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Sample records for drop size distribution

  1. Characterization of Vertical Velocity and Drop Size Distribution Parameters in Widespread Precipitation at ARM Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giangrande S. E.; Luke, E. P.; Kollias, P.

    2012-02-01

    Extended, high-resolution measurements of vertical air motion and median volume drop diameter D0 in widespread precipitation from three diverse Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) locations [Lamont, Oklahoma, Southern Great Plains site (SGP); Niamey, Niger; and Black Forest, Germany] are presented. The analysis indicates a weak (0-10 cm{sup -1}) downward air motion beneath the melting layer for all three regions, a magnitude that is to within the typical uncertainty of the retrieval methods. On average, the hourly estimated standard deviation of the vertical air motion is 0.25 m s{sup -1} with no pronounced vertical structure. Profiles of D0 vary according to region and rainfall rate. The standard deviation of 1-min-averaged D0 profiles for isolated rainfall rate intervals is 0.3-0.4 mm. Additional insights into the form of the raindrop size distribution are provided using available dual-frequency Doppler velocity observations at SGP. The analysis suggests that gamma functions better explain paired velocity observations and radar retrievals for the Oklahoma dataset. This study will be useful in assessing uncertainties introduced in the measurement of precipitation parameters from ground-based and spaceborne remote sensors that are due to small-scale variability.

  2. Drop-size distribution for crosscurrent breakup of a liquid jet in a convective airstream 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyn, Gregory Michael

    1994-01-01

    an apparatus has been designed and constructed. A laser diffraction particle analyzer technique is used to spatially measure the spray Sauter-Mean Diameters. The Rosin-Rammler two parameter model is assumed for the droplet size distribution. Injection pressure...

  3. Laser capillary spectrophotometric acquisition of bivariate drop size and concentration data for liquid-liquid dispersion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tavlarides, L.L.; Bae, J.H.

    1991-12-24

    A laser capillary spectrophotometric technique measures real time or near real time bivariate drop size and concentration distribution for a reactive liquid-liquid dispersion system. The dispersion is drawn into a precision-bore glass capillary and an appropriate light source is used to distinguish the aqueous phase from slugs of the organic phase at two points along the capillary whose separation is precisely known. The suction velocity is measured, as is the length of each slug from which the drop free diameter is calculated. For each drop, the absorptivity at a given wavelength is related to the molar concentration of a solute of interest, and the concentration of given drops of the organic phase is derived from pulse heights of the detected light. This technique permits on-line monitoring and control of liquid-liquid dispersion processes. 17 figures.

  4. Maximum size of drops levitated by an air cushion Jacco H. Snoeijer,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eggers, Jens

    , kept aloft by a stream of water vapor. We investigate the limit of small flow rates, for which the size for the manipulation of corrosive sub- stances 10 or the frictionless displacement of drops 6 . Of particular interest is the maximum drop size that can be sus- tained, and the limit of very small flow rates. The drop con- tinues

  5. Eliminate Excessive In-Plant Distribution System Voltage Drops

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Undervoltage operation can result in increased currents, reduced starting torque, and lower efficiency. Suggested Actions Conduct a voltage drop survey. Voltage drop...

  6. ARM - Measurement - Hydrometeor Size Distribution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Home Roomparticle sizefraction ARMGeometry ARM DataSize

  7. Particle Size Distribution of Gypseous Samples 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnett, Morgan P.

    2010-01-16

    Particle size distribution (PSD) of gypseous soils is important in the soil science community. When gypsum constitutes a major portion of the soil, its removal prior to PSD analysis distorts the results and may lead to ...

  8. Self-Similar Micron-Size and Nanosize Drops of Liquid Generated by Surface Acoustic Waves Daniel Taller,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    '' approximation is permissible for the acous- tic wave equation to yield a quasistatic analysis of the acousticSelf-Similar Micron-Size and Nanosize Drops of Liquid Generated by Surface Acoustic Waves Daniel 46556, USA (Received 13 September 2012; published 27 November 2012) A planar surface acoustic wave

  9. ARM - Measurement - Aerosol particle size distribution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Home Roomparticle size distribution ARM Data Discovery

  10. Parameterizing Size Distribution in Ice Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeSlover, Daniel; Mitchell, David L.

    2009-09-25

    PARAMETERIZING SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS IN ICE CLOUDS David L. Mitchell and Daniel H. DeSlover ABSTRACT An outstanding problem that contributes considerable uncertainty to Global Climate Model (GCM) predictions of future climate is the characterization of ice particle sizes in cirrus clouds. Recent parameterizations of ice cloud effective diameter differ by a factor of three, which, for overcast conditions, often translate to changes in outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) of 55 W m-2 or more. Much of this uncertainty in cirrus particle sizes is related to the problem of ice particle shattering during in situ sampling of the ice particle size distribution (PSD). Ice particles often shatter into many smaller ice fragments upon collision with the rim of the probe inlet tube. These small ice artifacts are counted as real ice crystals, resulting in anomalously high concentrations of small ice crystals (D < 100 µm) and underestimates of the mean and effective size of the PSD. Half of the cirrus cloud optical depth calculated from these in situ measurements can be due to this shattering phenomenon. Another challenge is the determination of ice and liquid water amounts in mixed phase clouds. Mixed phase clouds in the Arctic contain mostly liquid water, and the presence of ice is important for determining their lifecycle. Colder high clouds between -20 and -36 oC may also be mixed phase but in this case their condensate is mostly ice with low levels of liquid water. Rather than affecting their lifecycle, the presence of liquid dramatically affects the cloud optical properties, which affects cloud-climate feedback processes in GCMs. This project has made advancements in solving both of these problems. Regarding the first problem, PSD in ice clouds are uncertain due to the inability to reliably measure the concentrations of the smallest crystals (D < 100 µm), known as the “small mode”. Rather than using in situ probe measurements aboard aircraft, we employed a treatment of ice cloud optical properties formulated in terms of PSD parameters in combination with remote measurements of thermal radiances to characterize the small mode. This is possible since the absorption efficiency (Qabs) of small mode crystals is larger at 12 µm wavelength relative to 11 µm wavelength due to the process of wave resonance or photon tunneling more active at 12 µm. This makes the 12/11 µm absorption optical depth ratio (or equivalently the 12/11 µm Qabs ratio) a means for detecting the relative concentration of small ice particles in cirrus. Using this principle, this project tested and developed PSD schemes that can help characterize cirrus clouds at each of the three ARM sites: SGP, NSA and TWP. This was the main effort of this project. These PSD schemes and ice sedimentation velocities predicted from them have been used to test the new cirrus microphysics parameterization in the GCM known as the Community Climate Systems Model (CCSM) as part of an ongoing collaboration with NCAR. Regarding the second problem, we developed and did preliminary testing on a passive thermal method for retrieving the total water path (TWP) of Arctic mixed phase clouds where TWPs are often in the range of 20 to 130 g m-2 (difficult for microwave radiometers to accurately measure). We also developed a new radar method for retrieving the cloud ice water content (IWC), which can be vertically integrated to yield the ice water path (IWP). These techniques were combined to determine the IWP and liquid water path (LWP) in Arctic clouds, and hence the fraction of ice and liquid water. We have tested this approach using a case study from the ARM field campaign called M-PACE (Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment). This research led to a new satellite remote sensing method that appears promising for detecting low levels of liquid water in high clouds typically between -20 and -36 oC. We hope to develop this method in future research.

  11. Pore size distribution and accessible pore size distribution in bituminous coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakurovs, Richard [ORNL; He, Lilin [ORNL; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; Radlinski, Andrzej Pawell [ORNL; Blach, Tomasz P [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    The porosity and pore size distribution of coals determine many of their properties, from gas release to their behavior on carbonization, and yet most methods of determining pore size distribution can only examine a restricted size range. Even then, only accessible pores can be investigated with these methods. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultra small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) are increasingly used to characterize the size distribution of all of the pores non-destructively. Here we have used USANS/SANS to examine 24 well-characterized bituminous and subbituminous coals: three from the eastern US, two from Poland, one from New Zealand and the rest from the Sydney and Bowen Basins in Eastern Australia, and determined the relationships of the scattering intensity corresponding to different pore sizes with other coal properties. The range of pore radii examinable with these techniques is 2.5 nm to 7 {micro}m. We confirm that there is a wide range of pore sizes in coal. The pore size distribution was found to be strongly affected by both rank and type (expressed as either hydrogen or vitrinite content) in the size range 250 nm to 7 {micro}m and 5 to 10 nm, but weakly in intermediate regions. The results suggest that different mechanisms control coal porosity on different scales. Contrast-matching USANS and SANS were also used to determine the size distribution of the fraction of the pores in these coals that are inaccessible to deuterated methane, CD{sub 4}, at ambient temperature. In some coals most of the small ({approx} 10 nm) pores were found to be inaccessible to CD{sub 4} on the time scale of the measurement ({approx} 30 min - 16 h). This inaccessibility suggests that in these coals a considerable fraction of inherent methane may be trapped for extended periods of time, thus reducing the effectiveness of methane release from (or sorption by) these coals. Although the number of small pores was less in higher rank coals, the fraction of total pores that was inaccessible was not rank dependent. In the Australian coals, at the 10 nm to 50 nm size scales the pores in inertinites appeared to be completely accessible to CD{sub 4}, whereas the pores in the vitrinite were about 75% inaccessible. Unlike the results for total porosity that showed no regional effects on relationships between porosity and coal properties, clear regional differences in the relationships between fraction of closed porosity and coal properties were found. The 10 to 50 nm-sized pores of inertinites of the US and Polish coals examined appeared less accessible to methane than those of the inertinites of Australian coals. This difference in pore accessibility in inertinites may explain why empirical relationships between fluidity and coking properties developed using Carboniferous coals do not apply to Australian coals.

  12. Distribution Effectiveness and Impacts on Equipment Sizing for Residential Thermal Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 LBNL-43724 Distribution Effectiveness and Impacts on Equipment Sizing for Residential Thermal Distribution Systems Walker, I., Sherman, M., and Siegel, J. Environmental Energy Technologies Division Energy

  13. Grain-size distributions of tsunami sediments 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spencer, Sarah

    2011-08-08

    tsunamis, Chile 2010 and Peru 2008. The grain-size of the sediment from each tsunami was measured by two common techniques: sieving and digital particle counter. To interpret this real tsunami data, numerical and analytical analysis were used to simulate...

  14. THE COLLISIONAL DIVOT IN THE KUIPER BELT SIZE DISTRIBUTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fraser, Wesley C. [Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, California Institute of Technology, MC 150-21, 1200 E. California Blvd. Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2009-11-20

    This paper presents the results of collisional evolution calculations for the Kuiper Belt starting from an initial size distribution similar to that produced by accretion simulations of that region-a steep power-law large object size distribution that breaks to a shallower slope at r approx 1-2 km, with collisional equilibrium achieved for objects r approx< 0.5 km. We find that the break from the steep large object power law causes a divot, or depletion of objects at r approx 10-20 km, which, in turn, greatly reduces the disruption rate of objects with r approx> 25-50 km, preserving the steep power-law behavior for objects at this size. Our calculations demonstrate that the roll-over observed in the Kuiper Belt size distribution is naturally explained as an edge of a divot in the size distribution; the radius at which the size distribution transitions away from the power law, and the shape of the divot from our simulations are consistent with the size of the observed roll-over, and size distribution for smaller bodies. Both the kink radius and the radius of the divot center depend on the strength scaling law in the gravity regime for Kuiper Belt objects. These simulations suggest that the sky density of r approx 1 km objects is approx10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} objects per square degree. A detection of the divot in the size distribution would provide a measure of the strength of large Kuiper Belt objects, and constrain the shape of the size distribution at the end of accretion in the Kuiper Belt.

  15. ARM - Measurement - Cloud particle size distribution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Home Roomparticle sizefraction ARM Datasize distribution ARM

  16. Pore-size-distribution of cationic polyacrylamide hydrogels. Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kremer, M.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The pore size distribution of a AAm/MAPTAC (acrylamide copolymerized with (3-methacrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium chloride) hydrogel was investigated using Kuga`s mixed-solute-exclusion method, taking into account the wall effect. A Brownian-motion model is also used. Results show the feasibility of determining pore-size distribution of porous materials using the mixed-solute-exclusion method in conjunction with solution of the Fredholm equation; good agreement was obtained with experiment, even for bimodal pore structures. However, different pore size distributions were calculated for the two different probe-solutes (Dextran and poly(ethylene glycol/oxide)). Future work is outlined. 32 figs, 25 refs.

  17. Pore-size-distribution of cationic polyacrylamide hydrogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kremer, M.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The pore size distribution of a AAm/MAPTAC (acrylamide copolymerized with (3-methacrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium chloride) hydrogel was investigated using Kuga's mixed-solute-exclusion method, taking into account the wall effect. A Brownian-motion model is also used. Results show the feasibility of determining pore-size distribution of porous materials using the mixed-solute-exclusion method in conjunction with solution of the Fredholm equation; good agreement was obtained with experiment, even for bimodal pore structures. However, different pore size distributions were calculated for the two different probe-solutes (Dextran and poly(ethylene glycol/oxide)). Future work is outlined. 32 figs, 25 refs.

  18. INITIAL PLANETESIMAL SIZES AND THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF SMALL KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlichting, Hilke E. [UCLA, Department of Earth and Space Science, 595 Charles E. Young Drive East, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Fuentes, Cesar I.; Trilling, David E., E-mail: hilke@ucla.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, P.O. Box 6010, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    The Kuiper Belt is a remnant from the early solar system and its size distribution contains many important constraints that can be used to test models of planet formation and collisional evolution. We show, by comparing observations with theoretical models, that the observed Kuiper Belt size distribution is well matched by coagulation models, which start with an initial planetesimal population with radii of about 1 km, and subsequent collisional evolution. We find that the observed size distribution above R {approx} 30 km is primordial, i.e., it has not been modified by collisional evolution over the age of the solar system, and that the size distribution below R {approx} 30 km has been modified by collisions and that its slope is well matched by collisional evolution models that use published strength laws. We investigate in detail the resulting size distribution of bodies ranging from 0.01 km to 30 km and find that its slope changes several times as a function of radius before approaching the expected value for an equilibrium collisional cascade of material strength dominated bodies for R {approx}< 0.1 km. Compared to a single power-law size distribution that would span the whole range from 0.01 km to 30 km, we find in general a strong deficit of bodies around R {approx} 10 km and a strong excess of bodies around 2 km in radius. This deficit and excess of bodies are caused by the planetesimal size distribution left over from the runaway growth phase, which left most of the initial mass in small planetesimals while only a small fraction of the total mass is converted into large protoplanets. This excess mass in small planetesimals leaves a permanent signature in the size distribution of small bodies that is not erased after 4.5 Gyr of collisional evolution. Observations of the small Kuiper Belt Object (KBO) size distribution can therefore test if large KBOs grew as a result of runaway growth and constrained the initial planetesimal sizes. We find that results from recent KBO occultation surveys and the observed KBO size distribution can be best matched by an initial planetesimal population that contained about equal mass per logarithmic mass bin in bodies ranging from 0.4 km to 4 km in radius. We further find that we cannot match the observed KBO size distribution if most of the planetesimal mass was contained in bodies that were 10 km in radius or larger simply because their resulting size distribution cannot be sufficiently depleted over 4.5 Gyr to match observations.

  19. SELF-CONSISTENT SIZE AND VELOCITY DISTRIBUTIONS OF COLLISIONAL CASCADES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pan, Margaret [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Schlichting, Hilke E., E-mail: mpan@astro.berkeley.edu, E-mail: hilke@ucla.edu [Department of Earth and Space Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2012-03-10

    The standard theoretical treatment of collisional cascades derives a steady-state size distribution assuming a single constant velocity dispersion for all bodies regardless of size. Here we relax this assumption and solve self-consistently for the bodies' steady-state size and size-dependent velocity distributions. Specifically, we account for viscous stirring, dynamical friction, and collisional damping of the bodies' random velocities in addition to the mass conservation requirement typically applied to find the size distribution in a steady-state cascade. The resulting size distributions are significantly steeper than those derived without velocity evolution. For example, accounting self-consistently for the velocities can change the standard q = 3.5 power-law index of the Dohnanyi differential size spectrum to an index as large as q = 4. Similarly, for bodies held together by their own gravity, the corresponding power-law index range 2.88 < q < 3.14 of Pan and Sari can steepen to values as large as q = 3.26. Our velocity results allow quantitative predictions of the bodies' scale heights as a function of size. Together with our predictions, observations of the scale heights for different-sized bodies for the Kuiper belt, the asteroid belt, and extrasolar debris disks may constrain the mass and number of large bodies stirring the cascade as well as the colliding bodies' internal strengths.

  20. Sedimentation of algae: relationships with biomass and size distribution1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazumder, Asit

    Sedimentation of algae: relationships with biomass and size distribution1 Isabelle Larocque, A distribution of epilimnetic algae on patterns of algal sedimentation was determined in lake enclosures under the mean length of algae in fish-free enclosures and reduced the mean length in the enclosures to which

  1. Influence of defects distribution and specimen size on fracture initiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krivtsov, Anton M.

    Influence of defects distribution and specimen size on fracture initiation Anton M. Krivtsov akrivtsov@bk.ru Abstract An analytical model for the scale dependence of the fracture initiation is suggested. The model is based on the idea that fracture is a stochastic process, for the bigger specimens

  2. Size distribution and structure of Barchan dune fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orencio Durán; Veit Schwämmle; Pedro G. Lind; Hans J. Herrmann

    2011-05-19

    Barchans are isolated mobile dunes often organized in large dune fields. Dune fields seem to present a characteristic dune size and spacing, which suggests a cooperative behavior based on dune interaction. In Duran et al. (2009), we propose that the redistribution of sand by collisions between dunes is a key element for the stability and size selection of barchan dune fields. This approach was based on a mean-field model ignoring the spatial distribution of dune fields. Here, we present a simplified dune field model that includes the spatial evolution of individual dunes as well as their interaction through sand exchange and binary collisions. As a result, the dune field evolves towards a steady state that depends on the boundary conditions. Comparing our results with measurements of Moroccan dune fields, we find that the simulated fields have the same dune size distribution as in real fields but fail to reproduce their homogeneity along the wind direction.

  3. VARIABILITY IN RAINFALL DROP-SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS OBSERVED AT THE ARM DARWIN SITE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Department/Atmospheric Sciences Division Brookhaven National Laboratory U.S. Department of Energy Office Associates, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02- 98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The publisher-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript

  4. Fidelity of Analytic Drop Size Distributions in Drizzling Stratiform Clouds Based on Large-Eddy Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kogan, Yefim L.; Kogan, Zena N.; Mechem, David B.

    2009-08-01

    by the Cooperative Institute for Mesoscale Meteorological Studies Large-Eddy Simulation (CIMMS LES) explicit microphysics model for stratocumulus cases observed during the Atlantic Stratocumulus Transition Experiment (ASTEX) field project. The fidelity of analytic...

  5. VARIABILITY IN RAINFALL DROP-SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS OBSERVED AT THE DARWIN ARM SITE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , microwave radiometer, radiosondes, solar and infrared radiometers, etc...provide a means to describe

  6. Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, M.L.; Goth-Goldstein, R.; Apte, M.G.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    About 50% of viral-induced respiratory illnesses are caused by the human rhinovirus (HRV). Measurements of the concentrations and sizes of bioaerosols are critical for research on building characteristics, aerosol transport, and mitigation measures. We developed a quantitative reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for HRV and verified that this assay detects HRV in nasal lavage samples. A quantitation standard was used to determine a detection limit of 5 fg of HRV RNA with a linear range over 1000-fold. To measure the size distribution of HRV aerosols, volunteers with a head cold spent two hours in a ventilated research chamber. Airborne particles from the chamber were collected using an Andersen Six-Stage Cascade Impactor. Each stage of the impactor was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR for HRV. For the first two volunteers with confirmed HRV infection, but with mild symptoms, we were unable to detect HRV on any stage of the impactor.

  7. Fluctuating fitness shapes the clone size distribution of immune repertoires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Desponds, Jonathan; Walczak, Aleksandra M

    2015-01-01

    The adaptive immune system relies on the diversity of receptors expressed on the surface of B and T-cells to protect the organism from a vast amount of pathogenic threats. The proliferation and degradation dynamics of different cell types (B cells, T cells, naive, memory) is governed by a variety of antigenic and environmental signals, yet the observed clone sizes follow a universal power law distribution. Guided by this reproducibility we propose effective models of somatic evolution where cell fate depends on an effective fitness. This fitness is determined by growth factors acting either on clones of cells with the same receptor responding to specific antigens, or directly on single cells with no regards for clones. We identify fluctuations in the fitness acting specifically on clones as the essential ingredient leading to the observed distributions. Combining our models with experiments we characterize the scale of fluctuations in antigenic environments and we provide tools to identify the relevant growth...

  8. Sifting attacks in finite-size quantum key distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corsin Pfister; Patrick J. Coles; Stephanie Wehner; Norbert Lütkenhaus

    2015-09-02

    A central assumption in quantum key distribution (QKD) is that Eve has no knowledge about which rounds will be used for parameter estimation or key distillation. Here we show that this assumption is violated for iterative sifting, a commonly used sifting procedure that has been em- ployed in both theoretical and experimental finite-size QKD. We show that iterative sifting leads to two problems: (1) some rounds are more likely to be key rounds than others, (2) the public communication of past measurement choices changes this bias round by round. We analyze these two previously unnoticed problems, present eavesdropping strategies that exploit them, and find that the two problems are independent. We propose corrections to the protocol and prove that the resulting protocol, which we call the fixed round number sifting protocol, is secure and can thus replace iterative sifting in future QKD protocols. It outperforms other recently suggested protocols, increasing the efficiency by a factor of almost two. More generally, we present two formal criteria for a sifting protocol which ensure that they are secure. Our criteria may guide the design of future protocols and inspire a more rigorous QKD analysis, which has neglected sifting-related attacks so far.

  9. On the Distribution of Fragment Sizes in the Fragmentation of Polymer Chains.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hathorn, Bryan C.

    On the Distribution of Fragment Sizes in the Fragmentation of Polymer Chains. B.C. Hathorn, a B of a polymer is calcu­ lated using a simple model based on Transition State Theory to describe the distribution promotes completely random scission, with equal probability distribution for all possible fragment sizes. 1

  10. The size distribution of conspeci c populations: the peoples of New Guinea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The size distribution of conspeci c populations: the peoples of New Guinea Vojtech Novotny1, Department of Biology, Brafova 7, 701 03 Ostrava, Czech Republic The size distribution of the language analogous to the resource division models of species abun- dance distribution in ecological communities

  11. Size-dependent polarization distribution in ferroelectric nanostructures: Phase field simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Long-Qing

    to memory and storage devices, sen- sors, and actuators. The properties of low-dimensional ferro- electricsSize-dependent polarization distribution in ferroelectric nanostructures: Phase field simulations distribution in ferroelectric nanostructures embedded in a nonferroelectric medium. The simulation results

  12. The geographic distribution of mammal body size in Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, M A; Lopez-Sanudo, I L; Hawkins, Bradford A.

    2006-01-01

    the mammals of Britain and Europe. Houghton Mif?in, Boston.mammals of Britain and Europe. Collins, London. Cotgreave,of mammal body size in Europe Miguel Á. Rodríguez 1 *, Irene

  13. Dust size distribution and concentrations with cottonseed oil mills 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiederhold, Lee Roy

    1976-01-01

    -VOLUME SAMPLES FOR P. S. D OF PARTICLES & 100 um DIAMETER (MMD) ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE ON HIGH-VOLUME SAMPLES FOR P. S. D. OF PARTICLES & 100 um DIAMETER (og) MULTIPLE RANGE TEST FOR MEAN VALUES OF MMD BY AREA MULTIPLE RANGE TEST OF MMD BY MILL PARTICLE SIZE... TEST OF AREA DUST CONCENTRATIONS = 15 Pm IN DIAMETER MULTIPLE RANGE TEST OF MILL DUST CONCENTRATIONS & 15 um IN DIAMETER ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE ON PARTICLE SIZING HEAD SAMPLES OF CONCENTRATIONS FOR PARTICLES & 100 IJBI DIAMETER . . . . 47 47 54...

  14. Determination of pore-size distribution in low-dielectric thin films D. W. Gidleya)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gidley, David

    -size distribution on pore shape/dimensionality and sample temperature is predicted using a simple quantum mechanicalDetermination of pore-size distribution in low-dielectric thin films D. W. Gidleya) and W. E. Frieze Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 T. L. Dull, J. Sun, and A

  15. ENTRAINMENT AND MIXING AND THEIR EFFECTS ON CLOUD DROPLET SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS OF THE STRATOCUMULUS CLOUDS OBSERVED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ENTRAINMENT AND MIXING AND THEIR EFFECTS ON CLOUD DROPLET SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS OF THE STRATOCUMULUS clouds due to entrainment and mixing of the clear air, which then affect the cloud droplet size distribution. How the entrained clear air mixes with cloudy air has been of great interest for the last several

  16. Global Patterns of City Size Distributions and Their Fundamental Drivers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerkhoff, Andrew J.

    a global perspective on the problem. If we hope to successfully manage urban environmental impacts, we capita environmental impact of humans varies across settlements of different sizes and across regions¤ *, Andrew J. Kerkhoff2 , Melanie E. Moses3 1 Department of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque

  17. Statistical distributions of water content and sizes for clouds above Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Statistical distributions of water content and sizes for clouds above Europe R. P. H. Berton O and water content (IWC), horizontal and vertical sizes (L and H), and top temperatures (T) of clouds above and water contents) controlling radiation transfer in the cloud, and geo- metrical sizes used

  18. Size distribution of particle systems analyzed with organic photodetectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sentis, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    As part of a consortium between academic and industry, this PhD work investigates the interest and capabilities of organic photo-sensors (OPS) for the optical characterization of suspensions and two-phase flows. The principle of new optical particle sizing instruments is proposed to characterize particle systems confined in a cylinder glass (standard configuration for Process Analytical Technologies). To evaluate and optimize the performance of these systems, a Monte-Carlo model has been specifically developed. This model accounts for the numerous parameters of the system: laser beam profile, mirrors, lenses, sample cell, particle medium properties (concentration, mean & standard deviation, refractive indices), OPS shape and positions, etc. Light scattering by particles is treated either by using Lorenz-Mie theory, Debye, or a hybrid model (that takes into account the geometrical and physical contributions). For diluted media (single scattering), particle size analysis is based on the inversion of scatter...

  19. Distribution Network Design: Selection and Sizing of Congested Connections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagi, Rakesh

    promotions (i.e., seasonal) and regular demand. In response to this, at the strategic or aggregate level demand. Several multinational companies use distribution center networks in this manner. For example. For most fast moving consumer goods, demand patterns are quite erratic, being a function of both sales

  20. A solvable model of fracture with power-law distribution of fragment sizes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ken Yamamoto; Yoshihiro Yamazaki

    2011-06-08

    The present paper describes a stochastic model of fracture, whose fragment size distribution can be calculated analytically as a power-law-like distribution. The model is basically cascade fracture, but incorporates the effect that each fragment in each stage of cascade ceases fracture with a certain probability. When the probability is constant, the exponent of the power-law cumulative distribution lies between -1 and 0, depending not only on the probability but the distribution of fracture points. Whereas, when the probability depends on the size of a fragment, the exponent is less than -1, irrespective of the distribution of fracture points.

  1. The dune size distribution and scaling relations of barchan dune fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orencio Durán; Veit Schwämmle; Pedro G. Lind; Hans J. Herrmann

    2008-10-27

    Barchan dunes emerge as a collective phenomena involving the generation of thousands of them in so called barchan dune fields. By measuring the size and position of dunes in Moroccan barchan dune fields, we find that these dunes tend to distribute uniformly in space and follow an unique size distribution function. We introduce an analyticalmean-field approach to show that this empirical size distribution emerges from the interplay of dune collisions and sand flux balance, the two simplest mechanisms for size selection. The analytical model also predicts a scaling relation between the fundamental macroscopic properties characterizing a dune field, namely the inter-dune spacing and the first and second moments of the dune size distribution.

  2. THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF THE NEPTUNE TROJANS AND THE MISSING INTERMEDIATE-SIZED PLANETESIMALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheppard, Scott S.; Trujillo, Chadwick A.

    2010-11-10

    We present an ultra-deep survey for Neptune Trojans using the Subaru 8.2 m and Magellan 6.5 m telescopes. The survey reached a 50% detection efficiency in the R band at m{sub R} = 25.7 mag and covered 49 deg{sup 2} of sky. m{sub R} = 25.7 mag corresponds to Neptune Trojans that are about 16 km in radius (assuming an albedo of 0.05). A paucity of smaller Neptune Trojans (radii < 45 km) compared with larger ones was found. The brightest Neptune Trojans appear to follow a steep power-law slope (q = 5 {+-} 1) similar to the brightest objects in the other known stable reservoirs such as the Kuiper Belt, Jupiter Trojans, and main belt asteroids. We find a roll-over for the Neptune Trojans that occurs around a radius of r = 45 {+-} 10 km (m{sub R} = 23.5 {+-} 0.3), which is also very similar to the other stable reservoirs. All the observed stable regions in the solar system show evidence for Missing Intermediate-Sized Planetesimals (MISPs). This indicates a primordial and not collisional origin, which suggests that planetesimal formation proceeded directly from small to large objects. The scarcity of intermediate- and smaller-sized Neptune Trojans may limit them as being a strong source for the short period comets.

  3. Lipid-Protein Interactions Alter Line Tensions and Domain Size Distributions in Lung Surfactant Monolayers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dhar, Prajnaparamita

    The size distribution of domains in phase-separated lung surfactant monolayers influences monolayer viscoelasticity and compressibility which, in turn, influence monolayer collapse and set the compression at which the ...

  4. A predictive model for particle size distribution and yield for Bayer precipitation and classification 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kapraun, Christopher Michael

    1996-01-01

    This project implements a dynamic alumina hydrate continuous precipitation and classification model in an alumina refining operation to allow the forecasting of a number of relevant process parameters, such as the particle size distribution...

  5. Network Stability under Alpha Fair Bandwidth Allocation with General File Size Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    fair bandwidth allocation, with any positive alpha parameter, a Lyapunov function is constructed1 Network Stability under Alpha Fair Bandwidth Allocation with General File Size Distribution. Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. Swinburne University of Technology, Australia. Abstract--Rate allocation

  6. Notes on representing grain size distributions obtained by electron backscatter diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toth, Laszlo S., E-mail: laszlo.metz@univ-lorraine.fr [Laboratoire d'Etude des Microstructures et de Mécanique des Matériaux (LEM3), UMR 7239, CNRS/Université de Lorraine, F-57045 Metz (France); Laboratory of Excellence on Design of Alloy Metals for low-mAss Structures (DAMAS), Université de Lorraine (France); Biswas, Somjeet, E-mail: somjeetbiswas@gmail.com [Laboratory of Excellence on Design of Alloy Metals for low-mAss Structures (DAMAS), Université de Lorraine (France); Gu, Chengfan, E-mail: chengfan.gu@unsw.edu.au [School of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Beausir, Benoit, E-mail: benoit.beausir@univ-lorraine.fr [Laboratoire d'Etude des Microstructures et de Mécanique des Matériaux (LEM3), UMR 7239, CNRS/Université de Lorraine, F-57045 Metz (France); Laboratory of Excellence on Design of Alloy Metals for low-mAss Structures (DAMAS), Université de Lorraine (France)

    2013-10-15

    Grain size distributions measured by electron backscatter diffraction are commonly represented by histograms using either number or area fraction definitions. It is shown here that they should be presented in forms of density distribution functions for direct quantitative comparisons between different measurements. Here we make an interpretation of the frequently seen parabolic tales of the area distributions of bimodal grain structures and a transformation formula between the two distributions are given in this paper. - Highlights: • Grain size distributions are represented by density functions. • The parabolic tales corresponds to equal number of grains in a bin of the histogram. • A simple transformation formula is given to number and area weighed distributions. • The particularities of uniform and lognormal distributions are examined.

  7. The influence of particle-size distribution and moisture levels on the formation of soil hardpans 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauer, Herman John

    1963-01-01

    THE INFLUENCE OF PARTICLE-SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND MOISTURE LEVELS ON THE FORMATION OF SOIL HARDPANS A Thesis By HERMAN J. BAUER Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE January, 1963 Major Subject: Soil Physics THE INFLUENCE OF PARTICLE-SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND MOISTURE LEVELS ON THE FORMATION OF SOIL HARDPANS A Thesis By HERMAN J. BAUER Approved as to style and content...

  8. ON CENTRIFUGAL SETTLING OF POLYDISPERSE SUSPENSIONS WITH A CONTINUOUS PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bürger, Raimund

    ON CENTRIFUGAL SETTLING OF POLYDISPERSE SUSPENSIONS WITH A CONTINUOUS PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION@ucn.cl ABSTRACT Gravity or centrifugal sedimentation of polydisperse suspensions with a continuous particle size is extended to settling in a rotating tube or basket centrifuge. Numerical simulations are presented

  9. A POSSIBLE DIVOT IN THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF THE KUIPER BELT'S SCATTERING OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shankman, C.; Gladman, B. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, 6224 Agriculture Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Kaib, N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Queens University (Canada); Kavelaars, J. J. [National Research Council of Canada, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Petit, J. M. [Institut UTINAM, CNRS-Universite de Franche-Comte, Besancon (France)

    2013-02-10

    Via joint analysis of a calibrated telescopic survey, which found scattering Kuiper Belt objects, and models of their expected orbital distribution, we explore the scattering-object (SO) size distribution. Although for D > 100 km the number of objects quickly rise as diameters decrease, we find a relative lack of smaller objects, ruling out a single power law at greater than 99% confidence. After studying traditional ''knees'' in the size distribution, we explore other formulations and find that, surprisingly, our analysis is consistent with a very sudden decrease (a divot) in the number distribution as diameters decrease below 100 km, which then rises again as a power law. Motivated by other dynamically hot populations and the Centaurs, we argue for a divot size distribution where the number of smaller objects rises again as expected via collisional equilibrium. Extrapolation yields enough kilometer-scale SOs to supply the nearby Jupiter-family comets. Our interpretation is that this divot feature is a preserved relic of the size distribution made by planetesimal formation, now ''frozen in'' to portions of the Kuiper Belt sharing a ''hot'' orbital inclination distribution, explaining several puzzles in Kuiper Belt science. Additionally, we show that to match today's SO inclination distribution, the supply source that was scattered outward must have already been vertically heated to the of order 10 Degree-Sign .

  10. Measurements of Aerosol Charge and Size Distribution for Graphite, Gold, Palladium, and Silver Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simones, Matthew P.; Gutti, Veera R.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.

    2011-11-01

    The role of charge on aerosol evolution and hence the nuclear source term has been an issue of interest, and there is a need for both experimental techniques and modeling for quantifying this role. Our focus here is on further exploration of a tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) technique to simultaneously measure both the size and charge (positive, negative and neutral) dependent aerosol distributions. We have generated graphite, gold, silver, and palladium nanoparticles (aerosol) using a spark generator. We measure the electrical mobility-size distributions for these aerosols using a TDMA, and from these data we deduce the full charge-size distributions. We observe asymmetry in the particle size distributions for negative and positive charges. This asymmetry could have a bearing on the dynamics of charged aerosols, indicating that the assumption of symmetry for size distributions of negatively and positively charged particles in source term simulations may not be always appropriate. Also, the experimental technique should find applications in measurements of aerosol rate processes that are affected by both particle charge and size (e.g. coagulation, deposition, resuspension), and hence in modeling and simulation of the nuclear source term.

  11. Consideration of Grain Size Distribution in the Diffusion of Fission Gas to Grain Boundaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul C. Millett; Yongfeng Zhang; Michael R. Tonks; S. B. Biner

    2013-09-01

    We analyze the accumulation of fission gas on grain boundaries in a polycrystalline microstructure with a distribution of grain sizes. The diffusion equation is solved throughout the microstructure to evolve the gas concentration in space and time. Grain boundaries are treated as infinite sinks for the gas concentration, and we monitor the cumulative gas inventory on each grain boundary throughout time. We consider two important cases: first, a uniform initial distribution of gas concentration without gas production (correlating with post-irradiation annealing), and second, a constant gas production rate with no initial gas concentration (correlating with in-reactor conditions). The results show that a single-grain-size model, such as the Booth model, over predicts the gas accumulation on grain boundaries compared with a polycrystal with a grain size distribution. Also, a considerable degree of scatter, or variability, exists in the grain boundary gas accumulation when comparing all of the grain boundaries in the microstructure.

  12. Analysis of Dispersive and Distributive Mixing In Terms of Minor Component Size and Spatial Distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Distributions In Continuous Polymer Processing Equipment Winston Wang and Ica Manas-Zloczower Department polymer processing opera- tions. Material processability and product properties are highly influenced of the minor component enhances sys- tem homogeneity. In continuous mixing processes, composition uniformity

  13. Low pressure shock initiation of porous HMX for two grain size distributions and two densities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustavsen, R.L.; Sheffield, S.A.; Alcon, R.R.

    1995-09-01

    Shock initiation measurements have been made on granular HMX (octotetramethylene tetranitrainine) for two particle size distributions and two densities. Samples were pressed to either 65% or 73% of crystal density from fine ({approx} 10 {mu}m grain size) and coarse (broad distribution of grain sizes peaking at {approx} 150 {mu}m) powders. Planar shocks of 0.2--1 GPa were generated by impacting gas gun driven projectiles on plastic targets containing the HMX. Wave profiles were measured at the input and output of the {approx} 3.9 mm thick HMX layer using electromagnetic particle velocity gauges. The initiation behavior for the two particle size distributions was very different. The coarse HMX began initiating at input pressures as low as 0.5 GPa. Transmitted wave profiles showed relatively slow reaction with most of the buildup occurring at the shock front. In contrast, the fine particle HMX did not begin to initiate at pressures below 0.9 GPa. When the fine powder did react, however, it did so much faster than the coarse HMX. These observations are consistent with commonly held ideas about bum rates being correlated to surface area, and initiation thresholds being correlated with the size and temperature of the hot spots created by shock passage. For each size, the higher density pressings were less sensitive than the lower density pressings.

  14. Ultrashort laser ablation of bulk copper targets: Dynamics and size distribution of the generated nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsakiris, N.; Gill-Comeau, M.; Lewis, L. J.; Anoop, K. K.; Ausanio, G.; Bruzzese, R.; Amoruso, S.

    2014-06-28

    We address the role of laser pulse fluence on expansion dynamics and size distribution of the nanoparticles produced by irradiating a metallic target with an ultrashort laser pulse in a vacuum, an issue for which contrasting indications are present in the literature. To this end, we have carried out a combined theoretical and experimental analysis of laser ablation of a bulk copper target with ?50 fs, 800?nm pulses, in an interval of laser fluencies going from few to several times the ablation threshold. On one side, molecular dynamics simulations, with two-temperature model, describe the decomposition of the material through the analysis of the evolution of thermodynamic trajectories in the material phase diagram, and allow estimating the size distribution of the generated nano-aggregates. On the other side, atomic force microscopy of less than one layer nanoparticles deposits on witness plates, and fast imaging of the nanoparticles broadband optical emission provide the corresponding experimental characterization. Both experimental and numerical findings agree on a size distribution characterized by a significant fraction (?90%) of small nanoparticles, and a residual part (?10%) spanning over a rather large size interval, evidencing a weak dependence of the nanoparticles sizes on the laser pulse fluence. Numerical and experimental findings show a good degree of consistency, thus suggesting that modeling can realistically support the search for experimental methods leading to an improved control over the generation of nanoparticles by ultrashort laser ablation.

  15. PublishedbyManeyPublishing(c)IOMCommunicationsLtd Size distribution of oxides and toughness of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    the size distribution of oxide particles in steel weld metals which have predominantly martensitic of steel weld metals S. Terashima* and H. K. D. H. Bhadeshia Experiments have been conducted to modify microstruc- tures dominated by low carbon martensite. The role of oxide particles introduced into the metal

  16. On the Size-Dependence of the Inclination Distribution of the Main Kuiper Belt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levison, Harold F.

    On the Size-Dependence of the Inclination Distribution of the Main Kuiper Belt Harold F. Levison We present a new analysis of the currently available orbital elements for the known Kuiper belt objects. In the non-resonant, main Kuiper belt we #12;nd a statistically signi#12;cant relationship

  17. Investigation of the relationship between chemical composition and size distribution of airborne particles by partial least

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanier, Charlie

    combustion sources, secondary aerosol, and coal-fired power plants. The size distribution, particle identified: secondary nitrate 1 and 2, remote traffic, secondary sulfate, lead, diesel traffic, coal-fired power plant, steel mill, nucleation, local traffic, and coke plant. Citation: Zhou, L., P. K. Hopke, C

  18. EVIDENCE FOR A COLOR DEPENDENCE IN THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF MAIN-BELT ASTEROIDS Paul Wiegert

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiegert, Paul

    EVIDENCE FOR A COLOR DEPENDENCE IN THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF MAIN-BELT ASTEROIDS Paul Wiegert ($1 km) main-belt asteroids with the 3.6 m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope. We observed in two filters axis, the difference between the filters in the inner belt is found to be somewhat less pronounced than

  19. Multiscale modeling and control of crystal shape and size distributions: accounting for crystal aggregation, evaluation of continuous crystallization systems and run-to-run control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwon, Joseph Sangil

    2015-01-01

    and Size Distributions: Accounting for Crystal Aggregation,and Size Distributions: Accounting for Crystal Aggregation,steady-state growth rate accounting for the dependence of

  20. COLOR DEPENDENCE IN THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF MAIN BELT ASTEROIDS REVISITED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    August, Tyler M.; Wiegert, Paul A.

    2013-06-15

    The size distribution of the asteroid belt is examined with 16956 main belt asteroids detected in data taken from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey in two filters (g' and r'). The cumulative H (absolute magnitude) distribution is examined in both filters, and both match well to simple power laws down to H = 17, with slopes in rough agreement with those reported the literature. This implies that disruptive collisions between asteroids are gravitationally dominated down to at least this size, and probably sub-kilometer scales. The slopes of these distributions appear shallower in the outer belt than the inner belt, and the g' distributions appear slightly steeper than the r'. The slope shallowing in the outer belt may reflect a real compositional difference: the inner asteroid belt has been suggested to consist mostly of stony and/or metallic S-type asteroids, whereas carbonaceous C-types are thought to be more prevalent further from the Sun. No waves are seen in the size distribution above H = 15. Since waves are expected to be produced at the transition from gravitationally-dominated to internal strength-dominated collisions, their absence here may imply that the transition occurs at sub-kilometer scales, much smaller than the H = 17 (diameter {approx} 1.6 km) cutoff of this study.

  1. Evidence for a colour dependence in the size distribution of main belt asteroids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul Wiegert; David Balam; Andrea Moss; Christian Veillet; Martin Connors; Ian Shelton

    2006-11-09

    We present the results of a project to detect small (~1 km) main-belt asteroids with the 3.6 meter Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT). We observed in 2 filters (MegaPrime g' and r') in order to compare the results in each band. Owing to the observational cadence we did not observe the same asteroids through each filter and thus do not have true colour information. However strong differences in the size distributions as seen in the two filters point to a colour-dependence at these sizes, perhaps to be expected in this regime where asteroid cohesiveness begins to be dominated by physical strength and composition rather than by gravity. The best fit slopes of the cumulative size distributions (CSDs) in both filters tend towards lower values for smaller asteroids, consistent with the results of previous studies. In addition to this trend, the size distributions seen in the two filters are distinctly different, with steeper slopes in r' than in g'. Breaking our sample up according to semimajor axis, the difference between the filters in the inner belt is found to be somewhat less pronounced than in the middle and outer belt, but the CSD of those asteroids seen in the r' filter is consistently and significantly steeper than in g' throughout. The CSD slopes also show variations with semimajor axis within a given filter, particularly in r'. We conclude that the size distribution of main belt asteroids is likely to be colour dependent at kilometer sizes and that this dependence may vary across the belt.

  2. SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND RATE OF PRODUCTION OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER GENERATED DURING METAL CUTTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.; S.K. Dua, Ph.D., C.H.P.; Hillol Guha, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    During deactivation and decommissioning activities, thermal cutting tools, such as plasma torch, laser, and gasoline torch, are used to cut metals. These activities generate fumes, smoke and particulates. These airborne species of matter, called aerosols, may be inhaled if suitable respiratory protection is not used. Inhalation of the airborne metallic aerosols has been reported to cause ill health effects, such as acute respiratory syndrome and chromosome damage in lymphocytes. In the nuclear industry, metals may be contaminated with radioactive materials. Cutting these metals, as in size reduction of gloveboxes and tanks, produces high concentrations of airborne transuranic particles. Particles of the respirable size range (size < 10 {micro}m) deposit in various compartments of the respiratory tract, the fraction and the site in the respiratory tract depending on the size of the particles. The dose delivered to the respiratory tract depends on the size distribution of the airborne particulates (aerosols) and their concentration and radioactivity/toxicity. The concentration of airborne particulate matter in an environment is dependent upon the rate of their production and the ventilation rate. Thus, measuring aerosol size distribution and generation rate is important for (1) the assessment of inhalation exposures of workers, (2) the selection of respiratory protection equipment, and (3) the design of appropriate filtration systems. Size distribution of the aerosols generated during cutting of different metals by plasma torch was measured. Cutting rates of different metals, rate of generation of respirable mass, as well as the fraction of the released kerf that become respirable were determined. This report presents results of these studies. Measurements of the particles generated during cutting of metal plates with a plasma arc torch revealed the presence of particles with mass median aerodynamic diameters of particles close to 0.2 {micro}m, arising from condensation of vaporized material and subsequent rapid formation of aggregates. Particles of larger size, resulting from ejection of melted material or fragments from the cutting zone, were also observed. This study presents data regarding the metal cutting rate, particle size distribution, and their generation rate, while using different cutting tools and metals. The study shows that respirable particles constitute only a small fraction of the released kerf.

  3. Ultrahigh throughput plasma processing of free standing silicon nanocrystals with lognormal size distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dogan, Ilker; Kramer, Nicolaas J.; Westermann, Rene H. J.; Verheijen, Marcel A. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Dohnalova, Katerina; Gregorkiewicz, Tom [Van der Waals-Zeeman Institute, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Smets, Arno H. M. [Photovoltaic Materials and Devices Laboratory, Delft University of Technology, P.O. Box 5031, 2600 GA Delft (Netherlands); Sanden, Mauritius C. M. van de [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research (DIFFER), P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2013-04-07

    We demonstrate a method for synthesizing free standing silicon nanocrystals in an argon/silane gas mixture by using a remote expanding thermal plasma. Transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy measurements reveal that the distribution has a bimodal shape consisting of two distinct groups of small and large silicon nanocrystals with sizes in the range 2-10 nm and 50-120 nm, respectively. We also observe that both size distributions are lognormal which is linked with the growth time and transport of nanocrystals in the plasma. Average size control is achieved by tuning the silane flow injected into the vessel. Analyses on morphological features show that nanocrystals are monocrystalline and spherically shaped. These results imply that formation of silicon nanocrystals is based on nucleation, i.e., these large nanocrystals are not the result of coalescence of small nanocrystals. Photoluminescence measurements show that silicon nanocrystals exhibit a broad emission in the visible region peaked at 725 nm. Nanocrystals are produced with ultrahigh throughput of about 100 mg/min and have state of the art properties, such as controlled size distribution, easy handling, and room temperature visible photoluminescence.

  4. Size and spacial distribution of micropores in SBA-15 using CM-SANS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pollock, Rachel A; Walsh, Brenna R; Fry, Jason A; Ghampson, Tyrone; Centikol, Ozgul; Melnichenko, Yuri B; Kaiser, Helmut; Pynn, Roger; Frederick, Brian G

    2011-01-01

    Diffraction intensity analysis of small-angle neutron scattering measurements of dry SBA-15 have been combined with nonlocal density functional theory (NLDFT) analysis of nitrogen desorption isotherms to characterize the micropore, secondary mesopore, and primary mesopore structure. The radial dependence of the scattering length density, which is sensitive to isolated surface hydroxyls, can only be modeled if the NLDFT pore size distribution is distributed relatively uniformly throughout the silica framework, not localized in a 'corona' around the primary mesopores. Contrast matching-small angle neutron scattering (CM-SANS) measurements, using water, decane, tributylamine, cyclohexane, and isooctane as direct probes of the size of micropores indicate that the smallest pores in SBA-15 have diameter between 5.7 and 6.2 {angstrom}. Correlation of the minimum pore size with the onset of the micropore size distribution provides direct evidence that the shape of the smallest micropores is cylinderlike, which is consistent with their being due to unraveling of the polymer template.

  5. Scale-free Universal Spectrum for Atmospheric Aerosol Size Distribution for Davos, Mauna Loa and Izana

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Selvam

    2014-08-14

    Atmospheric flows exhibit fractal fluctuations and inverse power law form for power spectra indicating an eddy continuum structure for the selfsimilar fluctuations. A general systems theory for fractal fluctuations developed by the author is based on the simple visualisation that large eddies form by space-time integration of enclosed turbulent eddies, a concept analogous to Kinetic Theory of Gases in Classical Statistical Physics. The ordered growth of atmospheric eddy continuum is in dynamical equilibrium and is associated with Maximum Entropy Production. The model predicts universal (scale-free) inverse power law form for fractal fluctuations expressed in terms of the golden mean. Atmospheric particulates are held in suspension in the fractal fluctuations of vertical wind velocity. The mass or radius (size) distribution for homogeneous suspended atmospheric particulates is expressed as a universal scale-independent function of the golden mean, the total number concentration and the mean volume radius. Model predicted spectrum is in agreement (within two standard deviations on either side of the mean) with total averaged radius size spectra for the AERONET (aerosol inversions) stations Davos and Mauna Loa for the year 2010 and Izana for the year 2009 daily averages. The general systems theory model for aerosol size distribution is scale free and is derived directly from atmospheric eddy dynamical concepts. At present empirical models such as the log normal distribution with arbitrary constants for the size distribution of atmospheric suspended particulates are used for quantitative estimation of earth-atmosphere radiation budget related to climate warming/cooling trends. The universal aerosol size spectrum will have applications in computations of radiation balance of earth-atmosphere system in climate models.

  6. Supplementary material for "Does the size distribution of mineral dust aerosols depend on the wind speed at emission?"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    Supplementary material for "Does the size distribution of mineral dust aerosols depend on the wind by truncating those bins. I do so by assuming that the sub-bin distribution follows the power law found by both

  7. The effect of fuel and engine design on diesel exhaust particle size distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baumgard, K.J.; Johnson, J.H. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States)

    1996-09-01

    The objective of this research was to obtain diesel particle size distributions from a 1988 and a 1991 diesel engine using three different fuels and two exhaust control technologies (a ceramic particle trap and an oxidation catalytic converter). The particle size distributions from both engines were used to develop models to estimate the composition of the individual size particles. Nucleation theory of the H{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} vapor is used to predict when nuclei-mode particles will form in the dilution tunnel. Combining the theory with the experimental data, the conditions necessary in the dilution tunnel for particle formation are predicted. The paper also contains a discussion on the differences between the 1988 and 1991 engine`s particle size distributions. The results indicated that nuclei mode particles (0.0075--0.046 {micro}m) are formed in the dilution tunnel and consist of more than 80% H{sub 2}O-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} particles when using the 1988 engine and 0.29 wt% sulfur fuel. Nucleation theory indicated that H{sub 2}O-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} particles may form during dilution at 0.03 wt% fuel sulfur levels and above. The 1991 engine was designed for lower particulate emissions than the 1988 engine and the 1991 engine`s accumulation mode particles (0.046-1.0 {micro}m) were reduced more than 80% by volume compared to the 1988 engine using the same low sulfur fuel. The particle size composition model indicated that using low sulfur fuel and the 1991 engine, the nuclei mode contained more than 45% of the total solid particles and over 85% of the soluble organic fraction.

  8. Yield-stress drops 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    German, Guy

    2010-01-01

    The behaviour of viscoplastic drops during formation and detachment from a capillary nozzle, free-fall, impact on a solid substrate and subsequent spreading are investigated experimentally by high-speed imaging. Drop ...

  9. Prediction of the Size Distributions of Methanol-Ethanol Clusters Detected in VUV Laser/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goddard III, William A.

    Prediction of the Size Distributions of Methanol-Ethanol Clusters Detected in VUV Laser distributions and geometries of vapor clusters equilibrated with methanol-ethanol (Me-Et) liquid mixtures were distributions of vapor clusters equilibrated with liquids, ranging from neat alcohols1,2 to methanol-ethanol (Me

  10. Platinum nanoparticle during electrochemical hydrogen evolution: Adsorbate distribution, active reaction species, and size effect

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tan, Teck L.; Wang, Lin -Lin; Zhang, Jia; Johnson, Duane D.; Bai, Kewu

    2015-03-13

    For small Pt nanoparticles (NPs), catalytic activity is, as observed, adversely affected by size in the 1–3 nm range. We elucidate, via first-principles-based thermodynamics, the operation H* distribution and cyclic voltammetry (CV) during the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) across the electrochemical potential, including the underpotential region (U ? 0) that is difficult to assess in experiment. We consider multiple adsorption sites on a 1 nm Pt NP model and show that the characteristic CV peaks from different H* species correspond well to experiment. We next quantify the activity contribution from each H* species to explain the adverse effect of size.more »From the resolved CV peaks at the standard hydrogen electrode potential (U = 0), we first deduce that the active species for the HER are the partially covered (100)-facet bridge sites and the (111)-facet hollow sites. Upon evaluation of the reaction barriers at operation H* distribution and microkinetic modeling of the exchange current, we find that the nearest-neighbor (100)-facet bridge site pairs have the lowest activation energy and contribute to ~75% of the NP activity. Edge bridge sites (fully covered by H*) per se are not active; however, they react with neighboring (100)-facet H* to account for ~18% of the activity, whereas (111)-facet hollow sites contribute little. As a result, extrapolating the relative contributions to larger NPs in which the ratio of facet-to-edge sites increases, we show that the adverse size effect of Pt NP HER activity kicks in for sizes below 2 nm.« less

  11. Extracting magnetic cluster size and its distributions in advanced perpendicular recording media with shrinking grain size using small angle x-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehta, Virat; Ikeda, Yoshihiro; Takano, Ken; Terris, Bruce D.; Hellwig, Olav; Wang, Tianhan; Wu, Benny; Graves, Catherine; Dürr, Hermann A.; Scherz, Andreas; Stöhr, Jo

    2015-05-18

    We analyze the magnetic cluster size (MCS) and magnetic cluster size distribution (MCSD) in a variety of perpendicular magnetic recording (PMR) media designs using resonant small angle x-ray scattering at the Co L{sub 3} absorption edge. The different PMR media flavors considered here vary in grain size between 7.5 and 9.5?nm as well as in lateral inter-granular exchange strength, which is controlled via the segregant amount. While for high inter-granular exchange, the MCS increases rapidly for grain sizes below 8.5?nm, we show that for increased amount of segregant with less exchange the MCS remains relatively small, even for grain sizes of 7.5 and 8?nm. However, the MCSD still increases sharply when shrinking grains from 8 to 7.5?nm. We show evidence that recording performance such as signal-to-noise-ratio on the spin stand correlates well with the product of magnetic cluster size and magnetic cluster size distribution.

  12. Polarized light propagation in highly scattering turbid media with a distribution of the particle size: a Monte Carlo study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koh, Wonshill

    2013-02-22

    The light propagation in highly scattering turbid media composed of the particles with different size distribution is studied using a Monte Carlo simulation model implemented in Standard C. Monte Carlo method has been widely utilized to study...

  13. The effect of sand grain size distribution on the minimum oil saturation necessary to support in-situ combustion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, William Marvin

    1973-01-01

    THE EFFECT OF SAND GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION ON THE MINIMUM OIL SATURATION NECESSARY TO SUPPORT IN-SITU COMBUSTION A Thesis by WILLIAM MARVIN DANIEL Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1973 Major Subject: Petroleum. Engineering THE EFFECT OF SAND GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTION ON THE MINIMUM OIL SATURATION NECESSARY TO SUPPORT IN-SITU COMBUSTION A Thesis by WILLIAM MARVIN DANIEL Approved...

  14. Lifetime of oil drops pressed by buoyancy against a planar interface: Large drops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clara Rojas; Máximo García-Sucre; Germán Urbina-Villalba

    2011-09-22

    In a previous report [10] it was shown that emulsion stability simulations are able to reproduce the lifetime of micrometer-size drops of hexadecane pressed by buoyancy against a planar water-hexadecane interface. It was confirmed that small drops (rioil stabilized with bovine serum albumin. The potential obtained is then employed to study the lifetime of deformable drops in the range 10 \\leq ri \\leq 1000 {\\mu}m. It is established that the average lifetime of these drops can be adequately replicated using the model of truncated spheres. However, the results depend sensibly on the expressions of the initial distance of deformation and the maximum film radius used in the calculations. The set of equations adequate for large drops is not satisfactory for medium-size drops (10 \\leq ri \\leq 100 {\\mu}m), and vice versa. In the case of large particles, the increase in the interfacial area as a consequence of the deformation of the drops generates a very large repulsive barrier which opposes coalescence. Nevertheless, the buoyancy force prevails. As a consequence, it is the hydrodynamic tensor of the drops which determine the characteristic behavior of the lifetime as a function of the particle size. While the average values of the coalescence time of the drops can be justified by the mechanism of film thinning, the scattering of the experimental data of large drops cannot be rationalized using the methodology previously described. A possible explanation of this phenomenon required elaborate simulations which combine deformable drops, capillary waves, repulsive interaction forces, and a time-dependent surfactant adsorption.

  15. Distribution approximations for the chemical master equation: comparison of the method of moments and the system size expansion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Andreychenko; Luca Bortolussi; Ramon Grima; Philipp Thomas; Verena Wolf

    2015-09-30

    The stochastic nature of chemical reactions involving randomly fluctuating population sizes has lead to a growing research interest in discrete-state stochastic models and their analysis. A widely-used approach is the description of the temporal evolution of the system in terms of a chemical master equation (CME). In this paper we study two approaches for approximating the underlying probability distributions of the CME. The first approach is based on an integration of the statistical moments and the reconstruction of the distribution based on the maximum entropy principle. The second approach relies on an analytical approximation of the probability distribution of the CME using the system size expansion, considering higher-order terms than the linear noise approximation. We consider gene expression networks with unimodal and multimodal protein distributions to compare the accuracy of the two approaches. We find that both methods provide accurate approximations to the distributions of the CME while having different benefits and limitations in applications.

  16. Distribution of maximal clique size of the vertices for theoretical small-world networks and real-world networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meghanathan, Natarajan

    2015-01-01

    Our primary objective in this paper is to study the distribution of the maximal clique size of the vertices in complex networks. We define the maximal clique size for a vertex as the maximum size of the clique that the vertex is part of and such a clique need not be the maximum size clique for the entire network. We determine the maximal clique size of the vertices using a modified version of a branch-and-bound based exact algorithm that has been originally proposed to determine the maximum size clique for an entire network graph. We then run this algorithm on two categories of complex networks: One category of networks capture the evolution of small-world networks from regular network (according to the wellknown Watts-Strogatz model) and their subsequent evolution to random networks; we show that the distribution of the maximal clique size of the vertices follows a Poisson-style distribution at different stages of the evolution of the small-world network to a random network; on the other hand, the maximal cl...

  17. Relationship between Particle Size Distribution of Low-Rank Pulverized Coal and Power Plant Performance

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ganguli, Rajive; Bandopadhyay, Sukumar

    2012-01-01

    The impact of particle size distribution (PSD) of pulverized, low rank high volatile content Alaska coal on combustion related power plant performance was studied in a series of field scale tests. Performance was gauged through efficiency (ratio of megawatt generated to energy consumed as coal), emissions (SO 2 , NO x , CO), and carbon content of ash (fly ash and bottom ash). The study revealed that the tested coal could be burned at a grind as coarse as 50% passing 76 microns, with no deleterious impact on power generation andmore »emissions. The PSD’s tested in this study were in the range of 41 to 81 percent passing 76 microns. There was negligible correlation between PSD and the followings factors: efficiency, SO 2 , NO x , and CO. Additionally, two tests where stack mercury (Hg) data was collected, did not demonstrate any real difference in Hg emissions with PSD. The results from the field tests positively impacts pulverized coal power plants that burn low rank high volatile content coals (such as Powder River Basin coal). These plants can potentially reduce in-plant load by grinding the coal less (without impacting plant performance on emissions and efficiency) and thereby, increasing their marketability. « less

  18. Solitary Dust--Acoustic Waves in a Plasma with Two-Temperature Ions and Distributed Grain Size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. V. Prudskikh

    2008-12-02

    The propagation of weakly nonlinear dust--acoustic waves in a dusty plasma containing two ion species with different temperatures is explored. The nonlinear equations describing both the quadratic and cubic plasma nonlinearities are derived. It is shown that the properties of dust--acoustic waves depend substantially on the grain size distribution. In particular, for solitary dust--acoustic waves with a positive potential to exist in a plasma with distributed grain size, it is necessary that the difference between the temperatures of two ion species be large that that in the case of unusized grains.

  19. Evolution of soot size distribution in premixed ethylene/air and ethylene/benzene/air flames: Experimental and modeling study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Echavarria, Carlos A.; Sarofim, Adel F.; Lighty, JoAnn S.; D'Anna, Andrea

    2011-01-15

    The effect of benzene concentration in the initial fuel on the evolution of soot size distribution in ethylene/air and ethylene/benzene/air flat flames was characterized by experimental measurements and model predictions of size and number concentration within the flames. Experimentally, a scanning mobility particle sizer was used to allow spatially resolved and online measurements of particle concentration and sizes in the nanometer-size range. The model couples a detailed kinetic scheme with a discrete-sectional approach to follow the transition from gas-phase to nascent particles and their coagulation to larger soot particles. The evolution of soot size distribution (experimental and modeled) in pure ethylene and ethylene flames doped with benzene showed a typical nucleation-sized (since particles do not actually nucleate in the classical sense particle inception is often used in place of nucleation) mode close to the burner surface, and a bimodal behavior at greater height above burner (HAB). However, major features were distinguished between the data sets. The growth of nucleation and agglomeration-sized particles was faster for ethylene/benzene/air flames, evidenced by the earlier presence of bimodality in these flames. The most significant changes in size distribution were attributed to an increase in benzene concentration in the initial fuel. However, these changes were more evident for high temperature flames. In agreement with the experimental data, the model also predicted the decrease of nucleation-sized particles in the postflame region for ethylene flames doped with benzene. This behavior was associated with the decrease of soot precursors after the main oxidation zone of the flames. (author)

  20. Method development and validation for measuring the particle size distribution of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) powders.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Sharissa Gay

    2005-09-01

    Currently, the critical particle properties of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) that influence deflagration-to-detonation time in exploding bridge wire detonators (EBW) are not known in sufficient detail to allow development of a predictive failure model. The specific surface area (SSA) of many PETN powders has been measured using both permeametry and gas absorption methods and has been found to have a critical effect on EBW detonator performance. The permeametry measure of SSA is a function of particle shape, packed bed pore geometry, and particle size distribution (PSD). Yet there is a general lack of agreement in PSD measurements between laboratories, raising concerns regarding collaboration and complicating efforts to understand changes in EBW performance related to powder properties. Benchmarking of data between laboratories that routinely perform detailed PSD characterization of powder samples and the determination of the most appropriate method to measure each PETN powder are necessary to discern correlations between performance and powder properties and to collaborate with partnering laboratories. To this end, a comparison was made of the PSD measured by three laboratories using their own standard procedures for light scattering instruments. Three PETN powder samples with different surface areas and particle morphologies were characterized. Differences in bulk PSD data generated by each laboratory were found to result from variations in sonication of the samples during preparation. The effect of this sonication was found to depend on particle morphology of the PETN samples, being deleterious to some PETN samples and advantageous for others in moderation. Discrepancies in the submicron-sized particle characterization data were related to an instrument-specific artifact particular to one laboratory. The type of carrier fluid used by each laboratory to suspend the PETN particles for the light scattering measurement had no consistent effect on the resulting PSD data. Finally, the SSA of the three powders was measured using both permeametry and gas absorption methods, enabling the PSD to be linked to the SSA for these PETN powders. Consistent characterization of other PETN powders can be performed using the appropriate sample-specific preparation method, so that future studies can accurately identify the effect of changes in the PSD on the SSA and ultimately model EBW performance.

  1. Gap-Size Distribution Functions of a Random Sequential Adsorption Model of Segments on the Line

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. A. M. Araujo; A. Cadilhe

    2006-04-24

    We performed extensive simulations accompanied by a detailed study of a two-segment size random sequential model on the line. We followed the kinetics towards the jamming state, but we paid particular attention to the characterization of the jamming state structure. In particular, we studied the effect of the size ratio on the mean-gap size, the gap-size dispersion, gap-size skewness, and gap-size kurtosis at the jamming state. We also analyzed the above quantities for the four possible segment-to-segment gap types. We ranged the values of the size ratio from one to twenty. In the limit of a size ratio of one, one recovers the classical car-parking problem. We observed that at low size ratios the jamming state is constituted by short streaks of small and large segments, while at high values of the size ratio the jamming state structure is formed by long streaks of small segments separated by a single large segment. This view of the jamming state structure as a function of the size ratio is supported by the various measured quantities. The present work can help provide insight, for example, on how to minimize the interparticle distance or minimize fluctuations around the mean particle-to-particle distance.

  2. Influence of Cement Particle-Size Distribution on Early Age Autogenous Strains and Stresses in Cement-Based Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bentz, Dale P.

    Influence of Cement Particle-Size Distribution on Early Age Autogenous Strains and Stresses in Cement-Based Materials Dale P. Bentz* Building and Fire Research Laboratory, National Institute-Jochen Haecker* Wilhelm Dyckerhoff Institut, 65203 Wiesbaden, Germany The influence of cement particle

  3. Drum drop test report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBeath, R.S.

    1995-02-28

    Testing was performed to determine actual damage to drums when dropped from higher than currently stacked elevations. The drum configurations were the same as they are placed in storage; single drums and four drums banded to a pallet. Maximum drop weights were selected based on successful preliminary tests. Material was lost from each of the single drum tests while only a small amount of material was lost from one of the pelletized drums. The test results are presented in this report. This report also provides recommendations for further testing to determine the appropriate drum weight which can be stored on a fourth tier.

  4. Effect of Particle Optical Properties on Size Distribution of Soils Obtained by Laser Diffraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    ) is essential infor- mation for those in the fields of engineering and environmental geosciences, sedimentology, sedimentology, pedology, etc. (Wen et al., 2002). In geotechnical practices, PSD and clay-size fraction of soils

  5. Optimal Placement and Sizing of Distributed Generator Units using Genetic Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and electricity in the distribution grid. A group of DG units can form a virtual power plant, being centrally controlled and behaving as a single power plant towards the grid. The extreme case is an energy island to conventional power plants distributed generation units such as PV cells (depending on solar illumination

  6. Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01

    Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids. The present invention includes the use of two closely spaced transducers, or one transducer and a closely spaced reflector plate, to form an interferometer suitable for ultrasonic characterization of droplet-size and smaller samples without the need for a container. The droplet is held between the interferometer elements, whose distance apart may be adjusted, by surface tension. The surfaces of the interferometer elements may be readily cleansed by a stream of solvent followed by purified air when it is desired to change samples. A single drop of liquid is sufficient for high-quality measurement. Examples of samples which may be investigated using the apparatus and method of the present invention include biological specimens (tear drops; blood and other body fluid samples; samples from tumors, tissues, and organs; secretions from tissues and organs; snake and bee venom, etc.) for diagnostic evaluation, samples in forensic investigations, and detection of drugs in small quantities.

  7. Shoreline, grain-size, and total-carbon distribution changes before and after Hurricane Alicia, Galveston Island, Texas, 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rothammer, C.M.; Morrison, L.R.; Warkentin, S.L.

    1985-02-01

    Shoreline, grain-size, and sediment total-carbon changes were monitored, on a monthly basis, on three Galveston Island beaches, from January through December 1983. The study area included: (1) East Beach, obstructed by groins and a seawall; (2) Galveston Island State Park, obstructed by fences artificially stabilizing the dunes; and (3) West Beach, an unobstructed beach. Beach profiles revealed the effects of beach obstruction, such as erosion and undercutting at East Beach, and truncation of the dunes at Galveston Island State Park. Approximately 20 m of expansional cutback occurred on the beaches after Hurricane Alicia hit on August 18, 1983. Contour maps of grain-size and total-carbon distributions reflect the movement of beach sand by either onshore-offshore transport during low-energy periods, or longshore, edge-wave transport during high-energy periods. Statistical analyses revealed a small variation in grain size throughout the year. There were well-defined times of either no correlation or strong correlation between total carbon vs. mean grain size, skewness vs. mean grain size, kurtosis vs. mean grain size, skewness vs. mean grain size, kurtosis vs. mean grain size, total carbon vs. percent sand, total carbon vs. skewness, and skewness vs. kurtosis. Strong correlation was found in response to high-energy events, whereas no correlation was found in response to low-energy events. Galveston Island is undergoing net erosion and appears to be in a metastable state, still capable of responding to oceanographic conditions. The economic effects of Hurricane Alicia include considerable loss of the shoreline and destruction of property. Beach nourishment appears to be the only economically feasible solution to counteract the extensive erosion.

  8. Environmental Transmission Electron Microscopy Study of the Origins of Anomalous Particle Size Distributions in Supported Metal Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benavidez, Angelica D.; Kovarik, Libor; Genc, Arda; Agrawal, Nitin; Larsson, Elin M.; Hansen, Thomas W.; Karim, Ayman M.; Datye, Abhaya K.

    2012-10-31

    In this Environmental TEM (ETEM) study of supported Pt and Pd model catalysts, individual nanoparticles were tracked during heat treatments at temperatures up to 600°C in H2, O2, and vacuum. We found anomalous growth of nanoparticles occurred during the early stages of catalyst sintering wherein some particles started to grow significantly larger than the mean, resulting in a broadening of the particle size distribution. We can rule out sample non-uniformity as a cause for the growth of these large particles, since images were recorded prior to heat treatments. The anomalous growth of these particles may help explain particle size distributions in heterogeneous catalysts which often show particles that are significantly larger than the mean, resulting in a long tail to the right. It has been suggested that particle migration and coalescence could be the likely cause for the broad size distributions. This study shows that anomalous growth of nanoparticles can occur under conditions where Ostwald ripening is the primary sintering mechanism.

  9. Marine particle dynamics : sinking velocities, size distributions, fluxes, and microbial degradation rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDonnell, Andrew M. P

    2011-01-01

    The sinking flux of particulate matter into the ocean interior is an oceanographic phenomenon that fuels much of the metabolic demand of the subsurface ocean and affects the distribution of carbon and other elements ...

  10. Method and apparatus for controlled size distribution of gel microspheres formed from aqueous dispersions. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryon, A.D.; Haas, P.A.; Vavruska, J.S.

    1982-01-19

    The present invention is directed to a method and apparatus for making a population of dense, closely size-controlled microspheres by sol-gel procedures wherein said microspheres are characterized by a significant percentage of said population being within a predetermined, relatively narrow size range. This is accomplished by subjecting aqueous dispersions of a sol, within a water-immiscible organic liquid to a turbulent flow. Microsphere populations thus provided are useful in vibratory-packed processes for nuclear fuels to be irradiated in LWR- and FBR-type nuclear reactors.

  11. Founding, Foraging, and Fighting: Colony Size and the Spatial Distribution of Harvester Ant Author(s): Deborah M. Gordon and Alan W. Kulig

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon, Deborah

    Founding, Foraging, and Fighting: Colony Size and the Spatial Distribution of Harvester Ant Nests of America FOUNDING, FORAGING, AND FIGHTING: COLONY SIZE AND THE SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF HARVESTER ANT NESTS meet, most fights are brief, with few resulting in injury or death. These results suggest that the cost

  12. Fuzzy-Oil-Drop Hydrophobic Force Field A Model to Represent Late-stage Folding (In Silico) of Lysozyme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skolnick, Jeff

    Fuzzy-Oil-Drop Hydrophobic Force Field ­ A Model to Represent Late-stage Folding (In Silico the external field in the form of a fuzzy-oil-drop assumed to represent the environment. The drop is expressed is the parameter to be mini- mized in the structure optimization procedure. The size of fuzzy-oil-drop is critical

  13. LOAD PROFILING IN DISTRIBUTED REAL-TIME SYSTEMS \\One Size Doesn't Fit All"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    pro ling, the system attempts to distribute the load amongst its nodes so as to maximize the chances of nding a node that would satisfy the computational needs of incoming real-time tasks. To that end, we on a solid, analytical foundation for real-time resource management. Examples include the Ada RTSIA

  14. LOAD PROFILING IN DISTRIBUTED REALTIME SYSTEMS \\Lambda ``One Size Doesn't Fit All''

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Using load profiling, the system attempts to distribute the load amongst its nodes so as to maximize the chances of finding a node that would satisfy the computational needs of incoming real­time tasks engineering based on a solid, analytical foundation for real­time resource management. Examples include

  15. NREL: Biomass Research - Discovering Drop-In Biofuels to Leverage...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    drop-in fuels that are compatible with existing engines and fuel distribution. Biomass feedstocks such as crop residues and algae are available on a scale that other renewable...

  16. Determination of plasma frequency, damping constant, and size distribution from the complex dielectric function of noble metal nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendoza Herrera, Luis J.; Arboleda, David Muñetón; Schinca, Daniel C.; Scaffardi, Lucía B.

    2014-12-21

    This paper develops a novel method for simultaneously determining the plasma frequency ?{sub P}?? and the damping constant ?{sub free} in the bulk damped oscillator Drude model, based on experimentally measured real and imaginary parts of the metal refractive index in the IR wavelength range, lifting the usual approximation that restricts frequency values to the UV-deep UV region. Our method was applied to gold, silver, and copper, improving the relative uncertainties in the final values for ?{sub p} (0.5%–1.6%) and for ?{sub free} (3%–8%), which are smaller than those reported in the literature. These small uncertainties in ?{sub p} and ?{sub free} determination yield a much better fit of the experimental complex dielectric function. For the case of nanoparticles (Nps), a series expansion of the Drude expression (which includes ?{sub p} and ?{sub free} determined using our method) enables size-dependent dielectric function to be written as the sum of three terms: the experimental bulk dielectric function plus two size corrective terms, one for free electron, and the other for bound-electron contributions. Finally, size distribution of nanometric and subnanometric gold Nps in colloidal suspension was determined through fitting its experimental optical extinction spectrum using Mie theory based on the previously determined dielectric function. Results are compared with size histogram obtained from Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)

  17. Holographic Measurement of Drop-on-Demand Drops in Flight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, G. D.; Castrejon-Pita, J. R.; Hutchings, I. M.

    2011-01-01

    .pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 G. D. Martin, J. R. Castrejon-Pita and I. M. Hutchings, in Proc 27th Int. Conf. on Digital Printing Technologies, NIP27, Minneapolis, MN, USA, 2011 620-623, 'Holographic Measurement of Drop-on-Demand Drops...

  18. Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, D.N.

    1998-04-14

    Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids is disclosed. The present invention includes the use of two closely spaced transducers, or one transducer and a closely spaced reflector plate, to form an interferometer suitable for ultrasonic characterization of droplet-size and smaller samples without the need for a container. The droplet is held between the interferometer elements, whose distance apart may be adjusted, by surface tension. The surfaces of the interferometer elements may be readily cleansed by a stream of solvent followed by purified air when it is desired to change samples. A single drop of liquid is sufficient for high-quality measurement. Examples of samples which may be investigated using the apparatus and method of the present invention include biological specimens (tear drops; blood and other body fluid samples; samples from tumors, tissues, and organs; secretions from tissues and organs; snake and bee venom, etc.) for diagnostic evaluation, samples in forensic investigations, and detection of drugs in small quantities. 5 figs.

  19. Generation of Motion of Drops with Interfacial Contact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manoj K. Chaudhury; Aditi Chakrabarti; Susan Daniel

    2015-08-05

    A liquid drop moves on a solid surface if it is subjected to a gradient of wettability or temperature. However, the pinning defects on the surface manifested in terms of a wetting hysteresis, or first-order nonlinear friction, limit the motion in the sense that a critical size has to be exceeded for a drop to move. The effect of hysteresis can, however, be mitigated by an external vibration that can be either structured or stochastic, thereby creating a directed motion of the drop. Many of the well-known features of rectification, amplification, and switching that are generic to electronics can be engineered with such types of movements. A specific case of interest is the random coalescence of drops on a surface that gives rise to self-generated noise. This noise overcomes the pinning potential, thereby generating a random motion of the coalesced drops. Randomly moving coalesced drops themselves exhibit a directed diffusive flux when a boundary is present to eliminate them by absorption. With the presence of a bias, the coalesced drops execute a diffusive drift motion that can have useful applications in various water and thermal management technologies.

  20. Intercomparison of Large-eddy Simulations of Arctic Mixed-phase Clouds: Importance of Ice Size Distribution Assumptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Ackerman, Andrew; Avramov, Alex; Cheng, Anning; Fan, Jiwen; Fridlind, Ann; Ghan, Steven J.; Harrington, Jerry Y.; Hoose, Corinna; Korolev, Alexei; McFarquhar, Greg; Morrison, H.; Paukert, Marco; Savre, Julien; Shipway, Ben; Shupe, Matthew D.; Solomon, Amy; Sulia, Kara

    2014-03-14

    Large-eddy simulations of mixed-phase Arctic clouds by 11 different models are analyzed with the goal of improving understanding and model representation of processes controlling the evolution of these clouds. In a case based on observations from the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC), it is found that ice number concentration, Ni, exerts significant influence on the cloud structure. Increasing Ni leads to a substantial reduction in liquid water path (LWP) and potential cloud dissipation, in agreement with earlier studies. By comparing simulations with the same microphysics coupled to different dynamical cores as well as the same dynamics coupled to different microphysics schemes, it is found that the ice water path (IWP) is mainly controlled by ice microphysics, while the inter-model differences in LWP are largely driven by physics and numerics of the dynamical cores. In contrast to previous intercomparisons, all models here use the same ice particle properties (i.e., mass-size, mass-fall speed, and mass-capacitance relationships) and a common radiation parameterization. The constrained setup exposes the importance of ice particle size distributions (PSD) in influencing cloud evolution. A clear separation in LWP and IWP predicted by models with bin and bulk microphysical treatments is documented and attributed primarily to the assumed shape of ice PSD used in bulk schemes. Compared to the bin schemes that explicitly predict the PSD, schemes assuming exponential ice PSD underestimate ice growth by vapor deposition and overestimate mass-weighted fall speed leading to an underprediction of IWP by a factor of two in the considered case.

  1. Evaluation of moist processes during intense precipitation in km-scale NWP models using remote sensing and in-situ data: Impact of microphysics size distribution assumptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Weverberg, K.; van Lipzig, N. P. M.; Delobbe, L.

    2011-02-01

    This study investigates the sensitivity of moist processes and surface precipitation during three extreme precipitation events over Belgium to the representation of rain, snow and hail size distributions in a bulk one-moment microphysics parameterisation scheme. Sensitivities included the use of empirically derived relations to calculate the slope parameter and diagnose the intercept parameter of the exponential snow and rain size distributions and sensitivities to the treatment of hail/graupel. A detailed evaluation of the experiments against various high temporal resolution and spatially distributed observational data was performed to understand how moist processes responded to the implemented size distribution modifications. Net vapor consumption by microphysical processes was found to be unaffected by snow or rain size distribution modifications, while it was reduced replacing formulations for hail by those typical for graupel, mainly due to intense sublimation of graupel. Cloud optical thickness was overestimated in all experiments and all cases, likely due to overestimated snow amounts. The overestimation slightly deteriorated by modifying the rain and snow size distributions due to increased snow depositional growth, while it was reduced by including graupel. The latter was mainly due to enhanced cloud water collection by graupel and reduced snow depositional growth. Radar reflectivity and cloud optical thickness could only be realistically represented by inclusion of graupel during a stratiform case, while hail was found indispensable to simulate the vertical reflectivity profile and the surface precipitation structure. Precipitation amount was not much altered by any of the modifications made and the general overestimation was only decreased slightly during a supercell convective case.

  2. Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 42 (2), 404-409, 2012. Influence of Particle Size Distributions on Yield Stress and Viscosity of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bentz, Dale P.

    on Yield Stress and Viscosity of Cement-Fly Ash Pastes Dale P. Bentz Chiara F. Ferraris Michael A. Galler of three variables (cement particle size distribution (PSD), fly ash PSD, and ratio of fly ash to cement of either total (cement + fly ash) particle surface area or total particle density. Keywords: Cement; fly

  3. Method for reducing pressure drop through filters, and filter exhibiting reduced pressure drop

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sappok, Alexander; Wong, Victor

    2014-11-18

    Methods for generating and applying coatings to filters with porous material in order to reduce large pressure drop increases as material accumulates in a filter, as well as the filter exhibiting reduced and/or more uniform pressure drop. The filter can be a diesel particulate trap for removing particulate matter such as soot from the exhaust of a diesel engine. Porous material such as ash is loaded on the surface of the substrate or filter walls, such as by coating, depositing, distributing or layering the porous material along the channel walls of the filter in an amount effective for minimizing or preventing depth filtration during use of the filter. Efficient filtration at acceptable flow rates is achieved.

  4. Evaporation of multicomponent drop arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Annamalai, K.; Ryan, W.; Chandra, S. (Texas A M Univ., College Station, TX (United States))

    1993-08-01

    The present paper deals with the evaporation of multicomponent fuel droplets in an array using the recently developed point source method (PSM). First, the quasisteady (QS) evaporation of an isolated, multicomponent droplet is briefly analyzed. The resultant governing equations, along with Raoult's law and the Cox-Antoine relation, constitute the set of equations needed to arrive at the solutions for: (1) the droplet surface temperature, (2) the evaporation rate of each species, and (3) the vapor mass fraction of each species at the droplet surface. The PSM, which treats the droplet as a point mass source and heat sink, is then adopted to obtain an analytic expression for the evaporation rate of a multicomponent droplet in an array of liquid droplets. Defining the correction factor ([eta]) as a ratio of the evaporation of a drop in an array to the evaporation rate of a similar isolated multicomponent drop, an expression for the correction factor is obtained. The results of the point source method (PSM) are then compared with those obtained elsewhere for a three-drop array that uses the method of images (MOI). Excellent agreement is obtained. The treatment is then extended to a binary drop array to study the effect of interdrop spacing on vaporization. 20 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. On the morphology of sigma-drop galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Comerón; J. H. Knapen; J. E. Beckman

    2008-05-02

    Context: Local reductions of the stellar velocity dispersion in the central regions of galaxies are known as sigma-drops. Knowing the origin of these features can lead to better understanding of inner galactic dynamics. Aims: We present a sample of 20 sigma-drop galaxies matched with a control sample of galaxies without sigma-drop in order to search for correlations between sigma-drops and the properties, primarily morphological, of the nuclear zones and discs of their host galaxies. Methods: We study the dust and Halpha distribution at 0.1 arcsec scale, using Hubble Space Telescope imaging, in the circumnuclear zones of the two samples of galaxies, searching for differences and trying to establish a link between the nuclear kinematics and the host morphology. We have also considered the CO and HI emission of the galaxies and their luminosity profiles. Results: We classify the two samples following both morphological parameters and the luminosity profiles. We find a larger fraction of nuclear dust spirals and Halpha rings in the sigma-drop sample. We also find that the fraction of Seyfert galaxies in the sigma-drop sample is bigger than that of LINERs and that the reverse is true for the control sample. Conclusions: Our findings are evidence that a $\\sigma$-drop is very probably due to inflow-induced star formation in a dynamically cool disc, or in a gas ring, shock focused by an inner Lindblad resonance above a certain critical density level. The same mechanism that feeds the nuclear ring or the nuclear disc is probably reponsible for the higher rate of Seyfert galaxies among the $\\sigma$-drop hosts.

  6. Dynamics of a drop trapped inside a horizontal circular hydraulic jump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duchesne, Alexis; Lebon, Luc; Pirat, Christophe; Limat, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    A drop of moderate size deposited inside a horizontal circular hydraulic jump of the same liquid remains trapped at the shock front and does not coalesce. In this situation the drop is moving along the jump and one observes two different motions: a periodic one (it orbitates at constant speed) and an irregular one involving reversals of the orbital motion. Modeling the drop as a rigid sphere exchanging friction with liquid across a thin film of air, we recover the orbital motion and the internal rotation of the drop. This internal rotation is experimentally observed.

  7. Orbits and reversals of a drop rolling inside a horizontal circular hydraulic jump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexis Duchesne; Clément Savaro; Luc Lebon; Christophe Pirat; Laurent Limat

    2013-02-14

    We explore the complex dynamics of a non-coalescing drop of moderate size inside a circular hydraulic jump of the same liquid formed on a horizontal disk. In this situation the drop is moving along the jump and one observes two different motions: a periodic one (it orbitates at constant speed) and an irregular one involving reversals of the orbital motion. Modeling the drop as a rigid sphere exchanging friction with liquid across a thin film of air, we recover the orbital motion and the internal rotation of the drop. This internal rotation is experimentally observed.

  8. Analytical and Experimental Study of Annular Two-Phase Flow Friction Pressure Drop Under Microgravity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Ngoc Thanh

    2011-02-22

    current single-phase systems due to reductions in system size, weight and power consumption. The mechanisms of pressure drop, heat transfer coefficients, void fractions, and flow regimes must be well understood under microgravity conditions in order...

  9. Final Report: Property Improvement in CZT via Modeling and Processing Innovations – Te-particles in vertical gradient freeze CZT: Size and Spatial Distributions and Constitutional Supercooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henager, Charles H.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Bliss, Mary; Riley, Brian J.; Stave, Jean A.

    2014-10-01

    A section of a vertical gradient freeze CZT boule approximately 2100-mm3 with a planar area of 300-mm2 was prepared and examined using transmitted IR microscopy at various magnifications to determine the three-dimensional spatial and size distributions of Te-particles over large longitudinal and radial length scales. The boule section was approximately 50-mm wide by 60-mm in length by 7-mm thick and was doubly polished for TIR work. Te-particles were imaged through the thickness using extended focal imaging to locate the particles in thickness planes spaced 15-µm apart and then in plane of the image using xy-coordinates of the particle center of mass so that a true three dimensional particle map was assembled for a 1-mm by 45-mm longitudinal strip and for a 1-mm by 50-mm radial strip. Te-particle density distributions were determined as a function of longitudinal and radial positions in these strips, and treating the particles as vertices of a network created a 3D image of the particle spatial distribution. Te-particles exhibited a multi-modal log-normal size density distribution that indicated a slight preference for increasing size with longitudinal growth time, while showing a pronounced cellular network structure throughout the boule that can be correlated to dislocation network sizes in CZT. Higher magnification images revealed a typical Rayleigh-instability pearl string morphology with large and small satellite droplets. This study includes solidification experiments in small crucibles of 30:70 mixtures of Cd:Te to reduce the melting point below 1273 K (1000?C). These solidification experiments were performed over a wide range of cooling rates and clearly demonstrated a growth instability with Te-particle capture that is suggested to be responsible for one of the peaks in the size distribution using size discrimination visualization. The results are discussed with regard to a manifold Te-particle genesis history as 1) Te-particle direct capture from melt-solid growth instabilities, 2) Te-particle formation from dislocation core diffusion and the formation and breakup of Te-tubes, and 3) Te-particle formation due to classical nucleation and growth as precipitates.

  10. Statistics of Earthquake Stress Drops on a Heterogeneous Fault in an Elastic Half-Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben-Zion, Yehuda

    -organized heterogeneous initial stress distributions at the times of earthquake failure lead to stress drops drops of large events provides a rationale for reducing the statistical estimates of potential ground an earth- quake rupture eq controls the seismic radiation from the source region and, hence, the generated

  11. MEASUREMENT OF HEAT TRANSFER DURING DROP-WISE CONDENSATION OF WATER ON POLYETHYLENE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khandekar, Sameer

    MEASUREMENT OF HEAT TRANSFER DURING DROP-WISE CONDENSATION OF WATER ON POLYETHYLENE Gagan Deep distribution of temperature during drop-wise condensation over a polyethylene substrate was measured using on the substrate was simultaneously visualized. Static contact angles of water on polyethylene are measured

  12. Uniform electric field induced lateral migration of a sedimenting drop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bandopadhyay, Aditya; Chakraborty, Suman

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the motion of a sedimenting spherical drop in the presence of an applied uniform electric field in an otherwise arbitrary direction in the limit of low surface charge convection. We analytically solve the electric potential in and around the leaky dielectric drop, and solve for the Stokesian velocity and pressure fields. We obtain the drop velocity through perturbations in powers of the electric Reynolds number which signifies the importance of the charge relaxation time scale as compared to the convective time scale. We show that in the presence of electric field either in the sedimenting direction or orthogonal to it, there is a change in the drop velocity only in the direction of sedimentation due to an asymmetric charge distribution in the same direction. However, in the presence of an electric field applied in both the directions, and depending on the permittivities and conductivities of the two fluids, we obtain a non-intuitive lateral migration of drop in addition to the buoyancy driven ...

  13. The role of precipitation size distributions in km-scale NWP simulations of intense precipitation: Evaluation of cloud properties and surface precipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Weverberg K.; Vogelmann A.; van Lipzig, N. P. M.; Delobbec, L.

    2012-04-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of simulated cloud properties and surface precipitation to assumptions regarding the size distributions of the precipitating hydrometeors in a one-moment bulk microphysics scheme. Three sensitivity experiments were applied to two composites of 15 convective and 15 frontal stratiform intense precipitation events observed in a coastal midlatitude region (Belgium), which were evaluated against satellite-retrieved cloud properties and radar-rain-gauge derived surface precipitation. It is found that the cloud optical thickness distribution was well captured by all experiments, although a significant underestimation of cloudiness occurred in the convective composite. The cloud-top-pressure distribution was improved most by more realistic snow size distributions (including a temperature-dependent intercept parameter and non-spherical snow for the calculation of the slope parameter), due to increased snow depositional growth at high altitudes. Surface precipitation was far less sensitive to whether graupel or hail was chosen as the rimed ice species, as compared to previous idealized experiments. This smaller difference in sensitivity could be explained by the stronger updraught velocities and higher freezing levels in the idealized experiments compared to typical coastal midlatitude environmental conditions.

  14. Physica Medica -Vol. XVII, Supplement 1, 2001 Monte Carlo Predictions of DNA Fragment-Size Distributions for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenner, David Jonathan

    to low-LET radiation. DSB induction due to track interaction with the DNA volume depends on the radiation us to give biophysically based extrapolations of high-dose DNA fragment-size data to low doses on Space Radiation Research and 11th Annual NASA Space Radiation Health Investigators' Workshop Arona

  15. Journal of Power Sources 135 (2004) 7987 Predicting water and current distributions in a commercial-size PEMFC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Zee, John W.

    2004-01-01

    in a commercial-size PEMFC S. Shimpaleea, S. Greenwaya, D. Spucklerb, J.W. Van Zeea, a Department of Chemical have experimentally studied small (10­50 cm2), single cell PEMFC systems to understand the behavior and electro- chemistry of PEMFC. Also, three-dimensional electrochemical models have been used to predict

  16. Drop short control of electrode gap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fisher, Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM); Maroone, James P. (Albuquerque, NM); Tipping, Donald W. (Albuquerque, NM); Zanner, Frank J. (Sandia Park, NM)

    1986-01-01

    During vacuum consumable arc remelting the electrode gap between a consumable electrode and a pool of molten metal is difficult to control. The present invention monitors drop shorts by detecting a decrease in the voltage between the consumable electrode and molten pool. The drop shorts and their associated voltage reductions occur as repetitive pulses which are closely correlated to the electrode gap. Thus, the method and apparatus of the present invention controls electrode gap based upon drop shorts detected from the monitored anode-cathode voltage. The number of drop shorts are accumulated, and each time the number of drop shorts reach a predetermined number, the average period between drop shorts is calculated from this predetermined number and the time in which this number is accumulated. This average drop short period is used in a drop short period electrode gap model which determines the actual electrode gap from the drop short. The actual electrode gap is then compared with a desired electrode gap which is selected to produce optimum operating conditions and the velocity of the consumable error is varied based upon the gap error. The consumable electrode is driven according to any prior art system at this velocity. In the preferred embodiment, a microprocessor system is utilized to perform the necessary calculations and further to monitor the duration of each drop short. If any drop short exceeds a preset duration period, the consumable electrode is rapidly retracted a predetermined distance to prevent bonding of the consumable electrode to the molten remelt.

  17. System Size, Energy and Centrality Dependence of Pseudorapidity Distributions of Charged Particles in Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Alver; B. B. Back; M. D. Baker; M. Ballintijn; D. S. Barton; R. R. Betts; R. Bindel; W. Busza; Z. Chai; V. Chetluru; E. García; T. Gburek; K. Gulbrandsen; J. Hamblen; I. Harnarine; C. Henderson; D. J. Hofman; R. S. Hollis; R. Ho?y?ski; B. Holzman; A. Iordanova; J. L. Kane; P. Kulinich; C. M. Kuo; W. Li; W. T. Lin; C. Loizides; S. Manly; A. C. Mignerey; R. Nouicer; A. Olszewski; R. Pak; C. Reed; E. Richardson; C. Roland; G. Roland; J. Sagerer; I. Sedykh; C. E. Smith; M. A. Stankiewicz; P. Steinberg; G. S. F. Stephans; A. Sukhanov; A. Szostak; M. B. Tonjes; A. Trzupek; G. J. van Nieuwenhuizen; S. S. Vaurynovich; R. Verdier; G. I. Veres; P. Walters; E. Wenger; D. Willhelm; F. L. H. Wolfs; B. Wosiek; K. Wo?niak; S. Wyngaardt; B. Wys?ouch

    2007-09-25

    We present the first measurements of the pseudorapidity distribution of primary charged particles in Cu+Cu collisions as a function of collision centrality and energy, \\sqrtsnn = 22.4, 62.4 and 200 GeV, over a wide range of pseudorapidity, using the PHOBOS detector. Making a global comparison of Cu+Cu and Au+Au results, we find that the total number of produced charged particles and the rough shape (height and width) of the pseudorapidity distributions are determined by the number of nucleon participants. More detailed studies reveal that a more precise matching of the shape of the Cu+Cu and Au+Au pseudorapidity distributions over the full range of pseudorapidity occurs for the same Npart/2A value rather than the same Npart value. In other words, it is the collision geometry rather than just the number of nucleon participants that drives the detailed shape of the pseudorapidity distribution and its centrality dependence at RHIC energies.

  18. THE IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL MODELS FOR DERIVING DUST MASSES AND GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS IN SUPERNOVA EJECTA. I. RADIATIVELY HEATED DUST IN THE CRAB NEBULA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Temim, Tea; Dwek, Eli, E-mail: tea.temim@nasa.gov [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Recent far-infrared (IR) observations of supernova remnants (SNRs) have revealed significantly large amounts of newly condensed dust in their ejecta, comparable to the total mass of available refractory elements. The dust masses derived from these observations assume that all the grains of a given species radiate at the same temperature, regardless of the dust heating mechanism or grain radius. In this paper, we derive the dust mass in the ejecta of the Crab Nebula, using a physical model for the heating and radiation from the dust. We adopt a power-law distribution of grain sizes and two different dust compositions (silicates and amorphous carbon), and calculate the heating rate of each dust grain by the radiation from the pulsar wind nebula. We find that the grains attain a continuous range of temperatures, depending on their size and composition. The total mass derived from the best-fit models to the observed IR spectrum is 0.019-0.13 M{sub Sun }, depending on the assumed grain composition. We find that the power-law size distribution of dust grains is characterized by a power-law index of 3.5-4.0 and a maximum grain size larger than 0.1 {mu}m. The grain sizes and composition are consistent with what is expected for dust grains formed in a Type IIP supernova (SN). Our derived dust mass is at least a factor of two less than the mass reported in previous studies of the Crab Nebula that assumed more simplified two-temperature models. These models also require a larger mass of refractory elements to be locked up in dust than was likely available in the ejecta. The results of this study show that a physical model resulting in a realistic distribution of dust temperatures can constrain the dust properties and affect the derived dust masses. Our study may also have important implications for deriving grain properties and mass estimates in other SNRs and for the ultimate question of whether SNe are major sources of dust in the Galactic interstellar medium and in external galaxies.

  19. Policy for Dropped and Excused Assignments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patrick Devlin

    2015-08-22

    MA 15300Y Policy for Dropped and Excused Homework. • HOMEWORK. On average, students can expect about 3 homework assignments per week.

  20. Net Metering Policy Development and Distributed Solar Generation in Minnesota: Overview of Trends in Nationwide Policy Development and Implications of Increasing the Eligible System Size Cap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doris, E.; Busche, S.; Hockett, S.

    2009-12-01

    The goal of the Minnesota net metering policy is to give the maximum possible encouragement to distributed generation assets, especially solar electric systems (MN 2008). However, according to a published set of best practices (NNEC 2008) that prioritize the maximum development of solar markets within states, the Minnesota policy does not incorporate many of the important best practices that may help other states transform their solar energy markets and increase the amount of grid-connected distributed solar generation assets. Reasons cited include the low system size limit of 40kW (the best practices document recommends a 2 MW limit) and a lack of language protecting generators from additional utility fees. This study was conducted to compare Minnesota's policies to national best practices. It provides an overview of the current Minnesota policy in the context of these best practices and other jurisdictions' net metering policies, as well as a qualitative assessment of the impacts of raising the system size cap within the policy based on the experiences of other states.

  1. On the morphology of sigma-drop galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Comerón, S; Beckman, J E

    2008-01-01

    Context: Local reductions of the stellar velocity dispersion in the central regions of galaxies are known as sigma-drops. Knowing the origin of these features can lead to better understanding of inner galactic dynamics. Aims: We present a sample of 20 sigma-drop galaxies matched with a control sample of galaxies without sigma-drop in order to search for correlations between sigma-drops and the properties, primarily morphological, of the nuclear zones and discs of their host galaxies. Methods: We study the dust and Halpha distribution at 0.1 arcsec scale, using Hubble Space Telescope imaging, in the circumnuclear zones of the two samples of galaxies, searching for differences and trying to establish a link between the nuclear kinematics and the host morphology. We have also considered the CO and HI emission of the galaxies and their luminosity profiles. Results: We classify the two samples following both morphological parameters and the luminosity profiles. We find a larger fraction of nuclear dust spirals and...

  2. The effect of turbulence on the stability of liquid jets and the resulting droplet size distributions. Third quarterly technical report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansour, A.; Chigier, N.

    1993-12-01

    Laminar and turbulent columns of liquids issuing from capillary tubes were studied in order to determine the effects of turbulence on the stability of liquid jets and to establish the influence of liquid turbulence on droplet size distributions after breakup. Two capillary tubes were chosen with diameters D{sub 1}=3.0mm and D{sub 2}=1.2mm; jet Reynolds numbers were 1000--30000, and 400--7200. For water injection into stagnant air, stability curve is bounded by a laminar portion, where a jet radius and {delta}{sub o} initial disturbance amplitude, and a fully developed turbulent portion characterized by high initial disturbance amplitude (ln(a/{delta}{sub o,T}) {approximately} 4.85). In the transition region, ln(a/{delta}{sub o}) is not single valued; it decreases with increasing Reynolds number. In absence of aerodynamic effects, turbulent jets are as stable as laminar jets. For this breakup mode turbulence propagates initial disturbances with amplitudes orders of magnitude larger than laminar jets ({delta}{sub o,T}=28{times}10{sup 6} {delta}{sub o,L}). Growth rates of initial disturbances are same for both laminar and turbulent columns with theoretical Weber values. Droplet size distribution is bi-modal; the number ratio of large (> D/2), to small (< D/2) droplets is 3 and independent of Reynolds number. For laminar flow optimum wavelength ({lambda}{sub opt}) corresponding to fastest growing disturbance is equal to 4.45D, exactly the theoretical Weber value. For turbulent flow conditions, the turbulent column segments. Typically, segments with lengths of one to several wavelengths, detach from the liquid jet. The long ligaments contract under the action of surface tension, resulting in droplet sizes larger than predicted by Rayleigh and Weber. For turbulent flow conditions, {lambda}{sub opt} = 9.2D, about 2 times the optimum Weber wavelength.

  3. Pseudodynamic planning for expansion of power distribution sytems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramirez-Rosado, I.J. ); Gonen, T. )

    1991-02-01

    This paper presents basic and extended planning models, based on a pseudodynamic methodology, to solve the global expansion problem (sizing, locating, and timing) of distribution substations and feeders throughout the planning time period. The objective functions, that represent the expansion costs, are minimized by successive concatenated optimizations subject to the Kirchhoff's current law, power capacity limits and logical constraints, in the basic model. It also presents an extended model that is obtained by including the voltage drop constraints in the basic model.

  4. Superheated water drops in hot oil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soto, Enrique; Belmonte, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Drops of water at room temperature were released in hot oil, which had a temperature higher than that of the boiling point of water. Initially, the drop temperature increases slowly mainly due to heat transfer diffusion; convective heat transfer is small because the motion takes place at a small Reynolds number. Once the drop reaches the bottom of the container, it sticks to the surface with a certain contact angle. Then, a part of the drop vaporizes: the nucleation point may appear at the wall, the interface or the bulk of the drop. The vapor expands inside the drop and deforms its interface. The way in which the vapor expands, either smooth or violent, depends on the location of the nucleation point and oil temperature. Furthermore, for temperatures close to the boiling point of water, the drops are stable (overheated); the vaporization does not occur spontaneously but it may be triggered with an external perturbation. In this case the growth of the vapor bubble is rather violent. Many visualization for dif...

  5. A new model of cloud drop distribution that simulates the observed drop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better Anode Design to Improve Lithium-Ion Batteries PrintA New(Conference) | SciTech7 139

  6. Contact angle of sessile drops in Lennard-Jones systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefan Becker; Herbert M. Urbassek; Martin Horsch; Hans Hasse

    2015-07-25

    Molecular dynamics simulation is used for studying the contact angle of nanoscale sessile drops on a planar solid wall in a system interacting via the truncated and shifted Lennard-Jones potential. The entire range between total wetting and dewetting is investigated by varying the solid--fluid dispersive interaction energy. The temperature is varied between the triple point and the critical temperature. A correlation is obtained for the contact angle in dependence of the temperature and the dispersive interaction energy. Size effects are studied by varying the number of fluid particles at otherwise constant conditions, using up to 150 000 particles. For particle numbers below 10 000, a decrease of the contact angle is found. This is attributed to a dependence of the solid-liquid surface tension on the droplet size. A convergence to a constant contact angle is observed for larger system sizes. The influence of the wall model is studied by varying the density of the wall. The effective solid-fluid dispersive interaction energy at a contact angle of 90 degrees is found to be independent of temperature and to decrease linearly with the solid density. A correlation is developed which describes the contact angle as a function of the dispersive interaction, the temperature and the solid density. The density profile of the sessile drop and the surrounding vapor phase is described by a correlation combining a sigmoidal function and an oscillation term.

  7. Adiabatic two-phase frictional pressure drops in microchannels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Revellin, Remi; Thome, John R. [EPFL, STI ISE LTCM, ME Gl 464, Station 9, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2007-07-15

    Two-phase pressure drops were measured over a wide range of experimental test conditions in two sizes of microchannels (sight glass tubes 0.509 and 0.790 mm) for two refrigerants (R-134a and R-245fa). Similar to the classic Moody diagram in single-phase flow, three zones were distinguishable when plotting the variation of the two-phase friction factor versus the two-phase Reynolds number: a laminar regime for Re{sub TP} < 2000, a transition regime for 2000 {<=} Re{sub TP} < 8000 and a turbulent regime for Re{sub TP} {>=} 8000. The laminar zone yields a much sharper gradient than in single-phase flow. The transition regime is not predicted well by any of the prediction methods for two-phase frictional pressure drops available in the literature. This is not unexpected since only a few data are available for this region in the literature and most methods ignore this regime, jumping directly from laminar to turbulent flow at Re{sub TP} = 2000. The turbulent zone is best predicted by the Mueller-Steinhagen and Heck correlation. Also, a new homogeneous two-phase frictional pressure drop has been proposed here with a limited range of application. (author)

  8. Advanced Drop-In Biofuels Initiative Agenda

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Roundtable - USDADOEDONDOT-FAA Advanced Drop-In Biofuels Initiative Agenda May 18, 2012 8:00 a.m. - 5:00 p.m. Jefferson Auditorium U.S. Department of Agriculture South Building...

  9. Experimental Investigation of Wind-Forced Drop Stability 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmucker, Jason

    2012-10-19

    of measuring full 3D drop profiles was implemented to investigate the drops' evolution toward runback. The measurement requires the comparison of the speckle pattern captured by an overhead drop image with a corresponding image of the dry surface. Stability...

  10. ARM - Measurement - Particle size distribution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Home Roomparticlecontentnumber concentration ARM Datasize

  11. Flow rate--pressure drop relation for deformable shallow microfluidic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Flow rate--pressure drop relation for deformable shallow microfluidic channels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flow rate--pressure drop relation for...

  12. Vibrations of Sessile Drops of Soft Hydrogels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aditi Chakrabarti; Manoj K. Chaudhury

    2014-10-08

    Sessile drops of soft hydrogels were vibrated vertically by subjecting them to a mechanically induced Gaussian white noise. Power spectra of the surface fluctuation of the gel allowed identification of its resonant frequency that decreases with their mass, but increases with its shear modulus. The principal resonant frequencies of the spheroidal modes of the gel of shear moduli ranging from 55 Pa to 290 Pa were closest to the lowest Rayleigh mode of vibration of a drop of pure water. These observations coupled with the fact that the resonance frequency varies inversely as the square root of the mass in all cases suggest that they primarily correspond to the capillary (or a pseudo-capillary) mode of drop vibration. The contact angles of the gel drops also increase with the modulus of the gel. When the resonance frequencies are corrected for the wetting angles, and plotted against the fundamental frequency scale (gamma/mu)^0.5, all the data collapse nicely on a single plot provided that the latter is shifted by a shear modulus dependent factor (1+mu.L/gamma). A length scale L, independent of both the modulus and the mass of the drop emerges from such a fit.

  13. Eliminate Excessive In-Plant Distribution System Voltage Drops | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n cEnergy (AZ,Local Governmentof EnergyDepartmentStandardTechnologyof

  14. OFFICE OF THE REGISTRAR Q-Drop Request Form

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    understand dropping below full-time status may adversely impact financial aid, eligibility for tuition rebate

  15. KC-135 zero-gravity two-phase flow pressure drop experiments and modelling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lambert, Anne

    1990-01-01

    mass, size, and pumping power requireinents. Knowledge of flow regime transitions, heat transfer characteristics, and pressure drop correlations is necessary to adequately design and develop two-phase systems. This work is concerned with two-phase... to reduce the overall system mass, size, and pumping power requirements. These advantages are realized because two-phase systems require lower mass flux for the same heat transfer capability. Knowledge of flow regime uansitions, heat transfer...

  16. Vaporization modeling of petroleum-biofuel drops using a hybrid multi-component approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Lei; Kong, Song-Charng [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, 2025 Black Engineering Building, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Numerical modeling of the vaporization characteristics of multi-component fuel mixtures is performed in this study. The fuel mixtures studied include those of binary components, biodiesel, diesel-biodiesel, and gasoline-ethanol. The use of biofuels has become increasingly important for reasons of environmental sustainability. Biofuels are often blended with petroleum fuels, and the detailed understanding of the vaporization process is essential to designing a clean and efficient combustion system. In this study, a hybrid vaporization model is developed that uses continuous thermodynamics to describe petroleum fuels and discrete components to represent biofuels. The model is validated using the experimental data of n-heptane, n-heptane-n-decane mixture, and biodiesel. Since biodiesel properties are not universal due to the variation in feedstock, methods for predicting biodiesel properties based on the five dominant fatty acid components are introduced. Good levels of agreement in the predicted and measured drop size histories are obtained. Furthermore, in modeling the diesel-biodiesel drop, results show that the drop lifetime increases with the biodiesel concentration in the blend. During vaporization, only the lighter components of diesel fuel vaporize at the beginning. Biodiesel components do not vaporize until some time during the vaporization process. On the other hand, results of gasoline-ethanol drops indicate that both fuels start to vaporize once the process begins. At the beginning, the lighter components of gasoline have a slightly higher vaporization rate than ethanol. After a certain time, ethanol vaporizes faster than the remaining gasoline components. At the end, the drop reduces to a regular gasoline drop with heavier components. Overall, the drop lifetime increases as the concentration of ethanol increases in the drop due to the higher latent heat. (author)

  17. Banner course drop/add instructions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    skorty

    2008-07-28

    Choose the term from the drop-down menu for which you are trying to register. ... Course Reference Number (CRN), enter it into the worksheet and click ... If you are looking for a class and have clicked Class Search, you will find that you may.

  18. Equation determines pressure drop in coiled tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Y.S.

    1995-12-04

    A single equation can determine the pressure drop in wells with laminar, transitional, and turbulent incompressible fluid flow in coiled tubing or other steel tubulars. The single equation is useful, especially in computer-aided design and operations. The equation is derived and illustrated by an example.

  19. The Sensitivity of DPF Performance to the Spatial Distribution of Ash Generated from Six Lubricant Formulations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Discusses potential of DPF pressure drop reduction by optimizing the spatial distribution of ash inside DPF inlet channel

  20. Effect of Engine-Out NOx Control Strategies on PM Size Distribution in Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines Developed for 2010

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    A distinct relationship was found between engine-out and SCR-out PM distributions for single-mode testing.

  1. Packet Drop Avoidance for High-speed network transmission protocol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Guojun

    2004-05-01

    As network bandwidth continues to grow and longer paths are used to exchange large scientific data between storage systems and GRID computation, it has become increasingly obvious that there is a need to deploy a packet drop avoidance mechanism into network transmission protocols. Current end-to-end congestion avoidance mechanisms used in Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) have worked well on low bandwidth delay product networks, but with newer high-bandwidth delay networks they have shown to be inefficient and prone to unstable. This is largely due to increased network bandwidth coupled with changes in internet traffic patterns. These changes come from a variety of new network applications that are being developed to take advantage of the increased network bandwidth. This paper will examine the end-to-end congestion avoidance mechanism and perform a step-by-step analysis of its theory. In addition we will propose an alternative approach developed as part of a new network transmission protocol. Our alternative protocol uses a packet drop avoidance (PDA) mechanism built on top of the maximum burst size (MBS) theory combined with a real-time available bandwidth algorithm.

  2. Drop the Phone and Talk to the Physical World: Programming the Internet of Things with Erlang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cugola, Gianpaolo

    Drop the Phone and Talk to the Physical World: Programming the Internet of Things with Erlang. Keywords-distributed systems, Internet of Things, program- ming languages, frameworks I. INTRODUCTION The vision of an "Internet of Things" (IoT)--an en- semble of heterogeneous devices embedded within

  3. To Drop or Not to Drop: Receiver Design Principles for Estimation over Wireless Links

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mostofi, Yasamin

    Mostofi and Richard M. Murray University of New Mexico California Institute of Technology Abstract embedded for synchronization and other crucial tasks. If these bits get corrupted, the receiver drops

  4. Technical Letter Report Development of Flaw Size Distribution Tables Including Effects of Flaw Depth Sizing Errors for Draft 10CFR 50.61a (Alternate PTS Rule) JCN-N6398, Task 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simonen, Fredric A.; Gosselin, Stephen R.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2013-04-22

    This document describes a new method to determine whether the flaws in a particular reactor pressure vessel are consistent with the assumptions regarding the number and sizes of flaws used in the analyses that formed the technical justification basis for the new voluntary alternative Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) rule (Draft 10 CFR 50.61a). The new methodology addresses concerns regarding prior methodology because ASME Code Section XI examinations do not detect all fabrication flaws, they have higher detection performance for some flaw types, and there are flaw sizing errors always present (e.g., significant oversizing of small flaws and systematic under sizing of larger flaws). The new methodology allows direct comparison of ASME Code Section XI examination results with values in the PTS draft rule Tables 2 and 3 in order to determine if the number and sizes of flaws detected by an ASME Code Section XI examination are consistent with those assumed in the probabilistic fracture mechanics calculations performed in support of the development of 10 CFR 50.61a.

  5. Latest Report Shows Cost of Going Solar has Dropped Significantly...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Latest Report Shows Cost of Going Solar has Dropped Significantly for 5 Years Latest Report Shows Cost of Going Solar has Dropped Significantly for 5 Years August 12, 2015 - 2:28pm...

  6. Controlling drop coalescence using nano-engineered surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corral, Manuel, Jr

    2011-01-01

    The dynamics of drop coalescence are explored on micro-scale surface features for the first time. Drop coalescence is defined as a process by which two or more droplets, bubbles or particles merge during contact to form a ...

  7. MOTION OF ELECTRON-HOLE DROPS IN Ge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Westervelt, R.M.

    2011-01-01

    MOTION OF ELECTRON-HOLE DROPS IN Ge R. M. Westervelt, J. C.MOTION OF ELECTRON-HOLE DROPS IN Ge R. M. Westervelt, J. C.OF ELECTRON-HOLE DROPS IN Ge R M Westervelt, J C Culbertson

  8. Pattern formation in drying drops Robert D. Deegan*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deegan, Robert

    , Chicago, Illinois 60637 Received 24 November 1998 Ring formation in an evaporating sessile dropPattern formation in drying drops Robert D. Deegan* James Franck Institute, 5640 South Ellis Avenue. Here I show that the drop itself can generate one of the essential conditions for ring formation

  9. Determination of lateral size distribution of type-II ZnTe/ZnSe stacked submonolayer quantum dots via spectral analysis of optical signature of the Aharanov-Bohm excitons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ji, Haojie; Dhomkar, Siddharth; Roy, Bidisha; Kuskovsky, Igor L.; Shuvayev, Vladimir; Deligiannakis, Vasilios; Tamargo, Maria C.; Ludwig, Jonathan; Smirnov, Dmitry; Wang, Alice

    2014-10-28

    For submonolayer quantum dot (QD) based photonic devices, size and density of QDs are critical parameters, the probing of which requires indirect methods. We report the determination of lateral size distribution of type-II ZnTe/ZnSe stacked submonolayer QDs, based on spectral analysis of the optical signature of Aharanov-Bohm (AB) excitons, complemented by photoluminescence studies, secondary-ion mass spectroscopy, and numerical calculations. Numerical calculations are employed to determine the AB transition magnetic field as a function of the type-II QD radius. The study of four samples grown with different tellurium fluxes shows that the lateral size of QDs increases by just 50%, even though tellurium concentration increases 25-fold. Detailed spectral analysis of the emission of the AB exciton shows that the QD radii take on only certain values due to vertical correlation and the stacked nature of the QDs.

  10. The impact of size distribution assumptions in a bulk one-moment microphysics scheme on simulated surface precipitation and storm dynamics during a low-topped supercell case in Belgium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Weverberg, K.; Van Lipzig, N. P. M.; Delobbe, L.

    2011-04-01

    In this research the impact of modifying the size distribution assumptions of the precipitating hydrometeors in a bulk one-moment microphysics scheme on simulated surface precipitation and storm dynamics has been explored for long-lived low-topped supercells in Belgium. It was shown that weighting the largest precipitating ice species of the microphysics scheme to small graupel results in an increase of surface precipitation because of counteracting effects. On the one hand, the precipitation formation process slowed down, resulting in lower precipitation efficiency. On the other hand, latent heat release associated with freezing favored more intense storms. In contrast to previous studies finding decreased surface precipitation when graupel was present in the microphysics parameterization, storms were rather shallow in the authors simulations. This left little time for graupel sublimation. The impact of size distribution assumptions of snow was found to be small, but more realistic size distribution assumptions of rain led to the strongest effect on surface precipitation. Cold pools shrunk because of weaker rain evaporation at the cold pool boundaries, leading to a decreased surface rain area.

  11. Pure Drop Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to:Newberg,Energy LLCALLETE Inc dEAPrysmian JumpOpenformerlyDrop Ltd Jump

  12. Correlating size and composition-dependent effects with magnetic, Mössbauer, and pair distribution function measurements in a family of catalytically active ferrite nanoparticles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wong, Stanislaus; Papaefthymiou, Georgia C.; Lewis, Crystal S.; Han, Jinkyu; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Qiang; Shi, Chenyang; Abeykoon, A. M.Milinda; Billinge, Simon J.L.; Stach, Eric; et al

    2015-05-06

    The magnetic spinel ferrites, MFe?O? (wherein 'M' = a divalent metal ion such as but not limited to Mn, Co, Zn, and Ni), represent a unique class of magnetic materials in which the rational introduction of different 'M's can yield correspondingly unique and interesting magnetic behaviors. Herein we present a generalized hydrothermal method for the synthesis of single-crystalline ferrite nanoparticles with 'M' = Mg, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn, respectively, which can be systematically and efficaciously produced simply by changing the metal precursor. Our protocol can moreover lead to reproducible size control by judicious selection of various surfactants. Asmore »such, we have probed the effects of both (i) size and (ii) chemical composition upon the magnetic properties of these nanomaterials using complementary magnetometry and Mössbauer spectroscopy techniques. The structure of the samples was confirmed by atomic PDF analysis of X-ray and electron powder diffraction data as a function of particle size. These materials retain the bulk spinel structure to the smallest size (i.e., 3 nm). In addition, we have explored the catalytic potential of our ferrites as both (a) magnetically recoverable photocatalysts and (b) biological catalysts, and noted that many of our as-prepared ferrite systems evinced intrinsically higher activities as compared with their iron oxide analogues.« less

  13. Horizontal Drop of 21- PWR Waste Package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.K. Scheider

    2007-01-31

    The objective of this calculation is to determine the structural response of the waste package (WP) dropped horizontally from a specified height. The WP used for that purpose is the 21-Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) WP. The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in-terms of stress intensities. This calculation is associated with the WP design and was performed by the Waste Package Design group in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for: Waste Package Design Description for LA'' (Ref. 16). AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'' (Ref. 1 1) is used to perform the calculation and develop the document. The sketches attached to this calculation provide the potential dimensions and materials for the 21-PWR WP design.

  14. Rincon-Mora and Allen 1 A Low Voltage, Low Quiescent Current, Low Drop-out Regulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rincon-Mora, Gabriel A.

    . The increasing demand, however, is especially apparent in mobile battery operated products, such as cellular of Technology Atlanta, GA 30332-0250 Abstract The demand for low voltage, low drop-out (LDO) regulators breakdown voltages resulting from reductions in feature size. Low quiescent current in a battery operated

  15. Coalescence of bubbles and drops in an outer fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph D. Paulsen; Rémi Carmigniani; Anerudh Kannan; Justin C. Burton; Sidney R. Nagel

    2014-07-24

    When two liquid drops touch, a microscopic connecting liquid bridge forms and rapidly grows as the two drops merge into one. Whereas coalescence has been thoroughly studied when drops coalesce in vacuum or air, many important situations involve coalescence in a dense surrounding fluid, such as oil coalescence in brine. Here we study the merging of gas bubbles and liquid drops in an external fluid. Our data indicate that the flows occur over much larger length scales in the outer fluid than inside the drops themselves. Thus we find that the asymptotic early regime is always dominated by the viscosity of the drops, independent of the external fluid. A phase diagram showing the crossovers into the different possible late-time dynamics identifies a dimensionless number that signifies when the external viscosity can be important.

  16. Coalescence of bubbles and drops in an outer fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulsen, Joseph D; Kannan, Anerudh; Burton, Justin C; Nagel, Sidney R

    2014-01-01

    When two liquid drops touch, a microscopic connecting liquid bridge forms and rapidly grows as the two drops merge into one. Whereas coalescence has been thoroughly studied when drops coalesce in vacuum or air, many important situations involve coalescence in a dense surrounding fluid, such as oil coalescence in brine. Here we study the merging of gas bubbles and liquid drops in an external fluid. Our data indicate that the flows occur over much larger length scales in the outer fluid than inside the drops themselves. Thus we find that the asymptotic early regime is always dominated by the viscosity of the drops, independent of the external fluid. A phase diagram showing the crossovers into the different possible late-time dynamics identifies a dimensionless number that signifies when the external viscosity can be important.

  17. Liquid Phases in SU(3) Chiral Perturbation Theory: Drops of Strange Chiral Nucleon Liquid & Ordinary Chiral Heavy Nuclear Liquid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryan W. Lynn

    2010-05-12

    Chiral SU(3) Perturbation Theory (SU3XPT) identifies hadrons as the building blocks of strongly interacting matter at low densities and temperatures. We show that it admits two co-existing chiral nucleon liquid phases at zero external pressure with well-defined surfaces: 1) ordinary microscopic chiral heavy nuclear liquid drops (XNL) and 2) a new Strange Chiral Nucleon Liquid (SXNL) phase with both microscopic and macroscopic drop sizes. Liquid drops of both XNL and SXNL are simultaneously solutions to the SU3XPT semi-classical equations of motion and obey all relevant CVC and PCAC equations. Axial-vector currents are conserved inside macroscopic drops of SXNL, a new form of baryonic matter with zero electric charge density, which is by nature "dark". The numerical values of all SU3XPT coefficients are used to fit current scattering experiments and ordinary XNL drops (identified with the ground state of ordinary even-even spin-zero spherical closed-shell nuclei). SXNL then also emerges (i.e. without new adjustable parameters). For certain SU3XPT coefficients, finite microscopic and macroscopic drops of SXNL may be the ground state of a collection of nucleons: ordinary heavy nuclei may be meta-stable, while oceans of SXNL may force qualitative and experimentally observable changes to the neutron star equation of state.

  18. Microsoft Word - 2013_0117_Drop-insessions_Summary_finaldraft...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    drop-in sessions throughout Southwest Washington in December 2012. BPA released its draft environmental impact statement (EIS) for the I- 5 Corridor Reinforcement Project, on...

  19. Earthquake rupture imaging and multiscale stress drop estimation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allmann, Bettina P.

    2008-01-01

    stress drop variations in small earthquakes near Park?eld,3.3.6 Repeating earthquakebetween quarry blasts and earthquakes in southern

  20. Neutron Drops and Skyrme Energy-Density Functionals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. S. Pudliner; A. Smerzi; J. Carlson; V. R. Pandharipande; Steven C. Pieper; D. G. Ravenhall

    1995-10-12

    The J$^{\\pi}$=0$^+$ ground state of a drop of 8 neutrons and the lowest 1/2$^-$ and 3/2$^-$ states of 7-neutron drops, all in an external well, are computed accurately with variational and Green's function Monte Carlo methods for a Hamiltonian containing the Argonne $v_{18}$ two-nucleon and Urbana IX three-nucleon potentials. These states are also calculated using Skyrme-type energy-density functionals. Commonly used functionals overestimate the central density of these drops and the spin-orbit splitting of 7-neutron drops. Improvements in the functionals are suggested.

  1. Simulation Approaches for Drop-in Biofuels | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Simulation Approaches for Drop-in Biofuels Biofuels are an important part of our country's plan to develop diverse sources of clean and renewable energy. These alternative fuels...

  2. Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus, Trap Selectivity Studies: Mesh Size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus, Trap Selectivity Studies: Mesh Size VINCENT GUILLORY and PAUL had replaced drop nets and trot lines as the dominant gear in the commercial blue crab, Callinectes, LA 70343. ABSTRACT-Catch rates and sizes of blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, were com pared in traps

  3. Copyright c 2006 Tech Science Press FDMP, vol.2, no.2, pp.77-93, 2006 Scalings for Droplet Sizes in Shear-Driven Breakup: Non-Microfluidic Ways to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renardy, Yuriko

    in Shear-Driven Breakup: Non-Microfluidic Ways to Monodisperse Emulsions V. Cristini1 and Y. Renardy2 to produce monodispersity as an alternative to microfluidic devices. keyword: Drop deformation, drop size

  4. STRESS CORROSION CRACKING IN TEAR DROP SPECIMENS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lam, P; Philip Zapp, P; Jonathan Duffey, J; Kerry Dunn, K

    2009-05-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted to investigate the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of 304L stainless steel used to construct the containment vessels for the storage of plutonium-bearing materials. The tear drop corrosion specimens each with an autogenous weld in the center were placed in contact with moist plutonium oxide and chloride salt mixtures. Cracking was found in two of the specimens in the heat affected zone (HAZ) at the apex area. Finite element analysis was performed to simulate the specimen fabrication for determining the internal stress which caused SCC to occur. It was found that the tensile stress at the crack initiation site was about 30% lower than the highest stress which had been shifted to the shoulders of the specimen due to the specimen fabrication process. This finding appears to indicate that the SCC initiation took place in favor of the possibly weaker weld/base metal interface at a sufficiently high level of background stress. The base material, even subject to a higher tensile stress, was not cracked. The relieving of tensile stress due to SCC initiation and growth in the HAZ and the weld might have foreclosed the potential for cracking at the specimen shoulders where higher stress was found.

  5. HEP/123-qed Numerical simulation of deformable drops with soluble

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -matrix interfaces and in the bulk fluids using a novel 3D adaptive finite-element method. The method is based. For clean drops (no surfactant), our simulations confirm (for the first time to our knowledge) a well known decreasing Cac with respect to the clean-drop case. However, at large coverages close to the maximum packing

  6. Tunable transport of drops on a vibrating inclined fiber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bick, Alison; Sauret, Alban; Stone, Howard A

    2015-01-01

    Transport of liquid drops in fibrous media occurs in various engineering systems such as fog harvesting or cleaning of textiles. The ability to tune or to control liquid movement can increase the system efficiency and enable new engineering applications. In this Letter, we experimentally investigate how partially wetting drops on a single fiber can be manipulated by vibrating the fiber. We show that a sliding motion along the fiber or a dripping of the drop can be triggered by standing waves. We identify the conditions on the drop volume, the fiber tilt angle and the amplitude and frequency of oscillations to observe these different behaviors. Finally, we experimentally illustrate that vibrations can be used to control the transport and the collection of water drops along a fiber using a combination of the sliding and dripping transitions.

  7. Investigation of thermochemical biorefinery sizing and environmental sustainability impacts for conventional supply system and distributed pre-processing supply system designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David J. Muth, Jr.; Matthew H. Langholtz; Eric C. D. Tan; Jacob J. Jacobson; Amy Schwab; May M. Wu; Andrew Argo; Craig C. Brandt; Kara G. Cafferty; Yi-Wen Chiu; Abhijit Dutta; Laurence M. Eaton; Erin M. Searcy

    2014-08-01

    The 2011 US Billion-Ton Update estimates that by 2030 there will be enough agricultural and forest resources to sustainably provide at least one billion dry tons of biomass annually, enough to displace approximately 30% of the country's current petroleum consumption. A portion of these resources are inaccessible at current cost targets with conventional feedstock supply systems because of their remoteness or low yields. Reliable analyses and projections of US biofuels production depend on assumptions about the supply system and biorefinery capacity, which, in turn, depend upon economic value, feedstock logistics, and sustainability. A cross-functional team has examined combinations of advances in feedstock supply systems and biorefinery capacities with rigorous design information, improved crop yield and agronomic practices, and improved estimates of sustainable biomass availability. A previous report on biochemical refinery capacity noted that under advanced feedstock logistic supply systems that include depots and pre-processing operations there are cost advantages that support larger biorefineries up to 10 000 DMT/day facilities compared to the smaller 2000 DMT/day facilities. This report focuses on analyzing conventional versus advanced depot biomass supply systems for a thermochemical conversion and refinery sizing based on woody biomass. The results of this analysis demonstrate that the economies of scale enabled by advanced logistics offsets much of the added logistics costs from additional depot processing and transportation, resulting in a small overall increase to the minimum ethanol selling price compared to the conventional logistic supply system. While the overall costs do increase slightly for the advanced logistic supply systems, the ability to mitigate moisture and ash in the system will improve the storage and conversion processes. In addition, being able to draw on feedstocks from further distances will decrease the risk of biomass supply to the conversion facility.

  8. Effects of sudden expansion and contraction flow on pressure drops in the Stirling engine regenerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamaguchi, K.; Yamashita, I.; Hirata, K.

    1998-07-01

    The flow losses in the regenerators greatly influence the performance of the Stirling engine. The losses mainly depend on fluid friction through the regenerator matrix, but are also generated in sudden expansion and contraction flow at the regenerator ends. The latter losses can't be neglected in the case of small area ratio (entrance area/cross-sectional area in regenerator). The pressure drops in regenerators are usually estimated assuming a uniform velocity distribution of working gas in the matrices. The estimation results, however, are generally smaller than practical data. The cross-sectional flow areas of the heater and cooler of typical Stirling engines are smaller than the cross- sectional area of the regenerator. The effects of the small flow passage on the velocity distribution of working fluid in the matrix, that is, a flow transition from tubes or channels to a regenerator matrix, can be often confirmed by the discolored matrix. Especially, the lack of a uniform distribution of velocity in the matrix causes increased flow loss and decreased thermal performance. So, it is necessary to understand the quantitative effects of the sudden change in flow area at the regenerator ends on the velocity distribution and pressure drop. In this paper, using matrices made of stacks of wire screens, the effects of the entrance and exit areas and the length of the regenerator on pressure drops are examined by an unidirectional steady flow apparatus. The experimental data are arranged in an empirical equation. The lack of a uniformity of velocity distribution is visualized using smoke-wire methods. The empirical equation presented is applied to the estimation of pressure loss in an actual engine regenerator. The applicability of the equation is examined by comparison of estimated value with engine data in pressure loss.

  9. 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Optical sizing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maerz, Norbert H.

    mining operation, from the drilling and blasting to the final product; the material size dictates all downstream operating costs. Previously, the only way to measure a size distribution was to stop production

  10. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Small-scale drop size

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach HomeA Better AnodeThe Influence of Clouds, Aerosols,Comparisonatvariability: empirical models for

  11. Heat transfer and pressure drop in tape generated swirl flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopina, Robert F.

    1967-01-01

    The heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of water in tape generated swirl flow were investigated. The test sections were electrically heated small diameter nickel tubes with tight fitting full length Inconel ...

  12. Pressure drop with surface boiling in small-diameter tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dr?mer, Thomas

    1964-01-01

    Pressure drop for water flowing in small-diameter tubes under isothermal, nonboiling, and surface-boiling conditions was investigated. Experimental results for local pressure gradient and heattransfer coefficients are ...

  13. Self-excited hydrothermal waves in evaporating sessile drops 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sefiane K.; Moffat J.R.; Matar O.K.; Craster R.V.

    2008-08-01

    Pattern formation driven by the spontaneous evaporation of sessile drops of methanol, ethanol, and FC-72 using infrared thermography is observed and, in certain cases, interpreted in terms of hydrothermal waves. Both ...

  14. Drop-in replacement biofuels : meeting the challenge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhargava, Alok (Alok Kishore)

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents a discussion on the challenges that must be met to fulfill the U.S. Navy's strategic imperatives for its energy vision. It provides an introduction to drop-in replacement biofuels, the options amongst ...

  15. Can Canister Containment Be Maintained After Accidental Drop Events?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. K. Morton; S. D. Snow; T. E. Rahl; R. K. Blandford; T. J. Hill

    2006-05-01

    The National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) has pursued a number of structural testing projects that are intended to provide data that can be used to substantiate the position that U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canisters, made from austenitic stainless steels, can maintain containment after an accidental drop event and that plastic finite element methods can be used to accurately predict the structural response of canister configurations not specifically tested. In particular, drop tests of full-scale canisters and material impact testing at varying strain rates reflecting accidental drop conditions have been completed or are in progress. This paper provides insights to conclusions achieved to date and what efforts are planned to fully address the pertinent issues necessary to demonstrate the safety of DOE SNF canisters subjected to accidental drop events.

  16. The influence of surface tension gradients on drop coalescence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bush, John W. M.

    We present the results of a combined experimental and numerical investigation of the coalescence of a drop with a liquid reservoir of a miscible but distinct fluid. Particular attention is given to elucidating the influence ...

  17. Origin and dynamics of vortex rings in drop splashing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lee, Ji San; Park, Su Ji; Lee, Jun Ho; Weon, Byung Mook; Fezzaa, Kamel; Je, Jung Ho

    2015-09-04

    A vortex is a flow phenomenon that is very commonly observed in nature. More than a century, a vortex ring that forms during drop splashing has caught the attention of many scientists due to its importance in understanding fluid mixing and mass transport processes. However, the origin of the vortices and their dynamics remain unclear, mostly due to the lack of appropriate visualization methods. Here, with ultrafast X-ray phase-contrast imaging, we show that the formation of vortex rings originates from the energy transfer by capillary waves generated at the moment of the drop impact. Interestingly, we find a row ofmore »vortex rings along the drop wall, as demonstrated by a phase diagram established here, with different power-law dependencies of the angular velocities on the Reynolds number. These results provide important insight that allows understanding and modelling any type of vortex rings in nature, beyond just vortex rings during drop splashing.« less

  18. Instantaneous Leakage Evaluation of Metal Cask at Drop Impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirofumi Takeda; Norihiro Kageyama; Masumi Wataru; Ryoji Sonobe; Koji Shirai; Toshiari Saegusa

    2006-07-01

    There have been a lot of tests and analyses reported for evaluation of drop tests of metal casks. However, no quantitative measurement has ever been made for any instantaneous leakage through metal gaskets during the drop tests due to loosening of the bolts in the containments and lateral sliding of the lids. In order to determine a source term for radiation exposure dose assessment, it is necessary to obtain fundamental data of instantaneous leakage. In this study, leak tests were performed by using scale models of the lid structure and a full scale cask without impact limiters simulating drop accidents in a storage facility, with aim of measuring and evaluating any instantaneous leakage at drop impact. Prior to drop tests of a full scale metal cask, a series of leakage tests using scale models were carried out to establish the measurement method and to examine a relationship between the amount of the lateral sliding of the lid and the leak rate. It was determined that the leak rate did not depend on the lateral sliding speeds. Drop tests of a full scale metal cask without impact limiters were carried out by simulating drop accidents during handling in a storage facility. The target was designed to simulate a reinforced concrete floor in the facility. The first test was a horizontal drop from a height of 1 m. The second test simulated a rotational impact around an axis of a lower trunnion of the cask from the horizontal status at a height of 1 m. In the horizontal drop test, the amount of helium gas leakage was calculated by integrating the leak rate with time. The total amount of helium gas leakage from the primary and secondary lids was 1.99 x 10{sup -6} Pa.m{sup 3}. This value is 9.61 x 10{sup -9}% of the initially installed helium gas. The amount of leakage was insignificant. In the rotational drop test, the total amount of leakage from the primary and secondary lids was 1.74 x 10{sup -5} Pa.m{sup 3}. This value is 8.45 x 10{sup -8}% of the initially installed helium gas. This value was larger than that of the horizontal drop test. Nevertheless, the amount of leakage was also insignificant. The relationship between the maximum sliding displacement of the lid and the leak rate coincided between the tests of a scale model and a full scale metal cask. (authors)

  19. Pressure drop across spined heat exchangers in crossflow 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carranza, Richard Guy

    1987-01-01

    PRESSURE DROP ACROSS SPINED HEAT EXCHANGERS IN CROSSFLOW A Thesis by R]CHARD GUY CARRANZA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AE M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1987... Major Subject: Chemical Engineering PRESSURE DROP ACROSS SPINED HEAT EXCHANGERS IN CROSSFLOW A Thesis by RICHARD GUY CARRANZA Approved as to style and content by: M. T. pie (Chairman of Committee) C. Glover (Member) N. K. Anand (Member) R...

  20. Method and apparatus for producing drops using a drop-on-demand dispenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Alvin U. (West Lafayette, IN); Basaran, Osman A. (West Lafayette, IN)

    2003-01-01

    A method and apparatus for dispensing fluid from a drop-on-demand (DOD) fluid dispenser. The method involves withdrawing fluid in the dispenser for a first duration of time, followed by a second duration of time during which the fluid is propelled toward the orifice of the dispenser. Following the period during which the fluid is propelled, there is a second withdrawing of the fluid into the dispenser. The duration of the propelling period is shorter than the duration of either the first withdrawing or the second withdrawing. The propelling of the fluid results in the extension of a small tongue of fluid from the meniscus of the fluid. The second withdrawing of the fluid results in a retraction of the meniscus into the passageway such that only the small tongue of fluid separates and is ejected from the dispenser.

  1. Filling an emulsion drop with motile bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. D. Vladescu; E. J. Marsden; J. Schwarz-Linek; V. A. Martinez; J. Arlt; A. N. Morozov; D. Marenduzzo; M. E. Cates; W. C. K. Poon

    2014-07-25

    We have measured the spatial distribution of motile Escherichia coli inside spherical water droplets emulsified in oil. At low cell concentrations, the cell density peaks at the water-oil interface; at increasing concentration, the bulk of each droplet fills up uniformly while the surface peak remains. Simulations and theory show that the bulk density results from a `traffic' of cells leaving the surface layer, increasingly due to cell-cell scattering as the surface coverage rises above $\\sim 10\\%$. Our findings show similarities with the physics of a rarefied gas in a spherical cavity with attractive walls.

  2. Microwave Dielectric Heating of Drops in Microfluidic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Issadore; Katherine J. Humphry; Keith A. Brown; Lori Sandberg; David Weitz; Robert M. Westervelt

    2009-01-09

    We present a technique to locally and rapidly heat water drops in microfluidic devices with microwave dielectric heating. Water absorbs microwave power more efficiently than polymers, glass, and oils due to its permanent molecular dipole moment that has a large dielectric loss at GHz frequencies. The relevant heat capacity of the system is a single thermally isolated picoliter drop of water and this enables very fast thermal cycling. We demonstrate microwave dielectric heating in a microfluidic device that integrates a flow-focusing drop maker, drop splitters, and metal electrodes to locally deliver microwave power from an inexpensive, commercially available 3.0 GHz source and amplifier. The temperature of the drops is measured by observing the temperature dependent fluorescence intensity of cadmium selenide nanocrystals suspended in the water drops. We demonstrate characteristic heating times as short as 15 ms to steady-state temperatures as large as 30 degrees C above the base temperature of the microfluidic device. Many common biological and chemical applications require rapid and local control of temperature, such as PCR amplification of DNA, and can benefit from this new technique.

  3. New directions for gravitational wave physics via "Millikan oil drops"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raymond Y. Chiao

    2009-04-29

    "Millikan oil drops" are drops of superfluid helium coated with electrons, and levitated in a strong, inhomogeneous magnetic field. When the temperature of the system becomes very low compared to the cyclotron gap energy, the system remains in its quantum ground state. Two such levitated charged drops can have their charge-to-mass ratio critically adjusted so that the forces of gravity and electricity between the drops are in balance. Then it is predicted that the amount of scattered electromagnetic and gravitational radiation from the drops are equalized, along with these two kinds of forces. The cross sections for the scattering of the two kinds of radiation can become large, hard-sphere cross-sections at the first Mie resonance, due to the hard-wall boundary conditions on the surfaces of the spheres for both kinds of radiations. An efficient quantum transduction process between electromagnetic and gravitational radiation by such a pair of drops is predicted at microwave frequencies, and a Hertz-like experiment is proposed. A more practical implementation of these ideas to use pairs of levitated, charged superconducting spheres is briefly discussed.

  4. Characterizing Uncertainties in Ice Particle Size Distributions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D BGene Network ShapingDate:Characterization ofArcticUncertainties in

  5. In-service Inspection Ultrasonic Testing of Reactor Pressure Vessel Welds for Assessing Flaw Density and Size Distribution per 10 CFR 50.61a, Alternate Fracture Toughness Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Edmund J.; Anderson, Michael T.; Norris, Wallace

    2012-09-17

    Pressurized thermal shock (PTS) events are system transients in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) in which there is a rapid operating temperature cool-down that results in cold vessel temperatures with or without repressurization of the vessel. The rapid cooling of the inside surface of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) causes thermal stresses that can combine with stresses caused by high pressure. The aggregate effect of these stresses is an increase in the potential for fracture if a pre-existing flaw is present in a material susceptible to brittle failure. The ferritic, low alloy steel of the reactor vessel beltline adjacent to the core, where neutron radiation gradually embrittles the material over the lifetime of the plant, can be susceptible to brittle fracture. The PTS rule, described in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Section 50.61 (§50.61), “Fracture Toughness Requirements for Protection against Pressurized Thermal Shock Events,” adopted on July 23, 1985, establishes screening criteria to ensure that the potential for a reactor vessel to fail due to a PTS event is deemed to be acceptably low. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) completed a research program that concluded that the risk of through-wall cracking due to a PTS event is much lower than previously estimated. The NRC subsequently developed a rule, §50.61a, published on January 4, 2010, entitled “Alternate Fracture Toughness Requirements for Protection Against Pressurized Thermal Shock Events” (75 FR 13). Use of the new rule by licensees is optional. The §50.61a rule differs from §50.61 in that it requires licensees who choose to follow this alternate method to analyze the results from periodic volumetric examinations required by the ASME Code, Section XI, Rules for Inservice Inspection (ISI) of Nuclear Power Plants. These analyses are intended to determine if the actual flaw density and size distribution in the licensee’s reactor vessel beltline welds are bounded by the flaw density and size distribution values used in the PTS technical basis. Under a contract with the NRC, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been working on a program to assess the ability of current inservice inspection (ISI)-ultrasonic testing (UT) techniques, as qualified through ASME Code, Appendix VIII, Supplements 4 and 6, to detect small fabrication or inservice-induced flaws located in RPV welds and adjacent base materials. As part of this effort, the investigators have pursued an evaluation, based on the available information, of the capability of UT to provide flaw density/distribution inputs for making RPV weld assessments in accordance with §50.61a. This paper presents the results of an evaluation of data from the 1993 Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, Unit 3, Spirit of Appendix VIII reactor vessel examination, a comparison of the flaw density/distribution from this data with the distribution in §50.61a, possible reasons for differences, and plans and recommendations for further work in this area.

  6. Characteristics and sources of intermediate size particles in recovery boilers : final project report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Larry L.; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Verrill, Christopher L.; Wessel, Richard A.

    2005-02-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Industries of the Future (IOF) Forest Products research program, a collaborative investigation was conducted on the sources, characteristics, and deposition of particles intermediate in size between submicron fume and carryover in recovery boilers. Laboratory experiments on suspended-drop combustion of black liquor and on black liquor char bed combustion demonstrated that both processes generate intermediate size particles (ISP), amounting to 0.5-2% of the black liquor dry solids mass (BLS). Measurements in two U.S. recovery boilers show variable loadings of ISP in the upper furnace, typically between 0.6-3 g/Nm{sup 3}, or 0.3-1.5% of BLS. The measurements show that the ISP mass size distribution increases with size from 5-100 {micro}m, implying that a substantial amount of ISP inertially deposits on steam tubes. ISP particles are depleted in potassium, chlorine, and sulfur relative to the fuel composition. Comprehensive boiler modeling demonstrates that ISP concentrations are substantially overpredicted when using a previously developed algorithm for ISP generation. Equilibrium calculations suggest that alkali carbonate decomposition occurs at intermediate heights in the furnace and may lead to partial destruction of ISP particles formed lower in the furnace. ISP deposition is predicted to occur in the superheater sections, at temperatures greater than 750 C, when the particles are at least partially molten.

  7. Frictionally induced ignition processes in drop and skid tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickson, Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Parker, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Novak, Alan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The standard LANL/Pantex drop and skid tests rely on subjective assessment of reaction violence to quantify the response of the charge, and completely miss nonpropagating hot-spot ignition sites. Additionally, large variations in test results have been observed, which we propose is due to a misunderstanding of the basic physical processes that lead to threshold ignition in these tests. The tests have been redesigned to provide control of these mechanisms and to permit direct observation of hot spots at the impact site, allowing us to follow the progression of the outcome as the drop height and ignition source density are varied. The results confirm that frictional interactions between high-melting-point solids are the dominant ignition mechanism, not just at the threshold, but in fact at all realistic drop heights.

  8. Confined polymer nematics: order and packing in a nematic drop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Svenšek; Gregor Veble; Rudolf Podgornik

    2010-05-04

    We investigate the tight packing of nematic polymers inside a confining hard sphere. We model the polymer {\\sl via} the continuum Frank elastic free energy augmented by a simple density dependent part as well as by taking proper care of the connectivity of the polymer chains when compared with simple nematics. The free energy {\\sl ansatz} is capable of describing an orientational ordering transition within the sample between an isotropic polymer solution and a polymer nematic phase. We solve the Euler-Lagrange equations numerically with the appropriate boundary conditions for the director and density field and investigate the orientation and density profile within a sphere. Two important parameters of the solution are the exact locations of the beginning and the end of the polymer chain. Pending on their spatial distribution and the actual size of the hard sphere enclosure we can get a plethora of various configurations of the chain exhibiting different defect geometry.

  9. A new method for measurement of safety rod drop times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesic, M.; Stefanovic, D. ); Marinkovic, P. )

    1992-10-01

    In this paper, a new method for the accurate measurement of safety rod drop times is proposed. It is based on a fast electromagnetic transducer and an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) conected to a computer system. Evaluation of recorded data is conducted by a developed computer code. The first measurements performed at the HERBE fast-thermal RB reactor show that a relative uncertainty (confidence level 95%) of less than 6% can be achieved in determination of rod drop time (with time intervals ranging from 0.4-10.0 s). Further improvements in accuracy are possible.

  10. Aerosol mobility size spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Jian (Port Jefferson, NY); Kulkarni, Pramod (Port Jefferson Station, NY)

    2007-11-20

    A device for measuring aerosol size distribution within a sample containing aerosol particles. The device generally includes a spectrometer housing defining an interior chamber and a camera for recording aerosol size streams exiting the chamber. The housing includes an inlet for introducing a flow medium into the chamber in a flow direction, an aerosol injection port adjacent the inlet for introducing a charged aerosol sample into the chamber, a separation section for applying an electric field to the aerosol sample across the flow direction and an outlet opposite the inlet. In the separation section, the aerosol sample becomes entrained in the flow medium and the aerosol particles within the aerosol sample are separated by size into a plurality of aerosol flow streams under the influence of the electric field. The camera is disposed adjacent the housing outlet for optically detecting a relative position of at least one aerosol flow stream exiting the outlet and for optically detecting the number of aerosol particles within the at least one aerosol flow stream.

  11. ISIS 9.0 | Student Center Dropping a Class 1 Created: 04.21.11

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capogna, Luca

    ISIS 9.0 | Student Center ­ Dropping a Class 1 Created: 04.21.11 Last Reviewed: 06.17.13 Student Center ­ Dropping a Class ISIS 9.0 Dropping a Class Dropping a class from your class schedule is very for the semester. 1. Dropping a Class 1.1 Log in to ISIS and navigate to your Student Center. 1.2 Click the Enroll

  12. Metacognition for Dropping and Reconsidering Intentions Darsana P. Josyula1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Josyula, Darsana

    ). For instance, an agent may create an intention to wash the car on Saturday. In normal situations, this will cause the agent to actually execute the action of washing the car on Saturday. But, suppose the car gets wrecked on Fri- day; this event has to cause the agent to drop the original intention to wash the car

  13. Qualification of the Lasentec M600P Particle Size Analyzer and the Red Valve Model 1151 Pressure Sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JR Bontha; NG Colton; EA Daymo; TD Hylton; CK Bayne; TH May

    2000-01-28

    The Lasentec M600 in-line particle size analyzer was installed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in August 1998 to support retrieval of the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT). Before installation at ORNL, the sensor underwent validation testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Instrument Validation facility. Mechanically, the instrument worked well during validation testing and met all expectations. Operationally, much was learned about optimum ways to display and interpret the data. Slurry samples taken during the in-line tests at PNNL were shipped to the vendor for analysis with a benchtop Lasentec sensor. These experiments were performed to determine if off-line analyses yield particle size distributions similar to those generated by the in-line sensor. It was determined that the Lasentec sensor measures repeatable chord lengths as long as particles are ''presenter'' to the sensor window the same way. After the initial non-radioactive simulant testing at PNNL, the instrument was shipped for radioactive validation and acceptance testing in the Slurry Monitoring Test System (SMTS) connected to the Tank W-9 of the GAATs at ORNL. For all acceptance tests conducted at ORNL, the variation in the chord length distribution and the total particle count corresponded very well with the slurry density data as determined using an in-line Promass 63M Coriolis meter. Based on the performance results obtained, the Lasentec M600P FBRM is expected to meet the requirements for measuring the particle size distribution during the slurry transfer operations at Hanford and the Oak Ridge GAAT remediation project. The Red Valve pressure sensor was endorsed at the Hanford Site following instrument validation tests at PNNL and is currently in operation in the Tank 241-C-106 pump pit. While this instrument measures pressure within a transfer line, this type of pressure sensor could be configured to measure pressure drop over time. In turn, the status of a slurry transfer could be inferred from the pressure-drop measurement. In 1998, four Red Valve pressure sensors (with Sensotech Model AE-213 pressure transducers) were installed before and after the booster pumps of the 4-in. slurry (SL-200) and supernatant (SN-200) transfer lines between Tank 241-C-106 and Tank 241-AY-1 02. These pressure sensors have been in operation for over 1 year, and to date, the sensors have been trouble-flee according to the operators involved with slurry and supernatant transfer operations. Based on these observations, it is apparent that the Red Valve pressure sensors could be installed at the end of the slurry transfer lines and used to measure the pressure drop in the system.

  14. Drop deposition on surfaces with contact-angle hysteresis: Liquid-bridge stability and breakup

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amir Akbari; Reghan J. Hill

    2015-07-23

    We study the stability and breakup of liquid bridges with a free contact line on a surface with contact-angle hysteresis under zero-gravity conditions. Theoretical predictions of the stability limits are validated by experimental measurements. Experiments are conducted in a water-methanol-silicon oil system where the gravity force is offset by buoyancy. We highlight cases where stability is lost during the transition from a pinned-pinned to pinned-free interface when the receding contact angle is approached---rather than a critical state, indicating that the breakup length is not always associated with the static maximum-length stability limit. We demonstrate that the dynamic contact angle controls the contact-line radius following stability loss, and that interface evolution following stability loss can increase the dispensed-drop size if the contact angle is fixed.

  15. Syracuse Univesity Test Report On Uptake Factor Resulting From A Dropped Storage Container - Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhi; Zhang, Jianshun S.

    2012-01-01

    Under certain circumstances, powder from an accidently dropped container can become airborne and inhaled by people nearby such as those who are moving the containers. The inhaled fine particles can deposit on respiratory tracts and lungs, causing asthma, lung cancer, and other acute respiratory illnesses and chronic symptoms. The objective of this study was to develop a standard procedure to measure the airborne concentrations of different size particles within the vicinity of a dropped container where a significant portion of the contained powder is ejected. Tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) was selected in this study to represent relatively heavy powders (7.16 g/cm3 specific gravity for WO{sub 3}). A typical can with the outer dimensions of 4.25” diameter and 4.875” tall was used as the container. The powder was dropped in two different configurations: 1) contained within a can covered by a lid that has a 0.25” diameter hole, and 2) contained within a can without a lid. The packing volume of the powder was 51.4 in3 (842.7 cm{sup 3}) and the target mass was 1936 g. The tests were carried out in a full-scale stainless steel environmental chamber with an interior volume of 852 ft3 (24.1 m3). The chamber system includes an internal recirculation loop with a rectangular air diffuser and 10 variable frequency drive fans to provide a typical room air recirculation flow pattern. Two air filters were installed in the chamber air supply duct and return duct to achieve the required low background particle concentration. The initial chamber air conditions were set at 70°F (± 5°F) and 50% (± 10%) RH. A supporting frame and releasing device were designed and built to trigger consistently the dropping of the can. The particle sampling inlet was placed 5 ft above the floor and 6 inches laterally away from the can’s falling path. Concentrations of particles between 0.5 ?m and 20 ?m were recorded in units of mass and number of particles per unit volume. The data acquisition rate was once every 2 seconds during the first 2 hours. A test procedure was developed and verified. A total of thirty two drop tests were performed, eight in Phase I and twenty four in Phase II, covering variations in dropping height (8 ft or 4 ft from the floor), room air movement (0.25-0.30 m/s or 0.10-0.15 m/s near the ceiling), landing scenario (on a flat plate or a block), and lid condition (¼” lid hole or no lid). There were ten tests with flat plate and ¼” lid hole, ten tests with flat plate no lid and twelve tests with block no lid.

  16. Electrically modulated dynamic spreading of drops on soft surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ranabir Dey; Ashish Daga; Sunando DasGupta; Suman Chakraborty

    2015-04-07

    The intricate interaction between the deformability of a substrate and the dynamic spreading of a liquid drop on the same, under the application of an electrical voltage, has remained far from being well understood. Here, we demonstrate that electrospreading dynamics on soft substrates is dictated by the combined interplay of electrocapillarity, the wetting line friction and the viscoelastic energy dissipation at the contact line. Our results reveal that during such electro-elastocapillarity mediated spreading of a sessile drop, the contact radius evolution exhibits a universal power law in a substrate elasticity based non-dimensional time, with an electric potential dependent spreading exponent. Simultaneously, the macroscopic dynamic contact angle variation follows a general power law in the contact line velocity, normalized by elasticity dependent characteristic velocity scale. Our results are likely to provide the foundation for the development of a plethora of new applications involving droplet manipulations by exploiting the interplay between electrically triggered spreading and substrate-compliance over interfacial scales.

  17. Sessile drop studies on polybromide/zinc-bromine battery electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinoshita, K.; Leach, S.C.

    1982-08-01

    Improvements in the performance of zinc-bromine batteries have been observed with electrolytes containing a quaternary ammonium salt that complexes the bromine to reduce the concentration of free bromine in solution. A variety of quaternary ammonium salts that complex bromine to form a so-called polybromide oil have been considered. Various papers have discussed measurements of the physicochemical properties of the two-component system of bromine-quaternary ammonium bromide in an aqueous medium. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the interfacial tension of polybromide oils on the electrolytes for zinc-bromine batteries by reporting a study of the interfacial tension and contact angle of polybromide oil drops in which the sessile drop method is used. The interfacial tensions for the polybromide phases are found to be considerably lower than the values commonly reported for two-phase systems containing organic and aqueous phases. However, several two-phase systems, such as benzyl alcohol/water, furfural/water, and ethyl acetate/water have low interfacial tension comparable to that of the polybromide/electrolyte system. The low interfacial tension of the polybromide oil phase has important practical implications for the zinc-bromine battery. A stable emulsion can be produced very readily; small drops of the polybromide-oil phase can thus be stabilized with the electrolyte phase and can be expected to enhance the mass transfer of bromine from the polybromide to the electrode.

  18. Drop dynamics after impact on a solid wall: Theory and simulations Jens Eggers,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eggers, Jens

    of a fluid drop onto a planar solid surface at high speed so that at impact, kinetic energy dominates over surface energy and inertia dominates over viscous effects. As the drop spreads, it deforms into a thin the drop will be deposited on the solid surface or whether it will rebound eventually. The latter

  19. Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 Splashing from drop impact into a deep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deegan, Robert

    Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 Splashing from drop impact into a deep pool of a drop with a deep pool of the same liquid. We show that a scaling which relies entirely on liquid: normal incidence of a single spherical drop onto a deep pool of the same liquid. That there is more than

  20. Simple, robust storage of drops and fluids in a microfluidic device Hakim Boukellal,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraden, Seth

    the drop passes around a corner.3 An alternate approach to generate drops employs microfluidic valves solution using a T-junction where the flow is regulated by valves.7 This method has the advantage that drops of arbitrary composition can be created in any sequence. Disadvantages are that valve based mixing

  1. Stretching and squeezing of sessile dielectric drops by the optical radiation pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Stretching and squeezing of sessile dielectric drops by the optical radiation pressure Hamza Chra to the optical radiation pressure of a continuous Gaussian laser wave. Both drop stretching and drop squeezing are investigated at steady state where capillary effects balance the optical radiation pressure. A boundary

  2. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 88, 023017 (2013) Oscillating and star-shaped drops levitated by an airflow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snoeijer, Jacco

    2013-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW E 88, 023017 (2013) Oscillating and star-shaped drops levitated by an airflow Wilco oscillations of drops levitated above an air cushion, eventually inducing a breaking of axisymmetry Drops of water can levitate above a very hot plate due to the so-called "Leidenfrost" effect [1

  3. Photometric Model of a Rain Drop Kshitiz Garg and Shree K. Nayar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nayar, Shree K.

    conditions such as haze and fog, rain drops are large and visible to the naked eye. Each drop refracts and photometric models show that each rain drop behaves like a wide-angle lens that redirects light from a large of rain is highly complex. Unlike the particles that cause other weather conditions such as haze and fog

  4. The lowest oscillation mode of a pendant drop Jong Hoon Moon and Byung Ha Kang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Ho-Young

    ,5,8,9 and electrical disturbance7 in the longitudinal direction, we imposed acous- tic forcing on a pendant drop so interpretation of the results. In the experiment, a liquid drop pendant from a Teflon surface experienced of the drop was recorded by a high- speed video system. In searching for the forcing frequency that excited

  5. Conglomeration of kilometre-sized planetesimals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shannon, Andrew; Wu, Yanqin; Lithwick, Yoram

    2015-02-25

    out of ? 104M? of primordial solids. The total disk mass, if supplemented with the missing hydro- gen gas, would then reach of order a solar mass. This is very surprising and, in our view, invalidates the low-efficiency conglomeration model. Moreover... . This corresponds to a dis- ruption velocity of v ? 100 cm/ s, or e ? 10?3 at 40 AU. When bodies of size s1 are catastrophically disrupted, we re-distribute their masses to smaller size bins with a number distribution that is power-law in size, dn/ds ? sq? for s < s...

  6. Ab Initio study of neutron drops with chiral Hamiltonians

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. D. Potter; S. Fischer; P. Maris; J. P. Vary; S. Binder; A. Calci; J. Langhammer; R. Roth

    2014-12-20

    We report ab initio calculations for neutron drops in a 10 MeV external harmonic-oscillator trap using chiral nucleon-nucleon plus three-nucleon interactions. We present total binding energies, internal energies, radii and odd-even energy differences for neutron numbers N = 2 - 18 using the no-core shell model with and without importance truncation. Furthermore, we present total binding energies for N = 8, 16, 20, 28, 40, 50 obtained in a coupled-cluster approach. Comparisons with Green's Function Monte Carlo results, where available, using Argonne v8' with three-nucleon interactions reveal important dependences on the chosen Hamiltonian.

  7. Conditioning analysis of incomplete Cholesky factorizations with orthogonal dropping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napov, Artem

    2012-03-16

    The analysis of preconditioners based on incomplete Cholesky factorization in which the neglected (dropped) components are orthogonal to the approximations being kept is presented. General estimate for the condition number of the preconditioned system is given which only depends on the accuracy of individual approximations. The estimate is further improved if, for instance, only the newly computed rows of the factor are modified during each approximation step. In this latter case it is further shown to be sharp. The analysis is illustrated with some existing factorizations in the context of discretized elliptic partial differential equations.

  8. Advanced Drop-In Biofuels Initiative Agenda | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing ToolInternationalReportOfficeAcqguide18pt0Department ofHigh EfficiencyAdvanced Drop-In

  9. Conserving Water, One Drop at a Time | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergy Webinar:I DueBETOofforCompanyResults,Conserving Water, One Drop

  10. Drop Dynamics and Speciation in Isolation of Metals from Liquid Wastes by Reactive Scavenging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arne J. Pearlstein; Alexander Scheeline

    2002-08-30

    Computational and experimental studies of the motion and dynamics of liquid drops in gas flows were conducted with relevance to reactive scavenging of metals from atomized liquid waste. Navier-Stoke's computations of deformable drops revealed a range of conditions from which prolate drops are expected, and showed how frajectiones of deformable drops undergoing deceleration can be computed. Experimental work focused on development of emission fluorescence, and scattering diagnostics. The instrument developed was used to image drop shapes, soot, and nonaxisymmetric departures from steady flow in a 22kw combustor

  11. In-drop capillary spooling of spider capture thread inspires highly extensible fibres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hervé Elettro; Sébastien Neukirch; Fritz Vollrath; Arnaud Antkowiak

    2015-01-05

    Spiders' webs and gossamer threads are often paraded as paradigms for lightweight structures and outstanding polymers. Probably the most intriguing of all spider silks is the araneid capture thread, covered with tiny glycoprotein glue droplets. Even if compressed, this thread remains surprisingly taut, a property shared with pure liquid films, allowing both thread and web to be in a constant state of tension. Vollrath and Edmonds proposed that the glue droplets would act as small windlasses and be responsible for the tension, but other explanations have also been suggested, involving for example the macromolecular properties of the flagelliform silk core filaments. Here we show that the nanolitre glue droplets of the capture thread indeed induce buckling and coiling of the core filaments: microscopic in-vivo observations reveal that the slack fibre is spooled into and within the droplets. We model windlass activation as a structural phase transition, and show that fibre spooling essentially results from the interplay between elasticity and capillarity. This is demonstrated by reproducing artificially the mechanism on a synthetic polyurethane thread/silicone oil droplet system. Fibre size is the key in natural and artificial setups which both require micrometer-sized fibres to function. The spools and coils inside the drops are further shown to directly affect the mechanical response of the thread, evidencing the central role played by geometry in spider silk mechanics. Beside shedding light on araneid capture thread functionality, we argue that the properties of this biological system provide novel insights for bioinspired synthetic actuators.

  12. Friction pressure drop measurements and flow distribution analysis for LEU conversion study of MIT Research Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Susanna Yuen-Ting

    2008-01-01

    The MIT Nuclear Research Reactor (MITR) is the only research reactor in the United States that utilizes plate-type fuel elements with longitudinal fins to augment heat transfer. Recent studies on the conversion to low-enriched ...

  13. Optimal Porosity Distribution for Minimized Ohmic Drop across a Porous Electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    electrode made of lithium cobalt oxide, which is commonly used in lithium-ion batteries for various been used to optimize the electrode thickness or spatially uniform porosity in lithium-ion battery can provide analyti- cal expressions to describe the discharge of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries

  14. SIZE AND SURFACE AREA OF ICY DUST AGGREGATES AFTER A HEATING EVENT AT A PROTOPLANETARY NEBULA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sirono, Sin-iti

    2013-03-01

    The activity of a young star rises abruptly during an FU Orionis outburst. This event causes a temporary temperature increase in the protoplanetary nebula. H{sub 2}O icy grains are sublimated by this event, and silicate cores embedded inside the ice are ejected. During the high-temperature phase, the silicate grains coagulate to form silicate core aggregates. After the heating event, the temperature drops, and the ice recondenses onto the aggregates. I determined numerically the size distribution of the ice-covered aggregates. The size of the aggregates exceeds 10 {mu}m around the snow line. Because of the migration of the ice to large aggregates, only a small fraction of the silicate core aggregate is covered with H{sub 2}O ice. After the heating event, the surface of an ice-covered aggregate is totally covered by silicate core aggregates. This might reduce the fragmentation velocity of aggregates when they collide. It is possible that the covering silicate cores shield the UV radiation field which induces photodissociation of H{sub 2}O ice. This effect may cause the shortage of cold H{sub 2}O vapor observed by Herschel.

  15. Unwinding of circular helicoidal molecules versus size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marco Zoli

    2015-04-12

    The thermodynamical stability of a set of circular double helical molecules is analyzed by path integral techniques. The minicircles differ only in \\textit{i)} the radius and \\textit{ii)} the number of base pairs ($N$) arranged along the molecule axis. Instead, the rise distance is kept constant. For any molecule size, the computational method simulates a broad ensemble of possible helicoidal configurations while the partition function is a sum over the path trajectories describing the base pair fluctuational states. The stablest helical repeat of every minicircle is determined by free energy minimization. We find that, for molecules with $N$ larger than $100$, the helical repeat grows linearly with the size and the twist number is constant. On the other hand, by reducing the size below $100$ base pairs, the double helices sharply unwind and the twist number drops to one for $N=\\,20$. This is predicted as the minimum size for the existence of helicoidal molecules in the closed form. The helix unwinding appears as a strategy to release the bending stress associated to the circularization of the molecules.

  16. HLW Canister and Can-In-Canister Drop Calculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. Marr

    1999-09-15

    The purpose of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the standard high-level waste (HLW) canister and the HLW canister containing the cans of immobilized plutonium (''can-in-canister'' throughout this document) to the drop event during the handling operation. The objective of the calculation is to provide the structure parameter information to support the canister design and the waste handling facility design. Finite element solution is performed using the commercially available ANSYS Version (V) 5.4 finite element code. Two-dimensional (2-D) axisymmetric and three-dimensional (3-D) finite element representations for the standard HLW canister and the can-in-canister are developed and analyzed using the dynamic solver.

  17. Strong plasma screening in thermonuclear reactions: Electron drop model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. A. Kravchuk; D. G. Yakovlev

    2014-01-11

    We analyze enhancement of thermonuclear fusion reactions due to strong plasma screening in dense matter using a simple electron drop model. The model assumes fusion in a potential that is screened by an effective electron cloud around colliding nuclei (extended Salpeter ion-sphere model). We calculate the mean field screened Coulomb potentials for atomic nuclei with equal and nonequal charges, appropriate astrophysical S factors, and enhancement factors of reaction rates. As a byproduct, we study analytic behavior of the screening potential at small separations between the reactants. In this model, astrophysical S factors depend not only on nuclear physics but on plasma screening as well. The enhancement factors are in good agreement with calculations by other methods. This allows us to formulate the combined, pure analytic model of strong plasma screening in thermonuclear reactions. The results can be useful for simulating nuclear burning in white dwarfs and neutron stars.

  18. DropBot: An open-source digital microfluidic control system with precise control of electrostatic driving force and instantaneous drop velocity measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fobel, Ryan; Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research, 160 College St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E1 ; Fobel, Christian; Wheeler, Aaron R.; Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research, 160 College St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E1; Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St. George St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6

    2013-05-13

    We introduce DropBot: an open-source instrument for digital microfluidics (http://microfluidics.utoronto.ca/dropbot). DropBot features two key functionalities for digital microfluidics: (1) real-time monitoring of instantaneous drop velocity (which we propose is a proxy for resistive forces), and (2) application of constant electrostatic driving forces through compensation for amplifier-loading and device capacitance. We anticipate that this system will enhance insight into failure modes and lead to new strategies for improved device reliability, and will be useful for the growing number of users who are adopting digital microfluidics for automated, miniaturized laboratory operation.

  19. Add/drop Semi-Analytic Gain Tilt Control Algorithm for the Fiber Raman Amplifier under

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Namkyoo

    Is(z) -Is(z) . add/drop surviving evolution , . , . (5) Ip(L) . (4) Ip(L)/Leff,p . , evolution #12; . )()0()( , )0()0( zLPzI peffpp = (10) (0) . (10) (6 . 1 drop , 2 drop . C/L 40, 100GHz, +5dBm 24dBm. 1420nm 1480nm 5nm 13 1495nm 1 14

  20. Add-drop filter based on dual photonic crystal nanobeam cavities in push-pull mode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poulton, Christopher V; Wade, Mark T; Popovic, Milos A

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate an add-drop filter based on a dual photonic crystal nanobeam cavity system that emulates the operation of a traveling-wave resonator and drops light on resonance to a single output port. Realized on an advanced SOI CMOS (IBM 45nm SOI) chip without any foundry process modifications, the device shows 16dB extinction in through port and 1dB loss in drop port with a 3dB bandwidth of 64GHz. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first implementation of a four-port add-drop filter based on photonic crystal nanobeam cavities.

  1. Convective mass transfer from a submerged drop in a thin falling film

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landel, Julien R; McEvoy, H; Dalziel, Stuart B

    2015-01-01

    We study the fluid mechanics of removing a passive tracer contained in small, viscous drops attached to a flat inclined substrate using thin gravity-driven film flows. A convective mass transfer establishes across the drop-film interface and the tracer in the drop diffuses into the film flow. The Peclet number for the tracer in the film is large. The Peclet number Pe_d in the drop varies from 0.01 to 1. The characteristic transport time in the drop is much larger than in the film. We model the mass transfer of the tracer from the drop bulk into the film using an empirical model based on Newton's law of cooling. This model is supported by a theoretical model solving the quasi-steady 2D advection-diffusion equation in the film coupled with a time-dependent 1D diffusion equation in the drop. We find excellent agreement between our experimental data and the 2 models, which predict an exponential decrease in time of the tracer concentration in the drop. The results are valid for all drop and film Peclet numbers st...

  2. Free energy of colloidal particles at the surface of sessile drops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Guzowski; M. Tasinkevych; S. Dietrich

    2010-07-14

    The influence of finite system size on the free energy of a spherical particle floating at the surface of a sessile droplet is studied both analytically and numerically. In the special case that the contact angle at the substrate equals $\\pi/2$ a capillary analogue of the method of images is applied in order to calculate small deformations of the droplet shape if an external force is applied to the particle. The type of boundary conditions for the droplet shape at the substrate determines the sign of the capillary monopole associated with the image particle. Therefore, the free energy of the particle, which is proportional to the interaction energy of the original particle with its image, can be of either sign, too. The analytic solutions, given by the Green's function of the capillary equation, are constructed such that the condition of the forces acting on the droplet being balanced and of the volume constraint are fulfilled. Besides the known phenomena of attraction of a particle to a free contact line and repulsion from a pinned one, we observe a local free energy minimum for the particle being located at the drop apex or at an intermediate angle, respectively. This peculiarity can be traced back to a non-monotonic behavior of the Green's function, which reflects the interplay between the deformations of the droplet shape and the volume constraint.

  3. Aalborg Universitet Recreating Riser Slugging Flow Based on an Economic Lab-sized Setup

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Zhenyu

    by repeating impact, high frictional pressure drop, low production and production slop, (Hill and Wood (1994 of periodic phenomenon, the slugging flow in the offshore oil & gas production addresses a lot of attentions oil & gas production, by constructing an economical lab-sized setup in the university campus. Firstly

  4. Proton radioactivity within a generalized liquid drop model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. M. Dong; H. F. Zhang; G. Royer

    2009-06-02

    The proton radioactivity half-lives of spherical proton emitters are investigated theoretically. The potential barriers preventing the emission of protons are determined in the quasimolecular shape path within a generalized liquid drop model (GLDM) including the proximity effects between nuclei in a neck and the mass and charge asymmetry. The penetrability is calculated with the WKB approximation. The spectroscopic factor has been taken into account in half-life calculation, which is obtained by employing the relativistic mean field (RMF) theory combined with the BCS method with the force NL3. The half-lives within the GLDM are compared with the experimental data and other theoretical values. The GLDM works quite well for spherical proton emitters when the spectroscopic factors are considered, indicating the necessity of introducing the spectroscopic factor and the success of the GLDM for proton emission. Finally, we present two formulas for proton emission half-life calculation similar to the Viola-Seaborg formulas and Royer's formulas of alpha decay.

  5. Gas Inflow and Metallicity Drops in Star-forming Galaxies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ceverino, Daniel; Muñoz-Tuñon, Casiana; Dekel, Avishai; Elmegreen, Bruce G; Elmegreen, Debra M; Primack, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Gas inflow feeds galaxies with low metallicity gas from the cosmic web, sustaining star formation across the Hubble time. We make a connection between these inflows and metallicity inhomogeneities in star-forming galaxies, by using synthetic narrow-band images of the Halpha emission line from zoom-in AMR cosmological simulations of galaxies with stellar masses of $M \\simeq 10^9 $Msun at redshifts z=2-7. In $\\sim$50\\% of the cases at redshifts lower than 4, the gas inflow gives rise to star-forming, Halpha-bright, off-centre clumps. Most of these clumps have gas metallicities, weighted by Halpha luminosity, lower than the metallicity in the surrounding interstellar medium by $\\sim$0.3 dex, consistent with observations of chemical inhomogeneities at high and low redshifts. Due to metal mixing by shear and turbulence, these metallicity drops are dissolved in a few disc dynamical times. Therefore, they can be considered as evidence for rapid gas accretion coming from cosmological inflow of pristine gas.

  6. Prediction of Functional Sites Based on the Fuzzy Oil Drop Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skolnick, Jeff

    Prediction of Functional Sites Based on the Fuzzy Oil Drop Model Michal Brylin´ski1,2 , Katarzyna, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Jagiellonian University, Krako´w, Poland, 4 Institute of Medical Oil Drop model. PLoS Comput Biol 3(5): e94. doi:10.1371/journal.pcbi.0030094 Introduction Because

  7. Spray and microjets produced by focusing a laser pulse into a hemispherical drop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohl, Claus-Dieter

    Spray and microjets produced by focusing a laser pulse into a hemispherical drop S. T. Thoroddsen,1 surface and the Nd:YAG yttrium aluminum garnet laser pulse propagates through the drop and is focused near applications of laser disrup- tion of droplets is for generation of fine spray to improve combustion efficiency

  8. Pressure drops for direct steam generation in line-focus solar thermal systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pressure drops for direct steam generation in line-focus solar thermal systems John Pye1 , Graham. Modelling is extended to include losses in connecting pipe-work, bends and valves, and updated pressure drop the focus of the solar collector, and then generate steam outside the collector in a large heat exchanger

  9. Non-coalescence of oppositely charged drops W. D. Ristenpart1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as storm cloud formation5 , commercial ink-jet printing6 , petroleum and vegetable oil dehydration7 in an applied electric field; but whereas the drops coalesce as expected at low field strengths the bouncing drops, andpropose that this temporary bridge is unstable with respect to capillary pressure when

  10. High-Speed Imaging of Freezing Drops: Still No Preference for the Contact Line

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kostinski, Alex

    High-Speed Imaging of Freezing Drops: Still No Preference for the Contact Line Colin Gurganus. Here we report such nucleation positioning results measured within drops freezing on a substrate-substrate contact angle. No influence of thermal gradients on the preference for freezing at the triple line has

  11. Buoyancy-driven motion and breakup of viscous drops in constricted capillaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muradoglu, Metin

    and breakup of deformable drops and bubbles through constant and variable cross-section capillaries applications, the individual pores or channels are tortuous with rapid changes in the local cross- sectional drops and gas bubbles through a vertical capillary with periodic constrictions in order to examine

  12. Film drainage and coalescence between deformable drops and bubbles Derek Y. C. Chan,*abc

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Derek Y C

    Film drainage and coalescence between deformable drops and bubbles Derek Y. C. Chan,*abc Evert not present in the interaction between solid bodies. The drops can entrap a thin liquid film of the continuous phase that can lead to a stable film or coalescence. But before leading to either of these outcomes

  13. Stress drops and radiated energies of aftershocks of the 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abercrombie, Rachel E.

    Stress drops and radiated energies of aftershocks of the 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake December 2000; revised 11 May 2003; accepted 25 June 2003; published 28 November 2003. [1] We study stress estimate static and dynamic stress drops from the source time functions and compare them to well

  14. Stress Drop during Earthquakes: Effect of Fault Roughness Scaling by Thibault Candela, Franois Renard,*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmittbuhl, Jean

    Stress Drop during Earthquakes: Effect of Fault Roughness Scaling by Thibault Candela, François parameter of static stress drop during an earthquake is related to the scaling properties of the fault and focusing on elastic deformation of the topography, which is the dominant mode at large scales, the stress

  15. Statistical Estimation of Leakage-Induced Power Grid Voltage Drop Considering Within-Die Process Variations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najm, Farid N.

    Statistical Estimation of Leakage-Induced Power Grid Voltage Drop Considering Within-Die Process the power grid, the grid develops large voltage drops, which is an unavoidable background level of noise on the grid. We develop techniques for estimation of the statistics of the leakage-induced power grid voltage

  16. Statistical Estimation of LeakageInduced Power Grid Voltage Drop Considering WithinDie Process Variations #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najm, Farid N.

    Statistical Estimation of Leakage­Induced Power Grid Voltage Drop Considering Within­Die Process the power grid, the grid develops large voltage drops, which is an unavoidable background level of noise on the grid. We develop techniques for estimation of the statistics of the leakage­induced power grid voltage

  17. The roles of cloud drop effective radius and LWP in determining rain properties in marine stratocumulus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Rosenfeld

    The roles of cloud drop effective radius and LWP in determining rain properties in marine that adding cloud condensation nuclei to marine stratocumulus can prevent their breakup from closed into open in terms of cloud drop effective radius (re). Rain is initiated when re near cloud top is around 12­14 mm

  18. Experimental and computational studies of water drops falling through model oil with surfactant and subjected to an electric field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ervik, Åsmund; Munkejord, Svend Tollak; Müller, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    The behaviour of a single sub-millimetre-size water drop falling through a viscous oil while subjected to an electric field is of fundamental importance to industrial applications such as crude oil electrocoalescers. Detailed studies, both experimental and computational, have been performed previously, but an often challenging issue has been the characterization of the fluids. As numerous authors have noted, it is very difficult to have a perfectly clean water-oil system even for very pure model oils, and the presence of trace chemicals may significantly alter the interface behaviour. In this work, we consider a well- characterized water-oil system where controlled amounts of a surface active agent (Span 80) have been added to the oil. This addition dominates any trace contaminants in the oil, such that the interface behaviour can also be well-characterized. We present the results of experiments and corresponding two-phase- flow simulations of a falling water drop covered in surfactant and subjected to a mono...

  19. Does size matter?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carreras, B. A.; Physics Department, College of Natural Science and Mathematics and Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska 99775; Physics Department, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Madrid ; Newman, D. E.; Dobson, Ian

    2014-06-15

    Failures of the complex infrastructures society depends on having enormous human and economic cost that poses the question: Are there ways to optimize these systems to reduce the risks of failure? A dynamic model of one such system, the power transmission grid, is used to investigate the risk from failure as a function of the system size. It is found that there appears to be optimal sizes for such networks where the risk of failure is balanced by the benefit given by the size.

  20. Fire Size in Tunnels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carvel, Ricky O

    In recent years, a number of high profile accidental fires have occurred in several road and rail tunnels throughout the world. Many of these fires grew rapidly to catastrophic size and claimed many lives. The processes ...

  1. Heat transfer and pressure drop of supercritical carbon dioxide flowing in several printed circuit heat exchanger channel patterns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison, 839 Engineering Research Building, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Kruizenga, A. [Sandia National Laboratory (United States); Anderson, M.; Corradini, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison, 839 Engineering Research Building, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Closed-loop Brayton cycles using supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO{sub 2}) show potential for use in high-temperature power generation applications including High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGR) and Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors (SFR). Compared to Rankine cycles SCO{sub 2} Brayton cycles offer similar or improved efficiency and the potential for decreased capital costs due to a reduction in equipment size and complexity. Compact printed-circuit heat exchangers (PCHE) are being considered as part of several SCO{sub 2} Brayton designs to further reduce equipment size with increased energy density. Several designs plan to use a gas cooler operating near the pseudo-critical point of carbon dioxide to benefit from large variations in thermophysical properties, but further work is needed to validate correlations for heat transfer and pressure-drop characteristics of SCO{sub 2} flows in candidate PCHE channel designs for a variety of operating conditions. This paper presents work on experimental measurements of the heat transfer and pressure drop behavior of miniature channels using carbon dioxide at supercritical pressure. Results from several plate geometries tested in horizontal cooling-mode flow are presented, including a straight semi-circular channel, zigzag channel with a bend angle of 80 degrees, and a channel with a staggered array of extruded airfoil pillars modeled after a NACA 0020 airfoil with an 8.1 mm chord length facing into the flow. Heat transfer coefficients and bulk temperatures are calculated from measured local wall temperatures and local heat fluxes. The experimental results are compared to several methods for estimating the friction factor and Nusselt number of cooling-mode flows at supercritical pressures in millimeter-scale channels. (authors)

  2. Sensitivity of Tropospheric Chemical Composition to Halogen-Radical Chemistry Using a Fully Coupled Size-Resolved Multiphase Chemistry-Global Climate System: Halogen Distributions, Aerosol Composition, and Sensitivity of Climate-Relevant Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, M.; Keene, W. C.; Easter, Richard C.; Sander, Rolf; Liu, Xiaohong; Kerkweg, A.; Erickson, D.

    2014-04-07

    Observations and model studies suggest a significant but highly non-linear role for halogens, primarily Cl and Br, in multiphase atmospheric processes relevant to tropospheric chemistry and composition, aerosol evolution, radiative transfer, weather, and climate. The sensitivity of global atmospheric chemistry to the production of marine aerosol and the associated activation and cycling of inorganic Cl and Br was tested using a size-resolved multiphase coupled chemistry/global climate model (National Center for Atmospheric Research’s Community Atmosphere Model (CAM); v3.6.33). Simulation results showed strong meridional and vertical gradients in Cl and Br species. The simulation reproduced most available observations with reasonable confidence permitting the formulation of potential mechanisms for several previously unexplained halogen phenomena including the enrichment of Br- in submicron aerosol, and the presence of a BrO maximum in the polar free troposphere. However, simulated total volatile Br mixing ratios were generally high in the troposphere. Br in the stratosphere was lower than observed due to the lack of long-lived organobromine species in the simulation. Comparing simulations using chemical mechanisms with and without reactive Cl and Br species demonstrated a significant temporal and spatial sensitivity of primary atmospheric oxidants (O3, HOx, NOx), CH4, and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC’s) to halogen cycling. Simulated O3 and NOx were globally lower (65% and 35%, respectively, less in the planetary boundary layer based on median values) in simulations that included halogens. Globally, little impact was seen in SO2 and non-sea-salt SO42- processing due to halogens. Significant regional differences were evident: The lifetime of nss-SO42- was extended downwind of large sources of SO2. The burden and lifetime of DMS (and its oxidation products) were lower by a factor of 5 in simulations that included halogens, versus those without, leading to a 20% reduction in nss-SO42- in the southern hemisphere planetary boundary layer based on median values.

  3. Sizing and burn time measurements of micron-sized metal powders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gill, Robert J.; Mohan, Salil; Dreizin, Edward L. [New Jersey Institute of Technology Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Detailed ignition and combustion mechanisms are needed to develop optimized propellant and energetic formulations using micron-sized metal powders, such as aluminum. Combustion researchers have traditionally used relatively coarse metal particles to characterize the burn time dependence on particle size. However, measurements of burn times for particles below 10 {mu}m in diameter are still needed for aluminum powders and other metal fuels. The apparatus described here sizes the particles just before the ignition event, providing a direct correlation between individual particle size and its burn time. Two lasers were utilized: a 785 nm laser diode for sizing the particles and a 125 W CO{sub 2} laser for particle ignition. The particles crossed the 785 nm laser beam just before crossing the CO{sub 2} laser beam. The particle size was determined from the amplitude of the scattered 785 nm light pulse. The burn time was determined from the duration of the visible light emission produced from the ignited particle. The in situ measured particle size distributions compared well with the size distributions measured for the same powders by a commercial instrument using low angle laser light scattering. Our measurements with two nominally spherical aluminum powders, suggest that the burn times increase from 0.5 to {approx}2.5 ms as the particle diameters increase from 3 to 8 {mu}m.

  4. Measurement of the high-field Q-drop in a high-purity large-grain niobium cavity for different oxidation processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gianluigi Ciovati; Peter Kneisel; alex gurevich

    2007-06-01

    The most challenging issue for understanding the performance of superconducting radio-frequency (rf) cavities made of high-purity (residual resistivity ratio > 200) niobium is due to a sharp degradation (“Q-drop”) of the cavity quality factor Q0(Bp) as the peak surface magnetic field (Bp) exceeds about 90 mT, in the absence of field emission. In addition, a low-temperature (100 – 140 ?C) “in-situ” baking of the cavity was found to be beneficial in reducing the Q-drop. In this contribution, we present the results from a series of rf tests at 1.7 K and 2.0 K on a single-cell cavity made of high-purity large (with area of the order of few cm2) grain niobium which underwent various oxidation processes, after initial buffered chemical polishing, such as anodization, baking in pure oxygen atmosphere and baking in air up to 180 °C, with the objective of clearly identifying the role of oxygen and the oxide layer on the Q-drop. During each rf test a temperature mapping system allows measuring the local temperature rise of the cavity outer surface due to rf losses, which gives information about the losses location, their field dependence and space distribution. The results confirmed that the depth affected by baking is about 20 – 30 nm from the surface and showed that the Q-drop did not re-appear in a previously baked cavity by further baking at 120 °C in pure oxygen atmosphere or in air up to 180 °C. These treatments increased the oxide thickness and oxygen concentration, measured on niobium samples which were processed with the cavity and were analyzed with Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS). Nevertheless, the performance of the cavity after air baking at 180 °C degraded significantly and the temperature maps showed high losses, uniformly distributed on the surface, which could be completely recovered only by a post-purification treatment at 1250 °C. A statistic of the position of the “hot-spots” on the cavity surface showed that grain-boundaries are not the preferred location. An interesting correlation was found between the Q-drop onset, the quench field and the low-field energy gap, which supports the hypothesis of thermo-magnetic instability governing the Q-drop and the baking effect.

  5. High-solids paint overspray aerosols in a spray painting booth: particle size analysis and scrubber efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, T.L.; D'arcy, J.B.; Schreck, R.M.

    1986-07-01

    Particle size distributions of high-solids acrylic-enamel paint overspray aerosols were determined isokinetically in a typical downdraft spray painting booth in which a 7-stage cascade impactor was used. Three different industrial paint atomizers were used, and the paint aerosols were characterized before and after a paint both scrubber. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of a metallic basecoat and an acrylic clearcoat paint aerosol from air-atomized spray guns ranged from 4-12 ..mu..m and was dependent on atomization pressure. When the paint booth was operated under controlled conditions simulating those in a plant, the collection efficiency of paint overspray aerosols by a paint scrubber was found to be size dependent and decreased sharply for particles smaller than 2 ..mu..m to as low as 64% for clearcoat paint particles of 0.6 ..mu..m. Improvement in the overall particulate removal efficiency can be achieved by optimizing the spray painting operations so as to produce the least amount of fine overspray paint aerosols less than 2 ..mu..m. Maintaining a higher static pressure drop across the paint both scrubber also will improve scrubber performance.

  6. Infrared detection of (H2O)20 isomers of exceptional stability: A drop-like and a face-sharing pentagonal prism cluster

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pradzynski, Christoph C.; Dierking, Christoph W.; Zurheide, Florian; Forck, Richard M.; Buck, Udo; Zeuch, Thomas; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2014-09-01

    Water clusters containing fully coordinated water molecules are model systems that mimic the local environment of the condensed phase. Present knowledge about the water cluster size regime in which the transition from the allsurface to the fully solvated water molecules occurs is mainly based on theoretical predictions in lieu of the absence of precisely size resolved experimental measurements. Here, we report size and isomer selective infrared (IR) spectra of (H2O)20 clusters tagged with a sodium atom by employing IR excitation modulated photoionization spectroscopy. The observed absorption patterns in the OH stretching ”fingerprint” region are consistent with the theoretically predicted spectramore »of two structurally distinct isomers: A drop-like cluster with a fully coordinated (interior) water and an edge-sharing pentagonal prism cluster in which all atoms are on the surface. The observed isomers show exceptional stability and are predicted to be nearly isoenergetic.« less

  7. Infrared detection of (H2O)20 isomers of exceptional stability: a drop-like and a face-sharing pentagonal prism cluster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pradzynski, Christoph C.; Dierking, Christoph W.; Zurheide, Florian; Forck, Richard M.; Buck, Udo; Zeuch, Thomas; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2014-12-28

    Water clusters containing fully coordinated water molecules are model systems that mimic the local environment of the condensed phase. Present knowledge about the water cluster size regime in which the transition from the allsurface to the fully solvated water molecules occurs is mainly based on theoretical predictions in lieu of the absence of precisely size resolved experimental measurements. Here, we report size and isomer selective infrared (IR) spectra of (H2O)20 clusters tagged with a sodium atom by employing IR excitation modulated photoionization spectroscopy. The observed absorption patterns in the OH stretching ”fingerprint” region are consistent with the theoretically predicted spectra of two structurally distinct isomers: A drop-like cluster with a fully coordinated (interior) water and an edge-sharing pentagonal prism cluster in which all atoms are on the surface. The observed isomers show exceptional stability and are predicted to be nearly isoenergetic.

  8. Distributed Estimation Distributed Estimation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Vijay

    with a Star Topology 2 2.1 Static Sensor Fusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.1.1 Combining Estimators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 2.1.2 Static Sensor Fusion for Star Topology;Distributed Estimation 3 Non-Ideal Networks with Star Topology 10 3.1 Sensor Fusion in Presence of Message

  9. Angular Size in a Static Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David F. Crawford

    1994-07-11

    In principle the geometry of the universe can be investigated by measuring the angular size of known objects as a function of distance. Thus the distribution of angular sizes provides a critical test of the stable and static model of the universe described by Crawford (1991,1993) that has a simple and explicit relationship between the angular size of an object and its redshift. The result is that the agreement with observations of galactic diameters and the size of double radio sources with the static model is much better than the standard (Big Bang) theory without evolution. However there is still a small discrepancy at large redshifts that could be due to selection effects.

  10. Measurements of control rod efficiency in RBMK critical assembly upon dropping of the rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhitarev, V. E., E-mail: vejitarev@nnrd.kiae.su; Kachanov, V. M.; Sergevnin, A. Yu.; Lebedev, G. V., E-mail: lgv2004@mail.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15

    The efficiency of control rods in the RBMK critical assembly was measured in the case where one manual-control rod (MCR) is dropped from a steady critical state, and several other MCRs were additionally dropped after 44 s. The measured number of neutrons in the assembly during and after dropping of the rods was used to calculate the efficiency values of the rods by solution of the system of point kinetics equations. A series of methods of the initial data treatment for determination of the desired values of reactivity without the calculated corrections were used.

  11. Drop Traffic in Microfluidic Ladder Networks with Fore-Aft Structural Asymmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeevan Maddala; William S. Wang; Siva A. Vanapalli; Raghunathan Rengaswamy

    2012-01-27

    We investigate the dynamics of pairs of drops in microfluidic ladder networks with slanted bypasses, which break the fore-aft structural symmetry. Our analytical results indicate that unlike symmetric ladder networks, structural asymmetry introduced by a single slanted bypass can be used to modulate the relative drop spacing, enabling them to contract, synchronize, expand, or even flip at the ladder exit. Our experiments confirm all these behaviors predicted by theory. Numerical analysis further shows that while ladder networks containing several identical bypasses are limited to nearly linear transformation of input delay between drops, mixed combination of bypasses can cause significant non-linear transformation enabling coding and decoding of input delays.

  12. Tests of Four PT-415 Coolers Installed in the Drop-in Mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, Michael A.; Wang, S.T.

    2008-07-08

    The superconducting magnets and absorbers for MICE will be cooled using PT415 pulse tube coolers. The cooler 2nd stage will be connected to magnets and the absorbers through a helium or hydrogen re-condensing system. It was proposed that the coolers be connected to the magnets in such a way that the cooler can be easily installed and removed, which permits the magnets to be shipped without the coolers. The drop-in mode requires that the cooler 1st stage be well connected to the magnet shields and leads through a low temperature drop demountable connection. The results of the PT415 drop-in cooler tests are presented.

  13. Proposed observations of gravity waves from the early Universe via "Millikan oil drops"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Y. Chiao

    2006-06-29

    Pairs of Planck-mass drops of superfluid helium coated by electrons (i.e., ``Millikan oil drops''), when levitated in a superconducting magnetic trap, can be efficient quantum transducers between electromagnetic (EM) and gravitational (GR) radiation. This leads to the possibility of a Hertz-like experiment, in which EM waves are converted at the source into GR waves, and then back-converted at the receiver from GR waves back into EM waves. Detection of the gravity-wave analog of the cosmic microwave background using these drops can discriminate between various theories of the early Universe.

  14. Quantitative Reflectance Spectra of Solid Powders as a Function of Particle Size

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Myers, Tanya L.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Su, Yin-Fong; Blake, Thomas A.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Ertel, Alyssa B.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Richardson, Robert L.

    2015-05-19

    We have recently developed vetted methods for obtaining quantitative infrared directional-hemispherical reflectance spectra using a commercial integrating sphere. In this paper, the effects of particle size on the spectral properties are analyzed for several samples such as ammonium sulfate, calcium carbonate, and sodium sulfate as well as one organic compound, lactose. We prepared multiple size fractions for each sample and confirmed the mean sizes using optical microscopy. Most species displayed a wide range of spectral behavior depending on the mean particle size. General trends of reflectance vs. particle size are observed such as increased albedo for smaller particles: for mostmore »wavelengths, the reflectivity drops with increased size, sometimes displaying a factor of 4 or more drop in reflectivity along with a loss of spectral contrast. In the longwave infrared, several species with symmetric anions or cations exhibited reststrahlen features whose amplitude was nearly invariant with particle size, at least for intermediate- and large-sized sample fractions; that is, > ~150 microns. Trends of other types of bands (Christiansen minima, transparency features) are also investigated as well as quantitative analysis of the observed relationship between reflectance vs. particle diameter.« less

  15. Quantitative Reflectance Spectra of Solid Powders as a Function of Particle Size

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, Tanya L.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Su, Yin-Fong; Blake, Thomas A.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Ertel, Alyssa B.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Richardson, Robert L.

    2015-01-01

    We have recently developed vetted methods for obtaining quantitative infrared directional-hemispherical reflectance spectra using a commercial integrating sphere. In this paper, the effects of particle size on the spectral properties are analyzed for several samples such as ammonium sulfate, calcium carbonate, and sodium sulfate as well as one organic compound, lactose. We prepared multiple size fractions for each sample and confirmed the mean sizes using optical microscopy. Most species displayed a wide range of spectral behavior depending on the mean particle size. General trends of reflectance vs. particle size are observed such as increased albedo for smaller particles: for most wavelengths, the reflectivity drops with increased size, sometimes displaying a factor of 4 or more drop in reflectivity along with a loss of spectral contrast. In the longwave infrared, several species with symmetric anions or cations exhibited reststrahlen features whose amplitude was nearly invariant with particle size, at least for intermediate- and large-sized sample fractions; that is, > ~150 microns. Trends of other types of bands (Christiansen minima, transparency features) are also investigated as well as quantitative analysis of the observed relationship between reflectance vs. particle diameter.

  16. Drop Formation and Breakup of Low Viscosity Elastic Fluids: Effects of Molecular Weight and Concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tirtaatmadja, Viyada

    2007-01-23

    The dynamics of drop formation and pinch-off have been investigated for a series of low viscosity elastic fluids possessing similar shear viscosities, but differing substantially in elastic properties. On initial approach ...

  17. ALFVEN-WAVE OSCILLATIONS IN A SPHERE, WITH APPLICATIONS TO ELECTRON-HOLE DROPS IN Ge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markiewicz, R.S.

    2011-01-01

    Rev. B 13,4626 (1976). For Ge(4:2) m is the average of thediscussed for EHD in unstressed Ge (B II )TO ELECI'RON-OOLE DROPS IN Ge R. S. Markiewicz January 1978

  18. Where have all the flowers gone? Postbloom fruit drop of citrus in the Americas.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timmer, L. W.; Peres, N. A.

    2015-01-01

    of slow-growing orange and Key lime anthracnose strains offruit drop of citrus and Key lime anthracnose are caused bycausing wither-tip disease of limes in Zanzibar. Trans Brit

  19. The influence of return bends on the downstream pressure drop and condensation heat transfer in tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Traviss, Donald P.

    1971-01-01

    The influence of return bends on the downstream pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient of condensing refrigerant R-12 was studied experimentally. Flow patterns in glass return bends of 1/2 to 1 in. radius and 0.315 ...

  20. Heat transfer to impacting drops and post critical heat flux dispersed flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kendall, Gail E.

    1978-01-01

    Heat transfer to drops impacting on a hot surface is examined in context of dispersions of flowing, boiling fluids. The liquid contribution to heat transfer from a hot tube to a two-phase dispersion is formulated in terms ...

  1. Variablity among electronic cigarettes in the pressure drop, airflow rate, and aerosol production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Talbot, Prue

    2013-01-01

    on the Ruyan e-cigarette cartridge and inhaled aerosol (pp.drop, length of time cartridges lasted, and production ofdevice that aerosolizes cartridge fluid which is in turn

  2. identification Distributed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schenato, Luca

    Networked Control Systems Clock Sync Channel identification in WSN Distributed control of Smart. Sandro Zampieri #12;Networked Control Systems Clock Sync Channel identification in WSN Distributed Systems Clock Sync Channel identification in WSN Distributed control of Smart Grids Conclusions Issues

  3. Control of pore size in epoxy systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sawyer, Patricia Sue; Lenhart, Joseph Ludlow (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Lee, Elizabeth (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Kallam, Alekhya (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Majumdar, Partha (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Dirk, Shawn M.; Gubbins, Nathan; Chisholm, Bret J. (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Celina, Mathias Christopher; Bahr, James (North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND); Klein, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Both conventional and combinatorial approaches were used to study the pore formation process in epoxy based polymer systems. Sandia National Laboratories conducted the initial work and collaborated with North Dakota State University (NDSU) using a combinatorial research approach to produce a library of novel monomers and crosslinkers capable of forming porous polymers. The library was screened to determine the physical factors that control porosity, such as porogen loading, polymer-porogen interactions, and polymer crosslink density. We have identified the physical and chemical factors that control the average porosity, pore size, and pore size distribution within epoxy based systems.

  4. Uniform Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    randomly and equally likely a point in that interval), the uniform distribution ... Roughly speaking, this means that from any distribution we can create the uniform.

  5. Magnetic agglomeration method for size control in the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huber, Dale L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-07-05

    A method for controlling the size of chemically synthesized magnetic nanoparticles that employs magnetic interaction between particles to control particle size and does not rely on conventional kinetic control of the reaction to control particle size. The particles are caused to reversibly agglomerate and precipitate from solution; the size at which this occurs can be well controlled to provide a very narrow particle size distribution. The size of particles is controllable by the size of the surfactant employed in the process; controlling the size of the surfactant allows magnetic control of the agglomeration and precipitation processes. Agglomeration is used to effectively stop particle growth to provide a very narrow range of particle sizes.

  6. Contrasting size evolution in marine and freshwater diatoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    carbon cycle and most aquatic ecosystems. Their cell sizes impact carbon sequestration and en- ergy carbon cycle and the structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems. evolutionarily stable strategy and forming the basis of many aquatic food webs (6). Diatom size distributions greatly influence carbon

  7. Probing the size and environment induced phase transformation in CdSe quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karakoti, Ajay S.; Sanghavi, Shail P.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Yang, Ping; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2011-11-17

    The structural and electronic properties of CdSe quantum dots in toluene and drop-casted on Si wafer were investigated by in-situ micro X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV-Vis absorption and emission spectroscopy. The in-situ micro diffraction data show that the CdSe quantum dots capped with TOPO or hexadecylamine (HDA) in toluene exhibit predominantly wurtzite crystal structure, which undergoes a phase transformation to zinc blende crystal structure following drop casting on Si and this phase transition increases with decreasing the size of the CdSe quantum dots. Decreasing the size of quantum dots also increases the Se vacancies that facilitate the phase transformation. The X-ray photoelectron spectra show a systematic increase in the core level binding energies of Cd 3d and Se 3d, the band gap and the Cd/Se ratio as the size of the quantum dots decreases from 6.6nm to 2.1nm. This is attributed to the quantum confinement of CdSe crystallites by the capping ligands in toluene which increases with decreasing the size of the quantum dots. However, drop-casting quantum dots on Si alter the density and arrangement of capping ligands and solvent molecules on the quantum dots which causes significant phase transformation.

  8. Sample sizes for confidence limits for reliability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darby, John L.

    2010-02-01

    We recently performed an evaluation of the implications of a reduced stockpile of nuclear weapons for surveillance to support estimates of reliability. We found that one technique developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) under-estimates the required sample size for systems-level testing. For a large population the discrepancy is not important, but for a small population it is important. We found that another technique used by SNL provides the correct required sample size. For systems-level testing of nuclear weapons, samples are selected without replacement, and the hypergeometric probability distribution applies. Both of the SNL techniques focus on samples without defects from sampling without replacement. We generalized the second SNL technique to cases with defects in the sample. We created a computer program in Mathematica to automate the calculation of confidence for reliability. We also evaluated sampling with replacement where the binomial probability distribution applies.

  9. Effect of bed pressure drop on performance of a CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hairui Yang; Hai Zhang; Shi Yang; Guangxi Yue; Jun Su; Zhiping Fu

    2009-05-15

    The effect of bed pressure drop and bed inventory on the performances of a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler was studied. By using the state specification design theory, the fluidization state of the gas-solids flow in the furnace of conventional CFB boilers was reconstructed to operate at a much lower bed pressure drop by reducing bed inventory and control bed quality. Through theoretical analysis, it was suggested that there would exist a theoretical optimal value of bed pressure drop, around which the boiler operation can achieve the maximal combustion efficiency and with significant reduction of the wear of the heating surface and fan energy consumption. The analysis was validated by field tests carried out in a 75 t/h CFB boiler. At full boiler load, when bed pressure drop was reduced from 7.3 to 3.2 kPa, the height of the dense zone in the lower furnace decreased, but the solid suspension density profile in the upper furnace and solid flow rate were barely influenced. Consequently, the average heat transfer coefficient in the furnace was kept nearly the same and the furnace temperature increment was less than 17{sup o}C. It was also found that the carbon content in the fly ash decreased first with decreasing bed pressure drop and then increased with further increasing bed pressure drop. The turning point with minimal carbon content was referred to as the point with optimal bed pressure drop. For this boiler, at the optimum point the bed pressure was around 5.7 kPa with the overall excess air ratio of 1.06. When the boiler was operated around this optimal point, not only the combustion efficiency was improved, but also fan energy consumption and wear of heating surface were reduced. 23 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Modeling and Control of Ibuprofen Crystal Growth and Size Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tran, Anh Tuan

    2015-01-01

    time evolution of coupled chemical reactions. J. Comput.stochastic simulation of chemical kinetics. Annu. Rev. Phys.title for publication in Chemical Engineering Science and is

  11. Concentrations and Size Distributions of Particulate Matter Emissions...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on the Emission Profiles of Trucks and Buses ARB's Study of Emissions from Diesel and CNG Heavy-duty Transit Buses Measurement of Real-World Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel...

  12. Modeling and Control of Ibuprofen Crystal Growth and Size Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tran, Anh Tuan

    2015-01-01

    ethanol and aqueous ethanolic mixtures. In Proceedings of Chemica 2008, pages 1393– 1401, Newcastle, Australia,

  13. Population growth, distribution, and size in Latin America

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopez-Carr, David

    timber harvesting oil exploration/extraction population growth? degradation of lands in source areas history in Amazonia · Early extractive uses Rubber Forestry #12;Development history in Amazonia forests in the world 2) 45% of all the fresh water on the Earth 3) the planet's largest carbon sink 4

  14. Evolution of droplet size distribution and autoconversion parameterization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submitKansasCommunitiesof Energy8) Wigner Home ·theEvenEvidencein turbulent

  15. Edison Job Size Charts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFES Science Network RequirementsEdison ElectrifiesJob Size Charts

  16. Experimental investigation of ice slurry flow pressure drop in horizontal tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grozdek, Marino; Khodabandeh, Rahmatollah; Lundqvist, Per [Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Energy Technology, Division of Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration, Brinellvaegen 68, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-01-15

    Pressure drop behaviour of ice slurry based on ethanol-water mixture in circular horizontal tubes has been experimentally investigated. The secondary fluid was prepared by mixing ethyl alcohol and water to obtain initial alcohol concentration of 10.3% (initial freezing temperature -4.4 C). The pressure drop tests were conducted to cover laminar and slightly turbulent flow with ice mass fraction varying from 0% to 30% depending on test conditions. Results from flow tests reveal much higher pressure drop for higher ice concentrations and higher velocities in comparison to the single phase flow. However for ice concentrations of 15% and higher, certain velocity exists at which ice slurry pressure drop is same or even lower than for single phase flow. It seems that higher ice concentration delay flow pattern transition moment (from laminar to turbulent) toward higher velocities. In addition experimental results for pressure drop were compared to the analytical results, based on Poiseulle and Buckingham-Reiner models for laminar flow, Blasius, Darby and Melson, Dodge and Metzner, Steffe and Tomita for turbulent region and general correlation of Kitanovski which is valid for both flow regimes. For laminar flow and low buoyancy numbers Buckingham-Reiner method gives good agreement with experimental results while for turbulent flow best fit is provided with Dodge-Metzner and Tomita methods. Furthermore, for transport purposes it has been shown that ice mass fraction of 20% offers best ratio of ice slurry transport capability and required pumping power. (author)

  17. Investigation of pressure drop in capillary tube for mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson cryocooler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ardhapurkar, P. M.; Sridharan, Arunkumar; Atrey, M. D.

    2014-01-29

    A capillary tube is commonly used in small capacity refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. It is also a preferred expansion device in mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson (MR J-T) cryocoolers, since it is inexpensive and simple in configuration. However, the flow inside a capillary tube is complex, since flashing process that occurs in case of refrigeration and air-conditioning systems is metastable. A mixture of refrigerants such as nitrogen, methane, ethane, propane and iso-butane expands below its inversion temperature in the capillary tube of MR J-T cryocooler and reaches cryogenic temperature. The mass flow rate of refrigerant mixture circulating through capillary tube depends on the pressure difference across it. There are many empirical correlations which predict pressure drop across the capillary tube. However, they have not been tested for refrigerant mixtures and for operating conditions of the cryocooler. The present paper assesses the existing empirical correlations for predicting overall pressure drop across the capillary tube for the MR J-T cryocooler. The empirical correlations refer to homogeneous as well as separated flow models. Experiments are carried out to measure the overall pressure drop across the capillary tube for the cooler. Three different compositions of refrigerant mixture are used to study the pressure drop variations. The predicted overall pressure drop across the capillary tube is compared with the experimentally obtained value. The predictions obtained using homogeneous model show better match with the experimental results compared to separated flow models.

  18. Simulation and analysis of the plutonium shipping container subject to 30-foot drops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong, C.; Gupta, N.K.; Gromada, R.J.

    1995-12-31

    The shipping container 5320 is a shipping package for radioactive materials. In order to maintain the component in this packaging within the sub-critical state when subjected to any kind of Hypothetical Accident conditions (HAC), this Type B packaging is designed with various impact limiters. The present study is to examine the energy absorbing capacity of the impact limiter design of this container subjected to a 30-foot drop onto a flat unyielding horizontal surface in each of the three critical dropping orientations. This paper presents the results of a three dimensional nonlinear dynamic impact analysis. This analysis shows the deformed configuration of the container caused by the impact and also determines the effects of different stress wave paths in three distinct drops on the stress states in the critical component. The solution to the problem was obtained using the ABAQUS (explicit) finite element computer code. The nonlinearity of this analysis involves large structural deformation, elasto-plastic materials with strain hardening as well as multiple contact interfaces. Three drop orientations were studied, namely, top down impact, bottom down impact and side impact. Results will be compared against actual drop test data.

  19. Pressure drop and void fraction in intermittent inclined gas-liquid pipe flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aboba, B.D.

    1990-01-01

    The mechanistic approach to gas-liquid flow has been gaining in popularity over the last decade. However currently no models exist to predict pressure drop and void fraction in steeply inclined intermittent Flow. In this work, a model has been developed for prediction of pressure drop and void fraction in intermittent flow at all inclination angles, and verified for angles between {minus}9{degree} and +90{degree}. This model is also suitable for predicting pressure drop and void fraction within the bubble and churn flow regimes. Pressure drop and void fraction predictions are compared with published experimental data on inclined intermittent gas-liquid flow, and agreement is found to be very good. While accurate estimeates of pressure drop and void fraction require accurate flow regime predictions, no comprehensive evaluation of inclined flow pattern prediction methods is currently available. This work compares the theories advanced by workers at the University of Houston and Tel-Aviv University, the University of Cincinnati and Drexel University, and the University of Tulsa against a wide range of experimental data. Alternative schemes are proposed for the dispersed bubble. distorted bubble, elongated bubble-slug, churn, and annular transitions.

  20. Aerosol measurements at a high-elevation site: composition, size, and cloud condensation nuclei activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedman, Beth

    Measurements of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations, single particle composition and size distributions at a high-elevation research site from March 2011 are presented.

  1. Liquid drops on a surface: using density functional theory to calculate the binding potential and drop profiles and comparing with results from mesoscopic modelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adam P. Hughes; Uwe Thiele; Andrew J. Archer

    2015-01-28

    The contribution to the free energy for a film of liquid of thickness $h$ on a solid surface, due to the interactions between the solid-liquid and liquid-gas interfaces is given by the binding potential, $g(h)$. The precise form of $g(h)$ determines whether or not the liquid wets the surface. Note that differentiating $g(h)$ gives the Derjaguin or disjoining pressure. We develop a microscopic density functional theory (DFT) based method for calculating $g(h)$, allowing us to relate the form of $g(h)$ to the nature of the molecular interactions in the system. We present results based on using a simple lattice gas model, to demonstrate the procedure. In order to describe the static and dynamic behaviour of non-uniform liquid films and drops on surfaces, a mesoscopic free energy based on $g(h)$ is often used. We calculate such equilibrium film height profiles and also directly calculate using DFT the corresponding density profiles for liquid drops on surfaces. Comparing quantities such as the contact angle and also the shape of the drops, we find good agreement between the two methods. We also study in detail the effect on $g(h)$ of truncating the range of the dispersion forces, both those between the fluid molecules and those between the fluid and wall. We find that truncating can have a significant effect on $g(h)$ and the associated wetting behaviour of the fluid.

  2. "Millikan oil drops" as quantum transducers between electromagnetic and gravitational radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raymond Y. Chiao

    2007-02-25

    Pairs of Planck-mass-scale drops of superfluid helium coated by electrons (i.e., "Millikan oil drops"), when levitated in the presence of strong magnetic fields and at low temperatures, can be efficient quantum transducers between electromagnetic (EM) and gravitational (GR) radiation. A Hertz-like experiment, in which EM waves are converted at the source into GR waves, and then back-converted at the receiver from GR waves back into EM waves, should be practical to perform. This would open up observations of the gravity-wave analog of the Cosmic Microwave Background from the extremely early Big Bang, and also communications directly through the interior of the Earth.

  3. Influence of a local change of depth on the behavior of bouncing oil drops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carmigniani, Remi; Symon, Sean; McKeon, Beverley J

    2013-01-01

    The work of Couder \\textit{et al} (see also Bush \\textit{et al}) inspired consideration of the impact of a submerged obstacle, providing a local change of depth, on the behavior of oil drops in the bouncing regime. In the linked videos, we recreate some of their results for a drop bouncing on a uniform depth bath of the same liquid undergoing vertical oscillations just below the conditions for Faraday instability, and show a range of new behaviors associated with change of depth. This article accompanies a fluid dynamics video entered into the Gallery of Fluid Motion of the 66th Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics.

  4. New directions for gravity-wave physics via "Millikan oil drops"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raymond Y. Chiao

    2007-04-06

    Pairs of Planck-mass--scale drops of superfluid helium coated by electrons (i.e., "Millikan oil drops"), when levitated in the presence of strong magnetic fields and at low temperatures, can be efficient quantum transducers between electromagnetic (EM) and gravitational (GR) radiation. A Hertz-like experiment, in which EM waves are converted at the source into GR waves, and then back-converted at the receiver from GR waves back into EM waves, should be practical to perform. This would open up observations of the gravity-wave analog of the CMB from the extremely early Big Bang, and also communications directly through the interior of the Earth.

  5. An experimental and analytical study of annular two phase flow friction pressure drop in a reduced acceleration field 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wheeler, Montgomery

    1992-01-01

    instrumentation effects schematic for positive tube axial acceleration. . . . . . . . 28 2. 7 Initialization parabolas of December 17, 1991 2. 8 Initialization parabolas of August 20, 1991 2. 9 Initialization parabola of January 23, 1992 3. 1 Annular flow... uncorrected data and calibration, offset, and hydrostatic head corrected pressure drop data. . 4. 2 Reduced acceleration friction pressure drops for separate adiabatic test sections 4. 3 Comparison of friction pressure drops in reduced acceleration and I-g...

  6. Hardware Sizing for Software Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swaminathan, Ganesh

    2009-05-15

    Hardware sizing is an approximation of the hardware resources required to support a software implementation. Just like any theoretical model, hardware sizing model is an approximation of the reality. Depending on the infrastructure needs, workload...

  7. Water usage dropping on campus, but UT hopes to lower it more

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnston, Daniel

    Water usage dropping on campus, but UT hopes to lower it more Photo Credit: Zachary Strain | Daily six years, UT has worked to decrease its water usage, but the University still has a ways to go if it the University was using one billion gallons of water per year. Across buildings, irrigation, chilling stations

  8. Use of Drop-nets for Wild Pig Damage and Disease Abatement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaskamp, Joshua Alden

    2012-11-15

    of an 18.3 x 18.3 m drop-net and a traditional corral trap for trapping wild pigs. In spring 2010, treatment units were randomly selected and multiple trap sites were identified on 4,047 ha in Love County, Oklahoma. Trap sites were baited with whole corn...

  9. Proton radioactivity within a generalized liquid drop model J. M. Dong,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Proton radioactivity within a generalized liquid drop model J. M. Dong,1 H. F. Zhang,1 and G. Royer) The proton radioactivity half-lives of spherical proton emitters are investigated theoretically. The potential barriers preventing the emission of proton are determined in the quasimolecular shape path within

  10. Interfacial Phenomena and Heat Transfer, 1 (4): 339356 (2013) EFFECT OF DROP SHAPE ON HEAT TRANSFER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khandekar, Sameer

    2013-01-01

    ; Sikarwar et al., 2011). The subject is of interest because of specific features of this mode. The process is cyclic and drop instability will prevent the formation of a liquid film. Such a phase to 30 times greater than the filmwise mode, when tested with Langmuir-Blodgett surfaces (Zhao et al

  11. On Feedback Passivity of Discrete-Time Nonlinear Networked Control Systems with Packet Drops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antsaklis, Panos

    . At these time steps, the increase in storage function is not necessarily bounded by the supplied energy increase in storage function may be greater than the supplied energy at some time steps due to packet drops in closed-loop. Because the process is feedback passive, the resulting increase in storage function

  12. A dropped cellphone call is a common frustration often caused by a weak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Herr, Hugh

    A dropped cellphone call is a common frustration often caused by a weak signal or a strong to smaller, lighter, less- powered platforms. In order for small-platform sensors to detect low-level RF signals effec- tively, they must have high dynamic range, be small and light, consume little power

  13. Delamination at Thick Ply Drops in Carbon and Glass Fiber Laminates Under Fatigue Loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    literature, for the wind turbine blade application the effects of thicker plies and lower cost processing resin system, containing various ply drop geometries, and using thicker plies typical of wind turbine used for glass fibers in wind turbine blades. Introduction The primary structural elements in most wind

  14. DROP-SCALE NUMERICAL MODELING OF CHEMICAL PARTITIOING DURING CLOUD HYDROMETEOR FREEZING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stuart, Amy L.

    DROP-SCALE NUMERICAL MODELING OF CHEMICAL PARTITIOING DURING CLOUD HYDROMETEOR FREEZING A.L. Stuart freezing provide greatly varying estimates of the retention efficiency of volatile solutes (e.g., Lamb understanding of the dependence of partitioning on chemical properties and freezing conditions (Stuart

  15. An evaluation of pavement markings and raised pavement markers at left exit lane drops 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lance, Marty Tina

    1994-01-01

    Most highway engineers agree that freeway exit lane drops create problems in terms of safety and efficiency. A driver can create a hazardous situation when making a sudden lane change out of or into an exit-only lane. Since left exits already...

  16. Time development of fieldaligned currents, potential drops, and plasma associated with an auroral poleward

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fillingim, Matthew

    . Central to the formation of the arc system is the depletion of ionospheric plasma through a regionClick Here for Full Article Time development of fieldaligned currents, potential drops, and plasma study of the plasma and fields measured by the Cluster spacecraft fleet at the highaltitude auroral zone

  17. Electro-optically tunable polarization independent add drop filter with relaxed beam splitter in linbo3 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shin, Yong-Wook

    2009-05-15

    A polarization-independent electro-optically tunable add/drop filter utilizing non-polarizing novel relaxed beam splitters has been developed in LiNbO3 at the 1.55?m wavelength regime. The operation of this filter is based on passive directional...

  18. Flow Patterns, Void Fraction and Pressure Drop in Gas-Liquid Two

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghajar, Afshin J.

    and simultaneous transportation of oil and natural gas from remote extraction locations to the processing units#12;Chapter 4 Flow Patterns, Void Fraction and Pressure Drop in Gas-Liquid Two Phase Flow in gas-liquid two phase flow. The flow structure of different flow patterns observed in gas-liquid two

  19. Estimates of stress drop and crustal tectonic stress from the 27 February 2010 Maule, Chile, earthquake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandwell, David T.

    Estimates of stress drop and crustal tectonic stress from the 27 February 2010 Maule, Chile estimates of shear stress in the crust in the region of the Chile earthquake. First, we use a coseismic slip to derive a spatially variable estimate of the change in static shear stress along the ruptured fault

  20. Statistical Estimation of Circuit Timing Vulnerability Due to Leakage-Induced Power Grid Voltage Drop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najm, Farid N.

    Statistical Estimation of Circuit Timing Vulnerability Due to Leakage-Induced Power Grid Voltage voltage drops on the power grid that can affect circuit timing. We propose a statistical analysis supply voltage to circuit devices is referred to as the power grid. The consequences of power grid

  1. Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 Drop impact into a deep pool: vortex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deegan, Robert

    Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 Drop impact into a deep pool: vortex of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA 2 Division of Physical Sciences and Engineering & Clean Combustion Arabia 3 Physics of Fluids Group, Faculty of Science and Technology, Mesa+ Institute, University

  2. Fig. 1: Journal Articles Tab on library homepage Fig. 2 Drop down menu Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -campus, you will be prompted to enter your myWSU ID and password as soon as you click the "search" button allows you to separate several search terms or phrases in various fields with the drop-down menu (figure search terms and list the databases it is searching (fig. 8). When the search is completed, the window

  3. Academic Renewal Policy Undergraduate students who have dropped out or have been suspended because of poor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selmic, Sandra

    Academic Renewal Policy Undergraduate students who have dropped out or have been suspended because at Louisiana Tech University under the provisions of academic renewal. The following conditions apply: 1 was last registered for credit at any college or university and being enrolled under academic renewal. 2

  4. Sensitivity analysis of a directional potential drop sensor for creep monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagy, Peter B.

    an accelerated 400-hour creep test are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of this technique to monitorSensitivity analysis of a directional potential drop sensor for creep monitoring Elhoucine Madhi Accepted 1 August 2011 Available online 9 August 2011 Keywords: ACPD Creep monitoring Resistivity

  5. Designing for Dabblers and Deterring Drop-Outs in Citizen Science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Sriram

    Designing for Dabblers and Deterring Drop-Outs in Citizen Science Alexandra Eveleigh1 , Charlene on the quality and value of these contributions. Author Keywords Citizen science; motivation; engagement in popularity due to the innovative use of web and mobile technologies [12]. Examples of online citizen science

  6. Pressure drops for direct steam generation in line-focus solar thermal systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pressure drops for direct steam generation in line-focus solar thermal systems John Pye1 , Graham) is increasingly the approach taken for new large-scale solar thermal energy projects. Compared to earlier systems the focus of the solar collector, and then generate steam outside the collector in a large heat exchanger

  7. Coalescence of Drops Near A Hydrophilic Boundary Leads to Long Range Directed Motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manoj K. Chaudhury; Aditi Chakrabarti; Tapasya Tibrewal

    2014-10-08

    A new mechanism for the passive removal of drop on a horizontal surface is described that does not require pre-fabrication of a surface energy gradient. The method relies upon the preparation of alternate hydrophilic/hydrophobic stripes on a surface. When one side of this surface is exposed to steam, with its other surface convectively cooled with cold water, steam condenses as a continuous film on the hydrophilic stripes but as droplets on the hydrophobic stripes. Coalescence leads to a random motion of the center of mass of the fused drops on the surface, which are readily removed as they reach near the boundary of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic zones thus resulting in a net diffusive flux of the coalesced drops from the hydrophobic to the hydrophilic stripes of the surface. Although an in-situ produced thermal gradient due to differential heat transfer coefficients of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic stripes could provide additional driving force for such a motion, it is, however, not a necessary condition for motion to occur. This method of creating directed motion of drops does not require a pre-existing wettability gradient and may have useful applications in thermal management devices.

  8. Radiative Impacts on the Growth of Drops within Simulated Marine Stratocumulus. Part I: Maximum Solar Heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrington, Jerry Y.

    Radiative Impacts on the Growth of Drops within Simulated Marine Stratocumulus. Part I: Maximum Solar Heating CHRISTOPHER M. HARTMAN AND JERRY Y. HARRINGTON Department of Meteorology, The Pennsylvania November 2004) ABSTRACT The effects of solar heating and infrared cooling on the vapor depositional growth

  9. Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Analysis of size options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-02-01

    This report presents the results of the deliberations of the interagency group formed to study the costs and benefits of expanding the size of the SPR. The study concentrated on severe oil supply disruptions involving sharp reductions in world oil production that were 2 to 4 times larger than the largest 1970s interruption. The disruption sizes and estimated probability of occurrence of these scenarios were supplied by the CIA. The most critical part of the CIA's analysis was the assessment of likelihood of these cases occurring. The CIA approached the likelihood problem by combining an examination of past oil supply disruptions with qualitative analysis of important oil market and regional trends. The study group then used statistical techniques and probability distributions to synthesize the historical data with CIA evaluations of as yet unobserved events. The SPR size study assumed direct purchases of SPR oil and did not assume the use of alternative financing mechanisms. Members of the working group with foreign policy and national security responsibilities provided an in-depth review of strategic considerations affecting SPR size. A number of prior studies, some classified, have addressed the strategic importance and insurance value of the SPR to the US and its allies. The results of these studies have also been incorporated in the current effort. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Bag breakup of low viscosity drops in the presence of a continuous air jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulkarni, V. Sojka, P. E.

    2014-07-15

    This work examines the breakup of a single drop of various low viscosity fluids as it deforms in the presence of continuous horizontal air jet. Such a fragmentation typically occurs after the bulk liquid has disintegrated upon exiting the atomizer and is in the form of an ensemble of drops which undergo further breakup. The drop deformation and its eventual disintegration is important in evaluating the efficacy of a particular industrial process, be it combustion in automobile engines or pesticide spraying in agricultural applications. The interplay between competing influences of surface tension and aerodynamic disruptive forces is represented by the Weber number, We, and Ohnesorge number, Oh, and used to describe the breakup morphology. The breakup pattern considered in our study corresponds to that of a bag attached to a toroidal ring which occurs from ?12 < We < ?16. We aim to address several issues connected with this breakup process and their dependence on We and Oh which have been hitherto unexplored. The We boundary at which breakup begins is theoretically determined and the expression obtained, We=12(1+2/3Oh{sup 2}), is found to match well with experimental data ([L.-P. Hsiang and G. M. Faeth, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 21(4), 545–560 (1995)] and [R. S. Brodkey, “Formation of drops and bubbles,” in The Phenomena of Fluid Motions (Addison-Wesley, Reading, 1967)]). An exponential growth in the radial extent of the deformed drop and the streamline dimension of the bag is predicted by a theoretical model and confirmed by experimental findings. These quantities are observed to strongly depend on We. However, their dependence on Oh is weak.

  11. Distributed Generation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electricity, US Data. 6. Distributed Generation: Standby Generation and Cogeneration Ozz Energy Solutions, Inc. February 28 th , 2005. For more information about...

  12. Distributed generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ness, E.

    1999-09-02

    Distributed generation, locating electricity generators close to the point of consumption, provides some unique benefits to power companies and customers that are not available from centralized electricity generation. Photovoltaic (PV) technology is well suited to distributed applications and can, especially in concert with other distributed resources, provide a very close match to the customer demand for electricity, at a significantly lower cost than the alternatives. In addition to augmenting power from central-station generating plants, incorporating PV systems enables electric utilities to optimize the utilization of existing transmission and distribution.

  13. Security for the Mythical Air-dropped Sensor Network Chandana Gamage, Kemal Bicakci, Bruno Crispo, and Andrew S. Tanenbaum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanenbaum, Andrew S.

    Security for the Mythical Air-dropped Sensor Network Chandana Gamage, Kemal Bicakci, Bruno Crispo- niques, the air-dropped sensor network, is likely to be more a myth than a realistic scenario for low sensor technology has been de- scribed as a viable mechanism to rapidly build and deploy very large

  14. Experimental and numerical study of pressure drop and heat transfer in a single-phase micro-channel heat sink

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qu, Weilin

    Experimental and numerical study of pressure drop and heat transfer in a single-phase micro Received 6 July 2001; received in revised form 26 October 2001 Abstract The pressure drop and heat transfer-dimensional heat transfer characteristics of the heat sink were analyzed numerically by solving the conjugate heat

  15. Wide size range fast integrated mobility spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jian

    2013-10-29

    A mobility spectrometer to measure a nanometer particle size distribution is disclosed. The mobility spectrometer includes a conduit and a detector. The conduit is configured to receive and provide fluid communication of a fluid stream having a charged nanometer particle mixture. The conduit includes a separator section configured to generate an electrical field of two dimensions transverse to a dimension associated with the flow of the charged nanometer particle mixture through the separator section to spatially separate charged nanometer particles of the charged nanometer particle mixture in said two dimensions. The detector is disposed downstream of the conduit to detect concentration and position of the spatially-separated nanometer particles.

  16. Experimental and numerical investigation of phonon mean free path distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Lingping

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of phonon mean free path (MFP) distribution is critically important to engineering size effects. Phenomenological models of phonon relaxation times can give us some sense about the mean free path distribution, ...

  17. Drop Simulation of 6M Drum with Locking-Ring Closure and Liquid Contents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, T

    2006-04-17

    This paper presents the dynamic simulation of the 6M drum with a locking-ring type closure subjected to a 4.9-foot drop. The drum is filled with water to 98 percent of overflow capacity. A three dimensional finite-element model consisting of metallic, liquid and rubber gasket components is used in the simulation. The water is represented by a hydrodynamic material model in which the material's volume strength is determined by an equation of state. The explicit numerical method based on the theory of wave propagation is used to determine the combined structural response to the torque load for tightening the locking-ring closure and to the impact load due to the drop.

  18. Normal Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    User

    NORMAL DlSTRlBUTION TABLE. Entries represent the area under the standardized normal distribution from -w to z, Pr(Z

  19. Pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of boiling water in sub-hundred micron channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhide, R.R.; Singh, S.G.; Sridharan, Arunkumar; Duttagupta, S.P.; Agrawal, Amit [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India)

    2009-09-15

    The current work focuses on the pressure drop, heat transfer and stability in two phase flow in microchannels with hydraulic diameter of less than one hundred microns. Experiments were conducted in smooth microchannels of hydraulic diameter of 45, 65 {mu}m, and a rough microchannel of hydraulic diameter of 70 {mu}m, with deionised water as the working fluid. The local saturation pressure and temperature vary substantially over the length of the channel. In order to correctly predict the local saturation temperature and subsequently the heat transfer characteristics, numerical techniques have been used in conjunction with the conventional two phase pressure drop models. The Lockhart-Martinelli (liquid-laminar, vapour-laminar) model is found to predict the two phase pressure drop data within 20%. The instability in two phase flow is quantified; it is found that microchannels of smaller hydraulic diameter have lesser instabilities as compared to their larger counterparts. The experiments also suggest that surface characteristics strongly affect flow stability in the two phase flow regime. The effect of hydraulic diameter and surface characteristics on the flow characteristics and stability in two phase flow is seldom reported, and is of considerable practical relevance. (author)

  20. Interactions between drops of molten Al-Li alloys and liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyder, M.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Nelson, L.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Duda, P.M.; Hyndman, D.A. [Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, at the request of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), studied the interactions between single drops of molten aluminum-lithium alloys and water. Most experiments were performed with ``B`` alloy (3.1 w/o Li, balance A1). Objectives were to develop experimental procedures for preparing and delivering the melt drops and diagnostics for characterizing the interactions, measure hydrogen generated by the reaction between melt and water, examine debris recovered after the interaction, determine changes in the aqueous phase produced by the melt-water chemical reactions, and determine whether steam explosions occur spontaneously under the conditions studied. Although many H{sub 2} bubbles were generated after the drops entered the water, spontaneous steam explosions never occurred when globules of the ``B`` alloy at temperatures between 700 and 1000C fell freely through water at room temperature, or upon or during subsequent contact with submerged aluminum or stainless steel surfaces. Total amounts of H{sub 2} (STP) increased from about 2 to 9 cm{sup 3}/per gram of melt as initial melt temperature increased over this range of temperatures.

  1. The Roles of Cloud Drop Effective Radius and LWP in Determining Rain Properties in Marine Stratocumulus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenfeld, Daniel; Wang, Hailong; Rasch, Philip J.

    2012-07-04

    Numerical simulations described in previous studies showed that adding cloud condensation nuclei to marine stratocumulus can prevent their breakup from closed into open cells. Additional analyses of the same simulations show that the suppression of rain is well described in terms of cloud drop effective radius (re). Rain is initiated when re near cloud top is around 12-14 um. Cloud water starts to get depleted when column-maximum rain intensity (Rmax) exceeds 0.1 mm h-1. This happens when cloud-top re reaches 14 um. Rmax is mostly less than 0.1 mm h-1 at re<14 um, regardless of the cloud water path, but increases rapidly when re exceeds 14 um. This is in agreement with recent aircraft observations and theoretical observations in convective clouds so that the mechanism is not limited to describing marine stratocumulus. These results support the hypothesis that the onset of significant precipitation is determined by the number of nucleated cloud drops and the height (H) above cloud base within the cloud that is required for cloud drops to reach re of 14 um. In turn, this can explain the conditions for initiation of significant drizzle and opening of closed cells providing the basis for a simple parameterization for GCMs that unifies the representation of both precipitating and non-precipitating clouds as well as the transition between them. Furthermore, satellite global observations of cloud depth (from base to top), and cloud top re can be used to derive and validate this parameterization.

  2. Mapping Biomass Distribution Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaetzel, Michael

    2010-11-18

    stream_size 1487 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name ku_gis_day_2010_schaetzel.pdf.txt stream_source_info ku_gis_day_2010_schaetzel.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Mapping Biomass... Distribution Potential Michael Schaetzel Undergraduate ? Environmental Studies ? University of Kansas L O C A T S I O N BIOMASS ENERGY POTENTIAL o According to DOE, Biomass has the potential to provide 14% of the nation’s power o Currently 1% of...

  3. Equilibrium distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashot Vagharshakyan

    2015-08-29

    In the paper discusses the interaction between two charged balls in equilibrium state. It is shown that, depending of the sizes, charges and distance, the balls can move in the same or opposite direction. They can repulse and attract. It is proved, that one of the balls may vibrate.

  4. Experimental characterization of pressure drops and channel instabilities in helical coil SG tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colombo, M.; Cammi, A.; De Amicis, J.; Ricotti, M. E. [Politecnico di Milano, Dept. of Energy, Nuclear Engineering Div. - CeSNEF, Via La Masa 34, 20156, Milano (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    Helical tube heat exchangers provide better heat transfer characteristics, an improved capability to accommodate stresses due to thermal expansions and a more compact design with respect to straight tube heat exchangers. For these advantages they are considered as an option for the Steam Generator (SG) of many new reactor projects of Generation III+ and Generation IV. In particular, their compactness fits well with the requirements of Small-medium Modular Reactors (SMRs) of integral design, where all the primary system components are located inside the reactor vessel. In this framework, thermal hydraulics of helical pipes has been studied in recent years by Politecnico di Milano in different experimental campaigns. Experiments have been carried out in a full-scale open loop test facility installed at SIET labs in Piacenza (Italy)), to simulate the SG of a typical SMR. The facility includes two helical pipes (1 m coil diameter, 32 m length, 8 m height), connected via lower and upper headers. Following recently completed experimental campaigns dedicated to pressure drops and density wave instabilities, this paper deals with a new experimental campaign focused on both pressure drops (single-phase flow and two-phase flow, laminar and turbulent regimes) and flow instabilities. The availability of a large number of experimental data, in particular on two-phase flow, is of fundamental interest for correlation development, model validation and code assessment. Two-phase pressure drops have been measured in adiabatic conditions, ranging from 200 to 600 kg/m{sup 2}s for the mass flux, from 30 to 60 bar for the pressure and from 0.1 to 1.0 for the flow quality. The channel characteristics mass flow rate - pressure drop has been determined experimentally in the range 10-40 bar, varying the mass flow rate at a fixed value of the thermal flux. In addition, single-phase pressure drops have been measured in both laminar and turbulent conditions. Density wave instabilities have been studied at mass flux from 100 to 400 kg/m{sup 2}s and pressure from 10 to 20 bar, to confirm the particular behavior of the stability boundary in helical geometry at low pressure and low mass flow rate. Finally, starting from the unstable regions identified from the experimental channel characteristics, Ledinegg type instabilities have been investigated to drawn stability maps with complete stable and unstable regions in the dimensionless plane N sub-N pch. (authors)

  5. The simulation and improved design of tunable channel drop filter using hexagonal photonic crystal ring resonator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chhipa, Mayur Kumar, E-mail: mayurchhipa1@gmail.com [Government Engineering College, Ajmer, Rajasthan (India)

    2014-10-15

    In this paper, we have proposed a new design of tunable two dimensional (2D) photonic crystal (PhC) channel drop filter (CDF) using ring resonators. The increasing interest in photonic integrated circuits (PIC's) and the increasing use of all-optical fiber networks as backbones for global communication systems have been based in large part on the extremely wide optical transmission bandwidth provided by dielectric materials. Based on the analysis we present novel photonic crystal channel drop filters. Simulations demonstrate that these filters exhibit ideal transfer characteristics. Channel dropping filters (CDF's) that access one channel of a wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) signal while leaving other channels undisturbed are essential components of PIC's and optical communication systems. In this paper we have investigated such parameters which have an effect on resonant wavelength in this Channel Drop Filter, such as dielectric constant of inner, coupling, adjacent and whole rods of the structure. The dimensions of these structures are taken as 20a×19a and the area of the proposed structure is about 125.6?m{sup 2}; therefore this structure can be used in the future photonic integrated circuits. While using this design the dropping efficiency at the resonance of single ring are 100%. The spectrum of the power transmission is obtained with finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. FDTD method is the most famous method for PhC analysis. In this paper the dielectric rods have a dielectric constant of 10.65, so the refractive index is 3.26 and radius r=0.213a is located in air, where a is a lattice constant. In this we have used five scatter rods for obtaining more coupling efficiency; radius of scatter rods is set to 0.215a. The proposed structure is simulated with OptiFDTD.v.8.0 software, the different dielectric constant of rods equal to ?{sub r}?0.4, ?{sub r} and ?{sub r}+0.4 at wavelength of 1570 nm.

  6. Does semantic size affect size constancy scaling using lexical stimuli? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beveridge, Madeleine

    2010-11-24

    Binocular disparity allows us to perceive the world in 3-dimensions through the process of stereopsis. In this study, we used binocular disparity to induce the size constancy illusion in lexical stimuli. 47 undergraduate ...

  7. How Focal Adhesion Size Depends on Integrin Affinity Tong Zhao,,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dinner, Aaron

    How Focal Adhesion Size Depends on Integrin Affinity Tong Zhao,, Ying Li,, and Aaron R. Dinner the thermodynamics and kinetics of integrin receptor binding and clustering impact the formation of focal adhesions in their environment. Cells on chemically well-defined surfaces were observed to have distributions of focal adhesions

  8. IEEE International Conference on Dielectric Liquids (ICDL-2008), Poitiers, June 30-July 4, 2008 Drop-on-demand Extraction from a Water Meniscus by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Drop-on-demand Extraction from a Water Meniscus by a High Field Pulse P. Atten, A. Ouiguini, J. Raisin of a small drop electrically neutral. The experimental results of water drops extraction in oil are presented, France Abstract- As a part of a study of electrocoalescence of water droplets in oil, the controlled

  9. Children's Clothes - Size and Selection. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vanderpoorten, Ann; Kerbel, Claudia

    1980-01-01

    , children's clothing should fit well, allow for growth and be durable and easy to care for. Children's Sizes The age of a child does not determine size. Chil dren of the same age may vary greatly in height, weight and body measurements. Clothing... and pants provide room for growth. Durability Because growing children are active and vigorous in play, select clothing that will withstand stress and strain. Clothing that wears out or falls apart before the child outgrows it is frustrating as well...

  10. Thermocapillary actuation of binary drops on solid surfaces Yuejun Zhao, Fangjie Liu, and Chuan-Hua Chena)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Chuan-Hua

    organic liquids on hydrophobic surfaces.8­11 To thermally actuate aqueous drops on solid surfaces coated with a spray paint of known emissivity (Krylon flat white), and the temperature gradient

  11. A Capacitor-Less Wide-Band Power Supply Rejection Low Drop-Out Voltage Regulator with Capacitance Multiplier 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Mengde

    2014-05-22

    A Low Drop-Out (LDO) voltage regulator with both capacitor-less and high power supply rejection (PSR) bandwidth attributes is highly admired for an integrated power management system of mobile electronics. The capacitor-less feature is demanded...

  12. Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Measurement for Square Channels with V-shape Ribs at High Reynolds Numbers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alkhamis, Nawaf Yahya

    2010-10-12

    for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2009 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering HEAT TRANSFER AND PRESSURE DROP MEASUREMENT FOR SQUARE CHANNELS WITH V-SHAPE RIBS AT HIGH REYNOLDS NUMBERS A Thesis by NAWAF YAHYA ALKHAMIS... of Department, Dennis O?Neal August 2009 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering iii ABSTRACT Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop Measurement for Square Channels with V-shape Ribs at High Reynolds Numbers. (August 2009) Nawaf Yahya Alkhamis, B.Sc King...

  13. Early-time interface instabilities in high intensity aero-breakup of liquid drop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, X Y

    2014-01-01

    The early-time interface instabilities in high intensity (high Weber number and high Reynolds number) aero-breakup of a liquid drop are investigated by numerical simulations. A combined analysis based on simulation results and linear-instability theory show that both RT (Rayleigh-Taylor) and KH (Kelvin-Helmholtz) instabilities contributes the dominant disturbances originate from about the half way from the stagnation point to the equator. This is verified further with a specially modified simulation, which decreases the effect of KH instability while keeps other flow properties unchanged.

  14. Foot Drop after Ethanol Embolization of Calf Vascular Malformation: A Lesson on Nerve Injury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tay, Vincent Khwee-Soon; Mohan, P. Chandra; Liew, Wendy Kein Meng; Mahadev, Arjandas; Tay, Kiang Hiong

    2013-08-01

    Ethanol is often used in sclerotherapy to treat vascular malformations. Nerve injury is a known complication of this procedure. However, the management of this complication is not well described in literature. This case describes a 10-year-old boy with a slow flow vascular malformation in the right calf who underwent transarterial ethanol embolization following prior unsuccessful direct percutaneous sclerotherapy. The development of a dense foot drop that subsequently recovered is described, and the management of this uncommon but distressful complication is discussed.

  15. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Utica Drop Forge and Tool Corp - NY 39

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield Municipal Gas &SCE-SessionsSouth DakotaRobbins and Myers Co -VA 03 Virginia Physics DeptDrop

  16. Empirical distribution Theoretical2distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reich, David

    2 distribution. #12;Supplementary Table 1: Simulations using K axes of variation K = 1 K = 2 K = 5 K SNPs 0.4923 0.4916 0.4891 0.4860 Proportion of associations reported as significant by EIGENSTRAT adjusting along the top K axes of variation, for various values of K. #12;Page 2 Supplementary Table 2

  17. Chapter 6 Continuous Distribution: The Normal Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Don

    Chapter 6 Continuous Distribution: The Normal Distribution 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Properties of a Normal Distribution 6.3 The Standard Normal Distribution 6.4 Applications of Normal Distribution 6.5 The Central Limit Theorem 6.6 The Normal Approximation to the Binomial Distribution Definition. A continuous

  18. probability distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Barbara

    probabilities in the standard normal table What is the area to the left of Z=1.51 in a standard normal curve? Z=1.51 Z=1.51 Area is 93.45% #12;Exercises · If scores are normally distributed with a mean of 30 beauty of the normal curve: No matter what and are, the area between - and + is about 68%; the area

  19. ARM - Measurement - Cloud droplet size

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Comments?govInstrumentsnoaacrnBarrow, Alaska Outreach Home Roomparticle size distributionconcentrationdroplet size

  20. Two-phase flow and pressure drop in flow passages of compact heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wambsganss, M.W.; Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; France, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    Two-phase flow experiments were performed with air/water mixtures in a small rectangular channel measuring 9.52 {times} 1.59 mm (aspects ratio equal to 6), for applications to compact heat exchangers. Pressure drop and flow pattern definition data were obtained over a large range of mass qualities (0.0002 to 1), and in the case of flow pattern data, a large range of mass fluxes (50 to 2,000 kg/m{sup 2}s). A flow pattern map, based on visual observations and photographs of the flow patterns, is presented and compared with a map developed for a rectangular channel of the same aspect ratio but with dimensions twice those of the test channel, and with a map developed for a circular tube with the same hydraulic diameter of 3 mm. Pressure drop data are presented as a function of both mass quality and Martinelli parameter and are compared with state-of-the-art correlations and a modified Chisholm correlation. 13 refs.

  1. Two-phase flow and pressure drop in flow passages of compact heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wambsganss, M.W.; Jendrzejczyk, J.A.; France, D.M.

    1992-02-01

    Two-phase flow experiments were performed with air/water mixtures in a small rectangular channel measuring 9.52 {times} 1.59 mm (aspects ratio equal to 6), for applications to compact heat exchangers. Pressure drop and flow pattern definition data were obtained over a large range of mass qualities (0.0002 to 1), and in the case of flow pattern data, a large range of mass fluxes (50 to 2,000 kg/m{sup 2}s). A flow pattern map, based on visual observations and photographs of the flow patterns, is presented and compared with a map developed for a rectangular channel of the same aspect ratio but with dimensions twice those of the test channel, and with a map developed for a circular tube with the same hydraulic diameter of 3 mm. Pressure drop data are presented as a function of both mass quality and Martinelli parameter and are compared with state-of-the-art correlations and a modified Chisholm correlation. 13 refs.

  2. Biofuels Fuels Technology Pathway Options for Advanced Drop-in Biofuels Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin L Kenney

    2011-09-01

    Advanced drop-in hydrocarbon biofuels require biofuel alternatives for refinery products other than gasoline. Candidate biofuels must have performance characteristics equivalent to conventional petroleum-based fuels. The technology pathways for biofuel alternatives also must be plausible, sustainable (e.g., positive energy balance, environmentally benign, etc.), and demonstrate a reasonable pathway to economic viability and end-user affordability. Viable biofuels technology pathways must address feedstock production and environmental issues through to the fuel or chemical end products. Potential end products include compatible replacement fuel products (e.g., gasoline, diesel, and JP8 and JP5 jet fuel) and other petroleum products or chemicals typically produced from a barrel of crude. Considering the complexity and technology diversity of a complete biofuels supply chain, no single entity or technology provider is capable of addressing in depth all aspects of any given pathway; however, all the necessary expert entities exist. As such, we propose the assembly of a team capable of conducting an in-depth technology pathway options analysis (including sustainability indicators and complete LCA) to identify and define the domestic biofuel pathways for a Green Fleet. This team is not only capable of conducting in-depth analyses on technology pathways, but collectively they are able to trouble shoot and/or engineer solutions that would give industrial technology providers the highest potential for success. Such a team would provide the greatest possible down-side protection for high-risk advanced drop-in biofuels procurement(s).

  3. Distributed Solar Interconnection Challenges and Best Practices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The continued growth of the distributed solar market in the United States has spurred electric utilities, regulators, and stakeholders to consider improvements to distributed generation (DG) interconnection processes. More than 475,000 solar energy systems were interconnected in the U.S. by the end of 2013, but 1 million are expected by the end of 2017. Based on the SunShot Initiative's current trajectory, permitting, inspection, and interconnection (PII) soft costs are expected to drop from a current cost of $0.17/watt to $0.14/watt by 2020. While the actual cost metrics for utility PII are undetermined, they are real. A survey and interviews conducted by Solar Electric Power Association (SEPA) in 2014 have uncovered utility initiatives to lower the administrative costs of DG interconnection, making the process of connecting to the grid simpler and more transparent for customers.

  4. Concentration of measures via size biased couplings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Subhankar

    2009-01-01

    Let $Y$ be a nonnegative random variable with mean $\\mu$ and finite positive variance $\\sigma^2$, and let $Y^s$, defined on the same space as $Y$, have the $Y$ size biased distribution, that is, the distribution characterized by E[Yf(Y)]=\\mu E f(Y^s) for all functions $f$ for which these expectations exist. Under a variety of conditions on the coupling of Y and $Y^s$, including combinations of boundedness and monotonicity, concentration of measure inequalities hold. Examples include the number of relatively ordered subsequences of a random permutation, sliding window statistics including the number of m-runs in a sequence of coin tosses, the number of local maximum of a random function on a lattice, the number of urns containing exactly one ball in an urn allocation model, the volume covered by the union of $n$ balls placed uniformly over a volume n subset of d diml Euclidean space, the number of bulbs switched on at the terminal time in the so called lightbulb process, the number of isolated vertices in the ...

  5. Metal oxide porous ceramic membranes with small pore sizes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI); Xu, Qunyin (Madison, WI)

    1991-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the production of metal oxide ceramic membranes of very small pore size. The process is particularly useful in the creation of titanium and other transition metal oxide membranes. The method utilizes a sol-gel process in which the rate of particle formation is controlled by substituting a relatively large alcohol in the metal alkoxide and by limiting the available water. Stable, transparent metal oxide ceramic membranes are created having a narrow distribution of pore size, with the pore diameter being manipulable in the range of 5 to 40 Angstroms.

  6. Size exclusion deep bed filtration: Experimental and modelling uncertainties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badalyan, Alexander You, Zhenjiang; Aji, Kaiser; Bedrikovetsky, Pavel; Carageorgos, Themis; Zeinijahromi, Abbas

    2014-01-15

    A detailed uncertainty analysis associated with carboxyl-modified latex particle capture in glass bead-formed porous media enabled verification of the two theoretical stochastic models for prediction of particle retention due to size exclusion. At the beginning of this analysis it is established that size exclusion is a dominant particle capture mechanism in the present study: calculated significant repulsive Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek potential between latex particles and glass beads is an indication of their mutual repulsion, thus, fulfilling the necessary condition for size exclusion. Applying linear uncertainty propagation method in the form of truncated Taylor's series expansion, combined standard uncertainties (CSUs) in normalised suspended particle concentrations are calculated using CSUs in experimentally determined parameters such as: an inlet volumetric flowrate of suspension, particle number in suspensions, particle concentrations in inlet and outlet streams, particle and pore throat size distributions. Weathering of glass beads in high alkaline solutions does not appreciably change particle size distribution, and, therefore, is not considered as an additional contributor to the weighted mean particle radius and corresponded weighted mean standard deviation. Weighted mean particle radius and LogNormal mean pore throat radius are characterised by the highest CSUs among all experimental parameters translating to high CSU in the jamming ratio factor (dimensionless particle size). Normalised suspended particle concentrations calculated via two theoretical models are characterised by higher CSUs than those for experimental data. The model accounting the fraction of inaccessible flow as a function of latex particle radius excellently predicts normalised suspended particle concentrations for the whole range of jamming ratios. The presented uncertainty analysis can be also used for comparison of intra- and inter-laboratory particle size exclusion data.

  7. Published as Europhys. Lett. 110:36001, (2015) Direct observation of size scaling and elastic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nordlund, Kai

    2015-01-01

    provide direct evidence for a power-law size distribution of nano-scale defects formed in high-energy cascades, with an upper size limit independent of the incident ion energy, as predicted by Sand et al. [Eur and high thermal conductivity [?, ?], is expected to be significantly affected by neu- trons produced from

  8. Optimization of cement and fly ash particle sizes to produce sustainable concretes Dale P. Bentz a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bentz, Dale P.

    Optimization of cement and fly ash particle sizes to produce sustainable concretes Dale P. Bentz a of experiment Fly ash Hydration Particle size distribution Strength Sustainability a b s t r a c t In the drive. High volume fly ash concretes have been proposed as one potential approach for achieving substantial

  9. Broad-scale patterns of body size in squamate reptiles of Europe and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodríguez, Miguel Ángel

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Broad-scale patterns of body size in squamate reptiles of Europe and North America and western Europe. Methods We processed distribution maps for native species of squamate reptiles to document by the data. Results Europe is characterized by clear latitudinal trends in body size, whereas geographical

  10. Asymptotic Interference Alignment for Exact Repair in Distributed Storage Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jafar, Syed A.

    Asymptotic Interference Alignment for Exact Repair in Distributed Storage Systems Viveck R. Cadambe consider a distributed storage system where a file of size M is stored in n distributed storage nodes using of this paper is to repair failed nodes in the storage system, by replacing them by their replicas (exact repair

  11. Two-phase pressure drop across a hydrofoil-based micro pin device using R-123

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosar, Ali [Mechatronics Engineering Program, Sabanci University, Orhanli, Tuzla, 34956 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-05-15

    The two-phase pressure drop in a hydrofoil-based micro pin fin heat sink has been investigated using R-123 as the working fluid. Two-phase frictional multipliers have been obtained over mass fluxes from 976 to 2349 kg/m{sup 2} s and liquid and gas superficial velocities from 0.38 to 1.89 m/s and from 0.19 to 24 m/s, respectively. It has been found that the two-phase frictional multiplier is strongly dependent on flow pattern. The theoretical prediction using Martinelli parameter based on the laminar fluid and laminar gas flow represented the experimental data fairly well for the spray-annular flow. For the bubbly and wavy-intermittent flow, however, large deviations from the experimental data were recorded. The Martinelli parameter was successfully used to determine the flow patterns, which were bubbly, wavy-intermittent, and spray-annular flow in the current study. (author)

  12. A compactness lemma and its application to the existence of minimizers for the liquid drop model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rupert L. Frank; Elliott H. Lieb

    2015-02-28

    The ancient Gamow liquid drop model of nuclear energies has had a renewed life as an interesting problem in the calculus of variations: Find a set $\\Omega \\subset \\mathbb R^3$ with given volume A that minimizes the sum of its surface area and its Coulomb self energy. A ball minimizes the former and maximizes the latter, but the conjecture is that a ball is always a minimizer -- when there is a minimizer. Even the existence of minimizers for this interesting geometric problem has not been shown in general. We prove the existence of the absolute minimizer (over all $A$) of the energy divided by $A$ (the binding energy per particle). A second result of our work is a general method for showing the existence of optimal sets in geometric minimization problems, which we call the `method of the missing mass'. A third point is the extension of the pulling back compactness lemma from $W^{1,p}$ to $BV$.

  13. Flow pattern and pressure drop of vertical upward gas-liquid flow in sinusoidal wavy channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nilpueng, Kitti [Department of Mechanical Engineering, South East Asia University, Bangkok 10160 (Thailand); Wongwises, Somchai [Fluid Mechanics, Thermal Engineering and Multiphase Flow Research Lab (FUTURE), Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2006-06-15

    Flow patterns and pressure drop of upward liquid single-phase flow and air-water two-phase flow in sinusoidal wavy channels are experimentally studied. The test section is formed by a sinusoidal wavy wall of 1.00 m length with a wave length of 67.20mm, an amplitude of 5.76mm. Different phase shifts between the side walls of the wavy channel of 0{sup o}, 90{sup o} and 180{sup o} are investigated. The flow phenomena, which are bubbly flow, slug flow, churn flow, and dispersed bubbly flow are observed and recorded by high-speed camera. When the phase shifts are increased, the onset of the transition from the bubbly flow to the churn flow shifts to a higher value of superficial air velocity, and the regions of the slug flow and the churn flow are smaller. In other words, the regions of the bubbly flow and the dispersed bubbly flow are larger as the phase shift increases. The slug flow pattern is only found in the test sections with phase shifts of 0{sup o} and 90{sup o}. Recirculating gas bubbles are always found in the troughs of the corrugations. The recirculating is higher when the phase shifts are larger. The relationship between the two-phase multipliers calculated from the measured pressure drops, and the Martinelli parameter is compared with the Lockhart-Martinelli correlation. The correlation in the case of turbulent-turbulent condition is shown to fit the data very well for the phase shift of 0{sup o} but shows greater deviation when the phase shifts are higher. (author)

  14. light-Scattering and Size-Exclusion Chromatographic.' Characterization of Hydroxyethyl Cellulose Acetate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Chi

    light-Scattering and Size-Exclusion Chromatographic.' Characterization of Hydroxyethyl Cellulose to investigate a set of moderately distributed hydroxyethyl cellulose acetate{~ECA) samples'in tetrahydrofuran- Cellulose constitutes a ubiquitous and r~newable ular weight~ndcm9l~cular weight distribution:"". natural

  15. Distributed Theorem Proving for Distributed Hybrid Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Platzer, André

    system with a varying number of arbitrarily many cars. 1 Introduction Hybrid systems with joint discrete a multi-agent system, e.g., distributed car control systems. Such systems form distributed hybrid systemsDistributed Theorem Proving for Distributed Hybrid Systems David W. Renshaw, Sarah M. Loos

  16. Seasonal Run Distribution Seasonal Run Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . The term "total run" defines the number of adult sockeye salmon that home to the Karluk River before197 Seasonal Run Distribution CHAPTER 6 Seasonal Run Distribution They arrived from the sea in one, what was the seasonal run distribution of its sockeye salmon? Was the original run distribution which

  17. Bivariate Generalized Exponential Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kundu, Debasis

    Bivariate Generalized Exponential Distribution Debasis Kundu and Rameshwar D. Gupta Abstract Recently it is observed that the generalized exponential distribution can be used quite effectively exponential distribution so that the marginals have generalized exponential distributions. It is observed

  18. Introduction Constrained distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nuel, Gregory

    Introduction Constrained distribution Observed pattern distribution Counting patterns-9 September 2009 G. Nuel Counting patterns in degenerated sequences #12;Introduction Constrained distribution Observed pattern distribution Outline 1 Introduction Special letters in biological sequences Counting

  19. Avoiding Distribution System Upgrade Costs Using Distributed Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schienbein, Lawrence A.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Nguyen, Tony B.; Brown, Daryl R.; DeSteese, John G.; Speer, Gregory A.

    2004-01-20

    PNNL, in cooperation with three utilities, developed a database and methodology to analyze and characterize the avoided costs of Distributed Generation (DG) deployment as an alternative to traditional distribution system investment. After applying a number of screening criteria to the initial set of 307 cases, eighteen were selected for detailed analysis. Alternative DG investment scenarios were developed for these cases to permit capital, operation, maintenance, and fuel costs to be identified and incorporated into the analysis. The “customer-owned” backup power generator option was also investigated. The results of the analysis of the 18 cases show that none yielded cost savings under the alternative DG scenarios. However, the DG alternative systems were configured using very restrictive assumptions concerning reliability, peak rating, engine types and acceptable fuel. In particular it was assumed that the DG alternative in each case must meet the reliability required of conventional distribution systems (99.91% reliability). The analysis was further constrained by a requirement that each substation meet the demands placed upon it by a one in three weather occurrence. To determine if, by relaxing these requirements, the DG alternative might be more viable, one project was re-examined. The 99.91% reliability factor was still assumed for normal operating conditions but redundancy required to maintain reliability was relaxed for the relatively few hours every three years where extreme weather caused load to exceed present substation capacity. This resulted in the deferment of capital investment until later years and reduced the number of engines required for the project. The cost of both the conventional and DG alternative also dropped because the centralized power generation, variable O&M, and DG fuels costs were calculated based on present load requirements in combination with long-term forecasts of load growth, as opposed to load requirements plus a buffer based on predictions of extraordinary weather conditions. Application of the relaxed set of assumptions reduced the total cost of the DG alternative by roughly 57 percent from $7.0 million to $3.0 million. The reduction, however, did not change the overall result of the analysis, as the cost of the conventional distribution system upgrade alternative remained lower at $1.7 million. This paper also explores the feasibility of using a system of backup generators to defer investment in distribution system infrastructure. Rather than expanding substation capacity at substations experiencing slow load growth rates, PNNL considered a scenario where diesel generators were installed on location at customers participating in a program designed to offer additional power security and reliability to the customer and connection to the grid. The backup generators, in turn, could be used to meet peak demand for a limited number of hours each year, thus deferring distribution system investment. Data from an existing program at one of the three participating utilities was used to quantify the costs associated with the backup generator scenario. The results of the “customer owned” backup power generator analysis showed that in all cases the nominal cost of the DG scenario is more than the nominal cost of the base-case conventional distribution system upgrade scenario. However, in two of the cases the total present value costs of the alternative backup generator scenarios were between 15 and 22% less than those for the conventional scenarios. Overall, the results of the study offer considerable encouragement that the use of DG systems can defer conventional distribution system upgrades under the right conditions and when the DG configurations are intelligently designed. Using existing customer-owned DG to defer distribution system upgrades appears to be an immediate commercially-viable opportunity.

  20. ZAMM Z. Angew. Math. Mech. 85, No. 6, 400410 (2005) / DOI 10.1002/zamm.200410193 Drop formation an overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eggers, Jens

    2005-01-01

    of the technological challenges underlying the dynamics of drop formation, noting that a number of significant early goes to zero. In this pinch-off region, both the neck shape and the velocity inside it are described) / www.zamm-journal.org 401 Fig. 2 Satellite formation in a water-glycerol jet [2]. Fig. 3 Cartoon

  1. Published in the Proceedings of ASES-2001, the American Solar Energy Society A DRAG-AND-DROP ENERGY DESIGN TOOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    this data, Solar-5's built-in expert system designs two different reference homes called "Scheme 1 MeetsPublished in the Proceedings of ASES-2001, the American Solar Energy Society A DRAG-AND-DROP ENERGY the program to more precisely predict the building's performance and the energy cost savings of the ratepayer

  2. Heat transfer and pressure drop data for high heat flux densities to water at high subcritical pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohsenow, Warren M.

    1951-01-01

    Local surface ooeffioients of heat t-ansfer, overall pressure drop data and mean friction factor are presented for heat flamms up to 3.52106 BtuAr ft2 for water flowing in a nickel tabe isder the following conditions: mass ...

  3. Analysis of IR-Drop Scaling with Implications for Deep Submicron P/G Network Designs Amir H. Ajami1*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    designs may not be sufficient to limit the voltage fluctuations over the power grid for future and their DC noise margins. An excessive voltage drop in the power grid may also result in a functional failure of the problem. Simulating all the nonlinear devices in the chip together with non-ideal power grid

  4. Radiative Impacts on the Growth of Drops within Simulated Marine Stratocumulus. Part II: Solar Zenith Angle Variations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrington, Jerry Y.

    Radiative Impacts on the Growth of Drops within Simulated Marine Stratocumulus. Part II: Solar 19 November 2004) ABSTRACT The effects of solar heating at a variety of solar zenith angles ( o trajectories and is used to drive an offline microphysical model that includes the influence of radiation

  5. Responses of Conventional Ring Closures of Drum Type Packages to Regulatory Drop Tests with Application to the 9974/9975 Package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanton, P.S.

    2002-05-31

    DOT, DOE and NRC Type A and Type B radioactive material (RAM) transport packages routinely use industrial or military specification drums with conventional clamp ring closures as an overpack. Considerable testing has been performed on these type packages over the past 30 years. Observations from test data have resulted in various design changes and recommendations to the standard drum specification and use, enhancing the reliability of the overpack. Recently, performance capability of the 9975 conventional clamp ring closure design was questioned by the Regulatory Authority. This paper highlights the observations of recent 9974 and 9975 package testing that led to redesign of the 9975, replacing the standard clamp ring closure with a bolted ring closure. In the course of this review and redesign effort, 18 package designs and approximately 100 Hypothetical Accident Condition (HAC) drops of various size and weight drum packages were evaluated. A trend was observed with respect to overpack lid failures for packages utilizing conventional ring closure. Based on this trend, a limit on the ratio of the content weight to total package weight was identified, beyond which clamp ring closure failure may be expected.

  6. Water vapor distribution in protoplanetary disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Du, Fujun

    2014-01-01

    Water vapor has been detected in protoplanetary disks. In this work we model the distribution of water vapor in protoplanetary disks with a thermo-chemical code. For a set of parameterized disk models, we calculate the distribution of dust temperature and radiation field of the disk with a Monte Carlo method, and then solve the gas temperature distribution and chemical composition. The radiative transfer includes detailed treatment of scattering by atomic hydrogen and absorption by water of Lyman alpha photons, since the Lyman alpha line dominates the UV spectrum of accreting young stars. In a fiducial model, we find that warm water vapor with temperature around 300 K is mainly distributed in a small and well-confined region in the inner disk. The inner boundary of the warm water region is where the shielding of UV field due to dust and water itself become significant. The outer boundary is where the dust temperature drops below the water condensation temperature. A more luminous central star leads to a more ...

  7. Discrete multivariate distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oleg Yu. Vorobyev; Lavrentiy S. Golovkov

    2011-02-22

    This article brings in two new discrete distributions: multidimensional Binomial distribution and multidimensional Poisson distribution. Those distributions were created in eventology as more correct generalizations of Binomial and Poisson distributions. Accordingly to eventology new laws take into account full distribution of events. Also, in article its characteristics and properties are described

  8. Hydrocracking process using disparate catalyst particle sizes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kukes, S.G.; Miller, J.T.; Gutberlet, L.C.; Kelterboro, J.C

    1989-05-30

    This patent describes a process for the hydrocracking of a hydrocarbon feedstock which comprises reacting the feedstock with hydrogen at hydrocracking conversion conditions in a plurality of reaction zones in series containing hydrocracking catalyst wherein at least one of the reaction zones contains a small nominal size hydrocracking catalyst wherein the small nominal size catalyst has a U.S. sieve mesh size ranging from about 10 to about 16, and wherein at least one reaction zone upstream of the reaction zone containing the small nominal size hydrocracking catalyst having a particle size greater than the small nominal size hydrocracking catalyst.

  9. GASIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald C. Timpe; Michael D. Mann; Darren D. Schmidt

    2000-05-01

    A recent emphasis in gasification technology development has been directed toward reduced-scale gasifier systems for distributed generation at remote sites. The domestic distributed power generation market over the next decade is expected to be 5-6 gigawatts per year. The global increase is expected at 20 gigawatts over the next decade. The economics of gasification for distributed power generation are significantly improved when fuel transport is minimized. Until recently, gasification technology has been synonymous with coal conversion. Presently, however, interest centers on providing clean-burning fuel to remote sites that are not necessarily near coal supplies but have sufficient alternative carbonaceous material to feed a small gasifier. Gasifiers up to 50 MW are of current interest, with emphasis on those of 5-MW generating capacity. Internal combustion engines offer a more robust system for utilizing the fuel gas, while fuel cells and microturbines offer higher electric conversion efficiencies. The initial focus of this multiyear effort was on internal combustion engines and microturbines as more realistic near-term options for distributed generation. In this project, we studied emerging gasification technologies that can provide gas from regionally available feedstock as fuel to power generators under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification, primarily coal-fed, has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries. Commercial-scale gasification activities are under way at 113 sites in 22 countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia, according to the Gasification Technologies Council. Gasification studies were carried out on alfalfa, black liquor (a high-sodium waste from the pulp industry), cow manure, and willow on the laboratory scale and on alfalfa, black liquor, and willow on the bench scale. Initial parametric tests evaluated through reactivity and product composition were carried out on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) equipment. These tests were evaluated and then followed by bench-scale studies at 1123 K using an integrated bench-scale fluidized-bed gasifier (IBG) which can be operated in the semicontinuous batch mode. Products from tests were solid (ash), liquid (tar), and gas. Tar was separated on an open chromatographic column. Analysis of the gas product was carried out using on-line Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). For selected tests, gas was collected periodically and analyzed using a refinery gas analyzer GC (gas chromatograph). The solid product was not extensively analyzed. This report is a part of a search into emerging gasification technologies that can provide power under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries, and it is probable that scaled-down applications for use in remote areas will become viable. The appendix to this report contains a list, description, and sources of currently available gasification technologies that could be or are being commercially applied for distributed generation. This list was gathered from current sources and provides information about the supplier, the relative size range, and the status of the technology.

  10. Phase-retrieval X-ray microscopy by Wigner-distribution deconvolution

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chapman, Henry, N.

    2014-10-30

    64x64 scan of a group of latex spheres with 45 nm step size, used for demonstrating Wigner-distribution deconvolution.

  11. Top 9 Things You Didn't Know About Distributed Wind Power | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    by households, schools, farms, industrial facilities and municipalities, distributed wind doesn't only refer to small-scale turbines; it includes any size turbine or array of...

  12. Top 10 Things You Didn't Know About Distributed Wind Power |...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    by households, schools, farms, industrial facilities and municipalities, distributed wind doesn't only refer to small-scale turbines; it includes any size turbine or array of...

  13. Self-organization of bouncing oil drops: Two-dimensional lattices and spinning clusters Suzanne I. Lieber, Melissa C. Hendershott, Apichart Pattanaporkratana, and Joseph E. Maclennan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weeks, Eric R.

    Self-organization of bouncing oil drops: Two-dimensional lattices and spinning clusters Suzanne I Received 16 October 2006; published 18 May 2007 Multiple oil drops bouncing on the surface of a vertically vibrating bath of the same oil exhibit self- organization behavior in two dimensions S. Protière, Y. Couder

  14. Driven Drops on Heterogeneous Substrates: Onset of Sliding Motion Max-Planck-Institut fur Physik komplexer Systeme, Nothnitzer Strasse 38, D-01187 Dresden, Germany

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Knobloch, Edgar

    and are responsible, for instance, for the observed hysteresis between advancing and receding contact angles, as well November 2006) Pinning and depinning of driven drops on heterogeneous substrates is studied as a function energy [1,2]. Likewise, a drop in a temperature gradient moves towards lower temperatures as a result

  15. Experimental comparison of various techniques for spot size measurement of high-energy x-ray source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yi; Chen, Nan; Cheng, Jinming; Li, Chenggang; Dai, Wenhua; Li, Hong; Long, Quanhong; Shi, Jinshui; Deng, Jianjun

    2015-01-01

    In the experiment of flash-radiography, the quality of acquired image strongly depends on the focal size of the x-ray source spot. A variety of techniques based on imaging of pinhole, slit and rollbar are adopted to measure the focal spot size of the Dragon-I linear induction accelerator. The image of pinhole provides a two-dimensional distribution of the x-ray spot, while those of slit and rollbar give a line-spread distribution and an edge-spread distribution, respectively. The spot size characterized by full-width at half-maximum and that characterized by the LANL definition are calculated for comparison.

  16. Software implemented fault-tolernace on distributed-memory MIMD architectures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Gavin D

    1995-01-01

    Large multicomputer systems are inherently unreliable because of their enormous complexity. This has a direct impact on distributed computations performed on these systems. As the size and execution time of these distributed computations grows, so...

  17. Distributed anonymous function computation in information fusion and multiagent systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hendrickx, Julien

    We propose a model for deterministic distributed function computation by a network of identical and anonymous nodes, with bounded computation and storage capabilities that do not scale with the network size. Our goal is ...

  18. 2012 Market Report on Wind Technologies in Distributed Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orrell, Alice C.

    2013-08-01

    An annual report on U.S. wind power in distributed applications – expanded to include small, mid-size, and utility-scale installations – including key statistics, economic data, installation, capacity, and generation statistics, and more.

  19. Areas of contact and pressure distribution in bolted joints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gould, Herbert Hirsch

    1970-01-01

    When two plates are bolted (or riveted) together these will be in contact in the immediate vicinity of the bolt heads and separated beyond it. The pressure distribution and size of the contact zone is of considerable ...

  20. Grain size dependence of barchan dune dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Groh; N. Aksel; I. Rehberg; C. Kruelle

    2008-11-28

    The dependence of the barchan dune dynamics on the size of the grains involved is investigated experimentally. Downsized barchan dune slices are observed in a narrow water flow tube. The relaxation time from an initial symmetric triangular heap towards an asymmetric shape attractor increases with dune mass and decreases with grain size. The dune velocity increases with grain size. In contrast, the velocity scaling and the shape of the barchan dune is independent of the size of the grains.

  1. Inverse modelling of cloud-aerosol interactions - Part 2: Sensitivity tests on liquid phase clouds using a Markov chain Monte Carlo based simulation approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Partridge, D. G; Vrugt, J. A; Tunved, P.; Ekman, A. M. L; Struthers, H.; Sorooshian, A.

    2012-01-01

    Seinfeld, J. H. : Aerosol, cloud drop concentration closureof aerosol composition on cloud droplet size distribution –aerosol properties on warm cloud droplet activation, At-

  2. Water vapor distribution in protoplanetary disks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Fujun; Bergin, Edwin A.

    2014-09-01

    Water vapor has been detected in protoplanetary disks. In this work, we model the distribution of water vapor in protoplanetary disks with a thermo-chemical code. For a set of parameterized disk models, we calculate the distribution of dust temperature and radiation field of the disk with a Monte Carlo method, and then solve the gas temperature distribution and chemical composition. The radiative transfer includes detailed treatment of scattering by atomic hydrogen and absorption by water of Ly? photons, since the Ly? line dominates the UV spectrum of accreting young stars. In a fiducial model, we find that warm water vapor with temperature around 300 K is mainly distributed in a small and well-confined region in the inner disk. The inner boundary of the warm water region is where the shielding of UV field due to dust and water itself become significant. The outer boundary is where the dust temperature drops below the water condensation temperature. A more luminous central star leads to a more extended distribution of warm water vapor, while dust growth and settling tends to reduce the amount of warm water vapor. Based on typical assumptions regarding the elemental oxygen abundance and the water chemistry, the column density of warm water vapor can be as high as 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2}. A small amount of hot water vapor with temperature higher than ?300 K exists in a more extended region in the upper atmosphere of the disk. Cold water vapor with temperature lower than 100 K is distributed over the entire disk, produced by photodesorption of the water ice.

  3. Semicontinuous Sized Types and Termination Andreas Abel #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abel, Andreas

    , and classical applications are total correctness and termination of partial evaluation. In languagesSemi­continuous Sized Types and Termination Andreas Abel # Institut für Informatik Ludwig to termination uses sized types: an ordinal bound for the size of a data structure is stored in its type

  4. Commercial thermal distribution systems, Final report for CIEE/CEC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, T.

    2011-01-01

    different pressure conditions across the heat exchanger bywhen the pressure drop across the heat exchanger is low. Thewhen the pressure drop across the heat exchanger wa~ too low

  5. Prior distribution Andrew Gelman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gelman, Andrew

    Prior distribution Andrew Gelman Volume 3, pp 1634­1637 in Encyclopedia of Environmetrics (ISBN, 2002 #12;Prior distribution The prior distribution is a key part of Bayesian infer- ence (see Bayesian with the probability distribution of new data to yield the posterior distribution, which in turn is used for future

  6. Transport properties of a charged drop in an external electromagnetic field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Bondarenko; K. Komoshvili; A. Prygarin

    2015-10-26

    We investigate adiabatic expansion of a charged and rotating fireball consisting of weekly interacting particles, which is initially perturbed by an external electromagnetic field. A framework for the perturbative calculation of the non-equilibrium distribution function of the fireball is considered and the distribution function is calculated to the first order in the perturbative expansion. This distribution function, which describes the evolution of the droplet with constant entropy, allows to calculate momentum flux tensor and viscosity coefficients of the expanding system. We show, that these viscosity coefficients depend on the initial angular velocity of the fireball and on the strength of its initial perturbation by the external field. Obtained results are applied to the phenomenology of the viscosity to the entropy ratio calculated in lattice models.

  7. Transport properties of a charged drop in an external electromagnetic field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bondarenko, S; Prygarin, A

    2015-01-01

    We investigate adiabatic expansion of a charged and rotating fireball consisting of weekly interacting particles, which is initially perturbed by an external electromagnetic field. A framework for the perturbative calculation of the non-equilibrium distribution function of the fireball is considered and the distribution function is calculated to the first order in the perturbative expansion. This distribution function, which describes the evolution of the droplet with constant entropy, allows to calculate momentum flux tensor and viscosity coefficients of the expanding system. We show, that these viscosity coefficients depend on the initial angular velocity of the fireball and on the strength of its initial perturbation by the external field. Obtained results are applied to the phenomenology of the viscosity to the entropy ratio calculated in lattice models.

  8. Hazards of explosives dusts: Particle size effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cashdollar, K L; Hertzberg, M; Green, G M

    1992-02-01

    At the request of the Department of Energy, the Bureau of Mines has investigated the hazards of military explosives dispersed as dust clouds in a 20-L test chamber. In this report, the effect of particle size for HMX, HNS, RDX, TATB, and TNT explosives dusts is studied in detail. The explosibility data for these dusts are also compared to those for pure fuel dusts. The data show that all of the sizes of the explosives dusts that were studied were capable of sustaining explosions as dust clouds dispersed in air. The finest sizes (<10 [mu]m) of explosives dusts were less reactive than the intermediate sizes (20 to 60 [mu]m); this is opposite to the particle size effect observed previously for the pure fuel dusts. At the largest sizes studied, the explosives dusts become somewhat less reactive as dispersed dust clouds. The six sizes of the HMX dust were also studied as dust clouds dispersed in nitrogen.

  9. Simultaneous regulation of cell size and chromosome replication in bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Po-Yi Ho; Ariel Amir

    2015-07-24

    Bacteria are able to maintain a narrow distribution of cell sizes by regulating the timing of cell divisions. In rich nutrient conditions, cells divide much faster than their chromosomes replicate. This implies that cells maintain multiple rounds of chromosome replication per cell division by regulating the timing of chromosome replications. Here, we show that both cell size and chromosome replication may be simultaneously regulated by the long-standing initiator accumulation strategy. The strategy proposes that initiators are produced in proportion to the volume increase and is accumulated at each origin of replication, and chromosome replication is initiated when a critical amount per origin has accumulated. We show that this model maps to the incremental model of size control, which was previously shown to reproduce experimentally observed correlations between various events in the cell cycle and explains the exponential dependence of cell size on the growth rate of the cell. Furthermore, we show that this model also leads to the efficient regulation of the timing of initiation and the number of origins consistent with existing experimental results.

  10. Integrated Transmission and Distribution Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalsi, Karanjit; Fuller, Jason C.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Lian, Jianming; Zhang, Wei; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Fisher, Andrew R.; Chassin, Forrest S.; Hauer, Matthew L.

    2013-01-16

    Distributed, generation, demand response, distributed storage, smart appliances, electric vehicles and renewable energy resources are expected to play a key part in the transformation of the American power system. Control, coordination and compensation of these smart grid assets are inherently interlinked. Advanced control strategies to warrant large-scale penetration of distributed smart grid assets do not currently exist. While many of the smart grid technologies proposed involve assets being deployed at the distribution level, most of the significant benefits accrue at the transmission level. The development of advanced smart grid simulation tools, such as GridLAB-D, has led to a dramatic improvement in the models of smart grid assets available for design and evaluation of smart grid technology. However, one of the main challenges to quantifying the benefits of smart grid assets at the transmission level is the lack of tools and framework for integrating transmission and distribution technologies into a single simulation environment. Furthermore, given the size and complexity of the distribution system, it is crucial to be able to represent the behavior of distributed smart grid assets using reduced-order controllable models and to analyze their impacts on the bulk power system in terms of stability and reliability. The objectives of the project were to: • Develop a simulation environment for integrating transmission and distribution control, • Construct reduced-order controllable models for smart grid assets at the distribution level, • Design and validate closed-loop control strategies for distributed smart grid assets, and • Demonstrate impact of integrating thousands of smart grid assets under closed-loop control demand response strategies on the transmission system. More specifically, GridLAB-D, a distribution system tool, and PowerWorld, a transmission planning tool, are integrated into a single simulation environment. The integrated environment allows the load flow interactions between the bulk power system and end-use loads to be explicitly modeled. Power system interactions are modeled down to time intervals as short as 1-second. Another practical issue is that the size and complexity of typical distribution systems makes direct integration with transmission models computationally intractable. Hence, the focus of the next main task is to develop reduced-order controllable models for some of the smart grid assets. In particular, HVAC units, which are a type of Thermostatically Controlled Loads (TCLs), are considered. The reduced-order modeling approach can be extended to other smart grid assets, like water heaters, PVs and PHEVs. Closed-loop control strategies are designed for a population of HVAC units under realistic conditions. The proposed load controller is fully responsive and achieves the control objective without sacrificing the end-use performance. Finally, using the T&D simulation platform, the benefits to the bulk power system are demonstrated by controlling smart grid assets under different demand response closed-loop control strategies.

  11. Probabilistic Precipitation Forecast Skill as a Function of Ensemble Size and Spatial Scale in a Convection-Allowing Ensemble

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xue, Ming

    Probabilistic Precipitation Forecast Skill as a Function of Ensemble Size and Spatial Scale decreases. These results appear to reflect the broadening of the forecast probability distribution function lead time. They also illustrate that efficient allocation of computing resources for convection

  12. Distribution Grid Integration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE Systems Integration team funds distribution grid integration research and development (R&D) activities to address the technical issues that surround distribution grid planning,...

  13. About Industrial Distributed Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Advanced Manufacturing Office's (AMO's) Industrial Distributed Energy activities build on the success of predecessor DOE programs on distributed energy and combined heat and power (CHP) while...

  14. THE MASSIVE SATELLITE POPULATION OF MILKY-WAY-SIZED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez-Puebla, Aldo; Avila-Reese, Vladimir; Drory, Niv, E-mail: apuebla@astro.unam.mx [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A. P. 70-264, 04510 Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2013-08-20

    Several occupational distributions for satellite galaxies more massive than m{sub *} Almost-Equal-To 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun} around Milky-Way (MW)-sized hosts are presented and used to predict the internal dynamics of these satellites as a function of m{sub *}. For the analysis, a large galaxy group mock catalog is constructed on the basis of (sub)halo-to-stellar mass relations fully constrained with currently available observations, namely the galaxy stellar mass function decomposed into centrals and satellites, and the two-point correlation functions at different masses. We find that 6.6% of MW-sized galaxies host two satellites in the mass range of the Small and Large Magellanic Clouds (SMC and LMC, respectively). The probabilities of the MW-sized galaxies having one satellite equal to or larger than the LMC, two satellites equal to or larger than the SMC, or three satellites equal to or larger than Sagittarius (Sgr) are Almost-Equal-To 0.26, 0.14, and 0.14, respectively. The cumulative satellite mass function of the MW, N{sub s} ({>=}m{sub *}) , down to the mass of the Fornax dwarf is within the 1{sigma} distribution of all the MW-sized galaxies. We find that MW-sized hosts with three satellites more massive than Sgr (as the MW) are among the most common cases. However, the most and second most massive satellites in these systems are smaller than the LMC and SMC by roughly 0.7 and 0.8 dex, respectively. We conclude that the distribution N{sub s} ({>=}m{sub *}) for MW-sized galaxies is quite broad, the particular case of the MW being of low frequency but not an outlier. The halo mass of MW-sized galaxies correlates only weakly with N{sub s} ({>=}m{sub *}). Then, it is not possible to accurately determine the MW halo mass by means of its N{sub s} ({>=}m{sub *}); from our catalog, we constrain a lower limit of 1.38 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun} at the 1{sigma} level. Our analysis strongly suggests that the abundance of massive subhalos should agree with the abundance of massive satellites in all MW-sized hosts, i.e., there is not a missing (massive) satellite problem for the {Lambda}CDM cosmology. However, we confirm that the maximum circular velocity, v{sub max}, of the subhalos of satellites smaller than m{sub *} {approx} 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun} is systematically larger than the v{sub max} inferred from current observational studies of the MW bright dwarf satellites; different from previous works, this conclusion is based on an analysis of the overall population of MW-sized galaxies. Some pieces of evidence suggest that the issue could refer only to satellite dwarfs but not to central dwarfs, then environmental processes associated with dwarfs inside host halos combined with supernova-driven core expansion should be on the basis of the lowering of v{sub max}.

  15. Sex, Size and Gender Roles evolutionary studies of sexual size dimorphism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saltzman, Wendy

    , John L. Gittleman and Kate E. Jones 3. Sexual Size Dimorphism in Birds , Tamás Székely, Terje Lislevand in the Hartebeest, Isabella Capellini 13. Sexual Size Dimorphism and Offspring Vulnerability in Birds, EllenSex, Size and Gender Roles evolutionary studies of sexual size dimorphism Edited by Daphne J

  16. Stochastic Programming Formulation for Integrating Renewables into the Distribution Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ernst, Damien

    #12;Distribution Networks Distribution networks had been designed to carry power from the transmis. The set of scenarios sizing the network infrastructure might not be frequent. Much more kilometers of electricity markets : .... Day-ahead market Intraday market Time ... Period 1 Period 2 Period T ... Real

  17. Dynamically Adaptive Partition-based Data Distribution Management* Bora . Kumova

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumova, Bora

    Dynamically Adaptive Partition-based Data Distribution Management* Bora . Kumova zmir Institute-size partitioning shared data. Based on this technique, a novel DDM algorithm is introduced that is dynamically of the employed data distribution management (DDM) algorithm, which aims at reducing the overall computational

  18. Extrapolating Oceanic Age Distributions: Lessons from the Pacific Region

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Extrapolating Oceanic Age Distributions: Lessons from the Pacific Region David B. Rowley Department plate reconstructions. An area equal in size to the Pacific Basin oceanic lithosphere must-mail: rowley@geosci.uchicago.edu) A B S T R A C T Extrapolation of the age distribution of oceanic lithosphere

  19. ON A POSSIBLE SIZE/COLOR RELATIONSHIP IN THE KUIPER BELT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pike, R. E.; Kavelaars, J. J., E-mail: repike@uvic.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada)

    2013-10-01

    Color measurements and albedo distributions introduce non-intuitive observational biases in size-color relationships among Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) that cannot be disentangled without a well characterized sample population with systematic photometry. Peixinho et al. report that the form of the KBO color distribution varies with absolute magnitude, H. However, Tegler et al. find that KBO color distributions are a property of object classification. We construct synthetic models of observed KBO colors based on two B-R color distribution scenarios: color distribution dependent on H magnitude (H-Model) and color distribution based on object classification (Class-Model). These synthetic B-R color distributions were modified to account for observational flux biases. We compare our synthetic B-R distributions to the observed ''Hot'' and ''Cold'' detected objects from the Canada-France Ecliptic Plane Survey and the Meudon Multicolor Survey. For both surveys, the Hot population color distribution rejects the H-Model, but is well described by the Class-Model. The Cold objects reject the H-Model, but the Class-Model (while not statistically rejected) also does not provide a compelling match for data. Although we formally reject models where the structure of the color distribution is a strong function of H magnitude, we also do not find that a simple dependence of color distribution on orbit classification is sufficient to describe the color distribution of classical KBOs.

  20. A Master equation for force distributions in polydisperse frictional particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuniyasu Saitoh; Vanessa Magnanimo; Stefan Luding

    2015-05-28

    An incremental evolution equation, i.e. a Master equation in statistical mechanics, is introduced for force distributions in polydisperse frictional particle packings. As basic ingredients of the Master equation, the conditional probability distributions of particle overlaps are determined by molecular dynamics simulations. Interestingly, tails of the distributions become much narrower in the case of frictional particles than frictionless particles, implying that correlations of overlaps are strongly reduced by microscopic friction. Comparing different size distributions, we find that the tails are wider for the wider distribution.

  1. On measures of size for convex cones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-05-18

    Section 2 presents a battery of examples of size indices disseminated in the literature. For each ...... ferent measures of conditioning for conic linear systems.

  2. Interfacial Studies of Sized Carbon Fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shahrul, S. N.; Hartini, M. N.; Hilmi, E. A.; Nizam, A. [Nanomaterials Program, Advance Materials Centre (AMREC), SIRIM Berhad, Lot 34, Jalan Hi-Tech Park, 09000, Kulim, Kedah (Malaysia)

    2010-03-11

    This study was performed to investigate the influence of sizing treatment on carbon fiber in respect of interfacial adhesion in composite materials, Epolam registered 2025. Fortafil unsized carbon fiber was used to performed the experiment. The fiber was commercially surface treated and it was a polyacrylonitrile based carbon fiber with 3000 filament per strand. Epicure registered 3370 was used as basic sizing chemical and dissolved in two types of solvent, ethanol and acetone for the comparison purpose. The single pull out test has been used to determine the influence of sizing on carbon fiber. The morphology of carbon fiber was observed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The apparent interfacial strength IFSS values determined by pull out test for the Epicure registered 3370/ethanol sized carbon fiber pointed to a good interfacial behaviour compared to the Epicure registered 3370/acetone sized carbon fiber. The Epicure registered 3370/ethanol sizing agent was found to be effective in promoting adhesion because of the chemical reactions between the sizing and Epolam registered 2025 during the curing process. From this work, it showed that sized carbon fiber using Epicure registered 3370 with addition of ethanol give higher mechanical properties of carbon fiber in terms of shear strength and also provided a good adhesion between fiber and matrix compared to the sizing chemical that contain acetone as a solvent.

  3. AMO Industrial Distributed Energy: Industrial Distributed Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in owning and operating costs, thereby improving the economics of distributed power generation using reciprocating gas engines. Caterpillar's Phase I technologies have...

  4. The role of stochastic processes in producing nested patterns of species distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strauss, Richard E.

    that underlie species distributions on island systems, then null models might be better determined on the basis of species. Island size and abundance had less of an effect on nestedness in systems dominated by only a few (uniform, dominance-decay, random-assortment, and dominance-preemption), island-size distributions (uniform

  5. Multimedia Environmental Distribution of Nanomaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Haoyang Haven

    2015-01-01

    6. ! Multimedia Environmental Distribution of Engineeredon Simulations of the Multimedia Distribution of ParticulateCohen, Multimedia Environmental Distribution of Engineered

  6. Assessment of Available Particle Size Data to Support an Analysis of the Waste Feed Delivery System Transfer System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JEWETT, J.R.

    2000-08-10

    Available data pertaining to size distribution of the particulates in Hanford underground tank waste have been reviewed. Although considerable differences exist between measurement methods, it may be stated with 95% confidence that the median particle size does not exceed 275 {micro}m in at least 95% of the ten tanks selected as sources of HLW feed for Phase 1 vitrification in the RPP. This particle size is recommended as a design basis for the WFD transfer system.

  7. Definition of a Random Variable Distribution Functions Properties of Distribution Functions Random Variables and Distribution Functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watkins, Joseph C.

    Definition of a Random Variable Distribution Functions Properties of Distribution Functions Topic 7 Random Variables and Distribution Functions Distribution Functions 1 / 11 #12;Definition of a Random Variable Distribution Functions Properties of Distribution Functions Outline Definition of a Random

  8. The Thermal Phase Transition in Nuclear Multifragmentation: The Role of Coulomb Energy and Finite Size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EOS Collaboration; B. K. Srivastava

    2001-07-30

    A systematic analysis of the moments of the fragment size distribution has been carried out for the multifragmentation (MF)of 1A GeV Au, La, and Kr on carbon. The breakup of Au and La is consistent with a continuous thermal phase transition. The data indicate that the excitation energy per nucleon and isotopic temperature at the critical point decrease with increasing system size. This trend is attributed primarily to the increasing Coulomb energy with finite size effects playing a smaller role.

  9. Morphological changes in ultrafast laser ablation plumes with varying spot size

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Harilal, S. S.; Diwakar, P. K.; Polek, M. P.; Phillips, M. C.

    2015-06-04

    We investigated the role of spot size on plume morphology during ultrafast laser ablation of metal targets. Our results show that the spatial features of fs LA plumes are strongly dependent on the focal spot size. Two-dimensional self-emission images showed that the shape of the ultrafast laser ablation plumes changes from spherical to cylindrical with an increasing spot size from 100 to 600 ?m. The changes in plume morphology and internal structures are related to ion emission dynamics from the plasma, where broader angular ion distribution and faster ions are noticed for the smallest spot size used. The present resultsmore »clearly show that the morphological changes in the plume with spot size are independent of laser pulse width.« less

  10. An Experimental Investigaton of the Effect of Oil on Convective Heat Trasfer and Pressure Drop of a HFC-32/HRC-125 Mixture 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McJimsey, Bert Ashford

    1994-01-01

    The heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops of HCFC-22 and a 50% mass mixture of HFC-32/HFC-125 were experimentally measured under flow boiling conditions in a smooth tube. The refrigerants were flowed through an 8 ...

  11. Theoretical prediction of physical and chemical characteristics of the first drop'' of condensate from superheated geothermal steam: Implications for corrosion and scaling in turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreussi, P. (Univ. degli Studi di Udine (Italy). Dipartimento Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche); Corsi, R. (STEAM srl, Pisa (Italy)); Guidi, M.; Marini, L. (Geotermica Italiana srl, Pisa (Italy))

    1994-06-01

    This paper describes a method for computing: (1) the chemical composition of the first drop of condensate which forms at dew-point temperature through expansion of superheated steam, and (2) the saturation index of the drop with respect to relevant solid phases, such as halite, amorphous silica, boric acid, borax and sal ammoniac. Boiling-point elevation is taken into account in these calculations. Preliminary application to some wells in the Larderello geothermal field indicate that: (1) the high concentration of HCl in the steam causes both the low pH and very high TDS of the first drop; (2) the lower the dew-point temperature, the higher the TDS of the first drop; (3) for a given chemical composition, the lower the steam pressure, the higher the risk of corrosion and scaling in the steam path.

  12. Useful Probability Distributions Standard Normal Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the proportion t as a variable which is continuous over the interval (0,1) For small consignments, say N Consignment of tablets, a proportion of which are suspected drugs. For large consignments, probability distribution of the proportion t which are drugs can be modeled with a beta distribution, which treats

  13. Squibs and Discussions Pipelines and Size Constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Squibs and Discussions Pipelines and Size Constraints Ehud Reiter* University of Aberdeen Some. This can be a difficult constraint to enforce in a pipelined natural language generation (NLG) system of the pipeline, but size cannot be accurately measured until the document has been completely processed

  14. Spatially DistributedSpatially Distributed Experimentation toExperimentation to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    : Spatially distributed atomic layer deposition Spatially Distributed Atomic LayerSpatially Distributed Atomic properties Significance Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is widely sought for its atomic-scale thickness control, MKS Instruments #12;Rubloff: Spatially distributed atomic layer deposition Spatially Distributed

  15. Continuous Variable Quantum Key Distribution with a Noisy Laser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian S. Jacobsen; Tobias Gehring; Ulrik L. Andersen

    2015-07-06

    Existing experimental implementations of continuous-variable quantum key distribution require shot-noise limited operation, achieved with shot-noise limited lasers. However, loosening this requirement on the laser source would allow for cheaper, potentially integrated systems. Here, we implement a theoretically proposed prepare-and-measure continuous-variable protocol and experimentally demonstrate the robustness of it against preparation noise stemming for instance from technical laser noise. Provided that direct reconciliation techniques are used in the post-processing we show that for small distances large amounts of preparation noise can be tolerated in contrast to reverse reconciliation where the key rate quickly drops to zero. Our experiment thereby demonstrates that quantum key distribution with non-shot-noise limited laser diodes might be feasible.

  16. Finite size scaling analysis of compact QED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Arnold; Th. Lippert; Th. Neuhaus; K. Schilling

    2000-11-13

    We describe results of a high-statistics finite size scaling analysis of 4d compact U(1) lattice gauge theory with Wilson action at the phase transition point. Using a multicanonical hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm we generate data samples with more than 150 tunneling events between the metastable states of the system, on lattice sizes up to 18^4. We performed a first analysis within the Borgs-Kotecky finite size scaling scheme. As a result, we report evidence for a first-order phase transition with a plaquette energy gap, G=0.02667(20), at a transition coupling, beta_T=1.011128(11).

  17. Distributed Wind 2015

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Distributed Wind 2015 is committed to the advancement of both distributed and community wind energy. This two day event includes a Business Conference with sessions focused on advancing the...

  18. Structure Optimization of FePt Nanoparticles of Various Sizes for Magnetic Data Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, David E.

    to a modified reaction route based on Sun et al.[1] Hexane dispersions of nanoparticles were dried increases with particle size and with the temperature in the range 600 °C to 650 °C, being close to unity-assembly over large areas, and a narrow distribution of switching fields. The long storage time and high storage

  19. Ecological and allometric determinants of home-range size for mountain lions (Puma concolor)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beier, Paul

    Ecological and allometric determinants of home-range size for mountain lions (Puma concolor) INTRODUCTION Mountain lions (Puma concolor) are distributed through- out much of California, including the Sierra Nevada mountains, Coastal Ranges, eastern Sierran deserts and suburban areas. Despite our

  20. Source apportionment of time-and size-resolved ambient particulate matter , Philip K. Hopke b,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Navasca, Carmeliza

    , analyses of particle size distribution data have also been performed to identify air pollution sources of Mathematics, Clarkson University, Box 5815, Potsdam, NY 13699, USA b Center for Air Resource Engineering and Science, Clarkson University, Box 5708, Potsdam, NY 13699, USA c Air Quality Research Center, University

  1. Real Estate and MLR Diagnostics Bivariate Fit of condition By size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vardeman, Stephen B.

    Real Estate and MLR Diagnostics Bivariate Fit of condition By size 0 2 4 6 8 10 condition 10 15 20Real Estate MLR Residuals Distributions Residual price -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 .5 1 1.5 Normal(7.1e

  2. COMPETITION POLICY TOWARDS RETAILERS: SIZE, SELLER MARKET POWER AND BUYER POWER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feigon, Brooke

    1 COMPETITION POLICY TOWARDS RETAILERS: SIZE, SELLER MARKET POWER AND BUYER POWER by Nicola the wholesale price in which retailers serve different distribution markets. The model shows that the current in this practice. JEL: L20; L40. Keywords : Market Definition; Bargaining; Retail Sector. ISSN 1473-8473 #12;2 1

  3. Router Buffer Sizing for TCP Traffic and the Role of the Output/Input Capacity Ratio

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dovrolis, Constantinos

    of packets", "a bandwidth-delay product", or "a multiple of the number of large TCP flows in that link TCP flows. This paper differs in two ways. First, it considers the more realistic case of non-persistent TCP flows with heavy-tailed size distribution. Second, instead of only looking at link metrics

  4. Determination of the total grain size distributionin a vulcanian eruption column, and its implications to stratospheric aerosol perturbation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murrow, P.J.; Rose, W.I. Jr.; Self, S.

    1980-11-01

    Grain size analysis of samples representing all sampleable portions of the airfall deposit produced by the Fuego volcano in Guatemala on 14 October 1974 form the basis for estimating the total grain size distribution of tephra from this eruption. The region enclosed by each isopach has a particular average grain size distribution which can be weighted proportionally to its percentage volume. The grain size of pyroclastic avalanche deposits produced during the eruption are also included. The total grain size distribution calculated as a sum of weighted distributions has a median grain size of 0.80 (0.6mm) and a sorting coefficient (sigma0) of 2.3. The size distribution seems to approximate Rosin and Rammler's law of crushing and this observation allows us to estimate that no more than 15% volume of the fine tail of the total size distribution is likely to be missing. The ash composed of these fine particles did not fall in the region of the volcano as part of the recognizable tephra blanket. The eruption column reached well into the stratosphere: heights estimated from the ground were 10 to 12 km above sea level but estimated heights based on mass flux rates are higher (18 to 23 km). The proportion of ash smaller than 2 ..mu..m, which could remain for substantial periods in the stratosphere, is no more than 0.8% volume of the total. It seems probable that acid aerosol particles from vulcanian type eruptions are more important to stratospheric aerosol perturbation than fine silicate ash particles by at least an order of magnitude.

  5. Application of Direct Current Potential Drop for the J-integral vs. Crack Growth Resistance Curve Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Xiang; Nanstad, Randy K; Sokolov, Mikhail A

    2014-01-01

    The direct current potential drop (DCPD) technique has been applied to derive the J-integral vs. crack growth resistance curve (J-R curve) for fracture toughness characterization of structural materials. The test matrix covered three materials including type 316LN stainless steels, Ni-based alloy 617, and one ferritic-martensitic steel, three specimen configurations including standard compact, single edge bending, and disk-shaped compact specimens, and temperatures ranging from 20 C to 650 C. When compared with baseline J-R curves derived from the ASTM normalization method, the original J-R curves from the DCPD technique yielded much smaller Jq values due to the influence of crack blunting, plastic deformation, etc. on potential drop. To counter these effects, a new procedure for adjusting DCPD J-R curves was proposed. After applying the new adjustment procedure, the average difference in Jq between the DCPD technique and the normalization method was only 5.2% and the difference in tearing modulus was 7.4%. The promising result demonstrates the applicability of the DCPD technique for the J-R curve characterization especially in extreme environments, such as elevated temperatures, where the conventional elastic unloading compliance method faces considerable challenges.

  6. Control of gene expression by cell size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Chia-Yung

    2010-01-01

    Polyploidy, increased copy number of whole chromosome sets in the genome, is a common cellular state in evolution, development and disease. Polyploidy enlarges cell size and alters gene expression, producing novel phenotypes ...

  7. Software Productivity Measurement Using Multiple Size Measures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bae, Doo-Hwan

    Software Productivity Measurement Using Multiple Size Measures Software Productivity MeasurementContents Introduction Background Related work Motivation Productivity measurement - Measurement model - Productivity measure construction - Productivity analysis Conclusion Discussion #12;Software Engineering Lab, KAIST 3

  8. Continuous Nanoparticle Sizing and Characterization via Microfluidics 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Fanxu

    2015-04-27

    conductivity measurements can be exploited to instantaneously obtain size and species information in oxide nanoparticle suspensions. This approach is readily implemented in an easy to build platform that can be employed either online to provide real...

  9. Antiferromagnetic domain size and exchange bias 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitzsimmons, M. R.; Lederman, D.; Cheon, M.; Shi, H.; Olamit, J.; Roshchin, Igor V.; Schuller, Ivan K.

    2008-01-01

    Using neutron diffraction, we measured the sizes of antiferromagnetic domains in three ferromagnet/antiferromagnet bilayer samples as a function of the magnitude and sign of exchange bias, temperature, and antiferromagnet composition. Neutron...

  10. Inside-Out Infall Formation of Disk Galaxies: Do Predictions Differ from Models without Size Evolution?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rychard J. Bouwens; Laura Cayon; Joseph Silk

    1997-09-13

    We develop an idealized inside-out formation model for disk galaxies to include a realistic mix of galaxy types and luminosities that provides a fair match to the traditional observables. The predictions of our infall models are compared against identical models with no-size evolution by generating fully realistic simulations of the HDF, from which we recover the angular size distributions. We find that our infall models produce nearly identical angular size distributions to those of our no-size evolution models in the case of a Omega = 0 geometry but produce slightly smaller sizes in the case of a Omega = 1 geometry, a difference we associate with the fact that there is a different amount of cosmic time in our two models for evolving to relatively low redshifts (z \\approx 1-2). Our infall models also predict a slightly smaller (11% - 29%) number of large (disk scale lengths > 4 h_{50} ^{-1} kpc) galaxies at z \\approx 0.7 for the CFRS as well as different increases in the central surface brightness of the disks for early-type spirals, the infall model predicting an increase by 1.2 magnitudes out to z \\approx 2 (Omega = 0), 1 (Omega = 1), while our no-size evolution models predict an increase of only 0.5 magnitude. This result suggests that infall models could be important for explaining the 1.2-1.6 magnitude increase in surface brightness reported by Schade et al. (1995, 1996a, 1996b).

  11. FRIB cryogenic distribution system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganni, V.; Dixon, K.; Laverdure, N.; Knudsen, P.; Arenius, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab), Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Barrios, M.; Jones, S.; Johnson, M.; Casagrande, F. [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    The Michigan State University Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (MSU-FRIB) helium distribution system has been revised to include bayonet/warm valve type disconnects between each cryomodule and the transfer line distribution system, similar to the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cryogenic distribution systems. The heat loads at various temperature levels and some of the features in the design of the distribution system are outlined. The present status, the plans for fabrication, and the procurement approach for the helium distribution system are also included.

  12. FRIB cryogenic distribution system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganni, Venkatarao [JLAB; Dixon, Kelly D. [JLAB; Laverdure, Nathaniel A. [JLAB; Knudsen, Peter N. [JLAB; Arenius, Dana M. [JLAB; Barrios, Matthew N. [Michigan State; Jones, S. [Michigan State; Johnson, M. [Michigan State; Casagrande, Fabio [Michigan State

    2014-01-01

    The Michigan State University Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (MSU-FRIB) helium distribution system has been revised to include bayonet/warm valve type disconnects between each cryomodule and the transfer line distribution system, similar to the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cryogenic distribution systems. The heat loads at various temperature levels and some of the features in the design of the distribution system are outlined. The present status, the plans for fabrication, and the procurement approach for the helium distribution system are also included.

  13. NEW DATA ON THE POPULATION, DISTRIBUTION AND HABITAT PREFERENCES OF THE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seoane, Javier

    NEW DATA ON THE POPULATION, DISTRIBUTION AND HABITAT PREFERENCES OF THE CANARY ISLANDS STONECHAT, distribution and habitat preferences of the Canary Islands stonechat Saxicola dacotiae. This paper updates estimates of population size, distribution and habitat preferences of the endemic Canary Islands stonechat

  14. book review: Species distribution models for species distribution modellers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dormann, Carsten F

    2012-01-01

    Mapping  species  distributions:  spa? tial inference and news and update  book review  Species distribution models for species distribution modellers  Ecological niches and 

  15. Investigations of initiation spot size effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clarke, Steven A; Akinci, Adrian A; Leichty, Gary; Schaffer, Timothy; Murphy, Michael J; Munger, Alan; Thomas, Keith A

    2010-01-01

    As explosive components become smaller, a greater understanding of the effect of initiation spot size on detonation becomes increasingly critical. A series of tests of the effect of initiation spot size will be described. A series of DOI (direct optical initiation) detonators with initiation spots sizes from {approx}50 um to 1000um have been tested to determine laser parameters for threshold firing of low density PETN pressings. Results will be compared with theoretical predictions. Outputs of the initiation source (DOI ablation) have been characterized by a suite of diagnostics including PDV and schlieren imaging. Outputs of complete detonators have been characterized using PDV, streak, and/or schlieren imaging. At present, we have not found the expected change in the threshold energy to spot size relationship for DOI type detonators found in similar earlier for projectiles, slappers and EBWs. New detonators designs (Type C) are currently being tested that will allow the determination of the threshold for spot sizes from 250 um to 105um, where we hope to see change in the threshold vs. spot size relationship. Also, one test of an extremely small diameter spot size (50um) has resulted in preliminary NoGo only results even at energy densities as much as 8 times the energy density of the threshold results presented here. This gives preliminary evidence that 50um spot may be beyond the critical initiation diameter. The constant threshold energy to spot size relationship in the data to date does however still give some insight into the initiation mechanism of DOI detonators. If the DOI initiation mechanism were a 1D mechanism similar to a slapper or a flyer impact, the expected inflection point in the graph would have been between 300um and 500um diameter spot size, within the range of the data presented here. The lack of that inflection point indicates that the DOI initiation mechanism is more likely a 2D mechanism similar to a sphere or rod projectile. We expect to see a three region response as the results from the smaller spot size Type C detonators are completed.

  16. Touching the void: A striking drop in stellar halo density beyond 50 kpc

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deason, A. J.; Rockosi, C. M.; Belokurov, V.; Koposov, S. E.

    2014-05-20

    We use A-type stars selected from Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 9 photometry to measure the outer slope of the Milky Way stellar halo density profile beyond 50 kpc. A likelihood-based analysis is employed that models the ugr photometry distribution of blue horizontal branch and blue straggler stars. In the magnitude range 18.5 < g < 20.5, these stellar populations span a heliocentric distance range of: 10 ? D {sub BS}/kpc ? 75, 40 ? D {sub BHB}/kpc ? 100. Contributions from contaminants, such as QSOs, and the effect of photometric uncertainties, are also included in our modeling procedure. We find evidence for a very steep outer halo profile, with power-law index ? ? 6 beyond Galactocentric radii r = 50 kpc, and even steeper slopes favored (? ? 6-10) at larger radii. This result holds true when stars belonging to known overdensities, such as the Sagittarius stream, are included or excluded. We show that, by comparison to numerical simulations, stellar halos with shallower slopes at large distances tend to have more recent accretion activity. Thus, it is likely that the Milky Way has undergone a relatively quiet accretion history over the past several gigayears. Our measurement of the outer stellar halo profile may have important implications for dynamical mass models of the Milky Way, where the tracer density profile is strongly degenerate with total mass estimates.

  17. Lunar mare basalt flow units: Thicknesses determined from crater size-frequency distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Head III, James William

    . Hiesinger and J. W. Head III Department of Geological Sciences, Brown University, Providence, RI, USA U, and Insularum) allowed us to identify flow units that have not been detected in low-sun images. We found and their relation to the thermal evolution of the Moon [Head and Wilson, 1992]. Early work focused on estimating

  18. Optimal site selection and sizing of distributed utility-scale wind power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Artig, R. [Minnesota Dept. of Public Service, St. Paul, MN (United States)

    1998-04-01

    As electric market product unbundling occurs, sellers in the wholesale market for electricity will find it to their advantage to be able to specify the quantity of electricity available and the time of availability. Since wind power plants are driven by the stochastic nature of the wind itself, this can present difficulties. To the extent that an accurate wind forecast is available, contract deviations, and therefore penalties, can be significantly reduced. Even though one might have the ability to accurately forecast the availability of wind power, it might not be available during enough of the peak period to provide sufficient value. However, if the wind power plant is developed over geographically disperse locations, the timing and availability of wind power from these multiple sources could provide a better match with the utility`s peak load than a single site. There are several wind plants in various stages of planning or development in the US. Although some of these are small-scale demonstration projects, significant wind capacity has been developed in Minnesota, with additional developments planned in Wyoming and Iowa. As these and other projects are planned and developed, there is a need to perform analysis of the value of geographically diverse sites on the efficiency of the overall wind plant. In this paper, the authors use hourly wind-speed data from six geographically diverse sites to provide some insight into the potential benefits of disperse wind plant development. They provide hourly wind power from each of these sites to an electric reliability simulation model. This model uses generating plant characteristics of the generators within the state of Minnesota to calculate various reliability indices. Since they lack data on wholesale power transactions, they do not include them in the analysis, and they reduce the hourly load data accordingly. The authors present and compare results of their methods and suggest some areas of future research.

  19. Earthquake size distribution: power-law with exponent beta=1/2 ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kagan, Yan Y

    2010-01-01

    Intermittent Flow in Crystal Plasticity, Science, 312, 1188-phenomena in crystal plasticity – a continuum model, J.theoretical approach to crystal plasticity (Zaiser, 2006).

  20. Problems with determining the particle size distribution of chalk soil and some of their implications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    Young University, 690 SWKT, Provo, UT, USA b British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham, UK c the properties of chalk soil, psd analyses should be based on the original material (including carbonates Edinburgh 1823, Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. © 2009 Natural Environment Research Council

  1. Earthquake size distribution: power-law with exponent beta=1/2 ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kagan, Yan Y

    2010-01-01

    and T. H. Jordan, 2004. Earthquake scaling relations for1981. Determination of earthquake source parameters fromStochastic model of earthquake fault geometry, Geophys. J.

  2. Discovery of oscillatory dynamics of city-size distributions in world

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Douglas R.

    of pdf thru Skype you can ask questions, thru Humberto he will have a chat box to relay questions I test) China leads by 50 years in its Q values ­ up to 1850 PART III: Scaling Examples: Chinese-results are very similar, as reported for the 1- factor test. Q1 Q3 Q5 Q2 Q4 Q6 #12;7 Multiple measures of Q

  3. On the Limiting Distribution of Program Sizes in Tree-Based Genetic Programming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poli, Riccardo

    in a tree and pa is a constant. This result generalises the result previously reported for the case a = 1. 1 understood for mutation and crossover in the case of fixed-length representations (e.g., binary GAs) [4 in which each individual in a generation produces some random number of descendants, and where

  4. Lattice model for kinetics and grain-size distribution in crystallization Mario Castro*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sánchez, Angel "Anxo"

    deposition has been driven by the technological development of active matrix addressed flat-panel displays1 and thin-film solar cells.2 With these and similar applications in mind, the capability to en- gineer that in crystal- lization of Si over SiO2 substrates, nucleation develops in the Si/SiO2 interface due

  5. Effect of Engine-Out NOx Control Strategies on PM Size Distribution...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    deer08ardanese.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of ADECS to Meet 2010 Emission Levels: Optimization of NOx, NH3 and Fuel Consumption Using High and Low...

  6. Size distribution measurement of fine and ultrafine particle emission from cooking Evelyne Ghina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ) for particle with diameter between d and (d+dd) including emission rate of the source, nucleation, re-suspension meat or fish lead to a total mean equivalent emission rate of (9±6)×1010 s-1 while cooking meat or fish in an oven lead to total mean equivalent emission rate of (9±4)×1010 s-1 . Cooking pasta or heat the stove

  7. Earthquake size distribution: power-law with exponent beta=1/2 ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kagan, Yan Y

    2010-01-01

    branching process simulation, we sum up seismic momentSeismic Moment Time Figure 5: Simulated source-time functions in a critical branching process.

  8. Diffusivity of rocks: Gas diffusion measurements and correlation to porosity and pore size distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Qinhong "Max"

    scenarios, such as geologic disposal of radioactive waste [Gillham et al., 1984], contaminant remediation [e been used to determine gas transport parameters includ- ing permeability, diffusion coefficient

  9. Submitted to the Journal of Geophysical Research Pore and throat size distributions measured from synchrotron Xray

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New York at Stoney Brook, State University of

    Donald et al., 1986(I) and computa­ tion of the specific genus for a sample of Berea sand­ stone presented of this investigative technique. While the technique of pore casting [Wardlaw, 1976] and Wood's metal porosimetry measurements are ex­ tremely difficult to make on the casts without destruc­ tive polishing

  10. Atmospheric Environment 41 (2007) 49084919 Particle size and composition distribution analysis of automotive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    of automotive brake abrasion dusts for the evaluation of antimony sources of airborne particulate matter Akihiro

  11. SEX, AGE, AND BODY SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS OF WESTERN SANDPIPERS DURING THE NONBREEDING SEASON WITH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    poblacional de C. mauri difirio´ entre ha´bitats. La densidad de aves fue alta en planicies lodosas, el ha respecto al Tipo de Ha´bitat Durante la E´ poca No-Reproductiva Resumen. Se determino´ la densidad y densidad de invertebrados y de menor a mayor con respecto al riesgo de depredacio´n. La estructura

  12. Time Evolution of the Mutual Fund Size Distribution Yonathan Schwarzkopf1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -33 Pasadena, CA 91125 2 Santa Fe Institute, 1399 Hyde Park Road, Santa Fe, NM 87501 3 Luiss Guido Carli, Viale into a power law only over long time scales, suggesting that log-normality comes about because the industry

  13. Time Evolution of the Mutual Fund Size Distribution Yonathan Schwarzkopf1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -33 Pasadena, CA 91125 2 Santa Fe Institute, 1399 Hyde Park Road, Santa Fe, NM 87501 3 Luiss Guido Carli, Viale Pola 12 00198, ROMA Italy (Dated: August 21, 2008) The mutual fund industry manages about a quarter long time scales, suggesting that log-normality comes about because the industry is still young due

  14. The Dependence of Cirrus Cloud-Property Retrievals on Size-Distribution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With U.S.Week Day Year(active tab) 2016The Dark SideShape The

  15. Dispersion of Cloud Droplet Size Distributions, Cloud Parameterizations and Indirect Aerosol Effects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit theCovalentLaboratory | National(Technical Report)Disorder-Induced

  16. Measuring the Raindrop Size Distribution, ARM's Efforts at Darwin and SGP

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on dark matter By SarahMODELING CLOUD1 H(

  17. Disk radii and grain sizes in Herschel-resolved debris disks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pawellek, Nicole; Krivov, Alexander V. [Astrophysikalisches Institut und Universitätssternwarte, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Schillergäßchen 2-3, 07745 Jena (Germany); Marshall, Jonathan P. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia); Montesinos, Benjamin [Departmento de Astrofísica, Centro de Astrobiología (CAB, CSIC-INTA), ESAC Campus, P.O. Box 78, E-28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid (Spain); Ábrahám, Péter; Moór, Attila [Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 67, H-1525 Budapest (Hungary); Bryden, Geoffrey [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Eiroa, Carlos [Departamento de Física Teórica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-09-01

    The radii of debris disks and the sizes of their dust grains are important tracers of the planetesimal formation mechanisms and physical processes operating in these systems. Here we use a representative sample of 34 debris disks resolved in various Herschel Space Observatory (Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA) programs to constrain the disk radii and the size distribution of their dust. While we modeled disks with both warm and cold components, and identified warm inner disks around about two-thirds of the stars, we focus our analysis only on the cold outer disks, i.e., Kuiper-belt analogs. We derive the disk radii from the resolved images and find a large dispersion for host stars of any spectral class, but no significant trend with the stellar luminosity. This argues against ice lines as a dominant player in setting the debris disk sizes, since the ice line location varies with the luminosity of the central star. Fixing the disk radii to those inferred from the resolved images, we model the spectral energy distribution to determine the dust temperature and the grain size distribution for each target. While the dust temperature systematically increases toward earlier spectral types, the ratio of the dust temperature to the blackbody temperature at the disk radius decreases with the stellar luminosity. This is explained by a clear trend of typical sizes increasing toward more luminous stars. The typical grain sizes are compared to the radiation pressure blowout limit s {sub blow} that is proportional to the stellar luminosity-to-mass ratio and thus also increases toward earlier spectral classes. The grain sizes in the disks of G- to A-stars are inferred to be several times s {sub blow} at all stellar luminosities, in agreement with collisional models of debris disks. The sizes, measured in the units of s {sub blow}, appear to decrease with the luminosity, which may be suggestive of the disk's stirring level increasing toward earlier-type stars. The dust opacity index ? ranges between zero and two, and the size distribution index q varies between three and five for all the disks in the sample.

  18. A Queueing Based Scheduling Approach to Plug-In Electric Vehicle Dispatch in Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Qiao; Ilic, Marija D

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale integration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) in power systems can cause severe issues to the existing distribution system, such as branch congestions and significant voltage drops. As a consequence, smart charging strategies are crucial for the secure and reliable operation of the power system. This paper tries to achieve high penetration level of PEVs with the existing distribution system infrastructure by proposing a smart charging algorithm that can optimally utilize the distribution system capacity. Specifically, the paper proposes a max-weight PEV dispatch algorithm to control the PEV charging rates, subject to power system physical limits. The proposed max-weight PEV dispatch algorithm is proved to be throughput optimal under very mild assumptions on the stochastic dynamics in the system. This suggests that the costly distribution system infrastructure upgrade can be avoided, or failing that, at least successfully deferred. The proposed PEV dispatch algorithm is particularly attractive in ...

  19. Cooling water distribution system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orr, Richard (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  20. MEMORANDUM FOR DISTRIBUTION

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    * Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 December 20, 2007 MEMORANDUM FOR DISTRIBUTION FROM: MICHAEL W. OWEN

  1. Distribution of Correspondence

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1996-08-30

    Defines correct procedures for distribution of correspondence to the Naval Reactors laboratories. Does not cancel another directive. Expired 8-30-97.

  2. Can amphiphile architecture directly control vesicle size?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. J. Greenall; C. M. Marques

    2013-01-28

    Bilayer membranes self-assembled from simple amphiphiles in solution always have a planar ground-state shape. This is a consequence of several internal relaxation mechanisms of the membrane and prevents the straightforward control of vesicle size. Here, we show that this principle can be circumvented and that direct size control by molecular design is a realistic possibility. Using coarse-grained calculations, we design tetrablock copolymers that form membranes with a preferred curvature, and demonstrate how to form low-polydispersity vesicles while suppressing micellization.

  3. Size-dependent structure of silver nanoparticles under high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koski, Kristie Jo

    2008-12-31

    Silver noble metal nanoparticles that are<10 nm often possess multiply twinned grains allowing them to adopt shapes and atomic structures not observed in bulk materials. The properties exhibited by particles with multiply twinned polycrystalline structures are often far different from those of single-crystalline particles and from the bulk. I will present experimental evidence that silver nanoparticles<10 nm undergo a reversible structural transformation under hydrostatic pressures up to 10 GPa. Results for nanoparticles in the intermediate size range of 5 to 10 nm suggest a reversible linear pressure-dependent rhombohedral distortion which has not been previously observed in bulk silver. I propose a mechanism for this transitiion that considers the bond-length distribution in idealized multiply twinned icosahedral particles. Results for nanoparticles of 3.9 nm suggest a reversible linear pressure-dependent orthorhombic distortion. This distortion is interpreted in the context of idealized decahedral particles. In addition, given these size-dependent measurements of silver nanoparticle compression with pressure, we have constructed a pressure calibration curve. Encapsulating these silver nanoparticles in hollow metal oxide nanospheres then allows us to measure the pressure inside a nanoshell using x-ray diffraction. We demonstrate the measurement of pressure gradients across nanoshells and show that these nanoshells have maximum resolved shear strengths on the order of 500 MPa to IGPa.

  4. The dust grain size - stellar luminosity trend in debris discs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawellek, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The cross section of material in debris discs is thought to be dominated by the smallest grains that can still stay in bound orbits despite the repelling action of stellar radiation pressure. Thus the minimum (and typical) grain size $s_\\text{min}$ is expected to be close to the radiation pressure blowout size $s_\\text{blow}$. Yet a recent analysis of a sample of Herschel-resolved debris discs showed the ratio $s_\\text{min}/s_\\text{blow}$ to systematically decrease with the stellar luminosity from about ten for solar-type stars to nearly unity in the discs around the most luminous A-type stars. Here we explore this trend in more detail, checking how significant it is and seeking to find possible explanations. We show that the trend is robust to variation of the composition and porosity of dust particles. For any assumed grain properties and stellar parameters, we suggest a recipe of how to estimate the "true" radius of a spatially unresolved debris disc, based solely on its spectral energy distribution. The r...

  5. Characterizing and Improving Distributed Intrusion Detection Systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurd, Steven A.; Proebstel, Elliot P.

    2007-11-01

    Due to ever-increasing quantities of information traversing networks, network administrators are developing greater reliance upon statistically sampled packet information as the source for their intrusion detection systems (IDS). Our research is aimed at understanding IDS performance when statistical packet sampling is used. Using the Snort IDS and a variety of data sets, we compared IDS results when an entire data set is used to the results when a statistically sampled subset of the data set is used. Generally speaking, IDS performance with statistically sampled information was shown to drop considerably even under fairly high sampling rates (such as 1:5). Characterizing and Improving Distributed Intrusion Detection Systems4AcknowledgementsThe authors wish to extend our gratitude to Matt Bishop and Chen-Nee Chuah of UC Davis for their guidance and support on this work. Our thanks are also extended to Jianning Mai of UC Davis and Tao Ye of Sprint Advanced Technology Labs for their generous assistance.We would also like to acknowledge our dataset sources, CRAWDAD and CAIDA, without which this work would not have been possible. Support for OC48 data collection is provided by DARPA, NSF, DHS, Cisco and CAIDA members.

  6. Test of two hypotheses explaining the size of populations in a system of cities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vitanov, Nikolay K

    2015-01-01

    Two classical hypotheses are examined about the population growth in a system of cities: Hypothesis 1 pertains to Gibrat's and Zipf's theory which states that the city growth-decay process is size independent; Hypothesis 2 pertains to the so called Yule process which states that the growth of populations in cities happens when (i) the distribution of the city population initial size obeys a log-normal function, (ii) the growth of the settlements follows a stochastic process. The basis for the test is some official data on Bulgarian cities at various times. This system was chosen because (i) Bulgaria is a country for which one does not expect biased theoretical conditions; (ii) the city populations were determined rather precisely. The present results show that: (i) the population size growth of the Bulgarian cities is size dependent, whence Hypothesis 1 is not confirmed for Bulgaria; (ii) the population size growth of Bulgarian cities can be described by a double Pareto log-normal distribution, whence Hypothe...

  7. NEEDS SIZE ADJUSTMENT 2 Perfect Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapman, Michael S.

    NEEDS SIZE ADJUSTMENT #12;2 Perfect Chemistry 8 Starr Power 10 Balancing Act 14 A Rare Thing.B.A. EDitors Dee Metaj Jill Smith DEsigN Anderson McConaughy Design Co. WritErs Todd Schwartz Jill Smith Jim and friends. Please send correspondence to: Bridges Magazine sm-alum@ohsu.edu OHSU School of Medicine 3181 SW

  8. Surface plasmon standing waves on Ag nanorods: observations of finite size effects and size dependency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.

    Surface plasmon standing waves on Ag nanorods: observations of finite size effects and size to have clear configuration of standing waves of the nanorod. The nm resolution of the electron probe standing wave on a string with fixed ends, we observed that the wavelength of the SP standing wave

  9. Size dependence of solar X-ray flare properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marina Battaglia; Paolo C. Grigis; Arnold O. Benz

    2005-05-09

    Non-thermal and thermal parameters of 85 solar flares of GOES class B1 to M6 (background subtracted classes A1 to M6) have been compared to each other. The hard X-ray flux has been measured by RHESSI and a spectral fitting provided flux and spectral index of the non-thermal emission, as well as temperature and emission measure of the thermal emission. The soft X-ray flux was taken from GOES measurements. We find a linear correlation in a double logarithmic plot between the non-thermal flux and the spectral index. The higher the acceleration rate of a flare, the harder the non-thermal electron distribution. The relation is similar to the one found by a comparison of the same parameters from several sub-peaks of a single flare. Thus small flares behave like small subpeaks of large flares. Thermal flare properties such as temperature, emission measure and the soft X-ray flux also correlate with peak non-thermal flux. A large non-thermal peak flux entails an enhancement in both thermal parameters. The relation between spectral index and the non-thermal flux is an intrinsic feature of the particle acceleration process, depending on flare size. This property affects the reported frequency distribution of flare energies.

  10. Distributed Road Grade Estimation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansson, Karl Henrik

    Distributed Road Grade Estimation for Heavy Duty Vehicles PER SAH LHOLM Doctoral Thesis in Automatic Control Stockholm, Sweden 2011 #12;Distributed Road Grade Estimation for Heavy Duty Vehicles PER state-of-charge control decrease the energy consumption of vehicles and increase the safety

  11. Streched String with Self-Interaction at the Hagedorn Point: Spatial Sizes and Black Hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qian, Yachao

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the length, mass and spatial distribution of a discretized transverse string in $D_\\perp$ dimensions with fixed end-points near its Hagedorn temperature. We suggest that such a string may dominate the (holographic) Pomeron kinematics for dipole-dipole scattering at intermediate and small impact parameters. Attractive self-string interactions cause the transverse string size to contract away from its diffusive size, a mechanism reminiscent of the string-black-hole transmutation. The string shows sizable asymmetries in the transverse plane that translate to primordial azimuthal asymmetries in the stringy particle production in the Pomeron kinematics for current pp and pA collisions at collider energies.

  12. Continuous growth of droplet size variance due to condensation in turbulent clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sardina, Gaetano; Brandt, Luca; Caballero, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    We use a stochastic model and direct numerical simulation to study the impact of turbulence on cloud droplet growth by condensation. We show that the variance of the droplet size distribution increases in time as $t^{1/2}$, with growth rate proportional the large-to-small turbulent scale separation and to the turbulence integral scales but independent of the smallest turbulence scale. Direct numerical simulations confirm this result and produce realistically broad droplet size spectra over time intervals of 20 minutes, comparable with the time of rain formation.

  13. Streched String with Self-Interaction at the Hagedorn Point: Spatial Sizes and Black Hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yachao Qian; Ismail Zahed

    2015-08-15

    We analyze the length, mass and spatial distribution of a discretized transverse string in $D_\\perp$ dimensions with fixed end-points near its Hagedorn temperature. We suggest that such a string may dominate the (holographic) Pomeron kinematics for dipole-dipole scattering at intermediate and small impact parameters. Attractive self-string interactions cause the transverse string size to contract away from its diffusive size, a mechanism reminiscent of the string-black-hole transmutation. The string shows sizable asymmetries in the transverse plane that translate to primordial azimuthal asymmetries in the stringy particle production in the Pomeron kinematics for current pp and pA collisions at collider energies.

  14. Size of nanoobjects in oil and gas species and materials with positron annihilation spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grafutin, V I; Elnikova, L V

    2012-01-01

    The analytical method to determine geometry and size of nano-scale defects in oil and gas species and materials is proposed. The modeling is carried out with the parameters of the positron spectra in the angular distribution method of positron annihilation spectroscopy, and is based on the 'free electron' approximation. From the annihilation decay kinetics, it is possible to express the trapping velocity of parapositronium in pores via intensities of the positronium components and to define the concentration and radii of pores in a porous layer. As the result, size and the concentration of micro-porous cylindrical nano-objects in the silicon samples are estimated.

  15. Measuring the mass, density, and size of particles and cells using a suspended microchannel resonator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godin, Michel; Bryan, Andrea K.; Burg, Thomas P.; Babcock, Ken; Manalis, Scott R.

    2007-09-17

    We demonstrate the measurement of mass, density, and size of cells and nanoparticles using suspended microchannel resonators. The masses of individual particles are quantified as transient frequency shifts, while the particles transit a microfluidic channel embedded in the resonating cantilever. Mass histograms resulting from these data reveal the distribution of a population of heterogeneously sized particles. Particle density is inferred from measurements made in different carrier fluids since the frequency shift for a particle is proportional to the mass difference relative to the displaced solution. We have characterized the density of polystyrene particles, Escherichia coli, and human red blood cells with a resolution down to 10{sup -4} g/cm{sup 3}.

  16. Strategy Guideline: Compact Air Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, A.

    2013-06-01

    This Strategy Guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. Traditional systems sized by 'rule of thumb' (i.e., 1 ton of cooling per 400 ft2 of floor space) that 'wash' the exterior walls with conditioned air from floor registers cannot provide appropriate air mixing and moisture removal in low-load homes. A compact air distribution system locates the HVAC equipment centrally with shorter ducts run to interior walls, and ceiling supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls along the ceiling plane; alternatively, high sidewall supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls. Potential drawbacks include resistance from installing contractors or code officials who are unfamiliar with compact air distribution systems, as well as a lack of availability of low-cost high sidewall or ceiling supply outlets to meet the low air volumes with good throw characteristics. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  17. Real-Time Simultaneous Measurements of Size, Density, and Composition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Simultaneous Measurements of Size, Density, and Composition of Single Ultrafine Diesel Tailpipe Particles Real-Time Simultaneous Measurements of Size, Density, and Composition of...

  18. Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study Small- and Medium-Size Building Automation and Control System Needs: Scoping Study Emerging...

  19. SBA Increases Size Standards for Waste Remediation Services ...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    review of all size standards for the next several years. An SBA-issued White Paper entitled, "Size Standards Methodology," which explains how SBA establishes, reviews...

  20. Reduce Pumping Costs Through Optimum Pipe Sizing | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reduce Pumping Costs Through Optimum Pipe Sizing Reduce Pumping Costs Through Optimum Pipe Sizing This tip sheet discusses how to reduce pumping system costs through optimum pipe...

  1. Overview of Detailed Chemical Speciation and Particle Sizing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Detailed Chemical Speciation and Particle Sizing for Diesel Exhaust, Both Real Time and Filter Based Measurements Overview of Detailed Chemical Speciation and Particle Sizing for...

  2. Development of a drop-on-demand inkjet system for stroboscopic SAXS/WAXS experiments tel-00446582,version1-13Jan2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Development of a drop-on-demand inkjet system for stroboscopic SAXS/WAXS experiments 1 FOURIER SAXS/WAXS experiments 2 The cover picture rapresents two inkjet heads working at a frequency of 2k for stroboscopic SAXS/WAXS experiments 3 FOURIER tel-00446582,version1-13Jan2010 #12

  3. Heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops for R-134a and an ester lubricant mixture in a smooth tube and a micro-fin tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckels, S.J.; Doerr, T.M.; Pate, M.B.

    1998-10-01

    This paper reports average heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops during the evaporation and condensation of mixtures of R-134a and a 150 SUS penta erythritol ester branched-acid lubricant. The smooth tube and micro-fin tube tested in this study had outer diameters of 9.52 mm (3/8 in.). The micro-fin tube had 60 fins, a fin height of 0.2 mm (0.008 in), and a spiral angle of 18{degree}. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the micro-fin tube with R-134a and to determine the effect of circulating lubricant. The experimental results show that the micro-fin tube has distinct performance advantages over the smooth tube. For example, the average heat transfer coefficients during evaporation and condensation in the micro-fin tube were 50--200% higher than those for the smooth tube, while the average pressure drops were on average only 10--50% higher. The experimental results indicate that the presence of a lubricant degrades the average heat transfer coefficients during both evaporation and condensation at high lubricant concentrations. Pressure drops during evaporation increased with the addition of a lubricant in both tubes. For condensation, pressure drops were unaffected by the addition of a lubricant.

  4. Use the drop-down search menus and operators (AND, OR, NOT) to customize your search. Search by topic, author, journal title, publication year, and other fields.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    by topic, author, journal title, publication year, and other fields. Topic Enter your search words, joined, and subject terms; choose Title from the drop-down search menu to restrict your search to document titles only for the most comprehensive search. 1.To find all articles by Francis Harry Compton Crick, click , enter Crick F

  5. DROP TESTS RESULTS OF REVISED CLOSURE BOLT CONFIGURATION OF THE STANDARD WASTE BOX, STANDARD LARGE BOX 2, AND TEN DRUM OVERPACK PACKAGINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, C.; Opperman, E.; Mckeel, C.

    2010-04-15

    The Transuranic (TRU) Disposition Project at Savannah River Site will require numerous transfers of radioactive materials within the site boundaries for sorting and repackaging. The three DOT Type A shipping packagings planned for this work have numerous bolts for securing the lids to the body of the packagings. In an effort to reduce operator time to open and close the packages during onsite transfers, thus reducing personnel exposure and costs, an evaluation was performed to analyze the effects of reducing the number of bolts required to secure the lid to the packaging body. The evaluation showed the reduction to one-third of the original number of bolts had no effect on the packagings capability to sustain vibratory loads, shipping loads, internal pressure loads, and the loads resulting from a 4-ft drop. However, the loads caused by the 4-ft drop are difficult to estimate and the study recommended each of the packages be dropped to show the actual effects on the package closure. Even with reduced bolting, the packagings were still required to meet the 49 CFR 178.350 performance criteria for Type A packaging. This paper discusses the effects and results of the drop testing of the three packagings.

  6. 2012 Market Report on U.S. Wind Technologies in Distributed Applicatio...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    An annual report on U.S. wind power in distributed applications--expanded to include small, mid-size, and utility-scale installations--including key statistics, economic data,...

  7. Scaling of Seismic Memory with Earthquake Size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, Zeyu; Tenenbaum, Joel; Podobnik, Boris; Stanley, H Eugene

    2011-01-01

    It has been observed that the earthquake events possess short-term memory, i.e. that events occurring in a particular location are dependent on the short history of that location. We conduct an analysis to see whether real-time earthquake data also possess long-term memory and, if so, whether such autocorrelations depend on the size of earthquakes within close spatiotemporal proximity. We analyze the seismic waveform database recorded by 64 stations in Japan, including the 2011 "Great East Japan Earthquake", one of the five most powerful earthquakes ever recorded which resulted in a tsunami and devastating nuclear accidents. We explore the question of seismic memory through use of mean conditional intervals and detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). We find that the waveform sign series show long-range power-law anticorrelations while the interval series show long-range power-law correlations. We find size-dependence in earthquake auto-correlations---as earthquake size increases, both of these correlation beha...

  8. Nanoconfined catalytic Ångström-size motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peter H. Colberg; Raymond Kapral

    2015-01-13

    Chemically-powered synthetic micron and nano-scale motors that propel themselves in solution are being intensively studied because of the wide range of potential applications that exploit their directed motion. Recent experiments have shown that, even on the molecular scale, small-molecule catalysts and single enzyme molecules exhibit properties that have been attributed to self-propulsion. Simulations of very small {\\AA}ngstr\\"om-size synthetic motors in bulk solution have shown similar effects. Applications of such small motors in the cell or in microfluidic devices require knowledge of how these motors interact with boundaries. Molecular dynamics is used to investigate the properties of {\\AA}ngstr\\"om-size synthetic chemically-powered motors confined between walls separated by distances of tens of nanometers. Evidence for strong structural ordering of the motors between the walls, which reflects the finite size of solvent molecules and depends on solvent exclusion forces, is provided. Dynamical properties, such as average motor velocity, orientational relaxation and mean square displacement, are anisotropic and depend on the distance from the walls. This research presents information needed for potential applications that use these motors in the complex confined geometries encountered in biology and the laboratory.

  9. Syntax of adverb distribution 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edelstein, Elspeth Claire

    2012-11-28

    The distribution of adverbs is particularly difficult to account for, given the amount of variation it encompasses. Not only are adverbs typically optional, but any adverb may also appear in several different positions ...

  10. Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Buildings Technologies Program Date: November 8, 2011 Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems Welcome to the Webinar We will start at 1:00 PM Eastern Time Be sure that you are...

  11. Polygamy of distributed entanglement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buscemi, Francesco [Statistical Laboratory, DPMMS, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0WB (United Kingdom); Gour, Gilad [Institute for Quantum Information Science, University of Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada); Kim, Jeong San [Institute for Quantum Information Science, University of Calgary, Alberta, T2N 1N4 (Canada)

    2009-07-15

    While quantum entanglement is known to be monogamous (i.e., shared entanglement is restricted in multipartite settings), here we show that distributed entanglement (or the potential for entanglement) is by nature polygamous. By establishing the concept of one-way unlocalizable entanglement (UE) and investigating its properties, we provide a polygamy inequality of distributed entanglement in tripartite quantum systems of arbitrary dimension. We also provide a polygamy inequality in multiqubit systems and several trade-offs between UE and other correlation measures.

  12. Equilibrium Distributions and Superconductivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashot Vagharshakyan

    2011-06-07

    In this article two models for charges distributions are discussed. On the basis of our consideration we put different points of view for stationary state. We prove that only finite energy model for charges' distribution and well-known variation principle explain some well-known experimental results. A new model for superconductivity was suggested, too. In frame of that model some characteristic experimental results for superconductors is possible to explain.

  13. Distributed Power Delivery for Energy Efficient and Low Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedman, Eby G.

    Distributed Power Delivery for Energy Efficient and Low Power Systems Selc¸uk K¨ose Department are needed to determine the location of these on-chip power supplies and decoupling capacitors. In this paper, the optimal location of the power supplies and decoupling capacitors is determined for different size

  14. Low Cost Region Detection from Distributed Sensor Observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Yan

    regions from the dis- tributed sensors. The solution is based on Spatial Grid partition and the task of applications that rely on coin- to palm-size computerized sentries. These miniature sensors can identify to create regions from distributed sensors. The solution is based on a Spatial Grid (SG) partition coupled

  15. On Distributed Fault-Tolerant Detection in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Ming

    --Distributed event detection, fault tolerance, sensor fusion, energy-efficiency, wireless sensor networks. æ 1 to choose a proper neighborhood size n for a sensor node in fault correction such that the energy could to achieve better detection and better balance between detection accuracy and energy usage. Our work makes

  16. A Distributed Pool Architecture for Genetic Algorithms 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roy, Gautam

    2011-02-22

    stream_source_info ROY-THESIS.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 70881 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ROY-THESIS.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 A DISTRIBUTED POOL... ARCHITECTURE FOR GENETIC ALGORITHMS A Thesis by GAUTAM SAMARENDRA N ROY Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2009 Major Subject: Computer...

  17. An instrument to measure extended particle size and velocity ranges in multiphase flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, C.P.; Hess, C.F.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes a miniaturized particle sizing velocimeter developed and built by MetroLaser to measure the spatial and temporal distributions of particle size and velocity. The instrument is the first of its kind to utilize the pulse displacement technique (PDT) to measure particle size. PDT is based on the detection of scattered refraction and reflection pulses which sweep past a detector at different times as a particle traverses a narrow laser sheet. In conjunction with Mie scattering and a time-of-fight velocity measuring technique, the instrument provides detailed distributions of particle size from 2 {micro}m to 6,000 {micro}m in two optical configurations, and particle velocity from 0.5 m/s to 150 m/s. This paper summarizes the theoretical foundation of PDT which allows the calculation of particle diameter from various optical parameters such as refractive index and collection angle. An overview of the instrument is presented, followed by a brief description of the miniaturized optical probe. The processing of data is described and, lastly, the results of experimental studies are presented which verify the accuracy and versatility of the instrument.

  18. The generalized Mackenzie distribution: disorientation angle distributions for arbitrary textures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mason, J. K.

    A general formulation for the disorientation angle distribution function is derived. The derivation employs the hyperspherical harmonic expansion for orientation distributions, and an explicit solution is presented for ...

  19. Inhomogeneous distribution of droplets in cloud turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Itzhak Fouxon; Yongnam Park; Roei Harduf; Changhoon Lee

    2014-10-30

    We solve the problem of spatial distribution of inertial particles that sediment in turbulent flow with small ratio of acceleration of fluid particles to acceleration of gravity $g$. The particles are driven by linear drag and have arbitrary inertia. The pair-correlation function of concentration obeys a power-law in distance with negative exponent. Divergence at zero signifies singular distribution of particles in space. Independently of particle size the exponent is ratio of integral of energy spectrum of turbulence times the wavenumber to $g$ times numerical factor. We find Lyapunov exponents and confirm predictions by direct numerical simulations of Navier-Stokes turbulence. The predictions include typical case of water droplets in clouds. This significant progress in the study of turbulent transport is possible because strong gravity makes the particle's velocity at a given point unique.

  20. Sort-First, Distributed Memory Parallel Visualization and Rendering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bethel, E. Wes; Humphreys, Greg; Paul, Brian; Brederson, J. Dean

    2003-07-15

    While commodity computing and graphics hardware has increased in capacity and dropped in cost, it is still quite difficult to make effective use of such systems for general-purpose parallel visualization and graphics. We describe the results of a recent project that provides a software infrastructure suitable for general-purpose use by parallel visualization and graphics applications. Our work combines and extends two technologies: Chromium, a stream-oriented framework that implements the OpenGL programming interface; and OpenRM Scene Graph, a pipelined-parallel scene graph interface for graphics data management. Using this combination, we implement a sort-first, distributed memory, parallel volume rendering application. We describe the performance characteristics in terms of bandwidth requirements and highlight key algorithmic considerations needed to implement the sort-first system. We characterize system performance using a distributed memory parallel volume rendering application, a nd present performance gains realized by using scene specific knowledge to accelerate rendering through reduced network bandwidth. The contribution of this work is an exploration of general-purpose, sort-first architecture performance characteristics as applied to distributed memory, commodity hardware, along with a description of the algorithmic support needed to realize parallel, sort-first implementations.