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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Condensation on Surface Energy Gradient Shifts Drop Size Distribution toward Small Drops  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Condensation on Surface Energy Gradient Shifts Drop Size Distribution toward Small Drops Ashley M condensation from vapor onto a cooled surface, distributions of drops evolve by nucleation, growth is condensed onto a horizontally oriented surface that has been treated by silanization to deliver either

Daniel, Susan

2

Fidelity of Analytic Drop Size Distributions in Drizzling Stratiform Clouds Based on Large-Eddy Simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cloud microphysical parameterizations and retrievals rely heavily on knowledge of the shape of drop size distributions (DSDs). Many investigations assume that DSDs in the entire or partial drop size range may be approximated ...

Kogan, Yefim L.; Kogan, Zena N.; Mechem, David B.

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Slant visual range from drop-size distribution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. 1796 x 10 -5 6. 4781 x 10 -5 6. 8817 x 10 7. 4708 x 10 -5 6. 4Z3Z x 10 3. 4338 x 10 -5 l. 8538 x 10 9. 1Z32 x 10 5. 1436 x 10 3. 1019 x 10 3. 3120 x 10 -6 3. 6597 x 10 6. Z636 x 10 4. 2730 x 10 3. 8357 x 10 1 4. OZ10 x 10 1 4. Z715 x 10...'laj or Subject: Mete orol oqy SLANT VISUAL RANGE FROM DROP-SIZE DISTRIBUTION A Thesis by EDWIN STANLEY ARRANCE Approved as to style and content by: Dr. Vance E. Moyer; (Chairman of Committee) Dr. Geor L. Huebner, Jr. (Member) Dr. Glen N. Williams...

Arrance, Edwin Stanley

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

4

Characterization of Vertical Velocity and Drop Size Distribution Parameters in Widespread Precipitation at ARM Facilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Extended, high-resolution measurements of vertical air motion and median volume drop diameter D0 in widespread precipitation from three diverse Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) locations [Lamont, Oklahoma, Southern Great Plains site (SGP); Niamey, Niger; and Black Forest, Germany] are presented. The analysis indicates a weak (0-10 cm{sup -1}) downward air motion beneath the melting layer for all three regions, a magnitude that is to within the typical uncertainty of the retrieval methods. On average, the hourly estimated standard deviation of the vertical air motion is 0.25 m s{sup -1} with no pronounced vertical structure. Profiles of D0 vary according to region and rainfall rate. The standard deviation of 1-min-averaged D0 profiles for isolated rainfall rate intervals is 0.3-0.4 mm. Additional insights into the form of the raindrop size distribution are provided using available dual-frequency Doppler velocity observations at SGP. The analysis suggests that gamma functions better explain paired velocity observations and radar retrievals for the Oklahoma dataset. This study will be useful in assessing uncertainties introduced in the measurement of precipitation parameters from ground-based and spaceborne remote sensors that are due to small-scale variability.

Giangrande S. E.; Luke, E. P.; Kollias, P.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Drop-size distribution for crosscurrent breakup of a liquid jet in a convective airstream  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

an apparatus has been designed and constructed. A laser diffraction particle analyzer technique is used to spatially measure the spray Sauter-Mean Diameters. The Rosin-Rammler two parameter model is assumed for the droplet size distribution. Injection pressure...

Lyn, Gregory Michael

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

6

Mechanisms of liquid sheet breakup and the resulting drop size distributions; Part 2: strand breakup and experimental observations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports that both a wave mechanism and a perforation mechanism have been proposed as the first step in the breakup of fluid sheets. For black liquor sprays, the dominant mechanism is the formation and growth of perforations according to either mechanism, cylindrical strands develop and subsequently break up to form drops. By combining the results of analyzing the breakup of both the sheet and strands, only a discrete number of drop sizes can be predicted from the wave mechanism.

Spielbauer, T.M.; Aidum, C.K. (Institute of Paper Science and Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States))

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

A new model of cloud drop distribution that simulates the observed drop  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A new model of cloud drop distribution that simulates the observed drop A new model of cloud drop distribution that simulates the observed drop clustering: effect of clustering on extinction coefficient estimates Knyazikhin, Yuri Boston University Marshak, Alexander NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Larsen, Michael Michigan Technological University Wiscombe, Warren BNL/NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Category: Modeling Cloud droplet size distribution is one of the most fundamental subjects in cloud physics. Understanding of spatial distribution and small-scale fluctuations of cloud droplets is essential for both cloud physics and atmospheric radiation. For cloud physics, it relates to the coalescence growth of raindrops while for radiation, it has a strong impact on a cloud's radiative properties. We have developed new size dependent models

8

ARM - Measurement - Hydrometeor Size Distribution  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Size Distribution Size Distribution ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Hydrometeor Size Distribution The number of hydrometeors observed in a given size range. Categories Cloud Properties, Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments LDIS : Laser Disdrometer Datastreams LDIS : Laser Disdrometer Datastreams PARS2 : OTT Parsivel2 Laser Disdrometer VDIS : Video Disdrometer Datastreams VDIS : Video Disdrometer Drop Size Distribution

9

ARM - Measurement - Particle size distribution  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

size distribution size distribution ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Particle size distribution The number of particles present in any given volume of air within a specified size range. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AOS : Aerosol Observing System CSPHOT : Cimel Sunphotometer TDMA : Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer UHSAS : Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer Field Campaign Instruments

10

8, 78477881, 2008 Size distributions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 8, 7847­7881, 2008 Size distributions and sources of WSOC in urban background area H. Timonen, sources and source areas of water-soluble organic carbon in urban background air H. Timonen 1 , S Chemistry Division National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80305-3000, USA

Boyer, Edmond

11

Eliminate Excessive In-Plant Distribution System Voltage Drops...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

connections-can account for less than 1% to more than 4% of total plant electrical energy consumption. This two-page tip sheet recommends conducting a voltage drop survey and...

12

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol particle size distribution  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

particle size distribution particle size distribution ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol particle size distribution The number of aerosol particles present in any given volume of air within a specificied size range Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments SMPS : Scanning mobility particle sizer TDMA : Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer UHSAS : Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer Field Campaign Instruments

13

ARM - Measurement - Cloud particle size distribution  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

size distribution size distribution ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Cloud particle size distribution The number of cloud particles present in any given volume of air within a specified size range, including liquid and ice. Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments WSACR : Scanning ARM Cloud Radar, tuned to W-Band (95GHz) Field Campaign Instruments CPI : Cloud Particle Imager CLDAEROSMICRO : Cloud and Aerosol Microphysical Properties

14

Lifetime of micrometer-sized drops of oil pressed by buoyancy against a planar interface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Emulsion Stability Simulations (ESS) are used to estimate the coalescence time of one drop of hexadecane pressed by buoyancy against a planar water/hexadecane interface. In the present simulations the homophase is represented by a big drop of oil at least 500 times larger than the approaching drop ($1\\,\\mu$m to $10\\,\\mu$m). Both deformable and non-deformable drops are considered along with six different diffusion tensors. In each case van der Waals, electrostatic, steric and buoyancy forces are taken into account. The coalescence times are estimated as the average of 1000 random walks. It is found that the repulsive potential barrier has a significant influence in the results. The experimental data can only be reproduced assuming negligible repulsive barriers, as well as non-deformable drops that move with a combination of Stokes and Taylor tensors as they approach the interface.

Clara Rojas; German Urbina-Villalba; Maximo Garcia-Sucre

2010-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

15

Size distribution functions for rock fragments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The capacity of 17 functions to represent the size distribution of fragmented rock is assessed on 1234 data sets of screened fragments from blasted and crushed rock of different origins, of sizes ranging from 0.002 to 2000 mm. The functions evaluated are Weibull, Grady, log-normal, log-logistic and Gilvarry, in their plain, re-scaled and bi-component forms, and also the Swebrec distribution and its bi-component extension. In terms of determination coefficient, the Weibull is the best two-parameter function for describing rock fragments, with a median R2 of 0.9886. Among re-scaled, three-parameter distributions, Swebrec and Weibull lead with median R2 values of 0.9976 and 0.9975, respectively. Weibull and Swebrec distributions tie again as best bi-component, with median R2 of 0.9993. Re-scaling generally reduces the unexplained variance by a factor of about four with respect to the plain function; bi-components further reduce this unexplained variance by a factor of about two to three. Size-prediction errors are calculated in four zones: coarse, central, fines and very fines. Expected and maximum errors in the different ranges are discussed. The extended Swebrec is the best fitting function across the whole passing range for most types of data. Bimodal Weibull and Grady distributions follow, except for the coarse range, where re-scaled forms are preferable. Considering the extra difficulty in fitting a five-parameter function with respect to a three-parameter one, re-scaled functions are the best choice if data do not extend far below 20% passing. If the focus is on the fine range, some re-scaled distributions may still do (Weibull, Swebrec and Grady, with maximum errors of 15–20% at 8% passing), but serious consideration should be given to bi-component distributions, especially extended Swebrec, bimodal Weibull and bimodal Grady.

José A. Sanchidrián; Finn Ouchterlony; Pablo Segarra; Peter Moser

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Material based splashing of water drops  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The splashing of a water drop is a fascinating phenomenon that results from a variety of complex interactions between the drop and the material it impacts. In general, the distribution of droplets of a splash depends on the drop size and velocity; the ...

K. Garg; G. Krishnan; Shree K. Nayar

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Bimodal Island Size Distribution in Heteroepitaxial Growth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A bimodal size distribution of two-dimensional islands is inferred during interface formation in heteroepitaxial growth of bismuth ferrite on (001) oriented SrTiO3 by sputter deposition. Features observed by in situ x-ray scattering are explained by a model where coalescence of islands determines the growth kinetics with negligible surface diffusion on SrTiO3. Small clusters maintain a compact shape as they coalesce, while clusters beyond a critical size impinge to form large irregular connected islands and a population of smaller clusters forms in the spaces between the larger ones.

P.?V. Chinta and R.?L. Headrick

2014-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

18

Remote Laser Diffraction Particle Size Distribution Analyzer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In support of a radioactive slurry sampling and physical characterization task, an “off-the-shelf” laser diffraction (classical light scattering) particle size analyzer was utilized for remote particle size distribution (PSD) analysis. Spent nuclear fuel was previously reprocessed at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC—formerly recognized as the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant) which is on DOE’s INEEL site. The acidic, radioactive aqueous raffinate streams from these processes were transferred to 300,000 gallon stainless steel storage vessels located in the INTEC Tank Farm area. Due to the transfer piping configuration in these vessels, complete removal of the liquid can not be achieved. Consequently, a “heel” slurry remains at the bottom of an “emptied” vessel. Particle size distribution characterization of the settled solids in this remaining heel slurry, as well as suspended solids in the tank liquid, is the goal of this remote PSD analyzer task. A Horiba Instruments Inc. Model LA-300 PSD analyzer, which has a 0.1 to 600 micron measurement range, was modified for remote application in a “hot cell” (gamma radiation) environment. This technology provides rapid and simple PSD analysis, especially down in the fine and microscopic particle size regime. Particle size analysis of these radioactive slurries down in this smaller range was not previously achievable—making this technology far superior than the traditional methods used. Successful acquisition of this data, in conjunction with other characterization analyses, provides important information that can be used in the myriad of potential radioactive waste management alternatives.

Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas; Huestis, Gary Michael; Bolton, Steven Michael

2001-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Pore size distribution and accessible pore size distribution in bituminous coals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The porosity and pore size distribution of coals determine many of their properties, from gas release to their behavior on carbonization, and yet most methods of determining pore size distribution can only examine a restricted size range. Even then, only accessible pores can be investigated with these methods. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultra small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) are increasingly used to characterize the size distribution of all of the pores non-destructively. Here we have used USANS/SANS to examine 24 well-characterized bituminous and subbituminous coals: three from the eastern US, two from Poland, one from New Zealand and the rest from the Sydney and Bowen Basins in Eastern Australia, and determined the relationships of the scattering intensity corresponding to different pore sizes with other coal properties. The range of pore radii examinable with these techniques is 2.5 nm to 7 {micro}m. We confirm that there is a wide range of pore sizes in coal. The pore size distribution was found to be strongly affected by both rank and type (expressed as either hydrogen or vitrinite content) in the size range 250 nm to 7 {micro}m and 5 to 10 nm, but weakly in intermediate regions. The results suggest that different mechanisms control coal porosity on different scales. Contrast-matching USANS and SANS were also used to determine the size distribution of the fraction of the pores in these coals that are inaccessible to deuterated methane, CD{sub 4}, at ambient temperature. In some coals most of the small ({approx} 10 nm) pores were found to be inaccessible to CD{sub 4} on the time scale of the measurement ({approx} 30 min - 16 h). This inaccessibility suggests that in these coals a considerable fraction of inherent methane may be trapped for extended periods of time, thus reducing the effectiveness of methane release from (or sorption by) these coals. Although the number of small pores was less in higher rank coals, the fraction of total pores that was inaccessible was not rank dependent. In the Australian coals, at the 10 nm to 50 nm size scales the pores in inertinites appeared to be completely accessible to CD{sub 4}, whereas the pores in the vitrinite were about 75% inaccessible. Unlike the results for total porosity that showed no regional effects on relationships between porosity and coal properties, clear regional differences in the relationships between fraction of closed porosity and coal properties were found. The 10 to 50 nm-sized pores of inertinites of the US and Polish coals examined appeared less accessible to methane than those of the inertinites of Australian coals. This difference in pore accessibility in inertinites may explain why empirical relationships between fluidity and coking properties developed using Carboniferous coals do not apply to Australian coals.

Sakurovs, Richard [ORNL; He, Lilin [ORNL; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; Radlinski, Andrzej Pawell [ORNL; Blach, Tomasz P [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Distribution, size, and bacterial colonization of pico-and nano ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Distribution, size, and bacterial colonization of pico- and nano-detrital organic particles (DOP) in two lakes of different trophic status. Carrias, Jean-François ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "drop size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Dispersion of Cloud Droplet Size Distributions, Cloud Parameterization...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Dispersion of Cloud Droplet Size Distributions, Cloud Parameterizations, and Indirect Aerosol Effects P. H. Daum and Y. Liu Brookhaven National Laboratory Upton, New York...

22

Particle Size Distribution of Gypseous Samples  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

particle size analyzer (LPSA) using This thesis follows the style of Soil Science Society of America Journal. 2 different solutions; and 3) determine if a functional relationship exists between PSD results from the pipette method and the results...

Arnett, Morgan P.

2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

23

The influence of attached bubbles on potential drop and current distribution at gas-evolving electrodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A theoretical study is presented of the effects of bubbles attached to the surface of a gas-evolving electrode, with emphasis on their influence on the local current distribution and on the potential drop at the electrode. The mathematical model accounts for the combined influence of (i) ohmic obstruction within the electrolyte, (ii) area masking on the electrode surface, which raises surface overpotential by increasing the effective current density, and (iii) decreased local supersaturation, which lowers the concentration overpotential. The electrolytic transport is described by potential theory, and the dissolved gas is assumed to obey steady-state diffusion within a concentration boundary layer. The coupled field equations are solved numerically using the boundary-element method. The model is applied to hydrogen evolution in potassium-hydroxide solution. For gas evolution in the Tafel kinetic regime, the current distribution is nearly uniform over the unmasked electrode area, and the increase in surface overpotential is the dominant voltage effect. However, outside the Tafel regime (e.g. on cathodes of greater catalytic activity) the current density is strongly enhanced near the bubble-contact zone, and the supersaturation-lowering effect is quite strong, largely offsetting the ohmic and surface-overpotential effects. Proceeding from a set of base conditions, the authors perform a systematic examination of attached-bubble effects, their relative importance, and their dependence on system variables.

Dukovic, J.; Tobias, C.W.

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

The Measurement of Bubble-Size Distributions by Acoustical Backscatter  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A multifrequency acoustical-backscatter technique is described for determining the size distribution of bubbles with radii between 8 and 130 µm. The method makes use of the resonance in the microbubbles and operates at six frequencies ranging ...

Svein Vagle; David M. Farmer

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Optimal Siting and Sizing of Distributed Energy Resources  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Optimal Siting and Sizing of Distributed Energy Resources Optimal Siting and Sizing of Distributed Energy Resources Speaker(s): Johan Driesen Date: February 15, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Chris Marnay Ongoing changes in the operation of distribution grids call for a new way to plan grid modifications. This presentation gives an overview of possible methods of long-term planning for the deployment of Distributed Energy Resources (distributed generation, storage and controllable loads) in a given grid. The placement and sizing of the units have to be considered, making this a complex optimization problem with discrete and continuous variables. In the optimization problem, multiple objectives are often conflicting, e.g. minimal grid losses, maximal use of the resources and voltage stability. An evolutionary algorithm (genetic algorithms) is used

26

Methods to determine the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Methods to determine the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus Methods to determine the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus Title Methods to determine the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus Publication Type Report Year of Publication 2004 Authors Russell, Marion L., Regine Goth-Goldstein, Michael G. Apte, and William J. Fisk Publisher Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract About 50% of viral-induced respiratory illnesses are caused by the human rhinovirus (HRV). Prior research has demonstrated that rhinovirus infections can be transmitted via person-to-person contact and via inhalation of infectious aerosols. Measurements of the concentrations and sizes of bioaerosols are critical for research on building characteristics, aerosol transport, and mitigation measures. To detect airborne HRV, we developed a quantitative reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay and verified that this assay detects HRV in nasal lavage samples. A quantitation standard was used to determine the assay detection limit of 5 fg of HRV RNA with a linear range over 10,000-fold. This assay was used to quantify the size distribution of an artificially-produced HRV aerosol captured with an Andersen six-stage cascade impactor. In future studies, we hope to use the methods developed here to characterize the size distribution of naturally occurring viral-aerosols

27

Lognormal Size Distribution Theory for Deposition of Polydisperse Aerosol Particles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The moments method of the lognormal size distribution theory was applied to the deposition equation of a radioactive aerosol within a liquid-metal fast breeder reactor for analysis of postulated accidents. The deposition coefficient of Crump and Seinfeld was utilized to represent the Brownian and turbulent diffusions and the gravitational sedimentation. The deposition equation was converted into a set of three ordinary differential equations. This approach takes the view point that the size distribution of an aerosol is represented by a time-dependent lognormal size distribution function during the deposition process. Numerical calculations have been performed, and the results were found to be in good agreement with the exact solution. The derived model for aerosol deposition is convenient to use in a numerical general dynamic equation solution routine based on the moments method, where nucleation, condensation, coagulation, and deposition need to be solved simultaneously.

Park, S.H.; Lee, K.W. [Kwangju Institute of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of)

2000-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

28

Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus Title Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus Publication Type Conference Proceedings Year of Publication 2002 Authors Russell, Marion L., Regine Goth-Goldstein, Michael G. Apte, and William J. Fisk Conference Name Proceedings of the Indoor Air 2002 Conference, Monterey, CA Volume 1 Pagination 40-45 Publisher Indoor Air 2002, Santa Cruz, CA Abstract About 50% of viral-induced respiratory illnesses are caused by the human rhinovirus (HRV). Measurements of the concentrations and sizes of bioaerosols are critical for research on building characteristics, aerosol transport, and mitigation measures. We developed a quantitative reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for HRV and verified that this assay detects HRV in nasal lavage samples. A quantitation standard was used to determine a detection limit of 5 fg of HRV RNA with a linear range over 1000-fold. To measure the size distribution of HRV aerosols, volunteers with a head cold spent two hours in a ventilated research chamber. Airborne particles from the chamber were collected using an Andersen Six-Stage Cascade Impactor. Each stage of the impactor was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR for HRV. For the first two volunteers with confirmed HRV infection, but with mild symptoms, we were unable to detect HRV on any stage of the impactor

29

Distributive analysis of rural land size and price relationships  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

manuscript. :ABLE OF CONTENTS Chapter Page I. IN:RODUCTION The Problem Objectives of the Study 1 2 II. PREVIOUS RESEARCH U. S. Aggregate Studies Texas and Regional Studies 5 6 III. ECONOMIC THEORY AND LAND VALUES IV. HYPOTHESES AND METHODOLOGY... 12 Market Movements Frictional Adjustments Economies of Size 12 1". 13 Factors of Consideration Market Division Methodology Bases Percentages Blocks Groups Appreciation Market Distribution 15 17 18 19 20 20 23 24 The Models...

Rothe, Robert Joseph

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

30

Distribution Effectiveness and Impacts on Equipment Sizing for Residential Thermal Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 LBNL-43724 Distribution Effectiveness and Impacts on Equipment Sizing for Residential Thermal Distribution Systems Walker, I., Sherman, M., and Siegel, J. Environmental Energy Technologies Division Energy .................................................................................................................. 14 Figure 1. Simulations of Pulldowns from 3:00 p.m. on a Sacramento Design Day

31

Raindrop axis ratios, fall velocities and size distribution over Sumatra from 2D-Video Disdrometer measurement  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Raindrop axis ratio, falling velocity and size distribution are important in broad list of applications. However, they are not frequently observed in the equatorial region. This paper elucidated the characteristics of raindrop axis ratio, falling velocity and size distribution based on 2D-Video Disdrometer (2DVD) data that have been collected in the equatorial Indonesia, particularly at Kototabang (hereafter called KT), west Sumatra, Indonesia (0.20°S, 100.32°E, 864 m above sea level). A comprehensive follow-up of the previous study on the natural variability of raindrop size distributions (DSDs) is presented. Precipitation was classified through 1.3-GHz wind profiler observation. The dependence of raindrop falling velocity and axis ratio on rainfall type was not clearly observed. Overall, measured raindrop fall velocities were in good agreement with Gunn–Kinzer's data. Raindrop axis ratio at KT was more spherical than that of artificial rain and equilibrium model, and close to the values reported in the turbulent high shear zone of surface layer which can be partially due to the effect of the instrument errors (e.g., location and container shape). Of some natural variations of DSD investigated, the dependence of DSD on rainfall rate and rainfall type as well as diurnal variation was clearly visible. A striking contrast between the stratiform and convective rains is that the size distributions from the stratiform (convective) rains tend to narrow (broaden) with increasing rainfall rates. For rainfall rate R < 10 mm/h, the size distribution of stratiform was broader than that of convective. On the other hand, at higher rainfall rate more large-sized drops were found in convective rain. During the convective rain, very large-sized drops were found mainly at the very start of rain event while for the stratiform they were found to be associated with a strong bright band. In diurnal basis, the \\{DSDs\\} in the morning hours were narrower than those in the evening which was indicated by smaller Dm values in the morning hours than their counterparts in the evening. Rainfall type dependence and diurnal variation of DSD lead to significant variation of Z–R relations so that they must be considered to increase the accuracy of Z–R conversion from weather radar in this region. Consistent with the previous study, lack of seasonal DSD variability was also found in this work that would be due to significant local convective and orographic effect at this region throughout the year. However, Dm values in our result were larger than the typical orographic DSD.

Marzuki; Walter L. Randeu; Toshiaki Kozu; Toyoshi Shimomai; Hiroyuki Hashiguchi; Michael Schönhuber

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF PARTICLES IN THE OCEAN  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Norsk-Hvalfangst-Tid. 45 ( 9) : 469480. McLA~N,. I. A. 1965. Some relationships bc- tween temperature and egg size, body size, development rate and fecundity ...

1999-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

33

Unstable Leidenfrost Drops on Roughened Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Drops placed on a surface with a temperature above the Leidenfrost point float atop an evaporative vapor layer. In this fluid dynamics video, it is shown that for roughened surfaces the Leidenfrost point depends on the drop size, which runs contrary to previous claims of size independence. The thickness of the vapor layer is known to increase with drop radius, suggesting that the surface roughness will not be able to penetrate the vapor layer for drops above a critical size. This size dependence was experimentally verified: at a given roughness and temperature, drops beneath a critical size exhibited transition boiling while drops above the critical size were in the Leidenfrost regime. These Leidenfrost drops were unstable; upon evaporation down to the critical size the vapor film suddenly collapsed.

Boreyko, Jonathan B

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Dust size distribution and concentrations with cottonseed oil mills  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-VOLUME SAMPLES FOR P. S. D OF PARTICLES & 100 um DIAMETER (MMD) ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE ON HIGH-VOLUME SAMPLES FOR P. S. D. OF PARTICLES & 100 um DIAMETER (og) MULTIPLE RANGE TEST FOR MEAN VALUES OF MMD BY AREA MULTIPLE RANGE TEST OF MMD BY MILL PARTICLE SIZE... TEST OF AREA DUST CONCENTRATIONS = 15 Pm IN DIAMETER MULTIPLE RANGE TEST OF MILL DUST CONCENTRATIONS & 15 um IN DIAMETER ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE ON PARTICLE SIZING HEAD SAMPLES OF CONCENTRATIONS FOR PARTICLES & 100 IJBI DIAMETER . . . . 47 47 54...

Wiederhold, Lee Roy

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

35

Cell Size Distributions of Soil Bacterial and Archaeal Taxa  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Boulder, Colorado, USA b Cell size is...range of life history attributes, including...maintenance energy requirements...their nutrient and energy requirements...microbial life history strategies? There...ecology and life history strategies of...McDonald, D , MN Price, J Goodrich...

Maria C. Portillo; Jonathan W. Leff; Christian L. Lauber; Noah Fierer

2013-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

36

Determination of pore-size distribution in low-dielectric thin films D. W. Gidleya)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-size distribution on pore shape/dimensionality and sample temperature is predicted using a simple quantum mechanicalDetermination of pore-size distribution in low-dielectric thin films D. W. Gidleya) and W. E. Frieze Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 T. L. Dull, J. Sun, and A

Gidley, David

37

Size distributions of fly ash using Coulter Multisizer: Use of multiple orifices and fitting to truncated log-normal distributions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fly ash particles, which are predominantly spherical and glassy, are produced by melting of the mineral inclusions in the coal during combustion. Particle diameters can range from sub-micrometer (micron or {mu}m) to greater than 100 {mu}m. The size distribution of fly ash is needed to determine its role in the radiation transfer process in pulverized coal combustors. The Coulter Multisizer is an useful instrument for sizing powders with a broad size distribution. A single Multisizer orifice can size particles only within a specific size range limited at the lower end to a few percent of orifice diameter by sensitivity and at the upper end by increasing non-linearity of the signal-volume relation. A scheme for combining data obtained using orifices of different diameters is described. The manufacturers state that the smallest particle which can be sized accurately is nominally 2% of the diameter of the orifice. However, it was found that the data for particles less than 4% of the orifice diameter were not reliable. In order to use the smaller orifices, the larger particles have to be removed from the sample. A wet-sieving apparatus, designed for accurate separation of the particles by size, is described. A log-normal distribution function, truncated outside the measurement limits, fits the size distribution data well. Size parameters for fly ashes of six representative US coals are presented.

Ghosal, S.; Ebert, J.L.; Self, S.A.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER Distribution of Undergraduate Courses by Section Size  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

49 99 199 200+ Audio and Music Engineering 7 14 3 3 0 0 1 0 0 0 Biomedical Engineering 11 54 2 2 - 1 2013 School of Engineering and # Avg. 20- 30- 40- 50- 100- Applied Sciences Sect. Size 1-9 10-19 29 39 - 5 1 - Chemical Engineering 12 45 - 2 3 - 3 4 - - Computer Science 21 40 - 7 3 5 - 5 1 - Electrical

Portman, Douglas

39

Physicochemical Characterization of Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosols II: Particle Size Distributions as a Function of Time  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Capstone Depleted Uranium (DU) Aerosol Study, which generated and characterized aerosols containing depleted uranium from perforation of armored vehicles with large-caliber DU penetrators, incorporated a sampling protocol to evaluated particle size distributions. Aerosol particle size distribution is an important parameter that influences aerosol transport and deposition processes as well as the dosimetry of the inhaled particles. These aerosols were collected on cascade impactor substrates using a pre-established time sequence following the firing event to analyze the uranium concentration and particle size of the aerosols as a function of time. The impactor substrates were analyzed using beta spectrometry, and the derived uranium content of each served as input to the evaluation of particle size distributions. Activity median aerodynamic diameters (AMADs) of the particle size distributions were evaluated using unimodal and bimodal models. The particle size data from the impactor measurements was quite variable. Most size distributions measured in the test based on activity had bimodal size distributions with a small particle size mode in the range of between 0.2 and 1.2 um and a large size mode between 2 and 15 um. In general, the evolution of particle size over time showed an overall decrease of average particle size from AMADs of 5 to 10 um shortly after perforation to around 1 um at the end of the 2-hr sampling period. The AMADs generally decreased over time because of settling. Additionally, the median diameter of the larger size mode decreased with time. These results were used to estimate the dosimetry of inhaled DU particles.

Cheng, Yung-Sung; Kenoyer, Judson L.; Guilmette, Raymond A.; Parkhurst, MaryAnn

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Siting and sizing of distributed generation units using GA and OPF  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper deals with the important task of finding the optimal siting and sizing of Distributed Generation (DG) units for a given distribution network so that the cost of active and reactive power generation can be minimized. The optimization technique ... Keywords: distributed generation, genetic alghorithm(GA), optimal power flow(OPF)

M. Hosseini Aliabadi; M. Mardaneh; B. Behbahan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "drop size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF THE NEPTUNE TROJANS AND THE MISSING INTERMEDIATE-SIZED PLANETESIMALS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present an ultra-deep survey for Neptune Trojans using the Subaru 8.2 m and Magellan 6.5 m telescopes. The survey reached a 50% detection efficiency in the R band at m{sub R} = 25.7 mag and covered 49 deg{sup 2} of sky. m{sub R} = 25.7 mag corresponds to Neptune Trojans that are about 16 km in radius (assuming an albedo of 0.05). A paucity of smaller Neptune Trojans (radii < 45 km) compared with larger ones was found. The brightest Neptune Trojans appear to follow a steep power-law slope (q = 5 {+-} 1) similar to the brightest objects in the other known stable reservoirs such as the Kuiper Belt, Jupiter Trojans, and main belt asteroids. We find a roll-over for the Neptune Trojans that occurs around a radius of r = 45 {+-} 10 km (m{sub R} = 23.5 {+-} 0.3), which is also very similar to the other stable reservoirs. All the observed stable regions in the solar system show evidence for Missing Intermediate-Sized Planetesimals (MISPs). This indicates a primordial and not collisional origin, which suggests that planetesimal formation proceeded directly from small to large objects. The scarcity of intermediate- and smaller-sized Neptune Trojans may limit them as being a strong source for the short period comets.

Sheppard, Scott S. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 5241 Broad Branch Rd. NW, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Trujillo, Chadwick A., E-mail: sheppard@dtm.ciw.ed [Gemini Observatory, 670 North A'ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

2010-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

42

A Drop Size Distribution (DSD)-Based Model for Evaluating the Performance of Wet Radomes for Dual-Polarized Radars  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel analytical method is presented for evaluating the electrical performance of a radome for a dual-polarized phased-array antenna under rain conditions. Attenuation, reflections, and induced cross polarization are evaluated for different ...

Jorge L. Salazar-Cerreño; V. Chandrasekar; Jorge M. Trabal; Paul Siquera; Rafael Medina; Eric Knapp; David J. McLaughlin

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Dust Grain-Size Distributions From MRN to MEM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Employing the Maximum Entropy Method algorithm, we fit interstellar extinction measurements which span the wavelength range 0.125-3 micron. We present a uniform set of MEM model fits, all using the same grain materials, optical constants and abundance constraints. In addition, we are taking advantage of improved UV and IR data and better estimates of the gas-to-dust ratio. The model fits cover the entire range of extinction properties that have been seen in the Galaxy and the Magellanic Clouds. The grain models employed for this presentation are the simplistic homogeneous spheres models (i.e., Mathis, Rumpl, & Nordsieck 1977) with two (graphite, silicate) or three (graphite, silicate, amorphous carbon) components. Though such usage is only a first step, the results do provide interesting insight into the use of grain size as a diagnostic of dust environment. We find that the SMC Bar extinction curve cannot be fit using carbon grains alone. This is a challenge to the recent observational result indicating little silicon depletion in the SMC.

Geoffrey C. Clayton; Michael J. Wolff; Ulysses J. Sofia; K. D. Gordon; K. A. Misselt

2003-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

44

Magnetic pattern at supergranulation scale: the Void Size Distribution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The large-scale magnetic pattern of the quiet sun is dominated by the magnetic network. This network, created by photospheric magnetic fields swept into convective downflows, delineates the boundaries of large scale cells of overturning plasma and exhibits voids in magnetic organization. Such voids include internetwork fields, a mixed-polarity sparse field that populate the inner part of network cells. To single out voids and to quantify their intrinsic pattern a fast circle packing based algorithm is applied to 511 SOHO/MDI high resolution magnetograms acquired during the outstanding solar activity minimum between 23 and 24 cycles. The computed Void Distribution Function shows a quasi-exponential decay behavior in the range 10-60 Mm. The lack of distinct flow scales in such a range corroborates the hypothesis of multi-scale motion flows at the solar surface. In addition to the quasi-exponential decay we have found that the voids reveal departure from a simple exponential decay around 35 Mm.

Berrilli, Francesco; Del Moro, Dario

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Dust negative ion acoustic shock waves considering dust size distribution effect  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A multi-ion dusty plasma containing hot isothermal electrons, ions (light positive ions and heavy negative ions), and extremely and negatively charged dust grains is studied in the present paper. The dust negative ion acoustic shock waves have been investigated by employing the reductive perturbation method. How the dust size distribution affects the height and the thickness of the nonlinear shock wave is studied. It is noted that the different dust size distribution has different shock wave form and different moving speed.

Ma Yirong; Wang Canglong; Zhang Jianrong; Sun Jianan; Duan Wenshan [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering and Joint Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics of NWNU and IMP CAS, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070, China and Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Yang Lei [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering and Joint Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics of NWNU and IMP CAS, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China) and Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Department of Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

46

Assessing the distribution, habitat, and population size of the threatened Dupont's lark Chersophilus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

North African range, as well as on its preferred habitat, population density and size. Fieldwork), with important populations believed to be present in the steppe-like habitat of North Africa (Cramp, 1988Assessing the distribution, habitat, and population size of the threatened Dupont's lark

Oñate, Juan J.

47

Occlusion Effects and the Distribution of Interstellar Cloud Sizes and Masses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The frequency distributions of sizes of ``clouds" and ``clumps" within clouds are significantly flatter for extinction surveys than for CO spectral line surveys, even for comparable size ranges. A possible explanation is the blocking of extinction clouds by larger foreground clouds (occlusion), which should not affect spectral line surveys much because clouds are resolved in velocity space along a given line of sight. We present a simple derivation of the relation between the true and occluded size distributions, assuming clouds are uniformly distributed in space or the distance to a cloud comples is much greater than the size of the complex. Because the occlusion is dominated by the largest clouds, we find that occlusion does not affect the measured size distribution except for sizes comparable to the largest size, implying that occlusion is not responsible for the discrepancy if the range in sizes of the samples is large. However, we find that the range in sizes for many of the published observed samples is actually quite small, which suggests that occlusion does affect the extinction sample and/or that the discrepancy could arise from the different operational definitions and selection effects involved in the two samples. Size and mass spectra from an IRAS survey (Wood \\etal\\ 1994) suggest that selection effects play a major role in all the surveys. We conclude that a reliable determination of the ``true" size and mass spectra of clouds will require spectral line surveys with very high signal-to-noise and sufficient resolution and sampling to cover a larger range of linear sizes, as well as careful attention to selection effects.

J. Scalo; A. Lazarian

1995-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

48

Observed oil and gas field size distributions: A consequence of the discovery process and prices of oil and gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

If observed oil and gas field size distributions are obtained ... should approximate that of the parent population of oil and gas fields. However, empirical evidence ... the observable size distributions change w...

Lawrence J. Drew; Emil D. Attanasi; John H. Schuenemeyer

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Measurements of Aerosol Charge and Size Distribution for Graphite, Gold, Palladium, and Silver Nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The role of charge on aerosol evolution and hence the nuclear source term has been an issue of interest, and there is a need for both experimental techniques and modeling for quantifying this role. Our focus here is on further exploration of a tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) technique to simultaneously measure both the size and charge (positive, negative and neutral) dependent aerosol distributions. We have generated graphite, gold, silver, and palladium nanoparticles (aerosol) using a spark generator. We measure the electrical mobility-size distributions for these aerosols using a TDMA, and from these data we deduce the full charge-size distributions. We observe asymmetry in the particle size distributions for negative and positive charges. This asymmetry could have a bearing on the dynamics of charged aerosols, indicating that the assumption of symmetry for size distributions of negatively and positively charged particles in source term simulations may not be always appropriate. Also, the experimental technique should find applications in measurements of aerosol rate processes that are affected by both particle charge and size (e.g. coagulation, deposition, resuspension), and hence in modeling and simulation of the nuclear source term.

Simones, Matthew P.; Gutti, Veera R.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Hammer mill operating and biomass physical conditions effects on particle size distribution of solid pulverized biofuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Milling is a required pre-treatment for the use of biomass as a pulverized solid biofuel in some thermochemical technologies such as combustion, gasification and bioethanol production, as well as in densification processes. The particle size plays a key role on these energy conversion technologies. Experimental tests for poplar and corn stover were performed to obtain pulverized material at different physical conditions of the biomass (input particle size and moisture content) and operational parameters (opening sizes of the screen and angular speed of hammers). Fourteen parameters related to size central trends, dispersion and shape of particle size distribution (PSD) were calculated and analyzed by a novel data post-processing methodology, combining Artificial Neural Networks and statistical analysis. Results show that the characteristic size of the product (geometric mean size) is mainly influenced by the classification of the screen with values from five to eight times lower than their openings size. The angular speed of the hammer governs the variability and dispersion of sizes. The higher the angular speed, the lower the dispersion on particle size. Physical conditions of the biomass present a negligible effect on PSD.

Miguel Gil; Inmaculada Arauzo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Self-consistent mean-field theory of size distribution narrowing during ramped temperature ion beam synthesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A simple mathematical argument explains a recently identified route for the ion beam synthesis of nanoclusters with a narrowed size distribution. The key idea is that growth conditions for which the average nanocluster size is increasing rapidly can lead to narrowed size distributions. Modeling candidate processes using a self-consistent, mean-field theory shows that normalized nanocluster size distributions with full-width at half-maximum of 17% of the average can be attained.

Mastandrea, J. P.; Sherburne, M. P.; Boswell-Koller, C. N.; Sawyer, C. A.; Guzman, J.; Bustillo, K. C.; Haller, E. E.; Chrzan, D. C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Ager, J. W. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

2013-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

52

Finite Size Effects on the Real-Space Pair Distribution Function of Nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The pair distribution function (PDF) method is a powerful approach for the analysis of the structure of nanoparticles. An important approximation used in nanoparticle PDF simulations is the incorporation of a form factor describing nanoparticle size and shape. The precise effect of the form factor on the PDF is determined by both particle shape and structure if these characteristics are both anisotropic and correlated. The correct incorporation of finite size effects is important for distinguishing and quantifying the structural consequences of small particle size in nanomaterials.

Gilbert, Benjamin

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Clustering in rapid granular flows of binary and continuous particle size distributions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The dynamic clustering phenomenon in two-dimensional simple shear flows has been investigated using molecular dynamic simulations of systems containing binary and continuous size distributions of equal-material-density particles. Particular attention has been paid to two questions: (1) Does the presence of size nonuniformities serve to enhance or attenuate the presence of clusters? (2) Do particles of a given size preferentially segregate within the clusters? With respect to the first question, the prominence of clustered regions increases with increasing deviation from the monodisperse limit in the case of both binary and continuous size distributions. With respect to the second question, the larger particles of both binary and continuous size distributions are consistently observed to segregate within the transient clustered regions. Further investigation of granular temperatures within the clustered and dilute regions reveals that this segregation is consistent with previously observed temperature-driven segregation in steady-state systems; large particles favor the lower-temperature (clustered) regions. Moreover, observation of clustering length scales suggests that large particles may favor the center of the clustered regions, where granular temperatures are expected to reach a minimum.

R. Brent Rice and Christine M. Hrenya

2010-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

54

Crystallography of Interfaces and Grain Size Distributions in Sr-Doped LaMnO3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Crystallography of Interfaces and Grain Size Distributions in Sr-Doped LaMnO3 Qinyuan Liu,§ Sudip systems are similar. I. Introduction HIGH-TEMPERATURE solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) offer highly efficient, clean, direct conversion of chemical to electrical energy.1 SOFC performance is dictated

Rohrer, Gregory S.

55

SIZE DISTRIBUTION MEASUREMENTS OF WILDFIRE SMOKE-INFLUENCED AEROSOL AT YOSEMITE NATIONAL PARK  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THESIS SIZE DISTRIBUTION MEASUREMENTS OF WILDFIRE SMOKE-INFLUENCED AEROSOL AT YOSEMITE NATIONAL of the requirements For the Degree of Master of Science Colorado State University Fort Collins, Colorado June 2004 #12;ii COLORADO STATE UNIVERSITY July 26, 2004 WE HEREBY RECOMMEND THAT THE THESIS PREPARED UNDER OUR

Pierce, Jeffrey

56

Interfacial energy effects and the evolution of pore size distributions during quartz precipitation in sandstone  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Interfacial energy effects and the evolution of pore size distributions during quartz precipitation University, P.O. Box 208109, New Haven, CT 06520-8109 USA b Statoil ASA, N-4035 Stavanger, Norway Abstract-scale to nanometer-scale pores, interfacial energy (surface energy) effects can also become important. Interfacial

Simon, Emmanuel

57

Investigation of the relationship between chemical composition and size distribution of airborne particles by partial least  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

combustion sources, secondary aerosol, and coal-fired power plants. The size distribution, particle identified: secondary nitrate 1 and 2, remote traffic, secondary sulfate, lead, diesel traffic, coal-fired power plant, steel mill, nucleation, local traffic, and coke plant. Citation: Zhou, L., P. K. Hopke, C

Stanier, Charlie

58

The Dependence of Cirrus Cloud-Property Retrievals on Size-Distribution  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

The Dependence of Cirrus Cloud-Property Retrievals on Size-Distribution The Dependence of Cirrus Cloud-Property Retrievals on Size-Distribution Shape d'Entremont, Robert Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Mitchell, David Desert Research Institute Category: Cloud Properties Our project has focused on using satellite- and ground-based passive thermal infrared radiance observations to retrieve cirrus cloud properties, most importantly ice water path (IWP), effective particle size (Deff), and visible extinction optical thickness (tau). During this past year we began comparing our cirrus retrieval results with aircraft observations at the ARM CART site, and we are participating in a summary intercomparison study with other retrieval algorithms as a member of the high-clouds working group. Our passive-infrared retrieval scheme, based on different wavelength

59

The influence of fractal size distribution of covers on radon exhalation from uranium mill tailings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Tailings produced during mining and milling of uranium ores represent potentially large volumes of low level radioactive materials. A typical environmental problem associated with mill tailings is radon emanation. Covering tailings is widely applied to reduce radon exhalation rate. In this paper, the fractal theories and field covering tests are used to study the fractal characters of size distribution of six types of covering materials, including waste rock, sand, laterite, kaolin, mixture of sand and laterite, and mixture of waste rock and laterite, and their influences on radon exhalation. The size distributions of uranium tailings and the six aforementioned covering materials all exhibit a good fractal structure. The contents of fine grain increase with the increasing value of fractal dimension. The results of field radon measurement show that the radon emanation rate of tailings without covers is 14.7–18.6 Bq/m2 s. Covering tests were carried out of the six abovementioned covering materials with thickness of 0.4 m, 0.8 m, 1.2 m, 1.6 m and 2.0 m. The results indicate that the application of these materials for cover layers can decrease the radon exhalation rate markedly. The effectiveness of a cover layer in reducing radon exhalation is related to its fractal texture of size distribution. Under the same thickness conditions, the attenuation coefficient of radon exhalation rate increases with the increasing fractal dimension of size distribution of covers. The empirical expressions of the attenuation coefficients in relation to fractal dimension D of size distribution and thickness x of covers is obtained for evaluating the effectiveness of final covers for uranium tailings impoundments.

Kaixuan Tan; Zehua Liu; Liangshu Xia; Junwen Lv; Hanqiao Hu

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Drop shaping by laser-pulse impact  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the hydrodynamic response of a falling drop hit by a laser pulse. Combining high-speed with stroboscopic imaging we report that a millimeter-sized dyed water drop hit by a milli-Joule nanosecond laser-pulse deforms and propels forward at several meters per second, until it eventually fragments. We show that the drop motion results from the recoil momentum imparted at the drop surface by water vaporization. We measure the propulsion speed and the time-deformation law of the drop, complemented by boundary integral simulations. We explain the drop propulsion and shaping in terms of the laser pulse energy and drop surface tension. These findings are crucial for the generation of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light in lithography machines.

Klein, Alexander L; Visser, Claas Willem; Lhuissier, Henri; Sun, Chao; Snoeijer, Jacco H; Villermaux, Emmanuel; Lohse, Detlef; Gelderblom, Hanneke

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "drop size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

The effect of grain size distribution on H$_2$ formation rate in the interstellar medium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The formation of molecular hydrogen in the interstellar medium takes place on the surfaces of dust grains. Hydrogen molecules play a role in gas-phase reactions that produce other molecules, some of which serve as coolants during gravitational collapse and star formation. Thus, the evaluation of the roduction rate of hydrogen molecules and its dependence on the physical conditions in the cloud are of great importance. Interstellar dust grains exhibit a broad size distribution in which the small grains capture most of the surface area. Recent studies have shown that the production efficiency strongly depends on the grain composition and temperature as well as on its size. In this paper we present a formula which provides the total production rate of H$_2$ per unit volume in the cloud, taking into account the grain composition and temperature as well as the grain size distribution. The formula agrees very well with the master equation results. It shows that for a physically relevant range of grain temperatures, the production rate of H$_2$ is significantly enhanced due to their broad size distribution.

Azi Lipshtat; Ofer Biham

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Scale-free Universal Spectrum for Atmospheric Aerosol Size Distribution for Davos, Mauna Loa and Izana  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmospheric flows exhibit fractal fluctuations and inverse power law form for power spectra indicating an eddy continuum structure for the selfsimilar fluctuations. A general systems theory for fractal fluctuations developed by the author is based on the simple visualisation that large eddies form by space-time integration of enclosed turbulent eddies, a concept analogous to Kinetic Theory of Gases in Classical Statistical Physics. The ordered growth of atmospheric eddy continuum is in dynamical equilibrium and is associated with Maximum Entropy Production. The model predicts universal (scale-free) inverse power law form for fractal fluctuations expressed in terms of the golden mean. Atmospheric particulates are held in suspension in the fractal fluctuations of vertical wind velocity. The mass or radius (size) distribution for homogeneous suspended atmospheric particulates is expressed as a universal scale-independent function of the golden mean, the total number concentration and the mean volume radius. Model predicted spectrum is in agreement (within two standard deviations on either side of the mean) with total averaged radius size spectra for the AERONET (aerosol inversions) stations Davos and Mauna Loa for the year 2010 and Izana for the year 2009 daily averages. The general systems theory model for aerosol size distribution is scale free and is derived directly from atmospheric eddy dynamical concepts. At present empirical models such as the log normal distribution with arbitrary constants for the size distribution of atmospheric suspended particulates are used for quantitative estimation of earth-atmosphere radiation budget related to climate warming/cooling trends. The universal aerosol size spectrum will have applications in computations of radiation balance of earth-atmosphere system in climate models.

A. M. Selvam

2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

63

The characterization of ice hydrometeor gamma size distributions as volumes in N0-?–? phase space: Implications for microphysical process modeling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Gamma distributions represent particle size distributions (SDs) in mesoscale and cloud resolving models that predict one, two or three moments of hydrometeor species. They are characterized by intercept (N0), slope (?) and shape (?) parameters ...

Greg M. McFarquhar; Tsung-Lin Hsieh; Matt Freer; Jeana Mascio; Brian F. Jewett

64

Experimental Investigation of Wind-Forced Drop Stability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

aluminum (RA = 3.26 micrometers) floor of a tiltable wind tunnel and brought to critical conditions, when the drop begins to run downstream. Various combinations of drop size, inclination angle, and flow speed were employed. A measurement technique capable...

Schmucker, Jason

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

65

Thermal effects in the equilibrium structure and size distribution of small Si clusters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present the first calculation of the free energy of semiconductor clusters at nonzero temperatures. Explicit determination of electronic, vibrational, and rotational contributions to the entropy allows us to investigate the effect of temperature on the equilibrium geometric structure and size distribution of these clusters. The formalism is applied to Si4, Si5, and Si6 clusters with symmetric geometries. We find that, in these clusters, entropy can modify relative stabilities, but does not change major trends at finite temperatures.

D. Tománek; C. Sun; N. Sharma; L. Wang

1989-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

66

Particle size distributions from heavy-duty diesel engine operated on low-sulfur marine fuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Particulate matter (PM) emission characteristics of a four-stroke diesel engine were investigated while operating on low-sulfur marine gas oil. PM size distributions appeared to be unimodal (accumulation mode) with fairly constant count median diameter (CMD) of 55–65 nm for all test modes at maximum engine speed. The slightly bigger CMD of around 76 nm for unimodal particle size distributions at 1080 rpm at medium- and high-load conditions was observed. The bimodal size distribution was registered only at very low load with nuclei CMD being below 15 nm, accumulation CMD of around 82 nm and percentage of nanoparticles of around 65%. The study of primary dilution air temperature (PDT) effect revealed a significant reduction in total particle number for all operating conditions when PDT was increased from 30 °C to 400 °C. This also had an effect on particle CMD values and is believed to be due to evaporation of sulfuric acid with bound water and certain organic fractions that were formed during dilution process (at PDT = 30 °C). At very low load intermediate speed conditions, the heating of dilution air had a very little effect on the nucleation mode, which could suggest that it primarily consists of heavy hydrocarbons associated with lubrication oil.

Sergey Ushakov; Harald Valland; Jørgen B. Nielsen; Erik Hennie

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Size distribution of metals in particulate matter formed during combustion of residual fuel oil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Between July 1992 and January 1993 three full-scale test programs were performed by Carnot for the Electric Power Research Institute and the Fuel Oil Users` Support (FOUS) Group, as part of a program for development and testing of various stack emissions models. One of the components of the program was determination of the concentrations of individual elements as a function of the size of particles suspended in flue gas. The size distributions of species are important because several aspects of system performance depend upon particulate matter size and composition: (1) the rate of ash deposition in the convection section, and activity of deposits for high temperature corrosion and SO{sub 3} formation, (2) the efficiency of precipitators for collection of individual elements, and (3) scattering of visible light and contribution of particles to stack plume opacity. Size distributions of major ash constituents were measured at the entrance and exit of the dust collectors during each of the field tests. To the authors` knowledge, these are the first reports of such measurements in residual oil-fired utility boilers. The focus, in the present paper, is on the composition of the particles entering the dust collectors.

Walsh, P. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Rovesti, W.C. [Electric Power Research Institute, Washington, DC (United States); Freeman, R.F. [Niagara Mohawk Power Corp., Oswego, NY (United States); Olen, K.R.; Washington, K.T.; Patrick, S.T.; Campbell, G.L.; Harper, D.S. [Florida Power & Light Co., West Palm Beach, FL (United States); Teetz, R.D.; Bennett, T.E. [Long Island Lighting Co., Glenwood Landing, NY (United States)] [and others

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Novel probe for the in situ measurement of particle size distributions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of a novel instrument for the in situ measurement of particle size distributions in the size range of 3-200 {mu}m is presented. The system uses high magnification optics, housed in a stainless steel probe, which can be inserted into a process stream or vessel, where images of the dispersed phase particles are recorded. A pulsed light source is used to freeze the motion of the particles in the field of view and present an image of the dispersion onto a charge-coupled device camera chip. The images are digitized and stored for later processing. Automated image analysis routines have been developed for extracting particle size information from the acquired images. An extensive validation of the instrument has been performed for spherical particles, which has produced several important findings. First, a size bias in the depth of field (DOF) exists which favors larger particles. An experiment procedure was developed for the direct measurement of DOF size biases. Additionally, the behavior of the instrument is dependent on the environmental conditions, such as dispersed phase concentration and the difference in index of refraction between continuous phase and dispersed phase.

Francis, Michael K.; Calabrese, Richard V.; Phongikaroon, Supathorn [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Pyroprocessing Technology Department, Idaho National Laboratory, Materials and Fuel Complex, MS 6180, Idaho Falls, Idaho 83415 (United States)

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

69

The effect of gravel size fraction on the distribution coefficients of selected radionuclides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This manuscript addresses the consequences of the common practice of assuming that the gravel fraction of sediments does not participate in sorption reactions and thus sorption quantified by the distribution coefficient (Kd) construct can be estimated from laboratory tests on sediments less than 2 mm size fraction. However, this common assumption can lead to inaccurate estimates of the mobility and sorption affinity of many radionuclides (e.g., Tc, U, and Np) on gravel dominated sediments at the Hanford Site and other locations. Laboratory batch sorption experiments showed that the distribution coefficients measured using only sediment less than 2 mm size fraction and correcting for inert gravel fraction were not in agreement with those obtained from the bulk sediments including gravel (larger than 2 mm size fraction), depending on the radionuclide. The least reactive radionuclide, Tc had Kd values for bulk sediment with negligible deviations from the inert gravel corrected Kd values measured on less than 2 mm size fraction. However, differences between measured Kd values using sediment less than 2 mm size fraction and the Kd values on the bulk sediment were significant for intermediately and strongly reactive radionuclides such as U and Np, especially on the sediment with gravel fractions that contained highly reactive sites. Highly reactive sites in the gravel fraction were attributed to the presence of Fe oxide coatings and/or reactive fracture faces on the gravel surfaces. Gravel correction factors that use the sum of the Kd,<2 mm and Kd,>2 mm values to estimate the Kd for the bulk sediment were found to best describe Kd values for radionuclides on the bulk sediment. Gravel correction factors should not be neglected to predict precisely the sorption capacity of the bulk sediments that contain more than 30% gravel. In addition, more detailed characterization of gravel surfaces should be conducted to identify whether higher reactive sorbents are present in the gravels.

Um, Wooyong; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Last, George V.; Clayton, Ray E.; Glossbrenner, Ellwood T.

2009-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

70

Optimization of Comminution Circuit Throughput and Product Size Distribution by Simulation and Control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to improve energy efficiency of industrial crushing and grinding operations (comminution). Mathematical models of the comminution process are being used to study methods for optimizing the product size distribution, so that the amount of excessively fine material produced can be minimized. The goal is to save energy by reducing the amount of material that is ground below the target size, while simultaneously reducing the quantity of materials wasted as ''slimes'' that are too fine to be useful. This is being accomplished by mathematical modeling of the grinding circuits to determine how to correct this problem. The approaches taken included (1) Modeling of the circuit to determine process bottlenecks that restrict flow rates in one area while forcing other parts of the circuit to overgrind the material; (2) Modeling of hydrocyclones to determine the mechanisms responsible for retaining fine, high-density particles in the circuit until they are overground, and improving existing models to accurately account for this behavior; and (3) Evaluation of advanced technologies to improve comminution efficiency and produce sharper product size distributions with less overgrinding.

S. K. Kawatra; T. C. Eisele; T. Weldum; D. Larsen; R. Mariani; J. Pletka

2005-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

71

OPTIMIZATION OF COMMINUTION CIRCUIT THROUGHPUT AND PRODUCT SIZE DISTRIBUTION BY SIMULATION AND CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to improve energy efficiency of industrial crushing and grinding operations (comminution). Mathematical models of the comminution process are being used to study methods for optimizing the product size distribution, so that the amount of excessively fine material produced can be minimized. The goal is to save energy by reducing the amount of material that is ground below the target size, while simultaneously reducing the quantity of materials wasted as ''slimes'' that are too fine to be useful. This is being accomplished by mathematical modeling of the grinding circuits to determine how to correct this problem. The approaches taken included (1) Modeling of the circuit to determine process bottlenecks that restrict flowrates in one area while forcing other parts of the circuit to overgrind the material; (2) Modeling of hydrocyclones to determine the mechanisms responsible for retaining fine, high-density particles in the circuit until they are overground, and improving existing models to accurately account for this behavior; and (3) Evaluation of advanced technologies to improve comminution efficiency and produce sharper product size distributions with less overgrinding.

S.K. Kawatra; T.C. Eisele; T. Weldum; D. Larsen; R. Mariani; J. Pletka

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

The effect of a dust size distribution on electrostatic sheaths in unmagnetized dusty plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, the structure of plasma sheaths in presence of dust particles with different sizes is investigated numerically in a multifluid framework, where the dust size distribution is modeled by Gauss' law. For this, we have established a 1D, stationary, unmagnetized, and weakly collisional electronegative dusty plasma sheath model. The electrons and negative ions are considered in a local thermodynamic equilibrium, therefore, described by a Boltzmann distribution. On the other hand, positive ions and dust grains are described by fluid equations. The charging process is described by the orbit motion limited model. It is shown that taking into account dust grains with different sizes reduces considerably the sheath thickness. The behavior of dust surface potential is not affected, but the dust charge number is reduced, as well as the electrostatic force. It results in a decrease of layered structure. The presence of negative ions makes the structure of the electrostatic potential more oscillatory. The other physical parameters are also analyzed and discussed.

Benlemdjaldi, D. [Quantum Electronics Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, U.S.T.H.B. BP 32 El-Alia Bab-Ezzouar, Algiers 16111 (Algeria); Departement de Physique, Ecole Normale Superieure BP 92 Vieux-Kouba, Algiers 16050 (Algeria); Tahraoui, A. [Quantum Electronics Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, U.S.T.H.B. BP 32 El-Alia Bab-Ezzouar, Algiers 16111 (Algeria); Hugon, R.; Bougdira, J. [Institut Jean Lamour, Departement CP2S UMR 7198 CNRS, Universite de Lorraine, BP 70239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy cedex (France)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

73

Comparisons of pore size distribution: A case from the Western Australian gas shale formations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Pore structure of shale samples from Triassic Kockatea and Permian Carynginia formations in the Northern Perth Basin, Western Australia is characterized. Transport properties of a porous media are regulated by the topology and geometry of inter-connected pore spaces. Comparisons of three laboratory experiments are conducted on the same source of samples to assess such micro-, meso- and macro-porosity: Mercury Injection Capillary Pressure (MICP), low field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and nitrogen adsorption (N2). High resolution FIB/SEM image analysis is used to further support the experimental pore structure interpretations at sub-micron scale. A dominating pore throat radius is found to be around 6 nm within a mesopore range based on MICP, with a common porosity around 3%. This relatively fast experiment offers the advantage to be reliable on well chips or cuttings up the pore throat sizes >2 nm. However, nitrogen adsorption method is capable to record pore sizes below 2 nm through the determination of the total pore volume from the quantity of vapour adsorbed at relative pressure. But the macro-porosity and part of the meso-porosity is damaged or even destroyed during the sample preparation. BET specific surface area results usually show a narrow range of values from 5 to 10 m2/g. Inconsistency was found in the pore size classification between MICP and N2 measurements mostly due to their individual lower- and upper-end pore size resolution limits. The water filled pores disclosed from NMR T2 relaxation time were on average 30% larger than MICP tests. Evidence of artificial cracks generated from the water interactions with clays after re-saturation experiments could explain such porosity over-estimation. The computed pore body to pore throat ratio extracted from the Timur–Coates NMR model, calibrated against gas permeability experiments, revealed that such pore geometry directly control the permeability while the porosity and pore size distribution remain similar between different shale gas formations and/or within the same formation. The combination of pore size distribution obtained from MICP, N2 and NMR seems appropriate to fully cover the range of pore size from shale gas and overcome the individual method limits.

Adnan Al Hinai; Reza Rezaee; Lionel Esteban; Mehdi Labani

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Size Distributions of Airborne Radionuclides from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident at Several Places in Europe  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Size Distributions of Airborne Radionuclides from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident at Several Places in Europe ... (8) After about 10 days following the beginning of the releases, contaminated air masses reached Europe and yielded to an unusual airborne concentration for 2–3 weeks,(8) even if this was of no concern for public health thanks to atmospheric dispersion and deposition along the route from Japan. ... (35) In our opinion this “gas-to-particle conversion” results mainly from the adsorption of gas on particles. ...

Olivier Masson; Wolfgang Ringer; Helena Malá; Petr Rulik; Magdalena Dlugosz-Lisiecka; Konstantinos Eleftheriadis; Olivier Meisenberg; Anne De Vismes-Ott; François Gensdarmes

2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

75

Size distributions of fly ash using Coulter Multisizer: Use of multiple orifices and fitting to truncated log-normal distributions. [Coulter Multisizer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fly ash particles, which are predominantly spherical and glassy, are produced by melting of the mineral inclusions in the coal during combustion. Particle diameters can range from sub-micrometer (micron or {mu}m) to greater than 100 {mu}m. The size distribution of fly ash is needed to determine its role in the radiation transfer process in pulverized coal combustors. The Coulter Multisizer is an useful instrument for sizing powders with a broad size distribution. A single Multisizer orifice can size particles only within a specific size range limited at the lower end to a few percent of orifice diameter by sensitivity and at the upper end by increasing non-linearity of the signal-volume relation. A scheme for combining data obtained using orifices of different diameters is described. The manufacturers state that the smallest particle which can be sized accurately is nominally 2% of the diameter of the orifice. However, it was found that the data for particles less than 4% of the orifice diameter were not reliable. In order to use the smaller orifices, the larger particles have to be removed from the sample. A wet-sieving apparatus, designed for accurate separation of the particles by size, is described. A log-normal distribution function, truncated outside the measurement limits, fits the size distribution data well. Size parameters for fly ashes of six representative US coals are presented.

Ghosal, S.; Ebert, J.L.; Self, S.A.

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Intramolecular long-range correlations in polymer melts: The segmental size distribution and its moments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present theoretical arguments and numerical results to demonstrate long-range intrachain correlations in concentrated solutions and melts of long flexible polymers, which cause a systematic swelling of short chain segments. They can be traced back to the incompressibility of the melt leading to an effective repulsion u(s)?s??R3(s)?ce?s when connecting two segments together where s denotes the curvilinear length of a segment, R(s) its typical size, ce?1??be3 the “swelling coefficient,” be the effective bond length, and ? the monomer density. The relative deviation of the segmental size distribution from the ideal Gaussian chain behavior is found to be proportional to u(s). The analysis of different moments of this distribution allows for a precise determination of the effective bond length be and the swelling coefficient ce of asymptotically long chains. At striking variance to the short-range decay suggested by Flory’s ideality hypothesis the bond-bond correlation function of two bonds separated by s monomers along the chain is found to decay algebraically as 1?s3?2. Effects of finite chain length are briefly considered.

J. P. Wittmer; P. Beckrich; H. Meyer; A. Cavallo; A. Johner; J. Baschnagel

2007-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

77

In situ diagnostic of the size distribution of nanoparticles generated by ultrashort pulsed laser ablation in vacuum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We aim to characterize the size distribution of nanoparticles located in the ablation plume produced by femtosecond laser interaction. The proposed method relies on the use of white-light extinction spectroscopy setup assisted by ultrafast intensified temporal gating. This method allows measurement of optical absorbance of a nickel nanoparticles cloud. Simulation of the extinction section of nickel nanoparticles size distributions has been developed in order to compare the measured optical absorbance to the optical extinction by theoretical and experimental nanoparticles size distributions (measured by scanning electron microscopy). A good agreement has been found between the in situ measured optical absorbance and the optical extinction cross section calculated from ex situ nanoparticles size distribution measurements.

Bourquard, Florent; Loir, Anne-Sophie; Donnet, Christophe; Garrelie, Florence, E-mail: florence.garrelie@univ-st-etienne.fr [Université de Lyon, CNRS UMR 5516, Laboratoire Hubert Curien, Université Jean Monnet, Saint-Étienne (France)] [Université de Lyon, CNRS UMR 5516, Laboratoire Hubert Curien, Université Jean Monnet, Saint-Étienne (France)

2014-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

78

Size Distributions of PAHs in Ambient Air Particles of Two Areas of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The size distribution of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in particulate aerosol in two different areas of the city of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria was investigated in May 2002. One of...-3) was r...

José A. López Cancio; Antonio Vera Castellano…

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Polarized light propagation in highly scattering turbid media with a distribution of the particle size: a Monte Carlo study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The light propagation in highly scattering turbid media composed of the particles with different size distribution is studied using a Monte Carlo simulation model implemented in Standard C. Monte Carlo method has been widely utilized to study...

Koh, Wonshill

2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

80

The influence of increasing population size and vegetation productivity on elephant distribution in the Kruger National Park  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-cell occupancy increased with population size, while grid-cell-specific density became less variable. In additionThe influence of increasing population size and vegetation productivity on elephant distribution Research Unit, Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002, South Africa

Pretoria, University of

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81

Characteristics of the size distribution of recent and historical landslides in a populated hilly region  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Despite the availability of studies on the frequency density of landslide areas in mountainous regions, frequency–area distributions of historical landslide inventories in populated hilly regions are absent. This study revealed that the frequency–area distribution derived from a detailed landslide inventory of the Flemish Ardennes (Belgium) is significantly different from distributions usually obtained in mountainous areas where landslides are triggered by large-scale natural causal factors such as rainfall, earthquakes or rapid snowmelt. Instead, the landslide inventory consists of the superposition of two populations, i.e. (i) small ( 1–2 · 10? 2 km2), deep-seated landslides that are older than 100 yr. Both subpopulations are best represented by a negative power–law relation with exponents of ? 0.58 and ? 2.31 respectively. This study focused on the negative power–law relation obtained for recent, small landslides, and contributes to the understanding of frequency distributions of landslide areas by presenting a conceptual model explaining this negative power–law relation for small landslides in populated hilly regions. According to the model hilly regions can be relatively stable under the present-day environmental conditions, and landslides are mainly triggered by human activities that have only a local impact on slope stability. Therefore, landslides caused by anthropogenic triggers are limited in size, and the number of landslides decreases with landslide area. The frequency density of landslide areas for old landslides is similar to those obtained for historical inventories compiled in mountainous areas, as apart from the negative power–law relation with exponent ? 2.31 for large landslides, a positive power–law relation followed by a rollover is observed for smaller landslides. However, when analysing the old landslides together with the more recent ones, the present-day higher temporal frequency of small landslides compared to large landslides, obscures the positive power–law relation and rollover.

M. Van Den Eeckhaut; J. Poesen; G. Govers; G. Verstraeten; A. Demoulin

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Energy conservation potential of Portland cement particle size distribution control, Phase 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main objectives of Phase 2 are to determine the feasibility of using cements with controlled particle size distributions (CPSD cements) in practical concrete applications, and to refine our estimates of the potential energy savings that may ensue from such use. The work in Phase 2 is divided into two main tasks, some parts of which will be carried out simultaneously: Task 1 will continue cement paste studies to optimize cement performance similar to those of Phase 1, but with particular emphasis on gypsum requirements, blended cements, and water-reducing admixtures. This task will also include preparation of sufficient CPSD cements for use in all Phase 2 work. Task 2 will be a comprehensive examination of the properties of concretes made with CPSD cements. This will include optimization of concrete mix designs to obtain the best possible performance for practical applications of both portland and blended cements. The effects of chemical admixtures and curing temperature variations will also be determined.

Helmuth, R.A; Whiting, D.A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

A database of frequency distributions of energy depositions in small-size targets by electrons and ions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......frequency distributions of energy depositions in small-size...77204 Texas, USA Linear energy transfer (LET) is an average...Hahn K. Considerations on a audit of the quality factor. Radiat...distributions for protons with energies between 50 and 200 MeV determined......

H. Nikjoo; S. Uehara; D. Emfietzoglou; L. Pinsky

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

The size distribution, scaling properties and spatial organization of urban clusters: a global and regional perspective  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Human development has far-reaching impacts on the surface of the globe. The transformation of natural land cover occurs in different forms and urban growth is one of the most eminent transformative processes. We analyze global land cover data and extract cities as defined by maximally connected urban clusters. The analysis of the city size distribution for all cities on the globe confirms Zipf's law. Moreover, by investigating the percolation properties of the clustering of urban areas we assess the closeness to criticality for various countries. At the critical thresholds, the urban land cover of the countries undergoes a transition from separated clusters to a gigantic component on the country scale. We study the Zipf-exponents as a function of the closeness to percolation and find a systematic decrease with increasing scale, which could be the reason for deviating exponents reported in literature. Moreover, we investigate the average size of the clusters as a function of the proximity to percolation and fi...

Fluschnik, Till; Ros, Anselmo García Cantú; Zhou, Bin; Reusser, Dominik E; Kropp, Jürgen P; Rybski, Diego

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

OPTIMIZATION OF COMMINUTION CIRCUIT THROUGHPUT AND PRODUCT SIZE DISTRIBUTION BY SIMULATION AND CONTROL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to improve the energy efficiency of industrial crushing and grinding operations (comminution). Mathematical models of the comminution process are being used to study methods for optimizing the product size distribution, so that the amount of excessively fine material produced can be minimized. This will save energy by reducing the amount of material that is ground to below the target size, and will also reduce the quantity of material wasted as slimes that are too fine to be useful. This will be accomplished by: (1) modeling alternative circuit arrangements to determine methods for minimizing overgrinding, and (2) determining whether new technologies, such as high-pressure roll crushing, can be used to alter particle breakage behavior to minimize fines production. In the first quarter of this project, work was completed on a basic comminution model that will be used to carry out the subsequent project tasks. This phase of the work was supported by the Electric Power Research Institute, as their cost-share contribution to the project. The model has been implemented as an Excel spreadsheet, which has the advantage of being a very portable format that can be made widely available to the industry once the project is completed.

S.K. Kawatra; T.C. Eisele; H.J. Walqui

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

High-Resolution UV Relay Lens for Particle Size Distribution Measurements Using Holography  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Shock waves passing through a metal sample can produce ejecta particulates at a metal-vacuum interface. Holography records particle size distributions by using a high-power, short-pulse laser to freeze particle motion. The sizes of the ejecta particles are recorded using an in-line Fraunhofer holography technique. Because the holographic plate would be destroyed in an energetic environment, a high-resolution lens has been designed to relay the interference fringes to a safe environment. Particle sizes within a 12-mm-diameter, 5-mm-thick volume are recorded onto holographic film. To achieve resolution down to 0.5 ?m, ultraviolet laser (UV) light is needed. The design and assembly of a nine-element lens that achieves >2000 lp/mm resolution and operates at f/0.89 will be described. To set up this lens system, a doublet lens is temporarily attached that enables operation with 532-nm laser light and 1100 lp/mm resolution. Thus, the setup and alignment are performed with green light, but the dynamic recording is done with UV light. During setup, the 532-nm beam provides enough focus shift to accommodate the placement of a resolution target outside the ejecta volume; this resolution target does not interfere with the calibrated wires and pegs surrounding the ejecta volume. A television microscope archives images of resolution patterns that prove that the calibration wires, interference filter, holographic plate, and relay lenses are in their correct positions. Part of this lens is under vacuum, at the point where the laser illumination passes through a focus. Alignment and tolerancing of this high-resolution lens will be presented, and resolution variation through the 5-mm depth of field will be discussed.

Malone, Robert M.; Capelle, Gene A.; Frogget, Brent C.; Grover, Mike; Kaufman, Morris I.; Pazuchanics, Peter; Sorenson, Danny S.; Stevens, Gerald D.; Tibbits, Aric; Turley, William D.

2008-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

87

E-Print Network 3.0 - animal group-size distributions Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 The group-size paradox: effects of learning and patch departure rules Summary: rule; optimal group size; simulation model; social foraging....

88

Effects of dust size distribution on dust negative ion acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized dusty plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dust negative ion acoustic solitary waves in a magnetized multi-ion dusty plasma containing hot isothermal electron, ions (light positive ions and heavy negative ions) and extremely massive charge fluctuating dust grains are investigated by employing the reductive perturbation method. How the dust size distribution affect the height and the thickness of the nonlinear solitary wave are given. It is noted that the characteristic of the solitary waves are different with the different dust size distribution. The magnitude of the external magnetic field also affects the solitary wave form.

Ma, Yi-Rong; Qi, Xin; Sun, Jian-An; Duan, Wen-Shan [Joint Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics of NWNU and IMP CAS, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China and College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China)] [Joint Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics of NWNU and IMP CAS, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China and College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Yang, Lei [Joint Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics of NWNU and IMP CAS, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China and College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China) [Joint Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics of NWNU and IMP CAS, Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000, China and College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Department of Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

89

Evolution of soot size distribution in premixed ethylene/air and ethylene/benzene/air flames: Experimental and modeling study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of benzene concentration in the initial fuel on the evolution of soot size distribution in ethylene/air and ethylene/benzene/air flat flames was characterized by experimental measurements and model predictions of size and number concentration within the flames. Experimentally, a scanning mobility particle sizer was used to allow spatially resolved and online measurements of particle concentration and sizes in the nanometer-size range. The model couples a detailed kinetic scheme with a discrete-sectional approach to follow the transition from gas-phase to nascent particles and their coagulation to larger soot particles. The evolution of soot size distribution (experimental and modeled) in pure ethylene and ethylene flames doped with benzene showed a typical nucleation-sized (since particles do not actually nucleate in the classical sense particle inception is often used in place of nucleation) mode close to the burner surface, and a bimodal behavior at greater height above burner (HAB). However, major features were distinguished between the data sets. The growth of nucleation and agglomeration-sized particles was faster for ethylene/benzene/air flames, evidenced by the earlier presence of bimodality in these flames. The most significant changes in size distribution were attributed to an increase in benzene concentration in the initial fuel. However, these changes were more evident for high temperature flames. In agreement with the experimental data, the model also predicted the decrease of nucleation-sized particles in the postflame region for ethylene flames doped with benzene. This behavior was associated with the decrease of soot precursors after the main oxidation zone of the flames. (author)

Echavarria, Carlos A.; Sarofim, Adel F.; Lighty, JoAnn S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); D'Anna, Andrea [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita ''Federico II'' di Napoli, Naples (Italy)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

90

Distribution of a Population of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii among Different Size Classes of Soil Aggregates  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...from 5 to 77 times greater than the populations...corresponding aggregate size classes of the fallow and...to 2.0-mm size class of the legume treatment...contained a significantly greater density of AR18 than the size classes of 0.25, 0.25...

Ieda C. Mendes; Peter J. Bottomley

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Gap-Size Distribution Functions of a Random Sequential Adsorption Model of Segments on the Line  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We performed extensive simulations accompanied by a detailed study of a two-segment size random sequential model on the line. We followed the kinetics towards the jamming state, but we paid particular attention to the characterization of the jamming state structure. In particular, we studied the effect of the size ratio on the mean-gap size, the gap-size dispersion, gap-size skewness, and gap-size kurtosis at the jamming state. We also analyzed the above quantities for the four possible segment-to-segment gap types. We ranged the values of the size ratio from one to twenty. In the limit of a size ratio of one, one recovers the classical car-parking problem. We observed that at low size ratios the jamming state is constituted by short streaks of small and large segments, while at high values of the size ratio the jamming state structure is formed by long streaks of small segments separated by a single large segment. This view of the jamming state structure as a function of the size ratio is supported by the various measured quantities. The present work can help provide insight, for example, on how to minimize the interparticle distance or minimize fluctuations around the mean particle-to-particle distance.

N. A. M. Araujo; A. Cadilhe

2004-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

92

Effects of Sampling Conditions on the Size Distribution of Fine Particulate Matter Emitted from a Pilot-Scale  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effects of Sampling Conditions on the Size Distribution of Fine Particulate Matter Emitted from complex because the dilution ratio influences both the coagulation rate and gas-to- particle conversion because of their ability to scatter and absorb light and also because they act as cloud condensation

Stanier, Charlie

93

Joint Estimation of NDE Inspection Capability and Flaw-size Distribution for in-service Aircraft Inspections  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Joint Estimation of NDE Inspection Capability and Flaw- size Distribution for in-service Aircraft, Dayton, OH 45469 Abstract: Nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is widely used in the aerospace industry of unknown existing cracks is more difficult. If NDE signal strength is recorded at all inspections

94

Effect of particle size distribution on hydrodynamics and solids back-mixing in CFB risers using CPFD simulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Industrial CFB risers usually handle polydisperse mixtures with broad size distribution, which significantly influenced the performance of the reactors. However, traditional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models usually assumed that the particle followed the mono-disperse distribution. In the present work, the method of computational particle fluid dynamic (CPFD) was applied for simulating the complex hydrodynamics in the CFB riser with various particle size distributions (PSDs). Two kinds of PSDs, namely Gaussian and Lognormal distribution with various PSD widths, were implemented into the CPFD scheme. With the CPFD method, the present work extensively studied the effects of PSD on the hydrodynamics and on the solids back-mixing. The CPFD results showed that the PSD significantly affected particle's flow behaviors at the lower zone of the riser, while the PSD effects were negligible in the upper part of the riser. This is meaningful for the industrial riser reactors since most of the reaction and transport process occur in this lower zone of the riser. Besides, the simulation results showed that wider PSD dramatically weaken the particle's back-mixing behaviors in the riser. The significant effects of PSD predicted by the CPFD method imply that large errors will be introduced if the mono-disperse assumption is adopted to simulate the experimental CFB riser handling particles with broad size distribution.

Xiaogang Shi; Xingying Lan; Feng Liu; Yinghui Zhang; Jinsen Gao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Design of a Particle Shadowgraph Velocimetry and Size (PSVS) System to Determine Particle Size and Density Distributions (PSDD) in Hanford Nuclear Tank Wastes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An accurate particle size and density distribution (PSDD) for nuclear tank wastes is an essential piece of information that helps determine the engineering requirements for a host of waste management unit operations including tank mixing, pipeline transport, and filtration. The existing approach has involved a laborious approach in which individual particles are identified using SEM/XRD methods and the density of these materials obtained from the technical literature. Further, some methods simply approximate individual particle densities by assuming chemical composition rather than actual measurements of particle density. A particle shadowgraph velocimetry and size (PSVS) system has been designed to obtain representative PSDDs for a broad range of Hanford tank waste materials existing as both individual particles and agglomerates. The PSVS utilizes optical hardware, a temperature controlled settling column, and particle introduction chamber to accurately and reproducibly obtain images of settling particles. Image analysis software then provides a highly accurate determination of both particle terminal velocity and equivalent spherical particle diameter. The particle/agglomerate density is then calculated from Newton’s terminal settling theory. The PSVS was designed to accurately image particle/agglomerate sizes between 10-1000µm and particle/agglomerate densities ranging from 1.4-11.5g/cm3 where the maximum terminal velocity does not exceed 20cm/s. Preliminary testing was completed and results were in good agreement with terminal settling theory. Recent results of this method development are presented, as well as experimental design, and future proposed work.

Fountain, Matthew S.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Erikson, Rebecca L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Howe, Daniel T.; Adkins, Harold E.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ

2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

96

Sieveless particle size distribution analysis of particulate materials through computer vision  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper explores the inconsistency of length-based separation by mechanical sieving of particulate materials with standard sieves, which is the standard method of particle size distribution (PSD) analysis. We observed inconsistencies of length-based separation of particles using standard sieves with manual measurements, which showed deviations of 17 22 times. In addition, we have demonstrated the falling through effect of particles cannot be avoided irrespective of the wall thickness of the sieve. We proposed and utilized a computer vision with image processing as an alternative approach; wherein a user-coded Java ImageJ plugin was developed to evaluate PSD based on length of particles. A regular flatbed scanner acquired digital images of particulate material. The plugin determines particles lengths from Feret's diameter and width from pixel-march method, or minor axis, or the minimum dimension of bounding rectangle utilizing the digital images after assessing the particles area and shape (convex or nonconvex). The plugin also included the determination of several significant dimensions and PSD parameters. Test samples utilized were ground biomass obtained from the first thinning and mature stand of southern pine forest residues, oak hard wood, switchgrass, elephant grass, giant miscanthus, wheat straw, as well as Basmati rice. A sieveless PSD analysis method utilized the true separation of all particles into groups based on their distinct length (419 639 particles based on samples studied), with each group truly represented by their exact length. This approach ensured length-based separation without the inconsistencies observed with mechanical sieving. Image based sieve simulation (developed separately) indicated a significant effect (P < 0.05) on number of sieves used in PSD analysis, especially with non-uniform material such as ground biomass, and more than 50 equally spaced sieves were required to match the sieveless all distinct particles PSD analysis. Results substantiate that mechanical sieving, owing to handling limitations and inconsistent length-based separation of particles, is inadequate in determining the PSD of non-uniform particulate samples. The developed computer vision sieveless PSD analysis approach has the potential to replace the standard mechanical sieving. The plugin can be readily extended to model (e.g., Rosin Rammler) the PSD of materials, and mass-based analysis, while providing several advantages such as accuracy, speed, low cost, automated analysis, and reproducible results.

Igathinathane, C. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Pordesimo, L. O. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Columbus, Eugene P [ORNL; Batchelor, William D [ORNL; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Power Law Size-Distributed Heterogeneity Explains Colloid Retention on Soda Lime Glass in the Presence of Energy Barriers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Power Law Size-Distributed Heterogeneity Explains Colloid Retention on Soda Lime Glass in the Presence of Energy Barriers ... This is shown in Figure 1 under the condition of 80 nm heterodomains and 6 mM IS, where the ZOIs and the corresponding colloid–collector interaction force profiles as a function of minimum separation distance (H) are shown for the three colloid sizes examined in this study (blue = 0.25 ?m, green = 1.1 ?m, red = 1.95 ?m). ... Such work will determine whether representing retention via discrete heterogeneity yields a distinct but logical set of heterodomain representations among mineral surfaces predominant in groundwater aquifers. ...

Eddy Pazmino; Jacob Trauscht; Brittany Dame; William P. Johnson

2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

98

Dynamic Structure Formation at the Fronts of Volatile Liquid Drops Y. Gotkis,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

video clips [5]). As a (mother) drop of isopropyl alcohol (IPA) is deposited on a surface, it expands drops of IPA or IPA-deionized water (DIW) mixtures of a typical size of 30­50 mm3

Kondic, Lou

99

Spectral particulate attenuation and particle size distribution in the bottom boundary layer of a continental shelf  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are consistent with particle resuspension and settling in the BBL, two processes that are dependent on particle size and density. For particles of similar density, resuspension and settling would result

Boss, Emmanuel S.

100

KNIFE MILL COMMINUTION ENERGY ANALYSIS OF SWITCHGRASS, WHEAT STRAW, AND CORN STOVER AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biomass preprocessing and pretreatment technologies such as size reduction and chemical preconditioning are aimed at reducing the cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. Size reduction is an energy-intensive biomass preprocessing unit operation. In this study, switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover were chopped in an instrumented knife mill to evaluate size reduction energy and corresponding particle size distribution as determined with a standard forage sieve analyzer. Direct mechanical power inputs were determined using a dedicated data acquisition system for knife mill screen openings from 12.7 to 50.8 mm, rotor speeds between 250 and 500 rpm, and mass feed rates from 1 to 11 kg/min. A speed of 250 rpm gave optimum performance of the mill. Optimum feed rates for 25.4 mm screen and 250 rpm were 7.6, 5.8, and 4.5 kg/min for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. Total specific energy (MJ/Mg) was defined as the size reduction energy required to operate the knife mill plus that imparted to the biomass. Effective specific energy was defined as the energy imparted to the biomass. For these conditions, total specific energies were 27.3, 37.9, and 31.9 MJ/Mg and effective specific energies were 10.1, 15.5, and 3.2 MJ/Mg for switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover, respectively. These results demonstrated that biomass selection affects the size reduction energy, even for biomass with similar features. Second-order polynomial equations for the total specific energy requirement fitted well (R2 > 0.95) as a function of knife mill screen size, mass feed rate, and speed for biomass materials tested. The Rosin-Rammler equation fitted the cumulative undersize mass of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover chop passed through ASABE sieves with high R2 (>0.983). Knife mill chopping of switchgrass, wheat straw, and corn stover resulted in particle size distributions classified as 'well-graded strongly fine-skewed mesokurtic', 'well-graded fine-skewed mesokurtic', and 'well-graded fine-skewed mesokurtic', respectively, for small knife mill screen sizes (12.7 to 25.4 mm) and distributions classified as 'well-graded fine-skewed mesokurtic', 'well-graded strongly fine-skewed mesokurtic', and 'well-graded fine-skewed mesokurtic', respectively, for the large screen size (50.8 mm). Total and effective specific energy values per unit size reduction of wheat straw were greater compared to those for switchgrass. Corn stover resulted in reduced total and effective specific energy per unit size reduction compared to wheat straw for the same operating conditions, but higher total specific energy per unit size reduction and lesser effective specific energy per unit size reduction compared to switchgrass. Data on minimized total specific energy with corresponding particle spectra will be useful for preparing feed material with a knife mill for subsequent grinding with finer size reduction devices.

Bitra, V.S.P. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Womac, A.R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Igathinathane, C. [North Dakota State University

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "drop size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Analytical solutions for steady and unsteady state particle size distributions in FBC and CFBC boilers for non-breaking char particles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Continuous analytical solutions for the particle size distributions of char in steady and unsteady states in fluidized beds, when the inlet fuel feed is presented by monosize, lognormal, Rosin-Rammler or gamma distributions, are derived from a population balance model. The stationary size distribution is directly related to the rate of reduction of the particle size. Combustion and attrition reduce the particle size. Thus, it is possible to extract the dependence of the rate of reduction of radius (affected by a fuel’s reactivity and attrition) on radius from a measured steady-state particle size distribution. Unsteady particle size distributions are derived for impulse, step and square pulse changes in the fuel feed, when the oxygen level in the reactor is maintained constant.

J.J. Saastamoinen; A. Tourunen; J. Hämäläinen; T. Hyppänen; M. Loschkin; A. Kettunen

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids. The present invention includes the use of two closely spaced transducers, or one transducer and a closely spaced reflector plate, to form an interferometer suitable for ultrasonic characterization of droplet-size and smaller samples without the need for a container. The droplet is held between the interferometer elements, whose distance apart may be adjusted, by surface tension. The surfaces of the interferometer elements may be readily cleansed by a stream of solvent followed by purified air when it is desired to change samples. A single drop of liquid is sufficient for high-quality measurement. Examples of samples which may be investigated using the apparatus and method of the present invention include biological specimens (tear drops; blood and other body fluid samples; samples from tumors, tissues, and organs; secretions from tissues and organs; snake and bee venom, etc.) for diagnostic evaluation, samples in forensic investigations, and detection of drugs in small quantities.

Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Quantitative Information on Pore Size Distribution from the Tangents of Comparison Plots  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This is the case for MCM-41 and Al-PILC samples. ... In Figure 7, the pore sizes of several MCM-41 samples and an alumina pillared clay (Al-PILC used in ref 32) are plotted against the corresponding peak positions on the tangent curves (the solid circles). ... Figure 7 The relation between the pore sizes of several MCM-41 samples and an alumina pillared clay (Al-PILC used in ref 32) and the peak positions on the tangent curves (the solid circles). ...

Huai Yong Zhu; Pegie Cool; Etienne F. Vansant; Bao Lian Su; Xueping Gao

2004-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

104

Sieving duration and sieve loading impacts on dry soil fragment size distributions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, University of Buenos Aires (1417) Av. San Marti´n 4457, Buenos Aires, Argentina b Nitragin Argentina S.A., Calle 10 y 11, Parque Industrial Pilar (1629), Pilar, Buenos Aires, Argentina c Department of Agronomy is inversely related to the amount of applied energy, and does not necessarily reflect the size of aggregates

Perfect, Ed

105

Measurement of number, mass and size distribution of particles in the atmosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...size-fractionated manner using cascade impactors, which depend...mean free path of the gas molecules o er a signi...5, tra c-related gases, particle number and...and contracts with the Natural Environment Research Council...this period, exhaust gas emissions will be rich...

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Distributed detection and fusion in a large wireless sensor network of random size  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For a wireless sensor network (WSN) with a random number of sensors, we propose a decision fusion rule that uses the total number of detections reported by local sensors as a statistic for hypothesis testing. We assume that the signal power attenuates ... Keywords: decision fusion, deflection coefficient, distributed detection, wireless sensor networks

Ruixin Niu; Pramod K. Varshney

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

An improved method for computing q-values when the distribution of effect sizes is asymmetric  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......observed in the empirical distribution of test statistics that results from the analysis...q-value method by taking the sign of the test statistics, in addition to the P-values...Performing tens of thousands of hypothesis tests for one experiment has become a commonplace......

Megan Orr; Peng Liu; Dan Nettleton

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

A predictive model for particle size distribution and yield for Bayer precipitation and classification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of alumina hydrate particles demonstrated in Figure l. The calcination step depicted in the process illustration is needed as the final step to return the alumina hydrate to alumina. This may be done in kilns or flash calciners. In the Bayer process, a.... In the precipitators, the alumina hydrate is deposited on recycled seed. The slurry is separated by particle size in the classification section. Large particles Rom classification are filtered for use in calcination or products such as Alcoa's C30 Hydrate, while...

Kapraun, Christopher Michael

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

109

On the Size Distribution of Close-In Extrasolar Giant Planets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The precisions of extrasolar planet radius measurements are reaching the point at which meaningful and discriminatory comparisons with theoretical predictions are can be made. However, care must be taken to account for selection effects in the transit surveys that detect the transiting planets for which radius measurements are possible. Here I identify one such selection effect, such that the number of planets with radius R_p detected in a signal-to-noise ratio limited transit survey is proportional to R_p^alpha, with alpha~4-6. In the presence of a dispersion sigma in the intrinsic distribution of planet radii, this selection effect translates to bias b in the radii of observed planets. Detected planets are, on average, larger by a fractional amount b ~ alpha (sigma/)^2 relative to the mean radius of the underlying distribution. I argue that the intrinsic dispersion in planetary radii is likely to be in the range sigma = (0.05-0.13)R_J, where the lower bound is that expected theoretically solely from the variance in stellar insolation, and the upper bound is the 95% c.l. upper limit from the scatter in observed radii. Assuming an arbitrary but plausible value of sigma/~10%, and thus b~6%, I infer a mean intrinsic radius of close-in massive extrasolar planets of =(1.03+/-0.01)R_J. This value reinforces the case for HD209458b having an anomalously large radius, and may be inconsistent with coreless models of irradiated giant planets.

B. Scott Gaudi

2005-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

110

The effect of gravel size fraction on the distribution coefficients of selected radionuclides radionuclides  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This manuscript addresses the consequences of the common practice of assuming that the gravel fraction of sediments does not participate in sorption reactions and thus sorption quantified by the distribution coefficient (Kd) construct can be estimated from laboratory tests on < 2mm fraction of sediments. As shown within the use of this common assumption can lead to inaccurate estimates of the mobility and sorption capacity of key radionuclides (Tc, U, and Np) at the Hanford Site where gravel dominates the lower Hanford formation and upper Ringold Formation. Batch sorption and column experiments showed that the distribution coefficient measured using only < 2mm fraction were not in agreement with those obtained from the bulk sediments depending on the radionuclide. The least reactive radionuclide, Tc showed the lowest effects from the presence of gravel. However, differences between measured Kds using < 2mm fractions of the sediment and the Kds measured on the bulk sediment were significant for strongly reactive radionuclides such as Np, especially on the sediment with gravel fractions that contained highly reactive sites. Highly reactive sites in the gravel fraction were attributed to the presence of Fe oxides coatings and/or reactive fracture faces on the gravel surfaces. Gravel correction factors that use the sum of the Kd,<2 mm and Kd,>2 mm values to estimate the Kd for the bulk sediment were found to best describe Kds for radionuclides on the bulk sediment. However, more detailed characterization of gravel surfaces should be also conducted to identify those gravels with higher reactive sorbents, if present. Gravel correction factors should be considered to predict precisely the sorption capacity of bulk sediments that contain more than 10% gravel and to estimate the mobility of contaminants in subsurface environments.

Um, Wooyong; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Last, George V.; Glossbrenner, Ellwood T.

2009-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

111

The Impact of Oil Consumption Mechanisms on Diesel Exhaust Particle Size Distributions and Detailed Exhaust Chemical Composition  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Detailed exhaust emission data have been taken from a Cummins N-14 single cylinder research engine in which the oil consumption was varied by different engine modifications. Low sulfur fuel was used, and oil consumption was varied by modifying the intake valve stem seals, the exhaust valve stem seals, the oil control ring and combinations of these modifications. Detailed measurements of exhaust gas particle size distributions and chemical composition were made for the various oil consumption configurations for a range of engine loads and speeds. The particulate mass was measured with TEOM and traditional gravimetric filter methods. Filter data for EC/OC, sulfates and trace metals have been taken and analyzed. The trace metals in the particulate mass serve as the basis for assessing oil consumption at the different operating conditions. The data indicate that the oil consumption for the steady state testing done here was approximately an order of magnitude below oil consumption values cited in the literature. We did measure changes in the details of the chemical composition of the particulate for the different engine operating conditions, but it did not correlate with changes in the oil consumption. Furthermore, the data indicate that the particle size distribution is not strongly impacted by low level oil consumption variations observed in this work.

Stetter, J; Forster, N; Ghandhi, J; Foster, D

2003-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

112

Bird dropping research continues apace  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... otherwise of bird droppings' seem unaware that this is of major economic importance to the power industry. High-voltage ... industry. High-voltage transmission ...

DAVID C. JOLLY

1986-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

113

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C2, supplkment a u no 7, Tome 38, Juillet 1977, page C2-185 REMARKS ON THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION FUNCTION OF ULTRAFINE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. - The results of an detailed analysis of experimental size distributions of particle samples prepared by the gas tvaporation et condensation en gaz inerte (GET). En tenant compte des deux mbcanismes de croissance par distribution of ultrafine metal particles prepared by the gas evaporation technique (GET) can be ascribed

Boyer, Edmond

114

Leakage diagnostics, sealant longevity, sizing and technologytransfer in residential thermal distribution systems: Part II.Residential thermal Distribution Systesm, Phase VI FinalReport  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report builds on and extends our previous efforts as described in "Leakage Diagnostics, Sealant Longevity, Sizing and Technology Transfer in Residential Thermal Distribution Systems- CIEE Residential Thermal Distribution Systems Phase V Final Report, October 1997". New developments include defining combined duct and equipment efficiencies in a concept called "Tons At the Register" and on performance issues related to field use of the aerosol sealant technology. Some of the key results discussed in this report include: o Register, boot and air handler cabinet leakage can often represent a significant fraction of the total duct leakage in new construction. Because of the large range of pressures in duct systems an accurate characterization may require separating these components through improved leakage testing. o Conventional duct tape failed our accelerated longevity testing and is not, therefore, considered generally acceptable for use in sealing duct systems. Many other tapes and sealing approaches are available and practical and have passed our longevity tests. o Simulations of summer temperature pull-down time have shown that duct system improvements can be combined with equipment downsizing to save first cost, energy consumption, and peak power and still provide equivalent or superior comfort. o Air conditioner name plate capacity ratings alone are a poor indicator of how much cooling will actually be delivered to the conditioned space. Duct system efficiency can have as large an impact on performance as variations in SEER. o Mechanical duct cleaning techniques do not have an adverse impact on the ducts sealed with the Aerosol sealant. The material typically used in Aerosol sealing techniques does not appear to present a health or safety hazard. Results from this study were used by the California Energy Commission in the formation of the current Energy Efficiency Standards for Low-Rise Residential Buildings (CEC, (1998)), often referred to as Title 24. Current information on ducts and thermal distribution research can be found at http://ducts.lbl.gov

Buchanan, C.; Modera, M.; Sherman, M.; Siegel, J.; Walker, I.; Wang, D.

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Particle and Size Distribution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The long and short sides were called directional tangential cutting edge or random diameter. When the number of measured particles was large enough, results could reflect the average cross section of particle sam...

Zhonglin Xu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids is disclosed. The present invention includes the use of two closely spaced transducers, or one transducer and a closely spaced reflector plate, to form an interferometer suitable for ultrasonic characterization of droplet-size and smaller samples without the need for a container. The droplet is held between the interferometer elements, whose distance apart may be adjusted, by surface tension. The surfaces of the interferometer elements may be readily cleansed by a stream of solvent followed by purified air when it is desired to change samples. A single drop of liquid is sufficient for high-quality measurement. Examples of samples which may be investigated using the apparatus and method of the present invention include biological specimens (tear drops; blood and other body fluid samples; samples from tumors, tissues, and organs; secretions from tissues and organs; snake and bee venom, etc.) for diagnostic evaluation, samples in forensic investigations, and detection of drugs in small quantities. 5 figs.

Sinha, D.N.

1998-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

117

Simultaneous Retrieval of Effective Refractive Index and Density from Size Distribution and Light Scattering Data: Weakly-Absorbing Aerosol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose here a novel approach for retrieving in parallel the effective density and real refractive index of weakly absorbing aerosol from optical and size distribution measurements. Here we define “weakly absorbing” as aerosol single-scattering albedos that exceed 0.95 at 0.5 um.The required optical measurements are the scattering coefficient and the hemispheric backscatter fraction, obtained in this work from an integrating nephelometer. The required size spectra come from a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer and an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer. The performance of this approach is first evaluated using a sensitivity study with synthetically generated but measurement-related inputs. The sensitivity study reveals that the proposed approach is robust to random noise; additionally the uncertainties of the retrieval are almost linearly proportional to the measurement errors, and these uncertainties are smaller for the real refractive index than for the effective density. Next, actual measurements are used to evaluate our approach. These measurements include the optical, microphysical, and chemical properties of weakly absorbing aerosol which are representative of a variety of coastal summertime conditions observed during the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP; http://campaign.arm.gov/tcap/). The evaluation includes calculating the root mean square error (RMSE) between the aerosol characteristics retrieved by our approach, and the same quantities calculated using the conventional volume mixing rule for chemical constituents. For dry conditions (defined in this work as relative humidity less than 55%) and sub-micron particles, a very good (RMSE~3%) and reasonable (RMSE~28%) agreement is obtained for the retrieved real refractive index (1.49±0.02) and effective density (1.68±0.21), respectively. Our approach permits discrimination between the retrieved aerosol characteristics of sub-micron and sub-10micron particles. The evaluation results also reveal that the retrieved density and refractive index tend to decrease with an increase of the relative humidity.

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.; Shilling, John E.; Flynn, Connor J.; Mei, Fan; Jefferson, Anne

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Effects of oxygenated fuel blends on carbonaceous particulate composition and particle size distributions from a stationary diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A systematic study was conducted to evaluate and compare the effects of blending five different oxygenated compounds, diglyme (DGM), palm oil methyl ester (PME), dimethyl carbonate (DMC), diethyl adipate (DEA) and butanol (Bu) with ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD), on engine performance, particulate mass concentrations, organic (OC) and elemental (EC) carbon fractions of the particles and particle size distributions from a single cylinder, direct injection stationary diesel engine with the engine working at a constant engine speed and at three engine loads. A small increase in the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and brake thermal efficiency (BTE) was observed with the use of oxygenates blended with ULSD. All five oxygenates were found to be effective at reducing particulate mass emissions at medium and high engine loads, with butanol being the most effective and DGM being the least effective. Analysis of the relative contribution of changes in the OC and EC emissions to the reduction of particulate matter indicated that under the same oxygen content, EC made a dominant contribution to the reduction of particulate mass. The results also indicated that reduction in both particle mass and number emissions was affected not only by the oxygen content, but also by the chemical structure and thermophysical properties of oxygenates as well as engine operating conditions.

Zhi-Hui Zhang; Rajasekhar Balasubramanian

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Alpha spectrometric characterization of process-related particle size distributions from active particle sampling at the Los Alamos National Laboratory uranium foundry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uranium particles within the respirable size range pose a significant hazard to the health and safety of workers. Significant differences in the deposition and incorporation patterns of aerosols within the respirable range can be identified and integrated into sophisticated health physics models. Data characterizing the uranium particle size distribution resulting from specific foundry-related processes are needed. Using personal air sampling cascade impactors, particles collected from several foundry processes were sorted by activity median aerodynamic diameter onto various Marple substrates. After an initial gravimetric assessment of each impactor stage, the substrates were analyzed by alpha spectrometry to determine the uranium content of each stage. Alpha spectrometry provides rapid nondestructive isotopic data that can distinguish process uranium from natural sources and the degree of uranium contribution to the total accumulated particle load. In addition, the particle size bins utilized by the impactors provide adequate resolution to determine if a process particle size distribution is: lognormal, bimodal, or trimodal. Data on process uranium particle size values and distributions facilitate the development of more sophisticated and accurate models for internal dosimetry, resulting in an improved understanding of foundry worker health and safety.

Plionis, Alexander A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Peterson, Dominic S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tandon, Lav [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lamont, Stephen P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Determination of nanoparticle structure type, size and strain distribution from X-ray data for monatomic f.c.c.-derived non-crystallographic nanoclusters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Whole-profile-fitting least-squares techniques are successfully applied to simulated and experimental diffraction patterns of monatomic f.c.c.-derived non-crystallographic nanoclusters, with the aim of extracting information about structure-type concentration, size and strain distribution.

Cervellino, A.

2003-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "drop size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Optimal sizing and location of SVC devices for improvement of voltage profile in distribution network with dispersed photovoltaic and wind power plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Intermittent power generation of wind turbines and photovoltaic plants creates voltage disturbances in power distribution networks which may not be acceptable to the consumers. To control the deviations of the nodal voltages, it is necessary to use fast dynamic control of the reactive power in the distribution network. Implementation of the power electronic devices, such as Static Var Compensator (SVC), enables effective dynamic state as well as a static state of the nodal voltage control in the distribution network. This paper analyzed optimal sizing and location of SVC devices by using genetic algorithm, to improve nodal voltages profile in a distribution network with dispersed photovoltaic and wind power plants. Practical application of the developed methodology was tested on an example of a real distribution network.

Aleksandar Savi?; Željko ?uriši?

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Method for reducing pressure drop through filters, and filter exhibiting reduced pressure drop  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods for generating and applying coatings to filters with porous material in order to reduce large pressure drop increases as material accumulates in a filter, as well as the filter exhibiting reduced and/or more uniform pressure drop. The filter can be a diesel particulate trap for removing particulate matter such as soot from the exhaust of a diesel engine. Porous material such as ash is loaded on the surface of the substrate or filter walls, such as by coating, depositing, distributing or layering the porous material along the channel walls of the filter in an amount effective for minimizing or preventing depth filtration during use of the filter. Efficient filtration at acceptable flow rates is achieved.

Sappok, Alexander; Wong, Victor

2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

123

Accelerated drop detachment in granular suspensions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We experimentally study the detachment of drops of granular suspensions using a density matched model suspension with varying volume fraction ({\\phi} = 15% to 55%) and grain diameter (d = 20 {\\mu}m to 140 {\\mu}m). We show that at the beginning of the detachment process, the suspensions behave as an effective fluid. The detachment dynamics in this regime can be entirely described by the shear viscosity of the suspension. At later stages of the detachment the dynamics become independent of the volume fraction and are found to be identical to the dynamics of the interstitial fluid. Surprisingly, visual observation reveals that at this stage particles are still present in the neck. We suspect rearrangements of particles to locally free the neck of grains, causing the observed dynamics. Close to the final pinch off, the detachment of the suspensions is further accelerated, compared to the dynamics of pure interstitial fluid. This acceleration might be due to the fact that the neck diameter gets of the order of magnitude of the size of the grains and a continuous thinning of the liquid thread is not possible any more. The crossover between the different detachment regimes is function of the grain size and the initial volume fraction. We characterize the overall acceleration as a function of the grain size and volume fraction.

Claire Bonnoit; Thibault Bertrand; Éric Clément; Anke Lindner

2010-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

124

Fragmentation of hot classical drops  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Time evolution of hot drops of matter containing ?230 or ?130 particles is studied by classical molecular dynamics. Initially, the drops have uniform density and a sharp surface. The chosen initial conditions include three values of density and a range of temperatures wide enough to study the phenomena of evaporation, fragmentation, and total vaporization in a unified fashion. The average density and temperature of central matter is measured periodically to obtain trajectories of the evolution in the ?,T plane. These trajectories indicate that the matter expands almost adiabatically until it reaches the region of adiabatic instabilities. Density inhomogeneities develop in this region, but the matter fragments only if the expansion continues to average densities of less than one-fourth the liquid density, otherwise it recondenses into a single blob. The recondensed matter and fragments have very crooked surfaces. If the temperature is high enough, the expanding matter does not enter the region of adiabatic instabilities and totally vaporizes. For initial densities of the order of equilibrium density, matter does not fragment or develop large inhomogeneities in the region enclosed by the isothermal and adiabatic spinodals. Thus it appears unlikely that fragmentation of small drops (nuclei) can be used to study the isothermal critical region of gas-liquid phase transition. A detailed tabulation of the energies and number of monomers, dimers, light, and heavy fragments emitted in each event is presented.

A. Vicentini; G. Jacucci; V. R. Pandharipande

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Final Report: Property Improvement in CZT via Modeling and Processing Innovations – Te-particles in vertical gradient freeze CZT: Size and Spatial Distributions and Constitutional Supercooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A section of a vertical gradient freeze CZT boule approximately 2100-mm3 with a planar area of 300-mm2 was prepared and examined using transmitted IR microscopy at various magnifications to determine the three-dimensional spatial and size distributions of Te-particles over large longitudinal and radial length scales. The boule section was approximately 50-mm wide by 60-mm in length by 7-mm thick and was doubly polished for TIR work. Te-particles were imaged through the thickness using extended focal imaging to locate the particles in thickness planes spaced 15-µm apart and then in plane of the image using xy-coordinates of the particle center of mass so that a true three dimensional particle map was assembled for a 1-mm by 45-mm longitudinal strip and for a 1-mm by 50-mm radial strip. Te-particle density distributions were determined as a function of longitudinal and radial positions in these strips, and treating the particles as vertices of a network created a 3D image of the particle spatial distribution. Te-particles exhibited a multi-modal log-normal size density distribution that indicated a slight preference for increasing size with longitudinal growth time, while showing a pronounced cellular network structure throughout the boule that can be correlated to dislocation network sizes in CZT. Higher magnification images revealed a typical Rayleigh-instability pearl string morphology with large and small satellite droplets. This study includes solidification experiments in small crucibles of 30:70 mixtures of Cd:Te to reduce the melting point below 1273 K (1000?C). These solidification experiments were performed over a wide range of cooling rates and clearly demonstrated a growth instability with Te-particle capture that is suggested to be responsible for one of the peaks in the size distribution using size discrimination visualization. The results are discussed with regard to a manifold Te-particle genesis history as 1) Te-particle direct capture from melt-solid growth instabilities, 2) Te-particle formation from dislocation core diffusion and the formation and breakup of Te-tubes, and 3) Te-particle formation due to classical nucleation and growth as precipitates.

Henager, Charles H.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Bliss, Mary; Riley, Brian J.; Stave, Jean A.

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

A Better Drop to Drink | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A Better Drop to Drink A Better Drop to Drink Method for creating nanoparticle heavy-metal sorbents saves water--literally Using magnetic sorbent materials to overcome limitations...

127

Experimental investigation of the effect of combined hydrogen and diesel combustion on the particulate size distribution from a high speed direct injection diesel engine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effects of hydrogen addition and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) levels on the exhaust particulate matter size distribution in a diesel engine have been investigated. The experiments were performed on a 2.0 litre, 4-cylinder, direct injection engine equipped with a modern high-pressure common rail. A nano-Micro-Orifice Uniform Deposit Impactor (nano-MOUDI) was used in this work to study the particulate matter size distribution. All tests were conducted at the set operating point of 1,500 rpm. The experimental work showed that the particulate matter size distribution was not dramatically altered by the addition of EGR, but the main peak was shifted towards the nucleation mode with the addition of hydrogen. The addition of hydrogen increases the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), but reduces the emissions of unburnt hydrocarbons (THC). Conversely, the addition of EGR reduces NOx, but can increase THC. Hydrogen addition increases the peak cylinder pressure and the maximum rate of pressure rise.

L. McWilliam; A. Megaritis

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

The effect of particle shape on pressure drop in a turbulent gas-solid suspension  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was to experimentally compare the pressure drop in suspensions of spherical particles versus fibrous particles in the same apparatus and at the same operating conditions. The previous investigators have varied the particle size, loading ratio (lbs. flowing solids... is for a model which will predict the suspension pressure drop based on such variables as particle size and shape, Reynolds number, loading ratio, electrostatic charge, and other variables. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE A. General Interest in Gas-Solid...

Coughran, Mark Thomas

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

MEASUREMENT OF HEAT TRANSFER DURING DROP-WISE CONDENSATION OF WATER ON POLYETHYLENE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MEASUREMENT OF HEAT TRANSFER DURING DROP-WISE CONDENSATION OF WATER ON POLYETHYLENE Gagan Deep distribution of temperature during drop-wise condensation over a polyethylene substrate was measured using on the substrate was simultaneously visualized. Static contact angles of water on polyethylene are measured

Khandekar, Sameer

130

Why students drop out CS1 course?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study focuses on CS minor students' decisions to drop out from the CS1 course. The high level of drop out percentage has been a problem at Helsinki University of Technology for many years. This course has yearly enrolment of 500-600 students and ... Keywords: CS1, drop out reasons, non-major CS students

Päivi Kinnunen; Lauri Malmi

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

The Vibration of Electrified Water Drops  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

4 May 1971 research-article The Vibration of Electrified Water Drops P. R. Brazier-Smith...calculations concerned with charged drops. The vibration of water drops of radius around 2 mm...electrodes. Photographic analysis of the vibrations revealed good agreement between theory...

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Investigating the bubble size distribution in dough using ultrasound Valentin Leroy (1), Yuanzhong Fan(1), A.L. Strybulevych(1), G.G. Bellido(2), J.H. Page(1),  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Investigating the bubble size distribution in dough using ultrasound Valentin Leroy (1), Yuanzhong of using ultrasound to investigate the bubble size distribution in dough is addressed. A model for the propagation of ultrasound in a bubbly viscoelastic medium is presented and its relevant parameters

Page, John

133

Helium ion distributions in a 4 kJ plasma focus device by 1 mm-thick large-size polycarbonate detectors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Helium ion beam profile, angular and iso-ion beam distributions in 4 kJ Amirkabir plasma focus (APF) device were effectively observed by the unaided eyes and studied in single 1 mm-thick large-diameter (20 cm) polycarbonate track detectors (PCTD). The \\{PCTDs\\} were processed by 50 Hz–HV electrochemical etching using a large-size ECE chamber. The results show that helium ions produced in the APF device have a ring-shaped angular distribution peaked at an angle of ? ± 60 ° with respect to the top of the anode. Some information on the helium ion energy and distributions is also provided. The method is highly effective for ion beam studies.

M. Sohrabi; M. Habibi; V. Ramezani

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Distribution of size-fractionated particulate trace metals collected by bottles and in-situ pumps in the Gulf of Maine–Scotian Shelf and Labrador Sea  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The distribution of size-fractionated particulate trace metals (Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cu, V, and Co) was investigated in the Gulf of Maine–Scotian Shelf and Labrador Sea by collection of particulate matter using water bottles (Go-flo) and large volume in-situ pumps (Challenger Oceanic Systems and Services). Trace metal procedural filter blanks for Poretics membrane filters (0.4- and 10 ?m pore size) and Nitex screens (53 ?m mesh size) were sufficiently low that metal concentrations could be measured reliably. These results validate the use of Challenger Oceanics Systems and Services in-situ pumps for collection of particulate trace metals (Al, Fe, Mn, Pb, Cu, V, and Co) in shelf, slope, and open ocean Atlantic waters. In the Gulf of Maine–Scotian Shelf and Labrador Sea, trace metal concentrations per volume filtered generally decrease with increasing particle size for all metals. In the upper 250 m of slope waters of the Gulf of Maine–Scotian Shelf and in the Labrador Sea, trace metal concentrations in all particle sizes are lower than in shelf waters. Higher particulate metal concentrations in shelf waters are consistent with an increase in the supply of these trace metals with proximity to continental sources. In addition, an increase in particulate trace metal concentrations in shelf waters with depth is attributed to an input from resuspended sediment.

Sarah E. Weinstein; S.Bradley Moran

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Vibration-Induced Climbing of Drops  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We report an experimental study of liquid drops moving against gravity, when placed on a vertically vibrating inclined plate, which is partially wetted by the drop. The frequency of vibrations ranges from 30 to 200 Hz, and, above a threshold in vibration acceleration, drops experience an upward motion. We attribute this surprising motion to the deformations of the drop, as a consequence of an up or down symmetry breaking induced by the presence of the substrate. We relate the direction of motion to contact angle measurements. This phenomenon can be used to move a drop along an arbitrary path in a plane, without special surface treatments or localized forcing.

P. Brunet; J. Eggers; R. D. Deegan

2007-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

136

Little Boy Dropped on Hiroshima | National Nuclear Security Administra...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Little Boy Dropped on Hiroshima August 06, 1945 Little Boy Dropped on Hiroshima Hiroshima, Japan The gun model uranium bomb, called Little Boy, is dropped on Hiroshima, Japan....

137

Finite-key-size security of the Phoenix-Barnett-Chefles 2000 quantum-key-distribution protocol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The postselection technique was introduced by Christandl, König, and Renner [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 020504 (2009)] in order to simplify the security of quantum-key-distribution schemes. Here, we present how it can be applied to study the security of the Phoenix-Barnett-Chefles 2000 trine-state protocol, a symmetric version of the Bennett 1992 protocol.

Mhlambululi Mafu, Kevin Garapo, and Francesco Petruccione

2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

138

THE IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL MODELS FOR DERIVING DUST MASSES AND GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS IN SUPERNOVA EJECTA. I. RADIATIVELY HEATED DUST IN THE CRAB NEBULA  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent far-infrared (IR) observations of supernova remnants (SNRs) have revealed significantly large amounts of newly condensed dust in their ejecta, comparable to the total mass of available refractory elements. The dust masses derived from these observations assume that all the grains of a given species radiate at the same temperature, regardless of the dust heating mechanism or grain radius. In this paper, we derive the dust mass in the ejecta of the Crab Nebula, using a physical model for the heating and radiation from the dust. We adopt a power-law distribution of grain sizes and two different dust compositions (silicates and amorphous carbon), and calculate the heating rate of each dust grain by the radiation from the pulsar wind nebula. We find that the grains attain a continuous range of temperatures, depending on their size and composition. The total mass derived from the best-fit models to the observed IR spectrum is 0.019-0.13 M{sub Sun }, depending on the assumed grain composition. We find that the power-law size distribution of dust grains is characterized by a power-law index of 3.5-4.0 and a maximum grain size larger than 0.1 {mu}m. The grain sizes and composition are consistent with what is expected for dust grains formed in a Type IIP supernova (SN). Our derived dust mass is at least a factor of two less than the mass reported in previous studies of the Crab Nebula that assumed more simplified two-temperature models. These models also require a larger mass of refractory elements to be locked up in dust than was likely available in the ejecta. The results of this study show that a physical model resulting in a realistic distribution of dust temperatures can constrain the dust properties and affect the derived dust masses. Our study may also have important implications for deriving grain properties and mass estimates in other SNRs and for the ultimate question of whether SNe are major sources of dust in the Galactic interstellar medium and in external galaxies.

Temim, Tea; Dwek, Eli, E-mail: tea.temim@nasa.gov [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Magnetically focused liquid drop radiator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A magnetically focused liquid drop radiator for application in rejecting energy from a spacecraft, characterized by a magnetizable liquid or slurry disposed in operative relationship within the liquid droplet generator and its fluid delivery system, in combination with magnetic means disposed in operative relationship around a liquid droplet collector of the LDR. The magnetic means are effective to focus streams of droplets directed from the generator toward the collector, thereby to assure that essentially all of the droplets are directed into the collector, even though some of the streams may be misdirected as they leave the generator. The magnetic focusing means is also effective to suppress splashing of liquid when the droplets impinge on the collector.

Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.; Lenard, R.

1984-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

140

Dynamic simulation of a circulating fluidized bed boiler of low circulating ratio with wide particle size distributions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A steady state model of a coal fired CFB boiler considering the hydrodynamics, heat transfer and combustion is presented. This model predicts the flue gas temperature, the chemical gas species (O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, CO, CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2}) and char concentration distributions in both the axial and radial location along the furnace including the bottom and upper portion. The model was validated against experimental data generated in a 35 t/h commercial CFB boiler with low circulating ratio.

Lu Huilin; Yang Lidan; Bie Rushan; Zhao Guangbo

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "drop size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Policy for Dropped/Excused Assignments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Policy for Dropped and Excused Quizzes/Homework. • QUIZZES/HOMEWORK. On average, students can expect about 1 quiz and 3 homework assignments per

Devlin, Patrick M

2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

142

The effect of turbulence on the stability of liquid jets and the resulting droplet size distributions. Third quarterly technical report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laminar and turbulent columns of liquids issuing from capillary tubes were studied in order to determine the effects of turbulence on the stability of liquid jets and to establish the influence of liquid turbulence on droplet size distributions after breakup. Two capillary tubes were chosen with diameters D{sub 1}=3.0mm and D{sub 2}=1.2mm; jet Reynolds numbers were 1000--30000, and 400--7200. For water injection into stagnant air, stability curve is bounded by a laminar portion, where a jet radius and {delta}{sub o} initial disturbance amplitude, and a fully developed turbulent portion characterized by high initial disturbance amplitude (ln(a/{delta}{sub o,T}) {approximately} 4.85). In the transition region, ln(a/{delta}{sub o}) is not single valued; it decreases with increasing Reynolds number. In absence of aerodynamic effects, turbulent jets are as stable as laminar jets. For this breakup mode turbulence propagates initial disturbances with amplitudes orders of magnitude larger than laminar jets ({delta}{sub o,T}=28{times}10{sup 6} {delta}{sub o,L}). Growth rates of initial disturbances are same for both laminar and turbulent columns with theoretical Weber values. Droplet size distribution is bi-modal; the number ratio of large (> D/2), to small (< D/2) droplets is 3 and independent of Reynolds number. For laminar flow optimum wavelength ({lambda}{sub opt}) corresponding to fastest growing disturbance is equal to 4.45D, exactly the theoretical Weber value. For turbulent flow conditions, the turbulent column segments. Typically, segments with lengths of one to several wavelengths, detach from the liquid jet. The long ligaments contract under the action of surface tension, resulting in droplet sizes larger than predicted by Rayleigh and Weber. For turbulent flow conditions, {lambda}{sub opt} = 9.2D, about 2 times the optimum Weber wavelength.

Mansour, A.; Chigier, N.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Long-term changes in the population size and geographical distribution of Pennella sp. (Copepoda) on the saury, Cololabis saira, in the western North Pacific Ocean and adjacent seas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Changes in the population size and geographical distribution of the mesoparasitic copepod Pennella sp. (Siphonostomatoida: Pennellidae) on the saury, Cololabis saira..., were studied for a period of six years (19...

Kazuya Nagasawa; Yoshihiro Imai; Kyoichi Ishida

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Long-term changes in the population size and geographical distribution of Pennella sp. (Copepoda) on the saury, Cololabis saira, in the western North Pacific Ocean and adjacent seas*  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Changes in the population size and geographical distribution of the mesoparasitic copepod Pennella sp. (Siphonostomatoida: Pennellidae) on the saury. Cololabis saira..., were studied for a period of six years (19...

Kazuya Nagasawa; Yoshihiro Imai; Kyoichi Ishida

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid pool size Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

myth found fishy Summary: bloodhounds really detect a drop of blood in an Olympic-sized swimming pool or a mile away in the ocean... : sharks can smell a drop of blood in a...

146

Superheated water drops in hot oil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Drops of water at room temperature were released in hot oil, which had a temperature higher than that of the boiling point of water. Initially, the drop temperature increases slowly mainly due to heat transfer diffusion; convective heat transfer is small because the motion takes place at a small Reynolds number. Once the drop reaches the bottom of the container, it sticks to the surface with a certain contact angle. Then, a part of the drop vaporizes: the nucleation point may appear at the wall, the interface or the bulk of the drop. The vapor expands inside the drop and deforms its interface. The way in which the vapor expands, either smooth or violent, depends on the location of the nucleation point and oil temperature. Furthermore, for temperatures close to the boiling point of water, the drops are stable (overheated); the vaporization does not occur spontaneously but it may be triggered with an external perturbation. In this case the growth of the vapor bubble is rather violent. Many visualization for dif...

Soto, Enrique; Belmonte, Andrew

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Complementizer Drop And IP Complementation in Japanese  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The main purpose of the present paper is to provide a principled account for a phenomenon called "Complementizer Drop" in the dialects of Japanese and its related phenomena in teens of the head-raising approach without ...

Fukuda, Minoru

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Syracuse University Test Report On Uptake Factor Resulting From A Dropped Storage Container  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under certain circumstances, powder from an accidently dropped container can become airborne and inhaled by people nearby such as those who are moving the containers. The inhaled fine particles can deposit on respiratory tracts and lungs, causing asthma, lung cancer, and other acute respiratory illnesses and chronic symptoms. The objective of this study was to develop a standard procedure to measure the airborne concentrations of different size particles within the vicinity of a dropped container where a significant portion of the contained powder is ejected. Tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) was selected in this study to represent relatively heavy powders (7.16 g/cm3 specific gravity for WO{sub 3}). A typical can with the outer dimensions of 4.25” diameter and 4.875” tall was used as the container. The powder was dropped in two different configurations: 1) contained within a can covered by a lid that has a 0.25” diameter hole, and 2) contained within a can without a lid. The packing volume of the powder was 51.4 in{sup 3} (842.7 cm{sup 3}) and the target mass was 1936 g. The tests were carried out in a full-scale stainless steel environmental chamber with an interior volume of 852 ft{sup 3} (24.1 m{sup 3}). The chamber system includes an internal recirculation loop with a rectangular air diffuser and 10 variable frequency drive fans to provide a typical room air recirculation flow pattern. Two air filters were installed in the chamber air supply duct and return duct to achieve the required low background particle concentration. The initial chamber air conditions were set at 70°F (± 5°F) and 50% (± 10%) RH. A supporting frame and releasing device were designed and built to trigger consistently the dropping of the can at a height of 8 feet from the bottom of the can to the impacting surface. The particle sampling inlet was placed 5 ft above the floor and 6 inches laterally away from the can’s falling path. Concentrations of particles between 0.5 ?m and 20 ?m were recorded in units of mass and number of particles per unit volume. The data acquisition rate was once every 2 seconds during the first 2 hours and every 20 seconds thereafter. A test procedure was developed and a total of nine drop tests were performed. In most cases (seven tests), the can tipped over after dropping. The can in Test 1 stayed upright. The can in Test 7 showed a special behavior: after the rebound, it turned upside down and stayed upright. Major findings are summarized below: ? The amount of spilled powder varied from 0.12 g to 252.35 g and the non-recovered powder varied from 0.11 g to 1.18 g. The corresponding percentage of the spilled powder ranged from 0.01% to 13%. ? The peak value of particle number concentration after the dropping of the can occurred at approximately 0.9 ?m particle size per measured data of individual channels. The peak value of particle mass concentration occurred in the range of 4.3 - 10 ?m particle size per grouped data calculated from the measured data with the exception of Test 4 where a different batch powder with unexpectedly different bulk density and particle size distribution. ? After the dropping of the can, the total airborne mass concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 0.35 mg/m{sup 3}, while the total airborne number concentrations ranged from 2 to 125 #/cm{sup 3} except for Test 4. The number concentration in Test 4 was 1 or 2 orders of magnitude less than those of other tests because the powder was from a different batch. However, its mass concentration was comparable to that in Test 7 because relatively more big airborne particles were detected in Test 4. In general, tests with lid (Test 5, 6, 7 and 8) had smaller concentrations than tests without lid (Test 0, 1, 2, and 3). The influence of lid was not as prominent as the powder (Test 4). However, this needs more tests for verification. ? The ratio of airborne mass to non-recovered mass ranged from 0.1% to 2%. This means that it is challenging to use this method to check the mass balance, while the uptake factor and associated inhalation exposur

Gao, Z.; Zhang, J. S.

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Distribution:  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

JAN26 19% JAN26 19% Distribution: OR00 Attn: h.H.M.Roth DFMusser ITMM MMMann INS JCRyan FIw(2) Hsixele SRGustavson, Document rocm Formal file i+a@mmm bav@ ~@esiaw*cp Suppl. file 'Br & Div rf's s/health (lic.only) UNITED STATES ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION SPECIAL NUCLEAB MATERIAL LICENSE pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Chapter 1, P&t 70, "Special Nuclear Material Reg)llatiqm," a license is hereby issued a$hortztng the licensee to rekeive and possess the special nuclear material designated below; to use such special nuclear mat&ial for the purpose(s) and at the place(s) designated below; and to transfer such material to per&s authorized to receive it in accordance with the regula,tions in said Part.

150

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Drop-In Biofuels  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

Drop-In Biofuels to Drop-In Biofuels to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Drop-In Biofuels on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Drop-In Biofuels on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Drop-In Biofuels on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Drop-In Biofuels on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Drop-In Biofuels on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Drop-In Biofuels on AddThis.com... More in this section... Biobutanol Drop-In Biofuels Methanol P-Series Renewable Natural Gas xTL Fuels Drop-In Biofuels Drop-in biofuels are hydrocarbon fuels substantially similar to gasoline, diesel, or jet fuels. These fuels can be made from a variety of biomass feedstocks including crop residues, woody biomass, dedicated energy crops,

151

Disassembly of hot classical charged drops  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The disassembly of hot classical charged drops containing ?230 and 130 particles is studied with the molecular dynamics method. The strength of the Coulomb repulsion is chosen so that these drops have a binding energy formula similar to that of nuclei. The phase diagram of neutral matter, obtained by switching off the Coulomb force, is also similar to that of nuclear matter. In addition to the total-vaporization, fragmentation, and evaporation modes of the disassembly of neutral drops, the charged drops also break by multiple and binary fission. The liquid-gas phase transition plays an important role in the multiple fission of expanding charged liquid drops. There also appears to be a window in the initial conditions in which binary fission followed by a density oscillation is the dominant mode of breakup. The multiple and binary fission breakups are due to the Coulomb forces, and they yield more massive clusters with relatively few small clusters with ?10 particles. The higher energy fragmentation and total vaporization modes are not significantly influenced by the Coulomb forces. They are primarily due to the liquid-gas transition, and their yields decrease almost monotonically with the number of particles in the cluster.

R. J. Lenk and V. R. Pandharipande

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Vibrations of Sessile Drops of Soft Hydrogels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sessile drops of soft hydrogels were vibrated vertically by subjecting them to a mechanically induced Gaussian white noise. Power spectra of the surface fluctuation of the gel allowed identification of its resonant frequency that decreases with their mass, but increases with its shear modulus. The principal resonant frequencies of the spheroidal modes of the gel of shear moduli ranging from 55 Pa to 290 Pa were closest to the lowest Rayleigh mode of vibration of a drop of pure water. These observations coupled with the fact that the resonance frequency varies inversely as the square root of the mass in all cases suggest that they primarily correspond to the capillary (or a pseudo-capillary) mode of drop vibration. The contact angles of the gel drops also increase with the modulus of the gel. When the resonance frequencies are corrected for the wetting angles, and plotted against the fundamental frequency scale (gamma/mu)^0.5, all the data collapse nicely on a single plot provided that the latter is shifted by a shear modulus dependent factor (1+mu.L/gamma). A length scale L, independent of both the modulus and the mass of the drop emerges from such a fit.

Aditi Chakrabarti; Manoj K. Chaudhury

2014-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

153

Drops, Slugs, and FloodingDrops, Slugs, and Flooding in PEM Fuel Cellsin PEM Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Drops, Slugs, and FloodingDrops, Slugs, and Flooding in PEM Fuel Cellsin PEM Fuel Cells A Study Fuel CellBackground: PEM Fuel Cell Graphic by Marc Marshall, Schatz Energy Research Center http ProjectDrag Project SetupSetup MFC (H2, N2 Inputs) Bubbler Current Humidity Sensor Modified PEM Fuel Cell

Petta, Jason

154

Neutron drops and neutron pairing energy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The ground state energy of a six-neutron drop is computed with variational and Green’s function Monte Carlo methods using the Argonne v18 two-nucleon and the Urbana three-nucleon potentials. Combined with earlier results from investigations of the drops 8n and 7n, this energy gives a 1p-shell pairing energy of (1.8±0.4) MeV. The generalized Skyrme effective interaction discussed in the earlier work is applied to these nuclei by calculating, for the open-shell drops 7n and 6n, the matrix elements of the Skyrme t matrix directly for the states involved. The pairing energy obtained is 1.50 MeV, in reasonable agreement with the accurate calculations.

A. Smerzi; D. G. Ravenhall; V. R. Pandharipande

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Vaporization modeling of petroleum-biofuel drops using a hybrid multi-component approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Numerical modeling of the vaporization characteristics of multi-component fuel mixtures is performed in this study. The fuel mixtures studied include those of binary components, biodiesel, diesel-biodiesel, and gasoline-ethanol. The use of biofuels has become increasingly important for reasons of environmental sustainability. Biofuels are often blended with petroleum fuels, and the detailed understanding of the vaporization process is essential to designing a clean and efficient combustion system. In this study, a hybrid vaporization model is developed that uses continuous thermodynamics to describe petroleum fuels and discrete components to represent biofuels. The model is validated using the experimental data of n-heptane, n-heptane-n-decane mixture, and biodiesel. Since biodiesel properties are not universal due to the variation in feedstock, methods for predicting biodiesel properties based on the five dominant fatty acid components are introduced. Good levels of agreement in the predicted and measured drop size histories are obtained. Furthermore, in modeling the diesel-biodiesel drop, results show that the drop lifetime increases with the biodiesel concentration in the blend. During vaporization, only the lighter components of diesel fuel vaporize at the beginning. Biodiesel components do not vaporize until some time during the vaporization process. On the other hand, results of gasoline-ethanol drops indicate that both fuels start to vaporize once the process begins. At the beginning, the lighter components of gasoline have a slightly higher vaporization rate than ethanol. After a certain time, ethanol vaporizes faster than the remaining gasoline components. At the end, the drop reduces to a regular gasoline drop with heavier components. Overall, the drop lifetime increases as the concentration of ethanol increases in the drop due to the higher latent heat. (author)

Zhang, Lei; Kong, Song-Charng [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, 2025 Black Engineering Building, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

156

NASA reports drop in stratospheric ozone  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

NASA reports drop in stratospheric ozone ... "I believe I have that evidence," asserts NASA's Heath, adding: "It's not the proof—that will take much more work. ... Public release of the NASA data analysis is somewhat premature, he says, because the paper has not yet been published. ...

1981-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

157

Effect of Engine-Out NOx Control Strategies on PM Size Distribution in Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines Developed for 2010  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A distinct relationship was found between engine-out and SCR-out PM distributions for single-mode testing.

158

High spring temperatures decrease peach fruit size  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

useful in dif?cult fruit- and crop level interactions inin light of the increasing fruit size distribution and waterpressure for large-size fruits. CALIFORNIA AGRICULTURE •

Lopez, Geraldo; Johnson, R. Scott; DeJong, Theodore M.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Technical Letter Report Development of Flaw Size Distribution Tables Including Effects of Flaw Depth Sizing Errors for Draft 10CFR 50.61a (Alternate PTS Rule) JCN-N6398, Task 4  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document describes a new method to determine whether the flaws in a particular reactor pressure vessel are consistent with the assumptions regarding the number and sizes of flaws used in the analyses that formed the technical justification basis for the new voluntary alternative Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) rule (Draft 10 CFR 50.61a). The new methodology addresses concerns regarding prior methodology because ASME Code Section XI examinations do not detect all fabrication flaws, they have higher detection performance for some flaw types, and there are flaw sizing errors always present (e.g., significant oversizing of small flaws and systematic under sizing of larger flaws). The new methodology allows direct comparison of ASME Code Section XI examination results with values in the PTS draft rule Tables 2 and 3 in order to determine if the number and sizes of flaws detected by an ASME Code Section XI examination are consistent with those assumed in the probabilistic fracture mechanics calculations performed in support of the development of 10 CFR 50.61a.

Simonen, Fredric A.; Gosselin, Stephen R.; Doctor, Steven R.

2013-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

160

The Sensitivity of DPF Performance to the Spatial Distribution of Ash Generated from Six Lubricant Formulations  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Discusses potential of DPF pressure drop reduction by optimizing the spatial distribution of ash inside DPF inlet channel

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "drop size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Controlling drop coalescence using nano-engineered surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The dynamics of drop coalescence are explored on micro-scale surface features for the first time. Drop coalescence is defined as a process by which two or more droplets, bubbles or particles merge during contact to form a ...

Corral, Manuel, Jr

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Bounding Drop Support Calculations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report evaluates different drop heights, concrete and other impact media to which the transport package and/or the MCO is dropped. A prediction method is derived for estimating the resultant impact factor for determining the bounding drop case for the SNF Project.

CHENAULT, D.M.

1999-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

163

Administrative Policy: Drop/Add Policy Page 1 of 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Administrative Policy: Drop/Add Policy Page 1 of 1 Governance & Policies Effective: October 1997 Administrative Policy DROP/ADD POLICY Approved: October 1997 Revised: 2002; 2004; June 8, 2011 Deans' Council. There is no automatic drop policy for nonattendance. PASSHE universities are expected to adhere to the System

Hardy, Christopher R.

164

Quantized Liquid Drop and Some Ground-State Nuclear Properties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The liquid drop is adopted as a simple nuclear model. The zero-point motion of the quantized drop is found to alter some of the properties of the classical drop, bringing the model into better agreement with experiment. The properties discussed are the skin thickness, the electric form factor for elastic scattering, and the rms nuclear radius as a function of atomic number.

G. Reading Henry

1968-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

165

Drop Testing of DOE Spent Nuclear Fuel Canisters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory INEEL) prepared four representative Department of Energy DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canisters for the purpose of drop testing. The first two canisters represented a modified 24- inch diameter standardized DOE SNF canister and the second two canisters represented the Hanford Multi-Canister Overpack MCO). The modified canisters and internals were constructed and assembled at the INEEL. The MCO internal weights were fabricated at the INEEL and assembled into two MCOs at Hanford and later shipped to the INEEL for drop test preparation. Drop testing of these four canisters was completed in August 2004 at Sandia National Laboratories. The modified canisters were dropped from 30 feet onto a flat, essentially unyielding surface, with the canisters oriented at 45 degrees and 70 degrees off-vertical at impact. One representative MCO was dropped from 23 feet onto the same flat surface, oriented vertically at impact. The second representative MCO was dropped onto the flat surface from 2 feet oriented at 60 degrees off-vertical. These drop heights and orientations were chosen to meet or exceed the Yucca Mountain repository drop criteria. This paper discusses the comparison of deformations between the actual dropped canisters and those predicted by pre-drop and limited post-drop finite element evaluations performed using ABAQUS/Explicit. Post-drop containment of all four canisters, demonstrated by way of helium leak testing, is also discussed.

S. D. Snow; D. K. Morton; T. E. Rahl; R. K. Blandford; T. J. Hill

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Evaluation of the modified Anderson sampler for determining particle size distributions and respirable concentrations of particulate matter present in the working environment of cottonseed oil mills  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to fluctuate during the day within the same work areas. From the particle size data, it was evident that, to fully characterize the dust collected, addi- tional stages were required. At least two additional stages, one with a 40 um effective cutoff diameter..., would have provided a more complete dust characterization. Also, it was evident that a high percentage of the particulate matter was in the 7 to 100 um in diameter particle size range. Unusually high concentrations of dust in this range were found...

Matlock, Stanley Wayne

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

167

Net Metering Policy Development and Distributed Solar Generation in Minnesota: Overview of Trends in Nationwide Policy Development and Implications of Increasing the Eligible System Size Cap  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

0 0 December 2009 Net Metering Policy Development in Minnesota: Overview of Trends in Nationwide Policy Development and Implications of Increasing the Eligible System Size Cap Elizabeth Doris, Sarah Busche, and Stephen Hockett National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC Contract No. DE-AC36-08-GO28308 Technical Report NREL/TP-6A2-46670 December 2009 Net Metering Policy Development in Minnesota: Overview of Trends in Nationwide Policy Development and Implications of Increasing the Eligible System Size Cap

168

Coalescence of bubbles and drops in an outer fluid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

When two liquid drops touch, a microscopic connecting liquid bridge forms and rapidly grows as the two drops merge into one. Whereas coalescence has been thoroughly studied when drops coalesce in vacuum or air, many important situations involve coalescence in a dense surrounding fluid, such as oil coalescence in brine. Here we study the merging of gas bubbles and liquid drops in an external fluid. Our data indicate that the flows occur over much larger length scales in the outer fluid than inside the drops themselves. Thus we find that the asymptotic early regime is always dominated by the viscosity of the drops, independent of the external fluid. A phase diagram showing the crossovers into the different possible late-time dynamics identifies a dimensionless number that signifies when the external viscosity can be important.

Joseph D. Paulsen; Rémi Carmigniani; Anerudh Kannan; Justin C. Burton; Sidney R. Nagel

2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

169

Fat Man Dropped on Nagasaki | National Nuclear Security Administration  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Fat Man Dropped on Nagasaki | National Nuclear Security Administration Fat Man Dropped on Nagasaki | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > About Us > Our History > NNSA Timeline > Fat Man Dropped on Nagasaki Fat Man Dropped on Nagasaki August 09, 1945 Nagasaki, Japan Fat Man Dropped on Nagasaki The implosion model plutonium bomb, called Fat Man, is dropped on Nagasaki,

170

A Two-Phase Pressure Drop Model Incorporating Local Water Balance and Reactant Consumption in PEM Fuel Cell Gas Channels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

), and directly affects cost and sizing of fuel cell subsystems. Within several regions of PEMFC operating Fuel Cell Gas Channels E. J. See and S. G. Kandlikar Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rochester in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The ability to model two-phase flow and pressure drop

Kandlikar, Satish

171

Bulk Fuel Procurement Process & Alternative Drop-in Fuel  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Jeanne Binder, DLA Energy, presentation on Bulk Fuel Procurement Process & Alternative Drop-in Fuel at the Advanced Biofuels Industry Roundtable.

172

Electrical dispersion of water drops suspended in hydrocarbons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effects of alternating (50 Hz) and direct current fields on drops of distilled water in a nonpolar hydrocarbon medium were examined.

G. M. Panchenkov; V. V. Papko; V. Ya. Baranov

1968-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Energy-efficiency of Drop-and-Continue Traffic Grooming  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper evaluates the energy-saving achievable by performing traffic grooming in WDM networks with drop-and-continue node architecture. Different grooming strategies are compared in...

Farahmand, Farid; Cerutti, Isabella; Hasan, Mohammad M; Jue, Jason P

174

Sudden Lifetime Drop Phenomena and their Effective Cures in PF-ring and PF-AR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In PF-ring and PF-AR, sudden drops in the electron beam lifetime, which are attributed to dust trapping, were frequently observed after extensive renewals of the storage rings. The reduced-lifetime state sometimes lasts for a few hours, and the mitigation of this problem was strongly demanded for stable user operations. Since a major source of dust particles was thought to be a distributed ion pump (DIP), we attempted switching the DIPs off during user operations in both the rings. As a result, occurrence of the lifetime drops was almost completely suppressed during single-bunch mode in PF-ring, while the occurrence frequency was reduced by only 38% in PF-AR. We found that the lifetime drops were sometimes accompanied by a transient increase in the vacuum pressure at some discharge-prone devices. Based on the hypothesis that the harmful dust could be generated by an electric discharge in vacuum, we attempted the conditioning of these devices in PF-AR by storing 25% higher current than usual. By combination of the DIP-OFF operation and the high-current conditioning, the occurrence frequency of the lifetime drops in PF-AR was reduced by no less than 67%.

Tanimoto, Yasunori; Honda, Tohru; Uchiyama, Takashi; Nogami, Takashi [Accelerator Laboratory, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

175

Investigation of thermochemical biorefinery sizing and environmental sustainability impacts for conventional supply system and distributed pre-processing supply system designs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 2011 US Billion-Ton Update estimates that by 2030 there will be enough agricultural and forest resources to sustainably provide at least one billion dry tons of biomass annually, enough to displace approximately 30% of the country's current petroleum consumption. A portion of these resources are inaccessible at current cost targets with conventional feedstock supply systems because of their remoteness or low yields. Reliable analyses and projections of US biofuels production depend on assumptions about the supply system and biorefinery capacity, which, in turn, depend upon economic value, feedstock logistics, and sustainability. A cross-functional team has examined combinations of advances in feedstock supply systems and biorefinery capacities with rigorous design information, improved crop yield and agronomic practices, and improved estimates of sustainable biomass availability. A previous report on biochemical refinery capacity noted that under advanced feedstock logistic supply systems that include depots and pre-processing operations there are cost advantages that support larger biorefineries up to 10 000 DMT/day facilities compared to the smaller 2000 DMT/day facilities. This report focuses on analyzing conventional versus advanced depot biomass supply systems for a thermochemical conversion and refinery sizing based on woody biomass. The results of this analysis demonstrate that the economies of scale enabled by advanced logistics offsets much of the added logistics costs from additional depot processing and transportation, resulting in a small overall increase to the minimum ethanol selling price compared to the conventional logistic supply system. While the overall costs do increase slightly for the advanced logistic supply systems, the ability to mitigate moisture and ash in the system will improve the storage and conversion processes. In addition, being able to draw on feedstocks from further distances will decrease the risk of biomass supply to the conversion facility.

David J. Muth, Jr.; Matthew H. Langholtz; Eric C. D. Tan; Jacob J. Jacobson; Amy Schwab; May M. Wu; Andrew Argo; Craig C. Brandt; Kara G. Cafferty; Yi-Wen Chiu; Abhijit Dutta; Laurence M. Eaton; Erin M. Searcy

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Drop Tests of the Closure Ring for the 9975 Package  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The drop tests of the closure ring for 9975 packages, described here, were performed to answer questions raised by the regulatory authority as a result of deformation of the closure ring and drum rim observed during drop tests conducted in September 1998.

Smith, A.C

1999-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

177

Drops of Energy Conserving Urban Water in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Drops of Energy Conserving Urban Water in California to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions May 2011 of diesel fuel annually. The greenhouse gas emissions associated with water- related energy consumption;1Berkeley Law \\ UCLA Law Drops of Energy: Conserving Urban Water in California to Reduce Greenhouse Gas

Kammen, Daniel M.

178

A Laboratory Study of Pressure Losses in Residential Air Distribution  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A Laboratory Study of Pressure Losses in Residential Air Distribution A Laboratory Study of Pressure Losses in Residential Air Distribution Systems Speaker(s): Bass Abushakra Date: March 7, 2002 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Duo Wang An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the pressure drop of residential air distribution system components that are either not available or poorly described in existing duct design literature. The tests were designed to imitate cases normally found in typical residential and light commercial installations. The study included three different sizes of flexible ducts, under different compression configurations, splitter boxes, supply boots, and a fresh air intake hood. The experimental tests apparatus followed ASHRAE Standard 120P - Methods of Testing to Determine Flow

179

Lifetime of nuclear velocity dispersion drops in barred galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have made hydro/N-body simulations with and without star formation to shed some light on the conditions under which a central kinematically cold stellar component (characterized by a velocity dispersion drop or \\sigma-drop) could be created in a hot medium (e.g. a bulge) and survive enough time to be observed. We found that the timescale for a \\sigma-drop formation could be short (less than 500 Myr) whereas its lifetime could be long (more than 1 Gyr) provided that the central region is continuously or regularly fed by fresh gas which leads to a continuous star formation activity. Star formation in the central region, even at a low rate as 1M_{sol} yr^{-1}, is mandatory to sustain a permanent \\sigma-drop by replacing heated particles by new low-\\sigma ones. We moreover show that as soon as star formation is switched off, the \\sigma-drop begins to disappear.

Herve Wozniak; Nicolas Champavert

2006-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

180

Axisymmetric Drop Shape Analysis?Constrained Sessile Drop (ADSA-CSD): A Film Balance Technique for High Collapse Pressures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Such isotherms are commonly measured by a Langmuir film balance or a drop shape technique using a pendant drop constellation (ADSA-PD). ... This was attributed to the ordering of the DPPC tails toward vertical orientation which requires more energy, extending the range of area per molecule over which the compression occurs. ...

Sameh M. I. Saad; Zdenka Policova; Edgar J. Acosta; A. Wilhelm Neumann

2008-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "drop size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Effects of sudden expansion and contraction flow on pressure drops in the Stirling engine regenerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The flow losses in the regenerators greatly influence the performance of the Stirling engine. The losses mainly depend on fluid friction through the regenerator matrix, but are also generated in sudden expansion and contraction flow at the regenerator ends. The latter losses can't be neglected in the case of small area ratio (entrance area/cross-sectional area in regenerator). The pressure drops in regenerators are usually estimated assuming a uniform velocity distribution of working gas in the matrices. The estimation results, however, are generally smaller than practical data. The cross-sectional flow areas of the heater and cooler of typical Stirling engines are smaller than the cross- sectional area of the regenerator. The effects of the small flow passage on the velocity distribution of working fluid in the matrix, that is, a flow transition from tubes or channels to a regenerator matrix, can be often confirmed by the discolored matrix. Especially, the lack of a uniform distribution of velocity in the matrix causes increased flow loss and decreased thermal performance. So, it is necessary to understand the quantitative effects of the sudden change in flow area at the regenerator ends on the velocity distribution and pressure drop. In this paper, using matrices made of stacks of wire screens, the effects of the entrance and exit areas and the length of the regenerator on pressure drops are examined by an unidirectional steady flow apparatus. The experimental data are arranged in an empirical equation. The lack of a uniformity of velocity distribution is visualized using smoke-wire methods. The empirical equation presented is applied to the estimation of pressure loss in an actual engine regenerator. The applicability of the equation is examined by comparison of estimated value with engine data in pressure loss.

Hamaguchi, K.; Yamashita, I.; Hirata, K.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

On the development of a spray model based on drop-size moments  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...experimental results given are penetration rates, and the SMR averaged...although less good than the penetration results. Again, the...rst millisecond. The rate of increase of spray...20 30 40 time (ms) penetration(mm) case R1 predicted...

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Critical angle refractometry and sizing of bubble clouds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The principle of the critical angle refractometry and sizing technique is extended to characterize the size distribution and the mean refractive index of clouds of bubbles. For a...

Onofri, Fabrice; Krysiek, Mariusz; Mroczka, Janusz

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Bulk Hook Echo Raindrop Sizes Retrieved Using Mobile, Polarimetric Doppler Radar Observations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Polarimetric radar observations obtained by the NOAA (NSSL) mobile, X-band, dual-polarization radar (NOXP) are used to investigate hook echo precipitation properties in several tornadic and non-tornadic supercells. Hook echo drop size ...

Michael M. French; Donald W. Burgess; Edward R. Mansell; Louis J. Wicker

185

The influence of surface tension gradients on drop coalescence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the results of a combined experimental and numerical investigation of the coalescence of a drop with a liquid reservoir of a miscible but distinct fluid. Particular attention is given to elucidating the influence ...

Bush, John W. M.

186

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Utica Drop Forge and Tool...  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Name: None Location: Utica , New York NY.39-1 Evaluation Year: 1994 NY.39-2 Site Operations: Interest expressed by Utica Drop Forge & Tool Corporation to Conduct Uranium...

187

A quasi-static model of drop impact  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We develop a conceptually simple theoretical model of non-wetting drop impact on a rigid surface at small Weber numbers. Flat and curved impactor surfaces are considered, and the influence of surface curvature is elucidated. ...

Bush, John W. M.

188

Filling an emulsion drop with motile bacteria  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have measured the spatial distribution of motile Escherichia coli inside spherical water droplets emulsified in oil. At low cell concentrations, the cell density peaks at the water-oil interface; at increasing concentration, the bulk of each droplet fills up uniformly while the surface peak remains. Simulations and theory show that the bulk density results from a `traffic' of cells leaving the surface layer, increasingly due to cell-cell scattering as the surface coverage rises above $\\sim 10\\%$. Our findings show similarities with the physics of a rarefied gas in a spherical cavity with attractive walls.

Vladescu, I D; Schwarz-Linek, J; Martinez, V A; Arlt, J; Morozov, A N; Marenduzzo, D; Cates, M E; Poon, W C K

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Filling an emulsion drop with motile bacteria  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have measured the spatial distribution of motile Escherichia coli inside spherical water droplets emulsified in oil. At low cell concentrations, the cell density peaks at the water-oil interface; at increasing concentration, the bulk of each droplet fills up uniformly while the surface peak remains. Simulations and theory show that the bulk density results from a `traffic' of cells leaving the surface layer, increasingly due to cell-cell scattering as the surface coverage rises above $\\sim 10\\%$. Our findings show similarities with the physics of a rarefied gas in a spherical cavity with attractive walls.

I. D. Vladescu; E. J. Marsden; J. Schwarz-Linek; V. A. Martinez; J. Arlt; A. N. Morozov; D. Marenduzzo; M. E. Cates; W. C. K. Poon

2014-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

190

New directions for gravitational wave physics via "Millikan oil drops"  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

"Millikan oil drops" are drops of superfluid helium coated with electrons, and levitated in a strong, inhomogeneous magnetic field. When the temperature of the system becomes very low compared to the cyclotron gap energy, the system remains in its quantum ground state. Two such levitated charged drops can have their charge-to-mass ratio critically adjusted so that the forces of gravity and electricity between the drops are in balance. Then it is predicted that the amount of scattered electromagnetic and gravitational radiation from the drops are equalized, along with these two kinds of forces. The cross sections for the scattering of the two kinds of radiation can become large, hard-sphere cross-sections at the first Mie resonance, due to the hard-wall boundary conditions on the surfaces of the spheres for both kinds of radiations. An efficient quantum transduction process between electromagnetic and gravitational radiation by such a pair of drops is predicted at microwave frequencies, and a Hertz-like experi...

Chiao, Raymond Y

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

The core pressure drop characteristics in a CANDU 6 reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The core pressure drop characteristics in a CANDU 6 have been examined to reveal the mechanism inducing the difference in the core pressure drop among four passages. The general characteristics for the inlet header temperature and core pressure drop are deduced from the measured data of CANDU 6 NPPs. The passages, which are connected to the purification system, are shown to have a larger core pressure drop and lower inlet header temperature compared with other passages in a loop. The temperature difference among four inlet headers has been analytically obtained by considering the effect of the purification system and verified by the measured data of CANDU 6 NPPs. The relationship between the inlet header temperature and core pressure drop has been secured from the magnetite transport mechanism in a CANDU 6. The analytical computations for a CANDU 6 NPP have revealed that the core pressure drop difference among four passages is largely dependent on the single phase friction factor rather than the mass flow rate in a passage. The calculated single phase friction factors are in accord with the magnetite deposition characteristics derived from the difference in the inlet header temperature.

Jun Ho Bae; Jong Yeob Jung

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Measurement of Size Distributions of Bacterial Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...The pulses persisted for 200 to 300,usec and were followed by a slight undershoot...were: first differentiators, 0.8 ,usec: integrator, 0.8 pusec; second differentiator...chi-square. Only one setting (0.8 ,usec) of the first dif- ferentiator gave adequate...

R. J. Harvey; Allen G. Marr

1966-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Original article Distribution and variation of size  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

florea worker bees were collected from nests found in Iranian provinces near the Persian Gulf, up to more. Since this species was detected as far north on the Iranian coast of the Persian Gulf and on the slopes nests were collected from provinces relatively close to the Persian Gulf (fig 1),aregion previously

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

194

Grain-size distributions of tsunami sediments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tsunami deposits indicate that suspended load transport is the main mechanism of movement throughout a tsunami event. Recent studies have touched on whether bed load transport is also occurring, but not seen in deposits due to the high energy nature...

Spencer, Sarah

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

195

In-service Inspection Ultrasonic Testing of Reactor Pressure Vessel Welds for Assessing Flaw Density and Size Distribution per 10 CFR 50.61a, Alternate Fracture Toughness Requirements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pressurized thermal shock (PTS) events are system transients in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) in which there is a rapid operating temperature cool-down that results in cold vessel temperatures with or without repressurization of the vessel. The rapid cooling of the inside surface of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) causes thermal stresses that can combine with stresses caused by high pressure. The aggregate effect of these stresses is an increase in the potential for fracture if a pre-existing flaw is present in a material susceptible to brittle failure. The ferritic, low alloy steel of the reactor vessel beltline adjacent to the core, where neutron radiation gradually embrittles the material over the lifetime of the plant, can be susceptible to brittle fracture. The PTS rule, described in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Section 50.61 (§50.61), “Fracture Toughness Requirements for Protection against Pressurized Thermal Shock Events,” adopted on July 23, 1985, establishes screening criteria to ensure that the potential for a reactor vessel to fail due to a PTS event is deemed to be acceptably low. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) completed a research program that concluded that the risk of through-wall cracking due to a PTS event is much lower than previously estimated. The NRC subsequently developed a rule, §50.61a, published on January 4, 2010, entitled “Alternate Fracture Toughness Requirements for Protection Against Pressurized Thermal Shock Events” (75 FR 13). Use of the new rule by licensees is optional. The §50.61a rule differs from §50.61 in that it requires licensees who choose to follow this alternate method to analyze the results from periodic volumetric examinations required by the ASME Code, Section XI, Rules for Inservice Inspection (ISI) of Nuclear Power Plants. These analyses are intended to determine if the actual flaw density and size distribution in the licensee’s reactor vessel beltline welds are bounded by the flaw density and size distribution values used in the PTS technical basis. Under a contract with the NRC, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been working on a program to assess the ability of current inservice inspection (ISI)-ultrasonic testing (UT) techniques, as qualified through ASME Code, Appendix VIII, Supplements 4 and 6, to detect small fabrication or inservice-induced flaws located in RPV welds and adjacent base materials. As part of this effort, the investigators have pursued an evaluation, based on the available information, of the capability of UT to provide flaw density/distribution inputs for making RPV weld assessments in accordance with §50.61a. This paper presents the results of an evaluation of data from the 1993 Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant, Unit 3, Spirit of Appendix VIII reactor vessel examination, a comparison of the flaw density/distribution from this data with the distribution in §50.61a, possible reasons for differences, and plans and recommendations for further work in this area.

Sullivan, Edmund J.; Anderson, Michael T.; Norris, Wallace

2012-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

196

GE partners with Matthew Dear to create "Drop Science" | GE Global...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to Create "Drop Science" GE Partners with Matthew Dear to Create "Drop Science" Every machine has its own acoustic signature - a precise frequency that indicates whether that...

197

E-Print Network 3.0 - all-pressure fluid drop Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Environmental Engineering, University of California at Santa Barbara Collection: Engineering 4 Drop Impact of Newtonian and Elastic Fluids Submitted by Summary: Drop...

198

Drop pressure optimization in oil well drilling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this research work we are interested in minimizing losses existing when drilling an oil well. This would essentially improve the load losses by acting on the rheological parameters of the hydraulic and drilling mud. For this rheological tests were performed using a six-speed rotary viscometer (FANN 35). We used several rheological models to accurately describe the actual rheological behavior of drilling mud oil-based according to the Pearson's coefficient and to the standard deviation. To model the problem we established a system of equations that describe the essential to highlight purpose and various constraints that allow for achieving this goal. To solve the problem we developed a computer program that solves the obtained equations in Visual Basic language system. Hydraulic and rheological calculation was made for in situ application. This allowed us to estimate the distribution of losses in the well.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Enhancement of loading capacity of distribution system through distributed generator placement considering techno-economic benefits with load growth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Load growth in a system is a natural phenomenon. With the increase in load demand, system power loss and voltage drop increases. Distributed generators (DGs) are one of the best solutions to cope up with the load growth if they are allocated appropriately in the distribution system. In this work, optimal size and location of multiple \\{DGs\\} are found to cater the incremental load on the system and minimization of power loss without violating system constraints. For this a predetermined annual load growth up to five years is considered with voltage regulation as a constraint. The particle swarm optimization with constriction factor approach is applied to determine the optimum size and location with multiple DGs. To see the effect of load growth on system, 33-node IEEE standard test case is considered. It is observed that with the penetration of multiple number of \\{DGs\\} in distribution system, there is great improvement in several distribution system parameters. Moreover, the loading capacity of distribution system is enhanced through DG placement and its techno-economic benefits are also established.

Khyati D. Mistry; Ranjit Roy

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Novel approach for particle velocity and size measurement under plasma conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel technique is proposed for the simultaneous in?flight measurement of the velocity and size of individual particles under plasma conditions. The method is based on the observation of each particle through its own emission and the analysis in the time domain of the waveform of the light burst generated as it crosses an observation window of known dimensions. A theoretical analysis of the parameters affecting the visibility of the particles in an argon plasma showed that depending on the particle diameter and its surface temperature its thermal visibility factor will drop sharply from 1.0 to almost zero with the increase of the background plasma temperature.Measurements are carried out using nickel particles (d? p =78 ?m ?=18.0 ?m) injected axially into an inductively coupled rf plasma (?f=3 MHz P=15 kW) operated using argon as the plasma gas at atmospheric pressure and under soft vacuum conditions (p=760 and 150 Torr). The results are in good agreement with particle velocity data obtained using laser Doppler anemometry. The measured in?flight particle size distribution is consistent with optical microscopic measurement of the particle size distribution of the injected powder.

Tadahiro Sakuta; Maher I. Boulos

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "drop size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Sizing sliding gate valves for steam service  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sliding gate valves have been used in thousands of applications during the past 40 yr. While steam control is a common application for these valves, thy are also used to control other gases and liquids. The sliding gate design provides straight-through flow, which minimizes turbulence, vibration, and noise. Seats are self-cleaning and self-lapping to provide a tight, long-lasting shutoff. A correctly sized valve is essential for accurate control. Valve size should be determined by service and system requirements, not by the size of the existing pipeline. Sizing a valve on the basis of pipeline size usually results in an oversized valve and poor control. Generally, regulator size is smaller than pipe size. Whenever complete information is known (inlet pressure, outlet pressure, or pressure drop, and required flow), determine the valve flow coefficient (C{sub v}) using the equations in ANSI/ISA S75.01 or a flow sizing chart. Tables of values for various types of valves are available from manufacturers. However, when complete system requirements are not known, valve oversizing is prevented by determining the design capacity of piping downstream from the valve. The valve should not be sized to pass more flow than the maximum amount the pipe can handle at a reasonable velocity. An example calculation is given.

Bollinger, R. [Jordan Value, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

1995-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

202

EA-1933: Yakama Nation Drop 4 Hydropower Project, Yakama Nation  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

933: Yakama Nation Drop 4 Hydropower Project, Yakama Nation 933: Yakama Nation Drop 4 Hydropower Project, Yakama Nation Reservation, WA EA-1933: Yakama Nation Drop 4 Hydropower Project, Yakama Nation Reservation, WA SUMMARY DOE is a cooperating agency with the Department of the Interior's Bureau of Indian Affairs as a lead agency for the preparation of an EA to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of a proposal by the Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation Department of Natural Resources to install an inline turbine on the Wapato Irrigation Project (WIP) Main Canal to generate approximately one megawatt of supplemental hydroelectric power. The Main Canal is a non-fish bearing irrigation canal within the WIP water conveyance system. The project site is located two miles southwest of Harrah, Washington.

203

Energy Innovator Drops Costs for Titanium Metalwork | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Innovator Drops Costs for Titanium Metalwork Innovator Drops Costs for Titanium Metalwork Energy Innovator Drops Costs for Titanium Metalwork March 13, 2012 - 12:42pm Addthis Michael Hess Michael Hess Former Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs What are the key facts? Iowa Powder Atomization Technology is one of 36 companies that licensed technology under an agreement with the National Lab as part of the America's Next Top Energy Innovator program. Titanium is the stuff aircrafts are made of, at least the important parts. It's an obvious material choice for aircraft engines and airframes with its high strength-to-weight ratio and resistance to corrosion. However, shaping the metal into complex shapes can be expensive. Using a heavier, easier-to-craft metal can be just as expensive because adding weight to an

204

Frictionally induced ignition processes in drop and skid tests  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The standard LANL/Pantex drop and skid tests rely on subjective assessment of reaction violence to quantify the response of the charge, and completely miss nonpropagating hot-spot ignition sites. Additionally, large variations in test results have been observed, which we propose is due to a misunderstanding of the basic physical processes that lead to threshold ignition in these tests. The tests have been redesigned to provide control of these mechanisms and to permit direct observation of hot spots at the impact site, allowing us to follow the progression of the outcome as the drop height and ignition source density are varied. The results confirm that frictional interactions between high-melting-point solids are the dominant ignition mechanism, not just at the threshold, but in fact at all realistic drop heights.

Dickson, Peter [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Parker, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Novak, Alan [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Physical test report for drop test of a 9974 radioactive material shipping packaging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the drop test results for the 9974 radioactive material shipping package being dropped onto 6-inch diameter, 40-inch long puncture pin. Also reported are the drop test resuls for a 30-foot impact that failed the drum confinement boundary. The purpose of these drops was to show that the package lid would remain attached to the drum.

Blanton, P.S. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Counting Rises, Levels and Drops in Compositions 1 Counting Rises, Levels and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Counting Rises, Levels and Drops in Compositions 1 Counting Rises, Levels and Drops in Compositions Mansour Department of Mathematics, Haifa University, Israel #12;Counting Rises, Levels and Drops;Counting Rises, Levels and Drops in Compositions 3 Definitions · A composition = 12 . . . m of n N

Heubach, Silvia

207

PRESSURE DROP EVALUATION OF THE HYDROGEN CIRCULATION SYSTEM FOR JSNS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In J-PARC, an intense spallation neutron source (JSNS) driven by a proton beam of 1 MW has selected supercritical hydrogen with a temperature of around 20 K and the pressure of 1.5 MPa as a moderator material. A hydrogen-circulation system, which consists of two pumps, an ortho-para hydrogen converter, a heater, an accumulator and a helium-hydrogen heat exchanger, has been designed to provide supercritical hydrogen to the moderators and remove the nuclear heating there. A hydrogen-circulation system is cooled through the heat exchanger by a helium refrigerator with the refrigeration power of 6.45 kW at 15.5 K. It is important for the cooling design of the hydrogen-circulation system to understand the pressure drops through the equipments. In this work, the pressure drop through each component was analyzed by using a CFD code, STAR-CD. The correlation of the pressure drops through the components that can describe the analytical results within 14% differences has been derived. It is confirmed that the pressure drop in the hydrogen circulation system would be estimated to be 37 kPa for the circulation flow rate of 160 g/s by using the correlations derived here, and is sufficiently lower than the allowable pump head of 100 kPa.

Tatsumoto, H.; Aso, T.; Ohtsu, K.; Kato, T.; Futakawa, M. [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki, 319-1195 (Japan)

2010-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

208

Bubbles and drops in superheated and supercooled nuclear matter  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Equilibrium solutions of bubbles and drops in superheated and supercooled nuclear matter are studied. The existence of such objects is shown to depend on several factors including Coulomb energy, surface tension, hydrodynamic stability, and fissility. We suggest conditions under which such objects might be formed in the laboratory.

Bao-An Li; Scott Pratt; Philip J. Siemens

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Plan to ban nitrites in foods dropped, for now  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Plan to ban nitrites in foods dropped, for now ... However, this recent slide-by-slide review of 50,000 tissues taken from the 2000 rats in Newberne's study found fewer cancerous lesions in the nitrite-fed rats than Newberne reported. ...

1980-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

210

Numerical Investigation of the Dynamics of drop formation and pitch ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Dec 3, 2012 ... Modeling and simulations of drop pinch-off from liquid crystal filaments and the leaky ... c Institute of Software, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100090, China ... An energy-based, phase field model is developed for the coupling of two incompressible, ...... 5.2 show the comparisons of zero level sets.

2012-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

211

Two phase pressure drop in inclined and vertical pipes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A method of calculating the pressure drop in inclined and vertical oil-gas wells is proposed. The data used to establish the method is from a variety of sources but is largely from air and water flowing in systems close ...

Griffith, P.

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Effect of certain admixtures on coalescence of drops in the extraction system TBP-HNO{sub 3} (HCl)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An attempt is made to characterize quantitatively the effect of the TBP hydrolysis products (butanol and dibutyl phosphate) and silica admixtures on the drop coalescene in the two-phase system TBP-HNO{sub 3} (or HCl). Lifetimes of a great number of particular drops on the planar phase boundary were measured, and the lifetime distribution was analyzed. This allowed determination of the coalescence constant and also (using physicochemical properties of the two-phase systems) estimation of depth of the continuous phase layer between the drop and the planar phase boundary at the instant of the drop appearance on the surface, at the point when the coalescence becomes possible as a result of mechanical and thermal fluctuations, and at the point when the coalescence is decelerated by virtue of certain reasons. The coalescence rate at practically the same physical parameters of the system is determined to a great extent by the nature of compounds occurring on the interface. The structural-mechanical barriers due to the occurrence of silica in the surface layer of the aqueous solution containing 3 M HNO{sub 3} and 0.03 M SiO{sub 2} are estimated at the planar phase boundary. In this case, the interface region is sharply different in physical properties from the bulk of the phases.

Sinegribova, O.A.

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

1999 Commercial Buildings Characteristics--Building Size  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Size of Buildings Size of Buildings Size of Buildings The 1999 CBECS estimated that 2,348,000 commercial buildings, or just over half (50.4 percent) of total buildings, were found in the smallest building size category (1,001 to 5,000 square feet) (Figure 1). Only 7,000 buildings occupied the largest size category (over 500,000 square feet). Detailed tables Figure 1. Distribution of Buildings by Size of Building, 1999 Figure 1. Distribution of Buildings by Size of Building, 1999. If having trouble viewing this page, please contact the National Energy Information Center at (202) 586-8800. Energy Information Administration Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey The middle size categories (10,001 to 100,000 square feet) had relatively more floorspace per category than smaller or larger size categories (Figure 2). The greatest amount of floorspace, about 11,153,000 square feet (or 17 percent of total floorspace) was found in the 10,001 to 25,000 square feet category. Figure 2. Distribution of Floorspace by Size of Building, 1999

214

Syracuse Univesity Test Report On Uptake Factor Resulting From A Dropped Storage Container - Phase II  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under certain circumstances, powder from an accidently dropped container can become airborne and inhaled by people nearby such as those who are moving the containers. The inhaled fine particles can deposit on respiratory tracts and lungs, causing asthma, lung cancer, and other acute respiratory illnesses and chronic symptoms. The objective of this study was to develop a standard procedure to measure the airborne concentrations of different size particles within the vicinity of a dropped container where a significant portion of the contained powder is ejected. Tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) was selected in this study to represent relatively heavy powders (7.16 g/cm3 specific gravity for WO{sub 3}). A typical can with the outer dimensions of 4.25” diameter and 4.875” tall was used as the container. The powder was dropped in two different configurations: 1) contained within a can covered by a lid that has a 0.25” diameter hole, and 2) contained within a can without a lid. The packing volume of the powder was 51.4 in3 (842.7 cm{sup 3}) and the target mass was 1936 g. The tests were carried out in a full-scale stainless steel environmental chamber with an interior volume of 852 ft3 (24.1 m3). The chamber system includes an internal recirculation loop with a rectangular air diffuser and 10 variable frequency drive fans to provide a typical room air recirculation flow pattern. Two air filters were installed in the chamber air supply duct and return duct to achieve the required low background particle concentration. The initial chamber air conditions were set at 70°F (± 5°F) and 50% (± 10%) RH. A supporting frame and releasing device were designed and built to trigger consistently the dropping of the can. The particle sampling inlet was placed 5 ft above the floor and 6 inches laterally away from the can’s falling path. Concentrations of particles between 0.5 ?m and 20 ?m were recorded in units of mass and number of particles per unit volume. The data acquisition rate was once every 2 seconds during the first 2 hours. A test procedure was developed and verified. A total of thirty two drop tests were performed, eight in Phase I and twenty four in Phase II, covering variations in dropping height (8 ft or 4 ft from the floor), room air movement (0.25-0.30 m/s or 0.10-0.15 m/s near the ceiling), landing scenario (on a flat plate or a block), and lid condition (¼” lid hole or no lid). There were ten tests with flat plate and ¼” lid hole, ten tests with flat plate no lid and twelve tests with block no lid.

Gao, Zhi; Zhang, Jianshun S.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Manhattan Project: Order to Drop the Atomic Bomb  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

ORDER TO DROP THE ATOMIC BOMB Handy to Spaatz, National Archives (July 25, 1945) Resources > Library The document below is the order to attack Japanese cities with atomic bombs. In it, the Acting Army Chief of Staff, Thomas Handy, orders Commanding General Carl Spaatz, Army Strategic Air Forces, to "deliver [the] first special bomb as soon as weather will permit . . . after about 3 August 1945." The target list: "Hiroshima, Kokura, Niigata, and Nagasaki." Further attacks were also authorized: "additional bombs will be delivered on the above targets as soon as made ready." Handy was the acting chief of staff because George Marshall was with President Harry S. Truman at the Potsdam Conference. The letter explicitly notes that this order was approved by Marshall and Secretary of War Henry Stimson. Truman, of course, provided the ultimate authorization for dropping the bomb.

216

Digital Radiography of a Drop Tested 9975 Radioactive Materials Packaging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper discusses the use of radiography as a tool for evaluating damage to radioactive material packaging subjected to regulatory accident conditions. The Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR 71, presents the performance based requirements that must be used in the development (design, fabrication and testing) of a radioactive material packaging. The use of various non-destructive examination techniques in the fabrication of packages is common. One such technique is the use of conventional radiography in the examination of welds. Radiography is conventional in the sense that images are caught one at a time on film stock. Most recently, digital radiography has been used to characterize internal damage to a package subjected to the 30-foot hypothetical accident conditions (HAC) drop. Digital radiography allows for real time evaluation of the item being inspected. This paper presents a summary discussion of the digital radiographic technique and an example of radiographic results of a 9975 package following the HAC 30-foot drop.

Blanton, P.S.

2001-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

217

What determines cell size?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as: Marshall WF, et al. : What determines cell size? BMC7007/10/101 FORUM Open Access What determines cell size?biologists have been wondering what determines the size of

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Drop in drilling hurts oil-field chemicals market  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Drop in drilling hurts oil-field chemicals market ... But events in the past few years have proven that notion faulty, and oil-field chemicals have fallen on hard times as drilling activity declines. ... The consumption of oil-field chemicals is directly related to drilling activity, and two new studies point out how far that market has declined and where opportunities still exist. ...

1985-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

219

Building America Case Study: Duct in Conditioned Space in a Dropped Ceiling or Fur-down, Gainesville, Florida (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Forced air distribution systems (duct systems) typically are installed out of sight for aesthetic reasons, most often in unconditioned areas such as an attic or crawlspace. Any leakage of air to or from the duct system (duct leakage) in unconditioned space not only loses energy, but impacts home and equipment durability and indoor air quality. An obvious solution to this problem is to bring the duct system into the interior of the house, either by sealing the area where the ducts are installed (sealed attic or crawlspace) or by building an interior cavity or chase above the ceiling plane (raised ceiling or fur-up chase) or below the ceiling plane (dropped ceiling or fur-down) for the duct system. This case study examines one Building America builder partner's implementation of an inexpensive, quick and effective method of building a fur-down or dropped ceiling chase.

Not Available

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Measurement of Engine Exhaust Particle Size  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measurement of Engine Exhaust Particle Size David B. Kittelson Center for Diesel Research than 90% of particle number are formed during exhaust dilution ­ Particle dynamics during sampling deposition of particle with density of 1 g/um Typical Diesel Particle Size Distribution #12;Typical Diesel

Minnesota, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "drop size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

E-Print Network 3.0 - active drop counting Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sample search results for: active drop counting Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Titan Recreation-Group Fitness Student Engagement Report Summary: hours of Drop In Fitness classes...

222

Fact #679: June 13, 2011 U.S. Imports of Fuel Ethanol Drop Sharply...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

9: June 13, 2011 U.S. Imports of Fuel Ethanol Drop Sharply Fact 679: June 13, 2011 U.S. Imports of Fuel Ethanol Drop Sharply U.S. imports of fuel ethanol were low until 2004 when...

223

E-Print Network 3.0 - accidental drop scenarios Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

October 27, 2010 Chapter 26 Problems 1. A painter accidentally splashes three drops... of paint onto a nearby picture. The locations of the drops are independent. Fortunately, if a...

224

SciTech Connect: LLNL small-scale drop-hammer impact sensitivity...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Technical Report: LLNL small-scale drop-hammer impact sensitivity test Citation Details In-Document Search Title: LLNL small-scale drop-hammer impact sensitivity test You are...

225

U.S. gasoline price expected to drop further below $3 per gallon  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

gasoline price expected to drop further below 3 per gallon The national average pump price of gasoline dropped below 3 per gallon last week for the first time in nearly four...

226

Vibration of submillimeter-size supported droplets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study the fundamental vibration mode of supported submillimeter-size droplets. Using an analogy with a simple oscillator we derive a semianalytical expression for the eigenfrequency and the scaling law of the energy dissipation within the droplet. The experimental results obtained for mercury drops deposited on glass are compared with the model. The agreement is satisfactory for the eigenfrequencies on the whole range of size we considered (from 0.04 to 0.9mm). The scaling law for the dissipation is recovered for radii larger than 0.1mm but fails for smaller droplets. We finally discuss possible applications related to the use of vibrations to effectively reduce the hysteresis of the wetting angle and therefore increase the mobility of the supported droplets.

Franck Celestini and Richard Kofman

2006-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

227

The influence of surface tension gradients on drop coalescence Franois Blanchette,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The influence of surface tension gradients on drop coalescence François Blanchette,1 Laura Messio,2 to elucidating the influence on the coalescence process of a surface tension difference between drop coalescence may occur. Three distinct regimes, depending on the reservoir to drop surface tension ratio, R

Bush, John W.M.

228

RISES, LEVELS, DROPS AND "+" SIGNS IN COMPOSITIONS: EXTENSIONS OF A PAPER BY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RISES, LEVELS, DROPS AND "+" SIGNS IN COMPOSITIONS: EXTENSIONS OF A PAPER BY ALLADI AND HOGGATT S, levels (a summand followed by itself), rises (a summand followed by a larger one), and drops (a summand of levels, rises and drops for compositions, as well as interesting connections between these quantities

Heubach, Silvia

229

The influence of size, shape, and surface coating on the stability of aqueous nanoparticle suspensions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

images of each of the nanoparticle starting materials. Scalehistograms that show nanoparticle size distributions can bePrecise control over the nanoparticle size, shape, and

Mulvihill, M.J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

In-drop capillary spooling of spider capture thread inspires highly extensible fibres  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spiders' webs and gossamer threads are often paraded as paradigms for lightweight structures and outstanding polymers. Probably the most intriguing of all spider silks is the araneid capture thread, covered with tiny glycoprotein glue droplets. Even if compressed, this thread remains surprisingly taut, a property shared with pure liquid films, allowing both thread and web to be in a constant state of tension. Vollrath and Edmonds proposed that the glue droplets would act as small windlasses and be responsible for the tension, but other explanations have also been suggested, involving for example the macromolecular properties of the flagelliform silk core filaments. Here we show that the nanolitre glue droplets of the capture thread indeed induce buckling and coiling of the core filaments: microscopic in-vivo observations reveal that the slack fibre is spooled into and within the droplets. We model windlass activation as a structural phase transition, and show that fibre spooling essentially results from the interplay between elasticity and capillarity. This is demonstrated by reproducing artificially the mechanism on a synthetic polyurethane thread/silicone oil droplet system. Fibre size is the key in natural and artificial setups which both require micrometer-sized fibres to function. The spools and coils inside the drops are further shown to directly affect the mechanical response of the thread, evidencing the central role played by geometry in spider silk mechanics. Beside shedding light on araneid capture thread functionality, we argue that the properties of this biological system provide novel insights for bioinspired synthetic actuators.

Hervé Elettro; Sébastien Neukirch; Fritz Vollrath; Arnaud Antkowiak

2015-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

231

Optimal Porosity Distribution for Minimized Ohmic Drop across a Porous Electrode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA This paper considers the design of spatially varying porosity profiles-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA c Department of Chemical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology material, and additive loading; iii manufacturing convenience and cost; iv ideal expected thermal behavior

Subramanian, Venkat

232

Pressure drop and heat transfer distributions in three-pass rectangular channels with rib turbulators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- rameters include the flow Reynolds number (Re = 15, 000, 30, 000, 60, 000), the channel aspect ratio (W/H = 1, 1/2, 1/4), the rib pitch-to-height ratio (P/e = 5, 7. 5, 10, 15), the rib height-to-hydraulic diameter ratio (e/D=0. 039, 0. 047, 0. 063..., 3+~2. 103 I 3l. 0 cnt cnt C I II cth cm Fig 2. Schematic of the test rig 11 the channel height from 2. 54-cm (1- in. ) to 5. 08-crn (2-in. ). Similarly, the second test section was modified to be the third test section (rectangular channel, W...

Zhang, Peng

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Distributed Algorithms Distributed Transactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Algorithms© Gero Mühl 8 Concurrency Control serial RC (ReCoverable) ACA (Avoiding Cascading Aborts) ST (StricDistributed Algorithms Distributed Transactions PD Dr.-Ing. Gero Mühl Kommunikations- und Betriebssysteme Fakultät für Elektrotechnik u. Informatik Technische Universität Berlin #12;Distributed Algorithms

Wichmann, Felix

234

Improving the prediction of differential item functioning: a comparison of the use of an effect size for logistic regression DIF and Mantel-Haenszel DIF methods  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and the possibility of the detection of DIF across varying ability distributions, population distributions, and sample size combinations. Varying ability distributions and sample size combinations affected the detection of DIF, while population distributions did...

Duncan, Susan Cromwell

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

235

E-Print Network 3.0 - adjustable pore size Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

by the rigid material alone. The difference in pore size distribution before and after heat... are observed in the larger pore range of the pore size distribution while the...

236

Drop Impact and Rebound Dynamics on an Inclined Superhydrophobic Surface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The ability of the superhydrophobic surface in promoting drop rebound has significant applications in areas such as anti-icing and fouling on aircraft, power lines, and wind turbines and has prompted researchers to create an array of synthetic superhydrophobic surfaces using fabrication methods such as surface etching techniques (plasma, laser, chemical), lithography (photolithography, electron beam, X-ray), electrochemical deposition processes, spray casting, as well as electrospinning techniques. ... For example, ice accretion on a wind turbine blade as well as on an aircraft wing typically involves impact and freezing of supercooled liquid droplets on those surfaces at subzero environmental temperatures. ... By varying laser fluence, micro-texture morphol. of the wafers could be reproduced and well controlled. ...

Yong Han Yeong; James Burton; Eric Loth; Ilker S. Bayer

2014-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

237

Strong plasma screening in thermonuclear reactions: Electron drop model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We analyze enhancement of thermonuclear fusion reactions due to strong plasma screening in dense matter using a simple electron drop model. In the model we assume fusion in a potential that is screened by an effective electron cloud around colliding nuclei (extended Salpeter ion-sphere model). We calculate the mean-field screened Coulomb potentials for atomic nuclei with equal and nonequal charges, appropriate astrophysical S factors, and enhancement factors of reaction rates. As a byproduct, we study the analytic behavior of the screening potential at small separations between the reactants. In this model, astrophysical S factors depend not only on nuclear physics but on plasma screening as well. The enhancement factors are in good agreement with calculations by other methods. This allows us to formulate a combined, pure analytic model of strong plasma screening in thermonuclear reactions. The results can be useful for simulating nuclear burning in white dwarfs and neutron stars.

P. A. Kravchuk and D. G. Yakovlev

2014-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

238

Strong plasma screening in thermonuclear reactions: Electron drop model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We analyze enhancement of thermonuclear fusion reactions due to strong plasma screening in dense matter using a simple electron drop model. The model assumes fusion in a potential that is screened by an effective electron cloud around colliding nuclei (extended Salpeter ion-sphere model). We calculate the mean field screened Coulomb potentials for atomic nuclei with equal and nonequal charges, appropriate astrophysical S factors, and enhancement factors of reaction rates. As a byproduct, we study analytic behavior of the screening potential at small separations between the reactants. In this model, astrophysical S factors depend not only on nuclear physics but on plasma screening as well. The enhancement factors are in good agreement with calculations by other methods. This allows us to formulate the combined, pure analytic model of strong plasma screening in thermonuclear reactions. The results can be useful for simulating nuclear burning in white dwarfs and neutron stars.

Kravchuk, P A

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Strong plasma screening in thermonuclear reactions: Electron drop model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We analyze enhancement of thermonuclear fusion reactions due to strong plasma screening in dense matter using a simple electron drop model. The model assumes fusion in a potential that is screened by an effective electron cloud around colliding nuclei (extended Salpeter ion-sphere model). We calculate the mean field screened Coulomb potentials for atomic nuclei with equal and nonequal charges, appropriate astrophysical S factors, and enhancement factors of reaction rates. As a byproduct, we study analytic behavior of the screening potential at small separations between the reactants. In this model, astrophysical S factors depend not only on nuclear physics but on plasma screening as well. The enhancement factors are in good agreement with calculations by other methods. This allows us to formulate the combined, pure analytic model of strong plasma screening in thermonuclear reactions. The results can be useful for simulating nuclear burning in white dwarfs and neutron stars.

P. A. Kravchuk; D. G. Yakovlev

2014-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

240

El fenmeno pro-drop en portugus de Brasil y espaol peninsular Resumen: espaol y portugus son lenguas pro-drop. No obstante, diversos estudios indican que el  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

El fenómeno pro-drop en portugués de Brasil y español peninsular Resumen: español y portugués son portugués de Brasil una lengua parcialmente pro-drop. En este trabajo se analiza el fenómeno pro-drop en portugués de Brasil a través de una comparación con el español peninsular, utilizando para ello corpus

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "drop size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Control of emulsion drop production in flow focusing microfluidics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Generating droplets using flow-focusing microfluidics in multiphase flows has reached its limit that it cannot generate submicrometer droplets in size. Flow focusing geometry together with an electric field has been used to make smaller droplets...

Kim, Haejune

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

242

Co-gasification of biomass with coal and oil sands coke in a drop tube furnace.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Chars were obtained from individual fuels and blends with different blend ratios of coal, coke and biomass in Drop Tube Furnace at different temperatures. Based… (more)

Gao, Chen

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Strategy Guideline: HVAC Equipment Sizing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system is arguably the most complex system installed in a house and is a substantial component of the total house energy use. A right-sized HVAC system will provide the desired occupant comfort and will run efficiently. This Strategy Guideline discusses the information needed to initially select the equipment for a properly designed HVAC system. Right-sizing of an HVAC system involves the selection of equipment and the design of the air distribution system to meet the accurate predicted heating and cooling loads of the house. Right-sizing the HVAC system begins with an accurate understanding of the heating and cooling loads on a space; however, a full HVAC design involves more than just the load estimate calculation - the load calculation is the first step of the iterative HVAC design procedure. This guide describes the equipment selection of a split system air conditioner and furnace for an example house in Chicago, IL as well as a heat pump system for an example house in Orlando, Florida. The required heating and cooling load information for the two example houses was developed in the Department of Energy Building America Strategy Guideline: Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations.

Burdick, A.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Proton radioactivity within a generalized liquid drop model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The proton radioactivity half-lives of spherical proton emitters are investigated theoretically. The potential barriers preventing the emission of protons are determined in the quasimolecular shape path within a generalized liquid drop model (GLDM) including the proximity effects between nuclei in a neck and the mass and charge asymmetry. The penetrability is calculated with the WKB approximation. The spectroscopic factor has been taken into account in half-life calculation, which is obtained by employing the relativistic mean field (RMF) theory combined with the BCS method with the force NL3. The half-lives within the GLDM are compared with the experimental data and other theoretical values. The GLDM works quite well for spherical proton emitters when the spectroscopic factors are considered, indicating the necessity of introducing the spectroscopic factor and the success of the GLDM for proton emission. Finally, we present two formulas for proton emission half-life calculation similar to the Viola-Seaborg formulas and Royer's formulas of alpha decay.

J. M. Dong; H. F. Zhang; G. Royer

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

245

Drop test of the Huygens Probe from a stratospheric balloon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Huygens is an atmospheric Probe designed for the in-situ exploration of the atmosphere of Titan. Huygens is the ESA-provided element of the joint NASA/ESA Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn and Titan. The Cassini-Huygens launch is foreseen in October 1997. After a 7-year journey through the Solar system, Huygens will separate from the mother spacecraft, the Cassini Saturn Orbiter, in early November 2004. About 3 weeks after separation, the Huygens Probe will enter into the upper atmosphere of Titan protected by its heat shield. Following the ejection of the heat shield, the parachute will be deployed for controlling the descent through the atmosphere of Titan down to the surface. The descent will last between 2 and 212 hours. For the drop test, a full scale model of the Huygens Probe, which included all flight-like mechanisms and parachutes, was developed. The main objective of the test was to demonstrate the parachute deployment sequence; a secondary objective was to characterise the science-driven probe stability and spin design features during the parachute descent phase.

E. Jäkel; P. Rideau; P.R. Nugteren; J. Underwood; P. Faucon; J-P. Lebreton

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Do liquid drops roll or slide on inclined surfaces?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the motion of a two-dimensional droplet on an inclined surface, under the action of gravity, using a diffuse interface model which allows for arbitrary equilibrium contact angles. The kinematics of motion is analysed by decomposing the gradient of the velocity inside the droplet into a shear and a residual flow. This decomposition helps in distinguishing sliding versus rolling motion of the drop. Our detailed study confirms intuition, in that rolling motion dominates as the droplet shape approaches a circle, and the viscosity contrast between the droplet and the ambient fluid becomes large. As a consequence of kinematics, the amount of rotation in a general droplet shape follows a universal curve characterised by geometry, and independent of Bond number, surface inclination and equilibrium contact angle, but determined by the slip length and viscosity contrast. Our results open the way towards a rational design of droplet-surface properties, both when rolling motion is desirable (as in self-cleaning hydrophobic droplets) or when it must be prevented (as in insecticide sprays on leaves).

Sumesh P. Thampi; Ronojoy Adhikari; Rama Govindarajan

2014-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

247

A pneumatic power harvesting ankle-foot orthosis to prevent foot-drop  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A self-contained, self-controlled, pneumatic power harvesting ankle-foot orthosis (PhAFO) to manage foot-drop was developed and tested. Foot-drop is due to a disruption of ... motion during stance, and harvest th...

Robin Chin; Elizabeth T Hsiao-Wecksler…

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Fully Integrated NxN MEMS Wavelength Selective Switch with 100% Colorless Add-Drop Ports  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fully Integrated NxN MEMS Wavelength Selective Switch with 100% Colorless Add-Drop Ports Shifu Yuan/drop ports. © 2007 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (060.2330) Fiber optics communications; (060 multi-port wavelength selective switches using liquid crystal devices. Micro-Electro-Mechanical System

Bowers, John

249

Statistical Estimation of Leakage-Induced Power Grid Voltage Drop Considering Within-Die Process Variations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Statistical Estimation of Leakage-Induced Power Grid Voltage Drop Considering Within-Die Process the power grid, the grid develops large voltage drops, which is an unavoidable background level of noise on the grid. We develop techniques for estimation of the statistics of the leakage-induced power grid voltage

Najm, Farid N.

250

Statistical Estimation of LeakageInduced Power Grid Voltage Drop Considering WithinDie Process Variations #  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Statistical Estimation of Leakage­Induced Power Grid Voltage Drop Considering Within­Die Process the power grid, the grid develops large voltage drops, which is an unavoidable background level of noise on the grid. We develop techniques for estimation of the statistics of the leakage­induced power grid voltage

Najm, Farid N.

251

Scaling law in liquid drop coalescence driven by surface tension Mingming Wua)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Scaling law in liquid drop coalescence driven by surface tension Mingming Wua) Department experimental results on the coalescence of two liquid drops driven by surface tension. Using a high speed that such scaling law is robust when using fluids of different viscosities and surface tensions. The prefactor

Cubaud, Thomas

252

Delamination and Failure at Ply Drops in Carbon Fiber Laminates Under Static and Fatigue Loading  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Delamination and Failure at Ply Drops in Carbon Fiber Laminates Under Static and Fatigue Loading in composites with thickness tapering has been a major concern in aerospace applications of carbon fibers, where carbon fiber and glass fiber prepreg laminates containing various ply drop geometries, and using thicker

253

Control of drop rebound with solid target motion Heon Ju Lee and Ho-Young Kima)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and a low viscosity, such as water and molten metal drops, exhibit a vigorous recoiling and a long having a high impact inertia, a low viscosity, and a high surface tension, such as a large water drop upon impact with solid surfaces plays important roles in many applications. When spraying herbicide

Kim, Ho-Young

254

Real-Time Detection of Packet Drop Attacks on Synchrophasor Data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, NY, 12180 Abstract--The importance of phasor measurement unit (PMU) or synchrophasor data towardsReal-Time Detection of Packet Drop Attacks on Synchrophasor Data Seemita Pal, Biplab Sikdar and Joe attack, where the adversary arbitrarily drops packets with synchrophasor data. This paper develops a real

Sikdar, Biplab

255

U-199: Drupal Drag & Drop Gallery Module Arbitrary File Upload  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

9: Drupal Drag & Drop Gallery Module Arbitrary File Upload 9: Drupal Drag & Drop Gallery Module Arbitrary File Upload Vulnerability U-199: Drupal Drag & Drop Gallery Module Arbitrary File Upload Vulnerability June 26, 2012 - 7:00am Addthis PROBLEM: A vulnerability has been reported in the Drag & Drop Gallery module for Drupal, which can be exploited by malicious people to compromise a vulnerable system. PLATFORM: Drupal Drag & Drop Gallery Module 6.x ABSTRACT: The vulnerability is caused due to the sites/all/modules/dragdrop_gallery/upload.php script improperly validating uploaded files, which can be exploited to execute arbitrary PHP code by uploading a PHP file with e.g. an appended ".gif" file extension. Reference Links: Original Advisory Secunia ID 49698 No Current CVE Reference IMPACT ASSESSMENT:

256

ARM - Measurement - Cloud size  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Cloud size Information about the physical dimensions of a cloud, including such measurements...

257

ARM - Measurement - Hydrometeor size  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

size size ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Hydrometeor size The size of a hydrometeor, measured directly or derived from other measurements . Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments DISDROMETER : Impact Disdrometer LDIS : Laser Disdrometer External Instruments CPOL : C-Band Polarimetric Radar Field Campaign Instruments EC-CONVAIR580-BULK : Environment Canada Convair 580 Bulk Parameters

258

Ash chemistry and mineralogy of an Indonesian coal during combustion: Part 1 Drop-tube observations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper reports a systematic and comprehensive laboratory investigation into the ash chemistry and mineralogical changes undergone by a low-rank Indonesian coal during combustion. Combustion experiments conducted in a drop-tube furnace included ash formation experiments (using cyclone and filter arrangement) under closely controlled conditions in the range of 1200–1400 °C and deposition experiments at a probe temperature of 750 °C. Tests conducted with raw coal, coal/additive mixtures and washed coal indicated significant changes in ash characteristics. Of the ash formation and deposit samples examined, the raw coal + bauxite showed the lowest glass content and high contents of corundum indicating low ash deposition propensities. When compared to the ash formation samples, the deposit samples showed even significantly lower glass contents and were enriched in quartz. With the exception of the raw coal + bauxite sample, all are characterized by high silica and iron and moderate aluminium contents. In contrast, the raw coal + bauxite sample have low silica and much higher alumina contents which is in agreement with XRD observations. QEMSCAN™ results showed that the ash particles are sparsely distributed suggesting lack of a deposit initiation layer. Experimental observations suggest that the use of raw coal with bauxite would appear to offer the best performance with respect to handling ash-related issues. Present findings are of practical significance to power utilities employing Indonesian coal as there is no comprehensive work reported in the literature on ash chemistry and mineralogy of such coals.

H.B. Vuthaluru; D. French

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Improved gap size estimation for scaffolding algorithms  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......and 950 bp. The contigs were set to a fixed size of 3000 bp...three read libraries and four sets of contigs). The results of...parts of the distribution fail to cover the gap and only the longest...we simulated four different sets of contigs from the genome with......

Kristoffer Sahlin; Nathaniel Street; Joakim Lundeberg; Lars Arvestad

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Heat transfer and pressure drop of supercritical carbon dioxide flowing in several printed circuit heat exchanger channel patterns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Closed-loop Brayton cycles using supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO{sub 2}) show potential for use in high-temperature power generation applications including High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGR) and Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors (SFR). Compared to Rankine cycles SCO{sub 2} Brayton cycles offer similar or improved efficiency and the potential for decreased capital costs due to a reduction in equipment size and complexity. Compact printed-circuit heat exchangers (PCHE) are being considered as part of several SCO{sub 2} Brayton designs to further reduce equipment size with increased energy density. Several designs plan to use a gas cooler operating near the pseudo-critical point of carbon dioxide to benefit from large variations in thermophysical properties, but further work is needed to validate correlations for heat transfer and pressure-drop characteristics of SCO{sub 2} flows in candidate PCHE channel designs for a variety of operating conditions. This paper presents work on experimental measurements of the heat transfer and pressure drop behavior of miniature channels using carbon dioxide at supercritical pressure. Results from several plate geometries tested in horizontal cooling-mode flow are presented, including a straight semi-circular channel, zigzag channel with a bend angle of 80 degrees, and a channel with a staggered array of extruded airfoil pillars modeled after a NACA 0020 airfoil with an 8.1 mm chord length facing into the flow. Heat transfer coefficients and bulk temperatures are calculated from measured local wall temperatures and local heat fluxes. The experimental results are compared to several methods for estimating the friction factor and Nusselt number of cooling-mode flows at supercritical pressures in millimeter-scale channels. (authors)

Carlson, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison, 839 Engineering Research Building, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Kruizenga, A. [Sandia National Laboratory (United States); Anderson, M.; Corradini, M. [Univ. of Wisconsin - Madison, 839 Engineering Research Building, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "drop size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Infrared detection of (H2O)20 isomers of exceptional stability: a drop-like and a face-sharing pentagonal prism cluster  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water clusters containing fully coordinated water molecules are model systems that mimic the local environment of the condensed phase. Present knowledge about the water cluster size regime in which the transition from the allsurface to the fully solvated water molecules occurs is mainly based on theoretical predictions in lieu of the absence of precisely size resolved experimental measurements. Here, we report size and isomer selective infrared (IR) spectra of (H2O)20 clusters tagged with a sodium atom by employing IR excitation modulated photoionization spectroscopy. The observed absorption patterns in the OH stretching ”fingerprint” region are consistent with the theoretically predicted spectra of two structurally distinct isomers: A drop-like cluster with a fully coordinated (interior) water and an edge-sharing pentagonal prism cluster in which all atoms are on the surface. The observed isomers show exceptional stability and are predicted to be nearly isoenergetic.

Pradzynski, Christoph C.; Dierking, Christoph W.; Zurheide, Florian; Forck, Richard M.; Buck, Udo; Zeuch, Thomas; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

2014-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

262

Physical test report to drop test of a 9975 radioactive material shipping packaging  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the drop test results for the 9975 radioactive material shipping package being dropped 30 feet onto a unyielding surface followed by a 40-inch puncture pin drop. The purpose of these drops was to show that the package lid would remain attached to the drum. The 30-foot drop was designed to weaken the lid closure lug while still maintaining maximum extension of the lugs from the drum surface. This was accomplished by angling the drum approximately 30 degrees from horizontal in an inverted position. In this position, the drum was rotated slightly so as not to embed the closure lugs into the drum as a result of the 30-foot drop. It was determined that this orientation would maximize deformation to the closure ring around the closure lug while still maintaining the extension of the lugs from the package surface. The second drop was from 40 inches above a 40-inch tall 6-inch diameter puncture pin. The package was angled 10 degrees from vertical and aligned over the puncture pin to solidly hit the drum lug(s) in an attempt to disengage the lid when dropped.Tests were performed in response to DOE EM-76 review Q5 inquires that questioned the capability of the 9975 drum lid to remain in place under this test sequence. Two packages were dropped utilizing this sequence, a 9974 and 9975. Test results for the 9974 package are reported in WSRC-RP-97-00945. A series of 40-inch puncture pin tests were also performed on undamaged 9975 and 9974 packages.

Blanton, P.S.

1997-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

263

Laboratory manual for static pressure drop experiments in LMFBR wire wrapped rod bundles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose of this experiment is to determine both interior and edge subchannel axial pressure drops for a range of Reynolds numbers. The subchannel static pressure drop is used to calculate subchannel and bundle average friction factors, which can be used to verify existing friction factor correlations. The correlations for subchannel friction factors are used as input to computer codes which solve the coupled energy, continuity, and momentum equations, and are also used to develop flow split correlations which are needed as input to codes which solve only the energy equation. The bundle average friction factor is used to calculate the overall bundle pressure drop, which determines the required pumping power.

Burns, K.J.; Todreas, N.E.

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Non-impactor-Based Methods for Sizing of Aerosols Emitted from Orally Inhaled and Nasal Drug Products (OINDPs)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The purpose of this article is to review non-impactor-based methods for measuring particle size distributions of orally inhaled and nasal pharmaceutical aerosols. The assessment of the size distributions of sp...

Jolyon Mitchell; Richard Bauer; Svetlana Lyapustina; Terrence Tougas…

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

High speed shadowgraphy for the study of liquid drops  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the separation and size of the electrodes and the surrounding medium. Many of the commercially available systems use argon gas, and produce pulse durations of the order of 5 to 20 ns, 9 to 25 mJ of electric flash ener- gy, and utilize 3- 5 kV power supplies... Sciences Ltd A-series single nozzle CIJ printer with a re- ported nozzle diameter of 60 µm. Essentially, in CIJ mode the liquid is pumped continuously into the head, generating an internal pressure which drives the liquid through the nozzle and creates a...

Castrejon-Pita, J.R.; Castrejon-Garcia, R.; Hutchings, I.M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Particle Size Characterization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NISTrecommended p r a c t i c e g u i d e Special Publication 960-1 #12;i Particle Size Characterization Ajit.S. Department of Commerce Donald L. Evans, Secretary Technology Administration Karen H. Brown, Acting Under Steve Freiman, Said Jahanmir, James Kelly, Patrick Pei and Dennis Minor and of the Ceramics Division

267

Expanded Eligibility, Drop-in Care, and Improved Nutrition Program at Child  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Expanded Eligibility, Drop-in Care, and Expanded Eligibility, Drop-in Care, and Improved Nutrition Program at Child Development Center The Lab's Child Development Center (CDC) provides Brookhaven Science Associates (BSA) employees a top-rated and convenient onsite childcare option. Now the CDC is announcing three new program changes and improvements for BSA families. 1. Expanded Eligibility: The CDC is opening its doors to the nieces, nephews, and grandchildren of BSA employees. Spots are available for most age groups. Contact the CDC at Ext. 7416 or email brookhaven@brighthorizons.com to arrange a tour. 2. Drop-in Care: A totally new program at the CDC. The drop-in care program allows families to access high-quality childcare on an as-needed basis for

268

Truman's decision to drop the bomb to be discussed at 70th anniversary  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

70th anniversary lecture July 10 about Truman, bomb 70th anniversary lecture July 10 about Truman, bomb Truman's decision to drop the bomb to be discussed at 70th anniversary lecture July 10 Noel Pugach will discuss Truman's decision to drop atomic bombs on Japanese cities and explain how and why he made it July 3, 2013 70th anniversary lecture July 10 about Truman, bomb Noel Pugach will discuss Truman's decision to drop atomic bombs on Japanese cities and explain how and why he made it Contact Nick Njegomir Communications Office (505) 667-5679 Email "Harry S. Truman considered the use of the atomic bomb on Japan among the most important and consequential actions of his presidency. Historians and journalists have concurred in that judgment, though some have condemned it," Pugach said. Truman's decision to drop the bomb to be discussed at 70th anniversary

269

B61-12 Life Extension Program Radar Drop Tests Completed Successfully |  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

B61-12 Life Extension Program Radar Drop Tests Completed Successfully | B61-12 Life Extension Program Radar Drop Tests Completed Successfully | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response Recapitalizing Our Infrastructure Continuing Management Reform Countering Nuclear Terrorism About Us Our Programs Our History Who We Are Our Leadership Our Locations Budget Our Operations Media Room Congressional Testimony Fact Sheets Newsletters Press Releases Speeches Events Social Media Video Gallery Photo Gallery NNSA Archive Federal Employment Apply for Our Jobs Our Jobs Working at NNSA Blog Home > Media Room > Press Releases > B61-12 Life Extension Program Radar Drop Tests ... Press Release B61-12 Life Extension Program Radar Drop Tests Completed Successfully

270

Heat transfer to impacting drops and post critical heat flux dispersed flow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heat transfer to drops impacting on a hot surface is examined in context of dispersions of flowing, boiling fluids. The liquid contribution to heat transfer from a hot tube to a two-phase dispersion is formulated in terms ...

Kendall, Gail E.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Solar power prices are dropping fast, NREL says | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Dc's picture Submitted by Dc(107) Contributor 21 October, 2014 - 16:03 The price of solar power panels dropped as much as 19 percent nationwide in 2013 and are expected to...

272

Interfacial Phenomena and Heat Transfer, 1 (4): 339356 (2013) EFFECT OF DROP SHAPE ON HEAT TRANSFER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

equipment used in thermal and nuclear power plants. Several researchers have reported that drops form, followed by fresh nucleation. Numerical data obtained from the simulation show that wall shear stress

Khandekar, Sameer

273

Positive pressure drop-on-demand printhead for Three-Dimensional Printing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In drop-on-demand printing, wetting out of the binder fluid onto the orifice face typically has been prevented by some combination of the following: coatings on the orifice face, high surface energy fluids, and negative ...

Gleason, Blake Wilbur

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Heat transfer and pressure drop for air flow through enhanced passages  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An extensive experimental investigation was carried out to determine the pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics for laminar, transitional and turbulent flow of air through a smooth passage and twenty-three enhanced passages. The internal surfaces of all enhanced passages had spirally shaped geometries; these included fluted, finned/ribbed and indented surfaces. The Reynolds number (Re) was varied between 400 and 50000. The effect of heat transfer (wall cooling or fluid heating) on pressure drop is most significant within the transition region; the recorded pressure drop with heat transfer is much higher than that without heat transfer. The magnitude of this effect depends markedly on the average surface temperature and, to a lesser extent, on the geometric characteristics of the enhanced surfaces. When the pressure drop data are reduced as values of the Fanning friction factor(f), the results are about the same with and without heat transfer for turbulent flow, with moderate differences in the laminar and transition regions.

Obot, N.T.; Esen, E.B.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Heat transfer and pressure drop for air flow through enhanced passages. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An extensive experimental investigation was carried out to determine the pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics for laminar, transitional and turbulent flow of air through a smooth passage and twenty-three enhanced passages. The internal surfaces of all enhanced passages had spirally shaped geometries; these included fluted, finned/ribbed and indented surfaces. The Reynolds number (Re) was varied between 400 and 50000. The effect of heat transfer (wall cooling or fluid heating) on pressure drop is most significant within the transition region; the recorded pressure drop with heat transfer is much higher than that without heat transfer. The magnitude of this effect depends markedly on the average surface temperature and, to a lesser extent, on the geometric characteristics of the enhanced surfaces. When the pressure drop data are reduced as values of the Fanning friction factor(f), the results are about the same with and without heat transfer for turbulent flow, with moderate differences in the laminar and transition regions.

Obot, N.T.; Esen, E.B.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Assessing the Accuracy of Contact Angle Measurements for Sessile Drops on Liquid-Repellent Surfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gravity-induced sagging can amplify variations in goniometric measurements of the contact angles of sessile drops on super-liquid-repellent surfaces. The very large value of the effective contact angle leads to increased ...

Srinivasan, Siddarth

277

Nematic Order Drives Macroscopic Patterns of Graphene Oxide in Drying Drops  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Publication Date (Web): November 20, 2014 ... Various macroscopic patterns with different stripe orientations including radial spokes, spider webs, and parallel stripes have been generated by tuning the nematic order of drops. ...

Yanqi Luo; Gregory A. Braggin; Grant T. Olson; Alexandra R. Stevenson; Wanda L. Ruan; Shanju Zhang

2014-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

278

Dynamic Analysis of 9975 Shipping Package without Overpack Subjected to 55-Foot Drop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper discusses the evaluation of the dynamic response of a 9975 shipping package subjected to a load of 55-foot lateral drop without its overpack structure (fiberboard and drum).

Wu, T.

2001-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

279

The influence of return bends on the downstream pressure drop and condensation heat transfer in tubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The influence of return bends on the downstream pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient of condensing refrigerant R-12 was studied experimentally. Flow patterns in glass return bends of 1/2 to 1 in. radius and 0.315 ...

Traviss, Donald P.

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Experiments on adding a surfactant to water drops boiling on a hot surface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...photographs of droplets of water impacting on a hot surface...to film boiling for water and hydrocarbons. Baumeister & Simon...predicting TLeid for hydrocarbons and cryogens, but failed...surfactant to boiling water drops 685 Figure 8...

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "drop size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

California: Advanced 'Drop-In' Biofuels Power the Navy's Green Strike Group  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

EERE's investment allowed Solezyme to increase its algal oil production by a factor of 10, leading to the U.S. Navy's purchase of 450,000 gallons of "drop-in" jet fuel.

282

Pressure drop in cyclone separators commonly used in the agricultural processing industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the degree of NASTER OF SCIENCE August 1984 Major Subject: Agricultural Engineering PRESSURE DROP IN CYCLONE SEPARATORS COMMONLY USED IN THE AGRICULTURAL PROCESSING INDUSTRY A Thesis by FRANCISCO ALEJANDRO GUZMAN Approved as to style and content by...: Calvin B. Parnell, Jr. (Chairman of'Committee) Andrew . McFarland / (Member) Otto R. Kunze (Member) William Murphy (Member) Edward Hi er (Head of Department) August 1984 ABSTRACT Pressure Drop 1n Cyclone Separators Commonly Used...

Guzman, Francisco Alejandro

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

283

CARBON DECLINE Report shows record drop for U.S. carbon dioxide emissions in 2012  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

CARBON DECLINE Report shows record drop for U.S. carbon dioxide emissions in 2012 ... U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from burning fossil fuels fell 3.8% last year to the lowest level since 1994, according to a report released last week by the Energy Information Administration. ... Consequently, looking just at carbon emissions and production, 2012 marks the largest annual drop in carbon emissions per GDP since 1948 when records were first kept. ...

JEFF JOHNSON

2013-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

284

Potential Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Cask Drop in the K West Basin South Loadout Pit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this calculation note is to document the probabilistic calculation of a potential drop of a multi-canister overpack (MCO) cask or MCO cask and immersion pail on a per lift basis at the K West Basin south loadout pit. This calculation note supports both initial cask loading system alignment activities and normal operations. To perform normal operations in the basin, an MCO cask needs to be lifted four different times. A probabilistic calculation of the potential for a drop will be used for the MCO lifts required during operations. The point estimate value calculated for the probability of a potential drop in the south loadout pit is 1.5 x 10{sup -5} per lift. The probability of 1.5 x 10{sup -5} per lift is approximately a factor of two smaller than the midpoint of the crane load drop failure data provided in NUREG-0612, Control of Heavy Loads at Nuclear Power Plants. The point estimate value for the frequency of potential drops in the south loadout pit is 6.0 x 10{sup -5} per MCO, based on four lifts per MCO. With an MCO-drop accident frequency limit of 0.01 per year, the number of MCOs that can be handled in the south loadout pit must be limited to 165 MCOs per year.

RITTMANN, P.D.

2001-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

285

Down-sizing Forever  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Evidence for cosmic down-sizing has been growing over the last decade. It is now clear that the major star-forming epoch for the largest galaxies occurred earlier than for smaller galaxies. This not only runs counter to the popular hierarchical clustering picture, but points to an even more radical revision of our ideas of the evolution of cosmological structure. Galaxies do not form at all.

Douglas Scott; Ali Frolop

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

286

Display Size Wireless LAN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.) - Security sofware ­ESET Smart Security. No Reuse PC with English OS for this time. PC PC Code Image Brand PC PC Code Image Brand Model F008 Panasonic CF-W2 Pentium733 M 1.10GHz 256MB 40GB 12.1 inch 1.0kg System Memory HDD Display Size Weight OS Accessory LAN Wireless LAN Remarks PC PC Code Image Brand

Katsumoto, Shingo

287

Electricity Distribution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High voltage (HV) distribution grids have nominal voltages of up ... the grid that connects distribution to the transmission substations and also supplies large industrial customers requiri...

Tomás Gómez

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Magnetic agglomeration method for size control in the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for controlling the size of chemically synthesized magnetic nanoparticles that employs magnetic interaction between particles to control particle size and does not rely on conventional kinetic control of the reaction to control particle size. The particles are caused to reversibly agglomerate and precipitate from solution; the size at which this occurs can be well controlled to provide a very narrow particle size distribution. The size of particles is controllable by the size of the surfactant employed in the process; controlling the size of the surfactant allows magnetic control of the agglomeration and precipitation processes. Agglomeration is used to effectively stop particle growth to provide a very narrow range of particle sizes.

Huber, Dale L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2011-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

289

Fishing destabilizes the biomass flow in the marine size spectrum  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...processes underlying the biomass size spectrum, the distribution of biomass across body size classes...species. When the energy transfer is governed...Dickie 2001 The biomass spectrum. A predator-prey...and T. Platt 1978 Energy flux in the pelagic...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Sample sizes for confidence limits for reliability.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We recently performed an evaluation of the implications of a reduced stockpile of nuclear weapons for surveillance to support estimates of reliability. We found that one technique developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) under-estimates the required sample size for systems-level testing. For a large population the discrepancy is not important, but for a small population it is important. We found that another technique used by SNL provides the correct required sample size. For systems-level testing of nuclear weapons, samples are selected without replacement, and the hypergeometric probability distribution applies. Both of the SNL techniques focus on samples without defects from sampling without replacement. We generalized the second SNL technique to cases with defects in the sample. We created a computer program in Mathematica to automate the calculation of confidence for reliability. We also evaluated sampling with replacement where the binomial probability distribution applies.

Darby, John L.

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

February 12, 2006 10:52 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in book Publishers' page  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

12, 2006 10:52 WSPC/Book Trim Size for 9in x 6in book Preface This book presents analytic theory- itive rational function. We generalize Wiener's theory in several directions. First, estimation theory is dropped. Thirdly, the assumption about rational spectral density is generalized in this book: we consider

292

Advances in surface magnetic field measurement technique for detection and sizing of surface-breaking cracks in offshore structures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In detecting and sizing cracks in metal structures, the two common techniques of eddy-current and potential-drop, suffer from a number of problems which may not be acceptable in offshore environments. This paper describes recent advances in the surface magnetic field measurement (SMFM) technique as an alternative method for integrity evaluation of offshore metal structures.

Mirshekar-Syahkal, D. [Univ. of Essex, Colchester (United Kingdom); Sadeghi, S.H.H. [Amirkabir Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

293

Pion production in relativistic collisions of nuclear drops  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a continuation of the long-standing effort of the nuclear physics community to model atomic nuclei as droplets of a specialized nuclear fluid, we have developed a hydrodynamic model for simulating the collisions of heavy nuclei at relativistic speeds. Our model couples ideal relativistic hydrodynamics with a new Monte Carlo treatment of dynamic pion production and tracking. The collective flow for low-energy (200 MeV/N) collisions predicted by this model compares favorably with results from earlier hydrodynamic calculations which used quite different numerical techniques. Our pion predictions at these lower energies appear to differ, however, from the experimental data on pion multiplicities. In this case of ultra-relativistic (200 GeV/N) collisions, our hydrodynamic model has produced baryonic matter distributions which are in reasonable agreement with recent experimental data. These results may shed some light on the sensitivity of relativistic collision data to the nuclear equation of state. 20 refs., 12 figs.

Alonso, C.T.; Wilson, J.R.; McAbee, T.L.; Zingman, J.A.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

The global abundance and size distribution of lakes, ponds, and ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

United States Geological Survey, National Research Program, Box 25046 MS 413, Denver, Colorado 80025 ..... Western Lakes Survey (U.S.A.). 20.78. 0.01. 752.

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

295

Size Distribution of Fine Particles from Coal Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...produce steam at a high temperature and pressure. This steam...Cleaned flue gas (2500 t/h...the high flue gas temperatures...lig-nites to high-quality bituminous...25). Flue gas samples were...atmospheric pressure. The relation...

M. W. McElroy; R. C. Carr; D. S. Ensor; G. R. Markowski

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Certification of SRM 114q: Part II (Particle size distribution)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Physics · Optical Technology · Ionizing Radiation · Time and Frequency1 · Quantum Physics1 ManufacturingAccess · Convergent Information Systems · Information Services and Computing · Software Diagnostics and Conformance and engineering; and improve public health, safety, and the environment. One of the agency's basic functions

Bentz, Dale P.

297

Concentrations and Size Distributions of Particulate Matter Emissions...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Vehicles Home About Vehicle Technologies Office Plug-in Electric Vehicles & Batteries Fuel Efficiency & Emissions Alternative Fuels Modeling, Testing, Data & Results...

298

Concentrations and Size Distributions of Particulate Matter Emissions...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

& Organic Carbon - PAHs and n-PAHs - Elemental Compounds - Ionic Species - Carbonyls - Dioxins and Furans - Bioassays Sampling System Diluted Exhaust 1 0 11 6 7 8 a 8 b 3 4 BXDX...

299

The geographic distribution of mammal body size in Europe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

palaeo/ice_topo. 2 Heat conservation — grid cell averages ofgrid cell from data available at: http:// www.ngdc.noaa.gov/seg/cdroms/ged_iia/datasets/a13/fnoc.htm. 3 Heat

Rodriguez, M A; Lopez-Sanudo, I L; Hawkins, Bradford A.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Preparation of Narrow Size Distribution Silica Particles Using Microemulsions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Departament de Tecnologia de Tensioactius, CID/CSIC, Jordi Girona, 18-26, 08034 Barcelona, Spain, and Zeneca Agrochemicals, Jealott's Hill Research Station, Bracknell, Berkshire, RG12 6EY, U.K. ... The most appropriate compositions for sols (when individual particles could be obtained), are those with a composition below 2.5 wt % of water or below 7 wt % of TEOS. ...

J. Esquena; Th. F. Tadros; K. Kostarelos; C. Solans

1997-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "drop size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Distribution Network Design: Selection and Sizing of Congested Connections  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the production schedules for individual SKUs (Stock Keeping Units) in a shared facility can be characterized

Nagi, Rakesh

302

Raindrop size distributions and associated effective radar reflectivity comparisons /  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-0. 629869Z6 19. 38 - 8. 59 6. 40 5. o3 0. 0001 0. 0001 0. 0001 0. 0001 F VALUE 184. 66 PR& F 0. 0001 STD DEV 0. 58555116 R-SQUARE 0. 527609 C. V. 41. 2185 LI'ISUBI MEAN 1. 42060192 DF 1 1 1 TYPE IV SS F VALUE 25. 27055111 73... for the detection of severe weather phenomena such as tornadoes, hailstorms, and severe thunderstomns. In addition to storm applications, radar observations, concurrent with di sdrometer determi- nations of raindrop spectra, are important data for cloud physics...

Gosdin, Malcolm Elwood

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Estimating sandstone permeability using network models with pore size distributions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in appearance to empirical data. A network model is developed to simulate the pore geometry of a clean, well-sorted sandstone. Pores were modeled as straight capillaries connected in various lattice configurations. Complex lattice configurations produce more... properties and can be closely monitored, allowing for study of their effects on flow in the network lattice. Various parameter variation techniques are introduced in the literature. These techniques induce flow property changes in the model allowing rock...

Mathews, Alan Ronald

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Patch size effects on plant species decline in an experimentally fragmented landscape  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the relative contribution of fragment size vs. succession on species' declines by examining distributions of abundances for 18 plant species declining over time in an experimentally fragmented landscape in northeast Kansas, USA. If patch size effects dominate...

Collins, Cathy Diane; Holt, Robert D.; Foster, Brian L.

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Ductless Hydronic Distribution  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

DUCTLESS HYDRONIC DUCTLESS HYDRONIC DISTRIBUTION Alliance for Residential Building Innovation David Springer, Davis Energy Group Context  Target: Builders of high performance new homes & deep retrofits  Why is this technology key to meeting performance goals of future homes?  Distribution Efficiency * Distribution efficiency for well insulated, tight ducts in attics ≈ 85% * Duct energy losses drives placement of ducts inside conditioned space, which adds cost and interferes with structure and architecture * Ductless hydronic systems can approach 100% distribution efficiency; piping needs little space  Delivery Energy * Fans: 0.58 W/cfm or 9 (heating) to 27 (cooling) W/kBtuh * Pumps: 8 W/gpm, or 0.8 W/kBtuh Context  Sizing * Conventional systems tend to be too large for low load homes

306

Methods of analysis modified size exchange chromatography method for analysis of heavy oil residues  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A modified size exchange chromatography method is used to obtain molecular weight distributions, average molecular weight, and other characteristics of heavy oil residues: coal asphalt, petroleum asphalt, vacu...

Changming Zhang; Adnan Alhajji…

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Usage by Job Size  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Usage by Job Usage by Job Size Table Usage by Job Size Table page loading animation Usage Query Interface System All Hopper Edison Carver Planck Matgen Franklin Hopper 1 Magellan Dirac Bassi Jacquard Seaborg User Account (Repo) Execution Queue All Debug Interactive Premium Regular Short Regular Long Regular Small Regular Medium Regular Big Regular Extra Big Killable Low Transfer IO Task Special System Serial Big Memory Westmere === Inactive === Magellan Serial Magellan Short Magellan Small Magellan Medium Magellan Big Magellan Long Regular 1 Regular 1 Long Regular 16 Regular 32 Regular 48 Full Config Seaborg Serial Batch 16 Batch 32 Batch 64 Submit Queue all interactive debug premium regular low DOE Office all ASCR BER BES FES HEP NP Summary for jobs that completed after Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 @ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 : 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59

308

Drop-in Biofuels Take Flight in Commerce City, Colorado | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Drop-in Biofuels Take Flight in Commerce City, Colorado Drop-in Biofuels Take Flight in Commerce City, Colorado Drop-in Biofuels Take Flight in Commerce City, Colorado December 8, 2011 - 12:47pm Addthis An aerial view of Rentech's Product Demonstration Unit (PDU) in Commerce City, Colorado. | Photo courtesy of Rentech. An aerial view of Rentech's Product Demonstration Unit (PDU) in Commerce City, Colorado. | Photo courtesy of Rentech. John Schueler John Schueler Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Developing a robust, self-sustaining biofuels industry is key to our efforts to end U.S dependence on foreign oil and to ensure a secure energy future. A crucial step in advancing a domestic biofuels industry is to establish integrated biorefineries across the country. Biorefineries are similar to petroleum refineries in concept; however,

309

Better Buildings Challenge Partners Pledge 20 Percent Energy Drop By 2020 |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Better Buildings Challenge Partners Pledge 20 Percent Energy Drop Better Buildings Challenge Partners Pledge 20 Percent Energy Drop By 2020 Better Buildings Challenge Partners Pledge 20 Percent Energy Drop By 2020 November 9, 2011 - 10:00am Addthis This is the Atlanta Better Buildings Challenge Breakout Session Panel with representatives from the City of Atlanta Office of Sustainability, Southface, the U.S. General Services Administration, and two Atlanta BBC partner organizations. | Photo courtesy of Fred Perry Photography This is the Atlanta Better Buildings Challenge Breakout Session Panel with representatives from the City of Atlanta Office of Sustainability, Southface, the U.S. General Services Administration, and two Atlanta BBC partner organizations. | Photo courtesy of Fred Perry Photography Maria Tikoff Vargas

310

Poloidal Flow and Toroidal Particle Ring Formation in a Sessile Drop Driven by Megahertz Order Vibration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(5) We report the appearance of poloidal flow in a sessile drop via high-frequency acoustic excitation, recirculation about a circular locus with a characteristic length scale defined by the confinement of the fluid, because it is in toroidal tokamaks intended for plasma containment in nuclear fusion,(6) in the mantle between the solid core and flexible crust of the earth,(7) and in immiscible spherical drops(8) within another fluid and transported because of acceleration. ... For the flow experiments, water drops of radii R = 1.5 mm were placed on the substrate and a signal generator (SML01, Rhode & Schwarz Pty. Ltd., North Ryde, New South Wales, Australia) and amplifier (10W1000C, Amplifier Research, Souderton, PA) were used to provide a continuous sinusoidal electrical input at the defined frequency f. ...

Amgad R. Rezk; Leslie Y. Yeo; James R. Friend

2014-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

311

Granular impact cratering by liquid drops: Understanding raindrop imprints through an analogy of asteroid strikes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

When a granular material is impacted by a sphere, its surface deforms like a liquid yet it preserves a circular crater like a solid. Although the mechanism of granular impact cratering by solid spheres is well understood, our knowledge on granular impact cratering by liquid drops is still very limited. Using high-speed photography, we investigate liquid-drop impact dynamics on granular media. Surprisingly, we find that granular impact cratering by liquid drops follows the same energy scaling as that of asteroid impact cratering. Inspired by this similarity, we develop a simple model that quantitatively describes the observed crater morphologies. Our study sheds light on the mechanisms governing raindrop impacts on granular surfaces and reveals an interesting analogy between familiar phenomena of raining and catastrophic asteroid strikes.

Runchen Zhao; Qianyun Zhang; Hendro Tjugito; Xiang Cheng

2014-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

312

Drop-in Biofuels Take Flight in Commerce City, Colorado | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Drop-in Biofuels Take Flight in Commerce City, Colorado Drop-in Biofuels Take Flight in Commerce City, Colorado Drop-in Biofuels Take Flight in Commerce City, Colorado December 8, 2011 - 12:47pm Addthis An aerial view of Rentech's Product Demonstration Unit (PDU) in Commerce City, Colorado. | Photo courtesy of Rentech. An aerial view of Rentech's Product Demonstration Unit (PDU) in Commerce City, Colorado. | Photo courtesy of Rentech. John Schueler John Schueler Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Developing a robust, self-sustaining biofuels industry is key to our efforts to end U.S dependence on foreign oil and to ensure a secure energy future. A crucial step in advancing a domestic biofuels industry is to establish integrated biorefineries across the country. Biorefineries are similar to petroleum refineries in concept; however,

313

Foot drop resulting from degenerative lumbar spinal diseases: Clinical characteristics and prognosis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Foot drop is a condition that can substantially add to the disability of patients with degenerative lumbar spinal disorders. The most common degenerative conditions associated with foot drop are lumbar disc herniation and lumbar spinal stenosis. The level most commonly affected is the L4/5 spinal level. Most patients are treated with surgery, although there is insufficient evidence to support that surgery is superior to conservative therapy. In most surgical patients, foot dorsiflexion will improve to some degree. The preoperative power of foot dorsiflexion is the key factor associated with prognosis.

Yue Wang; Andrew Nataraj

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Heat transfer and pressure drop in square duct with two opposite repeated rib-roughened walls  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HEAT TRANSFER AND PRESSURE DROP IN SQUARE DUCT WITH TWO OPPOSITE REPEATED RIB-ROUGHENED WALLS A Thesis CHIANG-KUO LEI Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1983 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering HEAT TRANSFER AND PRESSURE DROP IN SQUARE DUCT WITH TWO OPPOSITE REPEATED RIB-ROUGHENED WALLS A Thesis by CHIANG-KUO LEI Approved as to style and content by: , ~p= jd~. = e-C in Han...

Lei, Chiang-Kuo

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

315

Influence of a local change of depth on the behavior of bouncing oil drops  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The work of Couder \\textit{et al} (see also Bush \\textit{et al}) inspired consideration of the impact of a submerged obstacle, providing a local change of depth, on the behavior of oil drops in the bouncing regime. In the linked videos, we recreate some of their results for a drop bouncing on a uniform depth bath of the same liquid undergoing vertical oscillations just below the conditions for Faraday instability, and show a range of new behaviors associated with change of depth. This article accompanies a fluid dynamics video entered into the Gallery of Fluid Motion of the 66th Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics.

Carmigniani, Remi; Symon, Sean; McKeon, Beverley J

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

"Millikan oil drops" as quantum transducers between electromagnetic and gravitational radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Pairs of Planck-mass-scale drops of superfluid helium coated by electrons (i.e., "Millikan oil drops"), when levitated in the presence of strong magnetic fields and at low temperatures, can be efficient quantum transducers between electromagnetic (EM) and gravitational (GR) radiation. A Hertz-like experiment, in which EM waves are converted at the source into GR waves, and then back-converted at the receiver from GR waves back into EM waves, should be practical to perform. This would open up observations of the gravity-wave analog of the Cosmic Microwave Background from the extremely early Big Bang, and also communications directly through the interior of the Earth.

Raymond Y. Chiao

2007-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

317

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol number distributions Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

inorganic composition PILS-IC Summary: 3563 nephelometers Aerosol number concentration CNC (TSI 3010, 3025) Aerosol size distribution DMA... and APS Non-volatile aerosol size...

318

Size-resolved engine exhaust aerosol characteristics in a metal foam particulate filter for GDI light-duty vehicle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The particulate emissions generated from a side-mounted 2.4 L gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine were evaluated using a metal foam-type gasoline particulate filter (GPF), placed on the downstream of a three-way catalyst. An ULEV legislation-compliant light-duty vehicle was tested under the new European driving cycle (NEDC) and at constant-speed driving conditions. Particle number (PN) concentrations, particulate size distribution and the filtration efficiency of the GPF were evaluated with the condensation particle counter (CPC) and the differential mobility spectrometer (DMS). The PN emissions for the entire NEDC were 1.17E+12 N/km for the base GDI vehicle and 4.99E+11 N/km for the GPF-equipped GDI vehicle, and the filtration efficiency of the GPF was 57%. In particular, the number of sub-23 nm particles formed in the GDI vehicle was substantially reduced, with 97% efficiency. The pressure drop in the metal foam-type GPF was constrained to be below 1.0 kPa at a 120 km/h vehicle speed, and as a result, the fuel economy and the CO2 emission for the GPF-applied vehicle were equivalent to those for the base vehicle.

Kwanhee Choi; Juwon Kim; Ahyun Ko; Cha-Lee Myung; Simsoo Park; Jeongmin Lee

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

A study of pressure losses in residential air distribution systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the pressure drop characteristics of residential duct system components that are either not available or not thoroughly (sometimes incorrectly) described in existing duct design literature. The tests were designed to imitate cases normally found in typical residential and light commercial installations. The study included three different sizes of flexible ducts, under different compression configurations, splitter boxes, supply boots, and a fresh air intake hood. The experimental tests conformed to ASHRAE Standard 120P--''Methods of Testing to Determine Flow Resistance of HVAC Air Ducts and Fittings''. The flexible duct study covered compressibility and bending effects on the total pressure drop, and the results showed that the available published references tend to underestimate the effects of compression in flexible ducts that can increase pressure drops by up to a factor of nine. The supply boots were tested under different configurations including a setup where a flexible duct elbow connection was considered as an integral part of the supply boot. The supply boots results showed that diffusers can increase the pressure drop by up to a factor of two in exit fittings, and the installation configuration can increase the pressure drop by up to a factor of five. The results showed that it is crucial for designers and contractors to be aware of the compressibility effects of the flexible duct, and the installation of supply boots and diffusers.

Abushakra, Bass; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

On Sensor Fusion in the Presence of Packet-dropping Communication Channels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On Sensor Fusion in the Presence of Packet-dropping Communication Channels Vijay Gupta, Babak Hassibi, Richard M Murray Abstract-- In this paper we look at the problem of multi- sensor data fusion but also since multiple types of sensors can potentially be used that generate observations related

Gupta, Vijay

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "drop size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

CBER-DETR Nevada Coincident and Leading Employment Both Indexes Drop in July  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Statistics. The Nevada Coincident Employment Index includes four employment measures ­ household employmentCBER-DETR Nevada Coincident and Leading Employment Indexes1 Both Indexes Drop in July The Nevada Coincident Employment Index measures the ups and downs of the Nevada economy using an index of employment

Ahmad, Sajjad

322

CBER-DETR Nevada Coincident and Leading Employment Both Indexes Drop for Second Month  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the seasonally adjusted data reported by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The Nevada Coincident Employment IndexCBER-DETR Nevada Coincident and Leading Employment Indexes1 Both Indexes Drop for Second Month The Nevada Coincident Employment Index measures the ups and downs of the Nevada economy using an index

Ahmad, Sajjad

323

Applied Probability and Stochastic Processes EPFL -Fall Semester 2013-2014 "Money drop" updated game rules  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Applied Probability and Stochastic Processes EPFL - Fall Semester 2013-2014 "Money drop" updated game rules Principle of the game: 1. At the beginning of the game, a certain amount of money is given your (current) amount of money on these possible answers. - All the money put on a wrong answer

Lévêque, Olivier

324

Statistical Estimation of Circuit Timing Vulnerability Due to Leakage-Induced Power Grid Voltage Drop  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Statistical Estimation of Circuit Timing Vulnerability Due to Leakage-Induced Power Grid Voltage voltage drops on the power grid that can affect circuit timing. We propose a statistical analysis supply voltage to circuit devices is referred to as the power grid. The consequences of power grid

Najm, Farid N.

325

Experiments on adding a surfactant to water drops boiling on a hot surface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...surfactant to boiling water drops 675 done with three...0 ppm (i.e. pure water), 100 ppm and 1000...and ambient pressure (atmospheric). 2. Experimental...surfactant to 800 g of water. The water was distilled...solution in the droplet generator the syringe, needle...

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Design and fabrication of a 100 GHz channel-drop filter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have designed and are fabricating a novel passive mm-wave spectrometer based on a Photonic Band Gap (PBG) channel-drop filter (CDF). There is a need for a compact wide-band versatile and configurable mm-wave spectrometer for applications in mm-wave communications, radio astronomy, and radar receivers for remote sensing and nonproliferation.

Smirnova, Evgenya I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Earley, Lawrence M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Heath, Cynthia E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shchegolkov, Dmitry Y [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Use of Drop-nets for Wild Pig Damage and Disease Abatement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

pigs were first observed on the ranch in the mid 1990?s. In 2000, NF took ownership of ORR. Bill Hoffmann owns HR. It is unknown when pigs were first observed on ORR or HR. Past wild pig management included drop-nets and corral traps on ORR...

Gaskamp, Joshua Alden

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

328

Academic Renewal Policy Undergraduate students who have dropped out or have been suspended because of poor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Academic Renewal Policy Undergraduate students who have dropped out or have been suspended because at Louisiana Tech University under the provisions of academic renewal. The following conditions apply: 1 was last registered for credit at any college or university and being enrolled under academic renewal. 2

Selmic, Sandra

329

Pressure drops for direct steam generation in line-focus solar thermal systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the focus of the solar collector, and then generate steam outside the collector in a large heat exchanger applicable to DSG in long horizontal pipes as required for the current work with a line-focus collector. #12Pressure drops for direct steam generation in line-focus solar thermal systems John Pye1 , Graham

330

DISDROMETER RAIN DROP STATISTICS FOR DARWIN AND THE SOUTHERN GREAT PLAINS SITE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DISDROMETER RAIN DROP STATISTICS FOR DARWIN AND THE SOUTHERN GREAT PLAINS SITE M. J. Bartholomew Associates, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC02- 98CH10886 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The publisher-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript

331

Managing energy in a network of reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We show how to improve the energy consumption in an all optical ring network based on reconfigurable optical add and drop multiplexers (ROADM in the following). The analysis is based on numerical analysis of discrete time Markov chains and some heuristics to design an efficient network configuration. We also present a software tool built to perform this performance analysis.

Jean-Michel Fourneau; Nora Izri; Dominique Verchère

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Equilibrium behavior of sessile drops under surface tension, applied external fields, and material variations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Equilibrium behavior of sessile drops under surface tension, applied external fields, and material properties such as dielectric constants, resistivities, and surface tension coefficients. The analysis energy storage in the liquid, will lead to 1/R ``line-tension''-type terms if and only if the energy

Shapiro, Benjamin

333

Eye drop: an interaction concept for gaze-supported point-to-point content transfer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The shared displays in our environment contain content that we desire. Furthermore, we often acquire content for a specific purpose, i.e., the acquisition of a phone number to place a call. We have developed a content transfer concept, Eye Drop. Eye ...

Jayson Turner; Andreas Bulling; Jason Alexander; Hans Gellersen

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Quantifying Pressure Drop and Effects of Standard Chemotherapeutic Drugs Inside of a Microfluidic Device  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantifying Pressure Drop and Effects of Standard Chemotherapeutic Drugs Inside of a Microfluidic of microfluidic chambers and channels. Tumor spheroids are introduced, or "packed", into the chambers via the microfluidic channels, and will slowly grow inside of the device. Future uses for this chip will hopefully

Mountziaris, T. J.

335

Air-dropped sensor network for real-time high-fidelity volcano monitoring  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents the design and deployment experience of an air-dropped wireless sensor network for volcano hazard monitoring. The deployment of five stations into the rugged crater of Mount St. Helens only took one hour with a helicopter. The stations ... Keywords: design and deployment, sensor network

Wen-Zhan Song; Renjie Huang; Mingsen Xu; Andy Ma; Behrooz Shirazi; Richard LaHusen

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Compound pendant drop tensiometry for surface tension measurement at zero Bond  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is stationary, the net force acting on it must be zero. The net force is the sum of three forces: (iCompound pendant drop tensiometry for surface tension measurement at zero Bond number of the particle Fweight acting downwards. We now calculate each of these components separately, adopting

Chan, Derek Y C

337

Granular impact cratering by liquid drops: Understanding raindrop imprints through an analogy to asteroid strikes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

When a granular material is impacted by a sphere, its surface deforms like a liquid yet it preserves a circular crater like a solid. Although the mechanism of granular impact cratering by solid spheres is well explored, our knowledge on granular impact cratering by liquid drops is still very limited. Here, by combining high-speed photography with high-precision laser profilometry, we investigate liquid-drop impact dynamics on granular surface and monitor the morphology of resulting impact craters. Surprisingly, we find that, despite the enormous energy and length difference, granular impact cratering by liquid drops follows the same energy scaling and reproduces the same crater morphology as that of asteroid impact craters. Inspired by this similarity, we integrate the physical insight from planetary sciences, the liquid marble model from fluid mechanics and the concept of jamming transition from granular physics into a simple theoretical framework that quantitatively describes all the main features of liquid-drop imprints in granular media. Our study sheds light on the mechanisms governing raindrop impacts on granular surfaces and reveals a remarkable analogy between familiar phenomena of raining and catastrophic asteroid strikes.

Runchen Zhao; Qianyun Zhang; Hendro Tjugito; Xiang Cheng

2014-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

338

Analytical and Experimental Study of Annular Two-Phase Flow Friction Pressure Drop Under Microgravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to design reliable two-phase systems. The main objective of this present research is to develop a new mathematical model that can accurately predict the annular two-phase friction pressure drop to optimize the design of two-phase systems. The two-phase flow...

Nguyen, Ngoc Thanh

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

339

Delamination at Thick Ply Drops in Carbon and Glass Fiber Laminates Under Fatigue Loading  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Delamination at Thick Ply Drops in Carbon and Glass Fiber Laminates Under Fatigue Loading Daniel in composites with thickness tapering has been a concern in applications of carbon fibers. This study explored the resistance to delamination under fatigue loading of carbon and glass fiber prepreg laminates with the same

340

Radiative Impacts on the Growth of a Population of Drops within Simulated Summertime Arctic Stratus  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The impact of solar heating and infrared cooling on the growth of a population of drops is studied with two numerical modeling frameworks. An eddy-resolving model (ERM) simulation of Arctic stratus clouds is used to generate a dataset of 500 ...

Jerry Y. Harrington; Graham Feingold; William R. Cotton

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "drop size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Coalescence of Drops Near A Hydrophilic Boundary Leads to Long Range Directed Motion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new mechanism for the passive removal of drop on a horizontal surface is described that does not require pre-fabrication of a surface energy gradient. The method relies upon the preparation of alternate hydrophilic/hydrophobic stripes on a surface. When one side of this surface is exposed to steam, with its other surface convectively cooled with cold water, steam condenses as a continuous film on the hydrophilic stripes but as droplets on the hydrophobic stripes. Coalescence leads to a random motion of the center of mass of the fused drops on the surface, which are readily removed as they reach near the boundary of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic zones thus resulting in a net diffusive flux of the coalesced drops from the hydrophobic to the hydrophilic stripes of the surface. Although an in-situ produced thermal gradient due to differential heat transfer coefficients of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic stripes could provide additional driving force for such a motion, it is, however, not a necessary condition for motion to occur. This method of creating directed motion of drops does not require a pre-existing wettability gradient and may have useful applications in thermal management devices.

Manoj K. Chaudhury; Aditi Chakrabarti; Tapasya Tibrewal

2014-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

342

Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 Splashing from drop impact into a deep  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

surrounding gases. We find that the splashing threshold depends on the gas's dynamic viscosity, but not its, and disintegrates into a spray of secondary droplets. Nonetheless, many basic details of this process remain obscure. Fezzaa and R. D. Deegan Fluid Viscosity Density Surface tension Drop Diameter (cp) (g/cm3 ) (dyne/cm) (cm

Deegan, Robert

343

Water usage dropping on campus, but UT hopes to lower it more  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water usage dropping on campus, but UT hopes to lower it more Photo Credit: Zachary Strain | Daily six years, UT has worked to decrease its water usage, but the University still has a ways to go if it the University was using one billion gallons of water per year. Across buildings, irrigation, chilling stations

Johnston, Daniel

344

D0 Silicon Upgrade: Pipe Sizing for Solenoid / VLPC Cryogenic Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The addition of a solenoid magnet and VLPC detectors are two of a number of upgrades which will occur at the D-Zero detector in the near future. Both of these upgrades will require cryogenic services for their operation. The purpose of this engineering note is to document the pipe/tube size choices made for these cryogenic services. This was done by calculating the required flow rates to cool down the magnet and VLPC's over a reasonable length of time and to determine the required piping sizes for a given allowable pressure drop. The pressure drops for steady state conditions also are addressed. The cool down requirements drove the pipe size decision. The raw engineering calculations that were done for this project are included as an appendix to this note. The body of this document discusses the methods and results of the calculations. As a quick summary, Figures 1 and 2 show the size selections. Tables 1 and 2 give a more detailed size and description of each section of Solenoid and VLPC transfer line.

Rucinski, Russ; Sakla, Steve; /Fermilab

1995-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

345

Improvement of LNG production technology in gas-distribution stations with an increased content of carbon dioxide in supply-line gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The possibility is considered of reducing the weight of absorbent in a carbon dioxide gas cleaning system during liquefied natural gas production in gas-distribution stations (due to use of a pressure drop ... is...

S. P. Gorbachev; S. V. Lyugai

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Distribution Workshop  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

On September 24-26, 2012, the GTT presented a workshop on grid integration on the distribution system at the Sheraton Crystal City near Washington, DC.

347

ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Effects of Aerosol Size  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Effects of Aerosol Size Distribution and Vertical Profile on the Effects of Aerosol Size Distribution and Vertical Profile on the Polarization in the Oxygen A-Band Duan, Minzheng State University of New York at Albany Min, Qilong State University of New York at Albany A vector radiative transfer code with successive order of scattering method was used to simulate the high-resolution polarization spectra in the oxygen A-band. The effects of aerosol size distribution and vertical profile on the radiance and polarization at the top and bottom of the atmosphere were analyzed. The impacts of instrument specification on information content are also analyzed. Polarized radiances were dominated (>95%) by the first and second orders of scattering. The contributions of scattering from different levels to the TOA and surface observation are analyzed. The

348

Spontaneous penetration of a non-wetting drop into an exposed pore Pengtao Yue and Yuriko Renardy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and entry flow, the modified Lucas-Washburn equation greatly overesti- mates the penetration rate drop (S penetration rate is higher than that fSpontaneous penetration of a non-wetting drop into an exposed pore Pengtao Yue and Yuriko Renardy

Renardy, Yuriko

349

Blackboard Learning Services V-F1 Page 1 Blackboard Inc. Digital Drop Box vs. Assignment Manager Tip Sheet  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Blackboard Learning Services V-F1 Page 1 Blackboard Inc. Digital Drop Box vs. Assignment Manager Tip Sheet Blackboard Best Practices: Digital Drop Box vs. Assignment Manager A Blackboard Learning causes confusion for students and instructors alike. Adding a File When a user elects to Add File

350

Experimental and numerical study of pressure drop and heat transfer in a single-phase micro-channel heat sink  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experimental and numerical study of pressure drop and heat transfer in a single-phase micro Received 6 July 2001; received in revised form 26 October 2001 Abstract The pressure drop and heat transfer-dimensional heat transfer characteristics of the heat sink were analyzed numerically by solving the conjugate heat

Qu, Weilin

351

Size Reduction and Densification of Lignocellulosic Biomass Feedstock for Biopower, Bioproducts, and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Size Reduction and Densification of Lignocellulosic Biomass Feedstock for Biopower, Bioproducts reduction and densification of lignocellulosic biomass feedstock play a crucial role in the preprocessing and supply of biomass. Size reduction is an operation where the size distribution of biomass particles

352

Seed size strongly affects cascades on random networks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The average avalanche size in the Watts model of threshold dynamics on random networks of arbitrary degree distribution is determined analytically. Existence criteria for global cascades are shown to depend sensitively on the size of the initial seed disturbance. The dependence of cascade size upon the mean degree z of the network is known to exhibit several transitions—these are typically continuous at low z and discontinuous at high z; here it is demonstrated that the low-z transition may in fact be discontinuous in certain parameter regimes. Connections between these results and the zero-temperature random-field Ising model on random graphs are discussed.

James P. Gleeson and Diarmuid J. Cahalane

2007-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

353

Drop Simulation of 6M Drum with Locking-Ring Closure and Liquid Contents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents the dynamic simulation of the 6M drum with a locking-ring type closure subjected to a 4.9-foot drop. The drum is filled with water to 98 percent of overflow capacity. A three dimensional finite-element model consisting of metallic, liquid and rubber gasket components is used in the simulation. The water is represented by a hydrodynamic material model in which the material's volume strength is determined by an equation of state. The explicit numerical method based on the theory of wave propagation is used to determine the combined structural response to the torque load for tightening the locking-ring closure and to the impact load due to the drop.

Wu, T

2006-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

354

The relationship between filter pressure drop, indoor air quality, and energy consumption in rooftop HVAC units  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract HVAC filters are commonly used to decrease exposure to particulate matter, yet little is known about the energy impacts and air quality consequences of high efficiency filters installed in commercial buildings. To explore these effects, system airflow, filter and coil pressure drop, fan pressure rise, and power draw were measured, and cooling capacity and compressor power were modeled for at least four filter pressure drops in 15 rooftop units equipped with and without fan speed control. Energy implications and clean-air-delivery-rate were estimated for a large dataset of filters divided into four efficiency (MERV) categories. Field measurements conducted on units without fan speed control showed that increased filter pressure drop decreased flow, cooling capacity, and power. For a unit with fan speed control, the same increase in pressure drop resulted in the same magnitude change of fan power but in the opposite direction, and other parameters were unchanged. Replacing MERV 8 with MERV 13/14 resulted in higher energy consumption (2–4%) during cooling mode for both unit types, energy savings during fan-only mode (8–13%) in units without fan speed control, and increased energy consumption in fan-only mode (11–18%) in the unit with fan speed control. Energy consumption increases were offset by improvement in clean-air-delivery-rate, especially for PM2.5 (2.9–3.8 times increase going from MERV 8 to MERV 13/14), with larger benefits achieved for the unit with fan speed control. A comprehensive understanding of the impact of filtration is essential to selecting the appropriate efficiency of filters that ensures low-energy use and a healthy indoor environment.

Marwa Zaatari; Atila Novoselac; Jeffrey Siegel

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Wealth Distribution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Walter: What is a just wealth distribution? In my view, it is one that results from respect for proper initial homesteading, for resulting private property rights, and, finally, from any legitimate subsequent ...

Four Arrows; Walter Block

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Special Distribution  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Special Distribution Special Distribution Issued: December 1977 ',, Radiological Survey and Decontamination of the Former Main Technical Area (TA-1) at Los Alamos, New Mexico Compiled by A. John Ahlquist Alan K. Stoker Linda K. Trocki c laboratory of, the University of California LOS ALAMOS, NEW MEXICO 87545 An Alfirmdve Action/Equal Opportunity Employer ..-_- .-- .--.-. c T -,--... _ _._-r..l __,.. - .-,_.. ..- _._ -- .--. " . . _ . - . c- - . . . _ -. . _ . - . - . _ - - n - _ _~ ~_. __ _ ~~_ --..&e+ L.';; CONTENTS ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .._____ 1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .._... _._ 2 I. BACKGROUND .............................................. 15

357

The Roles of Cloud Drop Effective Radius and LWP in Determining Rain Properties in Marine Stratocumulus  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Numerical simulations described in previous studies showed that adding cloud condensation nuclei to marine stratocumulus can prevent their breakup from closed into open cells. Additional analyses of the same simulations show that the suppression of rain is well described in terms of cloud drop effective radius (re). Rain is initiated when re near cloud top is around 12-14 um. Cloud water starts to get depleted when column-maximum rain intensity (Rmax) exceeds 0.1 mm h-1. This happens when cloud-top re reaches 14 um. Rmax is mostly less than 0.1 mm h-1 at re<14 um, regardless of the cloud water path, but increases rapidly when re exceeds 14 um. This is in agreement with recent aircraft observations and theoretical observations in convective clouds so that the mechanism is not limited to describing marine stratocumulus. These results support the hypothesis that the onset of significant precipitation is determined by the number of nucleated cloud drops and the height (H) above cloud base within the cloud that is required for cloud drops to reach re of 14 um. In turn, this can explain the conditions for initiation of significant drizzle and opening of closed cells providing the basis for a simple parameterization for GCMs that unifies the representation of both precipitating and non-precipitating clouds as well as the transition between them. Furthermore, satellite global observations of cloud depth (from base to top), and cloud top re can be used to derive and validate this parameterization.

Rosenfeld, Daniel; Wang, Hailong; Rasch, Philip J.

2012-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

358

Dependence of post-drop reactivity on data analysis model for rod drop experiment in a subcritical reactor with external source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents an improved rod-drop reactivity and source strength measurement by the inverse kinetics method in subcritical reactor system. The inverse kinetics method extended to be applicable to subcritical system, which is referred to as least squares inverse kinetics method (LSIKM), can estimate both the reactivity and the external source strength by applying least square approximation. However, the application of the conventional fitting model of the LSIKM to fluctuating data leads to serious errors in the estimation. In this study, a specific fitting model proposed by Itagaki and Kitano is used for the LSIKM and the effectiveness for fluctuating data is demonstrated experimentally. Furthermore, the spatial dependence of the estimated results is investigated and the reduction method is proposed. (authors)

Taninaka, H. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kinki Univ., 3-4-1, Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka, 577-8502 (Japan); Hashimoto, K. [Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kinki Univ., 3-4-1, Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka, 577-8502 (Japan)

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Can Government Regulate Portion Sizes?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...it struck down the law on the basis of the separation-of-powers issue. According to the dissenting opinion, however, "the Rule easily passes this test." Neither lower court had found that regulating portion sizes of sugar-sweetened beverages was irrational (although both courts similarly struck down... A New York City Board of Health regulation limiting portion sizes of sugar-sweetened beverages was struck down this year, but the case may help address fundamental questions about whether restricting portion sizes is defensible on public health and legal grounds.

Pomeranz J.L.; Brownell K.D.

2014-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

360

ARM - Measurement - Cloud droplet size  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

droplet size droplet size ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Cloud droplet size Linear size (e.g. radius or diameter) of a cloud particle Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. Field Campaign Instruments CPI : Cloud Particle Imager CVI-AIR : Counterflow Virtual Impactor MIRAI : JAMSTEC Research Vessel Mirai PDI : Phase Doppler Interferometer UAV-PROTEUS-MICRO : Proteus Cloud Microphysics Instruments SPEC-CPI : Stratton Park Engineering Company - Cloud particle imager

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "drop size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol particle size  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

particle size particle size ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol particle size Linear size (e.g. radius or diameter) of an aerosol particle. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. Field Campaign Instruments AEROSMASSSPEC : Aerosol Mass Spectrometer CPI : Cloud Particle Imager DRI-GND : Desert Research Institute Ground-Based Aerosol Instruments DRUM-AEROSOL : Drum Aerosol Sampler AEROSOL-TOWER-EML : EML Tower based Aerosol Measurements

362

Hardware Sizing for Software Application  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, in real-life there is a need to predict the capacity when budgeting hardware, assessing technical risk, validating technical architecture, sizing packaged applications, predicting production system capacity requirements, and calculating the cost...

Swaminathan, Ganesh

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

363

Azeotropic Distillation as a Technique for Emulsion Size Reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Prism/PCCM #12;Overview -Intro- What is Microfluidics? What is Heterogeneous Azeotropic Distillation to produce with a narrow size distribution by way of microfluidics. Want to make emulsions with droplets 30. Depiction of particles lodging in the lung capillary bed. #12;Background Microfluidic Droplet Generation

Petta, Jason

364

The evolutionary consequences of oxygenic photosynthesis: a body size perspective  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at lower O2:CO2. Field studies of size distributions across extant higher taxa and individual species of Biology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131, USA M. Kowalewski Department of Geosciences transport limits the thickness or volume-to-surface area ratio--rather than mass or volume

Lyons, S. Kathleen

365

FIBWR: a steady-state core flow distribution code for boiling water reactors code verification and qualification report. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A steady-state core flow distribution code (FIBWR) is described. The ability of the recommended models to predict various pressure drop components and void distribution is shown by comparison to the experimental data. Application of the FIBWR code to the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station is shown by comparison to the plant measured data.

Ansari, A.F.; Gay, R.R.; Gitnick, B.J.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

METER-SIZED MOONLET POPULATION IN SATURN'S C RING AND CASSINI DIVISION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Stellar occultations observed by the Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph reveal the presence of transparent holes a few meters to a few tens of meters in radial extent in otherwise optically thick regions of the C ring and the Cassini Division. We attribute the holes to gravitational disturbances generated by a population of {approx}10 m boulders in the rings that is intermediate in size between the background ring particle size distribution and the previously observed {approx}100 m propeller moonlets in the A ring. The size distribution of these boulders is described by a shallower power-law than the one that describes the ring particle size distribution. The number and size distribution of these boulders could be explained by limited accretion processes deep within Saturn's Roche zone.

Baillie, Kevin; Colwell, Joshua E. [Department of Physics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816-2385 (United States); Esposito, Larry W. [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, University of Colorado at Boulder, 392 UCB, Boulder, CO 80309-0392 (United States); Lewis, Mark C., E-mail: kevin.baillie@cea.fr [Department of Computer Science, Trinity University, One Trinity Place, San Antonio, TX 78212-7200 (United States)

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Distribution Category: Water R  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Eng. Prog. 49, 88 (1953). 53. T. Z. Harmathy, Velocity of Large Drops and Bubbles in Media of Infinite and Restricted Extent, AIChE J. 6, 281 (1960). 54. G. B. Wallis, The...

368

Field-size dependence of doses of therapeutic carbon beams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To estimate the physical dose at the center of spread-out Bragg peaks (SOBP) for various conditions of the irradiation system, a semiempirical approach was applied. The dose at the center of the SOBP depends on the field size because of large-angle scattering particles in the water phantom. For a small field of 5x5 cm{sup 2}, the dose was reduced to 99.2%, 97.5%, and 96.5% of the dose used for the open field in the case of 290, 350, and 400 MeV/n carbon beams, respectively. Based on the three-Gaussian form of the lateral dose distributions of the carbon pencil beam, which has previously been shown to be effective for describing scattered carbon beams, we reconstructed the dose distributions of the SOBP beam. The reconstructed lateral dose distribution reproduced the measured lateral dose distributions very well. The field-size dependencies calculated using the reconstructed lateral dose distribution of the therapeutic carbon beam agreed with the measured dose dependency very well. The reconstructed beam was also used for irregularly shaped fields. The resultant dose distribution agreed with the measured dose distribution. The reconstructed beams were found to be applicable to the treatment-planning system.

Kusano, Yohsuke; Kanai, Tatsuaki; Yonai, Shunsuke; Komori, Masataka; Ikeda, Noritoshi; Tachikawa, Yuji; Ito, Atsushi; Uchida, Hirohisa [Tokai University Unified Graduate School, Graduate School of Science and Technology, 1117 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1207, Japan and Accelerator Engineering Co., 2-13-1 Konakadai, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-0043 (Japan); Department of Accelerator Physics and Medical Physics, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Medical Physics Research Group, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Department of Accelerator Physics and Medical Physics, Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Accelerator Engineering Co., 2-13-1 Konakadai, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-0043 (Japan); Department of Energy Science and Engineering, School of Engineering, Tokai University, 1117 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan)

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

369

Influence of coal nature and structure on ash size formation characteristic and related pollutant emissions during CFB combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The size distribution of coal particles in a Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler plays a crucial role in the ... the variation of coal ash distributions and other CFB performance data due to the cyclone and...

Min Qian; Arnaud Boelle; Philippe Jaud; Yongjie Na…

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Food dropping as a food transfer mechanism among western lowland gorillas in Moukalaba-Doudou National Park, Gabon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, I describe the food-dropping behavior of western lowland gorillas observed in Moukalaba-Doudou National Park, Gabon. I collected observational data of gorillas eating...

Yuji Iwata

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Extreme Resistance of Superhydrophobic Surfaces to Impalement: Reversible Electrowetting Related to the Impacting/Bouncing Drop Test  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Extreme Resistance of Superhydrophobic Surfaces to Impalement: Reversible Electrowetting Related drop impact impalement and electrowetting (EW) experiments. A correlation between the resistance) is one of the most promising techniques to carry out elementary operations on droplets, like displacement

Brunet, Philippe

372

Kinematical relations among radar-observed water concentrations, vertical motions, and liquid-water drop-size spectra in convective clouds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and liquid- water concentration, a one-dimensional (vertical) continuity equation for water substance is considered. Atmospheric values of parameters which appear in the continuity equation are determined from radar reflectivity measurements. Empirical... viii I INTRODUCTION Cloud Motions in General Equations Governing Cloud Parameters A Kinematical Equation Based on the Continuity of Water Substance Determinati. on of the Values of the Atmospheric Variables Appearing in the Kinematical Equation...

Runnels, Robert Clayton

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

373

Ultrasonically enhanced size reduction of coal. Quarterly technical progress report No. 3, December 26, 1981-June 25, 1982  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental work during the past quarter involved use of the roller/curved plate coupler grinder, with the Upper Freeport and the Illinois coals as feed. In general, the results indicate that ultrasonic grinding leads to a narrow size distribution with minimal energy consumption. Furthermore, float-sink analyses of ultrasonically versus non-ultrasonically ground samples appear to indicate that selective fracturing is occurring during ultrasonic grinding. In order to further characterize the narrow size distribution achieved by ultrasonic grinding, an experiment was carried out in which a sample of Illinois No. 6 coal (9 mesh x 0) was ultrasonically ground; a comparison between the initial feed size distribution and the ground product size distribution was made. The median mass diameter was reduced from 500 microns to 250 microns while the amount of -200 mesh material remained essentially constant. Without classification, no other method will reduce particle size and give a narrower product size distribution simultaneously. 1 figure, 4 tables.

Tarpley, W.B. Jr.; Taylor, S.R.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Screen and slotted liner horizontal completion: : correcting for wellbore pressure drop in the inflow performance relationships (IPR)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SCREEN AND SLOTTED LINER HORIZONTAL COMPLETIONS: CORRECTING FOR WELLBORK PRESSURE DROP IN THE INFLOW PERFORMANCE RELATIONSHIPS (IPR) A Thesis by EDDIE OSARENMWIDA AGBONGIATOR Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University...: Correcting for Wellbore Pressure Drop in the Inflow Performance Relationships (IPR). (December 2002) Eddie Osarenmwida Agbongiator, B. S. , University of Benin Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Rosalind A. Archer This thesis presents the development of a...

Agbongiator, Eddie Osarenmwida

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

375

An experimental and analytical study of annular two phase flow friction pressure drop in a reduced acceleration field  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AN EXPERIMENTAL AND ANALYTICAL STUDY OF ANNULAR TWO PHASE FLOW FRICTION PRESSURE DROP IN A REDUCED ACCELERATION FIELD A Thesis by MONTCPMERY WHEELER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1992 Major Subject: Nuclear Engineering AN EXPERIMENTAL AND ANALYTICAL STUDY OF ANNULAR TWO PHASE FLOW FRICTION PRESSURE DROP IN A REDUCED ACCELERATION FIELD A Thesis by MONTGOMERY WHEELER...

Wheeler, Montgomery

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Determining size-specific emission factors for environmental tobacco smoke  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Determining size-specific emission factors for environmental tobacco smoke Determining size-specific emission factors for environmental tobacco smoke particles Title Determining size-specific emission factors for environmental tobacco smoke particles Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2003 Authors Klepeis, Neil E., Michael G. Apte, Lara A. Gundel, Richard G. Sextro, and William W. Nazaroff Journal Aerosol Science & Technology Volume 37 Start Page Chapter Pagination 780-790 Date Published October 2003 Abstract Because size is a major controlling factor for indoor airborne particle behavior, human particle exposure assessments will benefit from improved knowledge of size-specific particle emissions. We report a method of inferring size-specific mass emission factors for indoor sources that makes use of an indoor aerosol dynamics model, measured particle concentration time series data, and an optimization routine. This approach provides -- in addition to estimates of the emissions size distribution and integrated emission factors -- estimates of deposition rate, an enhanced understanding of particle dynamics, and information about model performance. We applied the method to size-specific environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) particle concentrations measured every minute with an 8-channel optical particle counter (PMS-LASAIR; 0.1-2+ micrometer diameters) and every 10 or 30 min with a 34-channel differential mobility particle sizer (TSI-DMPS; 0.01-1+ micrometer diameters) after a single cigarette or cigar was machine-smoked inside a low air-exchange rate 20m^3 chamber. The aerosol dynamics model provided good fits to observed concentrations when using optimized values of mass emission rate and deposition rate for each particle size range as input. Small discrepancies observed in the first 1-2 hours after smoking are likely due to the effect of particle evaporation, a process neglected by the model. Size-specific ETS particle emission factors were fit with log-normal distributions, yielding an average mass median diameter of 0.2 micrometers and an average geometric standard deviation of 2.3 with no systematic differences between cigars and cigarettes. The equivalent total particle emission rate, obtained by integrating each size distribution, was 0.2-0.7 mg/min for cigars and 0.7-0.9 mg/min for cigarettes

377

Falling behind, failure and drop outs in Mexican public universities: Autonomous University of Chihuahua (Mexico) case  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The subject deals with the concepts of falling behind, failure and drop outs as the main indicators to the academic measuring methods in Mexican public universities, complemented by the national proposal to establish institutional tutorial models as the probable solution for the reduction of such indicators. In addition, it includes the outcomes of diagnostic studies performed at the Autonomous University of Chihuahua, Mexico, taking into consideration the outstanding findings about the causes that provoke such problems, and distinguish its behaviour among students coursing educative programs with social approach and its comparison to those related to sciences.

Javier Tarango

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Foot Drop after Ethanol Embolization of Calf Vascular Malformation: A Lesson on Nerve Injury  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ethanol is often used in sclerotherapy to treat vascular malformations. Nerve injury is a known complication of this procedure. However, the management of this complication is not well described in literature. This case describes a 10-year-old boy with a slow flow vascular malformation in the right calf who underwent transarterial ethanol embolization following prior unsuccessful direct percutaneous sclerotherapy. The development of a dense foot drop that subsequently recovered is described, and the management of this uncommon but distressful complication is discussed.

Tay, Vincent Khwee-Soon, E-mail: vincentkstay@gmail.com [Singapore General Hospital, Department of Plastic, Reconstructive, and Aesthetic Surgery (Singapore); Mohan, P. Chandra, E-mail: chandra.mohan@sgh.com.sg [Singapore General Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Singapore); Liew, Wendy Kein Meng, E-mail: wendy.liew.km@kkh.com.sg [KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Department of Paediatrics (Neurology Service) (Singapore); Mahadev, Arjandas, E-mail: arjandas.mahadev@kkh.com.sg [KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery (Singapore); Tay, Kiang Hiong, E-mail: tay.kiang.hiong@sgh.com.sg [Singapore General Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Singapore)

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Four-point probe measurements of a direct current potential drop on layered conductive cylinders  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have determined the steady state electric field due to direct current flowing via point contacts at the cylindrical surface of a uniformly layered conductive rod of finite length. The solution allows one to use four-point probe potential drop measurements to estimate the conductivity or thickness of the layer assuming that the other parameters are known. The electrical potential in the rod has a zero radial derivative at its surface except at the injection and extractions points. This means that the required solution can be expressed in terms of a Green's function satisfying a Neumann boundary condition. Four-point measurements have been made to demonstrate the validity of theoretical results.

Yi Lu; John R Bowler

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Compare All CBECS Activities: Size  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

By Building Size By Building Size Compare Activities by ... Building Size Total Floorspace by Building Type There was approximately 67.3 billion square feet of commercial floorspace in the U.S. in 1999. Because there are many of them, office buildings comprised the largest amount of commercial floorspace. Figure showing total floorspace by building type. If you need assistance viewing this page, please call 202-586-8800. Square Feet per Building by Building Type Inpatient health buildings were by far the largest building type, on average, while food service and food sales buildings were the smallest. Figure showing square feet per building by building type. If you need assistance viewing this page, please call 202-586-8800. Establishments per Building by Building Type

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "drop size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

DISTRIBUTION CATEGORY  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

DISTRIBUTION CATEGORY DISTRIBUTION CATEGORY uc-11 I A W E N C E LIVERMORE IABORATORY University of Cahfmia/Livermore, California/94550 UCRL-52658 CALCULATION OF CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM BETWEEN AQUEOUS SOLUTION AND MINERALS: THE EQ3/6 - - SOFTWARE PACKAGE T. J. Wolery MS. date: February 1, 1979 . . - . . - . Tho rcpon rn prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United Stater Government. Seither Lhc Urutcd Stater nor the Umted Stater Department of Energy, nor any of their employees. nor any of their E O ~ ~ ~ B C I O I S . rubcontracton. o r their employees. makes any warranr)., exprcs or !mplwd. or assumes any legal liability or respanability io: the ~ c c u o c y . complctencn or uvfulneu of any miormarlon. apparatcr. product or p r o m s dtwlorcd. or r c p r e v n u that its UP would not infringe privately owned r

382

Millikan's Oil-Drop Experiment: A Centennial Setup Revisited in Virtual World  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Early in the last century Robert Millikan developed a precise method of determining the electric charge carried by oil droplets.1–3 Using a microscope and a small incandescent lamp he observed the fall of charged droplets under the influence of an electric field inside a small observation chamber. In so doing Millikan demonstrated the existence of a fundamental unit of electric charge and established its quantization. Now renowned as one of the most famous experiments of 20th-century physics Millikan's oil-drop experiment has been reproduced with more or less success in most if not all high school and university physics classes. This has encouraged many improvements of the apparatus now making this experiment much more accurate and easier to realize for advanced students. However the required apparatus remains rather expensive and for introductory college or high school students the experiment is still quite difficult to conduct. As an alternative to the traditional setup a realistic computer-based simulator to replicate the Millikan oil-drop experiment has been developed. Using this software students are able to undertake a complete experiment obtain an accurate set of results and thus gain a better understanding of the original experiment and its historical importance.

Michel Gagnon

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Shape oscillation and static deformation of drops and bubbles driven by modulated radiation stresses—Theory  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Deformations of drops and bubbles opposed by surface tension and driven by radiation stresses at the interface are calculated using spherical harmonic expansions for the radial and tangential stresses. Superimposed acoustic waves produce stresses which oscillate at the difference frequency ? of the waves in addition to static stresses. When the effects of viscosity on the acoustic waves are omitted the tangential radiation stress vanishes; a procedure is proposed for calculating the radial stresses from the theory for ’’Acoustic Radiation Pressure on a Compressible Sphere’’ [K. Yosioka and Y. Kawasima Acustica 5 167–173 (1955)]. The calculation of the response assumes incompressible second?order flow and omits the body forces which are normally asociated with acoustic streaming. Resonance phase shifts and enhancements of the response should occur when ? is close to the natural oscillation frequency of a mode. Quadrupole resonance phase shifts and enhancements have been observed by the author [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 67 27–37 (1980)]. Diverse applications of the theory include the possibilities of: inference of the interfacial tension from the response; emulsification by exciting large amplitude oscillations; and deformation or splitting of bubbles by radiation stresses. The decay time of free oscillation is also calculated; a new term is found which is small but significant for drops surrounded by a liquid and supplements the theory for ’’The Oscillations of a Fluid Droplet Immersed in Another Fluid’’ [C. A. Miller and L. E. Scriven J. Fluid Mech. 32 417–435 (1968)].

Philip L. Marston

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

A critical assessment of imbalanced class distribution problem: The case of predicting freshmen student attrition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Predicting student attrition is an intriguing yet challenging problem for any academic institution. Class-imbalanced data is a common in the field of student retention, mainly because a lot of students register but fewer students drop out. Classification ... Keywords: Attrition, Imbalanced class distribution, Prediction, SMOTE, Sampling, Sensitivity analysis, Student retention

Dech Thammasiri; Dursun Delen; Phayung Meesad; Nihat Kasap

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Fragment Mass Distribution of Platelike Objects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The fragment mass distributions of platelike objects are investigated by conducting two types of experiments. The first is a {open_quotes}sandwich{close_quote}{close_quote} experiment in which thin glass and plaster plates are inserted between two larger stainless steel plates and an iron projectile is dropped onto the target plate at normal incidence. The second is a {open_quotes}lateral impact{close_quote}{close_quote} experiment in which a hypervelocity nylon projectile collides at the side of the plaster plates. There is a discrepancy in the power-law exponent of fragment mass distribution between the sandwich experiment and the lateral impact experiment. A model that agrees with the experimental results is proposed. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

Kadono, T. [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Kanagawa 229 (Japan)] [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Kanagawa 229 (Japan); [and Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606 (Japan)

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Percent Distribution  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

. . Percent Distribution of Natural Gas Supply and Disposition by State, 1996 Table State Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) Marketed Production Total Consumption Alabama................................................................... 3.02 2.69 1.48 Alaska ...................................................................... 5.58 2.43 2.04 Arizona..................................................................... NA 0 0.55 Arkansas.................................................................. 0.88 1.12 1.23 California.................................................................. 1.25 1.45 8.23 Colorado .................................................................. 4.63 2.90 1.40 Connecticut.............................................................. 0 0 0.58 D.C...........................................................................

387

Distributed Generation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Untapped Value of Backup Generation Untapped Value of Backup Generation While new guidelines and regulations such as IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 1547 have come a long way in addressing interconnection standards for distributed generation, utilities have largely overlooked the untapped potential of these resources. Under certain conditions, these units (primarily backup generators) represent a significant source of power that can deliver utility services at lower costs than traditional centralized solutions. These backup generators exist today in large numbers and provide utilities with another option to reduce peak load, relieve transmission congestion, and improve power reliability. Backup generation is widely deployed across the United States. Carnegie Mellon's Electricity

388

Size of Cloud from Shadow  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Size of Cloud from Shadow Size of Cloud from Shadow Name: mike Status: other Grade: other Location: N/A Country: USA Date: Summer 2011 Question: I see a cloud and I see its shadow in a field - knowing high sun angles - is there a way of telling how far away the cloud is or how big? - I am thinking if the shadow is 30' wide and the sun is at 2:00 pm- ? Replies: Hi Mike, Try this, draw a small circle representing the Sun. Somewhere below this circle and maybe to the right, draw an oblong, make this oblong bigger than the circle. Now connect the leftmost edge of the circle with the leftmost edge of the oblong with a straight line. Do the same for the rightmost edges. The oblong now represent the shadow of a cloud on the ground, and the lines represent the rays of the sun passing along the edges of the cloud.

389

Percent Distribution  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

. . Percent Distribution of Natural Gas Delivered to Consumers by State, 1996 Table State Residential Commercial Industrial Vehicle Fuel Electric Utilities Alabama..................................... 1.08 0.92 2.27 0.08 0.23 Alaska ........................................ 0.31 0.87 0.85 - 1.16 Arizona....................................... 0.53 0.92 0.30 3.91 0.70 Arkansas.................................... 0.88 0.98 1.59 0.11 1.24 California.................................... 9.03 7.44 7.82 43.11 11.64 Colorado .................................... 2.12 2.18 0.94 0.58 0.20 Connecticut................................ 0.84 1.26 0.37 1.08 0.38 D.C............................................. 0.33 0.52 - 0.21 - Delaware.................................... 0.19 0.21 0.16 0.04 0.86 Florida........................................

390

Distribution Category:  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

- - Distribution Category: Remedial Action and Decommissioning Program (UC-70A) DOE/EV-0005/48 ANL-OHS/HP-84-104 ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne, Illinois 60439 FORMERLY UTILIZED MXD/AEC SITES REMEDIAL ACTION PROGRAM RADIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE HARSHAW CHEMICAL COMPANY CLEVELAND. OHIO Prepared by R. A. Wynveen Associate Division Director, OHS W. H. Smith Senior Health Physicist C. M. Sholeen Health Physicist A. L. Justus Health Physicist K. F. Flynn Health Physicist Radiological Survey Group Health Physics Section Occupational Health and Safety Division April 1984 Work Performed under Budget Activity DOE KN-03-60-40 and ANL 73706 iii PREFACE AND EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This is one in a series of reports resulting from a program initiated

391

Vertical Drop of the Naval SNF Long Waste Package On Unyielding Surface  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this calculation is to determine the structural response of a Naval SNF (Spent Nuclear Fuel) Long Waste Package (WP) subjected to 2 m-vertical drop on unyielding surface (US). The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of maximum stress intensities. This calculation is associated with the waste package design; calculation is performed by the Waste Package Design group. AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, Calculations, is used to perform the calculation and develop the document. The finite element calculation is performed by using the commercially available ANSYS Version (V) 5.4 finite element code. The result of this calculation is provided in terms of maximum stress intensities.

S. Mastilovic

2006-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

392

KC-135 zero-gravity two-phase flow pressure drop experiments and modelling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

drop and the conclusions. Table 1. Literature Review Summary. EQUATIONS APPUCABLE REGION e, mi+C4] X X2 Cgmt+eX+X2 2 X & 0. 4 X & 0. 15 ANNULAR FLOW WITH USE OF PREMOLI ALGORITHM d (D-28) P (I x)I. Pg Pt where 8 = ? is the slip ratio...)ttpt for X&100 (/he m(N] tp for X&IQQ 0 1 = E+ 3 24 ? I. 'tl Fo. 045 Wee. oss AP2e m-(~ Jtlspt(t X & 0. 6 (OYERFREDIcr) LOW AND MIDRANGE QUALITIES (UNDERPREDICI) EQUATIONS APPLICABLE REGION @z pl~ DpsUs HIGH QUALITIES ANNULAR FLOW P~P &i (D-25...

Lambert, Anne

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Geothermal Two-Phase Wellbore Flow: Pressure Drop Correlations and Flow Pattern Transitions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper we present some basic concepts of two-phase flow and review the Orkiszewski (1967) correlations which have been suggested by various investigators to perform well for geothermal wellbore flow situations. We also present a flow regime map based on the transition criteria used by Orkiszewski (1967) and show that most geothermal wells flow under slug flow regime. We have rearranged bubble- to slug-flow transition criterion used by Orkiszewski (1967) to show that the transition depends on the dimensionless pipe diameter number in addition to dimensionless liquid and gas velocity numbers. Our aim is also to identify what research may lead to improvements in two-phase pressure drop calculations for geothermal wellbore flow.

Ambastha, A.K.; Gudmundsson, J.S.

1986-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

394

Inferring Pore Size and Network Structure from Sorption Hysteresis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sorption experiments are widely used to infer the pore size distribution of a mesoporous material. We present a simple model that explains the hysteresis observed on desorption in such experiments. The model is based on well-established relationships between the radius of a pore and the partial pressure at which it will fill, but additionally describes of the connectivity of the pore network. The model is able to explain both primary and scanning sorption isotherms for a range of materials with wide pore size distributions, such as cement paste and dental enamel. It allows quantification of the prevalence of macropores in the material, even though these pores are never filled during the sorption experiments. A distinct bump in the desorption isotherms is attributed to spinodal decomposition (or cavitation) at a partial pressure that depends on temperature, and experiments across a range of sorbents and sorbates are consistent with a universal scaling.

Matthew B. Pinson; Hamlin M. Jennings; Martin Z. Bazant

2014-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

395

Effect to the High Flux Isotope Reactor by the nearby heavy load drop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this calculation, GE-2000 cask of 25,000 lbs is assumed to drop from a height of 20-ft above the bottom of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) pool slab with end velocity of 430 in/sec at the loading station. The consequences of the dynamic impact to the bottom slab of the pool and to the nearby HFIR reactor vessel are analyzed by applying ABAQUS computer code. The results show that both HFIR vessel structure and its supporting legs are subjected to elastic disturbances only and will not be damaged. The bottom slab of the pool will be damaged. The plastic strain that will cause failure to the concrete slab at the point of impact extends a distance approximately half of the slab thickness of 36 inches. The plastic strain of failure for concrete is assumed to be 0.45%. The velocity response spectrum at the concrete slab next to HFIR vessel as a result of the impact is also obtained. The maximum spectral velocity is approximately 10 in/sec. It is approximately equal to the maximum magnitude of the Oak Ridge velocity spectrum formulated recently with 0.26g peak ground acceleration and 5% damping. However, the peak ground acceleration that is associated with the impact generated response spectrum curve can be as much as 20g. The high frequency acceleration waves are generated in impact problems. It is concluded that the damage caused by heavy load drop at loading station is controlled by the slab damage. The damage of slab will not be severe enough to cause the leakage of pool water.

Chang, S.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Research Reactors Div.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Mid-Size Wind Turbines | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Page Edit History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Mid-Size Wind Turbines Jump to: navigation, search A Vergnet GEV MP C 275-kW turbine at the Sandywoods Community, Rhode island. Photo from Stefan Dominioni/Vergnet S.A., NREL 26490. The U.S. Department of Energy defines mid-size wind turbines as 101 kilowatts to 1 megawatt.[1] Resources Kwartin, R.; Wolfrum, A.; Granfield, K.; Kagel, A.; Appleton, A. (2008). An Analysis of the Technical and Economic Potential for Mid-Scale Distributed Wind. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Accessed September 27, 2013. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Midsize Wind Turbine Research. Accessed September 27, 2013. This webpage discusses efforts to develop and commercialize mid-size wind turbines in the United States. References

397

Quantitative grain size evaluation using ultrasonic backscattered echoes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Grain size characterization using ultrasonicbackscattered signals is an important problem in nondestructive testing of materials. In this paper a heuristic model which relates the statistical characteristics of the measured signal to the mean ultrasonicwavelet and attenuation coefficient in different regions of the sample is investigated. The losses in the backscattered signal are examined using temporal averaging correlation and probability distribution functions of the segmented data. Furthermore homomorphic processing is used in a novel application to estimate the mean ultrasonicwavelet (as it propagates through the sample) and the frequency?dependent attenuation. In the work presented heat?treated stainless steel samples with various grain sizes are examined. The processed experimental results support the feasibility of the grain size evaluation techniques presented here using the backscattered grain signal.

Jafar Saniie; Nihat M. Bilgutay

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Identification and sizing of particle defects in semiconductor-wafer processing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An experimental study of the sizing of submicron particles on semiconductor wafers is presented. The objective of the study was to determine the accuracy of a state-of-the-art optical wafer scanner by comparing its size response with that of two well established techniques namely differential mobility analysis (DMA) and secondary electronmicroscopy(SEM). Test particles used include polystyrene–latex spheres and SiO 2 Si 3 N 4 W and Cu particles of 64 107 and 202 nm nominal (DMA) sizes. The scanner-indicated sizes using the oblique and normal operational modes were compared to the DMA sizes and to average sizes determined from the SEM images. Results show that the scanner-indicated size is comparable to the SEM-indicated size. However both the scanner size and SEM size exhibit large distributions for a given nominal (DMA) size. The discrepancies are due to a combination of factors such as the effects of particle shape and material and the presence of larger doubly charged particles among those analyzed. A comparison of the normal and oblique scanner operational mode results for the scanner further show that the normal mode undersizes particles somewhat. These results collectively indicate that accurate sizing of complex and unknown submicron sized particles on semiconductor wafers is not an easy task. A thorough understanding of the scanner response to a variety of process particles is essential for the meaningful interpretation of scanning results.

Seong-Ho Yoo; James Weygand; Juergen Scherer; Lawrence Davis; Benjamin Liu; Kurt Christenson; Jeffery Butterbaugh; Natraj Narayanswami

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

I A STUDY OF THE WORKABILITY OF URANIUM BY MEANS OF TENSILE-IMPACT, HARDNESS, AND DROP-HAMMER  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

A STUDY OF THE WORKABILITY OF URANIUM BY A STUDY OF THE WORKABILITY OF URANIUM BY MEANS OF TENSILE-IMPACT, HARDNESS, AND DROP-HAMMER I EVALUATIONS AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES PROPOSAL TO NATIONAL LEAD COMPANY OF OHIO A STUDY OF THE WORKABILITY OF URANIUM BY MEANS OF TENSILE-IMPACT, HARDNESS, AND DROP-HAMMER EVALUATIONS AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES PROPOSAL TO NATIONAL LEAD COMPANY OF OHIO Southern Research Institute Birmingham, Alabama January 30, 1963 Proposal No. 2152 Copy of original document Iccated in FEMP Archives. .L TABLEOFCONTENTS Page INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..I SCOPE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..z EQUIPMENT AND PROCEDURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 A. Hot-Hardness Evaluations .................. 3

400

Abstract--This paper presents the impact of different types of load models in distribution network with distributed wind  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as a major enabler of the smart grid for the integration of small and medium sized renewable energy basedAbstract--This paper presents the impact of different types of load models in distribution network with distributed wind generation. The analysis is carried out for a test distribution system representative

Pota, Himanshu Roy

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "drop size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Zeolite pore size determination by methanol-to-gasoline conversion test  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The conversion of methanol over a shape selective zeolite to high octane gasoline is a well known process. In this work, a methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) conversion test is utilized for the pore size determination of zeolites with active sites. The dimension of a zeolite`s pores is revealed by the size distribution of its MTG hydrocarbon products. A simple fixed bed MTG test unit capable of on-line sampling for direct gas chromatographic analysis and the collection of liquid and gaseous products for GC-MS analysis is described. The size distributions of MTG hydrocarbon products are presented for several small, intermediate, and large pore zeolites.

Yuen, L.; Zones, S.I. [Chevron Research and Technology Co., Richmond, CA (United States)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Heat transfer and pressure drop data for high heat flux densities to water at high subcritical pressures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Local surface ooeffioients of heat t-ansfer, overall pressure drop data and mean friction factor are presented for heat flamms up to 3.52106 BtuAr ft2 for water flowing in a nickel tabe isder the following conditions: mass ...

Rohsenow, Warren M.

1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

periods of inconvenience when they drop fruit and create litter problems on paved surfaces such as patios, walks, driveways,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

periods of inconvenience when they drop fruit and create litter problems on paved surfaces a flowering or fruiting tree lives up to its potential for health and beauty is largely dependent upon its will thrive and flower well. Flowering and fruiting are greatly influenced by duration and intensity

Liskiewicz, Maciej

404

Influence of Droplet Geometry on the Coalescence of Low Viscosity Drops A. Eddi, K. G. Winkels, and J. H. Snoeijer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Influence of Droplet Geometry on the Coalescence of Low Viscosity Drops A. Eddi, K. G. Winkels involving sprays and print- ing [4,5]. Breakup and coalescence are singular events during which the liquid-off is universal in the sense that it is completely independent of initial conditions. In this regime, viscosity

Snoeijer, Jacco

405

Top 9 Things You Didn't Know About Distributed Wind Power | Department...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Photo courtesy of Northern Power Systems. Mid-Sized Distributed Wind: Two mid-sized wind turbines in operation at Wayne Industrial Sustainability Park in Ontario, New York. | Photo...

406

Responses of Conventional Ring Closures of Drum Type Packages to Regulatory Drop Tests with Application to the 9974/9975 Package  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

DOT, DOE and NRC Type A and Type B radioactive material (RAM) transport packages routinely use industrial or military specification drums with conventional clamp ring closures as an overpack. Considerable testing has been performed on these type packages over the past 30 years. Observations from test data have resulted in various design changes and recommendations to the standard drum specification and use, enhancing the reliability of the overpack. Recently, performance capability of the 9975 conventional clamp ring closure design was questioned by the Regulatory Authority. This paper highlights the observations of recent 9974 and 9975 package testing that led to redesign of the 9975, replacing the standard clamp ring closure with a bolted ring closure. In the course of this review and redesign effort, 18 package designs and approximately 100 Hypothetical Accident Condition (HAC) drops of various size and weight drum packages were evaluated. A trend was observed with respect to overpack lid failures for packages utilizing conventional ring closure. Based on this trend, a limit on the ratio of the content weight to total package weight was identified, beyond which clamp ring closure failure may be expected.

Blanton, P.S.

2002-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

407

Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) particles prepared by microfluidics and conventional methods. Modulated particle size and rheology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

AbstractHypothesis Microfluidic techniques are expected to provide narrower particle size distribution than conventional methods for the preparation of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles. Besides, it is hypothesized that the particle size distribution of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles influences the settling behaviour and rheological properties of its aqueous dispersions. Experiments For the preparation of PLGA particles, two different methods, microfluidic and conventional oil-in-water emulsification methods were employed. The particle size and particle size distribution of PLGA particles prepared by microfluidics were studied as a function of the flow rate of the organic phase while particles prepared by conventional methods were studied as a function of stirring rate. In order to study the stability and structural organization of colloidal dispersions, settling experiments and oscillatory rheological measurements were carried out on aqueous dispersions of PLGA particles with different particle size distributions. Findings Microfluidics technique allowed the control of size and size distribution of the droplets formed in the process of emulsification. This resulted in a narrower particle size distribution for samples prepared by MF with respect to samples prepared by conventional methods. Polydisperse samples showed a larger tendency to aggregate, thus confirming the advantages of microfluidics over conventional methods, especially if biomedical applications are envisaged

Aurora Perez; Rebeca Hernandez; Diego Velasco; Dan Voicu; Carmen Mijangos

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Theory of shape oscillations of drops and bubbles driven by modulated radiation stresses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Deformations of drops and bubbles opposed by surface tension and driven by radiation stresses at the interface are calculated using spherical harmonic expansions for the radial and tangential stresses. Superposed acoustic waves produce stresses which oscillate at the difference frequency ? of the waves in addition to static stresses. When the effects of viscosity on the acoustic waves are omitted. the tangential radiation stress vanishes; a procedure is proposed for calculating the radial stresses from the theory for “Acoustic Radiation Pressure on a Compressible Sphere” [K. Yosioka and Y. Kawasima Acustica 5 167–173 (1955)]. The calculation of the response assumes incompressible second?order flow and omits the body forces which are normally associated with acoustic streaming.Resonance phase shifts and enhancements of the response should occur when ? is close to the natural oscillation frequency of a mode. Quadrupole resonance phase shifts and enhancements have been observed [P. L. Marston and R. E. Apfel J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 63 S41(A) (1978): J. Colloid Interface Sci. 68 280–286 (1979)]. [Work performed at Yale University and supported by ONR.

Philip L. Marston

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Results of the Sandia National Laboratories MOSAIK cask drop test program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There has been a significant international effort over the past ten years to qualify structural materials for construction of radioactive material (RAM) transportation casks. As total life cycle cost analyses argue the necessity for more efficient casks, new candidate structural materials are evaluated relative to the historically accepted austenitic stainless steels. New candidate cask containment materials include ferritic steels, ductile iron, depleted uranium, and titanium. Another material, borated stainless steel is being considered for structural cask internals because of its neutron absorption properties. The mechanical performance of the borated stainless steels is a function of the boron content and metallurgical processing conditions. A separate paper in this symposium (Stephens et al. 1992) deals with the properties of a range of borated stainless steels. A major technical issue involved with the qualification of afl these candidate materials is that they may, under certain combinations of mechanical and environmental loading, fail in a brittle fashion. Such a failure would of course not be acceptable for a RAM transport cask involved in an accident. The cask designer must assure cask owners, regulators as well as the general public that the cask will not undergo brittle fracture for all regulatory loading conditions. This paper summarizes the drop tests that were conducted using the MOSAIK casks to verify the fracture mechanics cask design approach and to demonstrate that ductile iron could be subjected to severe loading conditions without failing in a brittle manner.

Sorenson, K.; Salzbrenner, R.; Wellman, G.; Bobbe, J.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Numerical analysis of the optimal turbine pressure drop ratio in a solar chimney power plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In a solar chimney power plant, only a fraction of the available total pressure difference can be used to run the turbine to generate electrical power. The optimal ratio of the turbine pressure drop to the available total pressure difference in a solar chimney system is investigated using theoretical analysis and 3D numerical simulations. The values found in the literature for the optimal ratio vary between 2/3 and 0.97. In this study, however, the optimal ratio was found to vary with the intensity of solar radiation, and to be around 0.9 for the Spanish prototype. In addition, the optimal ratios obtained from the analytical approach are close to those from the numerical simulation and their differences are mainly caused by the neglect of aerodynamic losses associated with skin friction, flow separation, and secondary flow in the theoretical analysis. This study may be useful for the preliminary estimation of power plant performance and the power-regulating strategy option for solar chimney turbines.

Penghua Guo; Jingyin Li; Yuan Wang; Yingwen Liu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

GASIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A recent emphasis in gasification technology development has been directed toward reduced-scale gasifier systems for distributed generation at remote sites. The domestic distributed power generation market over the next decade is expected to be 5-6 gigawatts per year. The global increase is expected at 20 gigawatts over the next decade. The economics of gasification for distributed power generation are significantly improved when fuel transport is minimized. Until recently, gasification technology has been synonymous with coal conversion. Presently, however, interest centers on providing clean-burning fuel to remote sites that are not necessarily near coal supplies but have sufficient alternative carbonaceous material to feed a small gasifier. Gasifiers up to 50 MW are of current interest, with emphasis on those of 5-MW generating capacity. Internal combustion engines offer a more robust system for utilizing the fuel gas, while fuel cells and microturbines offer higher electric conversion efficiencies. The initial focus of this multiyear effort was on internal combustion engines and microturbines as more realistic near-term options for distributed generation. In this project, we studied emerging gasification technologies that can provide gas from regionally available feedstock as fuel to power generators under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification, primarily coal-fed, has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries. Commercial-scale gasification activities are under way at 113 sites in 22 countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia, according to the Gasification Technologies Council. Gasification studies were carried out on alfalfa, black liquor (a high-sodium waste from the pulp industry), cow manure, and willow on the laboratory scale and on alfalfa, black liquor, and willow on the bench scale. Initial parametric tests evaluated through reactivity and product composition were carried out on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) equipment. These tests were evaluated and then followed by bench-scale studies at 1123 K using an integrated bench-scale fluidized-bed gasifier (IBG) which can be operated in the semicontinuous batch mode. Products from tests were solid (ash), liquid (tar), and gas. Tar was separated on an open chromatographic column. Analysis of the gas product was carried out using on-line Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). For selected tests, gas was collected periodically and analyzed using a refinery gas analyzer GC (gas chromatograph). The solid product was not extensively analyzed. This report is a part of a search into emerging gasification technologies that can provide power under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries, and it is probable that scaled-down applications for use in remote areas will become viable. The appendix to this report contains a list, description, and sources of currently available gasification technologies that could be or are being commercially applied for distributed generation. This list was gathered from current sources and provides information about the supplier, the relative size range, and the status of the technology.

Ronald C. Timpe; Michael D. Mann; Darren D. Schmidt

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Introduction The composition and size of atmospheric  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of nearly an order of magnitude in all size bins, with pronounced increases in larger size bins. · The Raman&M University Chart 1: The 0.3 m size bin exceeds 1x10 particles per 0.5000ft³ and particle count overlaps. Chart 2: The 0.3m bin count predominates and there are significant differences between size bin counts

413

Self-organization of bouncing oil drops: Two-dimensional lattices and spinning clusters Suzanne I. Lieber, Melissa C. Hendershott, Apichart Pattanaporkratana, and Joseph E. Maclennan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Self-organization of bouncing oil drops: Two-dimensional lattices and spinning clusters Suzanne I Received 16 October 2006; published 18 May 2007 Multiple oil drops bouncing on the surface of a vertically vibrating bath of the same oil exhibit self- organization behavior in two dimensions S. Protière, Y. Couder

Weeks, Eric R.

414

Impact of Sea Spray on Air–Sea Fluxes. Part I: Results from Stochastic Simulations of Sea Spray Drops over the Ocean  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The contributions of sea spray drops to the total air–sea exchanges of momentum, heat, and mass remain an open question. A number of factors obscure any simple quantification of their contribution; the per drop contribution to the fluxes is a ...

James A. Mueller; Fabrice Veron

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Bubble formation during the collision of a sessile drop with a meniscus D. L. Keij, K. G. Winkels, H. Castelijns, M. Riepen, and J. H. Snoeijer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bubble formation during the collision of a sessile drop with a meniscus D. L. Keij, K. G. Winkels OF FLUIDS 25, 082005 (2013) Bubble formation during the collision of a sessile drop with a meniscus D. L such as dip-coating, generically leads to the entrapment of small air bubbles. Here we experimentally study

Snoeijer, Jacco

416

Phase-retrieval X-ray microscopy by Wigner-distribution deconvolution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

64x64 scan of a group of latex spheres with 45 nm step size, used for demonstrating Wigner-distribution deconvolution.

Chapman, Henry, N.

2014-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

417

Phase-retrieval X-ray microscopy by Wigner-distribution deconvolution  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

64x64 scan of a group of latex spheres with 45 nm step size, used for demonstrating Wigner-distribution deconvolution.

Chapman, Henry, N.

418

Theoretical Analysis of Microscopic Ohmic Drop Effects on Steady-State and Transient Voltammetry at the Disk Microelectrode: A Quasi-Conformal Mapping Modeling and Simulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It has been shown that microscopic distributions of electric potential and current density at a disk microelectrode affect the voltammetric waves at different degrees across the electrode surface due to the variation of elementary resistances and elementary current fluxes over the electrode surface which leads to nonlinear effects that have not been discussed in existing theoretical treatments of ohmic drop at microelectrodes. ... Thus where ? is the conductivity of the medium; cl is a current line issued from an elementary surface element of area ds1 located onto the microelectrode surface; dl is the differential length along this current line cl; ds is the elementary area of the cross-section (i.e., made along electrical isopotentials) of the current tube issued from the elementary surface ds1 at any value of l (l = 0 on the electrode surface and l ? ? when the reference equipotential is reached). ... All differential ring elements act in parallel and the overall resistance of the system of parallel resistances is given by: ...

Christian Amatore; Alexander Oleinick; Irina Svir

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

WHAT DETERMINES THE SIZES OF RED EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The sizes of galaxies are known to be closely related with their masses, luminosities, redshifts, and morphologies. However, when we fix these quantities and morphology, we still find large dispersions in the galaxy size distribution. We investigate the origin of these dispersions for red early-type galaxies using two SDSS-based catalogs. We find that the sizes of faint galaxies (log (M{sub dyn}/M{sub Sun }) {approx}< 10.3 or {sup 0.1} M{sub r} {approx}> -19.5, where {sup 0.1} M{sub r} is the r-band absolute magnitude, k-corrected to z = 0.1) are affected more significantly by luminosity, while the sizes of bright galaxies (log (M{sub dyn}/M{sub Sun }) {approx}> 11.4 or {sup 0.1} M{sub r} {approx}< -21.4) are by dynamical mass. At fixed mass and luminosity, the sizes of low-mass galaxies (log (M{sub dyn}/M{sub Sun }) {approx} 10.45 and {sup 0.1} M{sub r} {approx} -19.8) are relatively less sensitive to their colors, color gradients, and axis ratios. On the other hand, the sizes of intermediate-mass (log (M{sub dyn}/M{sub Sun }) {approx} 10.85 and {sup 0.1} M{sub r} {approx} -20.4) and high-mass (log (M{sub dyn}/M{sub Sun }) {approx} 11.25 and {sup 0.1} M{sub r} {approx} -21.0) galaxies significantly depend on those parameters, in the sense that larger red early-type galaxies have bluer colors, more negative color gradients (bluer outskirts), and smaller axis ratios. These results indicate that the sizes of intermediate- and high-mass red early-type galaxies are significantly affected by their recent minor mergers or rotations, whereas the sizes of low-mass red early-type galaxies are affected by some other mechanisms. Major dry mergers also seem to have influenced on the size growth of high-mass red early-type galaxies.

Lee, Joon Hyeop; Kim, Minjin; Ree, Chang Hee; Kim, Sang Chul; Lee, Jong Chul; Lee, Hye-Ran; Jeong, Hyunjin; Seon, Kwang-Il; Kyeong, Jaemann [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Kyuseok, E-mail: jhl@kasi.re.kr [Department of Astronomy, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Unifying distribution functions: some lesser known distributions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show that there is a way to unify distribution functions that describe simultaneously a signal in space and (spatial) frequency. Probably the most known of them is the Wigner distribution function. Here we show how to unify functions of the Cohen class, Rihacek's complex energy function, Husimi and Glauber-Sudarshan distribution functions.

Moya-Cessa, J R; Berriel-Valdos, L R; Aguilar-Loreto, O; Barberis-Blostein, P

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "drop size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Pneumatic conveying of coal and coal-limestone mixtures as applied to atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion. [Effects of moisture, velocity, particle size  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Pneumatic conveying experiments with coal and coal-limestone mixtures were performed on a conveying system designed to represent the feed lines in the Tennessee Valley Authority 20 MW atmospheric fluidized bed combustor. The experimental conditions were chosen to cover the anticipated combustor operating ranges. The results have led to a fundamental understanding of the operating limits associated with coal surface moisture, air velocity, coal and limestone fines, solids to air ratio, and limestone to coal ratio. Coal surface moisture was found to be the most important parameter affecting handling and transport. Specific upper limits for surface moisture were established. It was demonstrated that addition of dry limestone can reduce the conveying problems associated with wet coal. The air velocities causing saltation and surge flow were determined for a variety of conveying conditions. These velocities were related qualitatively to solids to air ratio, particle size, and surface moisture. Conveying pressure drop was also measured for a variety of conditions. In the absence of saltation, the horizontal, frictional pressure drop was only a function of the solids to air ratio and the air flow conditions. Comparison of the ORNL pressure drop data with the results of other investigators had led to the conclusion that there are two basic modes of flow in dilute-phase conveying; a primarily viscous mode and a primarily inertial mode. A general pressure drop model has been developed for the inertial mode.

Daw, C S; Thomas, J F

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

A simple way to measure particle size in fluegases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The size range of particles found in fluegases from stationary emission sources, such as combustion stacks, is an important process parameter. Particle-size range not only affects plume opacity and dispersion modeling, but it is a key factor in the selection and design of air-pollution-control equipment, such as cyclones, bag filters and electrostatic precipitators. The particle-size distribution of a fluegas stream is also a useful parameter for analyzing the performance efficiency of combustion equipment and particulate-removal systems. While several laboratories use costly, laser-beam techniques to carry out this task, no standard method to date has been developed to determine the size range of particles in stationary sources. This article discusses a method (described in US EPA Method 5) in which particles in gases circulating in a stack are collected isokinetically in a filter. Once collected, the particles are measured using an optical microscope. Despite some limitations, this relatively inexpensive method gives reproducible results in many applications. Several are described.

Gomes, J.F.P. [Inst. de Soldadura e Qualidade, Oerias (Portugal)

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

When Size Matters: Yttrium Oxide Breaking Down Under Pressure | Advanced  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Breakthrough in Nanocrystals' Growth Breakthrough in Nanocrystals' Growth Next Step to Drought-Resistant Plants? A Boring Material "Stretched" Could Lead to an Electronics Revolution At the Crossroads of Chromosomes Unveiling the Structure of Adenovirus Science Highlights Archives: 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 2001 | 2000 | 1998 | Subscribe to APS Science Highlights rss feed When Size Matters: Yttrium Oxide Breaking Down Under Pressure NOVEMBER 2, 2010 Bookmark and Share Top: Pair distribution function (PDF) of 16 nm-sized Y2O3 at high pressures. Bottom: Lin Wang (left) and Wenge Yang (right) of the Carnegie Institution of Washington shown with the diamond anvil cell and x-ray instrumentation used to probe the PDF of the sample at high applied

424

DNA fragment sizing and sorting by laser-induced fluorescence  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is provided for sizing DNA fragments using high speed detection systems, such as flow cytometry to determine unique characteristics of DNA pieces from a sample. In one characterization the DNA piece is fragmented at preselected sites to produce a plurality of DNA fragments. The DNA piece or the resulting DNA fragments are treated with a dye effective to stain stoichiometrically the DNA piece or the DNA fragments. The fluorescence from the dye in the stained fragments is then examined to generate an output functionally related to the number of nucleotides in each one of the DNA fragments. In one embodiment, the intensity of the fluorescence emissions from each fragment is linearly related to the fragment length. The distribution of DNA fragment sizes forms a characterization of the DNA piece for use in forensic and research applications.

Hammond, Mark L. (Angier, NC); Jett, James H. (Los Alamos, NM); Keller, Richard A. (Los Alamos, NM); Marrone, Babetta L. (Los Alamos, NM); Martin, John C. (Los Alamos, NM)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Can selection on nest size from nest predation explain the latitudinal gradient in clutch size?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Can selection on nest size from nest predation explain the latitudinal gradient in clutch size. 2. The nest size hypothesis posits that higher nest predation in the tropics favours selection for smaller nests and thereby constrains clutch size by shrinking available space for eggs and/or nestlings

Martin, Thomas E.

426

Integrated Transmission and Distribution Control  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Distributed, generation, demand response, distributed storage, smart appliances, electric vehicles and renewable energy resources are expected to play a key part in the transformation of the American power system. Control, coordination and compensation of these smart grid assets are inherently interlinked. Advanced control strategies to warrant large-scale penetration of distributed smart grid assets do not currently exist. While many of the smart grid technologies proposed involve assets being deployed at the distribution level, most of the significant benefits accrue at the transmission level. The development of advanced smart grid simulation tools, such as GridLAB-D, has led to a dramatic improvement in the models of smart grid assets available for design and evaluation of smart grid technology. However, one of the main challenges to quantifying the benefits of smart grid assets at the transmission level is the lack of tools and framework for integrating transmission and distribution technologies into a single simulation environment. Furthermore, given the size and complexity of the distribution system, it is crucial to be able to represent the behavior of distributed smart grid assets using reduced-order controllable models and to analyze their impacts on the bulk power system in terms of stability and reliability. The objectives of the project were to: • Develop a simulation environment for integrating transmission and distribution control, • Construct reduced-order controllable models for smart grid assets at the distribution level, • Design and validate closed-loop control strategies for distributed smart grid assets, and • Demonstrate impact of integrating thousands of smart grid assets under closed-loop control demand response strategies on the transmission system. More specifically, GridLAB-D, a distribution system tool, and PowerWorld, a transmission planning tool, are integrated into a single simulation environment. The integrated environment allows the load flow interactions between the bulk power system and end-use loads to be explicitly modeled. Power system interactions are modeled down to time intervals as short as 1-second. Another practical issue is that the size and complexity of typical distribution systems makes direct integration with transmission models computationally intractable. Hence, the focus of the next main task is to develop reduced-order controllable models for some of the smart grid assets. In particular, HVAC units, which are a type of Thermostatically Controlled Loads (TCLs), are considered. The reduced-order modeling approach can be extended to other smart grid assets, like water heaters, PVs and PHEVs. Closed-loop control strategies are designed for a population of HVAC units under realistic conditions. The proposed load controller is fully responsive and achieves the control objective without sacrificing the end-use performance. Finally, using the T&D simulation platform, the benefits to the bulk power system are demonstrated by controlling smart grid assets under different demand response closed-loop control strategies.

Kalsi, Karanjit; Fuller, Jason C.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Lian, Jianming; Zhang, Wei; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Fisher, Andrew R.; Chassin, Forrest S.; Hauer, Matthew L.

2013-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

427

Downward two-phase flow effects in heat-loss and pressure-drop modeling of steam injection wells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Modelling of the pressure drop and heat loss in steam injection wells has undergone a gradual evolution since the heavy interest in enhanced oil recovery by steam injection in the mid-60's. After briefly reviewing the evolution of steam models this paper presents a model which advances the state-of-the-art of steam modelling. The main advance presented in this paper is modelling the effects of the various flow regimens that occur during steam injection. The paper describes the formulation of a two-phase downward vertical flow pressure drop model which is not limited by the ''no-slip'' homogeneous flow assumptions in most previously published models. By using different correlations for mist, bubble, and slug flow, improved pressure drop calculations result, which in turn improve temperature predictions. The paper describes how the model handles temperature predictions differently in the single and two-phase steam flow situations. The paper also describes special features in the model to account for layered soil properties, soil dry out, cyclic injection, coupling heat losses, and reflux boiling in wet annuli. Two examples problems are presented which illustrate some of these features.

Galate, J.W.; Mitchell, R.F.

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Pressure drop of two-phase plug flow in round mini-channels: Influence of surface wettability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the present experimental study, the pressure drop of two-phase plug flows in round mini-channels was investigated for three different tube materials, i.e., glass, polyurethane and Teflon, respectively, with their inner diameters ranging from 1.62 to 2.16 mm. Air and water were used as the test fluids. In the wet-plug flow regime (wet wall condition at the gas portions), the pressure drop was reasonably predicted by the homogeneous flow model or by the correlations of Mishima and Hibiki [K. Mishima, T. Hibiki, Some characteristics of air-water two-phase flow in small diameter vertical tubes, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 22 (1996) 703-712] and Chisholm [D. Chisholm, A theoretical basis for the Lockhart-Martinelli correlation for two-phase flow, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 10 (1967) 1767-1778]. On the other hand, in the dry-plug flow regime (dry wall condition at the gas portions), the role of the moving contact lines turned out to be significant. To take into account the effect of the moving contact lines, a modified Lockhart-Martinelli type correlation was proposed, which fitted the measured pressure-drop data within the mean deviation of 6%. (author)

Lee, Chi Young; Lee, Sang Yong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST, Science Town, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea)

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

429

Single particle size and fluorescence spectra from emissions of burning materials in a tube furnace to simulate burn pits  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A single-particle fluorescence spectrometer (SPFS) and an aerodynamic particle sizer were used to measure the fluorescence spectra and particle size distribution from the particulate emissions of 12 different burning

Yong-Le Pan; Joshua D. T. Houck; Pamela A. Clark; Ronald G. Pinnick

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Annual Coal Distribution Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Distribution Report Release Date: December 19, 2013 | Next Release Date: December 12, 2014 | full report | RevisionCorrection Revision to the Annual Coal Distribution Report...

431

Distribution Grid Integration  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The DOE Systems Integration team funds distribution grid integration research and development (R&D) activities to address the technical issues that surround distribution grid planning,...

432

Size-Resolved Particle Number and Volume Emission Factors for On-Road  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Size-Resolved Particle Number and Volume Emission Factors for On-Road Size-Resolved Particle Number and Volume Emission Factors for On-Road Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles Title Size-Resolved Particle Number and Volume Emission Factors for On-Road Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2009 Authors Ban-Weiss, George, Melissa M. Lunden, Thomas W. Kirchstetter, and Robert A. Harley Journal Journal of Aerosol Science Keywords emission, motor vehicle, particle number, size distribution, tunnel Abstract Average particle number concentrations and size distributions from ~61 000 light-duty (LD) vehicles and ~2500 medium-duty (MD) and heavy-duty (HD) trucks were measured during the summer of 2006 in a San Francisco Bay area traffic tunnel. One of the traffic bores contained only LD vehicles, and the other contained mixed traffic, allowing pollutants to be apportioned between LD vehicles and diesel trucks. Particle number emission factors (particle diameter Dp > 3 nm) were found to be (3.9 ± 1.4) x 1014 and (3.3 ± 1.3) x 1015 # kg-1 fuel burned for LD vehicles and diesel trucks, respectively. Size distribution measurements showed that diesel trucks emitted at least an order of magnitude more particles for all measured sizes (10 < Dp < 290 nm) per unit mass of fuel burned. The relative importance of LD vehicles as a source of particles increased as Dp decreased. Comparing the results from this study to previous measurements at the same site showed that particle number emission factors have decreased for both LD vehicles and diesel trucks since 1997. Integrating size distributions with a volume weighting

433

" Row: Employment Sizes within NAICS Codes...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

establishments using the North American" "Industry Classification System (NAICS). " " (b) Employment Size categories were supplied by the" "Bureau of the Census." " NFNo...

434

Bubble size effect on effervescent atomization.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This paper presents the results from a number of studies conducted in an effort to gain insight into how to control bubble size during gas… (more)

Shepard, Thomas G.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Top 8 Things You Didn't Know About Distributed Wind | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Distributed Wind Distributed Wind Top 8 Things You Didn't Know About Distributed Wind August 9, 2013 - 5:49pm Addthis Small-Scale Distributed Wind: Northern Power Systems 100 kW turbine at the top of Burke Mountain in East Burke, Vermont. | Photo courtesy of Northern Power Systems. Small-Scale Distributed Wind: Northern Power Systems 100 kW turbine at the top of Burke Mountain in East Burke, Vermont. | Photo courtesy of Northern Power Systems. Mid-Sized Distributed Wind: Two mid-sized wind turbines in operation at Wayne Industrial Sustainability Park in Ontario, New York. | Photo courtesy of Sustainable Energy Developments, Inc. Mid-Sized Distributed Wind: Two mid-sized wind turbines in operation at Wayne Industrial Sustainability Park in Ontario, New York. | Photo courtesy

436

Superradiance Coherence Sizes in Single-Molecule Spectroscopy of LH2 Antenna Yang Zhao, Torsten Meier, Wei Min Zhang,, Vladimir Chernyak, and Shaul Mukamel*,,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Superradiance Coherence Sizes in Single-Molecule Spectroscopy of LH2 Antenna Complexes Yang Zhao diagonal disorder. This distribution which depends on both the exciton coherence sizes and the aggregate molecules or delocalized on the entire complex. The coherence size of the excitations is determined

Mukamel, Shaul

437

Marking in Combinatorial Constructions: Generating Functions and Limiting Distributions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Marking in Combinatorial Constructions: Generating Functions and Limiting Distributions Michael generating function y(x) = P ynx n for the numbers yn of objects of size n and the bivariate generating of this paper is to provide general methods to obtain the asymptotic limiting distribution of this additional

Drmota, Michael

438

On the degree distribution of the nodes in increasing trees  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Simple families of increasing trees can be constructed from simply generated tree families, if one considers for every tree of size n all its increasing labellings, i.e., labellings of the nodes by distinct integers of the set {1,...,n} in such a way ... Keywords: Degree distribution, Increasing trees, Limiting distribution

Markus Kuba; Alois Panholzer

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Estimating nanoparticle size from diffraction measurements  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A Fourier transform of a Debye-Scherrer diffraction pattern can be used to estimate the characteristic size of nanoparticle samples. This method is insensitive to nanoparticle structure and therefore preferable to the Scherrer formula (which is unreliable because it assumes an underlying size-limited perfect crystal structure).

Hall, B.D.

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Finite-Size Scaling for the Ising Model on the Möbius Strip and the Klein Bottle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study the finite-size scaling properties of the Ising model on the Möbius strip and the Klein bottle. The results are compared with those of the Ising model under different boundary conditions, that is, the free, cylindrical, and toroidal boundary conditions. The difference in the magnetization distribution function p(m) for various boundary conditions is discussed in terms of the number of the percolating clusters and the cluster size. We also find interesting aspect-ratio dependence of the value of the Binder parameter at T=Tc for various boundary conditions. We discuss the relation to the finite-size correction calculations for the dimer statistics.

Kazuhisa Kaneda and Yutaka Okabe

2001-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "drop size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

The kinetics of gas-liquid metal reactions involving levitated drops. Carburization and decarburization of molten iron in Co-Co2 gas mixtures at high pressures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The kinetics of decarburization and carburization of levitated molten iron-carbon alloy drops at 1650° in CO-CO2 gas mixtures were studied at a pressure of ... the rates were controlled by transport in the gas ph...

N. H. El-kaddah; D. G. C. Robertson

1978-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Temperature-size rule is mediated by thermal plasticity of critical size in Drosophila melanogaster  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...at higher temperatures, supporting...that oxygen supply may play a...different temperatures and control thermal plasticity...Nijhout. 2011 Control of body size by oxygen supply reveals size-dependent...of rearing temperature and oxygen...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Numerical simulation of wave propagation in media with discrete distributions of fractures: effects of fracture sizes and spatial distributions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......procedure that we described above. This process continues until the desired number of non-overlapping...reverse-time migration, 70th Ann. Int. Mtg.: Soc. of Expl. Geophys.. 1784-1751...linear-slip models, 72nd SEG Ann. Int. Mtg. Exp. Abs.: Soc. of Expl. Geophys......

S. Vlastos; E. Liu; I. G. Main; X.-Y. Li

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Coal Distribution Database, 2006  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2009 Final February 2011 2 Overview of 2009 Coal Distribution Tables Introduction The Coal Distribution Report - Annual provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing State. This Final 2009 Coal Distribution Report - Annual, supersedes the data contained in the four Quarterly Coal Distribution Reports previously issued for 2009. This report relies on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys of the coal industry and electric power generation industry. In addition, the report

445

A distributed data storage and processing framework for next-generation residential distribution systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract As the number of smart meters/sensors increases to more than hundreds of thousands, it is rather intuitive that the state-of-the-art centralized information processing architecture will no longer be sustainable under such a big data explosion. Hence, an innovative data management system is urgently needed to facilitate the real-world deployment of a future residential distribution system. In this paper, we investigate a radically different approach through distributed software agents to translate the legacy centralized data storage and processing scheme to a completely distributed cyber-physical architecture. We further substantiate the proposed distributed data storage and processing framework on a proof-of-concept testbed using a cluster of low-cost and credit-card-sized single-board computers. Finally, we evaluate the proposed distributed framework and proof-of-concept testbed with a comprehensive set of performance measures.

Ni Zhang; Yu Yan; Shengyao Xu; Wencong Su

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Estimating population size by genotyping faeces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...CA 91360, USA Population size is a fundamental biological parameter that is di cult...In Ecological census techniques, a handbook (ed. W. J. Sutherland), pp. 11...In Ecological census techniques, a handbook (ed. W. J. Sutherland), pp. 1...

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Lot Sizing with Piecewise Concave Production Costs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Feb 14, 2013 ... We study the lot-sizing problem with piecewise concave production ..... solution with the largest j value such that sj?1 = 0 and st > 0 for t = j,...,n.

2013-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

448

Antiferromagnetic domain size and exchange bias  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using neutron diffraction, we measured the sizes of antiferromagnetic domains in three ferromagnet/antiferromagnet bilayer samples as a function of the magnitude and sign of exchange bias, temperature, and antiferromagnet composition. Neutron...

Fitzsimmons, M. R.; Lederman, D.; Cheon, M.; Shi, H.; Olamit, J.; Roshchin, Igor V.; Schuller, Ivan K.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

ERP System Adoption - Does the Size Matter?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper investigates the relationship of enterprise size to the constraints and objectives of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems adoption. The survey data based on the responses of 44 companies indicates that significant differences exist ...

Sanna Laukkanen; Sami Sarpola; Petri Hallikainen

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Coal Distribution Database, 2006  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State, Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation, 2009 Final February 2011 2 Overview of 2009 Coal Distribution Tables Introduction The Coal Distribution Report - Annual provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing State. This Final 2009 Coal Distribution Report - Annual, supersedes the data contained in the four Quarterly Coal Distribution Reports previously issued for 2009. This report relies on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys

451

CONSULTANT REPORT DISTRIBUTED GENERATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Jobs Plan, Governor Brown established a 2020 goal of 12,000 megawatts of localized renewable energy development, or distributed generation, in California. In May 2012, Southern California Edison, renewables, interconnection, integration, electricity, distribution, transmission, costs. Please use

452

Distributed Wind 2015  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Distributed Wind 2015 is committed to the advancement of both distributed and community wind energy. This two day event includes a Business Conference with sessions focused on advancing the...

453

Structure Optimization of FePt Nanoparticles of Various Sizes for Magnetic Data Storage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to a modified reaction route based on Sun et al.[1] Hexane dispersions of nanoparticles were dried increases with particle size and with the temperature in the range 600 °C to 650 °C, being close to unity-assembly over large areas, and a narrow distribution of switching fields. The long storage time and high storage

Laughlin, David E.

454

Size-Exclusion Chromatography Moves to the Plant for On-line Polymer Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Discussion Although the field is still very new...prover in motor oils. Note the narrow...midpoint of the production cycle for the polymer...an early stage in production: Sample size...most useful as a production aid. For convenience...their ratios, or a cumulative distribution. Our......

Edward N. Fuller; Grady T. Porter; Lewis B. Roof

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Larmor radius size density holes discovered in the solar wind upstream of Earth's bow shock  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Larmor radius size density holes discovered in the solar wind upstream of Earth's bow shock G. K, University of New Brunswick, Canada M. L. Goldstein NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland P that are five or more times the solar wind density. Particle distributions show the steepened edge can behave

California at Berkeley, University of

456

Size Optimizations for Java C. Scott Ananian  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analysis int foo() { if (...) i=1; else i=2; if (i>0) ... } 7 7 77 ¨¨¨ ¨¨¨¨ e e ee rrr rrSize Optimizations for Java Programs C. Scott Ananian cananian@lcs.mit.edu Laboratory for Computer() { if (...) i=1; else i=2; if (i>0) ... } Size Optimizations for Java Programs ­ p.9 #12;Intraprocedural

Ananian, C. Scott

457

Effects of oil drops containing Lactobacillus salivarius WB21 on periodontal health and oral microbiota producing volatile sulfur compounds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The objective of this paper is to evaluate the effects of oil drops containing Lactobacillus salivarius WB21 on periodontal health and oral microbiota producing volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs). For this study, 42 subjects were randomly assigned to receive oil samples containing L. salivarius WB21 or a placebo for two weeks. Oral assessment and saliva collection were performed on days 1 and 15. Bacterial analysis was performed using the real-time polymerase chain reaction and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). In both the experimental and placebo groups, the average probing depth, number of periodontal pockets, and the percentage of bleeding on probing (BOP) decreased while stimulated salivary flow increased on day 15. BOP was reduced in the experimental group compared with the placebo group (P = 0.010). In the experimental group, total bacterial numbers decreased, and the number of L. salivarius increased. The number of Prevotella intermedia, which is correlated with hydrogen sulfide concentration in mouth air, increased in the placebo group and did not change in the experimental group. T-RFLP analysis found that the peak area proportions representing Porphyromonas gingivalis, P. intermedia, Tannerella forsythensis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum decreased in the experimental group, although there was no significant change in the bacterial composition. Thus we observed oil drops containing L. salivarius WB21 improved BOP and inhibited the reproduction of total and VSC-producing periodontopathic bacteria compared with the placebo group, but also showed the limit of its efficacy in controlling VSCs producing and periodontal pathogens.

Nao Suzuki; Kazunari Tanabe; Toru Takeshita; Masahiro Yoneda; Tomoyuki Iwamoto; Sueko Oshiro; Yoshihisa Yamashita; Takao Hirofuji

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Simultaneous production and distribution of industrial gas supply-chains  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this paper, we propose a multi-period mixed-integer linear programming model for optimal enterprise-level planning of industrial gas operations. The objective is to minimize the total cost of production and distribution of liquid products by coordinating production decisions at multiple plants and distribution decisions at multiple depots. Production decisions include production modes and rates that determine power consumption. Distribution decisions involve source, destination, quantity, route, and time of each truck delivery. The selection of routes is a critical factor of the distribution cost. The main goal of this contribution is to assess the benefits of optimal coordination of production and distribution. The proposed methodology has been tested on small, medium, and large size examples. The results show that significant benefits can be obtained with higher coordination among plants/depots in order to fulfill a common set of shared customer demands. The application to real industrial size test cases is also discussed.

Pablo A. Marchetti; Vijay Gupta; Ignacio E. Grossmann; Lauren Cook; Pierre-Marie Valton; Tejinder Singh; Tong Li; Jean André

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Non?Gaussian Fluctuations in Biased Resistor Networks: Size Effects Versus Universal Behavior  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study the distribution of the resistance fluctuations of biased resistor networks in nonequilibrium steady states. The stationary conditions arise from the competition between two stochastic and biased processes of breaking and recovery of the elementary resistors. The fluctuations of the network resistance are calculated by Monte Carlo simulations which are performed for different values of the applied current for networks of different size and shape and by considering different levels of intrinsic disorder. The distribution of the resistance fluctuations generally exhibits relevant deviations from Gaussianity in particular when the current approaches the threshold of electrical breakdown. For two?dimensional systems we have shown that this non?Gaussianity is in general related to finite size effects thus it vanishes in the thermodynamic limit with the remarkable exception of highly disordered networks. For these systems close to the critical point of the conductor?insulator transition non?Gaussianity persists in the large size limit and it is well described by the universal Bramwell?Holdsworth?Pinton distribution. In particular here we analyze the role of the shape of the network on the distribution of the resistance fluctuations. Precisely we consider quasi?one?dimensional networks elongated along the direction of the applied current or trasversal to it. A significant anisotropy is found for the properties of the distribution. These results apply to conducting thin films or wires with granular structure stressed by high current densities.

C. Pennetta; E. Alfinito; L. Reggiani; S. Ruffo

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

FRIB cryogenic distribution system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Michigan State University Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (MSU-FRIB) helium distribution system has been revised to include bayonet/warm valve type disconnects between each cryomodule and the transfer line distribution system, similar to the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cryogenic distribution systems. The heat loads at various temperature levels and some of the features in the design of the distribution system are outlined. The present status, the plans for fabrication, and the procurement approach for the helium distribution system are also included.

Ganni, Venkatarao [JLAB; Dixon, Kelly D. [JLAB; Laverdure, Nathaniel A. [JLAB; Knudsen, Peter N. [JLAB; Arenius, Dana M. [JLAB; Barrios, Matthew N. [Michigan State; Jones, S. [Michigan State; Johnson, M. [Michigan State; Casagrande, Fabio [Michigan State

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "drop size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

FRIB cryogenic distribution system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Michigan State University Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (MSU-FRIB) helium distribution system has been revised to include bayonet/warm valve type disconnects between each cryomodule and the transfer line distribution system, similar to the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cryogenic distribution systems. The heat loads at various temperature levels and some of the features in the design of the distribution system are outlined. The present status, the plans for fabrication, and the procurement approach for the helium distribution system are also included.

Ganni, V.; Dixon, K.; Laverdure, N.; Knudsen, P.; Arenius, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab), Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Barrios, M.; Jones, S.; Johnson, M.; Casagrande, F. [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

462

Grain orientations and distribution of  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The local grain orientations and the distribution of Y2Ba4CuUOx (U-2411) phase are measured within melt-textured YBCO samples by means of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). In this work, several samples with varying addition (0.1–0.8 wt%) of depleted uranium oxide (DU) were analysed by means of EBSD. The embedded U-2411 particles were found to have sizes around 200 nm, some large particles being present in the samples with a high DU concentration. Combined EBSD and EDX analysis enabled the identification of the Kikuchi patterns of the U-2411 phase, so that a true three-phase EBSD scan (YBCO, Y2BaCuO5 and U-2411) becomes possible.

A Koblischka-Veneva; F Mücklich; M R Koblischka; N Hari Babu; D A Cardwell; M Murakami

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

EIA -Quarterly Coal Distribution  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal Distribution Coal Distribution Home > Coal> Quarterly Coal Distribution Back Issues Quarterly Coal Distribution Archives Release Date: June 27, 2013 Next Release Date: September 2013 The Quarterly Coal Distribution Report (QCDR) provides detailed quarterly data on U.S. domestic coal distribution by coal origin, coal destination, mode of transportation and consuming sector. All data are preliminary and superseded by the final Coal Distribution - Annual Report. Year/Quarters By origin State By destination State Report Data File Report Data File 2009 January-March pdf xls pdf xls April-June pdf xls pdf xls July-September pdf xls pdf October-December pdf xls pdf 2010 January-March pdf xls pdf xls April-June pdf xls pdf xls July-September pdf xls pdf xls

464

Studies on current distribution in electrochemical cells  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three studies of electrochemical current distribution have been performed using potential-theory models and the boundary-element method (BEM). (1) The steady-state behavior of cells with nonuniform current density over a passivating anode is investigated. Current distributions calculated for a test cell, using the measured kinetic behavior of nickel in acid-nickel-sulfate solution, are compared to estimates from earlier models. Although current-density profiles determined by weight loss on a segmented rotating cylinder agreed satisfactorily with model calculations, the measured length of the passive zone exceeds the theoretical value. The model's applicability to anodic protection is demonstrated for a stainless-steel sulfuric-acid holding tank. (2) A model is established to describe the effects of attached bubbles on the potential drop at gas-evolving electrodes including: (1) ohmic obstruction within the electrolyte; (2) area masking on the electrode surface, which raises surface overpotential; and (3) decreased local supersaturation, which lowers the concentration overpotential. The model, based on pseudosteady-stae diffusion of dissolved gas within a concentration boundary layer, is applied to an example of hydrogen evolution in KOH solution. Under Tafel kinetics, the current distribution is nearly uniform over the unmasked electrode, and the increase in surface overpotential is the dominant effect. Outside the Tafel regime, the current density is strongly enhanced near the bubble, and the lowering of concentration overpotential is a major voltage effect. (3) A model of electrodeposition in the presence of diffusion-controlled leveling agents is developed. The evolution of groove profile during deposition of nickel from a Watts-type bath containing coumarin is predicted and compared to measurements reported in the literature.

Dukovic, J.O.; Tobias, C.W.

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

A Brief History of Generative Models for Power Law and Lognormal Distributions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Brief History of Generative Models for Power Law and Lognormal Distributions Michael Mitzenmacher generative models that lead to these distributions. One #12;nding is that lognormal and power law of an underlying generative model which suggested that #12;le sizes were better modeled by a lognormal distribution

Mitzenmacher, Michael

466

Disruption effects on the beam size measurement  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At the SLC Final Focus with higher currents and smaller beam sizes, the disruption parameter D{sub y} is close to one and so the pinch effect should produce a luminosity enhancement. Since a flat beam-beam function is fit to deflection scan data to measure the beam size, disruption can affect the measurement. Here the authors discuss the quantitative effects of disruption for typical SLC beam parameters. With 3.5 10{sup 10} particles per pulse, bunch length of 0.8 mm and beam sizes of 2.1 {mu}m horizontally and 0.55 {mu}m vertically, the measured vertical size can be as much as 25% bigger than the real one. Furthermore during the collision the spot size actually decrease, producing an enhancement factor H{sub D} of about 1.25. This would yield to a true luminosity which is 1.6 times that which is estimated from the beam-beam deflection fit.

Raimondi, P.; Decker, F.J.; Chen, P.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

27.03.20071 Grain size distributions of fault rocks: a comparison between experimentally and3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Exploration, Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology11 3173-25 Showa-machi, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama; further displacement of fragments causes further comminution by wear and attrition.56 Cracked grains have

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

468

Effects of Nanoparticle Geometry and Size Distribution on Diffusion Impedance of Battery Electrodes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The short diffusion lengths in insertion battery nanoparticles render the capacitive behavior of bounded diffusion, which is rarely observable with conventional larger particles, now accessible to impedance measurements. ...

Song, Juhyun

469

The size distribution of galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......redshifts. The SDSS spectroscopic pipelines have an overall performance...targeted only when the local and global sky values are within 0.05...assumed to form a bar due to a global instability; the bar is then...transformed into a bulge through a buckling instability (e.g. Kormendy......

Shiyin Shen; H. J. Mo; Simon D. M. White; Michael R. Blanton; Guinevere Kauffmann; Wolfgang Voges; J. Brinkmann; Istvan Csabai

2003-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

470

SEASONAL OCCURRENCE AND SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF POSTLARVAL SHRIMP NEAR GALVESTON, TEXAS, WITH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NEAR GALVESTON, TEXAS, WITH IDENTIFICATION 1 By KENNETH N. BAXTER AND WILLIAM C. RENFR02, Fishery Biologist, (Research) BUREAU OF COMMERCIAL FISHERIES BIOLOGICAL LABORATORY, GALVESTON, TEX. 77552 ABSTRACT Postlarvae of the ~enus Penaeus were collected at the entrance to Galveston Bay, Tex., over a 4-year period

471

A STUDY OF THE RAINDROP SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND ITS EFFECT ON  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

data for numerical weather prediction, combined with propagation prediction models, can be used and numerical weather prediction model data, the aim of this work is to constrain the parameters of the DSD frequencies, such as V-band, rain is known to cause the most severe attenuation. It has been shown that model

Burton, Geoffrey R.

472

Ring Particle Composition and Size Distribution Jeff Cuzzi, Roger Clark, Gianrico Filacchione, Richard French, Robert Johnson,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Filacchione, Richard French, Robert Johnson, Essam Marouf, and Linda Spilker Abstract We review recent Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, Rome R. French Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA R. Johnson University

Johnson, Robert E.

473

Measurement of number, mass and size distribution of particles in the atmosphere  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...combustion in energy production 10% commercial and residential combustion 7% industrial combustion 6% non-combustion processes 13% road transport 60% Figure 2. Pie chart illustrating the sources of PM0 :1 emissions in the UK in 1996...

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Vertical transport and dynamic size distribution of New Bedford Harbor sediments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Superfund Site. Samples were analyzed on a Coulter Counter, AVC-80 Suspended Solids machine, and a HACH Model 2100A Turbidimeter. A vertical transport model, which included flocculation and flo breakup, was developed and calibrated with these laboratory... Column. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Electronic Particle Counter. . . Suspended Solids and Turbidity . . . Density Meter Experimental Procedures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Data Analysis. 28 31 32 34 35 35 36...

Sanders, Stephanie Carol

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Effects of a potential drop of a shipping cask, a waste container, and a bare fuel assembly during waste-handling operations; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study investigates the effects of potential drops of a typical shipping cask, waste container, and bare fuel assembly during waste-handling operations at the prospective Yucca Mountain Repository. The waste-handling process (one stage, no consolidation configuration) is examined to estimate the maximum loads imposed on typical casks and containers as they are handled by various pieces of equipment during waste-handling operations. Maximum potential drop heights for casks and containers are also evaluated for different operations. A nonlinear finite-element model is employed to represent a hybrid spent fuel container subject to drop heights of up to 30 ft onto a reinforced concrete floor. The impact stress, strain, and deformation are calculated, and compared to the failure criteria to estimate the limiting (maximum permissible) drop height for the waste container. A typical Westinghouse 17 {times} 17 PWR fuel assembly is analyzed by a simplified model to estimate the energy absorption by various parts of the fuel assembly during a 30 ft drop, and to determine the amount of kinetic energy in a fuel pin at impact. A nonlinear finite-element analysis of an individual fuel pin is also performed to estimate the amount of fuel pellet fracture due to impact. This work was completed on May 1990.

Wu, C.L.; Lee, J.; Lu, D.L.; Jardine, L.J. [Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Research on short-circuit current of doubly fed induction generator under non-deep voltage drop  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The transient characteristics of power systems with large-scale doubly fed wind turbines undergo profound changes. Doubly fed induction generators (DFIG) under non-deep voltage drop generate short-circuit currents, which involves complicated electromagnetism and control coupling. This phenomenon has only been partially studied in the literature. Thus, this paper presents a detailed analysis of the short-circuit current of DFIG, with particular attention to the influence of converter adjustment. The dynamics of generator and converter control were simultaneously analyzed by vector analysis in uniform coordinate space. The generation mechanism, composition, and analytical expressions of short-circuit current were proposed. DFIG models were constructed to calculate the initial and steady-state short-circuit current. Simulation and experiment were performed to verify the efficacy of the proposed analyses.

Jinxin Ouyang; Xiaofu Xiong

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Numerical Simulation of Hydrodynamics of a Heavy Liquid Drop Covered by Vapor Film in a Water Pool  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A numerical study on the hydrodynamics of a droplet covered by vapor film in water pool is carried out. Two level set functions are used as to implicitly capture the interfaces among three immiscible fluids (melt-drop, vapor and coolant). This approach leaves only one set of conservation equations for the three phases. A high-order Navier-Stokes solver, called Cubic-Interpolated Pseudo-Particle (CIP) algorithm, is employed in combination with level set approach, which allows large density ratios (up to 1000), surface tension and jump in viscosity. By this calculation, the hydrodynamic behavior of a melt droplet falling into a volatile coolant is simulated, which is of great significance to reveal the mechanism of steam explosion during a hypothetical severe reactor accident. (authors)

Ma, W.M.; Yang, Z.L.; Giri, A.; Sehgal, B.R. [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Drottning Kristinas vaeg 33 A, 100 44, Stockholm (Sweden)

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Network Reconfiguration at the Distribution System with Distributed Generators  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article proposes a novel model for distribution network reconfiguration to meet current distribution system operating demands. In the model the connection of distributed generators to distribution system is ...

Gao Xiaozhi; Li Linchuan; Xue Hailong

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Distribution free tests for mixed probability distributions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......specifically, suppose that X^ is drawn from a population having distribution function F^x), where Let nHk = (uik + vjk-wti) = n^ui Then E(tk) = \\ and t* = (^+ ... +tn)jn. Proceeding as in the derivation of (2-3-2), we can where......

E. A. C. THOMAS

1969-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Evidence for the role of fluctuations in the thermodynamics of nanoscale drops and the implications in computations of the surface tension  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Test area deformations are used to analyse vapour-liquid interfaces of Lennard-Jones particles by molecular dynamics simulation. For planar vapour-liquid interfaces the change in free energy is captured by the average of the corresponding change in energy, the leading-order contribution. This is consistent with the commonly used mechanical (pressure tensor) route for the surface tension. By contrast for liquid drops one finds a large second-order contribution associated with fluctuations in energy. Both the first- and second-order terms make comparable contributions, invalidating the mechanical relation for the surface tension of small drops. The latter is seen to increase above the planar value for drop radii of ~8 particle diameters, followed by an apparent weak maximum and slow decay to the planar limit, consistent with a small negative Tolman length.

Jose G. Sampayo; Alexandr Malijevsky; Erich A. Muller; E. de Miguel; G. Jackson

2012-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "drop size distribution" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Distribution System State Estimation  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

these include reactive power management, outage management, loss reduction, demand response, adaptable over-current protection, condition-based maintenance, distributed...

482

Distribution of Correspondence  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Defines correct procedures for distribution of correspondence to the Naval Reactors laboratories. Does not cancel another directive. Expired 8-30-97.

1996-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

483

Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This presentation is from a Building America webinar conducted on November 8, 2011, by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) about ductless hydronic distribution systems.

484

What is Distributed Wind?  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

and refurbishers, including those from Canada, Mexico, Europe, China, and South Africa. In 2013, 30.4 MW of new distributed wind capacity was added, representing nearly...

485

Distribution reliability analysis.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis presents an example for optimization of distribution maintenance scheduling of a recloser. It applies a risk reduction technique associated with maintenance of the… (more)

Bhusal, Prabodh

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

A Queueing Based Scheduling Approach to Plug-In Electric Vehicle Dispatch in Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Large-scale integration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) in power systems can cause severe issues to the existing distribution system, such as branch congestions and significant voltage drops. As a consequence, smart charging strategies are crucial for the secure and reliable operation of the power system. This paper tries to achieve high penetration level of PEVs with the existing distribution system infrastructure by proposing a smart charging algorithm that can optimally utilize the distribution system capacity. Specifically, the paper proposes a max-weight PEV dispatch algorithm to control the PEV charging rates, subject to power system physical limits. The proposed max-weight PEV dispatch algorithm is proved to be throughput optimal under very mild assumptions on the stochastic dynamics in the system. This suggests that the costly distribution system infrastructure upgrade can be avoided, or failing that, at least successfully deferred. The proposed PEV dispatch algorithm is particularly attractive in ...

Li, Qiao; Ilic, Marija D

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Arbovirus infection increases with group size  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...increase with host group size (e.g. Poulin 1991a,b; Hoogland 1995; Brown & Brown...1839 Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B (2001) Poulin, R. 1991a Group-living and infestation...in passerines. Condor 93, 418^423. Poulin, R. 1991b Group-living and the richness...

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

One Size Does Not Fit All  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...that it is good to share both data and technology, and that a one size fits all philosophy...modems, commercial phone systems, intranet communications, solar panels, batteries...Monitoring System from Boulder Real Time Technologies provides a new robust platform for near-real-time...

Roger Hansen

489

Parametric probability distributions in reliability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Parametric probability distributions in reliability F.P.A. Coolen Department of Mathematical parametric probability distributions which are frequently used in reliability. We present some main as models for specific reliability scenarios. Keywords: Binomial distribution, Exponential distribution

Coolen, Frank

490

Size dependence of solar X-ray flare properties  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Non-thermal and thermal parameters of 85 solar flares of GOES class B1 to M6 (background subtracted classes A1 to M6) have been compared to each other. The hard X-ray flux has been measured by RHESSI and a spectral fitting provided flux and spectral index of the non-thermal emission, as well as temperature and emission measure of the thermal emission. The soft X-ray flux was taken from GOES measurements. We find a linear correlation in a double logarithmic plot between the non-thermal flux and the spectral index. The higher the acceleration rate of a flare, the harder the non-thermal electron distribution. The relation is similar to the one found by a comparison of the same parameters from several sub-peaks of a single flare. Thus small flares behave like small subpeaks of large flares. Thermal flare properties such as temperature, emission measure and the soft X-ray flux also correlate with peak non-thermal flux. A large non-thermal peak flux entails an enhanceme