and yellow perch Perca flavescens had the lowest. The mean species composite mercury concentration was positively correlated with a factor incorporating the average size and age of the fish. Lakes containing fish with high mercury concentrations were not clustered near known industrial or population centers but were commonest in the area within 150 km of the seacoast, reflecting the geographical distribution of species that contained higher mercury concentrations. Stocked and wild brook trout were not different in length or weight, but wild fish were older and had higher mercury concentrations. Fish populations maintained by frequent introductions of hatchery-produced fish and subject to high angler exploitation rates may consist of younger fish with lower exposure to environmental mercury and thus contain lower concentrations than wild populations.

  12. Study of NH stretching vibrations in small ammonia clusters by infrared spectroscopy in He droplets and ab initio calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slipchenko, Mikhail N.; Sartakov, Boris G.; Vilesov, Andrey F.; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2007-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Infrared spectra of the NH stretching vibrations of (NH3)n clusters (n=2-4) have been obtained using the helium droplet isolation technique and first principles electronic structure anharmonic calculations. The measured spectra exhibit well-resolved bands, which have been assigned to the ?1, ?3, and 2?4 modes of the ammonia fragments in the clusters. The formation of a hydrogen bond in ammonia dimers leads to an increase of the infrared intensity by about a factor of four. In the larger clusters the infrared intensity per hydrogen bond is close to the one for dimers and approaches the value in the NH3 crystal. The intensity of the 2?4 overtone band in the trimer and tetramer increases by a factor of 10 relative to that in the monomer and dimer, and is comparable to the intensity of the ?1 and ?3 fundamental bands in larger clusters. This indicates the onset of the strong anharmonic coupling of the 2?4 and ?1 modes in larger clusters. The experimental assignments are compared to the ones obtained from first principles electronic structure anharmonic calculations for the dimer and trimer clusters. The anharmonic calculations were performed at the Møller-Plesset (MP2) level of electronic structure theory and were based on a second-order perturbative evaluation of rovibrational parameters and their effects on the vibrational spectra and average structures. In general there is excellent (<20 cm-1) agreement between the experimentally measured band origins for the N-H stretching frequencies and the calculated anharmonic vibrational frequencies. However, the calculations were found to overestimate the infrared intensities in clusters by about a factor of four. This work was supported by the Office of Basic Energy Sciences of the Department of Energy, in part by the Chemical Sciences program and in part by the Engineering and Geosciences Division. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  13. Efficiency enhancement of luminescent solar concentrations for photovoltaic technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Chunhua

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LSCs in concentration solar radiation without tracking. TheLSCs in concentration solar radiation without tracking. Thesolar concentrators based on lens and mirrors with tracking

  14. Uniform flux dish concentrators for photovoltaic application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorgensen, G; Wendelin, T

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have designed a unique and innovative molded dish concentrator capable of producing a uniform flux profile on a flat target plane. Concentration levels of 100--200 suns, which are uniform over an area of several square inches, can be directly achieved for collection apertures of a reasonable size ({approximately}1.5-m diameter). Such performance would be immediately applicable to photovoltaic (PV) use. Economic concerns have shown that the proposed approach would be less expensive thatn Fresnel lens concepts or other dish concentrator designs that require complicated and costly receivers to mix the flux to obtain a uniform distribution. 12 refs.

  15. Seasonal formaldehyde concentrations in an office building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konopinski, V.J.

    1985-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this investigation was to determine if there was a seasonal effect on formaldehyde emissions from paneling and shelving in a one story office building. Measurement of formaldehyde was done by standard impinger sampling techniques using 1% bisulfite absorbing solution and by using a dry diffusional formaldehyde monitor. Results show a definite seasonal trend for formaldehyde concentrations by either monitoring method. The formaldehyde concentrations for warm weather are about twice as great as those in cold weather. In addition the dry diffusional monitor concentrations determined were consistently low compared to impinger sampling.

  16. Concentric ring flywheel without expansion separators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuklo, Thomas C. (Oakdale, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A concentric ring flywheel wherein the adjacent rings are configured to eliminate the need for differential expansion separators between the adjacent rings. This is accomplished by forming a circumferential step on an outer surface of an inner concentric ring and forming a matching circumferential step on the inner surface of an adjacent outer concentric ring. During operation the circumferential steps allow the rings to differentially expand due to the difference in the radius of the rings without the formation of gaps therebetween, thereby eliminating the need for expansion separators to take up the gaps formed by differential expansion.

  17. Concentric ring flywheel without expansion separators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuklo, T.C.

    1999-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A concentric ring flywheel wherein the adjacent rings are configured to eliminate the need for differential expansion separators between the adjacent rings. This is accomplished by forming a circumferential step on an outer surface of an inner concentric ring and forming a matching circumferential step on the inner surface of an adjacent outer concentric ring. During operation the circumferential steps allow the rings to differentially expand due to the difference in the radius of the rings without the formation of gaps therebetween, thereby eliminating the need for expansion separators to take up the gaps formed by differential expansion. 3 figs.

  18. Maine Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet) 3 0 07,755,432Commercial Consumers (Number

  19. Minnesota Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet)Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements)

  20. Minnesota Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto China (Million Cubic Feet)Commercial Consumers (Number of

  1. Kansas Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688ElectricityLessAprilResidential Consumers (Number of

  2. Tennessee Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear Jan FebDecadeDecade217523,552.1Residential Consumers (Number

  3. Wisconsin Natural Gas Number of Residential Consumers (Number of Elements)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office ofthroughYear JanYearFuel5,266 6,090Industrial Consumers (Number

  4. Vermont Natural Gas Number of Commercial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan FebIncreasesCommercial Consumers (Number of Elements)

  5. Vermont Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan FebIncreasesCommercial Consumers (Number of

  6. Georgia Natural Gas Number of Industrial Consumers (Number of Elements)

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.GasYear JanPriceIndustrial Consumers (Number of

  7. FOURIER AND BIOT NUMBERS AND THE ACCURACY OF CONDUCTION MODELLING Jan L M Hensen, Abdullatif E Nakhi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukasyan, Alexander

    FOURIER AND BIOT NUMBERS AND THE ACCURACY OF CONDUCTION MODELLING Jan L M Hensen, Abdullatif E of the associated theory the paper concentrates on the effects of Fourier and Biot numbers on the accuracy, °C Fo Fourier number ( t x-2 ), - thermal conductivity, W m-1 K-1 h convective heat transfer

  8. Low Mach Number Fluctuating Hydrodynamics of Diffusively Mixing Fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Donev; A. J. Nonaka; Y. Sun; T. G. Fai; A. L. Garcia; J. B. Bell

    2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We formulate low Mach number fluctuating hydrodynamic equations appropriate for modeling diffusive mixing in isothermal mixtures of fluids with different density and transport coefficients. These equations eliminate the fluctuations in pressure associated with the propagation of sound waves by replacing the equation of state with a local thermodynamic constraint. We demonstrate that the low Mach number model preserves the spatio-temporal spectrum of the slower diffusive fluctuations. We develop a strictly conservative finite-volume spatial discretization of the low Mach number fluctuating equations in both two and three dimensions and construct several explicit Runge-Kutta temporal integrators that strictly maintain the equation of state constraint. The resulting spatio-temporal discretization is second-order accurate deterministically and maintains fluctuation-dissipation balance in the linearized stochastic equations. We apply our algorithms to model the development of giant concentration fluctuations in the presence of concentration gradients, and investigate the validity of common simplifications such as neglecting the spatial non-homogeneity of density and transport properties. We perform simulations of diffusive mixing of two fluids of different densities in two dimensions and compare the results of low Mach number continuum simulations to hard-disk molecular dynamics simulations. Excellent agreement is observed between the particle and continuum simulations of giant fluctuations during time-dependent diffusive mixing.

  9. Concentrator E-F11 water test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ethington, P.R.

    1994-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the Process Test Report for performing operation testing with water of the modified E-F11 concentrator in PUREX on water. The test was performed to determine the effects of the following concentrator modifications; routing concentrator off-gasses via the PUREX air tunnel to the main stack, blanking of condenser cooling water, blanking of process condensate route to a crib, restricting flow to steam tube bundles, and routing of steam condensate to TK-F12. The test was successful. Concentrator boil-off rates of 6--7 gpm were achieved while the overheads exited the PUREX plant in vapor form. With minor recommended modifications, this process is recommended for use in processing PUREX deactivation flush solutions and other miscellaneous wastes accumulated during the completion of the deactivation project.

  10. Physics and Astronomy Engineering Electronics Concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thaxton, Christopher S.

    Physics and Astronomy Engineering Electronics Concentration Strongly recommended courses Credits PHY 3230 Thermal Physics 2 PHY 4330 Digital Electronics 3 PHY 4635 Advanced Microprocessors Grade PHY 4020 Computational Methods in Physics & Engineering 3 PHY 4620 Optics 4 PHY 4735

  11. Gas concentration cells for utilizing energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salomon, R.E.

    1987-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for utilizing energy, in which the apparatus may be used for generating electricity or as a heat pump. When used as an electrical generator, two gas concentration cells are connected in a closed gas circuit. The first gas concentration cell is heated and generates electricity. The second gas concentration cell repressurizes the gas which travels between the cells. The electrical energy which is generated by the first cell drives the second cell as well as an electrical load. When used as a heat pump, two gas concentration cells are connected in a closed gas circuit. The first cell is supplied with electrical energy from a direct current source and releases heat. The second cell absorbs heat. The apparatus has no moving parts and thus approximates a heat engine. 4 figs.

  12. Gas concentration cells for utilizing energy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Salomon, Robert E. (Philadelphia, PA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for utilizing energy, in which the apparatus may be used for generating electricity or as a heat pump. When used as an electrical generator, two gas concentration cells are connected in a closed gas circuit. The first gas concentration cell is heated and generates electricity. The second gas concentration cell repressurizes the gas which travels between the cells. The electrical energy which is generated by the first cell drives the second cell as well as an electrical load. When used as a heat pump, two gas concentration cells are connected in a closed gas circuit. The first cell is supplied with electrical energy from a direct current source and releases heat. The second cell absorbs heat. The apparatus has no moving parts and thus approximates a heat engine.

  13. What does stabilizing greenhouse gas concentrations mean?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacoby, Henry D.; Schmalensee, Richard.; Reiner, David M.

    The MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model is applied to an exploration of the national emissions obligations that would be required to stabilize atmospheric CO2 concentrations at levels now under active ...

  14. Advancing Concentrating Solar Power Research (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provide scientific, engineering, and analytical expertise to help advance innovation in concentrating solar power (CSP). This fact sheet summarizes how NREL is advancing CSP research.

  15. Sandia National Laboratories: Concentrating Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2012, in CSP Images & Videos On September 26, 2012, in Image Gallery Videos Concentrating Solar Power Image Gallery A picture says a thousand words, especially on the World Wide...

  16. Particle Number & Particulate Mass Emissions Measurements on...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Number & Particulate Mass Emissions Measurements on a 'Euro VI' Heavy-duty Engine using the PMP Methodologies Particle Number & Particulate Mass Emissions Measurements on a 'Euro...

  17. Flammability limits of dusts: Minimum inerting concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dastidar, A.G.; Amyotte, P.R. [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Going, J.; Chatrathi, K. [Fike Corp., Blue Springs, MO (United States)] [Fike Corp., Blue Springs, MO (United States)

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new flammability limit parameter has been defined as the Minimum Inerting Concentration (MIC). This is the concentration of inertant required to prevent a dust explosion regardless of fuel concentration. Previous experimental work at Fike in a 1-m{sup 3} spherical chamber has shown this flammability limit to exist for pulverized coal dust and cornstarch. In the current work, inerting experiments with aluminum, anthraquinone and polyethylene dusts as fuels were performed, using monoammonium phosphate and sodium bicarbonate as inertants. The results show that an MIC exists only for anthraquinone inerted with sodium bicarbonate. The other combustible dust and inertant mixtures did not show a definitive MIC, although they did show a strong dependence between inerting level and suspended fuel concentration. As the fuel concentration increased, the amount of inertant required to prevent an explosion decreased. Even though a definitive MIC was not found for most of the dusts an effective MIC can be estimated from the data. The use of MIC data can aid in the design of explosion suppression schemes.

  18. Random number stride in Monte Carlo calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendricks, J.S.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Monte Carlo radiation transport codes use a sequence of pseudorandom numbers to sample from probability distributions. A common practice is to start each source particle a predetermined number of random numbers up the pseudorandom number sequence. This number of random numbers skipped between each source particles the random number stride, S. Consequently, the jth source particle always starts with the j{center dot}Sth random number providing correlated sampling'' between similar calculations. A new machine-portable random number generator has been written for the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNP providing user's control of the random number stride. First the new MCNP random number generator algorithm will be described and then the effects of varying the stride will be presented. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  19. Device Independent Random Number Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mataj Pivoluska; Martin Plesch

    2015-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Randomness is an invaluable resource in today's life with a broad use reaching from numerical simulations through randomized algorithms to cryptography. However, on the classical level no true randomness is available and even the use of simple quantum devices in a prepare-measure setting suffers from lack of stability and controllability. This gave rise to a group of quantum protocols that provide randomness certified by classical statistical tests -- Device Independent Quantum Random Number Generators. In this paper we review the most relevant results in this field, which allow the production of almost perfect randomness with help of quantum devices, supplemented with an arbitrary weak source of additional randomness. This is in fact the best one could hope for to achieve, as with no starting randomness (corresponding to no free will in a different concept) even a quantum world would have a fully deterministic description.

  20. Point-focus spectral splitting solar concentrator for multiple cells concentrating photovoltaic system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maragliano, Carlo; Stefancich, Marco

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we present and experimentally validate a low-cost design of a spectral splitting concentrator for the efficient conversion of solar energy. The optical device consists of a dispersive prismatic lens made of polycarbonate designed to simultaneously concentrate the solar light and split it into its spectral components. With respect to our previous implementation, this device concentrates the light along two axes and generates a light pattern compatible with the dimensions of a set of concentrating photovoltaic cells while providing a higher concentration ratio. The mathematical framework and the constructive approach used for the design are presented and the device performance is simulated using ray-tracing software. We obtain spectral separation in the visible range within a 3x1 cm2 area and a maximum concentration of 210x for a single wavelength. The device is fabricated by injection molding and its performance is experimentally investigated. We measure an optical transmissivity above 90% in the...

  1. Wide range radioactive gas concentration detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, David F. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A wide range radioactive gas concentration detector and monitor which is capable of measuring radioactive gas concentrations over a range of eight orders of magnitude. The device of the present invention is designed to have an ionization chamber which is sufficiently small to give a fast response time for measuring radioactive gases but sufficiently large to provide accurate readings at low concentration levels. Closely spaced parallel plate grids provide a uniform electric field in the active region to improve the accuracy of measurements and reduce ion migration time so as to virtually eliminate errors due to ion recombination. The parallel plate grids are fabricated with a minimal surface area to reduce the effects of contamination resulting from absorption of contaminating materials on the surface of the grids. Additionally, the ionization chamber wall is spaced a sufficient distance from the active region of the ionization chamber to minimize contamination effects.

  2. A Method for the Preparation of NIST Traceable Fossil Fuel Standards with Concentrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    at NIST with high accuracy and precision by isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry and quality control test samples. Unlike calibrants prepared from high purity components, this method enables Abbreviations M bar Calculated concentration of mixture EDXRF Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence n number

  3. Resonance-shifting luminescent solar concentrators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Giebink, Noel Christopher; Wiederrecht, Gary P; Wasielewski, Michael R

    2014-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical system and method to overcome luminescent solar concentrator inefficiencies by resonance-shifting, in which sharply directed emission from a bi-layer cavity into a glass substrate returns to interact with the cavity off-resonance at each subsequent reflection, significantly reducing reabsorption loss en route to the edges. In one embodiment, the system comprises a luminescent solar concentrator comprising a transparent substrate, a luminescent film having a variable thickness; and a low refractive index layer disposed between the transparent substrate and the luminescent film.

  4. Evaporation/ Solution Droplet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suslick, Kenneth S.

    · Nano-Catalysts · Fine Powders · Spray Drying MoO3 As prepared initially. After thermal annealing at 350oC. Hollow Spheres and Crystals 1st Hollow Crystals! Cooling bath Titanium Horn Collar & O-Rings Gas Production of Nano-Materials microporous shell internal macropores Hierarchically Porous Carbons Brandon Ito

  5. On q-deformed Stirling numbers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yilmaz Simsek

    2007-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this article is to introduce q-deformed Stirling numbers of the first and second kinds. Relations between these numbers, Riemann zeta function and q-Bernoulli numbers of higher order are given. Some relations related to the classical Stirling numbers and Bernoulli numbers of higher order are found. By using derivative operator to the generating function of the q-deformed Stirling numbers of the second kinds, a new function is defined which interpolates the q-deformed Stirling numbers of the second kinds at negative integers. The recurrence relations of the Stirling numbers of the first and second kind are given. In addition, relation between q-deformed Stirling numbers and q-Bell numbers is obtained.

  6. Physics and Astronomy Radiation Safety Physics Concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thaxton, Christopher S.

    Physics and Astronomy Radiation Safety Physics Concentration Strongly recommended courses Credits Environucleonics Lab 1 PHY 3211 Modern Physics II 3 PHY 3230 Thermal Physics 3 PHY 4330 Digital Electronics 3 PHY 4820 Medical Physics 3 CHE 1101 Intro. Chemistry I 3 CHE 1110 Intro. Chemistry I Lab 1 CHE 1102 Intro

  7. Physics and Astronomy Engineering/Physics Concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thaxton, Christopher S.

    Physics and Astronomy Engineering/Physics Concentration Strongly recommended courses Credits Term Electromagnetic Fields & Waves 3 PHY 3230 Thermal Physics 3 PHY 4020 Computational Methods in Physics.) taken Grade PHY 4620 Optics 4 PHY 3211 Modern Physics II 3 PHY 4730 Analog Circuits 3 PHY 4640 Quantum

  8. Physics and Astronomy Chemical Physics Concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thaxton, Christopher S.

    Physics and Astronomy Chemical Physics Concentration Strongly recommended courses Credits Term Dept Fields & Waves 3 PHY 3230 Thermal Physics 3 PHY 4640 Quantum Mechanics 3 PHY 4020 Computational Methods in Physics & Engineering 3 PHY 4330 Digital Electronics 3 CHE 1101 Intro. Chemistry I 3 CHE 1110 Intro

  9. Nuclear Engineering Catalog 2013 Radiological Concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tennessee, University of

    Nuclear Engineering Catalog 2013 Radiological Concentration Fall Math 141 or 147 (4) FA, SP, SU-approved by the department. Courses in Nuclear Engineering other than 500, 502 or 598 may also be used as technical electives on academic performance. Factors considered include overall grade point average, performance in selescted

  10. Business of Fashion Concentration & Minor -Newark Description

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Xiaodong

    Business of Fashion Concentration & Minor - Newark Description The Business of Fashion program was designed to bridge the gap between creativity and business acumen. It is for artistic individuals who want to solidify their understanding of business, as well as for business students who want to learn how to apply

  11. Ideal light concentrators with reflector gaps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cylindrical or trough-like radiant energy concentration and collection device is provided. The device includes an energy absorber, a glazing enveloping the absorber and a reflective wall. The ideal contour of the reflective wall is determined with reference to a virtual absorber and not the actual absorber cross section.

  12. BME ERGONOMICS AND REHABILITATION ENGINEERING CONCENTRATION1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eustice, Ryan

    BME ERGONOMICS AND REHABILITATION ENGINEERING CONCENTRATION1 ­ F10 MS: 30 total credit hours minimum Advisor: Thomas J. Armstrong, Ph.D. (tja@umich.edu) Ergonomics /Rehabilitation Engineering: IOE 463 Measurement and Design of Work (3) (I, II) (Prerequisite: IOE 333 Ergonomics) BIOMED E 534

  13. Nonimaging light concentrator with uniform irradiance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL); Gee, Randy C. (Arvada, CO)

    2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A nonimaging light concentrator system including a primary collector of light, an optical mixer disposed near the focal zone for collecting light from the primary collector, the optical mixer having a transparent entrance aperture, an internally reflective housing for substantially total internal reflection of light, a transparent exit aperture and an array of photovoltaic cells disposed near the transparent exit aperture.

  14. Measuring overall emittance of concentrator receiver pipes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerich, J.W.; Reitter, T.A.; Merriam, M.F.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simple and accurate method for measuring the overall emittance of receiver pipes used with cylindrical concentrators is described. Experimental measurements obtained for steel pipes with a black chrome over nickel selective surface are presented. The observed strong temperature dependence of emittance indicates that the use of room temperature emittance data will substantially overestimate collector efficiency. (SPH)

  15. Ideal light concentrators with reflector gaps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winston, R.

    1980-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A cylindrical or trough-like radiant energy concentration and collection device is provided. The device includes an energy absorber, a glazing enveloping the absorber and a reflective wall. The ideal contour of the reflective wall is determined with reference to a virtual absorber and not the actual absorber cross section.

  16. Low chemical concentrating steam generating cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mangus, James D. (Greensburg, PA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A steam cycle for a nuclear power plant having two optional modes of operation. A once-through mode of operation uses direct feed of coolant water to an evaporator avoiding excessive chemical concentration buildup. A recirculation mode of operation uses a recirculation loop to direct a portion of flow from the evaporator back through the evaporator to effectively increase evaporator flow.

  17. Low-Cost Installation of Concentrating Photovoltaic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .5 megawatt power plant for the Pacific Gas and Electric Company near Tracy, CA ­ the first solar related with system components, and traditional solar designs that limit installation locations. Many offerings. Currently, no solar company provides a complete photovoltaic or concentrating photovoltaic

  18. Master of Arts Concentration: School Leadership

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Master of Arts Concentration: School Leadership Program of Study (39 credits) Effective January: EDSL 718: Organization and Control of American Schools (3) EDSL 719: Leadership in Educational Leadership (3) EDSL 823: School Finance (3) EDSL 849: The Principalship (3) Prerequisites: EDSL 718 & 719

  19. Master of Arts Concentration: School Leadership

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Master of Arts Concentration: School Leadership Program of Study (39 credits) Effective August 2012: Organization and Control of American Schools (3) EDSL 719: Leadership in Educational Organizations (3) EDSL 727 825: Schools and the Law (3) EDSL 840: Supervision and Instructional Leadership (3) EDSL 823: School

  20. Verification Challenges at Low Numbers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benz, Jacob M.; Booker, Paul M.; McDonald, Benjamin S.

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many papers have dealt with the political difficulties and ramifications of deep nuclear arms reductions, and the issues of “Going to Zero”. Political issues include extended deterrence, conventional weapons, ballistic missile defense, and regional and geo-political security issues. At each step on the road to low numbers, the verification required to ensure compliance of all parties will increase significantly. Looking post New START, the next step will likely include warhead limits in the neighborhood of 1000 . Further reductions will include stepping stones at1000 warheads, 100’s of warheads, and then 10’s of warheads before final elimination could be considered of the last few remaining warheads and weapons. This paper will focus on these three threshold reduction levels, 1000, 100’s, 10’s. For each, the issues and challenges will be discussed, potential solutions will be identified, and the verification technologies and chain of custody measures that address these solutions will be surveyed. It is important to note that many of the issues that need to be addressed have no current solution. In these cases, the paper will explore new or novel technologies that could be applied. These technologies will draw from the research and development that is ongoing throughout the national laboratory complex, and will look at technologies utilized in other areas of industry for their application to arms control verification.

  1. Value of Concentrating Solar Power and Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines the value of concentrating solar power (CSP) and thermal energy storage (TES) in four regions in the southwestern United States. Our analysis shows that TES can increase the value of CSP by allowing more thermal energy from a CSP plant?s solar field to be used, by allowing a CSP plant to accommodate a larger solar field, and by allowing CSP generation to be shifted to hours with higher energy prices. We analyze the sensitivity of CSP value to a number of factors, including the optimization period, price and solar forecasting, ancillary service sales, capacity value and dry cooling of the CSP plant. We also discuss the value of CSP plants and TES net of capital costs.

  2. Purdue extension CAFOsConcentrated Animal Feeding OperationsConcentrated Animal Feeding Operations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Operations using the Web soil survey to investigate Potential Concentrated Animal Feeding operation Locations Operation (CAFO) permit application requires a location description that includes USDA-NRCS Soil Survey data and interpretations. #12;Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation Locations Using the Web Soil Survey to Investigate

  3. Electrorefining cell with parallel electrode/concentric cylinder cathode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, Eddie C. (Park Forest, IL); Miller, William E. (Naperville, IL); Laidler, James J. (Burr Ridge, IL)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cathode-anode arrangement for use in an electrolytic cell is adapted for electrochemically refining spent nuclear fuel from a nuclear reactor and recovering purified uranium for further treatment and possible recycling as a fresh blanket or core fuel in a nuclear reactor. The arrangement includes a plurality of inner anodic dissolution baskets that are each attached to a respective support rod, are submerged in a molten lithium halide salt, and are rotationally displaced. An inner hollow cylindrical-shaped cathode is concentrically disposed about the inner anodic dissolution baskets. Concentrically disposed about the inner cathode in a spaced manner are a plurality of outer anodic dissolution baskets, while an outer hollow cylindrical-shaped is disposed about the outer anodic dissolution baskets. Uranium is transported from the anode baskets and deposited in a uniform cylindrical shape on the inner and outer cathode cylinders by rotating the anode baskets within the molten lithium halide salt. Scrapers located on each anode basket abrade and remove the spent fuel deposits on the surfaces of the inner and outer cathode cylinders, with the spent fuel falling to the bottom of the cell for removal. Cell resistance is reduced and uranium deposition rate enhanced by increasing the electrode area and reducing the anode-cathode spacing. Collection efficiency is enhanced by trapping and recovery of uranium dendrites scrapped off of the cylindrical cathodes which may be greater in number than two.

  4. Electrorefining cell with parallel electrode/concentric cylinder cathode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, E.C.; Miller, W.E.; Laidler, J.J.

    1997-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A cathode-anode arrangement for use in an electrolytic cell is adapted for electrochemically refining spent nuclear fuel from a nuclear reactor and recovering purified uranium for further treatment and possible recycling as a fresh blanket or core fuel in a nuclear reactor. The arrangement includes a plurality of inner anodic dissolution baskets that are each attached to a respective support rod, are submerged in a molten lithium halide salt, and are rotationally displaced. An inner hollow cylindrical-shaped cathode is concentrically disposed about the inner anodic dissolution baskets. Concentrically disposed about the inner cathode in a spaced manner are a plurality of outer anodic dissolution baskets, while an outer hollow cylindrical-shaped is disposed about the outer anodic dissolution baskets. Uranium is transported from the anode baskets and deposited in a uniform cylindrical shape on the inner and outer cathode cylinders by rotating the anode baskets within the molten lithium halide salt. Scrapers located on each anode basket abrade and remove the spent fuel deposits on the surfaces of the inner and outer cathode cylinders, with the spent fuel falling to the bottom of the cell for removal. Cell resistance is reduced and uranium deposition rate enhanced by increasing the electrode area and reducing the anode-cathode spacing. Collection efficiency is enhanced by trapping and recovery of uranium dendrites scrapped off of the cylindrical cathodes which may be greater in number than two. 12 figs.

  5. Grant Title: INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EXPERIENCES FOR STUDENTS AND TEACHERS (ITEST) Funding Opportunity Number: NSF 12-597. CFDA Number(s): 47.076.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farritor, Shane

    Opportunity Number: NSF 12-597. CFDA Number(s): 47.076. Agency/Department: National Science Foundation

  6. Peripheral mixing of passive scalar at small Reynolds number

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Boffetta; F. De Lillo; A. Mazzino

    2008-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Mixing of a passive scalar in the peripheral region close to a wall is investigated by means of accurate direct numerical simulations of both a three-dimensional Couette channel flow at low Reynolds numbers and a two-dimensional synthetic flow. In both cases, the resulting phenomenology can be understood in terms of the theory recently developed by Lebedev and Turitsyn [Phys. Rev. E 69, 036301, 2004]. Our results prove the robustness of the identified mechanisms responsible for the persistency of scalar concentration close to the wall with important consequences in completely different fields ranging from microfluidic applications to environmental dispersion modeling.

  7. Prime number generation and factor elimination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vineet Kumar

    2014-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We have presented a multivariate polynomial function termed as factor elimination function,by which, we can generate prime numbers. This function's mapping behavior can explain the irregularities in the occurrence of prime numbers on the number line. Generally the different categories of prime numbers found till date, satisfy the form of this function. We present some absolute and probabilistic conditions for the primality of the number generated by this method. This function is capable of leading to highly efficient algorithms for generating prime numbers.

  8. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leachability indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the l

  9. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.; Roberts, K. A.; Edwards, T. B.

    2013-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

  10. Cast Stone Formulation At Higher Sodium Concentrations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K. M.; Edwards, T. A.; Roberts, K. B.

    2013-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A low temperature waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide supplemental Low Activity Waste (LAW) immobilization capacity for the Hanford site. Formulation of Cast Stone at high sodium concentrations is of interest since a significant reduction in the necessary volume of Cast Stone and subsequent disposal costs could be achieved if an acceptable waste form can be produced with a high sodium molarity salt solution combined with a high water to premix (or dry blend) ratio. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the factors involved with increasing the sodium concentration in Cast Stone, including production and performance properties and the retention and release of specific components of interest. Three factors were identified for the experimental matrix: the concentration of sodium in the simulated salt solution, the water to premix ratio, and the blast furnace slag portion of the premix. The salt solution simulants used in this study were formulated to represent the overall average waste composition. The cement, blast furnace slag, and fly ash were sourced from a supplier in the Hanford area in order to be representative. The test mixes were prepared in the laboratory and fresh properties were measured. Fresh density increased with increasing sodium molarity and with decreasing water to premix ratio, as expected given the individual densities of these components. Rheology measurements showed that all of the test mixes produced very fluid slurries. The fresh density and rheology data are of potential value in designing a future Cast Stone production facility. Standing water and density gradient testing showed that settling is not of particular concern for the high sodium compositions studied. Heat of hydration measurements may provide some insight into the reactions that occur within the test mixes, which may in turn be related to the properties and performance of the waste form. These measurements showed that increased sodium concentration in the salt solution reduced the time to peak heat flow, and reducing the amount of slag in the premix increased the time to peak heat flow. These observations may help to describe some of the cured properties of the samples, in particular the differences in compressive strength observed after 28 and 90 days of curing. Samples were cured for at least 28 days at ambient temperature in the laboratory prior to cured properties analyses. The low activity waste form for disposal at the Hanford Site is required to have a compressive strength of at least 500 psi. After 28 days of curing, several of the test mixes had mean compressive strengths that were below the 500 psi requirement. Higher sodium concentrations and higher water to premix ratios led to reduced compressive strength. Higher fly ash concentrations decreased the compressive strength after 28 days of curing. This may be explained in that the cementitious phases matured more quickly in the mixes with higher concentrations of slag, as evidenced by the data for the time to peak heat generation. All of the test mixes exhibited higher mean compressive strengths after 90 days of curing, with only one composition having a mean compressive strength of less than 500 psi. Leach indices were determined for the test mixes for contaminants of interest. The leaching performance of the mixes evaluated in this study was not particularly sensitive to the factors used in the experimental design. This may be beneficial in demonstrating that the performance of the waste form is robust with respect to changes in the mix composition. The results of this study demonstrate the potential to achieve significantly higher waste loadings in Cast Stone and other low temperature, cementitious waste forms. Additional work is needed to elucidate the hydration mechanisms occurring in Cast Stone formulated with highly concentrated salt solutions since these reactions are responsible for determining the performance of the cured waste form. The thermal analyses completed in this study provide some preliminary insight, although the limited

  11. Thermal regeneration of an electrochemical concentration cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL); Bates, John K. (Plainfield, IL)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for thermally regenerating an electrochemical concentration cell having first and second aluminum electrodes respectively positioned in contact with first and second electrolytes separated by an ion exchange member, the first and second electrolytes being composed of different concentrations of an ionic solvent and a salt, preferably an aluminum halide. The ionic solvent may be either organic or inorganic with a relatively low melting point, the ionic solvent and the salt form a complex wherein the free energy of formation of said complex is less than about -5 Kcal/mole. A distillation column using solar heat or low grade industrial waste heat receives the first and second electrolytes and thermally decomposes the salt-solvent complex to provide feed material for the two half cells.

  12. Thermal regeneration of an electrochemical concentration cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpelt, M.; Bates, J.K.

    1980-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method are described for thermally regenerating an electrochemical concentration cell having first and second aluminum electrodes respectively positioned in contact with first and second electrolytes separated by an ion exchange member, the first and second electrolytes being composed of different concentrations of an ionic solvent and a salt, preferably an aluminum halide. The ionic solvent may be either organic or inorganic with a relatively low melting point, the ionic solvent and the salt form a complex wherein the free energy of formation of said complex is less than about -5 kcal/mole. A distillation column using solar heat or low grade industrial waste heat receives the first and second electrolytes and thermally decomposes the salt-solvent complex to provide feed material for the two half cells.

  13. Big Crunch-based omnidirectional light concentrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igor I. Smolyaninov; Yu-Ju Hung

    2014-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Omnidirectional light concentration remains an unsolved problem despite such important practical applications as design of efficient mobile photovoltaic cells. Optical black hole designs developed recently offer partial solution to this problem. However, even these solutions are not truly omnidirectional since they do not exhibit a horizon, and at large enough incidence angles light may be trapped into quasi-stationary orbits around such imperfect optical black holes. Here we propose and realize experimentally another gravity-inspired design of a broadband omnidirectional light concentrator based on the cosmological Big Crunch solutions. By mimicking the Big Crunch spacetime via corresponding effective optical metric we make sure that every photon world line terminates in a single point.

  14. Measurement of phenol concentrations using hemoglobin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodward, J.; Allen, B.F.; Scott, M.A.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A major pollutant found in coal conversion wastewaters is phenol. Its removal by methods such as gravity separation, steam stripping, solvent extraction, biotreatment, and carbon adsorption must be monitored in order to determine that the water has been made safe for release back into the environment. Monitoring phenol concentrations in aqueous waste solutions is usually by the aminoantipyrine method. Other methods described for phenol determination include the use of enzyme electrodes based on immobilized tyrosinase and immobilized phenol hydroxylase. The authors present preliminary data upon which a new assay for phenols could be based. It concerns the peroxidatic activity of hemoglobin. When phenol, hemoglobin, and hydrogen peroxide are incubated together, there is an increase in absorbance at 260 nm which is proportional to the concentration of phenol. 5 references, 2 figures.

  15. Material for a luminescent solar concentrator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andrews, L.J.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A material for use in a luminescent solar concentrator, formed by ceramitizing the luminescent ion Cr/sup 3 +/ with a transparent ceramic glass containing mullite. The resultant material has tiny Cr/sup 3 +/-bearing crystallites dispersed uniformly through an amorphous glass. The invention combines the high luminescent efficiency of Cr/sup 3 +/ in the crystalline phase with the practical and economical advantages of glass technology.

  16. Photovoltaic concentrator assembly with optically active cover

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Plesniak, Adam P

    2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic concentrator assembly that includes a housing that defines an internal volume and includes a rim, wherein the rim defines an opening into the internal volume, a photovoltaic cell positioned in the internal volume, and an optical element that includes an optically active body and a flange extending outward from the body, wherein the flange is sealingly engaged with the rim of the housing to enclose the internal volume.

  17. DOE High Performance Concentrator PV Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McConnell, R.; Symko-Davies, M.

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Much in demand are next-generation photovoltaic (PV) technologies that can be used economically to make a large-scale impact on world electricity production. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the High-Performance Photovoltaic (HiPerf PV) Project to substantially increase the viability of PV for cost-competitive applications so that PV can contribute significantly to both our energy supply and environment. To accomplish such results, the National Center for Photovoltaics (NCPV) directs in-house and subcontracted research in high-performance polycrystalline thin-film and multijunction concentrator devices with the goal of enabling progress of high-efficiency technologies toward commercial-prototype products. We will describe the details of the subcontractor and in-house progress in exploring and accelerating pathways of III-V multijunction concentrator solar cells and systems toward their long-term goals. By 2020, we anticipate that this project will have demonstrated 33% system efficiency and a system price of $1.00/Wp for concentrator PV systems using III-V multijunction solar cells with efficiencies over 41%.

  18. Survey of lepton number violation via effective operators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gouvea, Andre de; Jenkins, James [Northwestern University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We survey 129 lepton number violating effective operators, consistent with the minimal standard model gauge group and particle content, of mass dimension up to and including 11. Upon requiring that each one radiatively generates the observed neutrino masses, we extract an associated characteristic cutoff energy scale which we use to calculate other observable manifestations of these operators for a number of current and future experimental probes, concentrating on lepton number violating phenomena. These include searches for neutrinoless double-beta decay and rare meson, lepton, and gauge boson decays. We also consider searches at hadron/lepton collider facilities in anticipation of the CERN LHC and the future ILC. We find that some operators are already disfavored by current data, while more are ripe to be probed by next-generation experiments. We also find that our current understanding of lepton mixing disfavors a subset of higher dimensional operators. While neutrinoless double-beta decay is the most promising signature of lepton number violation for the majority of operators, a handful is best probed by other means. We argue that a combination of constraints from various independent experimental sources will help to pinpoint the ''correct'' model of neutrino mass, or at least aid in narrowing down the set of possibilities.

  19. A Survey of Lepton Number Violation Via Effective Operators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andre de Gouvea; James Jenkins

    2007-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We survey 129 lepton number violating effective operators, consistent with the minimal Standard Model gauge group and particle content, of mass dimension up to and including eleven. Upon requiring that each one radiatively generates the observed neutrino masses, we extract an associated characteristic cutoff energy scale which we use to calculate other observable manifestations of these operators for a number of current and future experimental probes, concentrating on lepton number violating phenomena. These include searches for neutrinoless double-beta decay and rare meson, lepton, and gauge boson decays. We also consider searches at hadron/lepton collider facilities in anticipation of the LHC and the future ILC. We find that some operators are already disfavored by current data, while more are ripe to be probed by next-generation experiments. We also find that our current understanding of lepton mixing disfavors a subset of higher dimensional operators. While neutrinoless double-beta decay is the most promising signature of lepton number violation for the majority of operators, a handful is best probed by other means. We argue that a combination of constraints from various independent experimental sources will help to pinpoint the ``correct'' model of neutrino mass, or at least aid in narrowing down the set of possibilities.

  20. Turing's normal numbers: towards randomness Veronica Becher

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    presumably in 1938 Alan Turing gave an algorithm that produces real numbers normal to every integer base- putable normal numbers, and this result should be attributed to Alan Turing. His manuscript entitled "A

  1. High speed optical quantum random number generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weinfurter, Harald

    .3351 (2009). 6. I. Reidler, Y. Aviad, M. Rosenbluh, and I. Kanter, "Ultrahigh-speed random number generation

  2. Developing new high energy gradient concentration cathode material...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    new high energy gradient concentration cathode material Developing new high energy gradient concentration cathode material 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies...

  3. Atomic detail brownian dynamics simulations of concentrated protein...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    detail brownian dynamics simulations of concentrated protein solutions with a mean field treatment of hydrodynamic Atomic detail brownian dynamics simulations of concentrated...

  4. 2014 SunShot Initiative Portfolio Book: Concentrating Solar Power...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Concentrating Solar Power 2014 SunShot Initiative Portfolio Book: Concentrating Solar Power The 2014 SunShot Initiative Portfolio Book outlines the progress towards the goals...

  5. National Laboratory Concentrating Solar Power Research and Development...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    National Laboratory Concentrating Solar Power Research and Development National Laboratory Concentrating Solar Power Research and Development This fact sheet describes the current...

  6. Concentrating Solar Power: Best Practices Handbook for the Collection...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Concentrating Solar Power: Best Practices Handbook for the Collection and Use of Solar Resource Data Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Concentrating Solar...

  7. Concentrating Solar Power (Fact Sheet), SunShot Initiative, U...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Concentrating Solar Power Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) offers a utility-scale, firm, dispatchable renewable energy option that can help meet the nation's goal of making solar...

  8. Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation Amonix, Inc. Low Cost High Concentration PV Systems for Utility Power Generation Amonix, Inc. A series of brief...

  9. Drivers and Barriers in the Current Concentrated Solar Power...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the four major types of concentrating solar power technologies (CSP): parabolic trough, tower concentrators, linear Fresnel lenses and dish engine systems. It also provides an...

  10. Clar number of catacondensed benzenoid hydrocarbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klavzar, Sandi

    Clar number of catacondensed benzenoid hydrocarbons Sandi KlavŸzar a,# , Petra Ÿ Zigert a , Ivan hydrocarbon: CL is equal to the minimum number of straight lines required to intersect all hexagons theory; Clar formula; Clar number; Resonance graph; Benzenoid hydrocarbons 1. Introduction Within

  11. Suspension Hydrogen Reduction of Iron Oxide Concentrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H.Y. Sohn

    2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the project is to develop a new ironmaking technology based on hydrogen and fine iron oxide concentrates in a suspension reduction process. The ultimate objective of the new technology is to replace the blast furnace and to drastically reduce CO2 emissions in the steel industry. The goals of this phase of development are; the performance of detailed material and energy balances, thermochemical and equilibrium calculations for sulfur and phosphorus impurities, the determination of the complete kinetics of hydrogen reduction and bench-scale testing of the suspension reduction process using a large laboratory flash reactor.

  12. Current Status of Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV) Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philipps, S. P.; Bett, A. W.; Horowitz, K.; Kurtz, S.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the current status of the market and technology for concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) cells and modules. Significant progress in CPV has been achieved, including record efficiencies for modules (36.7%) and cells (46%), as well as growth of large field installations in recent years. CPV technology may also have the potential to be cost-competitive on a levelized cost of energy (LCOE) basis in regions of high direct normal irradiance (DNI). The study includes an overview of all installations larger than 1 MW, information on companies currently active in the CPV field, efficiency data, and estimates of the LCOE in different scenarios.

  13. Method for measuring lead concentrations in blood

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nogar, Nicholas S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Method for measuring lead concentrations in blood. The present invention includes the use of resonant laser ablation to analyze .ltoreq.1 .mu.L (or equivalent mass) samples of blood for lead content. A typical finger prick, for example, yields about 10 .mu.L. Solid samples may also readily be analyzed by resonant laser ablation. The sample is placed on a lead-free, electrically conducting substrate and irradiated with a single, focused laser beam which simultaneously vaporizes, atomizes, and resonantly ionizes an analyte of interest in a sample. The ions are then sorted, collected and detected using a mass spectrometer.

  14. Concentrator Photovoltaic System Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'sEnergyTexas1.Space DataEnergyCompressed AirEnergyConcentrator

  15. Concentrating Solar Power Facilities | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platformBuildingCoalComplex Flow Workshop ReportJungle | DepartmentConcentrating

  16. Concentrating Solar Power | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting theCommercialization andComputer SimulationsConcentrating Solar Power

  17. SunShot Concentrating Solar Power Program

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergyIssues DOE'sSummary Special Report:1, 2015 -SummitSunShot Concentrating

  18. Sandia Energy - Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand RequirementsCoatings Initiated at PNNL's Sequim BayCaptureCloudConcentrating Solar

  19. Concentrated Solar Power | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

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    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovationinConcentrating Solar Power Basics (The following text is derived