National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for drop size distribution

  1. Characterization of Vertical Velocity and Drop Size Distribution Parameters in Widespread Precipitation at ARM Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giangrande S. E.; Luke, E. P.; Kollias, P.

    2012-02-01

    Extended, high-resolution measurements of vertical air motion and median volume drop diameter D0 in widespread precipitation from three diverse Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) locations [Lamont, Oklahoma, Southern Great Plains site (SGP); Niamey, Niger; and Black Forest, Germany] are presented. The analysis indicates a weak (0-10 cm{sup -1}) downward air motion beneath the melting layer for all three regions, a magnitude that is to within the typical uncertainty of the retrieval methods. On average, the hourly estimated standard deviation of the vertical air motion is 0.25 m s{sup -1} with no pronounced vertical structure. Profiles of D0 vary according to region and rainfall rate. The standard deviation of 1-min-averaged D0 profiles for isolated rainfall rate intervals is 0.3-0.4 mm. Additional insights into the form of the raindrop size distribution are provided using available dual-frequency Doppler velocity observations at SGP. The analysis suggests that gamma functions better explain paired velocity observations and radar retrievals for the Oklahoma dataset. This study will be useful in assessing uncertainties introduced in the measurement of precipitation parameters from ground-based and spaceborne remote sensors that are due to small-scale variability.

  2. Eliminate Excessive In-Plant Distribution System Voltage Drops

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Excessive In-Plant Distribution System Voltage Drops Studies indicate that in-plant electrical distribution system losses-due to voltage unbalance, over- and undervoltage, low ...

  3. Variational optimization method for calculation of cloud drop growth in an Eulerian drop-size framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Qingfu; Kogan, Y.L.; Lilly, D.K.; Khairoutdinov, M.P.

    1997-10-15

    A variational optimization (VO) method that requires specification of only one variable in each bin size for condensation and evaporation calculations in an Eulerian drop-size framework is proposed. The method is tested against the exact solution given by the Lagrangian method using more than 15000 spectra selected from experiments with a three-dimensional large eddy simulation model with explicit microphysics. The results show that the VO method not only conserves the integral parameters of the spectrum, such as drop number, mean radius, liquid water content, and the effective radius, but also provides an accurate calculation of the spectrum itself.

  4. Laser capillary spectrophotometric acquisition of bivariate drop size and concentration data for liquid-liquid dispersion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tavlarides, L.L.; Bae, J.H.

    1991-12-24

    A laser capillary spectrophotometric technique measures real time or near real time bivariate drop size and concentration distribution for a reactive liquid-liquid dispersion system. The dispersion is drawn into a precision-bore glass capillary and an appropriate light source is used to distinguish the aqueous phase from slugs of the organic phase at two points along the capillary whose separation is precisely known. The suction velocity is measured, as is the length of each slug from which the drop free diameter is calculated. For each drop, the absorptivity at a given wavelength is related to the molar concentration of a solute of interest, and the concentration of given drops of the organic phase is derived from pulse heights of the detected light. This technique permits on-line monitoring and control of liquid-liquid dispersion processes. 17 figures.

  5. Laser capillary spectrophotometric acquisition of bivariate drop size and concentration data for liquid-liquid dispersion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tavlarides, Lawrence L. (Fayetteville, NY); Bae, Jae-Heum (Daejeon, KR)

    1991-01-01

    A laser capillary spectrophotometric technique measures real time or near real time bivariate drop size and concentration distribution for a reactive liquid-liquid dispersion system. The dispersion is drawn into a precision-bore glass capillary and an appropriate light source is used to distinguish the aqueous phase from slugs of the organic phase at two points along the capillary whose separation is precisely known. The suction velocity is measured, as is the length of each slug from which the drop free diameter is calculated. For each drop, the absorptivity at a given wavelength is related to the molar concentration of a solute of interest, and the concentration of given drops of the organic phase is derived from pulse heights of the detected light. This technique permits on-line monitoring and control of liquid-liquid dispersion processes.

  6. ARM - Measurement - Particle size distribution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    size distribution ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Particle size distribution The number of particles present in any given volume of air within a specified size range. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available

  7. Pore size distribution and accessible pore size distribution...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    both rank and type (expressed as either hydrogen or vitrinite content) in the size range ... Subject: 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 03 NATURAL GAS; 08 HYDROGEN; AMBIENT TEMPERATURE; ...

  8. ARM - Measurement - Hydrometeor Size Distribution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of hydrometeors observed in a given size range. Categories Atmospheric State, Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the...

  9. Characterization of Vertical Velocity and Drop Size Distribution...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to within the typical uncertainty of the retrieval methods. ... This study will be useful in assessing uncertainties ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English ...

  10. Eliminate Excessive In-Plant Distribution System Voltage Drops

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Studies indicate that in-plant electrical distribution system losses—due to voltage unbalance, over- and undervoltage, low power factor, undersized conductors, leakage to ground, and poor connections—can account for less than 1% to more than 4% of total plant electrical energy consumption.

  11. Particle size distribution instrument. Topical report 13

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okhuysen, W.; Gassaway, J.D.

    1995-04-01

    The development of an instrument to measure the concentration of particles in gas is described in this report. An in situ instrument was designed and constructed which sizes individual particles and counts the number of occurrences for several size classes. Although this instrument was designed to detect the size distribution of slag and seed particles generated at an experimental coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic power facility, it can be used as a nonintrusive diagnostic tool for other hostile industrial processes involving the formation and growth of particulates. Two of the techniques developed are extensions of the widely used crossed beam velocimeter, providing simultaneous measurement of the size distribution and velocity of articles.

  12. ARM - Measurement - Cloud particle size distribution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Cloud particle size distribution The number of cloud particles present in any given volume of air...

  13. A new model of cloud drop distribution that simulates the observed...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Michael Michigan Technological University Wiscombe, Warren BNLNASA Goddard Space Flight Center Category: Modeling Cloud droplet size distribution is one of the most fundamental...

  14. Statistics of voltage drop in distribution circuits: a dynamic programming approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turitsyn, Konstantin S

    2010-01-01

    We analyze a power distribution line with high penetration of distributed generation and strong variations of power consumption and generation levels. In the presence of uncertainty the statistical description of the system is required to assess the risks of power outages. In order to find the probability of exceeding the constraints for voltage levels we introduce the probability distribution of maximal voltage drop and propose an algorithm for finding this distribution. The algorithm is based on the assumption of random but statistically independent distribution of loads on buses. Linear complexity in the number of buses is achieved through the dynamic programming technique. We illustrate the performance of the algorithm by analyzing a simple 4-bus system with high variations of load levels.

  15. Parameterizing Size Distribution in Ice Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeSlover, Daniel; Mitchell, David L.

    2009-09-25

    PARAMETERIZING SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS IN ICE CLOUDS David L. Mitchell and Daniel H. DeSlover ABSTRACT An outstanding problem that contributes considerable uncertainty to Global Climate Model (GCM) predictions of future climate is the characterization of ice particle sizes in cirrus clouds. Recent parameterizations of ice cloud effective diameter differ by a factor of three, which, for overcast conditions, often translate to changes in outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) of 55 W m-2 or more. Much of this uncertainty in cirrus particle sizes is related to the problem of ice particle shattering during in situ sampling of the ice particle size distribution (PSD). Ice particles often shatter into many smaller ice fragments upon collision with the rim of the probe inlet tube. These small ice artifacts are counted as real ice crystals, resulting in anomalously high concentrations of small ice crystals (D < 100 m) and underestimates of the mean and effective size of the PSD. Half of the cirrus cloud optical depth calculated from these in situ measurements can be due to this shattering phenomenon. Another challenge is the determination of ice and liquid water amounts in mixed phase clouds. Mixed phase clouds in the Arctic contain mostly liquid water, and the presence of ice is important for determining their lifecycle. Colder high clouds between -20 and -36 oC may also be mixed phase but in this case their condensate is mostly ice with low levels of liquid water. Rather than affecting their lifecycle, the presence of liquid dramatically affects the cloud optical properties, which affects cloud-climate feedback processes in GCMs. This project has made advancements in solving both of these problems. Regarding the first problem, PSD in ice clouds are uncertain due to the inability to reliably measure the concentrations of the smallest crystals (D < 100 m), known as the small mode. Rather than using in situ probe measurements aboard aircraft, we employed a treatment of ice cloud

  16. Pore size distribution and accessible pore size distribution in bituminous coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakurovs, Richard; He, Lilin; Melnichenko, Yuri B; Radlinski, Andrzej Pawell; Blach, Tomasz P

    2012-01-01

    The porosity and pore size distribution of coals determine many of their properties, from gas release to their behavior on carbonization, and yet most methods of determining pore size distribution can only examine a restricted size range. Even then, only accessible pores can be investigated with these methods. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and ultra small-angle neutron scattering (USANS) are increasingly used to characterize the size distribution of all of the pores non-destructively. Here we have used USANS/SANS to examine 24 well-characterized bituminous and subbituminous coals: three from the eastern US, two from Poland, one from New Zealand and the rest from the Sydney and Bowen Basins in Eastern Australia, and determined the relationships of the scattering intensity corresponding to different pore sizes with other coal properties. The range of pore radii examinable with these techniques is 2.5 nm to 7 {micro}m. We confirm that there is a wide range of pore sizes in coal. The pore size distribution was found to be strongly affected by both rank and type (expressed as either hydrogen or vitrinite content) in the size range 250 nm to 7 {micro}m and 5 to 10 nm, but weakly in intermediate regions. The results suggest that different mechanisms control coal porosity on different scales. Contrast-matching USANS and SANS were also used to determine the size distribution of the fraction of the pores in these coals that are inaccessible to deuterated methane, CD{sub 4}, at ambient temperature. In some coals most of the small ({approx} 10 nm) pores were found to be inaccessible to CD{sub 4} on the time scale of the measurement ({approx} 30 min - 16 h). This inaccessibility suggests that in these coals a considerable fraction of inherent methane may be trapped for extended periods of time, thus reducing the effectiveness of methane release from (or sorption by) these coals. Although the number of small pores was less in higher rank coals, the fraction of total

  17. Measuring the Raindrop Size Distribution, ARM's Efforts at Darwin...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Raindrop Size Distribution, ARM's Efforts at Darwin and SGP Bartholomew, Mary Jane Brookhaven National Laboratory Category: Instruments ARM has purchased two impact...

  18. Pore-size-distribution of cationic polyacrylamide hydrogels. Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kremer, M.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The pore size distribution of a AAm/MAPTAC (acrylamide copolymerized with (3-methacrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium chloride) hydrogel was investigated using Kuga`s mixed-solute-exclusion method, taking into account the wall effect. A Brownian-motion model is also used. Results show the feasibility of determining pore-size distribution of porous materials using the mixed-solute-exclusion method in conjunction with solution of the Fredholm equation; good agreement was obtained with experiment, even for bimodal pore structures. However, different pore size distributions were calculated for the two different probe-solutes (Dextran and poly(ethylene glycol/oxide)). Future work is outlined. 32 figs, 25 refs.

  19. Pore-size-distribution of cationic polyacrylamide hydrogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kremer, M.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The pore size distribution of a AAm/MAPTAC (acrylamide copolymerized with (3-methacrylamidopropyl)trimethylammonium chloride) hydrogel was investigated using Kuga's mixed-solute-exclusion method, taking into account the wall effect. A Brownian-motion model is also used. Results show the feasibility of determining pore-size distribution of porous materials using the mixed-solute-exclusion method in conjunction with solution of the Fredholm equation; good agreement was obtained with experiment, even for bimodal pore structures. However, different pore size distributions were calculated for the two different probe-solutes (Dextran and poly(ethylene glycol/oxide)). Future work is outlined. 32 figs, 25 refs.

  20. Evolution of droplet size distribution and autoconversion parameterization

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in turbulent clouds Evolution of droplet size distribution and autoconversion parameterization in turbulent clouds McGraw, Robert Brookhaven National Laboratory Liu, Yangang Brookhaven National Laboratory Category: Modeling Effects from turbulence-induced fluctuations in water vapor saturation on cloud droplet growth are examined using a Brownian diffusion model [McGraw and Liu, 2006]. The model predicts diffusive broadening of the droplet size distribution, tempered by enhanced

  1. Particle size and shape distributions of hammer milled pine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westover, Tyler Lott; Matthews, Austin Colter; Williams, Christopher Luke; Ryan, John Chadron Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    Particle size and shape distributions impact particle heating rates and diffusion of volatized gases out of particles during fast pyrolysis conversion, and consequently must be modeled accurately in order for computational pyrolysis models to produce reliable results for bulk solid materials. For this milestone, lodge pole pine chips were ground using a Thomas-Wiley #4 mill using two screen sizes in order to produce two representative materials that are suitable for fast pyrolysis. For the first material, a 6 mm screen was employed in the mill and for the second material, a 3 mm screen was employed in the mill. Both materials were subjected to RoTap sieve analysis, and the distributions of the particle sizes and shapes were determined using digital image analysis. The results of the physical analysis will be fed into computational pyrolysis simulations to create models of materials with realistic particle size and shape distributions. This milestone was met on schedule.

  2. Concentrations and Size Distributions of Particulate Matter Emissions from

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalyzed Trap-Equipped Heavy-duty Diesel Vehicles Operating on Ultra-low Sulfur EC-D Fuel | Department of Energy Concentrations and Size Distributions of Particulate Matter Emissions from Catalyzed Trap-Equipped Heavy-duty Diesel Vehicles Operating on Ultra-low Sulfur EC-D Fuel Concentrations and Size Distributions of Particulate Matter Emissions from Catalyzed Trap-Equipped Heavy-duty Diesel Vehicles Operating on Ultra-low Sulfur EC-D Fuel 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: West Virginia

  3. Method for measuring the size distribution of airborne rhinovirus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, M.L.; Goth-Goldstein, R.; Apte, M.G.; Fisk, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    About 50% of viral-induced respiratory illnesses are caused by the human rhinovirus (HRV). Measurements of the concentrations and sizes of bioaerosols are critical for research on building characteristics, aerosol transport, and mitigation measures. We developed a quantitative reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for HRV and verified that this assay detects HRV in nasal lavage samples. A quantitation standard was used to determine a detection limit of 5 fg of HRV RNA with a linear range over 1000-fold. To measure the size distribution of HRV aerosols, volunteers with a head cold spent two hours in a ventilated research chamber. Airborne particles from the chamber were collected using an Andersen Six-Stage Cascade Impactor. Each stage of the impactor was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR for HRV. For the first two volunteers with confirmed HRV infection, but with mild symptoms, we were unable to detect HRV on any stage of the impactor.

  4. Effect of Engine-Out NOx Control Strategies on PM Size Distribution...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Engine-Out NOx Control Strategies on PM Size Distribution in Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines Developed for 2010 Effect of Engine-Out NOx Control Strategies on PM Size Distribution in ...

  5. Machine vision based particle size and size distribution determination of airborne dust particles of wood and bark pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Igathinathane, C; Pordesimo, L.O.

    2009-08-01

    Dust management strategies in industrial environment, especially of airborne dust, require quantification and measurement of size and size distribution of the particles. Advanced specialized instruments that measure airborne particle size and size distribution apply indirect methods that involve light scattering, acoustic spectroscopy, and laser diffraction. In this research, we propose a simple and direct method of airborne dust particle dimensional measurement and size distribution analysis using machine vision. The method involves development of a user-coded ImageJ plugin that measures particle length and width and analyzes size distribution of particles based on particle length from high-resolution scan images. Test materials were airborne dust from soft pine wood sawdust pellets and ground pine tree bark pellets. Subsamples prepared by dividing the actual dust using 230 mesh (63 m) sieve were analyzed as well. A flatbed document scanner acquired the digital images of the dust particles. Proper sampling, layout of dust particles in singulated arrangement, good contrast smooth background, high resolution images, and accurate algorithm are essential for reliable analysis. A halo effect around grey-scale images ensured correct threshold limits. The measurement algorithm used Feret s diameter for particle length and pixel-march technique for particle width. Particle size distribution was analyzed in a sieveless manner after grouping particles according to their distinct lengths, and several significant dimensions and parameters of particle size distribution were evaluated. Results of the measurement and analysis were presented in textual and graphical formats. The developed plugin was evaluated to have a dimension measurement accuracy in excess of 98.9% and a computer speed of analysis of <8 s/image. Arithmetic mean length of actual wood and bark pellets airborne dust particles were 0.1138 0.0123 and 0.1181 0.0149 mm, respectively. The airborne dust particles of

  6. THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF THE NEPTUNE TROJANS AND THE MISSING INTERMEDIATE-SIZED PLANETESIMALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheppard, Scott S.; Trujillo, Chadwick A.

    2010-11-10

    We present an ultra-deep survey for Neptune Trojans using the Subaru 8.2 m and Magellan 6.5 m telescopes. The survey reached a 50% detection efficiency in the R band at m{sub R} = 25.7 mag and covered 49 deg{sup 2} of sky. m{sub R} = 25.7 mag corresponds to Neptune Trojans that are about 16 km in radius (assuming an albedo of 0.05). A paucity of smaller Neptune Trojans (radii < 45 km) compared with larger ones was found. The brightest Neptune Trojans appear to follow a steep power-law slope (q = 5 {+-} 1) similar to the brightest objects in the other known stable reservoirs such as the Kuiper Belt, Jupiter Trojans, and main belt asteroids. We find a roll-over for the Neptune Trojans that occurs around a radius of r = 45 {+-} 10 km (m{sub R} = 23.5 {+-} 0.3), which is also very similar to the other stable reservoirs. All the observed stable regions in the solar system show evidence for Missing Intermediate-Sized Planetesimals (MISPs). This indicates a primordial and not collisional origin, which suggests that planetesimal formation proceeded directly from small to large objects. The scarcity of intermediate- and smaller-sized Neptune Trojans may limit them as being a strong source for the short period comets.

  7. Effect of a polynomial arbitrary dust size distribution on dust acoustic solitons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishak-Boushaki, M.; Djellout, D.; Annou, R.

    2012-07-15

    The investigation of dust-acoustic solitons when dust grains are size-distributed and ions adiabatically heated is conducted. The influence of an arbitrary dust size-distribution described by a polynomial function on the properties of dust acoustic waves is investigated. An energy-like integral equation involving Sagdeev potential is derived. The solitary solutions are shown to undergo a transformation into cnoidal ones under some physical conditions. The dust size-distribution can significantly affect both lower and upper critical Mach numbers for both solitons and cnoidal solutions.

  8. Measurements of Aerosol Charge and Size Distribution for Graphite, Gold, Palladium, and Silver Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simones, Matthew P.; Gutti, Veera R.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Loyalka, Sudarshan K.

    2011-11-01

    The role of charge on aerosol evolution and hence the nuclear source term has been an issue of interest, and there is a need for both experimental techniques and modeling for quantifying this role. Our focus here is on further exploration of a tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) technique to simultaneously measure both the size and charge (positive, negative and neutral) dependent aerosol distributions. We have generated graphite, gold, silver, and palladium nanoparticles (aerosol) using a spark generator. We measure the electrical mobility-size distributions for these aerosols using a TDMA, and from these data we deduce the full charge-size distributions. We observe asymmetry in the particle size distributions for negative and positive charges. This asymmetry could have a bearing on the dynamics of charged aerosols, indicating that the assumption of symmetry for size distributions of negatively and positively charged particles in source term simulations may not be always appropriate. Also, the experimental technique should find applications in measurements of aerosol rate processes that are affected by both particle charge and size (e.g. coagulation, deposition, resuspension), and hence in modeling and simulation of the nuclear source term.

  9. Consideration of Grain Size Distribution in the Diffusion of Fission Gas to Grain Boundaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul C. Millett; Yongfeng Zhang; Michael R. Tonks; S. B. Biner

    2013-09-01

    We analyze the accumulation of fission gas on grain boundaries in a polycrystalline microstructure with a distribution of grain sizes. The diffusion equation is solved throughout the microstructure to evolve the gas concentration in space and time. Grain boundaries are treated as infinite sinks for the gas concentration, and we monitor the cumulative gas inventory on each grain boundary throughout time. We consider two important cases: first, a uniform initial distribution of gas concentration without gas production (correlating with post-irradiation annealing), and second, a constant gas production rate with no initial gas concentration (correlating with in-reactor conditions). The results show that a single-grain-size model, such as the Booth model, over predicts the gas accumulation on grain boundaries compared with a polycrystal with a grain size distribution. Also, a considerable degree of scatter, or variability, exists in the grain boundary gas accumulation when comparing all of the grain boundaries in the microstructure.

  10. Low pressure shock initiation of porous HMX for two grain size distributions and two densities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gustavsen, R.L.; Sheffield, S.A.; Alcon, R.R.

    1995-09-01

    Shock initiation measurements have been made on granular HMX (octotetramethylene tetranitrainine) for two particle size distributions and two densities. Samples were pressed to either 65% or 73% of crystal density from fine ({approx} 10 {mu}m grain size) and coarse (broad distribution of grain sizes peaking at {approx} 150 {mu}m) powders. Planar shocks of 0.2--1 GPa were generated by impacting gas gun driven projectiles on plastic targets containing the HMX. Wave profiles were measured at the input and output of the {approx} 3.9 mm thick HMX layer using electromagnetic particle velocity gauges. The initiation behavior for the two particle size distributions was very different. The coarse HMX began initiating at input pressures as low as 0.5 GPa. Transmitted wave profiles showed relatively slow reaction with most of the buildup occurring at the shock front. In contrast, the fine particle HMX did not begin to initiate at pressures below 0.9 GPa. When the fine powder did react, however, it did so much faster than the coarse HMX. These observations are consistent with commonly held ideas about bum rates being correlated to surface area, and initiation thresholds being correlated with the size and temperature of the hot spots created by shock passage. For each size, the higher density pressings were less sensitive than the lower density pressings.

  11. Ultrashort laser ablation of bulk copper targets: Dynamics and size distribution of the generated nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsakiris, N.; Gill-Comeau, M.; Lewis, L. J.; Anoop, K. K.; Ausanio, G.; Bruzzese, R.; Amoruso, S.

    2014-06-28

    We address the role of laser pulse fluence on expansion dynamics and size distribution of the nanoparticles produced by irradiating a metallic target with an ultrashort laser pulse in a vacuum, an issue for which contrasting indications are present in the literature. To this end, we have carried out a combined theoretical and experimental analysis of laser ablation of a bulk copper target with ≈50 fs, 800 nm pulses, in an interval of laser fluencies going from few to several times the ablation threshold. On one side, molecular dynamics simulations, with two-temperature model, describe the decomposition of the material through the analysis of the evolution of thermodynamic trajectories in the material phase diagram, and allow estimating the size distribution of the generated nano-aggregates. On the other side, atomic force microscopy of less than one layer nanoparticles deposits on witness plates, and fast imaging of the nanoparticles broadband optical emission provide the corresponding experimental characterization. Both experimental and numerical findings agree on a size distribution characterized by a significant fraction (≈90%) of small nanoparticles, and a residual part (≈10%) spanning over a rather large size interval, evidencing a weak dependence of the nanoparticles sizes on the laser pulse fluence. Numerical and experimental findings show a good degree of consistency, thus suggesting that modeling can realistically support the search for experimental methods leading to an improved control over the generation of nanoparticles by ultrashort laser ablation.

  12. COLOR DEPENDENCE IN THE SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF MAIN BELT ASTEROIDS REVISITED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    August, Tyler M.; Wiegert, Paul A.

    2013-06-15

    The size distribution of the asteroid belt is examined with 16956 main belt asteroids detected in data taken from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey in two filters (g' and r'). The cumulative H (absolute magnitude) distribution is examined in both filters, and both match well to simple power laws down to H = 17, with slopes in rough agreement with those reported the literature. This implies that disruptive collisions between asteroids are gravitationally dominated down to at least this size, and probably sub-kilometer scales. The slopes of these distributions appear shallower in the outer belt than the inner belt, and the g' distributions appear slightly steeper than the r'. The slope shallowing in the outer belt may reflect a real compositional difference: the inner asteroid belt has been suggested to consist mostly of stony and/or metallic S-type asteroids, whereas carbonaceous C-types are thought to be more prevalent further from the Sun. No waves are seen in the size distribution above H = 15. Since waves are expected to be produced at the transition from gravitationally-dominated to internal strength-dominated collisions, their absence here may imply that the transition occurs at sub-kilometer scales, much smaller than the H = 17 (diameter {approx} 1.6 km) cutoff of this study.

  13. Pore size distribution, strength, and microstructure of portland cement paste containing metal hydroxide waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majid, Z.A.; Mahmud, H.; Shaaban, M.G.

    1996-12-31

    Stabilization/solidification of hazardous wastes is used to convert hazardous metal hydroxide waste sludge into a solid mass with better handling properties. This study investigated the pore size development of ordinary portland cement pastes containing metal hydroxide waste sludge and rice husk ash using mercury intrusion porosimetry. The effects of acre and the addition of rice husk ash on pore size development and strength were studied. It was found that the pore structures of mixes changed significantly with curing acre. The pore size shifted from 1,204 to 324 {angstrom} for 3-day old cement paste, and from 956 to 263 {angstrom} for a 7-day old sample. A reduction in pore size distribution for different curing ages was also observed in the other mixtures. From this limited study, no conclusion could be made as to any correlation between strength development and porosity. 10 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. SIZE DISTRIBUTION AND RATE OF PRODUCTION OF AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER GENERATED DURING METAL CUTTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.; S.K. Dua, Ph.D., C.H.P.; Hillol Guha, Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    During deactivation and decommissioning activities, thermal cutting tools, such as plasma torch, laser, and gasoline torch, are used to cut metals. These activities generate fumes, smoke and particulates. These airborne species of matter, called aerosols, may be inhaled if suitable respiratory protection is not used. Inhalation of the airborne metallic aerosols has been reported to cause ill health effects, such as acute respiratory syndrome and chromosome damage in lymphocytes. In the nuclear industry, metals may be contaminated with radioactive materials. Cutting these metals, as in size reduction of gloveboxes and tanks, produces high concentrations of airborne transuranic particles. Particles of the respirable size range (size < 10 {micro}m) deposit in various compartments of the respiratory tract, the fraction and the site in the respiratory tract depending on the size of the particles. The dose delivered to the respiratory tract depends on the size distribution of the airborne particulates (aerosols) and their concentration and radioactivity/toxicity. The concentration of airborne particulate matter in an environment is dependent upon the rate of their production and the ventilation rate. Thus, measuring aerosol size distribution and generation rate is important for (1) the assessment of inhalation exposures of workers, (2) the selection of respiratory protection equipment, and (3) the design of appropriate filtration systems. Size distribution of the aerosols generated during cutting of different metals by plasma torch was measured. Cutting rates of different metals, rate of generation of respirable mass, as well as the fraction of the released kerf that become respirable were determined. This report presents results of these studies. Measurements of the particles generated during cutting of metal plates with a plasma arc torch revealed the presence of particles with mass median aerodynamic diameters of particles close to 0.2 {micro}m, arising from

  15. Size and spacial distribution of micropores in SBA-15 using CM-SANS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pollock, Rachel A; Walsh, Brenna R; Fry, Jason A; Ghampson, Tyrone; Centikol, Ozgul; Melnichenko, Yuri B; Kaiser, Helmut; Pynn, Roger; Frederick, Brian G

    2011-01-01

    Diffraction intensity analysis of small-angle neutron scattering measurements of dry SBA-15 have been combined with nonlocal density functional theory (NLDFT) analysis of nitrogen desorption isotherms to characterize the micropore, secondary mesopore, and primary mesopore structure. The radial dependence of the scattering length density, which is sensitive to isolated surface hydroxyls, can only be modeled if the NLDFT pore size distribution is distributed relatively uniformly throughout the silica framework, not localized in a 'corona' around the primary mesopores. Contrast matching-small angle neutron scattering (CM-SANS) measurements, using water, decane, tributylamine, cyclohexane, and isooctane as direct probes of the size of micropores indicate that the smallest pores in SBA-15 have diameter between 5.7 and 6.2 {angstrom}. Correlation of the minimum pore size with the onset of the micropore size distribution provides direct evidence that the shape of the smallest micropores is cylinderlike, which is consistent with their being due to unraveling of the polymer template.

  16. The effect of a dust size distribution on electrostatic sheaths in unmagnetized dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benlemdjaldi, D.; Tahraoui, A.; Hugon, R.; Bougdira, J.

    2013-04-15

    In this work, the structure of plasma sheaths in presence of dust particles with different sizes is investigated numerically in a multifluid framework, where the dust size distribution is modeled by Gauss' law. For this, we have established a 1D, stationary, unmagnetized, and weakly collisional electronegative dusty plasma sheath model. The electrons and negative ions are considered in a local thermodynamic equilibrium, therefore, described by a Boltzmann distribution. On the other hand, positive ions and dust grains are described by fluid equations. The charging process is described by the orbit motion limited model. It is shown that taking into account dust grains with different sizes reduces considerably the sheath thickness. The behavior of dust surface potential is not affected, but the dust charge number is reduced, as well as the electrostatic force. It results in a decrease of layered structure. The presence of negative ions makes the structure of the electrostatic potential more oscillatory. The other physical parameters are also analyzed and discussed.

  17. OPTIMIZATION OF COMMINUTION CIRCUIT THROUGHPUT AND PRODUCT SIZE DISTRIBUTION BY SIMULATION AND CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H.J. Walqui; T.C. Eisele; S.K. Kawatra

    2003-07-01

    The goal of this project is to improve energy efficiency of industrial crushing and grinding operations (comminution). Mathematical models of the comminution process are being used to study methods for optimizing the product size distribution, so that the amount of excessively fine material produced can be minimized. The goal is to save energy by reducing the amount of material that is ground below the target size, while simultaneously reducing the quantity of materials wasted as ''slimes'' that are too fine to be useful. This will be accomplished by: (1) modeling alternative circuit arrangements to determine methods for minimizing overgrinding, and (2) determining whether new technologies, such as high-pressure roll crushing, can be used to alter particle breakage behavior to minimize fines production.

  18. Platinum nanoparticle during electrochemical hydrogen evolution: Adsorbate distribution, active reaction species, and size effect

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tan, Teck L.; Wang, Lin -Lin; Zhang, Jia; Johnson, Duane D.; Bai, Kewu

    2015-03-02

    For small Pt nanoparticles (NPs), catalytic activity is, as observed, adversely affected by size in the 1–3 nm range. We elucidate, via first-principles-based thermodynamics, the operation H* distribution and cyclic voltammetry (CV) during the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) across the electrochemical potential, including the underpotential region (U ≤ 0) that is difficult to assess in experiment. We consider multiple adsorption sites on a 1 nm Pt NP model and show that the characteristic CV peaks from different H* species correspond well to experiment. We next quantify the activity contribution from each H* species to explain the adverse effect of size.more » From the resolved CV peaks at the standard hydrogen electrode potential (U = 0), we first deduce that the active species for the HER are the partially covered (100)-facet bridge sites and the (111)-facet hollow sites. Upon evaluation of the reaction barriers at operation H* distribution and microkinetic modeling of the exchange current, we find that the nearest-neighbor (100)-facet bridge site pairs have the lowest activation energy and contribute to ~75% of the NP activity. Edge bridge sites (fully covered by H*) per se are not active; however, they react with neighboring (100)-facet H* to account for ~18% of the activity, whereas (111)-facet hollow sites contribute little. As a result, extrapolating the relative contributions to larger NPs in which the ratio of facet-to-edge sites increases, we show that the adverse size effect of Pt NP HER activity kicks in for sizes below 2 nm.« less

  19. Platinum nanoparticle during electrochemical hydrogen evolution: Adsorbate distribution, active reaction species, and size effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Teck L.; Wang, Lin -Lin; Zhang, Jia; Johnson, Duane D.; Bai, Kewu

    2015-03-02

    For small Pt nanoparticles (NPs), catalytic activity is, as observed, adversely affected by size in the 1–3 nm range. We elucidate, via first-principles-based thermodynamics, the operation H* distribution and cyclic voltammetry (CV) during the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) across the electrochemical potential, including the underpotential region (U ≤ 0) that is difficult to assess in experiment. We consider multiple adsorption sites on a 1 nm Pt NP model and show that the characteristic CV peaks from different H* species correspond well to experiment. We next quantify the activity contribution from each H* species to explain the adverse effect of size. From the resolved CV peaks at the standard hydrogen electrode potential (U = 0), we first deduce that the active species for the HER are the partially covered (100)-facet bridge sites and the (111)-facet hollow sites. Upon evaluation of the reaction barriers at operation H* distribution and microkinetic modeling of the exchange current, we find that the nearest-neighbor (100)-facet bridge site pairs have the lowest activation energy and contribute to ~75% of the NP activity. Edge bridge sites (fully covered by H*) per se are not active; however, they react with neighboring (100)-facet H* to account for ~18% of the activity, whereas (111)-facet hollow sites contribute little. As a result, extrapolating the relative contributions to larger NPs in which the ratio of facet-to-edge sites increases, we show that the adverse size effect of Pt NP HER activity kicks in for sizes below 2 nm.

  20. Platinum nanoparticle during electrochemical hydrogen evolution: Adsorbate distribution, active reaction species, and size effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Teck L.; Wang, Lin -Lin; Zhang, Jia; Johnson, Duane D.; Bai, Kewu

    2015-03-02

    For small Pt nanoparticles (NPs), catalytic activity is, as observed, adversely affected by size in the 13 nm range. We elucidate, via first-principles-based thermodynamics, the operation H* distribution and cyclic voltammetry (CV) during the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) across the electrochemical potential, including the underpotential region (U ? 0) that is difficult to assess in experiment. We consider multiple adsorption sites on a 1 nm Pt NP model and show that the characteristic CV peaks from different H* species correspond well to experiment. We next quantify the activity contribution from each H* species to explain the adverse effect of size. From the resolved CV peaks at the standard hydrogen electrode potential (U = 0), we first deduce that the active species for the HER are the partially covered (100)-facet bridge sites and the (111)-facet hollow sites. Upon evaluation of the reaction barriers at operation H* distribution and microkinetic modeling of the exchange current, we find that the nearest-neighbor (100)-facet bridge site pairs have the lowest activation energy and contribute to ~75% of the NP activity. Edge bridge sites (fully covered by H*) per se are not active; however, they react with neighboring (100)-facet H* to account for ~18% of the activity, whereas (111)-facet hollow sites contribute little. As a result, extrapolating the relative contributions to larger NPs in which the ratio of facet-to-edge sites increases, we show that the adverse size effect of Pt NP HER activity kicks in for sizes below 2 nm.

  1. Pore size distribution and methane equilibrium conditions at Walker Ridge Block 313, northern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bihani, Abhishek; Daigle, Hugh; Cook, Ann; Glosser, Deborah; Shushtarian, Arash

    2015-12-15

    Coexistence of three methane phases (liquid (L), gas (G), hydrate (H)) in marine gas hydrate systems may occur according to in-situ pressure, temperature, salinity and pore size. In sediments with salinity close to seawater, a discrete zone of three-phase (3P) equilibrium may occur near the base of the regional hydrate stability zone (RHSZ) due to capillary effects. The existence of a 3P zone influences the location of the bottom-simulating reflection (BSR) and has implications for methane fluxes at the base of the RHSZ. We studied hydrate stability conditions in two wells, WR313-G and WR313-H, at Walker Ridge Block 313 in the northern Gulf of Mexico. We determined pore size distributions (PSD) by constructing a synthetic nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation time distribution. Correlations were obtained by non-linear regression on NMR, gamma ray, and bulk density logs from well KC-151 at Keathley Canyon. The correlations enabled construction of relaxation time distributions for WR313-G and WR313-H, which were used to predict PSD through comparison with mercury injection capillary pressure measurements. With the computed PSD, L+H and L+G methane solubility was determined from in-situ pressure and temperature. The intersection of the L+G and L+H curves for various pore sizes allowed calculation of the depth range of the 3P equilibrium zone. As in previous studies at Blake Ridge and Hydrate Ridge, the top of the 3P zone moves upwards with increasing water depth and overlies the bulk 3P equilibrium depth. In clays at Walker Ridge, the predicted thickness of the 3P zone is approximately 35 m, but in coarse sands it is only a few meters due to the difference in absolute pore sizes and the width of the PSD. The thick 3P zone in the clays may explain in part why the BSR is only observed in the sand layers at Walker Ridge, although other factors may influence the presence or absence of a BSR.

  2. Pseudopotential approach for dust acoustic solitary waves in dusty plasmas with kappa-distributed ions and electrons and dust grains having power law size distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banerjee, Gadadhar; Maitra, Sarit

    2015-04-15

    Sagdeev's pseudopotential method is used to study small as well as arbitrary amplitude dust acoustic solitons in a dusty plasma with kappa distributed electrons and ions with dust grains having power law size distribution. The existence of potential well solitons has been shown for suitable parametric region. The criterion for existence of soliton is derived in terms of upper and lower limit for Mach numbers. The numerical results show that the size distribution can affect the existence as well as the propagation characteristics of the dust acoustic solitons. The effect of kappa distribution is also highlighted.

  3. OPTIMIZATION OF COMMINUTION CIRCUIT THROUGHPUT AND PRODUCT SIZE DISTRIBUTION BY SIMULATION AND CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.K. Kawatra; T.C. Eisele; H.J. Walqui

    2002-10-01

    The goal of this project is to improve energy efficiency of industrial crushing and grinding operations (comminution). Mathematical models of the comminution process are being used to study methods for optimizing he product size distribution, so that the amount of excessively fine material produced can be minimized. This will save energy by reducing the amount of material that is ground below the target size, and will also reduce the quantity of materials wasted as ''slimes'' that are too fine to be useful. This will be accomplished by: (1) modeling alternative circuit arrangements to determine methods for minimizing overgrinding, and (2) determining whether new technologies, such as high-pressure roll crushing, can be used to alter particle breakage behavior to minimize fines production. In the seventh quarter of this project, analysis of the plant operation identified sources of overgrinding in the circuit. Overgrinding was primarily caused by two effects: (1) The hydrocyclones used to close the circuit and remove fully-ground particles from the circuit were preferentially returning high-density ore particles to the secondary mills for regrinding even after they were already ground to pass the desired product size, and (2) The primary grinding mills were operating at less than full capacity, suggesting that a shift of grinding load to the primary mills could liberate more material before it reached the secondary mills, allowing more complete liberation with a coarser grind. Circuit modeling is underway to determine how best to modify the circuit to reduce these effects.

  4. Extracting magnetic cluster size and its distributions in advanced perpendicular recording media with shrinking grain size using small angle x-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehta, Virat; Ikeda, Yoshihiro; Takano, Ken; Terris, Bruce D.; Hellwig, Olav; Wang, Tianhan; Wu, Benny; Graves, Catherine; Dürr, Hermann A.; Scherz, Andreas; Stöhr, Jo

    2015-05-18

    We analyze the magnetic cluster size (MCS) and magnetic cluster size distribution (MCSD) in a variety of perpendicular magnetic recording (PMR) media designs using resonant small angle x-ray scattering at the Co L{sub 3} absorption edge. The different PMR media flavors considered here vary in grain size between 7.5 and 9.5 nm as well as in lateral inter-granular exchange strength, which is controlled via the segregant amount. While for high inter-granular exchange, the MCS increases rapidly for grain sizes below 8.5 nm, we show that for increased amount of segregant with less exchange the MCS remains relatively small, even for grain sizes of 7.5 and 8 nm. However, the MCSD still increases sharply when shrinking grains from 8 to 7.5 nm. We show evidence that recording performance such as signal-to-noise-ratio on the spin stand correlates well with the product of magnetic cluster size and magnetic cluster size distribution.

  5. The Great Marble Drop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Great Marble Drop Learning objective: for students to analyze a problem, and test and refine solutions. This will demonstrate a key skill needed in engineering and scientific...

  6. Deviations from the Gutenberg–Richter law on account of a random distribution of block sizes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sibiryakov, B. P.

    2015-10-27

    This paper studies properties of a continuum with structure. The characteristic size of the structure governs the fact that difference relations are nonautomatically transformed into differential ones. It is impossible to consider an infinitesimal volume of a body, to which the major conservation laws could be applied, because the minimum representative volume of the body must contain at least a few elementary microstructures. The corresponding equations of motion are equations of infinite order, solutions of which include, along with usual sound waves, unusual waves with abnormally low velocities without a lower limit. It is shown that in such media weak perturbations can increase or decrease outside the limits. The number of complex roots of the corresponding dispersion equation, which can be interpreted as the number of unstable solutions, depends on the specific surface of cracks and is an almost linear dependence on a logarithmic scale, as in the seismological Gutenberg–Richter law. If the distance between one pore (crack) to another one is a random value with some distribution, we must write another dispersion equation and examine different scenarios depending on the statistical characteristics of the random distribution. In this case, there are sufficient deviations from the Gutenberg–Richter law and this theoretical result corresponds to some field and laboratory observations.

  7. Paleozoic expulsion in Bolivia-its influence on field size and distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beer, J.A. ); Lopez, O. )

    1993-02-01

    Production within the Chaco Basin of Bolivia may be grouped into three areas: a northern area with several large fields (> 100 MMBOE), a central area nearly devoid of fields, and a southern area with numerous small fields. Models for the timing of hydrocarbon charge suggest that field size and distribution can be tied to spatial variation in the magnitude of a Paleozoic expulsion event. In the central Chaco, the Devonian Los Monos Formation source rock interval was deeply buried beneath a Carboniferous depocenter (1600 to 2000 m of sediment). An in-house thermal modeling program, constrained by vitrinite reflectance data, indicates that the source rock interval entered the oil window as early as 270 Ma. Basal Los Monos kerogen was completely converted to oil prior to Neogene trap formation, making oil accumulations impossible. In the southern Chaco, an intermediate Carboniferous thickness (1300-1600 m) resulted in a less pronounced pre-Cenzoic expulsion event. Expulsion began at 150 Ma, with 80% of basal Los Monos kerogen converted to oil prior to trap formation. The southern Chaco thus has limited exploration opportunity for large accumulations. The northern Chaco has a thin Carboniferous veneer (01300 m), and experienced insignificant pre-Cenozoic expulsion. As a result, 90% of the basal Los Monos kerogen was available for conversion to oil at the time of trap formation, and large accumulations were possible. Given the relationship between field presence/size and subsidence history, a Carboniferous isopach map is a powerful exploration tool. Where there is a thin Carboniferous section, unconverted Devonian source rocks are able to charge Cenozoic structures. One area that meets this criterium is the western Subandean, a relatively unexplored province adjacent to the Chaco Basin.

  8. Arrays of Ru Nanoclusters with Narrow Size Distribution Templated by Monolayer Graphene on Ru

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutter, P.; Sutter, E.; Albrecht, P.; Wang, B.; Bocquet M.-L.; Wu, L.; Zhu, Y.

    2011-09-01

    Ru nanoclusters self-assemble over macroscopic sample areas during vapor deposition of Ru on monolayer graphene (MLG) on Ru(0001). The Ru nanoclusters form arrays with a mean lateral cluster diameter of {approx} 20 {angstrom}, cluster heights of 1 or 2 ML, and a size distribution that remains nearly constant with increasing coverage. Combined scanning tunneling microscopy and density functional theory (DFT) show that the clusters are templated by the MLG/Ru(0001) moire unit cell and identify the preferred binding site of the clusters as the low fcc region of the moire. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution TEM contrast simulations experimentally demonstrate that the interaction of the Ru clusters with the underlying MLG/Ru(0001) leads to a local lifting of the graphene layer of the template. DFT calculations confirm this mechanism of interaction of the Ru clusters with the strongly coupled MLG/Ru(0001). Weakening of the graphene-support coupling via oxygen intercalation is shown to have a major effect on the assembly of Ru nanocluster arrays. With a preferred binding site lacking on decoupled graphene, the Ru nanoclusters grow significantly larger, and clusters with 1 to 4 ML height can coexist.

  9. Relationship between Particle Size Distribution of Low-Rank Pulverized Coal and Power Plant Performance

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ganguli, Rajive; Bandopadhyay, Sukumar

    2012-01-01

    Tmore » he impact of particle size distribution (PSD) of pulverized, low rank high volatile content Alaska coal on combustion related power plant performance was studied in a series of field scale tests. Performance was gauged through efficiency (ratio of megawatt generated to energy consumed as coal), emissions (SO 2 , NO x , CO), and carbon content of ash (fly ash and bottom ash).he study revealed that the tested coal could be burned at a grind as coarse as 50% passing 76 microns, with no deleterious impact on power generation and emissions.he PSD’s tested in this study were in the range of 41 to 81 percent passing 76 microns.here was negligible correlation between PSD and the followings factors: efficiency, SO 2 , NO x , and CO. Additionally, two tests where stack mercury (Hg) data was collected, did not demonstrate any real difference in Hg emissions with PSD.he results from the field tests positively impacts pulverized coal power plants that burn low rank high volatile content coals (such as Powder River Basin coal).hese plants can potentially reduce in-plant load by grinding the coal less (without impacting plant performance on emissions and efficiency) and thereby, increasing their marketability.« less

  10. The Great Marble Drop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Volunteers - Sign Up About Science Bowl Curriculum and Activities How to Build a Motor The Great Marble Drop How to Build a Turbine How to Build a Tower Classroom...

  11. Method development and validation for measuring the particle size distribution of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) powders.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Sharissa Gay

    2005-09-01

    Currently, the critical particle properties of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) that influence deflagration-to-detonation time in exploding bridge wire detonators (EBW) are not known in sufficient detail to allow development of a predictive failure model. The specific surface area (SSA) of many PETN powders has been measured using both permeametry and gas absorption methods and has been found to have a critical effect on EBW detonator performance. The permeametry measure of SSA is a function of particle shape, packed bed pore geometry, and particle size distribution (PSD). Yet there is a general lack of agreement in PSD measurements between laboratories, raising concerns regarding collaboration and complicating efforts to understand changes in EBW performance related to powder properties. Benchmarking of data between laboratories that routinely perform detailed PSD characterization of powder samples and the determination of the most appropriate method to measure each PETN powder are necessary to discern correlations between performance and powder properties and to collaborate with partnering laboratories. To this end, a comparison was made of the PSD measured by three laboratories using their own standard procedures for light scattering instruments. Three PETN powder samples with different surface areas and particle morphologies were characterized. Differences in bulk PSD data generated by each laboratory were found to result from variations in sonication of the samples during preparation. The effect of this sonication was found to depend on particle morphology of the PETN samples, being deleterious to some PETN samples and advantageous for others in moderation. Discrepancies in the submicron-sized particle characterization data were related to an instrument-specific artifact particular to one laboratory. The type of carrier fluid used by each laboratory to suspend the PETN particles for the light scattering measurement had no consistent effect on the resulting

  12. Evolution of soot size distribution in premixed ethylene/air and ethylene/benzene/air flames: Experimental and modeling study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Echavarria, Carlos A.; Sarofim, Adel F.; Lighty, JoAnn S.; D'Anna, Andrea

    2011-01-15

    The effect of benzene concentration in the initial fuel on the evolution of soot size distribution in ethylene/air and ethylene/benzene/air flat flames was characterized by experimental measurements and model predictions of size and number concentration within the flames. Experimentally, a scanning mobility particle sizer was used to allow spatially resolved and online measurements of particle concentration and sizes in the nanometer-size range. The model couples a detailed kinetic scheme with a discrete-sectional approach to follow the transition from gas-phase to nascent particles and their coagulation to larger soot particles. The evolution of soot size distribution (experimental and modeled) in pure ethylene and ethylene flames doped with benzene showed a typical nucleation-sized (since particles do not actually nucleate in the classical sense particle inception is often used in place of nucleation) mode close to the burner surface, and a bimodal behavior at greater height above burner (HAB). However, major features were distinguished between the data sets. The growth of nucleation and agglomeration-sized particles was faster for ethylene/benzene/air flames, evidenced by the earlier presence of bimodality in these flames. The most significant changes in size distribution were attributed to an increase in benzene concentration in the initial fuel. However, these changes were more evident for high temperature flames. In agreement with the experimental data, the model also predicted the decrease of nucleation-sized particles in the postflame region for ethylene flames doped with benzene. This behavior was associated with the decrease of soot precursors after the main oxidation zone of the flames. (author)

  13. Drum drop test report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBeath, R.S.

    1995-02-28

    Testing was performed to determine actual damage to drums when dropped from higher than currently stacked elevations. The drum configurations were the same as they are placed in storage; single drums and four drums banded to a pallet. Maximum drop weights were selected based on successful preliminary tests. Material was lost from each of the single drum tests while only a small amount of material was lost from one of the pelletized drums. The test results are presented in this report. This report also provides recommendations for further testing to determine the appropriate drum weight which can be stored on a fourth tier.

  14. Method and apparatus for controlled size distribution of gel microspheres formed from aqueous dispersions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryon, Allen D.; Haas, Paul A.; Vavruska, John S.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method and apparatus for making a population of dense, closely size-controlled microspheres by sol-gel procedures wherein said microspheres are characterized by a significant percentage of said population being within a predetermined, relatively narrow size range. Microsphere populations thus provided are useful in vibratory-packed processes for nuclear fuels to be irradiated in LWR- and FBR-type nuclear reactors.

  15. Para-hydrogen and helium cluster size distributions in free jet expansions based on Smoluchowski theory with kernel scaling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kornilov, Oleg; Toennies, J. Peter

    2015-02-21

    The size distribution of para-H{sub 2} (pH{sub 2}) clusters produced in free jet expansions at a source temperature of T{sub 0} = 29.5 K and pressures of P{sub 0} = 0.91.96 bars is reported and analyzed according to a cluster growth model based on the Smoluchowski theory with kernel scaling. Good overall agreement is found between the measured and predicted, N{sub k} = A?k{sup a} e{sup ?bk}, shape of the distribution. The fit yields values for A and b for values of a derived from simple collision models. The small remaining deviations between measured abundances and theory imply a (pH{sub 2}){sub k} magic number cluster of k = 13 as has been observed previously by Raman spectroscopy. The predicted linear dependence of b{sup ?(a+1)} on source gas pressure was verified and used to determine the value of the basic effective agglomeration reaction rate constant. A comparison of the corresponding effective growth cross sections ?{sub 11} with results from a similar analysis of He cluster size distributions indicates that the latter are much larger by a factor 6-10. An analysis of the three body recombination rates, the geometric sizes and the fact that the He clusters are liquid independent of their size can explain the larger cross sections found for He.

  16. Method and apparatus for controlled size distribution of gel microspheres formed from aqueous dispersions. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryon, A.D.; Haas, P.A.; Vavruska, J.S.

    1982-01-19

    The present invention is directed to a method and apparatus for making a population of dense, closely size-controlled microspheres by sol-gel procedures wherein said microspheres are characterized by a significant percentage of said population being within a predetermined, relatively narrow size range. This is accomplished by subjecting aqueous dispersions of a sol, within a water-immiscible organic liquid to a turbulent flow. Microsphere populations thus provided are useful in vibratory-packed processes for nuclear fuels to be irradiated in LWR- and FBR-type nuclear reactors.

  17. Environmental Transmission Electron Microscopy Study of the Origins of Anomalous Particle Size Distributions in Supported Metal Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benavidez, Angelica D.; Kovarik, Libor; Genc, Arda; Agrawal, Nitin; Larsson, Elin M.; Hansen, Thomas W.; Karim, Ayman M.; Datye, Abhaya K.

    2012-10-31

    In this Environmental TEM (ETEM) study of supported Pt and Pd model catalysts, individual nanoparticles were tracked during heat treatments at temperatures up to 600C in H2, O2, and vacuum. We found anomalous growth of nanoparticles occurred during the early stages of catalyst sintering wherein some particles started to grow significantly larger than the mean, resulting in a broadening of the particle size distribution. We can rule out sample non-uniformity as a cause for the growth of these large particles, since images were recorded prior to heat treatments. The anomalous growth of these particles may help explain particle size distributions in heterogeneous catalysts which often show particles that are significantly larger than the mean, resulting in a long tail to the right. It has been suggested that particle migration and coalescence could be the likely cause for the broad size distributions. This study shows that anomalous growth of nanoparticles can occur under conditions where Ostwald ripening is the primary sintering mechanism.

  18. Historical Significance Dropping

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Historical Significance Dropping the Ball NNSS is known for more than just nuclear past. NvE celebrates employees with picnics. U1a Facility, Icecap become testing grounds for unique physics experiments. See page 8. See page 4. NNSA Head Frank Klotz Visits NLV, NNSS Facilities On May 6, the National Nuclear Security Administration's new administrator Frank Klotz conducted an all-hands meeting with employees of the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and the National Nuclear Security

  19. Shoreline, grain-size, and total-carbon distribution changes before and after Hurricane Alicia, Galveston Island, Texas, 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rothammer, C.M.; Morrison, L.R.; Warkentin, S.L.

    1985-02-01

    Shoreline, grain-size, and sediment total-carbon changes were monitored, on a monthly basis, on three Galveston Island beaches, from January through December 1983. The study area included: (1) East Beach, obstructed by groins and a seawall; (2) Galveston Island State Park, obstructed by fences artificially stabilizing the dunes; and (3) West Beach, an unobstructed beach. Beach profiles revealed the effects of beach obstruction, such as erosion and undercutting at East Beach, and truncation of the dunes at Galveston Island State Park. Approximately 20 m of expansional cutback occurred on the beaches after Hurricane Alicia hit on August 18, 1983. Contour maps of grain-size and total-carbon distributions reflect the movement of beach sand by either onshore-offshore transport during low-energy periods, or longshore, edge-wave transport during high-energy periods. Statistical analyses revealed a small variation in grain size throughout the year. There were well-defined times of either no correlation or strong correlation between total carbon vs. mean grain size, skewness vs. mean grain size, kurtosis vs. mean grain size, skewness vs. mean grain size, kurtosis vs. mean grain size, total carbon vs. percent sand, total carbon vs. skewness, and skewness vs. kurtosis. Strong correlation was found in response to high-energy events, whereas no correlation was found in response to low-energy events. Galveston Island is undergoing net erosion and appears to be in a metastable state, still capable of responding to oceanographic conditions. The economic effects of Hurricane Alicia include considerable loss of the shoreline and destruction of property. Beach nourishment appears to be the only economically feasible solution to counteract the extensive erosion.

  20. Synthesis of supported bimetallic nanoparticles with controlled size and composition distributions for active site elucidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hakim, Sikander H.; Sener, Canan; Alba Rubio, Ana C.; Gostanian, Thomas M.; O'neill, Brandon J; Ribeiro, Fabio H.; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Dumesic, James A

    2015-08-01

    Elucidation of active sites in supported bimetallic catalysts is complicated by the high level of dispersity in the nanoparticle size and composition that is inherent in conventional methods of catalyst preparation. We present a synthesis strategy that leads to highly dispersed, bimetallic nanoparticles with uniform particle size and composition by means of controlled surface reactions. We demonstrate the synthesis of three systems, RhMo, PtMo, and RhRe, consisting of a highly reducible metal with an oxophilic promoter. These catalysts are characterized by FTIR, CO chemisorption, STEM/EDS, TPR, and XAS analysis. The catalytic properties of these bimetallic nanoparticles were probed for the selective CO hydrogenolysis of (hydroxymethyl)tetrahydropyran to produce 1,6 hexanediol. Based on the characterization results and reactivity trends, the active sites in the hydrogenolysis reaction are identified to be small ensembles of the more noble metal (Rh, Pt) adjacent to highly reduced moieties of the more oxophilic metal (Mo, Re).

  1. Importance of Size and Distribution of Ni Nanoparticles for the Hydrodeoxygenation of Microalgae Oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Wenji; Zhao, Chen; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2013-07-22

    Improved synthetic approaches for preparing small-sized Ni nanoparticles (d=3 nm) supported on HBEA zeolite have been explored and compared with the traditional impregnation method. The formation of surface nickel silicate/aluminate involved in the two precipitation processes are inferred to lead to the stronger interaction between the metal and the support. The lower Brnsted acid concentrations of these two Ni/HBEA catalysts compared with the parent zeolite caused by the partial exchange of Brnsted acid sites by Ni2+ cations do not influence the hydrodeoxygenation rates, but alter the product selectivity. Higher initial rates and higher stability have been achieved with these optimized catalysts for the hydrodeoxygenation of stearic acid and microalgae oil. Small metal particles facilitate high initial catalytic activity in the fresh sample and size uniformity ensures high catalyst stability.

  2. Prediction of Frictional Pressure Drop During Water Permeation Through Packed Beds of Granular Particulates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KING, WILLIAM D.; ALEMAN, SEBASTIAN E.; HAMM, L. LARRY; PETTIS, MYRA A.

    2005-10-25

    A methodology has been developed based on the Kozeny-Carman equation to predict frictional pressure drops during water permeation of packed columns containing essentially noncompressible, but highly irregular particles. The resulting model accurately predicts pressure drop as a function of liquid flow rate and resin particle size for this system. A total of five particle sieve cuts across the range -20 to +70 mesh were utilized for testing using deionized water as the mobile phase. The Rosin-Rammler equation was used to fit the raw particle size data (wet sieve analysis) for the as-received resin sample and generate a continuous cumulative distribution function based on weight percent passing through the sieve. Probability distribution functions were calculated from the cumulative distribution for each particle sieve cut tested. Nine particle diameter definitions (i.e., number mean, volume mean, etc.) were then selected from the distribution function for each sample to represent the average spherically-equivalent particle diameter as input to the Kozeny-Carman equation. Nonlinear least squares optimization of the normalized pressure drop residuals were performed by parameter estimation of particle shape factor and bed porosity for all samples simultaneously using a given average particle diameter definition. Good fits to the full experimental data set were obtained when utilizing the number mean and the number median diameters. However, the shape factor and porosity values of 0.88 and 0.40, respectively, obtained from fitting the data using the number mean diameter were more consistent with experimental observations.

  3. Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, Dipen N.

    1998-01-01

    Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids. The present invention includes the use of two closely spaced transducers, or one transducer and a closely spaced reflector plate, to form an interferometer suitable for ultrasonic characterization of droplet-size and smaller samples without the need for a container. The droplet is held between the interferometer elements, whose distance apart may be adjusted, by surface tension. The surfaces of the interferometer elements may be readily cleansed by a stream of solvent followed by purified air when it is desired to change samples. A single drop of liquid is sufficient for high-quality measurement. Examples of samples which may be investigated using the apparatus and method of the present invention include biological specimens (tear drops; blood and other body fluid samples; samples from tumors, tissues, and organs; secretions from tissues and organs; snake and bee venom, etc.) for diagnostic evaluation, samples in forensic investigations, and detection of drugs in small quantities.

  4. Mass-velocity and size-velocity distributions of ejecta cloud from shock-loaded tin surface using atomistic simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durand, O.; Soulard, L.

    2015-04-28

    The mass (volume and areal densities) versus velocity as well as the size versus velocity distributions of a shock-induced cloud of particles are investigated using large scale molecular dynamics simulations. A generic three-dimensional tin crystal with a sinusoidal free surface roughness (single wavelength) is set in contact with vacuum and shock-loaded so that it melts directly on shock. At the reflection of the shock wave onto the perturbations of the free surface, two-dimensional sheets/jets of liquid metal are ejected. The simulations show that the distributions may be described by an analytical model based on the propagation of a fragmentation zone, from the tip of the sheets to the free surface, in which the kinetic energy of the atoms decreases as this zone comes closer to the free surface on late times. As this kinetic energy drives (i) the (self-similar) expansion of the zone once it has broken away from the sheet and (ii) the average size of the particles which result from fragmentation in the zone, the ejected mass and the average size of the particles progressively increase in the cloud as fragmentation occurs closer to the free surface. Though relative to nanometric scales, our model may help in the analysis of experimental profiles.

  5. Determination of plasma frequency, damping constant, and size distribution from the complex dielectric function of noble metal nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendoza Herrera, Luis J.; Arboleda, David Muetn; Schinca, Daniel C.; Scaffardi, Luca B.

    2014-12-21

    This paper develops a novel method for simultaneously determining the plasma frequency ?{sub P}?? and the damping constant ?{sub free} in the bulk damped oscillator Drude model, based on experimentally measured real and imaginary parts of the metal refractive index in the IR wavelength range, lifting the usual approximation that restricts frequency values to the UV-deep UV region. Our method was applied to gold, silver, and copper, improving the relative uncertainties in the final values for ?{sub p} (0.5%1.6%) and for ?{sub free} (3%8%), which are smaller than those reported in the literature. These small uncertainties in ?{sub p} and ?{sub free} determination yield a much better fit of the experimental complex dielectric function. For the case of nanoparticles (Nps), a series expansion of the Drude expression (which includes ?{sub p} and ?{sub free} determined using our method) enables size-dependent dielectric function to be written as the sum of three terms: the experimental bulk dielectric function plus two size corrective terms, one for free electron, and the other for bound-electron contributions. Finally, size distribution of nanometric and subnanometric gold Nps in colloidal suspension was determined through fitting its experimental optical extinction spectrum using Mie theory based on the previously determined dielectric function. Results are compared with size histogram obtained from Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM)

  6. Acidity dependence on cloud drop sizes, enhancement of sulfate production in clouds and its climatic implications from cloud water collected at a remote eastern US site. Master`s thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logie, B.D.

    1995-09-10

    Two different cloud water collectors were operated simultaneously on a mountain-top platform in Mt. Mitchell State Park, North Carolina (35 deg 44` 05 N 82 deg 17` 15W) to assess differences, if any, in measured acidity, ionic concentrations, and liquid water collection efficiencies during the summer, 1994. The cloud water collectors used were the Daube California Institute of Technology active-string collector (CALTECH) and the non-rotating passive Atmospheric Sciences Research Center string collector. Both collectors transfer cloud water into their sampling bottles by a process analogous to the collision-coalescence process in precipitation initiation by which cloud droplets accumulate on the collector strings and are then transferred to collection bottles as the droplets become large enough to fall. These large drops, in turn, acquire smaller droplets along their path.

  7. Watch Our CO2 Drop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Watch Our CO2 Drop Watch Our CO2 Drop

  8. Laser Transmission Measurements and Plume Particle Size Distributions for Propellant Burn Tests at ATK Elkton in May 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willitsford, Adam H.; Brown, David M.; Brown, Andrea M.; Airola, Marc B.; Dinello-Fass, Ryan P.; Thomas, Michael E.; Siegrist, Karen M.

    2014-08-28

    Multi-wavelength laser transmittance was measured during a series of open-air propellant burn tests at Alliant Techsystems, Inc., in Elkton, MD, in May 2012. A Mie scattering model was combined with an alumina optical properties model in a simple single-scatter approach to fitting plume transmittance. Wavelength-dependent plume transmission curves were fit to the measured multi-wave- length transmittance data to infer plume particle size distributions at several heights in the plume. Tri-modal lognormal distributions described transmittance data well at all heights. Overall distributions included a mode with nanometer-scale diameter, a second mode at a diameter of ~0.5 µm, and a third, larger particle mode. Larger parti- cles measured 2.5 µm in diameter at 34 cm (14 in.) above the burning propellant surface, but grew to 4 µm in diameter at a height of 57 cm (22 in.), indicative of particle agglomeration in progress as the plume rises. This report presents data, analysis, and results from the study.

  9. NREL: Biomass Research - Discovering Drop-In Biofuels to Leverage...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    drop-in fuels that are compatible with existing engines and fuel distribution. Biomass feedstocks such as crop residues and algae are available on a scale that other renewable...

  10. Droplet sizes, dynamics and deposition in vertical annular flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopes, J C.B.; Dukler, A E

    1985-10-01

    The role of droplets in vertical upwards annular flow is investigated, focusing on the droplet size distributions, dynamics, and deposition phenomena. An experimental program was performed based on a new laser optical technique developed in these laboratories and implemented here for annular flow. This permitted the simultaneous measurement of droplet size, axial and radial velocity. The dependence of droplet size distributions on flow conditions is analyzed. The Upper-Log Normal function proves to be a good model for the size distribution. The mechanism controlling the maximum stable drop size was found to result from the interaction of the pressure fluctuations of the turbulent flow of the gas core with the droplet. The average axial droplet velocity showed a weak dependence on gas rates. This can be explained once the droplet size distribution and droplet size-velocity relationship are analyzed simultaneously. The surprising result from the droplet conditional analysis is that larger droplet travel faster than smaller ones. This dependence cannot be explained if the drag curves used do not take into account the high levels of turbulence present in the gas core in annular flow. If these are considered, then interesting new situations of multiplicity and stability of droplet terminal velocities are encountered. Also, the observed size-velocity relationship can be explained. A droplet deposition is formulated based on the particle inertia control. This permitted the calculation of rates of drop deposition directly from the droplet size and velocities data.

  11. Intercomparison of Large-eddy Simulations of Arctic Mixed-phase Clouds: Importance of Ice Size Distribution Assumptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Ackerman, Andrew; Avramov, Alex; Cheng, Anning; Fan, Jiwen; Fridlind, Ann; Ghan, Steven J.; Harrington, Jerry Y.; Hoose, Corinna; Korolev, Alexei; McFarquhar, Greg; Morrison, H.; Paukert, Marco; Savre, Julien; Shipway, Ben; Shupe, Matthew D.; Solomon, Amy; Sulia, Kara

    2014-03-14

    Large-eddy simulations of mixed-phase Arctic clouds by 11 different models are analyzed with the goal of improving understanding and model representation of processes controlling the evolution of these clouds. In a case based on observations from the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC), it is found that ice number concentration, Ni, exerts significant influence on the cloud structure. Increasing Ni leads to a substantial reduction in liquid water path (LWP) and potential cloud dissipation, in agreement with earlier studies. By comparing simulations with the same microphysics coupled to different dynamical cores as well as the same dynamics coupled to different microphysics schemes, it is found that the ice water path (IWP) is mainly controlled by ice microphysics, while the inter-model differences in LWP are largely driven by physics and numerics of the dynamical cores. In contrast to previous intercomparisons, all models here use the same ice particle properties (i.e., mass-size, mass-fall speed, and mass-capacitance relationships) and a common radiation parameterization. The constrained setup exposes the importance of ice particle size distributions (PSD) in influencing cloud evolution. A clear separation in LWP and IWP predicted by models with bin and bulk microphysical treatments is documented and attributed primarily to the assumed shape of ice PSD used in bulk schemes. Compared to the bin schemes that explicitly predict the PSD, schemes assuming exponential ice PSD underestimate ice growth by vapor deposition and overestimate mass-weighted fall speed leading to an underprediction of IWP by a factor of two in the considered case.

  12. Aerosol concentration and size distribution measured below, in, and above cloud from the DOE G-1 during VOCALS-REx

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleinman, L.I.; Daum, P. H.; Lee, Y.-N.; Lewis, E. R.; Sedlacek III, A. J.; Senum, G. I.; Springston, S. R.; Wang, J.; Hubbe, J.; Jayne, J.; Min, Q.; Yum, S. S.; Allen, G.

    2011-06-21

    During the VOCALS Regional Experiment, the DOE G-1 aircraft was used to sample a varying aerosol environment pertinent to properties of stratocumulus clouds over a longitude band extending 800 km west from the Chilean coast at Arica. Trace gas and aerosol measurements are presented as a function of longitude, altitude, and dew point in this study. Spatial distributions are consistent with an upper atmospheric source for O{sub 3} and South American coastal sources for marine boundary layer (MBL) CO and aerosol, most of which is acidic sulfate in agreement with the dominant pollution source being SO{sub 2} from Cu smelters and power plants. Pollutant layers in the free troposphere (FT) can be a result of emissions to the north in Peru or long range transport from the west. At a given altitude in the FT (up to 3 km), dew point varies by 40 C with dry air descending from the upper atmospheric and moist air having a BL contribution. Ascent of BL air to a cold high altitude results in the condensation and precipitation removal of all but a few percent of BL water along with aerosol that served as CCN. Thus, aerosol volume decreases with dew point in the FT. Aerosol size spectra have a bimodal structure in the MBL and an intermediate diameter unimodal distribution in the FT. Comparing cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and pre-cloud aerosol (Dp > 100 nm) gives a linear relation up to a number concentration of {approx}150 cm{sup -3}, followed by a less than proportional increase in CDNC at higher aerosol number concentration. A number balance between below cloud aerosol and cloud droplets indicates that {approx}25% of aerosol in the PCASP size range are interstitial (not activated). One hundred and two constant altitude cloud transects were identified and used to determine properties of interstitial aerosol. One transect is examined in detail as a case study. Approximately 25 to 50% of aerosol with D{sub p} > 110 nm were not activated, the difference between the two

  13. The role of aerosols in cloud drop parameterizations and its applications in global climate models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuang, C.C.; Penner, J.E.

    1996-04-01

    The characteristics of the cloud drop size distribution near cloud base are initially determined by aerosols that serve as cloud condensation nuclei and the updraft velocity. We have developed parameterizations relating cloud drop number concentration to aerosol number and sulfate mass concentrations and used them in a coupled global aerosol/general circulation model (GCM) to estimate the indirect aerosol forcing. The global aerosol model made use of our detailed emissions inventories for the amount of particulate matter from biomass burning sources and from fossil fuel sources as well as emissions inventories of the gas-phase anthropogenic SO{sub 2}. This work is aimed at validating the coupled model with the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program measurements and assessing the possible magnitude of the aerosol-induced cloud effects on climate.

  14. The Occurrence of Particle Size Distribution Bimodality in Midlatitude Cirrus as Inferred from Ground-Based Remote Sensing Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Yang; Mace, Gerald G.; Comstock, Jennifer M.

    2011-06-01

    To better understand the role of small particles in the microphysical processes and the radiative properties of cirrus, the reliability of historical in-situ data must be understood. Recent studies call into question the validity of that data because of shattering of large crystals on probe and aircraft surfaces thereby artificially amplifying the concentration of crystals smaller than approximately 50 ?m. We contend that the general character of the in-situ measurements must be consistent, in a broad sense, with statistics derived from long-term remote sensing data. To examine this consistency, an algorithm using Doppler radar moments and Raman lidar extinction is developed to retrieve a bimodal particle size distribution and its uncertainty. Using case studies and statistics compiled over one year we show that the existence of high concentrations (> 1 cm-3 ) of small (sub 50 ?m) particles in cirrus are not consistent with any reasonable interpretation of the remote sensing data. We conclude that the high concentrations of small particles found in many aircraft data sets are therefore likely an artifact of the in situ measurement process.

  15. Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, D.N.

    1998-04-14

    Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids is disclosed. The present invention includes the use of two closely spaced transducers, or one transducer and a closely spaced reflector plate, to form an interferometer suitable for ultrasonic characterization of droplet-size and smaller samples without the need for a container. The droplet is held between the interferometer elements, whose distance apart may be adjusted, by surface tension. The surfaces of the interferometer elements may be readily cleansed by a stream of solvent followed by purified air when it is desired to change samples. A single drop of liquid is sufficient for high-quality measurement. Examples of samples which may be investigated using the apparatus and method of the present invention include biological specimens (tear drops; blood and other body fluid samples; samples from tumors, tissues, and organs; secretions from tissues and organs; snake and bee venom, etc.) for diagnostic evaluation, samples in forensic investigations, and detection of drugs in small quantities. 5 figs.

  16. Aerosol concentration and size distribution measured below, in, and above cloud from the DOE G-1 during VOCALS-REx

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleinman L. I.; Daum, P. H.; Lee, Y.-N.; Lewis, E. R.; Sedlacek III, A. J.; Senum, G. I.; Springston, S. R.; Wang, J.; Hubbe, J.; Jayne, J.; Min, Q.; Yum, S. S.; Allen, G.

    2012-01-04

    During the VOCALS Regional Experiment, the DOE G-1 aircraft was used to sample a varying aerosol environment pertinent to properties of stratocumulus clouds over a longitude band extending 800 km west from the Chilean coast at Arica. Trace gas and aerosol measurements are presented as a function of longitude, altitude, and dew point in this study. Spatial distributions are consistent with an upper atmospheric source for O{sub 3} and South American coastal sources for marine boundary layer (MBL) CO and aerosol, most of which is acidic sulfate. Pollutant layers in the free troposphere (FT) can be a result of emissions to the north in Peru or long range transport from the west. At a given altitude in the FT (up to 3 km), dew point varies by 40 C with dry air descending from the upper atmospheric and moist air having a boundary layer (BL) contribution. Ascent of BL air to a cold high altitude results in the condensation and precipitation removal of all but a few percent of BL water along with aerosol that served as CCN. Thus, aerosol volume decreases with dew point in the FT. Aerosol size spectra have a bimodal structure in the MBL and an intermediate diameter unimodal distribution in the FT. Comparing cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and pre-cloud aerosol (D{sub p} > 100 nm) gives a linear relation up to a number concentration of {approx}150 cm{sup -3}, followed by a less than proportional increase in CDNC at higher aerosol number concentration. A number balance between below cloud aerosol and cloud droplets indicates that {approx}25 % of aerosol with D{sub p} > 100 nm are interstitial (not activated). A direct comparison of pre-cloud and in-cloud aerosol yields a higher estimate. Artifacts in the measurement of interstitial aerosol due to droplet shatter and evaporation are discussed. Within each of 102 constant altitude cloud transects, CDNC and interstitial aerosol were anti-correlated. An examination of one cloud as a case study shows that the

  17. Pure Drop Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Drop Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Pure Drop Ltd Place: Israel Product: Developing a modular concentrated PV tracking system for electricity production, with a...

  18. Evaluation of moist processes during intense precipitation in km-scale NWP models using remote sensing and in-situ data: Impact of microphysics size distribution assumptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VanWeverberg, K.; vanLipzig, N. P. M.; Delobbe, L.

    2011-02-01

    This study investigates the sensitivity of moist processes and surface precipitation during three extreme precipitation events over Belgium to the representation of rain, snow and hail size distributions in a bulk one-moment microphysics parameterisation scheme. Sensitivities included the use of empirically derived relations to calculate the slope parameter and diagnose the intercept parameter of the exponential snow and rain size distributions and sensitivities to the treatment of hail/graupel. A detailed evaluation of the experiments against various high temporal resolution and spatially distributed observational data was performed to understand how moist processes responded to the implemented size distribution modifications. Net vapor consumption by microphysical processes was found to be unaffected by snow or rain size distribution modifications, while it was reduced replacing formulations for hail by those typical for graupel, mainly due to intense sublimation of graupel. Cloud optical thickness was overestimated in all experiments and all cases, likely due to overestimated snow amounts. The overestimation slightly deteriorated by modifying the rain and snow size distributions due to increased snow depositional growth, while it was reduced by including graupel. The latter was mainly due to enhanced cloud water collection by graupel and reduced snow depositional growth. Radar reflectivity and cloud optical thickness could only be realistically represented by inclusion of graupel during a stratiform case, while hail was found indispensable to simulate the vertical reflectivity profile and the surface precipitation structure. Precipitation amount was not much altered by any of the modifications made and the general overestimation was only decreased slightly during a supercell convective case.

  19. Drop History? No! | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Drop History? No! Drop History? No! February 29, 2012 When I was in high school in England, especially in the smaller country schools, teachers were scarce and schedules, therefore, constrained. Further, the English style is for students to choose directions, and therefore subjects, at a relatively early age. So, at age 13, I had to choose between Physics and Chemistry on the one hand, and Latin and History on the other. Of course, I chose Physics and Chemistry, but thereby lost two subjects in

  20. Alpha spectrometric characterization of process-related particle size distributions from active particle sampling at the Los Alamos National Laboratory uranium foundry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plionis, Alexander A; Peterson, Dominic S; Tandon, Lav; Lamont, Stephen P

    2009-01-01

    Uranium particles within the respirable size range pose a significant hazard to the health and safety of workers. Significant differences in the deposition and incorporation patterns of aerosols within the respirable range can be identified and integrated into sophisticated health physics models. Data characterizing the uranium particle size distribution resulting from specific foundry-related processes are needed. Using personal air sampling cascade impactors, particles collected from several foundry processes were sorted by activity median aerodynamic diameter onto various Marple substrates. After an initial gravimetric assessment of each impactor stage, the substrates were analyzed by alpha spectrometry to determine the uranium content of each stage. Alpha spectrometry provides rapid nondestructive isotopic data that can distinguish process uranium from natural sources and the degree of uranium contribution to the total accumulated particle load. In addition, the particle size bins utilized by the impactors provide adequate resolution to determine if a process particle size distribution is: lognormal, bimodal, or trimodal. Data on process uranium particle size values and distributions facilitate the development of more sophisticated and accurate models for internal dosimetry, resulting in an improved understanding of foundry worker health and safety.

  1. Evaporation of multicomponent drop arrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Annamalai, K.; Ryan, W.; Chandra, S. (Texas A M Univ., College Station, TX (United States))

    1993-08-01

    The present paper deals with the evaporation of multicomponent fuel droplets in an array using the recently developed point source method (PSM). First, the quasisteady (QS) evaporation of an isolated, multicomponent droplet is briefly analyzed. The resultant governing equations, along with Raoult's law and the Cox-Antoine relation, constitute the set of equations needed to arrive at the solutions for: (1) the droplet surface temperature, (2) the evaporation rate of each species, and (3) the vapor mass fraction of each species at the droplet surface. The PSM, which treats the droplet as a point mass source and heat sink, is then adopted to obtain an analytic expression for the evaporation rate of a multicomponent droplet in an array of liquid droplets. Defining the correction factor ([eta]) as a ratio of the evaporation of a drop in an array to the evaporation rate of a similar isolated multicomponent drop, an expression for the correction factor is obtained. The results of the point source method (PSM) are then compared with those obtained elsewhere for a three-drop array that uses the method of images (MOI). Excellent agreement is obtained. The treatment is then extended to a binary drop array to study the effect of interdrop spacing on vaporization. 20 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Method for reducing pressure drop through filters, and filter exhibiting reduced pressure drop

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sappok, Alexander; Wong, Victor

    2014-11-18

    Methods for generating and applying coatings to filters with porous material in order to reduce large pressure drop increases as material accumulates in a filter, as well as the filter exhibiting reduced and/or more uniform pressure drop. The filter can be a diesel particulate trap for removing particulate matter such as soot from the exhaust of a diesel engine. Porous material such as ash is loaded on the surface of the substrate or filter walls, such as by coating, depositing, distributing or layering the porous material along the channel walls of the filter in an amount effective for minimizing or preventing depth filtration during use of the filter. Efficient filtration at acceptable flow rates is achieved.

  3. Property Improvement in CZT via Modeling and Processing Innovations . Te-particles in vertical gradient freeze CZT: Size and Spatial Distributions and Constitutional Supercooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henager, Charles H.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Bliss, Mary; Riley, Brian J.; Stave, Jean A.

    2014-10-01

    A section of a vertical gradient freeze CZT boule approximately 2100-mm3 with a planar area of 300-mm2 was prepared and examined using transmitted IR microscopy at various magnifications to determine the three-dimensional spatial and size distributions of Te-particles over large longitudinal and radial length scales. The boule section was approximately 50-mm wide by 60-mm in length by 7-mm thick and was doubly polished for TIR work. Te-particles were imaged through the thickness using extended focal imaging to locate the particles in thickness planes spaced 15-µm apart and then in plane of the image using xy-coordinates of the particle center of mass so that a true three dimensional particle map was assembled for a 1-mm by 45-mm longitudinal strip and for a 1-mm by 50-mm radial strip. Te-particle density distributions were determined as a function of longitudinal and radial positions in these strips, and treating the particles as vertices of a network created a 3D image of the particle spatial distribution. Te-particles exhibited a multi-modal log-normal size density distribution that indicated a slight preference for increasing size with longitudinal growth time, while showing a pronounced cellular network structure throughout the boule that can be correlated to dislocation network sizes in CZT. Higher magnification images revealed a typical Rayleigh-instability pearl string morphology with large and small satellite droplets. This study includes solidification experiments in small crucibles of 30:70 mixtures of Cd:Te to reduce the melting point below 1273 K (1000°C). These solidification experiments were performed over a wide range of cooling rates and clearly demonstrated a growth instability with Te-particle capture that is suggested to be responsible for one of the peaks in the size distribution using size discrimination visualization. The results are discussed with regard to a manifold Te-particle genesis history as 1) Te

  4. The role of precipitation size distributions in km-scale NWP simulations of intense precipitation: Evaluation of cloud properties and surface precipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VanWeverberg K.; Vogelmann A.; vanLipzig, N. P. M.; Delobbec, L.

    2012-04-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of simulated cloud properties and surface precipitation to assumptions regarding the size distributions of the precipitating hydrometeors in a one-moment bulk microphysics scheme. Three sensitivity experiments were applied to two composites of 15 convective and 15 frontal stratiform intense precipitation events observed in a coastal midlatitude region (Belgium), which were evaluated against satellite-retrieved cloud properties and radar-rain-gauge derived surface precipitation. It is found that the cloud optical thickness distribution was well captured by all experiments, although a significant underestimation of cloudiness occurred in the convective composite. The cloud-top-pressure distribution was improved most by more realistic snow size distributions (including a temperature-dependent intercept parameter and non-spherical snow for the calculation of the slope parameter), due to increased snow depositional growth at high altitudes. Surface precipitation was far less sensitive to whether graupel or hail was chosen as the rimed ice species, as compared to previous idealized experiments. This smaller difference in sensitivity could be explained by the stronger updraught velocities and higher freezing levels in the idealized experiments compared to typical coastal midlatitude environmental conditions.

  5. Diesel prices see slight drop

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Diesel prices see slight drop The U.S. average retail price for on-highway diesel fuel fell slightly to $3.91 a gallon on Monday. That's down 6-tenths of a penny from a week ago, based on the weekly price survey by the U.S. Energy Information Administration. Regionally, diesel prices were highest in New England at 4.06 a gallon, down half a penny from a week ago, followed closely by the West Coast states at 4.05 a gallon, up 2-tenths of a penny. Prices were lowest in the Gulf Coast region at

  6. Drop short control of electrode gap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fisher, Robert W.; Maroone, James P.; Tipping, Donald W.; Zanner, Frank J.

    1986-01-01

    During vacuum consumable arc remelting the electrode gap between a consumable electrode and a pool of molten metal is difficult to control. The present invention monitors drop shorts by detecting a decrease in the voltage between the consumable electrode and molten pool. The drop shorts and their associated voltage reductions occur as repetitive pulses which are closely correlated to the electrode gap. Thus, the method and apparatus of the present invention controls electrode gap based upon drop shorts detected from the monitored anode-cathode voltage. The number of drop shorts are accumulated, and each time the number of drop shorts reach a predetermined number, the average period between drop shorts is calculated from this predetermined number and the time in which this number is accumulated. This average drop short period is used in a drop short period electrode gap model which determines the actual electrode gap from the drop short. The actual electrode gap is then compared with a desired electrode gap which is selected to produce optimum operating conditions and the velocity of the consumable error is varied based upon the gap error. The consumable electrode is driven according to any prior art system at this velocity. In the preferred embodiment, a microprocessor system is utilized to perform the necessary calculations and further to monitor the duration of each drop short. If any drop short exceeds a preset duration period, the consumable electrode is rapidly retracted a predetermined distance to prevent bonding of the consumable electrode to the molten remelt.

  7. Little Boy Dropped on Hiroshima | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    | (NNSA) Little Boy Dropped on Hiroshima Little Boy Dropped on Hiroshima Hiroshima, Japan The gun model uranium bomb, called Little Boy, is dropped on Hiroshima, Japan

  8. Fat Man Dropped on Nagasaki | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Fat Man Dropped on Nagasaki August 09, 1945 Fat Man Dropped on Nagasaki Nagasaki, Japan The implosion model plutonium bomb, called Fat Man, is dropped on Nagasaki, Japan....

  9. Magnetically focused liquid drop radiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botts, Thomas E. (Fairfax, VA); Powell, James R. (Shoreham, NY); Lenard, Roger (Redondo Beach, CA)

    1986-01-01

    A magnetically focused liquid drop radiator for application in rejecting rgy from a spacecraft, characterized by a magnetizable liquid or slurry disposed in operative relationship within the liquid droplet generator and its fluid delivery system, in combination with magnetic means disposed in operative relationship around a liquid droplet collector of the LDR. The magnetic means are effective to focus streams of droplets directed from the generator toward the collector, thereby to assure that essentially all of the droplets are directed into the collector, even though some of the streams may be misdirected as they leave the generator. The magnetic focusing means is also effective to suppress splashing of liquid when the droplets impinge on the collector.

  10. Magnetically focused liquid drop radiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.; Lenard, R.

    1984-12-10

    A magnetically focused liquid drop radiator for application in rejecting energy from a spacecraft, characterized by a magnetizable liquid or slurry disposed in operative relationship within the liquid droplet generator and its fluid delivery system, in combination with magnetic means disposed in operative relationship around a liquid droplet collector of the LDR. The magnetic means are effective to focus streams of droplets directed from the generator toward the collector, thereby to assure that essentially all of the droplets are directed into the collector, even though some of the streams may be misdirected as they leave the generator. The magnetic focusing means is also effective to suppress splashing of liquid when the droplets impinge on the collector.

  11. THE IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL MODELS FOR DERIVING DUST MASSES AND GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS IN SUPERNOVA EJECTA. I. RADIATIVELY HEATED DUST IN THE CRAB NEBULA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Temim, Tea; Dwek, Eli, E-mail: tea.temim@nasa.gov [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Recent far-infrared (IR) observations of supernova remnants (SNRs) have revealed significantly large amounts of newly condensed dust in their ejecta, comparable to the total mass of available refractory elements. The dust masses derived from these observations assume that all the grains of a given species radiate at the same temperature, regardless of the dust heating mechanism or grain radius. In this paper, we derive the dust mass in the ejecta of the Crab Nebula, using a physical model for the heating and radiation from the dust. We adopt a power-law distribution of grain sizes and two different dust compositions (silicates and amorphous carbon), and calculate the heating rate of each dust grain by the radiation from the pulsar wind nebula. We find that the grains attain a continuous range of temperatures, depending on their size and composition. The total mass derived from the best-fit models to the observed IR spectrum is 0.019-0.13 M{sub Sun }, depending on the assumed grain composition. We find that the power-law size distribution of dust grains is characterized by a power-law index of 3.5-4.0 and a maximum grain size larger than 0.1 {mu}m. The grain sizes and composition are consistent with what is expected for dust grains formed in a Type IIP supernova (SN). Our derived dust mass is at least a factor of two less than the mass reported in previous studies of the Crab Nebula that assumed more simplified two-temperature models. These models also require a larger mass of refractory elements to be locked up in dust than was likely available in the ejecta. The results of this study show that a physical model resulting in a realistic distribution of dust temperatures can constrain the dust properties and affect the derived dust masses. Our study may also have important implications for deriving grain properties and mass estimates in other SNRs and for the ultimate question of whether SNe are major sources of dust in the Galactic interstellar medium and in

  12. Distribution:

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    JAN26 19% Distribution: OR00 Attn: h.H.M.Roth DFMusser ITMM MMMann INS JCRyan FIw(2) Hsixele SRGustavson, Document rocm Formal file i+a@mmm bav@ ~@esiaw*cp Suppl. file 'Br & Div rf's s/health (lic.only) UNITED STATES ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION SPECIAL NUCLEAB MATERIAL LICENSE pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Chapter 1, P&t 70, "Special Nuclear Material Reg)llatiqm," a license is hereby issued a$hortztng the licensee to rekeive

  13. Investigation of thermochemical biorefinery sizing and environmental sustainability impacts for conventional supply system and distributed preprocessing supply system designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muth, jr., David J.; Langholtz, Matthew H.; Tan, Eric; Jacobson, Jacob; Schwab, Amy; Wu, May; Argo, Andrew; Brandt, Craig C.; Cafferty, Kara; Chiu, Yi-Wen; Dutta, Abhijit; Eaton, Laurence M.; Searcy, Erin

    2014-03-31

    The 2011 US Billion-Ton Update estimates that by 2030 there will be enough agricultural and forest resources to sustainably provide at least one billion dry tons of biomass annually, enough to displace approximately 30% of the country's current petroleum consumption. A portion of these resources are inaccessible at current cost targets with conventional feedstock supply systems because of their remoteness or low yields. Reliable analyses and projections of US biofuels production depend on assumptions about the supply system and biorefinery capacity, which, in turn, depend upon economic value, feedstock logistics, and sustainability. A cross-functional team has examined combinations of advances in feedstock supply systems and biorefinery capacities with rigorous design information, improved crop yield and agronomic practices, and improved estimates of sustainable biomass availability. A previous report on biochemical refinery capacity noted that under advanced feedstock logistic supply systems that include depots and pre-processing operations there are cost advantages that support larger biorefineries up to 10 000 DMT/day facilities compared to the smaller 2000 DMT/day facilities. This report focuses on analyzing conventional versus advanced depot biomass supply systems for a thermochemical conversion and refinery sizing based on woody biomass. The results of this analysis demonstrate that the economies of scale enabled by advanced logistics offsets much of the added logistics costs from additional depot processing and transportation, resulting in a small overall increase to the minimum ethanol selling price compared to the conventional logistic supply system. While the overall costs do increase slightly for the advanced logistic supply systems, the ability to mitigate moisture and ash in the system will improve the storage and conversion processes. In addition, being able to draw on feedstocks from further distances will decrease the risk of biomass supply to the

  14. Net Metering Policy Development and Distributed Solar Generation in Minnesota: Overview of Trends in Nationwide Policy Development and Implications of Increasing the Eligible System Size Cap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doris, E.; Busche, S.; Hockett, S.

    2009-12-01

    The goal of the Minnesota net metering policy is to give the maximum possible encouragement to distributed generation assets, especially solar electric systems (MN 2008). However, according to a published set of best practices (NNEC 2008) that prioritize the maximum development of solar markets within states, the Minnesota policy does not incorporate many of the important best practices that may help other states transform their solar energy markets and increase the amount of grid-connected distributed solar generation assets. Reasons cited include the low system size limit of 40kW (the best practices document recommends a 2 MW limit) and a lack of language protecting generators from additional utility fees. This study was conducted to compare Minnesota's policies to national best practices. It provides an overview of the current Minnesota policy in the context of these best practices and other jurisdictions' net metering policies, as well as a qualitative assessment of the impacts of raising the system size cap within the policy based on the experiences of other states.

  15. The effect of turbulence on the stability of liquid jets and the resulting droplet size distributions. Third quarterly technical report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mansour, A.; Chigier, N.

    1993-12-01

    Laminar and turbulent columns of liquids issuing from capillary tubes were studied in order to determine the effects of turbulence on the stability of liquid jets and to establish the influence of liquid turbulence on droplet size distributions after breakup. Two capillary tubes were chosen with diameters D{sub 1}=3.0mm and D{sub 2}=1.2mm; jet Reynolds numbers were 1000--30000, and 400--7200. For water injection into stagnant air, stability curve is bounded by a laminar portion, where a jet radius and {delta}{sub o} initial disturbance amplitude, and a fully developed turbulent portion characterized by high initial disturbance amplitude (ln(a/{delta}{sub o,T}) {approximately} 4.85). In the transition region, ln(a/{delta}{sub o}) is not single valued; it decreases with increasing Reynolds number. In absence of aerodynamic effects, turbulent jets are as stable as laminar jets. For this breakup mode turbulence propagates initial disturbances with amplitudes orders of magnitude larger than laminar jets ({delta}{sub o,T}=28{times}10{sup 6} {delta}{sub o,L}). Growth rates of initial disturbances are same for both laminar and turbulent columns with theoretical Weber values. Droplet size distribution is bi-modal; the number ratio of large (> D/2), to small (< D/2) droplets is 3 and independent of Reynolds number. For laminar flow optimum wavelength ({lambda}{sub opt}) corresponding to fastest growing disturbance is equal to 4.45D, exactly the theoretical Weber value. For turbulent flow conditions, the turbulent column segments. Typically, segments with lengths of one to several wavelengths, detach from the liquid jet. The long ligaments contract under the action of surface tension, resulting in droplet sizes larger than predicted by Rayleigh and Weber. For turbulent flow conditions, {lambda}{sub opt} = 9.2D, about 2 times the optimum Weber wavelength.

  16. Adiabatic two-phase frictional pressure drops in microchannels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Revellin, Remi; Thome, John R. [EPFL, STI ISE LTCM, ME Gl 464, Station 9, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2007-07-15

    Two-phase pressure drops were measured over a wide range of experimental test conditions in two sizes of microchannels (sight glass tubes 0.509 and 0.790 mm) for two refrigerants (R-134a and R-245fa). Similar to the classic Moody diagram in single-phase flow, three zones were distinguishable when plotting the variation of the two-phase friction factor versus the two-phase Reynolds number: a laminar regime for Re{sub TP} < 2000, a transition regime for 2000 {<=} Re{sub TP} < 8000 and a turbulent regime for Re{sub TP} {>=} 8000. The laminar zone yields a much sharper gradient than in single-phase flow. The transition regime is not predicted well by any of the prediction methods for two-phase frictional pressure drops available in the literature. This is not unexpected since only a few data are available for this region in the literature and most methods ignore this regime, jumping directly from laminar to turbulent flow at Re{sub TP} = 2000. The turbulent zone is best predicted by the Mueller-Steinhagen and Heck correlation. Also, a new homogeneous two-phase frictional pressure drop has been proposed here with a limited range of application. (author)

  17. Pseudodynamic planning for expansion of power distribution sytems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramirez-Rosado, I.J. ); Gonen, T. )

    1991-02-01

    This paper presents basic and extended planning models, based on a pseudodynamic methodology, to solve the global expansion problem (sizing, locating, and timing) of distribution substations and feeders throughout the planning time period. The objective functions, that represent the expansion costs, are minimized by successive concatenated optimizations subject to the Kirchhoff's current law, power capacity limits and logical constraints, in the basic model. It also presents an extended model that is obtained by including the voltage drop constraints in the basic model.

  18. Towards predicting the voltage drop between electrode and electrolyte...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    drop between electrode and electrolyte in lithium ion batteries. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Towards predicting the voltage drop between electrode and electrolyte ...

  19. Drop Testing Representative Multi-Canister Overpacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snow, Spencer D.; Morton, Dana K.

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the work reported herein was to determine the ability of the Multi- Canister Overpack (MCO) canister design to maintain its containment boundary after an accidental drop event. Two test MCO canisters were assembled at Hanford, prepared for testing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), drop tested at Sandia National Laboratories, and evaluated back at the INEEL. In addition to the actual testing efforts, finite element plastic analysis techniques were used to make both pre-test and post-test predictions of the test MCOs structural deformations. The completed effort has demonstrated that the canister design is capable of maintaining a 50 psig pressure boundary after drop testing. Based on helium leak testing methods, one test MCO was determined to have a leakage rate not greater than 1x10-5 std cc/sec (prior internal helium presence prevented a more rigorous test) and the remaining test MCO had a measured leakage rate less than 1x10-7 std cc/sec (i.e., a leaktight containment) after the drop test. The effort has also demonstrated the capability of finite element methods using plastic analysis techniques to accurately predict the structural deformations of canisters subjected to an accidental drop event.

  20. Effect of Engine-Out NOx Control Strategies on PM Size Distribution in Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines Developed for 2010

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A distinct relationship was found between engine-out and SCR-out PM distributions for single-mode testing.

  1. Equation determines pressure drop in coiled tubing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Y.S.

    1995-12-04

    A single equation can determine the pressure drop in wells with laminar, transitional, and turbulent incompressible fluid flow in coiled tubing or other steel tubulars. The single equation is useful, especially in computer-aided design and operations. The equation is derived and illustrated by an example.

  2. Vaporization modeling of petroleum-biofuel drops using a hybrid multi-component approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Lei; Kong, Song-Charng

    2010-11-15

    Numerical modeling of the vaporization characteristics of multi-component fuel mixtures is performed in this study. The fuel mixtures studied include those of binary components, biodiesel, diesel-biodiesel, and gasoline-ethanol. The use of biofuels has become increasingly important for reasons of environmental sustainability. Biofuels are often blended with petroleum fuels, and the detailed understanding of the vaporization process is essential to designing a clean and efficient combustion system. In this study, a hybrid vaporization model is developed that uses continuous thermodynamics to describe petroleum fuels and discrete components to represent biofuels. The model is validated using the experimental data of n-heptane, n-heptane-n-decane mixture, and biodiesel. Since biodiesel properties are not universal due to the variation in feedstock, methods for predicting biodiesel properties based on the five dominant fatty acid components are introduced. Good levels of agreement in the predicted and measured drop size histories are obtained. Furthermore, in modeling the diesel-biodiesel drop, results show that the drop lifetime increases with the biodiesel concentration in the blend. During vaporization, only the lighter components of diesel fuel vaporize at the beginning. Biodiesel components do not vaporize until some time during the vaporization process. On the other hand, results of gasoline-ethanol drops indicate that both fuels start to vaporize once the process begins. At the beginning, the lighter components of gasoline have a slightly higher vaporization rate than ethanol. After a certain time, ethanol vaporizes faster than the remaining gasoline components. At the end, the drop reduces to a regular gasoline drop with heavier components. Overall, the drop lifetime increases as the concentration of ethanol increases in the drop due to the higher latent heat. (author)

  3. D0 Silicon Upgrade: Liquid & Gas Nitrogen Line Sizing for D-Zero...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Office, Las Vegas, NV ... Language: English Subject: 43 PARTICLE ACCELERATORS; ... PRESSURE DROP; SILICON; SIZE; SOLENOIDS; STORAGE; VALVES ...

  4. Correlating size and composition-dependent effects with magnetic, Mössbauer, and pair distribution function measurements in a family of catalytically active ferrite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, Stanislaus; Papaefthymiou, Georgia C.; Lewis, Crystal S.; Han, Jinkyu; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Qiang; Shi, Chenyang; Abeykoon, A. M.Milinda; Billinge, Simon J.L.; Stach, Eric; Thomas, Justin; Guerrero, Kevin; Munayco, Pablo; Munayco, Jimmy; Scorzelli, Rosa B.; Burnham, Philip; Viescas, Arthur J; Tiano, Amanda L.

    2015-05-06

    The magnetic spinel ferrites, MFe₂O₄ (wherein 'M' = a divalent metal ion such as but not limited to Mn, Co, Zn, and Ni), represent a unique class of magnetic materials in which the rational introduction of different 'M's can yield correspondingly unique and interesting magnetic behaviors. Herein we present a generalized hydrothermal method for the synthesis of single-crystalline ferrite nanoparticles with 'M' = Mg, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn, respectively, which can be systematically and efficaciously produced simply by changing the metal precursor. Our protocol can moreover lead to reproducible size control by judicious selection of various surfactants. As such, we have probed the effects of both (i) size and (ii) chemical composition upon the magnetic properties of these nanomaterials using complementary magnetometry and Mössbauer spectroscopy techniques. The structure of the samples was confirmed by atomic PDF analysis of X-ray and electron powder diffraction data as a function of particle size. These materials retain the bulk spinel structure to the smallest size (i.e., 3 nm). In addition, we have explored the catalytic potential of our ferrites as both (a) magnetically recoverable photocatalysts and (b) biological catalysts, and noted that many of our as-prepared ferrite systems evinced intrinsically higher activities as compared with their iron oxide analogues.

  5. Correlating size and composition-dependent effects with magnetic, Mössbauer, and pair distribution function measurements in a family of catalytically active ferrite nanoparticles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wong, Stanislaus; Papaefthymiou, Georgia C.; Lewis, Crystal S.; Han, Jinkyu; Zhang, Cheng; Li, Qiang; Shi, Chenyang; Abeykoon, A. M.Milinda; Billinge, Simon J.L.; Stach, Eric; et al

    2015-05-06

    The magnetic spinel ferrites, MFe₂O₄ (wherein 'M' = a divalent metal ion such as but not limited to Mn, Co, Zn, and Ni), represent a unique class of magnetic materials in which the rational introduction of different 'M's can yield correspondingly unique and interesting magnetic behaviors. Herein we present a generalized hydrothermal method for the synthesis of single-crystalline ferrite nanoparticles with 'M' = Mg, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn, respectively, which can be systematically and efficaciously produced simply by changing the metal precursor. Our protocol can moreover lead to reproducible size control by judicious selection of various surfactants. Asmore » such, we have probed the effects of both (i) size and (ii) chemical composition upon the magnetic properties of these nanomaterials using complementary magnetometry and Mössbauer spectroscopy techniques. The structure of the samples was confirmed by atomic PDF analysis of X-ray and electron powder diffraction data as a function of particle size. These materials retain the bulk spinel structure to the smallest size (i.e., 3 nm). In addition, we have explored the catalytic potential of our ferrites as both (a) magnetically recoverable photocatalysts and (b) biological catalysts, and noted that many of our as-prepared ferrite systems evinced intrinsically higher activities as compared with their iron oxide analogues.« less

  6. The Sensitivity of DPF Performance to the Spatial Distribution of Ash Generated from Six Lubricant Formulations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Discusses potential of DPF pressure drop reduction by optimizing the spatial distribution of ash inside DPF inlet channel

  7. Determination of lateral size distribution of type-II ZnTe/ZnSe stacked submonolayer quantum dots via spectral analysis of optical signature of the Aharanov-Bohm excitons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ji, Haojie; Dhomkar, Siddharth; Roy, Bidisha; Kuskovsky, Igor L.; Shuvayev, Vladimir; Deligiannakis, Vasilios; Tamargo, Maria C.; Ludwig, Jonathan; Smirnov, Dmitry; Wang, Alice

    2014-10-28

    For submonolayer quantum dot (QD) based photonic devices, size and density of QDs are critical parameters, the probing of which requires indirect methods. We report the determination of lateral size distribution of type-II ZnTe/ZnSe stacked submonolayer QDs, based on spectral analysis of the optical signature of Aharanov-Bohm (AB) excitons, complemented by photoluminescence studies, secondary-ion mass spectroscopy, and numerical calculations. Numerical calculations are employed to determine the AB transition magnetic field as a function of the type-II QD radius. The study of four samples grown with different tellurium fluxes shows that the lateral size of QDs increases by just 50%, even though tellurium concentration increases 25-fold. Detailed spectral analysis of the emission of the AB exciton shows that the QD radii take on only certain values due to vertical correlation and the stacked nature of the QDs.

  8. The impact of size distribution assumptions in a bulk one-moment microphysics scheme on simulated surface precipitation and storm dynamics during a low-topped supercell case in Belgium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Weverberg, K.; VanLipzig, N. P. M.; Delobbe, L.

    2011-04-01

    In this research the impact of modifying the size distribution assumptions of the precipitating hydrometeors in a bulk one-moment microphysics scheme on simulated surface precipitation and storm dynamics has been explored for long-lived low-topped supercells in Belgium. It was shown that weighting the largest precipitating ice species of the microphysics scheme to small graupel results in an increase of surface precipitation because of counteracting effects. On the one hand, the precipitation formation process slowed down, resulting in lower precipitation efficiency. On the other hand, latent heat release associated with freezing favored more intense storms. In contrast to previous studies finding decreased surface precipitation when graupel was present in the microphysics parameterization, storms were rather shallow in the authors simulations. This left little time for graupel sublimation. The impact of size distribution assumptions of snow was found to be small, but more realistic size distribution assumptions of rain led to the strongest effect on surface precipitation. Cold pools shrunk because of weaker rain evaporation at the cold pool boundaries, leading to a decreased surface rain area.

  9. Load drop evaluation for TWRS FSAR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Julyk, L.J.; Ralston, G.L.

    1996-09-30

    Operational or remediation activities associated with existing underground high-level waste storage tank structures at the Hanford Site often require the installation/removal of various equipment items. To gain tank access for installation or removal of this equipment, large concrete cover blocks must be removed and reinstalled in existing concrete pits above the tanks. An accidental drop of the equipment or cover blocks while being moved over the tanks that results in the release of contaminants to the air poses a potential risk to onsite workers or to the offsite public. To minimize this potential risk, the use of critical lift hoisting and rigging procedures and restrictions on lift height are being considered during development of the new tank farm Basis for Interim Operation and Final Safety Analysis Report. The analysis contained herein provides information for selecting the appropriate lift height restrictions for these activities.

  10. Investigation of thermochemical biorefinery sizing and environmental sustainability impacts for conventional supply system and distributed pre-processing supply system designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David J. Muth, Jr.; Matthew H. Langholtz; Eric C. D. Tan; Jacob J. Jacobson; Amy Schwab; May M. Wu; Andrew Argo; Craig C. Brandt; Kara G. Cafferty; Yi-Wen Chiu; Abhijit Dutta; Laurence M. Eaton; Erin M. Searcy

    2014-08-01

    The 2011 US Billion-Ton Update estimates that by 2030 there will be enough agricultural and forest resources to sustainably provide at least one billion dry tons of biomass annually, enough to displace approximately 30% of the country's current petroleum consumption. A portion of these resources are inaccessible at current cost targets with conventional feedstock supply systems because of their remoteness or low yields. Reliable analyses and projections of US biofuels production depend on assumptions about the supply system and biorefinery capacity, which, in turn, depend upon economic value, feedstock logistics, and sustainability. A cross-functional team has examined combinations of advances in feedstock supply systems and biorefinery capacities with rigorous design information, improved crop yield and agronomic practices, and improved estimates of sustainable biomass availability. A previous report on biochemical refinery capacity noted that under advanced feedstock logistic supply systems that include depots and pre-processing operations there are cost advantages that support larger biorefineries up to 10 000 DMT/day facilities compared to the smaller 2000 DMT/day facilities. This report focuses on analyzing conventional versus advanced depot biomass supply systems for a thermochemical conversion and refinery sizing based on woody biomass. The results of this analysis demonstrate that the economies of scale enabled by advanced logistics offsets much of the added logistics costs from additional depot processing and transportation, resulting in a small overall increase to the minimum ethanol selling price compared to the conventional logistic supply system. While the overall costs do increase slightly for the advanced logistic supply systems, the ability to mitigate moisture and ash in the system will improve the storage and conversion processes. In addition, being able to draw on feedstocks from further distances will decrease the risk of biomass supply to the

  11. The Sensitivity of DPF Performance to the Spatial Distribution...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Sensitivity of DPF Performance to the Spatial Distribution of Ash Generated from Six Lubricant Formulations Discusses potential of DPF pressure drop reduction by optimizing the ...

  12. Advanced Drop-In Biofuels Initiative Agenda | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Agenda for the Advanced Drop-In Biofuels Initiative Industry Roundtable industryroundtableagenda.pdf (430.67 KB) More Documents & Publications Department of the Navy, DPA ...

  13. How Voltage Drops are Manifested by Lithium Ion Configurations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: How Voltage Drops are Manifested by Lithium Ion Configurations at Interfaces and in ... Subject: bio-inspired, energy storage (including batteries and capacitors), defects, ...

  14. Conserving Water, One Drop at a Time | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conserving Water, One Drop at a Time Conserving Water, One Drop at a Time May 27, 2015 - 4:05pm Q&A What are you doing to conserve water? Tell us Addthis Every drop counts! Make sure you are doing your part to save water. | Photos courtesy of Jason Flakes, U.S. Department of Energy Every drop counts! Make sure you are doing your part to save water. | Photos courtesy of Jason Flakes, U.S. Department of Energy Christina Stowers Communications Specialist in the Weatherization and

  15. Delayed Frost Growth on Jumping-Drop Superhydrophobic Surfaces...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Delayed Frost Growth on Jumping-Drop Superhydrophobic Surfaces Citation ... Here, we report that subcooled condensate on a chilled ...

  16. STRESS CORROSION CRACKING IN TEAR DROP SPECIMENS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lam, P; Philip Zapp, P; Jonathan Duffey, J; Kerry Dunn, K

    2009-05-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted to investigate the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of 304L stainless steel used to construct the containment vessels for the storage of plutonium-bearing materials. The tear drop corrosion specimens each with an autogenous weld in the center were placed in contact with moist plutonium oxide and chloride salt mixtures. Cracking was found in two of the specimens in the heat affected zone (HAZ) at the apex area. Finite element analysis was performed to simulate the specimen fabrication for determining the internal stress which caused SCC to occur. It was found that the tensile stress at the crack initiation site was about 30% lower than the highest stress which had been shifted to the shoulders of the specimen due to the specimen fabrication process. This finding appears to indicate that the SCC initiation took place in favor of the possibly weaker weld/base metal interface at a sufficiently high level of background stress. The base material, even subject to a higher tensile stress, was not cracked. The relieving of tensile stress due to SCC initiation and growth in the HAZ and the weld might have foreclosed the potential for cracking at the specimen shoulders where higher stress was found.

  17. Court decision dropping toxic substance rules stands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bryant, C.R.

    1993-06-01

    In a somewhat surprising move, the U.S. Department of Labor has decided not to appeal a court decision essentially dropping regulations established by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for about 400 hazardous substances. The decision leaves unregulated or subject to reduced standards substances that range from carbon monoxide to perchloroethylene. The Labor Department had until March 22, 1993, to appeal the court decision. On July 8, 1992, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the 11th Circuit overturned OSHA's final Air Contaminants Standard, which was promulgated in 1989. The standard established permissible exposure limits (PELs) for 428 toxic substances. In AFL-CIO vs. OSHA, the Court ruled that OSHA failed to make a separate scientific case for evaluating health risks of each chemical. Because of the decision not to appeal, PELs for more than half of the substances regulated by OSHA now are removed from the books or revert to the voluntary industry standards adopted by OSHA in 1970 and in force prior to the 1989 final rule.

  18. Steam-explosion pretreatment of wood: effect of chip size, acid, moisture content and pressure drop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brownell, H.H.; Yu, E.K.C.; Saddler, J.N.

    1986-06-01

    Material balances for pentosan, lignin, and hexosan, during steam-explosion pretreatment of aspenwood, showed almost quantitative recovery of cellulose in the water-insoluble fraction. Dilute acid impregnation resulted in more selective hydrolysis of pentosan relative to undesirable pyrolysis, and gave a more accessible substrate for enzymatic hydrolysis. Thermocouple probes, located inside simulated aspenwood chips heated in 240 degrees C-saturated steam, showed rapid heating of air-dry wood, whereas green or impregnated wood heated slowly. Small chips, 3.2 mm in the fiber direction, whether green or air dry gave approximately equal rates of pentosan destruction and solubilization, and similar yields of glucose and of total reducing sugars on enzmatic hydrolysis with Trichoderma harzianum. Partial pyrolysis, destroying one-third of the pentosan of aspenwood at atmospheric pressure by dry steam at 276 degrees C, gave little increase in yield of reducing sugars on enzymatic hydrolysis. Treatment with saturated steam at 240 degrees C gave essentially the same yields of butanediol and ethanol on fermentation with Klebsiella pneumoniae, whether or not 80% of the steam was bled off before explosion and even if the chips remained intact, showing that explosion was unnecessary. 17 references.

  19. Characterizing Uncertainties in Ice Particle Size Distributions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http:www.arm.govsciencehighlights Research Highlight In many parameterization schemes for numerical models or remote sensing...

  20. Size distributions of boundary-layer clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stull, R.; Berg, L.; Modzelewski, H.

    1996-04-01

    Scattered fair-weather clouds are triggered by thermals rising from the surface layer. Not all surface layer air is buoyant enough to rise. Also, each thermal has different humidities and temperatures, resulting in interthermal variability of their lifting condensation levels (LCL). For each air parcel in the surface layer, it`s virtual potential temperature and it`s LCL height can be computed.

  1. ARM - Measurement - Aerosol particle size distribution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AOS : Aerosol Observing System CSPHOT : Cimel Sunphotometer HTDMA : Humidified Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer SMPS : Scanning mobility particle sizer TDMA : Tandem...

  2. Effects of sudden expansion and contraction flow on pressure drops in the Stirling engine regenerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamaguchi, K.; Yamashita, I.; Hirata, K.

    1998-07-01

    The flow losses in the regenerators greatly influence the performance of the Stirling engine. The losses mainly depend on fluid friction through the regenerator matrix, but are also generated in sudden expansion and contraction flow at the regenerator ends. The latter losses can't be neglected in the case of small area ratio (entrance area/cross-sectional area in regenerator). The pressure drops in regenerators are usually estimated assuming a uniform velocity distribution of working gas in the matrices. The estimation results, however, are generally smaller than practical data. The cross-sectional flow areas of the heater and cooler of typical Stirling engines are smaller than the cross- sectional area of the regenerator. The effects of the small flow passage on the velocity distribution of working fluid in the matrix, that is, a flow transition from tubes or channels to a regenerator matrix, can be often confirmed by the discolored matrix. Especially, the lack of a uniform distribution of velocity in the matrix causes increased flow loss and decreased thermal performance. So, it is necessary to understand the quantitative effects of the sudden change in flow area at the regenerator ends on the velocity distribution and pressure drop. In this paper, using matrices made of stacks of wire screens, the effects of the entrance and exit areas and the length of the regenerator on pressure drops are examined by an unidirectional steady flow apparatus. The experimental data are arranged in an empirical equation. The lack of a uniformity of velocity distribution is visualized using smoke-wire methods. The empirical equation presented is applied to the estimation of pressure loss in an actual engine regenerator. The applicability of the equation is examined by comparison of estimated value with engine data in pressure loss.

  3. Method and apparatus for producing drops using a drop-on-demand dispenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Alvin U.; Basaran, Osman A.

    2003-01-01

    A method and apparatus for dispensing fluid from a drop-on-demand (DOD) fluid dispenser. The method involves withdrawing fluid in the dispenser for a first duration of time, followed by a second duration of time during which the fluid is propelled toward the orifice of the dispenser. Following the period during which the fluid is propelled, there is a second withdrawing of the fluid into the dispenser. The duration of the propelling period is shorter than the duration of either the first withdrawing or the second withdrawing. The propelling of the fluid results in the extension of a small tongue of fluid from the meniscus of the fluid. The second withdrawing of the fluid results in a retraction of the meniscus into the passageway such that only the small tongue of fluid separates and is ejected from the dispenser.

  4. Origin and dynamics of vortex rings in drop splashing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lee, Ji San; Park, Su Ji; Lee, Jun Ho; Weon, Byung Mook; Fezzaa, Kamel; Je, Jung Ho

    2015-09-04

    A vortex is a flow phenomenon that is very commonly observed in nature. More than a century, a vortex ring that forms during drop splashing has caught the attention of many scientists due to its importance in understanding fluid mixing and mass transport processes. However, the origin of the vortices and their dynamics remain unclear, mostly due to the lack of appropriate visualization methods. Here, with ultrafast X-ray phase-contrast imaging, we show that the formation of vortex rings originates from the energy transfer by capillary waves generated at the moment of the drop impact. Interestingly, we find a row ofmore » vortex rings along the drop wall, as demonstrated by a phase diagram established here, with different power-law dependencies of the angular velocities on the Reynolds number. These results provide important insight that allows understanding and modelling any type of vortex rings in nature, beyond just vortex rings during drop splashing.« less

  5. Origin and dynamics of vortex rings in drop splashing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Ji San; Park, Su Ji; Lee, Jun Ho; Weon, Byung Mook; Fezzaa, Kamel; Je, Jung Ho

    2015-09-04

    A vortex is a flow phenomenon that is very commonly observed in nature. More than a century, a vortex ring that forms during drop splashing has caught the attention of many scientists due to its importance in understanding fluid mixing and mass transport processes. However, the origin of the vortices and their dynamics remain unclear, mostly due to the lack of appropriate visualization methods. Here, with ultrafast X-ray phase-contrast imaging, we show that the formation of vortex rings originates from the energy transfer by capillary waves generated at the moment of the drop impact. Interestingly, we find a row of vortex rings along the drop wall, as demonstrated by a phase diagram established here, with different power-law dependencies of the angular velocities on the Reynolds number. These results provide important insight that allows understanding and modelling any type of vortex rings in nature, beyond just vortex rings during drop splashing.

  6. Meso-scale controlled motion for a microfluidic drop ejector...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    drops at 10 ms, (2) packaging--a compact ejector package based on a modified EMDIP (Electro-Microfluidic Dual In-line Package--SAND2002-1941) was fabricated, and (3) a vision...

  7. Can Canister Containment Be Maintained After Accidental Drop Events?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. K. Morton; S. D. Snow; T. E. Rahl; R. K. Blandford; T. J. Hill

    2006-05-01

    The National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP) has pursued a number of structural testing projects that are intended to provide data that can be used to substantiate the position that U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canisters, made from austenitic stainless steels, can maintain containment after an accidental drop event and that plastic finite element methods can be used to accurately predict the structural response of canister configurations not specifically tested. In particular, drop tests of full-scale canisters and material impact testing at varying strain rates reflecting accidental drop conditions have been completed or are in progress. This paper provides insights to conclusions achieved to date and what efforts are planned to fully address the pertinent issues necessary to demonstrate the safety of DOE SNF canisters subjected to accidental drop events.

  8. Instantaneous Leakage Evaluation of Metal Cask at Drop Impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirofumi Takeda; Norihiro Kageyama; Masumi Wataru; Ryoji Sonobe; Koji Shirai; Toshiari Saegusa

    2006-07-01

    There have been a lot of tests and analyses reported for evaluation of drop tests of metal casks. However, no quantitative measurement has ever been made for any instantaneous leakage through metal gaskets during the drop tests due to loosening of the bolts in the containments and lateral sliding of the lids. In order to determine a source term for radiation exposure dose assessment, it is necessary to obtain fundamental data of instantaneous leakage. In this study, leak tests were performed by using scale models of the lid structure and a full scale cask without impact limiters simulating drop accidents in a storage facility, with aim of measuring and evaluating any instantaneous leakage at drop impact. Prior to drop tests of a full scale metal cask, a series of leakage tests using scale models were carried out to establish the measurement method and to examine a relationship between the amount of the lateral sliding of the lid and the leak rate. It was determined that the leak rate did not depend on the lateral sliding speeds. Drop tests of a full scale metal cask without impact limiters were carried out by simulating drop accidents during handling in a storage facility. The target was designed to simulate a reinforced concrete floor in the facility. The first test was a horizontal drop from a height of 1 m. The second test simulated a rotational impact around an axis of a lower trunnion of the cask from the horizontal status at a height of 1 m. In the horizontal drop test, the amount of helium gas leakage was calculated by integrating the leak rate with time. The total amount of helium gas leakage from the primary and secondary lids was 1.99 x 10{sup -6} Pa.m{sup 3}. This value is 9.61 x 10{sup -9}% of the initially installed helium gas. The amount of leakage was insignificant. In the rotational drop test, the total amount of leakage from the primary and secondary lids was 1.74 x 10{sup -5} Pa.m{sup 3}. This value is 8.45 x 10{sup -8}% of the initially installed

  9. Energy Innovator Drops Costs for Titanium Metalwork | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Innovator Drops Costs for Titanium Metalwork Energy Innovator Drops Costs for Titanium Metalwork March 13, 2012 - 12:42pm Addthis Michael Hess Michael Hess Former Digital Communications Specialist, Office of Public Affairs What are the key facts? Iowa Powder Atomization Technology is one of 36 companies that licensed technology under an agreement with the National Lab as part of the America's Next Top Energy Innovator program. Titanium is the stuff aircrafts are made of, at least the important

  10. Flow rate--pressure drop relation for deformable shallow microfluidic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    channels (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Flow rate--pressure drop relation for deformable shallow microfluidic channels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flow rate--pressure drop relation for deformable shallow microfluidic channels Authors: Christov, Ivan [1] ; Cognet, Vincent [2] ; Stone, Howard A [3] + Show Author Affiliations Los Alamos National Laboratory Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University Publication Date:

  11. In-service Inspection Ultrasonic Testing of Reactor Pressure Vessel Welds for Assessing Flaw Density and Size Distribution per 10 CFR 50.61a, Alternate Fracture Toughness Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Edmund J.; Anderson, Michael T.; Norris, Wallace

    2012-09-17

    Pressurized thermal shock (PTS) events are system transients in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) in which there is a rapid operating temperature cool-down that results in cold vessel temperatures with or without repressurization of the vessel. The rapid cooling of the inside surface of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) causes thermal stresses that can combine with stresses caused by high pressure. The aggregate effect of these stresses is an increase in the potential for fracture if a pre-existing flaw is present in a material susceptible to brittle failure. The ferritic, low alloy steel of the reactor vessel beltline adjacent to the core, where neutron radiation gradually embrittles the material over the lifetime of the plant, can be susceptible to brittle fracture. The PTS rule, described in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Section 50.61 (§50.61), “Fracture Toughness Requirements for Protection against Pressurized Thermal Shock Events,” adopted on July 23, 1985, establishes screening criteria to ensure that the potential for a reactor vessel to fail due to a PTS event is deemed to be acceptably low. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) completed a research program that concluded that the risk of through-wall cracking due to a PTS event is much lower than previously estimated. The NRC subsequently developed a rule, §50.61a, published on January 4, 2010, entitled “Alternate Fracture Toughness Requirements for Protection Against Pressurized Thermal Shock Events” (75 FR 13). Use of the new rule by licensees is optional. The §50.61a rule differs from §50.61 in that it requires licensees who choose to follow this alternate method to analyze the results from periodic volumetric examinations required by the ASME Code, Section XI, Rules for Inservice Inspection (ISI) of Nuclear Power Plants. These analyses are intended to determine if the actual flaw density and size distribution in the licensee’s reactor vessel beltline welds are bounded

  12. Investigation of thermochemical biorefinery sizing and environmental...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Investigation of thermochemical biorefinery sizing and environmental sustainability impacts for conventional supply system and distributed pre-processing supply system designs...

  13. 2014 Hydrogen Student Design Contest to Design Drop-In Hydrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Student Design Contest to Design Drop-In Hydrogen Fueling Station 2014 Hydrogen Student Design Contest to Design Drop-In Hydrogen Fueling Station December 16, 2013 - ...

  14. Sea quark transverse momentum distributions and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schweitzer, Peter; Strikman, Mark; Weiss, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Recent theoretical studies have provided new insight into the intrinsic transverse momentum distributions of valence and sea quarks in the nucleon at a low scale. The valence quark transverse momentum distributions (q - qbar) are governed by the nucleon's inverse hadronic size R{sup -1} ~ 0.2 GeV and drop steeply at large p{sub T}. The sea quark distributions (qbar) are in large part generated by non-perturbative chiral-symmetry breaking interactions and extend up to the scale rho{sup -1} ~ 0.6 GeV. These findings have many implications for modeling the initial conditions of perturbative QCD evolution of TMD distributions (starting scale, shape of p{sub T}. distributions, coordinate-space correlation functions). The qualitative difference between valence and sea quark intrinsic p{sub T}. distributions could be observed experimentally, by comparing the transverse momentum distributions of selected hadrons in semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering, or those of dileptons produced in pp and pbar-p scattering.

  15. A new method for measurement of safety rod drop times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesic, M.; Stefanovic, D. ); Marinkovic, P. )

    1992-10-01

    In this paper, a new method for the accurate measurement of safety rod drop times is proposed. It is based on a fast electromagnetic transducer and an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) conected to a computer system. Evaluation of recorded data is conducted by a developed computer code. The first measurements performed at the HERBE fast-thermal RB reactor show that a relative uncertainty (confidence level 95%) of less than 6% can be achieved in determination of rod drop time (with time intervals ranging from 0.4-10.0 s). Further improvements in accuracy are possible.

  16. Watch Our CO2 Drop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Our CO2 Drop Watch Our CO2 Drop January 14, 2016 - 4:55pm Addthis Daniel Wood Daniel Wood Data Visualization and Cartographic Specialist, Office of Public Affairs Learn More About Climate Change If you want to learn more about the importance of reducing our carbon pollution, read our recent report about how climate change threatens our energy infrastructure. Curious about the total amount of carbon we emit into the atmosphere? Compare countries from around the globe using this tool. On Tuesday,

  17. WE-A-17A-09: Exploiting Electromagnetic Technologies for Real-Time Seed Drop Position Validation in Permanent Implant Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Racine, E; Hautvast, G; Binnekamp, D; Beaulieu, L

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To report on preliminary results validating the performance of a specially designed LDR brachytherapy needle prototype possessing both electromagnetic (EM) tracking and seed drop detection abilities. Methods: An EM hollow needle prototype has been designed and constructed in collaboration with research partner Philips Healthcare. The needle possesses conventional 3D tracking capabilities, along with a novel seed drop detection mechanism exploiting local changes of electromagnetic properties generated by the passage of seeds in the needle's embedded sensor coils. These two capabilities are exploited by proprietary engineering and signal processing techniques to generate seed drop position estimates in real-time treatment delivery. The electromagnetic tracking system (EMTS) used for the experiment is the NDI Aurora Planar Field Generator. The experiment consisted of dropping a total of 35 seeds in a prismatic agarose phantom, and comparing the 3D seed drop positions of the EMTS to those obtained by an image analysis of subsequent micro-CT scans. Drop position error computations and statistical analysis were performed after a 3D registration of the two seed distributions. Results: Of the 35 seeds dropped in the phantom, 32 were properly detected by the needle prototype. Absolute drop position errors among the detected seeds ranged from 0.5 to 4.8 mm with mean and standard deviation values of 1.6 and 0.9 mm, respectively. Error measurements also include undesirable and uncontrollable effects such as seed motion upon deposition. The true accuracy performance of the needle prototype is therefore underestimated. Conclusion: This preliminary study demonstrates the potential benefits of EM technologies in detecting the passage of seeds in a hollow needle as a means of generating drop position estimates in real-time treatment delivery. Such tools could therefore represent a potentially interesting addition to existing brachytherapy protocols for rapid dosimetry

  18. Aerosol mobility size spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Jian; Kulkarni, Pramod

    2007-11-20

    A device for measuring aerosol size distribution within a sample containing aerosol particles. The device generally includes a spectrometer housing defining an interior chamber and a camera for recording aerosol size streams exiting the chamber. The housing includes an inlet for introducing a flow medium into the chamber in a flow direction, an aerosol injection port adjacent the inlet for introducing a charged aerosol sample into the chamber, a separation section for applying an electric field to the aerosol sample across the flow direction and an outlet opposite the inlet. In the separation section, the aerosol sample becomes entrained in the flow medium and the aerosol particles within the aerosol sample are separated by size into a plurality of aerosol flow streams under the influence of the electric field. The camera is disposed adjacent the housing outlet for optically detecting a relative position of at least one aerosol flow stream exiting the outlet and for optically detecting the number of aerosol particles within the at least one aerosol flow stream.

  19. Electrostatic attraction of charged drops of water inside dropwise cluster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shavlov, A. V.; Tyumen State Oil and Gas University, 38, Volodarskogo Str., Tyumen 625000 ; Dzhumandzhi, V. A.

    2013-08-15

    Based on the analytical solution of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation, we demonstrate that inside the electrically neutral system of charges an electrostatic attraction can occur between the like-charged particles, where charge Z ? 1 (in terms of elementary charge) and radius R > 0, whereas according to the literature, only repulsion is possible inside non-electrically neutral systems. We calculate the free energy of the charged particles of water inside a cluster and demonstrate that its minimum is when the interdroplet distance equals several Debye radii defined based on the light plasma component. The deepest minimum depth is in a cluster with close spatial packing of drops by type, in a face-centered cubic lattice, if almost all the electric charge of one sign is concentrated on the drops and that of the other sign is concentrated on the light compensation carriers of charge, where the charge moved by equilibrium carriers is rather small.

  20. Characteristics and sources of intermediate size particles in recovery boilers : final project report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, Larry L.; Shaddix, Christopher R.; Verrill, Christopher L.; Wessel, Richard A.

    2005-02-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Industries of the Future (IOF) Forest Products research program, a collaborative investigation was conducted on the sources, characteristics, and deposition of particles intermediate in size between submicron fume and carryover in recovery boilers. Laboratory experiments on suspended-drop combustion of black liquor and on black liquor char bed combustion demonstrated that both processes generate intermediate size particles (ISP), amounting to 0.5-2% of the black liquor dry solids mass (BLS). Measurements in two U.S. recovery boilers show variable loadings of ISP in the upper furnace, typically between 0.6-3 g/Nm{sup 3}, or 0.3-1.5% of BLS. The measurements show that the ISP mass size distribution increases with size from 5-100 {micro}m, implying that a substantial amount of ISP inertially deposits on steam tubes. ISP particles are depleted in potassium, chlorine, and sulfur relative to the fuel composition. Comprehensive boiler modeling demonstrates that ISP concentrations are substantially overpredicted when using a previously developed algorithm for ISP generation. Equilibrium calculations suggest that alkali carbonate decomposition occurs at intermediate heights in the furnace and may lead to partial destruction of ISP particles formed lower in the furnace. ISP deposition is predicted to occur in the superheater sections, at temperatures greater than 750 C, when the particles are at least partially molten.

  1. Surface tension of spherical drops from surface of tension

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Homman, A.-A.; Bourasseau, E.; Malfreyt, P.; Strafella, L.; Ghoufi, A.

    2014-01-21

    The determination of surface tension of curved interfaces is a topic that raised many controversies during the last century. Explicit liquid-vapor interface modelling (ELVI) was unable up to now to reproduce interfacial behaviors in drops due to ambiguities in the mechanical definition of the surface tension. In this work, we propose a thermodynamic approach based on the location of surface of tension and its use in the Laplace equation to extract the surface tension of spherical interfaces from ELVI modelling.

  2. Seismic II over I Drop Test Program results and interpretation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, B.

    1993-03-01

    The consequences of non-seismically qualified (Category 2) objects falling and striking essential seismically qualified (Category 1) objects has always been a significant, yet analytically difficult problem, particularly in evaluating the potential damage to equipment that may result from earthquakes. Analytical solutions for impact problems are conservative and available for mostly simple configurations. In a nuclear facility, the [open quotes]sources[close quotes] and [open quotes]targets[close quotes] requiring evaluation are frequently irregular in shape and configuration, making calculations and computer modeling difficult. Few industry or regulatory rules are available on this topic even though it is a source of considerable construction upgrade costs. A drop test program was recently conducted to develop a more accurate understanding of the consequences of seismic interactions. The resulting data can be used as a means to improve the judgment of seismic qualification engineers performing interaction evaluations and to develop realistic design criteria for seismic interactions. Impact tests on various combinations of sources and targets commonly found in one Savannah River Site (SRS) nuclear facility were performed by dropping the sources from various heights onto the targets. This report summarizes results of the Drop Test Program. Force and acceleration time history data are presented as well as general observations on the overall ruggedness of various targets when subjected to impacts from different types of sources.

  3. Seismic II over I Drop Test Program results and interpretation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, B.

    1993-03-01

    The consequences of non-seismically qualified (Category 2) objects falling and striking essential seismically qualified (Category 1) objects has always been a significant, yet analytically difficult problem, particularly in evaluating the potential damage to equipment that may result from earthquakes. Analytical solutions for impact problems are conservative and available for mostly simple configurations. In a nuclear facility, the {open_quotes}sources{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}targets{close_quotes} requiring evaluation are frequently irregular in shape and configuration, making calculations and computer modeling difficult. Few industry or regulatory rules are available on this topic even though it is a source of considerable construction upgrade costs. A drop test program was recently conducted to develop a more accurate understanding of the consequences of seismic interactions. The resulting data can be used as a means to improve the judgment of seismic qualification engineers performing interaction evaluations and to develop realistic design criteria for seismic interactions. Impact tests on various combinations of sources and targets commonly found in one Savannah River Site (SRS) nuclear facility were performed by dropping the sources from various heights onto the targets. This report summarizes results of the Drop Test Program. Force and acceleration time history data are presented as well as general observations on the overall ruggedness of various targets when subjected to impacts from different types of sources.

  4. Optical add/drop filter for wavelength division multiplexed systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deri, Robert J.; Strand, Oliver T.; Garrett, Henry E.

    2002-01-01

    An optical add/drop filter for wavelength division multiplexed systems and construction methods are disclosed. The add/drop filter includes a first ferrule having a first pre-formed opening for receiving a first optical fiber; an interference filter oriented to pass a first set of wavelengths along the first optical fiber and reflect a second set of wavelengths; and, a second ferrule having a second pre-formed opening for receiving the second optical fiber, and the reflected second set of wavelengths. A method for constructing the optical add/drop filter consists of the steps of forming a first set of openings in a first ferrule; inserting a first set of optical fibers into the first set of openings; forming a first set of guide pin openings in the first ferrule; dividing the first ferrule into a first ferrule portion and a second ferrule portion; forming an interference filter on the first ferrule portion; inserting guide pins through the first set of guide pin openings in the first ferrule portion and second ferrule portion to passively align the first set of optical fibers; removing material such that light reflected from the interference filter from the first set of optical fibers is accessible; forming a second set of openings in a second ferrule; inserting a second set of optical fibers into the second set of openings; and positioning the second ferrule with respect to the first ferrule such that the second set of optical fibers receive the light reflected from the interference filter.

  5. Sessile drop studies on polybromide/zinc-bromine battery electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinoshita, K.; Leach, S.C.

    1982-08-01

    Improvements in the performance of zinc-bromine batteries have been observed with electrolytes containing a quaternary ammonium salt that complexes the bromine to reduce the concentration of free bromine in solution. A variety of quaternary ammonium salts that complex bromine to form a so-called polybromide oil have been considered. Various papers have discussed measurements of the physicochemical properties of the two-component system of bromine-quaternary ammonium bromide in an aqueous medium. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the interfacial tension of polybromide oils on the electrolytes for zinc-bromine batteries by reporting a study of the interfacial tension and contact angle of polybromide oil drops in which the sessile drop method is used. The interfacial tensions for the polybromide phases are found to be considerably lower than the values commonly reported for two-phase systems containing organic and aqueous phases. However, several two-phase systems, such as benzyl alcohol/water, furfural/water, and ethyl acetate/water have low interfacial tension comparable to that of the polybromide/electrolyte system. The low interfacial tension of the polybromide oil phase has important practical implications for the zinc-bromine battery. A stable emulsion can be produced very readily; small drops of the polybromide-oil phase can thus be stabilized with the electrolyte phase and can be expected to enhance the mass transfer of bromine from the polybromide to the electrode.

  6. Syracuse Univesity Test Report On Uptake Factor Resulting From A Dropped Storage Container - Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhi; Zhang, Jianshun S.

    2012-01-01

    Under certain circumstances, powder from an accidently dropped container can become airborne and inhaled by people nearby such as those who are moving the containers. The inhaled fine particles can deposit on respiratory tracts and lungs, causing asthma, lung cancer, and other acute respiratory illnesses and chronic symptoms. The objective of this study was to develop a standard procedure to measure the airborne concentrations of different size particles within the vicinity of a dropped container where a significant portion of the contained powder is ejected. Tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) was selected in this study to represent relatively heavy powders (7.16 g/cm3 specific gravity for WO{sub 3}). A typical can with the outer dimensions of 4.25 diameter and 4.875 tall was used as the container. The powder was dropped in two different configurations: 1) contained within a can covered by a lid that has a 0.25 diameter hole, and 2) contained within a can without a lid. The packing volume of the powder was 51.4 in3 (842.7 cm{sup 3}) and the target mass was 1936 g. The tests were carried out in a full-scale stainless steel environmental chamber with an interior volume of 852 ft3 (24.1 m3). The chamber system includes an internal recirculation loop with a rectangular air diffuser and 10 variable frequency drive fans to provide a typical room air recirculation flow pattern. Two air filters were installed in the chamber air supply duct and return duct to achieve the required low background particle concentration. The initial chamber air conditions were set at 70F ( 5F) and 50% ( 10%) RH. A supporting frame and releasing device were designed and built to trigger consistently the dropping of the can. The particle sampling inlet was placed 5 ft above the floor and 6 inches laterally away from the cans falling path. Concentrations of particles between 0.5 ?m and 20 ?m were recorded in units of mass and number of particles per unit volume. The data acquisition rate was once

  7. Building America Case Study: Duct in Conditioned Space in a Dropped Ceiling or Fur-down, Gainesville, Florida (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-09-01

    Forced air distribution systems (duct systems) typically are installed out of sight for aesthetic reasons, most often in unconditioned areas such as an attic or crawlspace. Any leakage of air to or from the duct system (duct leakage) in unconditioned space not only loses energy, but impacts home and equipment durability and indoor air quality. An obvious solution to this problem is to bring the duct system into the interior of the house, either by sealing the area where the ducts are installed (sealed attic or crawlspace) or by building an interior cavity or chase above the ceiling plane (raised ceiling or fur-up chase) or below the ceiling plane (dropped ceiling or fur-down) for the duct system. This case study examines one Building America builder partner's implementation of an inexpensive, quick and effective method of building a fur-down or dropped ceiling chase.

  8. LLNL small-scale drop-hammer impact sensitivity test (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: LLNL small-scale drop-hammer impact sensitivity test Citation Details In-Document Search Title: LLNL small-scale drop-hammer impact sensitivity test You are ...

  9. UCRL-ID-119665 LLNL Small-Scale Drop-Hammer Impact Sensitivity...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    UCRL-ID-119665 LLNL Small-Scale Drop-Hammer Impact Sensitivity Test L. Richard Simpson M. ... LLNL Small-Scale Drop-Hammer Impact Sensitivity Test L. Richard Simpson, and M. Frances ...

  10. Bulk Fuel Procurement Process & Alternative Drop-in Fuel | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Bulk Fuel Procurement Process & Alternative Drop-in Fuel Bulk Fuel Procurement Process & Alternative Drop-in Fuel Jeanne Binder, DLA Energy, presentation on Bulk Fuel Procurement Process & Alternative Drop-in Fuel at the Advanced Biofuels Industry Roundtable. 7_binder_roundtable.pdf (1.17 MB) More Documents & Publications DLA Energy: Your Supplemental Energy Contracting Venue Advanced Drop-In Biofuels Initiative Agenda FUPWG Spring 2015 Agenda and Presentations

  11. How low can you go? Low pressure drop laboratory design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weale, John; Rumsey, Peter; Sartor, Dale; Lock, Lee Eng

    2001-12-01

    Laboratory buildings are characterized by the production of potentially hazardous fumes within the occupied space. The primary objective of a laboratory ventilation system is to isolate and protect the occupants from the fumes, as well as provide minimum outside air at a comfortable temperature. Fume removal results in the need for a large volume of conditioned make-up air, typically a significantly greater volume than required for space temperature conditioning purposes. The high quantity of exhaust naturally results in a once through system, which is also often required by codes that prohibit any recirculation in a laboratory space. The high costs associated with high airflow systems are magnified by the 24 hours a day, 356 days a year ventilation operation often seen in laboratory situations. All too often, the common design approach taken to laboratory mechanical systems results in a traditional office ventilation system upsized to meet a laboratory's requirements. Recognizing the unique aspects of laboratory requirements and operation is essential to optimizing the mechanical system. Figure 1 shows a breakdown of a laboratory building's electricity use, based on a DOE 2 model of a baseline laboratory building design for Montana State University (Bozeman, MT). In laboratory buildings, the largest and easiest target for energy use reduction is usually the ventilation energy. At about 50 percent of the buildings total electricity usage, a 15 percent reduction in the power required by the ventilation system would save more energy than eliminating all lighting energy. As the largest component of a laboratory's energy consumption, the ventilation system is the first target to reduce the energy bill. Significantly improving the standard design efficiency of a ventilation system requires a lower air pressure drop system on both the supply and exhaust system. Implementing low-pressure drop design strategies from the early stages of the design process will result in

  12. Qualification of the Lasentec M600P Particle Size Analyzer and the Red Valve Model 1151 Pressure Sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JR Bontha; NG Colton; EA Daymo; TD Hylton; CK Bayne; TH May

    2000-01-28

    The Lasentec M600 in-line particle size analyzer was installed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in August 1998 to support retrieval of the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT). Before installation at ORNL, the sensor underwent validation testing at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Instrument Validation facility. Mechanically, the instrument worked well during validation testing and met all expectations. Operationally, much was learned about optimum ways to display and interpret the data. Slurry samples taken during the in-line tests at PNNL were shipped to the vendor for analysis with a benchtop Lasentec sensor. These experiments were performed to determine if off-line analyses yield particle size distributions similar to those generated by the in-line sensor. It was determined that the Lasentec sensor measures repeatable chord lengths as long as particles are ''presenter'' to the sensor window the same way. After the initial non-radioactive simulant testing at PNNL, the instrument was shipped for radioactive validation and acceptance testing in the Slurry Monitoring Test System (SMTS) connected to the Tank W-9 of the GAATs at ORNL. For all acceptance tests conducted at ORNL, the variation in the chord length distribution and the total particle count corresponded very well with the slurry density data as determined using an in-line Promass 63M Coriolis meter. Based on the performance results obtained, the Lasentec M600P FBRM is expected to meet the requirements for measuring the particle size distribution during the slurry transfer operations at Hanford and the Oak Ridge GAAT remediation project. The Red Valve pressure sensor was endorsed at the Hanford Site following instrument validation tests at PNNL and is currently in operation in the Tank 241-C-106 pump pit. While this instrument measures pressure within a transfer line, this type of pressure sensor could be configured to measure pressure drop over time. In turn, the status of a slurry

  13. Hopper Job Size Charts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Job Size Charts Hopper Job Size Charts Fractional Jobs The following charts show the fraction of hours used on Hopper in each of five job-core-size bins: 2014 Usage by Job Size Chart 2013 2012 2011 Large Jobs The following charts show the fraction of hours used on Hopper by jobs using greater than 16,384 cores: 2014 2013 2012 Usage by Job Size Chart 2011 Last edited: 2016-05-02 09:20:42

  14. An experimental study on the uptake factor of tungsten oxide particles resulting from an accidentally dropped storage container

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhi; Zhang, J. S.; Byington, Jerry G.A.

    2013-05-16

    A test procedure was developed and verified to measure the airborne concentrations of particles of different sizes (0.5–20 μm) within the vicinity of a dropped container when a significant portion of the tungsten oxide powder (simulating uranium oxide) is ejected from the container. Tests were carried out in a full-scale stainless steel environmental chamber with an interior volume of 24.1 m3. Thirty-two drop tests were performed, covering variations in dropping height, room air movement, landing scenario, and lid condition. Assuming a breathing rate of 1.2 m3/hr, the uptake factor during the first 10 min was calculated to be between 1.13 × 10–9 and 1.03 × 10–7 in reference to the amount loaded; or between 6.44 × 10–8 and 3.55 × 10–4 in reference to the amount spilled. Results provide previously unavailable data for estimating the exposure and associated risk to building occupants in the case of an accidental dropping of heavy powder containers. The test data show that for spills larger than 0.004 g, the power-law correlation between the spill uptake factor and the spilled mass (i.e., SUF = 2.5 × 10–5 × Spill_Mass–0.667) established from the test data is smaller and a more accurate estimate than the constant value of 10–3 assumed in the Department of Energy Nuclear Material Packaging Manual. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplementary resource: an online supplementary table of all cumulative uptake amounts at 10 min for all test data.

  15. Edison Job Size Charts

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reports » Edison Job Size Charts Edison Job Size Charts Fraction of Hours Used per Job Size Note: Interactive charts with current and past Cori and Edison data are now available on MyNERSC This chart shows the fraction of hours used on Edison in each of 5 job-core-size bins. 2015 Usage by Job Size Chart 2014 Fraction of Hours Used by Big Jobs This chart shows the fraction of hours used on Edison by jobs using 16,384 or more cores. 2015 Usage by Job Size Chart 2014 Last edited: 2016-04-21

  16. HLW Canister and Can-In-Canister Drop Calculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H. Marr

    1999-09-15

    The purpose of this calculation is to evaluate the structural response of the standard high-level waste (HLW) canister and the HLW canister containing the cans of immobilized plutonium (''can-in-canister'' throughout this document) to the drop event during the handling operation. The objective of the calculation is to provide the structure parameter information to support the canister design and the waste handling facility design. Finite element solution is performed using the commercially available ANSYS Version (V) 5.4 finite element code. Two-dimensional (2-D) axisymmetric and three-dimensional (3-D) finite element representations for the standard HLW canister and the can-in-canister are developed and analyzed using the dynamic solver.

  17. Total number of longwall faces drops below 50

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2009-02-15

    For the first time since Coal Age began its annual Longwall Census the number of faces has dropped below 50. A total of five mines operate two longwall faces. CONSOL Energy remains the leader with 12 faces. Arch Coal operates five longwall mines; Robert E. Murray owns five longwall mines. West Virginia has 13 longwalls, followed by Pennsylvania (8), Utah (6) and Alabama (6). A detailed table gives for each longwall installation, the ownership, seam height, cutting height, panel width and length, overburden, number of gate entries, depth of cut, model of equipment used (shearer, haulage system, roof support, face conveyor, stage loader, crusher, electrical controls and voltage to face). 2 tabs., 1 photo.

  18. Powder processing for the fabrication of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramics. 1: Influence of spray-dried granule strength on pore size distribution in green compacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamiya, Hidehiro; Isomura, Kenji; Jimbo, Genji; Junichiro, Tsubaki

    1995-01-01

    The effect of spray-dried granule strength on the microstructure of green compacts obtained by isostatic pressing was quantitatively analyzed. The fracture strength of single granules of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} powder made with ultrafine Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders was measured directly by diametral compression. It was found that fracture strength increased notably with the increasing relative density of the granule and the decreasing size of agglomerates in suspension before spray-drying. Even when green bodies were prepared at an isostatic pressure of 200 MPa, intergranular pores, which negatively affected densification of the sintered bodies, occurred between unfractured granules. The volume and size of these pores in the green compacts increased with the increasing fracture strength of the granules. In the case of closely packed granules, an isostatic pressure of 800 MPa was required to completely collapse the intergranular pores. A simple equation was derived to calculate the isostatic pressure necessary for complete collapse of intergranular pores in the green compacts, and it was determined that granule strength must be kept as low as possible to obtain uniform green compacts.

  19. Latest Report Shows Cost of Going Solar has Dropped Significantly...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The report shows that the installed price of distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) power systems in the United States continues to fall precipitously, especially in the last 5 years. ...

  20. Search for: All records | Data Explorer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ARM: Rain gauge Mary Jane Bartholomew Rain gauge View Dataset March 2006 ARM: Video Disdrometer Drop Size Distribution Mary Jane Bartholomew Video Disdrometer Drop Size ...

  1. Correlating Size and Composition-Dependent Effects with Magnetic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Correlating Size and Composition-Dependent Effects with Magnetic, Mssbauer, and Pair Distribution Function Measurements in a Family of Catalytically Active Ferrite Nanoparticles ...

  2. DropBot: An open-source digital microfluidic control system with precise control of electrostatic driving force and instantaneous drop velocity measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fobel, Ryan; Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research, 160 College St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E1 ; Fobel, Christian; Wheeler, Aaron R.; Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research, 160 College St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E1; Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St. George St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6

    2013-05-13

    We introduce DropBot: an open-source instrument for digital microfluidics (http://microfluidics.utoronto.ca/dropbot). DropBot features two key functionalities for digital microfluidics: (1) real-time monitoring of instantaneous drop velocity (which we propose is a proxy for resistive forces), and (2) application of constant electrostatic driving forces through compensation for amplifier-loading and device capacitance. We anticipate that this system will enhance insight into failure modes and lead to new strategies for improved device reliability, and will be useful for the growing number of users who are adopting digital microfluidics for automated, miniaturized laboratory operation.

  3. Study of the effect of humidity, particle hygroscopicity and size on the mass loading capacity of HEPA filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, A.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of humidity, particle hygroscopicity and size on the mass loading capacity of glass fiber HEPA filters has been studied. At humidifies above the deliquescent point, the pressure drop across the HEPA filter increased non-linearly with the areal loading density (mass collected/filtration area) of NaCl aerosol, thus significantly reducing the mass loading capacity of the filter compared to dry hygroscopic or non-hygroscopic particle mass loadings. The specific cake resistance, K{sub 2}, has been computed for different test conditions and used as a measure of the mass loading capacity. K. was found to decrease with increasing humidity for the non-hygroscopic aluminum oxide particles and the hygroscopic NaCl particles (at humidities below the deliquescent point). It is postulated that an increase in humidity leads to the formation of a more open particulate cake which lowers the pressure drop for a given mass loading. A formula for predicting K{sub 2} for lognormally distributed aerosols (parameters obtained from impactor data) is derived. The resistance factor, R, calculated using this formula was compared to the theoretical R calculated using the Rudnick-Happel expression. For the non-hygroscopic aluminum oxide the agreement was good but for the hygroscopic sodium chloride, due to large variation in the cake porosity estimates, the agreement was poor.

  4. Study of the effect of humidity, particle hygroscopicity and size on the mass loading capacity of HEPA filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, A.

    1992-09-01

    The effect of humidity, particle hygroscopicity and size on the mass loading capacity of glass fiber HEPA filters has been studied. At humidifies above the deliquescent point, the pressure drop across the HEPA filter increased non-linearly with the areal loading density (mass collected/filtration area) of NaCl aerosol, thus significantly reducing the mass loading capacity of the filter compared to dry hygroscopic or non-hygroscopic particle mass loadings. The specific cake resistance, K{sub 2}, has been computed for different test conditions and used as a measure of the mass loading capacity. K. was found to decrease with increasing humidity for the non-hygroscopic aluminum oxide particles and the hygroscopic NaCl particles (at humidities below the deliquescent point). It is postulated that an increase in humidity leads to the formation of a more open particulate cake which lowers the pressure drop for a given mass loading. A formula for predicting K{sub 2} for lognormally distributed aerosols (parameters obtained from impactor data) is derived. The resistance factor, R, calculated using this formula was compared to the theoretical R calculated using the Rudnick-Happel expression. For the non-hygroscopic aluminum oxide the agreement was good but for the hygroscopic sodium chloride, due to large variation in the cake porosity estimates, the agreement was poor.

  5. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Utica Drop Forge and Tool Corp - NY 39

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Drop Forge and Tool Corp - NY 39 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: UTICA DROP FORGE & TOOL CORP. (NY.39) Eliminated from further consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: None Location: Utica , New York NY.39-1 Evaluation Year: 1994 NY.39-2 Site Operations: Interest expressed by Utica Drop Forge & Tool Corporation to Conduct Uranium Forging and Casting for the AEC. No indication that the contractor actually did a substantial amount of work of this nature at

  6. 5-Carbon Alcohols for Drop-in Gasoline Replacement - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuels Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search 5-Carbon Alcohols for Drop-in Gasoline Replacement Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory...

  7. Liquefaction of Forest Biomass to Drop-inŽ Hydrocarbon Biofuels...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Liquefaction of Forest Biomass to "Drop-in" Hydrocarbon Biofuels Contract EE0005974 March ... of technologies for production of biofuels and biobased products * Supports the ...

  8. ARM - Measurement - Hydrometeor size

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    size ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Hydrometeor size The size of a hydrometeor, measured directly or derived from other measurements. Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those

  9. SIZE AND SURFACE AREA OF ICY DUST AGGREGATES AFTER A HEATING EVENT AT A PROTOPLANETARY NEBULA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sirono, Sin-iti

    2013-03-01

    The activity of a young star rises abruptly during an FU Orionis outburst. This event causes a temporary temperature increase in the protoplanetary nebula. H{sub 2}O icy grains are sublimated by this event, and silicate cores embedded inside the ice are ejected. During the high-temperature phase, the silicate grains coagulate to form silicate core aggregates. After the heating event, the temperature drops, and the ice recondenses onto the aggregates. I determined numerically the size distribution of the ice-covered aggregates. The size of the aggregates exceeds 10 {mu}m around the snow line. Because of the migration of the ice to large aggregates, only a small fraction of the silicate core aggregate is covered with H{sub 2}O ice. After the heating event, the surface of an ice-covered aggregate is totally covered by silicate core aggregates. This might reduce the fragmentation velocity of aggregates when they collide. It is possible that the covering silicate cores shield the UV radiation field which induces photodissociation of H{sub 2}O ice. This effect may cause the shortage of cold H{sub 2}O vapor observed by Herschel.

  10. Trapping of oil drops in a noncircular pore throat and mobilization upon contact with a surfactant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arriola, A.; Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.

    1983-02-01

    An experimental apparatus was developed to study trapping and mobilization of oil drops in a capillary of square cross section (100 microns X 100 microns (100 ..mu..m X 100 ..mu..m)) having a constriction also approximately square in shape. Experiments to investigate trapping consisted of injecting a drop of nonwetting phase liquid (''oil'') into a flowing water stream (wetting phase). Pre-equilibrated alcohol/water systems were used to study effects of interfacial tension (IFT). A drop was displaced toward the constriction by the flowing water. The behavior of the drop as it approached and was trapped by the constriction or as it moved through the constriction was observed as a function of flow rate, drop length, and IFT between the water and nonwetting liquid. Mobilization by surfactants was investigated by conducting a series of displacement experiments in the capillary cell. Data from the mobilization experiments allowed two mechanisms to be identified. In Mechanism 1, minute quantities of the surfactant and/or cosurfactant were carried ahead of the main surfactant slug by brine that bypassed the slug. This reduced the IFT between the oil and brine. The oil drop moved further into the constriction and a snap-off process ensued. Mechanism 2 occurred when a sharp interface of the surfactant slug contacted the trailing edge of a nonane drop that was either trapped or in a snap-off process. A series of events that mobilized the drop occurred over a very short time period (< 4.0 seconds). The events included rupture of the drop interface, rolling motions inside the drop with resulting emulsification, and passage of the emulsified drop through the pore constriction without snap-off.

  11. EIS Distribution

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This DOE guidance presents a series of recommendations related to the EIS distribution process, which includes creating and updating a distribution list, distributing an EIS, and filing an EIS with the EPA.

  12. Does size matter?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carreras, B. A.; Physics Department, College of Natural Science and Mathematics and Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska 99775; Physics Department, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Madrid ; Newman, D. E.; Dobson, Ian

    2014-06-15

    Failures of the complex infrastructures society depends on having enormous human and economic cost that poses the question: Are there ways to optimize these systems to reduce the risks of failure? A dynamic model of one such system, the power transmission grid, is used to investigate the risk from failure as a function of the system size. It is found that there appears to be optimal sizes for such networks where the risk of failure is balanced by the benefit given by the size.

  13. Strategy Guideline: HVAC Equipment Sizing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, A.

    2012-02-01

    The heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system is arguably the most complex system installed in a house and is a substantial component of the total house energy use. A right-sized HVAC system will provide the desired occupant comfort and will run efficiently. This Strategy Guideline discusses the information needed to initially select the equipment for a properly designed HVAC system. Right-sizing of an HVAC system involves the selection of equipment and the design of the air distribution system to meet the accurate predicted heating and cooling loads of the house. Right-sizing the HVAC system begins with an accurate understanding of the heating and cooling loads on a space; however, a full HVAC design involves more than just the load estimate calculation - the load calculation is the first step of the iterative HVAC design procedure. This guide describes the equipment selection of a split system air conditioner and furnace for an example house in Chicago, IL as well as a heat pump system for an example house in Orlando, Florida. The required heating and cooling load information for the two example houses was developed in the Department of Energy Building America Strategy Guideline: Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations.

  14. WINDExchange: Distributed Wind

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    Distributed Wind Photo of a small wind turbine next to a farm house with a colorful sunset in the background. The distributed wind market includes wind turbines and projects of many sizes, from small wind turbines less than 1 kilowatt (kW) to multi-megawatt wind farms. The term "distributed wind" describes off-grid or grid-connected wind turbines at homes, farms and ranches, businesses, public and industrial facilities, and other sites. The turbines can provide all of the power used at

  15. Tests of Four PT-415 Coolers Installed in the Drop-in Mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, Michael A.; Wang, S.T.

    2008-07-08

    The superconducting magnets and absorbers for MICE will be cooled using PT415 pulse tube coolers. The cooler 2nd stage will be connected to magnets and the absorbers through a helium or hydrogen re-condensing system. It was proposed that the coolers be connected to the magnets in such a way that the cooler can be easily installed and removed, which permits the magnets to be shipped without the coolers. The drop-in mode requires that the cooler 1st stage be well connected to the magnet shields and leads through a low temperature drop demountable connection. The results of the PT415 drop-in cooler tests are presented.

  16. Truman's decision to drop the bomb to be discussed at 70th anniversary

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    lecture July 10 70th anniversary lecture July 10 about Truman, bomb Truman's decision to drop the bomb to be discussed at 70th anniversary lecture July 10 Noel Pugach will discuss Truman's decision to drop atomic bombs on Japanese cities and explain how and why he made it July 3, 2013 70th anniversary lecture July 10 about Truman, bomb Noel Pugach will discuss Truman's decision to drop atomic bombs on Japanese cities and explain how and why he made it Contact Nick Njegomir Communications

  17. Measurements of control rod efficiency in RBMK critical assembly upon dropping of the rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhitarev, V. E. Kachanov, V. M.; Sergevnin, A. Yu.; Lebedev, G. V.

    2014-12-15

    The efficiency of control rods in the RBMK critical assembly was measured in the case where one manual-control rod (MCR) is dropped from a steady critical state, and several other MCRs were additionally dropped after 44 s. The measured number of neutrons in the assembly during and after dropping of the rods was used to calculate the efficiency values of the rods by solution of the system of point kinetics equations. A series of methods of the initial data treatment for determination of the desired values of reactivity without the calculated corrections were used.

  18. Distributed PV Interconnection: Recent Analysis Findings

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Make Smart Solar Decisions Distributed Solar Interconnection: Challenges and Best ... 50, Arizona: 54, Colorado: 63, New York: 68 New Jersey: 90 System Size Mean Median Std. ...

  19. Concentrations and Size Distributions of Particulate Matter Emissions...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Devices on the Emission Profiles of Trucks and Buses CNG and Diesel Transite Bus Emissions in Review ARB's Study of Emissions from Diesel and CNG Heavy-duty Transit Buses

  20. Dispersion of Cloud Droplet Size Distributions, Cloud Parameterization...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Broomfield, Colorado, March 31-April 4, 2003 indicates that for a given liquid water content and droplet concentration, the effect of spectral dispersion alone can cause...

  1. Technology Solutions Case Study: Duct in Conditioned Space in a Dropped Ceiling or Fur-down, Gainesville, Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-09-01

    Forced-air distribution systems (duct systems) typically are installed out of sight for aesthetic reasons, most often in unconditioned areas such as attics or crawlspaces. Any leakage of air to or from the duct system in unconditioned space not only loses energy, but impacts home and equipment durability and indoor air quality. An obvious solution is to bring the duct system into the interior of the house, either by sealing the area where the ducts are installed (attic or crawlspace) or by building an interior cavity or chase above the ceiling plane (raised ceiling or fur-up chase) or below the ceiling plane (dropped ceiling or fur-down) for the duct system. In this project, Building America Partnership for Improved Residential Construction team partnered with Tommy Williams Homes to implement an inexpensive, quick, and effective method of building a fur-down chase.

  2. Solar power prices are dropping fast, NREL says | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar power prices are dropping fast, NREL says Home > Groups > Buildings Dc's picture Submitted by Dc(266) Contributor 21 October, 2014 - 16:03 The price of solar power panels...

  3. California: Advanced 'Drop-In' Biofuels Power the Navy's Green Strike Group

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    EERE's investment allowed Solezyme to increase its algal oil production by a factor of 10, leading to the U.S. Navy's purchase of 450,000 gallons of "drop-in" jet fuel.

  4. GE partners with Matthew Dear to create "Drop Science" | GE Global...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    emissions from the world's most powerful machines. The result is an original track of music titled "Drop Science." Listen to the track here: Watc Matthew Dear and Andrew Gorton...

  5. A little drop will do it: Tiny grains of lithium can dramatically...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A little drop will do it: Tiny grains of lithium can dramatically improve the performance ... Right: Cross-section of plasma in which lithium has turned the emitted light green. ...

  6. A little drop will do it: Tiny grains of lithium can dramatically...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A little drop will do it: Tiny grains of lithium can dramatically improve the performance ... Right, Cross-section of plasma in which lithium has turned the emitted light green. ...

  7. Big drop in coal-fired electricity generation during first half...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Big drop in coal-fired electricity generation during first half of 2016 The amount of U.S. electricity generated by coal continues to decline in 2016, as power plant operators turn ...

  8. 2014 Hydrogen Student Design Contest to Design Drop-In Hydrogen Fueling

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Station | Department of Energy Hydrogen Student Design Contest to Design Drop-In Hydrogen Fueling Station 2014 Hydrogen Student Design Contest to Design Drop-In Hydrogen Fueling Station December 16, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis The 10th annual Hydrogen Student Design Contest will challenge student teams to design a transportable, containerized hydrogen fueling station solution. Registration for the contest, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable

  9. NANOFLUIDICS REVOLUTION: PROTECTING THE WORLD ONE DROP AT A TIME (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: NANOFLUIDICS REVOLUTION: PROTECTING THE WORLD ONE DROP AT A TIME Citation Details In-Document Search Title: NANOFLUIDICS REVOLUTION: PROTECTING THE WORLD ONE DROP AT A TIME Nanofluidics is a technology that involves the transport of very small liquid samples, on the order of micro- or pico-liters, confined to nanoscale structures. Scientists at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) in collaboration with the University of South Carolina are

  10. Infrared detection of (H2O)20 isomers of exceptional stability: A drop-like and a face-sharing pentagonal prism cluster

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pradzynski, Christoph C.; Dierking, Christoph W.; Zurheide, Florian; Forck, Richard M.; Buck, Udo; Zeuch, Thomas; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2014-09-01

    Water clusters containing fully coordinated water molecules are model systems that mimic the local environment of the condensed phase. Present knowledge about the water cluster size regime in which the transition from the allsurface to the fully solvated water molecules occurs is mainly based on theoretical predictions in lieu of the absence of precisely size resolved experimental measurements. Here, we report size and isomer selective infrared (IR) spectra of (H2O)20 clusters tagged with a sodium atom by employing IR excitation modulated photoionization spectroscopy. The observed absorption patterns in the OH stretching ”fingerprint” region are consistent with the theoretically predicted spectramore » of two structurally distinct isomers: A drop-like cluster with a fully coordinated (interior) water and an edge-sharing pentagonal prism cluster in which all atoms are on the surface. The observed isomers show exceptional stability and are predicted to be nearly isoenergetic.« less

  11. High-solids paint overspray aerosols in a spray painting booth: particle size analysis and scrubber efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, T.L.; D'arcy, J.B.; Schreck, R.M.

    1986-07-01

    Particle size distributions of high-solids acrylic-enamel paint overspray aerosols were determined isokinetically in a typical downdraft spray painting booth in which a 7-stage cascade impactor was used. Three different industrial paint atomizers were used, and the paint aerosols were characterized before and after a paint both scrubber. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of a metallic basecoat and an acrylic clearcoat paint aerosol from air-atomized spray guns ranged from 4-12 ..mu..m and was dependent on atomization pressure. When the paint booth was operated under controlled conditions simulating those in a plant, the collection efficiency of paint overspray aerosols by a paint scrubber was found to be size dependent and decreased sharply for particles smaller than 2 ..mu..m to as low as 64% for clearcoat paint particles of 0.6 ..mu..m. Improvement in the overall particulate removal efficiency can be achieved by optimizing the spray painting operations so as to produce the least amount of fine overspray paint aerosols less than 2 ..mu..m. Maintaining a higher static pressure drop across the paint both scrubber also will improve scrubber performance.

  12. Distribution Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On September 24-26, 2012, the GTT presented a workshop on grid integration on the distribution system at the Sheraton Crystal City near Washington, DC.

  13. Distributed Generation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and regulations such as IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 1547 have come a long way in addressing interconnection standards for distributed generation, ...

  14. TN-68 Spent Fuel Transport Cask Analytical Evaluation for Drop Events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, M. J.; Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Adkins, Harold E.; Koeppel, Brian J.

    2007-03-30

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is responsible for licensing commercial spent nuclear fuel transported in casks certified by NRC under the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR), Title 10, Part 71 [1]. Both the International Atomic Energy Agency regulations for transporting radioactive materials [2, paragraph 727], and 10 CFR 71.73 require casks to be evaluated for hypothetical accident conditions, which includes a 9-meter (m) (30-ft) drop-impact event onto a flat, essentially unyielding, horizontal surface, in the most damaging orientation. This paper examines the behavior of one of the NRC certified transportation casks, the TN-68 [3], for drop-impact events. The specific area examined is the behavior of the bolted connections in the cask body and the closure lid, which are significantly loaded during the hypothetical drop-impact event. Analytical work to evaluate the NRC-certified TN-68 spent fuel transport cask [3] for a 9-m (30-ft) drop-impact event on a flat, unyielding, horizontal surface, was performed using the ANSYS® [4] and LS DYNA™ [5] finite-element analysis codes. The models were sufficiently detailed, in the areas of bolt closure interfaces and containment boundaries, to evaluate the structural integrity of the bolted connections under 9-m (30-ft) free-drop hypothetical accident conditions, as specified in 10 CFR 71.73. Evaluation of the cask for puncture, caused by a free drop through a distance of 1-m (40-in.) onto a mild steel bar mounted on a flat, essentially unyielding, horizontal surface, required by 10 CFR 71.73, was not included in the current work, and will have to be addressed in the future. Based on the analyses performed to date, it is concluded that, even though brief separation of the flange and the lid surfaces may occur under some conditions, the seals would close at the end of the drop events, because the materials remain elastic during the duration of the event.

  15. Effect of bed pressure drop on performance of a CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hairui Yang; Hai Zhang; Shi Yang; Guangxi Yue; Jun Su; Zhiping Fu

    2009-05-15

    The effect of bed pressure drop and bed inventory on the performances of a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler was studied. By using the state specification design theory, the fluidization state of the gas-solids flow in the furnace of conventional CFB boilers was reconstructed to operate at a much lower bed pressure drop by reducing bed inventory and control bed quality. Through theoretical analysis, it was suggested that there would exist a theoretical optimal value of bed pressure drop, around which the boiler operation can achieve the maximal combustion efficiency and with significant reduction of the wear of the heating surface and fan energy consumption. The analysis was validated by field tests carried out in a 75 t/h CFB boiler. At full boiler load, when bed pressure drop was reduced from 7.3 to 3.2 kPa, the height of the dense zone in the lower furnace decreased, but the solid suspension density profile in the upper furnace and solid flow rate were barely influenced. Consequently, the average heat transfer coefficient in the furnace was kept nearly the same and the furnace temperature increment was less than 17{sup o}C. It was also found that the carbon content in the fly ash decreased first with decreasing bed pressure drop and then increased with further increasing bed pressure drop. The turning point with minimal carbon content was referred to as the point with optimal bed pressure drop. For this boiler, at the optimum point the bed pressure was around 5.7 kPa with the overall excess air ratio of 1.06. When the boiler was operated around this optimal point, not only the combustion efficiency was improved, but also fan energy consumption and wear of heating surface were reduced. 23 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Experimental investigation of ice slurry flow pressure drop in horizontal tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grozdek, Marino; Khodabandeh, Rahmatollah; Lundqvist, Per [Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Energy Technology, Division of Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration, Brinellvaegen 68, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-01-15

    Pressure drop behaviour of ice slurry based on ethanol-water mixture in circular horizontal tubes has been experimentally investigated. The secondary fluid was prepared by mixing ethyl alcohol and water to obtain initial alcohol concentration of 10.3% (initial freezing temperature -4.4 C). The pressure drop tests were conducted to cover laminar and slightly turbulent flow with ice mass fraction varying from 0% to 30% depending on test conditions. Results from flow tests reveal much higher pressure drop for higher ice concentrations and higher velocities in comparison to the single phase flow. However for ice concentrations of 15% and higher, certain velocity exists at which ice slurry pressure drop is same or even lower than for single phase flow. It seems that higher ice concentration delay flow pattern transition moment (from laminar to turbulent) toward higher velocities. In addition experimental results for pressure drop were compared to the analytical results, based on Poiseulle and Buckingham-Reiner models for laminar flow, Blasius, Darby and Melson, Dodge and Metzner, Steffe and Tomita for turbulent region and general correlation of Kitanovski which is valid for both flow regimes. For laminar flow and low buoyancy numbers Buckingham-Reiner method gives good agreement with experimental results while for turbulent flow best fit is provided with Dodge-Metzner and Tomita methods. Furthermore, for transport purposes it has been shown that ice mass fraction of 20% offers best ratio of ice slurry transport capability and required pumping power. (author)

  17. Investigation of pressure drop in capillary tube for mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson cryocooler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ardhapurkar, P. M.; Sridharan, Arunkumar; Atrey, M. D.

    2014-01-29

    A capillary tube is commonly used in small capacity refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. It is also a preferred expansion device in mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson (MR J-T) cryocoolers, since it is inexpensive and simple in configuration. However, the flow inside a capillary tube is complex, since flashing process that occurs in case of refrigeration and air-conditioning systems is metastable. A mixture of refrigerants such as nitrogen, methane, ethane, propane and iso-butane expands below its inversion temperature in the capillary tube of MR J-T cryocooler and reaches cryogenic temperature. The mass flow rate of refrigerant mixture circulating through capillary tube depends on the pressure difference across it. There are many empirical correlations which predict pressure drop across the capillary tube. However, they have not been tested for refrigerant mixtures and for operating conditions of the cryocooler. The present paper assesses the existing empirical correlations for predicting overall pressure drop across the capillary tube for the MR J-T cryocooler. The empirical correlations refer to homogeneous as well as separated flow models. Experiments are carried out to measure the overall pressure drop across the capillary tube for the cooler. Three different compositions of refrigerant mixture are used to study the pressure drop variations. The predicted overall pressure drop across the capillary tube is compared with the experimentally obtained value. The predictions obtained using homogeneous model show better match with the experimental results compared to separated flow models.

  18. Simulation and analysis of the plutonium shipping container subject to 30-foot drops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong, C.; Gupta, N.K.; Gromada, R.J.

    1995-12-31

    The shipping container 5320 is a shipping package for radioactive materials. In order to maintain the component in this packaging within the sub-critical state when subjected to any kind of Hypothetical Accident conditions (HAC), this Type B packaging is designed with various impact limiters. The present study is to examine the energy absorbing capacity of the impact limiter design of this container subjected to a 30-foot drop onto a flat unyielding horizontal surface in each of the three critical dropping orientations. This paper presents the results of a three dimensional nonlinear dynamic impact analysis. This analysis shows the deformed configuration of the container caused by the impact and also determines the effects of different stress wave paths in three distinct drops on the stress states in the critical component. The solution to the problem was obtained using the ABAQUS (explicit) finite element computer code. The nonlinearity of this analysis involves large structural deformation, elasto-plastic materials with strain hardening as well as multiple contact interfaces. Three drop orientations were studied, namely, top down impact, bottom down impact and side impact. Results will be compared against actual drop test data.

  19. Quantitative Reflectance Spectra of Solid Powders as a Function of Particle Size

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Myers, Tanya L.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Su, Yin-Fong; Blake, Thomas A.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Ertel, Alyssa B.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Richardson, Robert L.

    2015-05-19

    We have recently developed vetted methods for obtaining quantitative infrared directional-hemispherical reflectance spectra using a commercial integrating sphere. In this paper, the effects of particle size on the spectral properties are analyzed for several samples such as ammonium sulfate, calcium carbonate, and sodium sulfate as well as one organic compound, lactose. We prepared multiple size fractions for each sample and confirmed the mean sizes using optical microscopy. Most species displayed a wide range of spectral behavior depending on the mean particle size. General trends of reflectance vs. particle size are observed such as increased albedo for smaller particles: for mostmorewavelengths, the reflectivity drops with increased size, sometimes displaying a factor of 4 or more drop in reflectivity along with a loss of spectral contrast. In the longwave infrared, several species with symmetric anions or cations exhibited reststrahlen features whose amplitude was nearly invariant with particle size, at least for intermediate- and large-sized sample fractions; that is, > ~150 microns. Trends of other types of bands (Christiansen minima, transparency features) are also investigated as well as quantitative analysis of the observed relationship between reflectance vs. particle diameter.less

  20. How Distributed Wind Works | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    How Distributed Wind Works How Distributed Wind Works Your browser does not support iframes. Distributed wind energy systems are commonly installed on, but are not limited to, residential, agricultural, commercial, industrial, and community sites, and can range in size from a 5-kilowatt turbine at a home to a multi-megawatt (MW) turbine at a manufacturing facility. Distributed wind systems are connected on the customer side of the meter to meet the onsite load or directly to distribution or

  1. Negative pressures and spallation in water drops subjected to nanosecond shock waves

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stan, Claudiu A.; Willmott, Philip R.; Stone, Howard A.; Koglin, Jason E.; Liang, Mengning; Aquila, Andrew L.; Robinson, Joseph S.; Gumerlock, Karl L.; Blaj, Gabriel; Sierra, Raymond G.; et al

    2016-05-16

    Most experimental studies of cavitation in liquid water at negative pressures reported cavitation at tensions significantly smaller than those expected for homogeneous nucleation, suggesting that achievable tensions are limited by heterogeneous cavitation. We generated tension pulses with nanosecond rise times in water by reflecting cylindrical shock waves, produced by X-ray laser pulses, at the internal surface of drops of water. Depending on the X-ray pulse energy, a range of cavitation phenomena occurred, including the rupture and detachment, or spallation, of thin liquid layers at the surface of the drop. When spallation occurred, we evaluated that negative pressures below –100 MPamore » were reached in the drops. As a result, we model the negative pressures from shock reflection experiments using a nucleation-and-growth model that explains how rapid decompression could outrun heterogeneous cavitation in water, and enable the study of stretched water close to homogeneous cavitation pressures.« less

  2. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Distributed Energy Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Distributed Energy Program Project Profile: Verizon Central Office Building ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Distributed Energy Program Project ...

  3. Femtosecond laser-induced size reduction of carbon nanodots in solution: Effect of laser fluence, spot size, and irradiation time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Vanthan; Yan, Lihe Si, Jinhai; Hou, Xun

    2015-02-28

    Photoluminescent carbon nanodots (C-dots) with size tunability and uniformity were fabricated in polyethylene glycol (PEG{sub 200N}) solution using femtosecond laser ablation method. The size distributions and photoluminescence (PL) properties of C-dots are well controlled by adjusting the combined parameters of laser fluence, spot size, and irradiation time. The size reduction efficiency of the C-dots progressively increases with decreasing laser fluence and spot size. The optimal PL spectra are red-shifted and the quantum yields decrease with the increase in C-dots size, which could be attributed to the more complex surface functional groups attached on C-dots induced at higher laser fluence and larger spot size. Moreover, an increase in irradiation time leads to a decrease in size of C-dots, but long-time irradiation will result in the generation of complex functional groups on C-dots, subsequently the PL spectra are red-shifted.

  4. B61-12 Life Extension Program Radar Drop Tests Completed Successfully |

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    National Nuclear Security Administration | (NNSA) B61-12 Life Extension Program Radar Drop Tests Completed Successfully August 29, 2013 WASHINGTON, D.C. - As part of the ongoing effort to refurbish the aging B61 nuclear bomb without resorting to underground nuclear testing, two successful B61-12 radar drop tests were successfully completed at the Tonopah Test Range in Nevada on Aug. 14 and 15, 2013, by engineers from Sandia National Laboratories. Current B61s use decades-old vacuum tubes as

  5. EERE Success Story-California: Advanced 'Drop-In' Biofuels Power the

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Navy's Green Strike Group | Department of Energy Advanced 'Drop-In' Biofuels Power the Navy's Green Strike Group EERE Success Story-California: Advanced 'Drop-In' Biofuels Power the Navy's Green Strike Group April 18, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis Partnering with Solazyme of San Francisco, EERE enabled the company to increase its production of algal oil by a factor of 10. In December 2011, the U.S. Navy's Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) announced that it would purchase 450,000 gallons of Solazyme's

  6. U.S. gasoline price expected to drop further below $3 per gallon

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    gasoline price expected to drop further below $3 per gallon The national average pump price of gasoline dropped below $3 per gallon last week for the first time in nearly four years. U.S. gasoline prices are expected to sink further below the $3 per gallon mark through the end of this year and average under $3 for the year in 2015. In its new short-term forecast, the U.S. Energy Information Administration said the average price for gasoline will continue to decline, reaching an average $2.80 per

  7. Numerical investigation of low-viscosity drop breakup in a contracting flow

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Numerical investigation of low-viscosity drop breakup in a contracting flow Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Numerical investigation of low-viscosity drop breakup in a contracting flow Authors: Zhu, Guangdong ; Mammoli, Andrea Publication Date: 2011-03-01 OSTI Identifier: 1256411 Report Number(s): NREL/JA-550-51916 Journal ID: ISSN 1531-3492 DOE Contract Number: AC36-08GO28308 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name:

  8. Probing the size and environment induced phase transformation in CdSe quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karakoti, Ajay S.; Sanghavi, Shail P.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Yang, Ping; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2011-11-17

    The structural and electronic properties of CdSe quantum dots in toluene and drop-casted on Si wafer were investigated by in-situ micro X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV-Vis absorption and emission spectroscopy. The in-situ micro diffraction data show that the CdSe quantum dots capped with TOPO or hexadecylamine (HDA) in toluene exhibit predominantly wurtzite crystal structure, which undergoes a phase transformation to zinc blende crystal structure following drop casting on Si and this phase transition increases with decreasing the size of the CdSe quantum dots. Decreasing the size of quantum dots also increases the Se vacancies that facilitate the phase transformation. The X-ray photoelectron spectra show a systematic increase in the core level binding energies of Cd 3d and Se 3d, the band gap and the Cd/Se ratio as the size of the quantum dots decreases from 6.6nm to 2.1nm. This is attributed to the quantum confinement of CdSe crystallites by the capping ligands in toluene which increases with decreasing the size of the quantum dots. However, drop-casting quantum dots on Si alter the density and arrangement of capping ligands and solvent molecules on the quantum dots which causes significant phase transformation.

  9. Magnetic agglomeration method for size control in the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huber, Dale L.

    2011-07-05

    A method for controlling the size of chemically synthesized magnetic nanoparticles that employs magnetic interaction between particles to control particle size and does not rely on conventional kinetic control of the reaction to control particle size. The particles are caused to reversibly agglomerate and precipitate from solution; the size at which this occurs can be well controlled to provide a very narrow particle size distribution. The size of particles is controllable by the size of the surfactant employed in the process; controlling the size of the surfactant allows magnetic control of the agglomeration and precipitation processes. Agglomeration is used to effectively stop particle growth to provide a very narrow range of particle sizes.

  10. SU-F-18C-11: Diameter Dependency of the Radial Dose Distribution in a Long Polyethylene Cylinder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakalyar, D; McKenney, S; Feng, W

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The radial dose distribution in the central plane of a long cylinder following a long CT scan depends upon the diameter and composition of the cylinder. An understanding of this behavior is required for determining the spatial average of the dose in the central plane. Polyethylene, the material for construction of the TG200/ICRU phantom (30 cm in diameter) was used for this study. Size effects are germane to the principles incorporated in size specific dose estimates (SSDE); thus diameter dependency was explored as well. Method: ssuming a uniform cylinder and cylindrically symmetric conditions of irradiation, the dose distribution can be described using a radial function. This function must be an even function of the radial distance due to the conditions of symmetry. Two effects are accounted for: The direct beam makes its weakest contribution at the center while the contribution due to scatter is strongest at the center and drops off abruptly at the outer radius. An analytic function incorporating these features was fit to Monte Carlo results determined for infinite polyethylene cylinders of various diameters. A further feature of this function is that it is integrable. Results: Symmetry and continuity dictate a local extremum at the center which is a minimum for the larger sizes. The competing effects described above can Resultin an absolute maximum occurring between the center and outer edge of the cylinders. For the smallest cylinders, the maximum dose may occur at the center. Conclusion: An integrable, analytic function can be used to characterize the radial dependency of dose for cylindrical CT phantoms of various sizes. One use for this is to help determine average dose distribution over the central cylinder plane when equilibrium dose has been reached.

  11. HI-STAR 100 Spent Fuel Transport Cask Analytical Evaluation for Drop Events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, M. J.; Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Adkins, Harold E.; Koeppel, Brian J.

    2007-03-30

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is responsible for licensing commercial spent nuclear fuel transported in casks certified by NRC under the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Title 10, Part 71 [1]. Both the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations for transporting radioactive materials [2, paragraph 727], and 10 CFR 71.73 require casks to be evaluated for hypothetical accident conditions, which includes a 9-meter (m) (30-ft) drop impact event on a flat, essentially unyielding, horizontal surface, in the most damaging orientation. This paper examines the behavior of one of the NRC-certified transportation casks, the HI-STAR 100 [3], for drop impact events. The specific area examined is the behavior of the bolted connections in the “overpack” top flange and the closure plate, which are significantly loaded during the hypothetical drop impact event. The term “overpack” refers to the cask that receives and contains a sealed multi-purpose canister (MPC) containing spent nuclear fuel. The analytical work to evaluate the NRC-certified HI-STAR 100 spent fuel transport cask [3] for a 9-m (30-ft) drop impact event on a flat, unyielding, horizontal surface, was performed using the ANSYS® [4] and LS DYNA™ [5] finite-element analysis codes. The models were sufficiently detailed, in the areas of bolt closure interfaces and containment boundaries, to evaluate the structural integrity of the bolted connections under 9-m (30-ft) free-drop hypothetical accident conditions, as specified in 10 CFR 71.73. Evaluation of the cask for puncture, caused by a free-drop through a distance of 1-m (40-in.) onto a mild steel bar mounted on a flat, essentially unyielding, horizontal surface, required by 10 CFR 71.73, was not included in the current work, and will have to be addressed in the future. Based on the analyses performed to date, it is concluded that, even though brief separation of the flange and the closure plate surfaces may occur, the seals would

  12. Bag breakup of low viscosity drops in the presence of a continuous air jet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulkarni, V. Sojka, P. E.

    2014-07-15

    This work examines the breakup of a single drop of various low viscosity fluids as it deforms in the presence of continuous horizontal air jet. Such a fragmentation typically occurs after the bulk liquid has disintegrated upon exiting the atomizer and is in the form of an ensemble of drops which undergo further breakup. The drop deformation and its eventual disintegration is important in evaluating the efficacy of a particular industrial process, be it combustion in automobile engines or pesticide spraying in agricultural applications. The interplay between competing influences of surface tension and aerodynamic disruptive forces is represented by the Weber number, We, and Ohnesorge number, Oh, and used to describe the breakup morphology. The breakup pattern considered in our study corresponds to that of a bag attached to a toroidal ring which occurs from ?12 < We < ?16. We aim to address several issues connected with this breakup process and their dependence on We and Oh which have been hitherto unexplored. The We boundary at which breakup begins is theoretically determined and the expression obtained, We=12(1+2/3Oh{sup 2}), is found to match well with experimental data ([L.-P. Hsiang and G. M. Faeth, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 21(4), 545560 (1995)] and [R. S. Brodkey, Formation of drops and bubbles, in The Phenomena of Fluid Motions (Addison-Wesley, Reading, 1967)]). An exponential growth in the radial extent of the deformed drop and the streamline dimension of the bag is predicted by a theoretical model and confirmed by experimental findings. These quantities are observed to strongly depend on We. However, their dependence on Oh is weak.

  13. Impact of aerosol size representation on modeling aerosol-cloud interactions: AEROSOL SIZE REPRESENTATION

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Y.; Easter, R. C.; Ghan, S. J.; Abdul-Razzak, H.

    2002-11-07

    We use a 1-D version of a climate-aerosol-chemistry model with both modal and sectional aerosol size representations to evaluate the impact of aerosol size representation on modeling aerosol-cloud interactions in shallow stratiform clouds observed during the 2nd Aerosol Characterization Experiment. Both the modal (with prognostic aerosol number and mass or prognostic aerosol number, surface area and mass, referred to as the Modal-NM and Modal-NSM) and the sectional approaches (with 12 and 36 sections) predict total number and mass for interstitial and activated particles that are generally within several percent of references from a high resolution 108-section approach. The modal approachmore » with prognostic aerosol mass but diagnostic number (referred to as the Modal-M) cannot accurately predict the total particle number and surface areas, with deviations from the references ranging from 7-161%. The particle size distributions are sensitive to size representations, with normalized absolute differences of up to 12% and 37% for the 36- and 12-section approaches, and 30%, 39%, and 179% for the Modal-NSM, Modal-NM, and Modal-M, respectively. For the Modal-NSM and Modal-NM, differences from the references are primarily due to the inherent assumptions and limitations of the modal approach. In particular, they cannot resolve the abrupt size transition between the interstitial and activated aerosol fractions. For the 12- and 36-section approaches, differences are largely due to limitations of the parameterized activation for non-log-normal size distributions, plus the coarse resolution for the 12-section case. Differences are larger both with higher aerosol (i.e., less complete activation) and higher SO2 concentrations (i.e., greater modification of the initial aerosol distribution).« less

  14. Distributed Generation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Untapped Value of Backup Generation While new guidelines and regulations such as IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 1547 have come a long way in addressing interconnection standards for distributed generation, utilities have largely overlooked the untapped potential of these resources. Under certain conditions, these units (primarily backup generators) represent a significant source of power that can deliver utility services at lower costs than traditional centralized

  15. Distribution Category:

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    - Distribution Category: Remedial Action and Decommissioning Program (UC-70A) DOE/EV-0005/48 ANL-OHS/HP-84-104 ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne, Illinois 60439 FORMERLY UTILIZED MXD/AEC SITES REMEDIAL ACTION PROGRAM RADIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE HARSHAW CHEMICAL COMPANY CLEVELAND. OHIO Prepared by R. A. Wynveen Associate Division Director, OHS W. H. Smith Senior Health Physicist C. M. Sholeen Health Physicist A. L. Justus Health Physicist K. F. Flynn Health Physicist

  16. Strategic Petroleum Reserve: Analysis of size options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-02-01

    This report presents the results of the deliberations of the interagency group formed to study the costs and benefits of expanding the size of the SPR. The study concentrated on severe oil supply disruptions involving sharp reductions in world oil production that were 2 to 4 times larger than the largest 1970s interruption. The disruption sizes and estimated probability of occurrence of these scenarios were supplied by the CIA. The most critical part of the CIA's analysis was the assessment of likelihood of these cases occurring. The CIA approached the likelihood problem by combining an examination of past oil supply disruptions with qualitative analysis of important oil market and regional trends. The study group then used statistical techniques and probability distributions to synthesize the historical data with CIA evaluations of as yet unobserved events. The SPR size study assumed direct purchases of SPR oil and did not assume the use of alternative financing mechanisms. Members of the working group with foreign policy and national security responsibilities provided an in-depth review of strategic considerations affecting SPR size. A number of prior studies, some classified, have addressed the strategic importance and insurance value of the SPR to the US and its allies. The results of these studies have also been incorporated in the current effort. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Wide size range fast integrated mobility spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Jian

    2013-10-29

    A mobility spectrometer to measure a nanometer particle size distribution is disclosed. The mobility spectrometer includes a conduit and a detector. The conduit is configured to receive and provide fluid communication of a fluid stream having a charged nanometer particle mixture. The conduit includes a separator section configured to generate an electrical field of two dimensions transverse to a dimension associated with the flow of the charged nanometer particle mixture through the separator section to spatially separate charged nanometer particles of the charged nanometer particle mixture in said two dimensions. The detector is disposed downstream of the conduit to detect concentration and position of the spatially-separated nanometer particles.

  18. Discovered: Tiny Drops of "Perfect" Fluid that Existed in the Early

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Universe | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Discovered: Tiny Drops of "Perfect" Fluid that Existed in the Early Universe Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) Community Resources Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-26/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3613 F: (301) 903-3833 E: Email Us More

  19. Glitter-Sized Solar Photovoltaics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Featured in this photograph are tiny glitter-sized photovoltaic cells, developed by Sandia National Laboratories scientists, that could revolutionize the way solar energy is collected and used....

  20. Pressure drop and heat transfer characteristics of boiling water in sub-hundred micron channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhide, R.R.; Singh, S.G.; Sridharan, Arunkumar; Duttagupta, S.P.; Agrawal, Amit [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India)

    2009-09-15

    The current work focuses on the pressure drop, heat transfer and stability in two phase flow in microchannels with hydraulic diameter of less than one hundred microns. Experiments were conducted in smooth microchannels of hydraulic diameter of 45, 65 {mu}m, and a rough microchannel of hydraulic diameter of 70 {mu}m, with deionised water as the working fluid. The local saturation pressure and temperature vary substantially over the length of the channel. In order to correctly predict the local saturation temperature and subsequently the heat transfer characteristics, numerical techniques have been used in conjunction with the conventional two phase pressure drop models. The Lockhart-Martinelli (liquid-laminar, vapour-laminar) model is found to predict the two phase pressure drop data within 20%. The instability in two phase flow is quantified; it is found that microchannels of smaller hydraulic diameter have lesser instabilities as compared to their larger counterparts. The experiments also suggest that surface characteristics strongly affect flow stability in the two phase flow regime. The effect of hydraulic diameter and surface characteristics on the flow characteristics and stability in two phase flow is seldom reported, and is of considerable practical relevance. (author)

  1. Interactions between drops of molten Al-Li alloys and liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyder, M.L.; Nelson, L.S.; Duda, P.M.; Hyndman, D.A.

    1993-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, at the request of the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), studied the interactions between single drops of molten aluminum-lithium alloys and water. Most experiments were performed with ``B`` alloy (3.1 w/o Li, balance A1). Objectives were to develop experimental procedures for preparing and delivering the melt drops and diagnostics for characterizing the interactions, measure hydrogen generated by the reaction between melt and water, examine debris recovered after the interaction, determine changes in the aqueous phase produced by the melt-water chemical reactions, and determine whether steam explosions occur spontaneously under the conditions studied. Although many H{sub 2} bubbles were generated after the drops entered the water, spontaneous steam explosions never occurred when globules of the ``B`` alloy at temperatures between 700 and 1000C fell freely through water at room temperature, or upon or during subsequent contact with submerged aluminum or stainless steel surfaces. Total amounts of H{sub 2} (STP) increased from about 2 to 9 cm{sup 3}/per gram of melt as initial melt temperature increased over this range of temperatures.

  2. Effect of particle size reduction on anaerobic sludge digestion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koutsospyros, A.D.

    1990-01-01

    The majority of organic pollutants in primary sludge are suspended in the form of particulate rather than soluble matter. Microbial organisms cannot assimilate this material without initial solubilization. In anaerobic digestion, the initial size breakdown is accomplished by hydrolytic bacteria. The extent of solubilization is limited by the size of particulate matter. Thus, size reduction prior to digestion is a sound alternative. Size reduction pretreatment was achieved by means of ultrasonic waves. Sonication proved an effective method for size reduction of particulate matter in primary sludge. In addition, although the method produced relatively high amounts of finely dispered solids, the filtration properties of resulting sludges were not affected. Chemical characteristics of sludge, important in anaerobic digestion, were not affected, at least within the attempted range of sonication time and amplitude. The effect of size reduction of primary sludge solids was studied under batch and semi-continuous feed conditions. Preliminary batch digestion experiments were conducted in five 1.5 liter reactors that accepted sonicated feeds of varying pretreatment at four different feed loads (3.3-13.3% by volume). The digestion efficiency and gas production were increased by as much as 30 percent as a result of sonication without any deterioration in the filtration properties of the digester effluent. At higher feed loads the digester efficiency dropped drastically and significant deterioration of the effluent filtration properties from all reactors was evident. Semi-continuous runs were conducted in four reactors. Solids retention time (SRT) was varied from 8 to 20 days. Process efficiency and gas production were enhanced as a result of sonication. Process improvement was more evident under short SRT (8-10 days).

  3. Experimental characterization of pressure drops and channel instabilities in helical coil SG tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colombo, M.; Cammi, A.; De Amicis, J.; Ricotti, M. E.

    2012-07-01

    Helical tube heat exchangers provide better heat transfer characteristics, an improved capability to accommodate stresses due to thermal expansions and a more compact design with respect to straight tube heat exchangers. For these advantages they are considered as an option for the Steam Generator (SG) of many new reactor projects of Generation III+ and Generation IV. In particular, their compactness fits well with the requirements of Small-medium Modular Reactors (SMRs) of integral design, where all the primary system components are located inside the reactor vessel. In this framework, thermal hydraulics of helical pipes has been studied in recent years by Politecnico di Milano in different experimental campaigns. Experiments have been carried out in a full-scale open loop test facility installed at SIET labs in Piacenza (Italy)), to simulate the SG of a typical SMR. The facility includes two helical pipes (1 m coil diameter, 32 m length, 8 m height), connected via lower and upper headers. Following recently completed experimental campaigns dedicated to pressure drops and density wave instabilities, this paper deals with a new experimental campaign focused on both pressure drops (single-phase flow and two-phase flow, laminar and turbulent regimes) and flow instabilities. The availability of a large number of experimental data, in particular on two-phase flow, is of fundamental interest for correlation development, model validation and code assessment. Two-phase pressure drops have been measured in adiabatic conditions, ranging from 200 to 600 kg/m{sup 2}s for the mass flux, from 30 to 60 bar for the pressure and from 0.1 to 1.0 for the flow quality. The channel characteristics mass flow rate - pressure drop has been determined experimentally in the range 10-40 bar, varying the mass flow rate at a fixed value of the thermal flux. In addition, single-phase pressure drops have been measured in both laminar and turbulent conditions. Density wave instabilities have

  4. Defect distributions in weld-deposited cladding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Y.Y.; Mabe, W.R.

    1998-11-01

    Defect distributions in stainless steel and nickel-chromium alloy weld-deposited cladding over a low alloy steel base were characterized by destructive evaluation (DE). An evaluation of the observed defects was conducted to characterize the defects by type or classification. Size distributions of cladding defect types were developed from the information obtained. This paper presents the results of the cladding evaluation.

  5. Method for sizing hollow microspheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farnum, E.H.; Fries, R.J.

    1975-10-29

    Hollow Microspheres may be effectively sized by placing them beneath a screen stack completely immersed in an ultrasonic bath containing a liquid having a density at which the microspheres float and ultrasonically agitating the bath.

  6. The influence of surfactant on the deformation and breakup of a viscous drop: The effect of surfactant solubility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milliken, W.J. ); Leal, L.G. . Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering)

    1994-09-01

    The influence of surfactant on the deformation of a viscous drop in a uniaxial extensional flow is considered. Previous studies have examined the role in insoluble surfactant. Here, the authors examine soluble surfactant, i.e., surfactant that may be transferred between the interface and the continuous phase. The transfer of surfactant to and from the interface mitigates many of the effects observed with insoluble surfactant by diminishing the magnitude of surfactant gradients. In the presence of soluble surfactant, the deformation generally lies between that of insoluble surfactant and that of a drop with a constant and uniform coverage of surfactant. However, there are notable exceptions particularly at high surfactant activity. The influence of surfactant on the interfacial velocity of the drop is also explicitly considered. It is shown that while insoluble surfactant can substantially retard a drop interface, interphase surfactant transfer acts to remobilize the interface.

  7. Testing the density matrix expansion against ab initio calculations of trapped neutron drops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogner, S. K.; Hergert, H.; Furnstahl, R. J.; Kortelainen, Erno M; Stoitsov, M. V.; Maris, Pieter; Vary, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    Microscopic input to a universal nuclear energy density functional can be provided through the density matrix expansion (DME), which has recently been revived and improved. Several DME implementation strategies are tested for neutron drop systems in harmonic traps by comparing to Hartree-Fock (HF) and ab initio no-core full configuration (NCFC) calculations with a model interaction (Minnesota potential). The new DME with exact treatment of Hartree contributions is found to best reproduce HF results and supplementing the functional with fit Skyrme-like contact terms shows systematic improvement toward the full NCFC results.

  8. Foot Drop after Ethanol Embolization of Calf Vascular Malformation: A Lesson on Nerve Injury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tay, Vincent Khwee-Soon; Mohan, P. Chandra; Liew, Wendy Kein Meng; Mahadev, Arjandas; Tay, Kiang Hiong

    2013-08-01

    Ethanol is often used in sclerotherapy to treat vascular malformations. Nerve injury is a known complication of this procedure. However, the management of this complication is not well described in literature. This case describes a 10-year-old boy with a slow flow vascular malformation in the right calf who underwent transarterial ethanol embolization following prior unsuccessful direct percutaneous sclerotherapy. The development of a dense foot drop that subsequently recovered is described, and the management of this uncommon but distressful complication is discussed.

  9. A little drop will do it: Tiny grains of lithium can dramatically improve

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the performance of fusion plasmas | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab A little drop will do it: Tiny grains of lithium can dramatically improve the performance of fusion plasmas By Raphael Rosen May 22, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Left: DIII-D tokamak. Right: Cross-section of plasma in which lithium has turned the emitted light green. (Credits: Left, General Atomics / Right, Steve Allen, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) Left: DIII-D tokamak. Right: Cross-section of

  10. A little drop will do it: Tiny grains of lithium can dramatically improve

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the performance of fusion plasmas | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab A little drop will do it: Tiny grains of lithium can dramatically improve the performance of fusion plasmas By Raphael Rosen May 22, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook Left: DIII-D tokamak. Right, Cross-section of plasma in which lithium has turned the emitted light green. (Credits: Left, General Atomics / Right: Steve Allen, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) Left: DIII-D tokamak. Right, Cross-section of

  11. I A STUDY OF THE WORKABILITY OF URANIUM BY MEANS OF TENSILE-IMPACT, HARDNESS, AND DROP-HAMMER

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    A STUDY OF THE WORKABILITY OF URANIUM BY MEANS OF TENSILE-IMPACT, HARDNESS, AND DROP-HAMMER I EVALUATIONS AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES PROPOSAL TO NATIONAL LEAD COMPANY OF OHIO A STUDY OF THE WORKABILITY OF URANIUM BY MEANS OF TENSILE-IMPACT, HARDNESS, AND DROP-HAMMER EVALUATIONS AT ELEVATED TEMPERATURES PROPOSAL TO NATIONAL LEAD COMPANY OF OHIO Southern Research Institute Birmingham, Alabama January 30, 1963 Proposal No. 2152 Copy of original document Iccated in FEMP Archives. .L TABLEOFCONTENTS

  12. The Impact of Oil Consumption Mechanisms on Diesel Exhaust Particle Size

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distributions and Detailed Exhaust Chemical Composition | Department of Energy Oil Consumption Mechanisms on Diesel Exhaust Particle Size Distributions and Detailed Exhaust Chemical Composition The Impact of Oil Consumption Mechanisms on Diesel Exhaust Particle Size Distributions and Detailed Exhaust Chemical Composition 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: University of Wisconsin-Madison 2003_deer_foster.pdf (1.18 MB) More Documents & Publications Mass Correlation of Engine Emissions with

  13. Distributed Solar Interconnection Challenges and Best Practices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The continued growth of the distributed solar market in the United States has spurred electric utilities, regulators, and stakeholders to consider improvements to distributed generation (DG) interconnection processes. More than 475,000 solar energy systems were interconnected in the U.S. by the end of 2013, but 1 million are expected by the end of 2017. Based on the SunShot Initiative's current trajectory, permitting, inspection, and interconnection (PII) soft costs are expected to drop from a current cost of $0.17/watt to $0.14/watt by 2020. While the actual cost metrics for utility PII are undetermined, they are real. A survey and interviews conducted by Solar Electric Power Association (SEPA) in 2014 have uncovered utility initiatives to lower the administrative costs of DG interconnection, making the process of connecting to the grid simpler and more transparent for customers.

  14. Geometrical gauge factor of directional electric potential drop sensors for creep monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madhi, E.; Nagy, P. B.

    2011-06-23

    Directional electric potential drop measurements can be exploited for in-situ monitoring of creep in metals. The sensor monitors the variation in the ratio of the resistances measured simultaneously in the axial and lateral directions using a square-electrode configuration. This technique can efficiently separate the mostly isotropic common part of the resistivity variation caused by reversible temperature variations from the mostly anisotropic differential part caused by direct geometrical and indirect material effects of creep. Initially, this ratio is roughly proportional to the axial creep strain, while at later stages, the resistance ratio increases even faster with creep strain because of the formation of directional discontinuities such as preferentially oriented grain boundary cavities and multiple-site cracks in the material. Similarly to ordinary strain gauges, the relative sensitivity of the sensor is defined as a gauge factor that can be approximated as a sum of geometrical and material parts. This work investigated the geometrical gauge factor by analytical and experimental means. We found that under uniaxial stress square-electrode sensors exhibit geometrical gauge factors of about 4 and 5 in the elastic and plastic regimes, respectively, i.e., more than twice those of conventional strain gauges. Experimental results obtained on 304 stainless steel using a square-electrode electric potential drop creep sensor agree well with our theoretical predictions.

  15. Biofuels Fuels Technology Pathway Options for Advanced Drop-in Biofuels Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin L Kenney

    2011-09-01

    Advanced drop-in hydrocarbon biofuels require biofuel alternatives for refinery products other than gasoline. Candidate biofuels must have performance characteristics equivalent to conventional petroleum-based fuels. The technology pathways for biofuel alternatives also must be plausible, sustainable (e.g., positive energy balance, environmentally benign, etc.), and demonstrate a reasonable pathway to economic viability and end-user affordability. Viable biofuels technology pathways must address feedstock production and environmental issues through to the fuel or chemical end products. Potential end products include compatible replacement fuel products (e.g., gasoline, diesel, and JP8 and JP5 jet fuel) and other petroleum products or chemicals typically produced from a barrel of crude. Considering the complexity and technology diversity of a complete biofuels supply chain, no single entity or technology provider is capable of addressing in depth all aspects of any given pathway; however, all the necessary expert entities exist. As such, we propose the assembly of a team capable of conducting an in-depth technology pathway options analysis (including sustainability indicators and complete LCA) to identify and define the domestic biofuel pathways for a Green Fleet. This team is not only capable of conducting in-depth analyses on technology pathways, but collectively they are able to trouble shoot and/or engineer solutions that would give industrial technology providers the highest potential for success. Such a team would provide the greatest possible down-side protection for high-risk advanced drop-in biofuels procurement(s).

  16. EIA - Coal Distribution

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Annual Coal Distribution Report > Annual Coal Distribution Archives Annual Coal Distribution Archive Release Date: February 17, 2011 Next Release Date: December 2011 Domestic coal ...

  17. Discussion of Available Methods to Support Reviews of Spent Fuel Storage Installation Cask Drop Evaluations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witte, M.

    2000-03-28

    Applicants seeking a Certificate of Compliance for an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) cask must evaluate the consequences of a handling accident resulting in a drop or tip-over of the cask onto a concrete storage pad. As a result, analytical modeling approaches that might be used to evaluate the impact of cylindrical containers onto concrete pads are needed. One such approach, described and benchmarked in NUREG/CR-6608,{sup 1} consists of a dynamic finite element analysis using a concrete material model available in DYNA3D{sup 2} and in LS-DYNA,{sup 3} together with a method for post-processing the analysis results to calculate the deceleration of a solid steel billet when subjected to a drop or tip-over onto a concrete storage pad. The analysis approach described in NUREG/CR-6608 gives a good correlation of analysis and test results. The material model used for the concrete in the analyses in NUREG/CR-6608 is, however, somewhat troublesome to use, requiring a number of material constants which are difficult to obtain. Because of this a simpler approach, which adequately evaluates the impact of cylindrical containers onto concrete pads, is sought. Since finite element modeling of metals, and in particular carbon and stainless steel, is routinely and accurately accomplished with a number of finite element codes, the current task involves a literature search for and a discussion of available concrete models used in finite element codes. The goal is to find a balance between a concrete material model with a limited number of required material parameters which are readily obtainable, and a more complex model which is capable of accurately representing the complex behavior of the concrete storage pad under impact conditions. The purpose of this effort is to find the simplest possible way to analytically represent the storage cask deceleration during a cask tip-over or a cask drop onto a concrete storage pad. This report is divided into three sections

  18. 2015 Distributed Wind Market Report Fact Sheet | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distributed Wind Market Report Fact Sheet 2015 Distributed Wind Market Report Fact Sheet 2015-Distributed-Wind-Market-Report-Fact-Sheet_Page_1.jpg Wind turbines in distributed applications are found in all 50 states, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands to provide energy locally, either serving on-site electricity needs or a local grid. Distributed wind is defined by the wind project's location relative to end-use and powerdistribution infrastructure, rather than turbine or project size.

  19. Measurement of Interfacial Tension By Use of Pendant Drop Video Techniques

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-06-26

    An instrument and associated software to measure the interfacial tension (IFT) of aqueous surfactant solutions and crude oil. The method involves injection of a drop of fluid (such as crude oil) into a second immiscible phase to determine the IFT between the two phases. The instrument is composed of an AT-class computer, optical cell, illumination, video camera and lens, video frame digitizer board, monitor, and software. The camera displays an image of the pendant dropmore » on the monitor, which is then processed by the frame digitizer board and non-proprietary software to determine the IFT. Several binary and ternary phase systems were taken from the literature and used to measure the precision and accuracy of the instrument in determining IFTs.« less

  20. Two-phase pressure drop across a hydrofoil-based micro pin device using R-123

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosar, Ali [Mechatronics Engineering Program, Sabanci University, Orhanli, Tuzla, 34956 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2008-05-15

    The two-phase pressure drop in a hydrofoil-based micro pin fin heat sink has been investigated using R-123 as the working fluid. Two-phase frictional multipliers have been obtained over mass fluxes from 976 to 2349 kg/m{sup 2} s and liquid and gas superficial velocities from 0.38 to 1.89 m/s and from 0.19 to 24 m/s, respectively. It has been found that the two-phase frictional multiplier is strongly dependent on flow pattern. The theoretical prediction using Martinelli parameter based on the laminar fluid and laminar gas flow represented the experimental data fairly well for the spray-annular flow. For the bubbly and wavy-intermittent flow, however, large deviations from the experimental data were recorded. The Martinelli parameter was successfully used to determine the flow patterns, which were bubbly, wavy-intermittent, and spray-annular flow in the current study. (author)

  1. GASIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald C. Timpe; Michael D. Mann; Darren D. Schmidt

    2000-05-01

    evaluated through reactivity and product composition were carried out on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) equipment. These tests were evaluated and then followed by bench-scale studies at 1123 K using an integrated bench-scale fluidized-bed gasifier (IBG) which can be operated in the semicontinuous batch mode. Products from tests were solid (ash), liquid (tar), and gas. Tar was separated on an open chromatographic column. Analysis of the gas product was carried out using on-line Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). For selected tests, gas was collected periodically and analyzed using a refinery gas analyzer GC (gas chromatograph). The solid product was not extensively analyzed. This report is a part of a search into emerging gasification technologies that can provide power under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries, and it is probable that scaled-down applications for use in remote areas will become viable. The appendix to this report contains a list, description, and sources of currently available gasification technologies that could be or are being commercially applied for distributed generation. This list was gathered from current sources and provides information about the supplier, the relative size range, and the status of the technology.

  2. Building America Case Study: Duct in Conditioned Space in a Dropped...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Projected energy cost savings: 165year compared to Building America 2010 Benchmark Forced-air distribution systems (duct systems) typically are installed out of sight for ...

  3. Analysis for Eccentric Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Drops at the Canister Storage Building (CSB) (CSB-S-0073)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HOLLENBECK, R.G.

    2000-06-07

    The purpose of this report is to investigate the potential for damage to the multi-canister overpack (MCO) during impact from an eccentric accidental drop onto the standard storage tube, overpack storage tube, service station or sampling/weld station. Damage to the storage tube and sample/weld station is beyond the scope of this report. The results of this analysis are required to show the following: (1) If a breach resulting in unacceptable release of contamination could occur in the MCO. (2) If the dropped MCO could become stuck in the storage tube after the drop. (3) Maximum deceleration of the spent nuclear fuel baskets. The model appropriate for the standard storage tubes with the smaller gap is the basis for the analysis and results reported herein in this SNF-5204, revision 2 report. Revision 1 of this report is based on a model that includes the larger gap appropriate for the overpack tubes.

  4. Metal oxide porous ceramic membranes with small pore sizes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A.; Xu, Qunyin

    1991-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the production of metal oxide ceramic membranes of very small pore size. The process is particularly useful in the creation of titanium and other transition metal oxide membranes. The method utilizes a sol-gel process in which the rate of particle formation is controlled by substituting a relatively large alcohol in the metal alkoxide and by limiting the available water. Stable, transparent metal oxide ceramic membranes are created having a narrow distribution of pore size, with the pore diameter being manipulable in the range of 5 to 40 Angstroms.

  5. Metal oxide porous ceramic membranes with small pore sizes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A.; Xu, Qunyin

    1992-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the production of metal oxide ceramic membranes of very small pore size. The process is particularly useful in the creation of titanium and other transition metal oxide membranes. The method utilizes a sol-gel process in which the rate of particle formation is controlled by substituting a relatively large alcohol in the metal alkoxide and by limiting the available water. Stable, transparent metal oxide ceramic membranes are created having a narrow distribution of pore size, with the pore diameter being manipulable in the range of 5 to 40 Angstroms.

  6. Size exclusion deep bed filtration: Experimental and modelling uncertainties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Badalyan, Alexander You, Zhenjiang; Aji, Kaiser; Bedrikovetsky, Pavel; Carageorgos, Themis; Zeinijahromi, Abbas

    2014-01-15

    A detailed uncertainty analysis associated with carboxyl-modified latex particle capture in glass bead-formed porous media enabled verification of the two theoretical stochastic models for prediction of particle retention due to size exclusion. At the beginning of this analysis it is established that size exclusion is a dominant particle capture mechanism in the present study: calculated significant repulsive Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek potential between latex particles and glass beads is an indication of their mutual repulsion, thus, fulfilling the necessary condition for size exclusion. Applying linear uncertainty propagation method in the form of truncated Taylor's series expansion, combined standard uncertainties (CSUs) in normalised suspended particle concentrations are calculated using CSUs in experimentally determined parameters such as: an inlet volumetric flowrate of suspension, particle number in suspensions, particle concentrations in inlet and outlet streams, particle and pore throat size distributions. Weathering of glass beads in high alkaline solutions does not appreciably change particle size distribution, and, therefore, is not considered as an additional contributor to the weighted mean particle radius and corresponded weighted mean standard deviation. Weighted mean particle radius and LogNormal mean pore throat radius are characterised by the highest CSUs among all experimental parameters translating to high CSU in the jamming ratio factor (dimensionless particle size). Normalised suspended particle concentrations calculated via two theoretical models are characterised by higher CSUs than those for experimental data. The model accounting the fraction of inaccessible flow as a function of latex particle radius excellently predicts normalised suspended particle concentrations for the whole range of jamming ratios. The presented uncertainty analysis can be also used for comparison of intra- and inter-laboratory particle size exclusion data.

  7. Distribution Grid Integration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE Systems Integration team funds distribution grid integration research and development (R&D) activities to address the technical issues that surround distribution grid planning,...

  8. Annual Coal Distribution Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Annual Coal Distribution Report Release Date: April 16, 2015 | Next Release Date: March 2016 | full report | RevisionCorrection Revision to the Annual Coal Distribution Report ...

  9. About Industrial Distributed Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Advanced Manufacturing Office's (AMO's) Industrial Distributed Energy activities build on the success of predecessor DOE programs on distributed energy and combined heat and power (CHP) while...

  10. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation, 2009 Final February 2011 2 Overview of 2009 Coal Distribution Tables...

  11. Results of the Sandia National Laboratories MOSAIK cask drop test program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorenson, K.; Salzbrenner, R.; Wellman, G.; Bobbe, J.

    1991-01-01

    There has been a significant international effort over the past ten years to qualify structural materials for construction of radioactive material (RAM) transportation casks. As total life cycle cost analyses argue the necessity for more efficient casks, new candidate structural materials are evaluated relative to the historically accepted austenitic stainless steels. New candidate cask containment materials include ferritic steels, ductile iron, depleted uranium, and titanium. Another material, borated stainless steel is being considered for structural cask internals because of its neutron absorption properties. The mechanical performance of the borated stainless steels is a function of the boron content and metallurgical processing conditions. A separate paper in this symposium (Stephens et al. 1992) deals with the properties of a range of borated stainless steels. A major technical issue involved with the qualification of afl these candidate materials is that they may, under certain combinations of mechanical and environmental loading, fail in a brittle fashion. Such a failure would of course not be acceptable for a RAM transport cask involved in an accident. The cask designer must assure cask owners, regulators as well as the general public that the cask will not undergo brittle fracture for all regulatory loading conditions. This paper summarizes the drop tests that were conducted using the MOSAIK casks to verify the fracture mechanics cask design approach and to demonstrate that ductile iron could be subjected to severe loading conditions without failing in a brittle manner.

  12. Drop mass transfer in a microfluidic chip compared to a centrifugal contactor

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nemer, Martin B.; Roberts, Christine C.; Hughes, Lindsey G.; Wyatt, Nicholas B.; Brooks, Carlton F.; Rao, Rekha

    2014-06-13

    A model system was developed for enabling a multiscale understanding of centrifugal-contactor liquid–liquid extraction.The system consisted of Nd(III) + xylenol orange in the aqueous phase buffered to pH =5.5 by KHP, and dodecane + thenoyltrifluroroacetone (HTTA) + tributyphosphate (TBP) in the organic phase. Diffusion constants were measured for neodymium in both the organic and aqueous phases, and the Nd(III) partition coefficients were measured at various HTTA and TBP concentrations. A microfluidic channel was used as a high-shear model environment to observe mass-transfer on a droplet scale with xylenol orange as the aqueous-phase metal indicator; mass-transfer rates were measured quantitatively inmore » both diffusion and reaction limited regimes on the droplet scale. Lastly, the microfluidic results were comparable to observations made for the same system in a laboratory scale liquid–liquid centrifugal contactor, indicating that single drop microfluidic experiments can provide information on mass transfer in complicated flows and geometries.« less

  13. Drop mass transfer in a microfluidic chip compared to a centrifugal contactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nemer, Martin B.; Roberts, Christine C.; Hughes, Lindsey G.; Wyatt, Nicholas B.; Brooks, Carlton F.; Rao, Rekha

    2014-06-13

    A model system was developed for enabling a multiscale understanding of centrifugal-contactor liquid–liquid extraction.The system consisted of Nd(III) + xylenol orange in the aqueous phase buffered to pH =5.5 by KHP, and dodecane + thenoyltrifluroroacetone (HTTA) + tributyphosphate (TBP) in the organic phase. Diffusion constants were measured for neodymium in both the organic and aqueous phases, and the Nd(III) partition coefficients were measured at various HTTA and TBP concentrations. A microfluidic channel was used as a high-shear model environment to observe mass-transfer on a droplet scale with xylenol orange as the aqueous-phase metal indicator; mass-transfer rates were measured quantitatively in both diffusion and reaction limited regimes on the droplet scale. Lastly, the microfluidic results were comparable to observations made for the same system in a laboratory scale liquid–liquid centrifugal contactor, indicating that single drop microfluidic experiments can provide information on mass transfer in complicated flows and geometries.

  14. Diamond formation due to a pH drop during fluid–rock interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sverjensky, Dimitri A.; Huang, Fang

    2015-11-03

    Diamond formation has typically been attributed to redox reactions during precipitation from fluids or magmas. Either the oxidation of methane or the reduction of carbon dioxide has been suggested, based on simplistic models of deep fluids consisting of mixtures of dissolved neutral gas molecules without consideration of aqueous ions. The role of pH changes associated with water–silicate rock interactions during diamond formation is unknown. Here we show that diamonds could form due to a drop in pH during water–rock interactions. We use a recent theoretical model of deep fluids that includes ions, to show that fluid can react irreversibly with eclogite at 900 °C and 5.0 GPa, generating diamond and secondary minerals due to a decrease in pH at almost constant oxygen fugacity. Overall, our results constitute a new quantitative theory of diamond formation as a consequence of the reaction of deep fluids with the rock types that they encounter during migration. Diamond can form in the deep Earth during water–rock interactions without changes in oxidation state.

  15. Diamond formation due to a pH drop during fluid–rock interactions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sverjensky, Dimitri A.; Huang, Fang

    2015-11-03

    Diamond formation has typically been attributed to redox reactions during precipitation from fluids or magmas. Either the oxidation of methane or the reduction of carbon dioxide has been suggested, based on simplistic models of deep fluids consisting of mixtures of dissolved neutral gas molecules without consideration of aqueous ions. The role of pH changes associated with water–silicate rock interactions during diamond formation is unknown. Here we show that diamonds could form due to a drop in pH during water–rock interactions. We use a recent theoretical model of deep fluids that includes ions, to show that fluid can react irreversibly withmore » eclogite at 900 °C and 5.0 GPa, generating diamond and secondary minerals due to a decrease in pH at almost constant oxygen fugacity. Overall, our results constitute a new quantitative theory of diamond formation as a consequence of the reaction of deep fluids with the rock types that they encounter during migration. Diamond can form in the deep Earth during water–rock interactions without changes in oxidation state.« less

  16. Water vapor distribution in protoplanetary disks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Fujun; Bergin, Edwin A.

    2014-09-01

    Water vapor has been detected in protoplanetary disks. In this work, we model the distribution of water vapor in protoplanetary disks with a thermo-chemical code. For a set of parameterized disk models, we calculate the distribution of dust temperature and radiation field of the disk with a Monte Carlo method, and then solve the gas temperature distribution and chemical composition. The radiative transfer includes detailed treatment of scattering by atomic hydrogen and absorption by water of Lyα photons, since the Lyα line dominates the UV spectrum of accreting young stars. In a fiducial model, we find that warm water vapor with temperature around 300 K is mainly distributed in a small and well-confined region in the inner disk. The inner boundary of the warm water region is where the shielding of UV field due to dust and water itself become significant. The outer boundary is where the dust temperature drops below the water condensation temperature. A more luminous central star leads to a more extended distribution of warm water vapor, while dust growth and settling tends to reduce the amount of warm water vapor. Based on typical assumptions regarding the elemental oxygen abundance and the water chemistry, the column density of warm water vapor can be as high as 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2}. A small amount of hot water vapor with temperature higher than ∼300 K exists in a more extended region in the upper atmosphere of the disk. Cold water vapor with temperature lower than 100 K is distributed over the entire disk, produced by photodesorption of the water ice.

  17. Integrated Transmission and Distribution Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalsi, Karanjit; Fuller, Jason C.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Lian, Jianming; Zhang, Wei; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Fisher, Andrew R.; Chassin, Forrest S.; Hauer, Matthew L.

    2013-01-16

    Distributed, generation, demand response, distributed storage, smart appliances, electric vehicles and renewable energy resources are expected to play a key part in the transformation of the American power system. Control, coordination and compensation of these smart grid assets are inherently interlinked. Advanced control strategies to warrant large-scale penetration of distributed smart grid assets do not currently exist. While many of the smart grid technologies proposed involve assets being deployed at the distribution level, most of the significant benefits accrue at the transmission level. The development of advanced smart grid simulation tools, such as GridLAB-D, has led to a dramatic improvement in the models of smart grid assets available for design and evaluation of smart grid technology. However, one of the main challenges to quantifying the benefits of smart grid assets at the transmission level is the lack of tools and framework for integrating transmission and distribution technologies into a single simulation environment. Furthermore, given the size and complexity of the distribution system, it is crucial to be able to represent the behavior of distributed smart grid assets using reduced-order controllable models and to analyze their impacts on the bulk power system in terms of stability and reliability. The objectives of the project were to: • Develop a simulation environment for integrating transmission and distribution control, • Construct reduced-order controllable models for smart grid assets at the distribution level, • Design and validate closed-loop control strategies for distributed smart grid assets, and • Demonstrate impact of integrating thousands of smart grid assets under closed-loop control demand response strategies on the transmission system. More specifically, GridLAB-D, a distribution system tool, and PowerWorld, a transmission planning tool, are integrated into a single simulation environment. The integrated environment

  18. Responses of Conventional Ring Closures of Drum Type Packages to Regulatory Drop Tests with Application to the 9974/9975 Package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanton, P.S.

    2002-05-31

    DOT, DOE and NRC Type A and Type B radioactive material (RAM) transport packages routinely use industrial or military specification drums with conventional clamp ring closures as an overpack. Considerable testing has been performed on these type packages over the past 30 years. Observations from test data have resulted in various design changes and recommendations to the standard drum specification and use, enhancing the reliability of the overpack. Recently, performance capability of the 9975 conventional clamp ring closure design was questioned by the Regulatory Authority. This paper highlights the observations of recent 9974 and 9975 package testing that led to redesign of the 9975, replacing the standard clamp ring closure with a bolted ring closure. In the course of this review and redesign effort, 18 package designs and approximately 100 Hypothetical Accident Condition (HAC) drops of various size and weight drum packages were evaluated. A trend was observed with respect to overpack lid failures for packages utilizing conventional ring closure. Based on this trend, a limit on the ratio of the content weight to total package weight was identified, beyond which clamp ring closure failure may be expected.

  19. Annual Coal Distribution

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2016-01-01

    The Annual Coal Distribution Report (ACDR) provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing state. All data for the report year are final and this report supersedes all data in the quarterly distribution reports.

  20. Annual Coal Distribution

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2015-01-01

    The Annual Coal Distribution Report (ACDR) provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing state. All data for the report year are final and this report supersedes all data in the quarterly distribution reports.

  1. Distributed Wind Ordinances: Slides

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    an introduction to distributed wind projects and a brief overview of topics to consider when developing a distributed wind energy ordinance. Distributed Wind Ordinances Photo from Byers and Renier Construction, NREL 18820 Distributed Wind Ordinances The U.S. Department of Energy defines distributed wind projects as: (a) The use of wind turbines, on- or off-grid, at homes, farms and ranches, businesses, public and industrial facilities, or other sites to offset all or a portion of the local

  2. EIA -Quarterly Coal Distribution

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    - Coal Distribution Quarterly Coal Distribution Archives Release Date: August 17, 2016 Next Release Date: December 22, 2016 The Quarterly Coal Distribution Report (QCDR) provides detailed quarterly data on U.S. domestic coal distribution by coal origin, coal destination, mode of transportation and consuming sector. All data are preliminary and superseded by the final Coal Distribution - Annual Report. Year/Quarters By origin State By destination State Report Data File Report Data File 2009

  3. 2012 Market Report on Wind Technologies in Distributed Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orrell, Alice C.

    2013-08-01

    An annual report on U.S. wind power in distributed applications – expanded to include small, mid-size, and utility-scale installations – including key statistics, economic data, installation, capacity, and generation statistics, and more.

  4. Sandia Energy - Distribution Grid Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Distribution Grid Integration Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Grid Integration Distribution Grid Integration Distribution Grid...

  5. Latest Report Shows Cost of Going Solar has Dropped Significantly for 5 Years

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lawrence Berkeley National Lab today released the eighth installment of the Tracking the Sun report series, which is funded by the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. The report shows that the installed price of distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) power systems in the United States continues to fall precipitously, especially in the last 5 years.

  6. Top 10 Things You Didn't Know About Distributed Wind Power |...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    by households, schools, farms, industrial facilities and municipalities, distributed wind doesn't only refer to small-scale turbines; it includes any size turbine or array of...

  7. Phase-retrieval X-ray microscopy by Wigner-distribution deconvolution

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Chapman, Henry, N.

    2014-10-30

    64x64 scan of a group of latex spheres with 45 nm step size, used for demonstrating Wigner-distribution deconvolution.

  8. Analysis for Eccentric Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Drops at the Canister Storage Building (CSB) (CSB-S-0073)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    TU, K.C.

    1999-10-08

    Multi-Canister Overpacks (MCOs) containing spent nuclear fuel (SNF) will be routinely handled at the Canister Storage Building (CSB) during fuel movement operations in the SNF Project. This analysis was performed to investigate the potential for damage from an eccentric accidental drop onto the standard storage tube, overpack tube, service station, or sample/weld station. Appendix D was added to the FDNW document to include the peer Review Comment Record & transmittal record.

  9. Measurement of the high-field Q drop in the TM010 and TE011 modes in a niobium cavity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gianluigi Ciovati; Peter Kneisel

    2006-04-01

    In the last few years superconducting radio-frequency (rf) cavities made of high-purity (residual resistivity ratio>200) niobium achieved accelerating gradients close to the theoretical limits. An obstacle towards achieving reproducibly higher fields is represented by ''anomalous'' losses causing a sharp degradation of the cavity quality factor when the peak surface magnetic field (Bp) is above about 90 mT, in the absence of field emission. This effect, called ''Q drop'' has been measured in many laboratories with single- and multicell cavities mainly in the gigahertz range. In addition, a low-temperature (100-140 C) ''in situ'' baking of the cavity was found to be beneficial in reducing the Q drop. In order to gain some understanding of the nature of these losses, a single-cell cavity has been tested in the TM010 and TE011 modes at 2 K. The feature of the TE011 mode is to have zero electric field on the cavity surface, so that electric field effects can be excluded as a source for the Q drop. This article will present some of the experimental results for different cavity treatments and will compare them with existing models.

  10. Doubly Distributed Transactions

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-08-25

    Doubly Distributed Transactions (D2T) offers a technique for managing operations from a set of parallel clients with a collection of distributed services. It detects and manages faults. Example code with a test harness is also provided

  11. Distributed Wind 2015

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Distributed Wind 2015 is committed to the advancement of both distributed and community wind energy. This two day event includes a Business Conference with sessions focused on advancing the...

  12. Hazards of explosives dusts: Particle size effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cashdollar, K L; Hertzberg, M; Green, G M

    1992-02-01

    At the request of the Department of Energy, the Bureau of Mines has investigated the hazards of military explosives dispersed as dust clouds in a 20-L test chamber. In this report, the effect of particle size for HMX, HNS, RDX, TATB, and TNT explosives dusts is studied in detail. The explosibility data for these dusts are also compared to those for pure fuel dusts. The data show that all of the sizes of the explosives dusts that were studied were capable of sustaining explosions as dust clouds dispersed in air. The finest sizes (<10 [mu]m) of explosives dusts were less reactive than the intermediate sizes (20 to 60 [mu]m); this is opposite to the particle size effect observed previously for the pure fuel dusts. At the largest sizes studied, the explosives dusts become somewhat less reactive as dispersed dust clouds. The six sizes of the HMX dust were also studied as dust clouds dispersed in nitrogen.

  13. FRIB cryogenic distribution system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganni, Venkatarao; Dixon, Kelly D.; Laverdure, Nathaniel A.; Knudsen, Peter N.; Arenius, Dana M.; Barrios, Matthew N.; Jones, S.; Johnson, M.; Casagrande, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    The Michigan State University Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (MSU-FRIB) helium distribution system has been revised to include bayonet/warm valve type disconnects between each cryomodule and the transfer line distribution system, similar to the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cryogenic distribution systems. The heat loads at various temperature levels and some of the features in the design of the distribution system are outlined. The present status, the plans for fabrication, and the procurement approach for the helium distribution system are also included.

  14. Leveraging AMI data for distribution system model calibration and situational awareness

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Peppanen, Jouni; Reno, Matthew J.; Thakkar, Mohini; Grijalva, Santiago; Harley, Ronald G.

    2015-01-15

    The many new distributed energy resources being installed at the distribution system level require increased visibility into system operations that will be enabled by distribution system state estimation (DSSE) and situational awareness applications. Reliable and accurate DSSE requires both robust methods for managing the big data provided by smart meters and quality distribution system models. This paper presents intelligent methods for detecting and dealing with missing or inaccurate smart meter data, as well as the ways to process the data for different applications. It also presents an efficient and flexible parameter estimation method based on the voltage drop equation andmore » regression analysis to enhance distribution system model accuracy. Finally, it presents a 3-D graphical user interface for advanced visualization of the system state and events. Moreover, we demonstrate this paper for a university distribution network with the state-of-the-art real-time and historical smart meter data infrastructure.« less

  15. Leveraging AMI data for distribution system model calibration and situational awareness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peppanen, Jouni; Reno, Matthew J.; Thakkar, Mohini; Grijalva, Santiago; Harley, Ronald G.

    2015-01-15

    The many new distributed energy resources being installed at the distribution system level require increased visibility into system operations that will be enabled by distribution system state estimation (DSSE) and situational awareness applications. Reliable and accurate DSSE requires both robust methods for managing the big data provided by smart meters and quality distribution system models. This paper presents intelligent methods for detecting and dealing with missing or inaccurate smart meter data, as well as the ways to process the data for different applications. It also presents an efficient and flexible parameter estimation method based on the voltage drop equation and regression analysis to enhance distribution system model accuracy. Finally, it presents a 3-D graphical user interface for advanced visualization of the system state and events. Moreover, we demonstrate this paper for a university distribution network with the state-of-the-art real-time and historical smart meter data infrastructure.

  16. Estimating payload internal temperatures and radiator size for multimegawatt space platforms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobranich, D.

    1987-08-01

    A conceptual space platform consists of a payload, a power conditioning unit (PCU), and two radiators: the main radiator and a secondary radiator. A computer program was written to determine the required size of the two radiators and the temperatures of the PCU and payload for a given platform power level. An iterative approach is necessary because the required size of the main radiator depends on the size of the secondary radiator and vice versa. Also, the temperatures of the payload and PCU depend on the size of the radiators. The program user can subdivide the two radiators into any number of nodes to increase the accuracy of the radiant heat transfer solution. The use of more nodes also allows better prediction of the nonlinear temperature drop that occurs across the radiators as the working fluid deposits the platform's waste heat in the radiator. View factor expressions are automatically calculated for different choices of the number of nodes. The user can also select different separation distances between the various platform structures. A model is included to couple the radiant and conduction heat transfer that occurs between the payload and its meteoroid shell and between the PCU and its shell. Also, the program allows the use of a refrigerator to cool the payload. If a refrigerator is used, the program determines the amount of additional thermal power needed to run the refrigerator. The results of parametric calculations are included to demonstrate the use of the program.

  17. DNA fragment sizing and sorting by laser-induced fluorescence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammond, Mark L.; Jett, James H.; Keller, Richard A.; Marrone, Babetta L.; Martin, John C.

    1996-01-01

    A method is provided for sizing DNA fragments using high speed detection systems, such as flow cytometry to determine unique characteristics of DNA pieces from a sample. In one characterization the DNA piece is fragmented at preselected sites to produce a plurality of DNA fragments. The DNA piece or the resulting DNA fragments are treated with a dye effective to stain stoichiometrically the DNA piece or the DNA fragments. The fluorescence from the dye in the stained fragments is then examined to generate an output functionally related to the number of nucleotides in each one of the DNA fragments. In one embodiment, the intensity of the fluorescence emissions from each fragment is linearly related to the fragment length. The distribution of DNA fragment sizes forms a characterization of the DNA piece for use in forensic and research applications.

  18. Fuel cells in distributed generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Sullivan, J.B.

    1999-07-01

    In the past the vertically integrated electric utility industry has not utilized Distributed Generation (DG) because it was viewed as competition to central station power production. Gas utilities have been heavily and aggressively involved in the promotion of gas fired DG because for them it is additional load that may also balance the winter load. With deregulation and restructuring of the electricity industry DG is now viewed in a different light. For those utilities that have sold their generation assets DG can be a new retail service to provide to their customers. For those who are still vertically integrated, DG can be an asset management tool at the distribution level. DG can be utilized to defer capital investments involving line and substation upgrades. Coupled to this new interest in DG technologies and their performance characteristics are the associated interests in implementation issues. These range from the codes and standards requirements and hardware for interfacing to the grid as well as C{sup 3}-I (command, control, communication--intelligence) issues. The latter involves dispatching on-grid or customer sited resources, monitoring their performance and tracking the economic transactions. Another important aspect is the impact of DG resources (size, number and location) on service area dynamic behavior (power quality, reliability, stability, etc.). EPRI has ongoing programs addressing all these aspects of DG and the distribution grid. Since fuel cells can be viewed as electrochemical engines, and as with thermomechanical engines, there doesn't have to be a best fuel cell. Each engine can serve many markets and some will be better suited than others in a specific market segment (e.g. spark ignition in cars and turbines in planes). This paper will address the status of developing fuel cell technologies and their application to various market areas within the context of Distributed Generation.

  19. Theoretical prediction of physical and chemical characteristics of the first drop'' of condensate from superheated geothermal steam: Implications for corrosion and scaling in turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreussi, P. (Univ. degli Studi di Udine (Italy). Dipartimento Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche); Corsi, R. (STEAM srl, Pisa (Italy)); Guidi, M.; Marini, L. (Geotermica Italiana srl, Pisa (Italy))

    1994-06-01

    This paper describes a method for computing: (1) the chemical composition of the first drop of condensate which forms at dew-point temperature through expansion of superheated steam, and (2) the saturation index of the drop with respect to relevant solid phases, such as halite, amorphous silica, boric acid, borax and sal ammoniac. Boiling-point elevation is taken into account in these calculations. Preliminary application to some wells in the Larderello geothermal field indicate that: (1) the high concentration of HCl in the steam causes both the low pH and very high TDS of the first drop; (2) the lower the dew-point temperature, the higher the TDS of the first drop; (3) for a given chemical composition, the lower the steam pressure, the higher the risk of corrosion and scaling in the steam path.

  20. Distributed generation systems model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barklund, C.R.

    1994-12-31

    A slide presentation is given on a distributed generation systems model developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and its application to a situation within the Idaho Power Company`s service territory. The objectives of the work were to develop a screening model for distributed generation alternatives, to develop a better understanding of distributed generation as a utility resource, and to further INEL`s understanding of utility concerns in implementing technological change.

  1. Measurements of Plasma Potential Distribution in Segmented Electrode Hall Thruster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y. Raitses; D. Staack; N.J. Fisch

    2001-10-16

    Use of a segmented electrode placed at the Hall thruster exit can substantially reduce the voltage potential drop in the fringing magnetic field outside the thruster channel. In this paper, we investigate the dependence of this effect on thruster operating conditions and segmented electrode configuration. A fast movable emissive probe is used to measure plasma potential in a 1 kW laboratory Hall thruster with semented electrodes made of a graphite material. Relatively small probe-induced perturbations of the thruster discharge in the vicinity of the thruster exit allow a reasonable comparison of the measured results for different thruster configurations. It is shown that the plasma potential distribution is almost not sensitive to changes of the electrode potential, but depends on the magnetic field distribution and the electrode placement.

  2. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    TF RailroadVesselShip Fuel It is also noted that Destination State code of "X Export" indicates movements to foreign destinations. 1 68 Domestic Coal Distribution...

  3. Distribution of Correspondence

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1996-08-30

    Defines correct procedures for distribution of correspondence to the Naval Reactors laboratories. Does not cancel another directive. Expired 8-30-97.

  4. Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation is from a Building America webinar conducted on November 8, 2011, by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) about ductless hydronic distribution systems.

  5. Cooling water distribution system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orr, Richard

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  6. Annual Coal Distribution Tables

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Destination State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation, 2001 (Thousand Short Tons) DESTINATION: Alabama State of Origin by...

  7. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Report - Annual provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is...

  8. PV distribution system

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    distribution system - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us ... Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & ...

  9. Distribution Grid Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & ... of the distributed, or local, power generation into the electric power system. ...

  10. Physical Modeling of Scaled Water Distribution System Networks.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Hern, Timothy J.; Hammond, Glenn Edward; Orear, Leslie ,; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart G.; Paul Molina; Ross Johnson

    2005-10-01

    Threats to water distribution systems include release of contaminants and Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. A better understanding, and validated computational models, of the flow in water distribution systems would enable determination of sensor placement in real water distribution networks, allow source identification, and guide mitigation/minimization efforts. Validation data are needed to evaluate numerical models of network operations. Some data can be acquired in real-world tests, but these are limited by 1) unknown demand, 2) lack of repeatability, 3) too many sources of uncertainty (demand, friction factors, etc.), and 4) expense. In addition, real-world tests have limited numbers of network access points. A scale-model water distribution system was fabricated, and validation data were acquired over a range of flow (demand) conditions. Standard operating variables included system layout, demand at various nodes in the system, and pressure drop across various pipe sections. In addition, the location of contaminant (salt or dye) introduction was varied. Measurements of pressure, flowrate, and concentration at a large number of points, and overall visualization of dye transport through the flow network were completed. Scale-up issues that that were incorporated in the experiment design include Reynolds number, pressure drop across nodes, and pipe friction and roughness. The scale was chosen to be 20:1, so the 10 inch main was modeled with a 0.5 inch pipe in the physical model. Controlled validation tracer tests were run to provide validation to flow and transport models, especially of the degree of mixing at pipe junctions. Results of the pipe mixing experiments showed large deviations from predicted behavior and these have a large impact on standard network operations models.3

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF A REFRIGERANT DISTRIBUTION SECTION FOR ASHRAE STANDARD 152.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    2001-09-07

    In a recent draft report titled ''Impacts of Refrigerant Line Length on System Efficiency in Residential Heating and Cooling Systems Using Refrigerant Distribution,'' (Andrews 2000) some baseline calculations were performed to estimate various impacts on system efficiency of long refrigerant distribution lines. Refrigerant distribution refers to ''mini-splits'' and other types of space beating and cooling equipment that utilize refrigerant lines, rather than ducts or pipes, to transport heat and cooling effect from the outdoor unit to the building spaces where this heat or cooling is used. Five factors affecting efficiency were studied in each of the space conditioning modes (heating and cooling) for a total of ten factors in all. Temperature changes and pressure drops in each of the two refrigerant lines accounted for four of the factors, with the remaining one being elevation of the indoor unit relative to the outdoor unit. Of these factors, pressure drops in the suction line in cooling showed by far the largest effect. This report builds on these baseline calculations to develop a possible algorithm for a refrigerant distribution section of ASHRAE Standard 152. It is based on the approximate treatment of the previous report, and is therefore subject to error that might be corrected using a more detailed analysis, possibly including computer modeling and field testing. However, because the calculated efficiency impacts are generally small (a few percent being typical) it may be that the approximate treatment is sufficient. That question is left open for discussion. The purpose of this report is not to advocate the adoption of the methodology developed, but rather to present it as an option that could either be adopted as-is or used as a starting point for further analysis. It is assumed that the reader has available and is familiar with ASHRAE Standard 152P and with the previous analysis referred to above.

  12. Phosphorus removal from slow-cooled steelmaking slags: Grain size determination and liberation studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fregeau-Wu, E.; Iwasaki, I.

    1995-07-01

    The major obstacle in recycling steelmaking slags to the blast furnace is their phosphorus content. Removal of the phosphorus, which is primarily associated with the silicate and phosphate phases, would allow for greater recycle of these slags for their iron, manganese, and lime contents. Calculations show that separation of the silicates from the oxide phases would remove nearly 90% of the phosphorus from the slag. The variable grain size of the as-received slag made liberation by fine grinding difficult. Therefore, slow-cooling experiments were undertaken to improve the grain size distribution. The grain size distributions were determined using in-situ image analysis. The samples were ground to their apparent liberation size and high gradient magnetic separation was used to separate the magnetic oxides from the nonmagnetic silicates and phosphates. Liberation analysis and modeling was performed on selected separation products for discussion of benefication characteristics.

  13. Assessing the Importance of Using Biomodal Size Distribution for Ice Cloud Optical Property Parameterizations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stackhouse, P. W.

    2006-03-31

    This report represents the final report for DE-AI02-0 IER63074. This work represented some follow-on work to that completed under DE-AI02-0 1 ER62669. The research reported here is undertaken in collaboration with Dr. David Mitchell of the Desert Research Institute in Reno, Nevada. The progress given here represents my contribution to his approach by providing radiative transfer expertise and calculations.

  14. Optimal site selection and sizing of distributed utility-scale wind power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.R.; Artig, R.

    1998-04-01

    As electric market product unbundling occurs, sellers in the wholesale market for electricity will find it to their advantage to be able to specify the quantity of electricity available and the time of availability. Since wind power plants are driven by the stochastic nature of the wind itself, this can present difficulties. To the extent that an accurate wind forecast is available, contract deviations, and therefore penalties, can be significantly reduced. Even though one might have the ability to accurately forecast the availability of wind power, it might not be available during enough of the peak period to provide sufficient value. However, if the wind power plant is developed over geographically disperse locations, the timing and availability of wind power from these multiple sources could provide a better match with the utility`s peak load than a single site. There are several wind plants in various stages of planning or development in the US. Although some of these are small-scale demonstration projects, significant wind capacity has been developed in Minnesota, with additional developments planned in Wyoming and Iowa. As these and other projects are planned and developed, there is a need to perform analysis of the value of geographically diverse sites on the efficiency of the overall wind plant. In this paper, the authors use hourly wind-speed data from six geographically diverse sites to provide some insight into the potential benefits of disperse wind plant development. They provide hourly wind power from each of these sites to an electric reliability simulation model. This model uses generating plant characteristics of the generators within the state of Minnesota to calculate various reliability indices. Since they lack data on wholesale power transactions, they do not include them in the analysis, and they reduce the hourly load data accordingly. The authors present and compare results of their methods and suggest some areas of future research.

  15. Smart distribution systems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jiang, Yazhou; Liu, Chen -Ching; Xu, Yin

    2016-04-19

    The increasing importance of system reliability and resilience is changing the way distribution systems are planned and operated. To achieve a distribution system self-healing against power outages, emerging technologies and devices, such as remote-controlled switches (RCSs) and smart meters, are being deployed. The higher level of automation is transforming traditional distribution systems into the smart distribution systems (SDSs) of the future. The availability of data and remote control capability in SDSs provides distribution operators with an opportunity to optimize system operation and control. In this paper, the development of SDSs and resulting benefits of enhanced system capabilities are discussed. Amore » comprehensive survey is conducted on the state-of-the-art applications of RCSs and smart meters in SDSs. Specifically, a new method, called Temporal Causal Diagram (TCD), is used to incorporate outage notifications from smart meters for enhanced outage management. To fully utilize the fast operation of RCSs, the spanning tree search algorithm is used to develop service restoration strategies. Optimal placement of RCSs and the resulting enhancement of system reliability are discussed. Distribution system resilience with respect to extreme events is presented. Furthermore, test cases are used to demonstrate the benefit of SDSs. Active management of distributed generators (DGs) is introduced. Future research in a smart distribution environment is proposed.« less

  16. Application of Direct Current Potential Drop for the J-integral vs. Crack Growth Resistance Curve Characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Xiang; Nanstad, Randy K; Sokolov, Mikhail A

    2014-01-01

    The direct current potential drop (DCPD) technique has been applied to derive the J-integral vs. crack growth resistance curve (J-R curve) for fracture toughness characterization of structural materials. The test matrix covered three materials including type 316LN stainless steels, Ni-based alloy 617, and one ferritic-martensitic steel, three specimen configurations including standard compact, single edge bending, and disk-shaped compact specimens, and temperatures ranging from 20 C to 650 C. When compared with baseline J-R curves derived from the ASTM normalization method, the original J-R curves from the DCPD technique yielded much smaller Jq values due to the influence of crack blunting, plastic deformation, etc. on potential drop. To counter these effects, a new procedure for adjusting DCPD J-R curves was proposed. After applying the new adjustment procedure, the average difference in Jq between the DCPD technique and the normalization method was only 5.2% and the difference in tearing modulus was 7.4%. The promising result demonstrates the applicability of the DCPD technique for the J-R curve characterization especially in extreme environments, such as elevated temperatures, where the conventional elastic unloading compliance method faces considerable challenges.

  17. Evaluation of static pressure drops and PM10 and TSP emissions for modified 1D-3D cyclones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holt, G.A.; Baker, R.V.; Hughs, S.E.

    1999-12-01

    Five modifications of a standard 1D3D cyclone were tested and compared against the standard 1D3D design in the areas of particulate emissions and static pressure drop across the cyclone. The modifications to the 1D3D design included a 2D2D inlet, a 2D2D air outlet, a D/3 trash exit, an expansion chamber with a D/3 trash exit, and a tapered air outlet duct. The 1D3D modifications that exhibited a significant improvement in reducing both PM10 and total suspended particulate (TSP) emissions were the designs with the 2D2D inlet and air exhaust combined with either the conical D/3 tail cone or the expansion chamber. In reference to the standard 1D3D cyclone, the average reduction in PM10 emissions was 24 to 29% with a 29 to 35% reduction observed in TSP emissions. The modifications with the tapered air outlets did not show any significant improvements in controlling PM10 emissions. However, the modification with the tapered air outlet/expansion chamber combination exhibited statistical significance in reducing TSP emissions by 18% compared to the 1D3D cyclone. All modifications tested exhibited lower static pressure drops than the standard 1D3D.

  18. Particle impactor assembly for size selective high volume air sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Langer, Gerhard

    1988-08-16

    Air containing entrained particulate matter is directed through a plurality of parallel, narrow, vertically oriented impactor slots of an inlet element toward an adjacently located, relatively large, dust impaction surface preferably covered with an adhesive material. The air flow turns over the impaction surface, leaving behind the relatively larger particles according to the human thoracic separation system and passes through two elongate exhaust apertures defining the outer bounds of the impaction collection surface to pass through divergent passages which slow down and distribute the air flow, with entrained smaller particles, over a fine filter element that separates the fine particles from the air. The elongate exhaust apertures defining the impaction collection surface are spaced apart by a distance greater than the lengths of elongate impactor slots in the inlet element and are oriented to be normal thereto. By appropriate selection of dimensions and the number of impactor slots air flow through the inlet element is provided a nonuniform velocity distribution with the lower velocities being obtained near the center of the impactor slots, in order to separate out particles larger than a certain predetermined size on the impaction collection surface. The impaction collection surface, even in a moderately sized apparatus, is thus relatively large and permits the prolonged sampling of air for periods extending to four weeks.

  19. Touching the void: A striking drop in stellar halo density beyond 50 kpc

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deason, A. J.; Rockosi, C. M.; Belokurov, V.; Koposov, S. E.

    2014-05-20

    We use A-type stars selected from Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 9 photometry to measure the outer slope of the Milky Way stellar halo density profile beyond 50 kpc. A likelihood-based analysis is employed that models the ugr photometry distribution of blue horizontal branch and blue straggler stars. In the magnitude range 18.5 < g < 20.5, these stellar populations span a heliocentric distance range of: 10 ? D {sub BS}/kpc ? 75, 40 ? D {sub BHB}/kpc ? 100. Contributions from contaminants, such as QSOs, and the effect of photometric uncertainties, are also included in our modeling procedure. We find evidence for a very steep outer halo profile, with power-law index ? ? 6 beyond Galactocentric radii r = 50 kpc, and even steeper slopes favored (? ? 6-10) at larger radii. This result holds true when stars belonging to known overdensities, such as the Sagittarius stream, are included or excluded. We show that, by comparison to numerical simulations, stellar halos with shallower slopes at large distances tend to have more recent accretion activity. Thus, it is likely that the Milky Way has undergone a relatively quiet accretion history over the past several gigayears. Our measurement of the outer stellar halo profile may have important implications for dynamical mass models of the Milky Way, where the tracer density profile is strongly degenerate with total mass estimates.

  20. Distribution Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Variable distributed generation Dispatchable distributed generation Electric vehicle charging and electrolyzers Energy storage Building and industrial loads and demand response ...

  1. Distributed generation: Early markets for emerging technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lenssen, N.; Cler, G.

    1999-11-01

    How will developers of emerging distributed generation technologies successfully commercialize their products. This paper presents one approach for these developers, borrowing from the experience of other developers of innovative technologies and services. E Source`s analysis suggests, however, that there is already more of a market for distributed generation than is generally recognized. US and Canadian firms already buy about 3,400 megawatts of small generators each year, mostly for backup power but some as the primary power source for selected loads and facilities. This demand is expected to double in 10 years. The global market for small generators is already more than 10 times this size, at some 40,000 megawatts per year, and it is expected to continue growing rapidly, especially in developing nations. Just how the emerging distributed generation technologies, such as microturbines, fuel cells, and Stirling engines compete-or surpass-the conventional technologies will have a huge impact on their eventual commercial success.

  2. Assessment of Available Particle Size Data to Support an Analysis of the Waste Feed Delivery System Transfer System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JEWETT, J.R.

    2000-08-10

    Available data pertaining to size distribution of the particulates in Hanford underground tank waste have been reviewed. Although considerable differences exist between measurement methods, it may be stated with 95% confidence that the median particle size does not exceed 275 {micro}m in at least 95% of the ten tanks selected as sources of HLW feed for Phase 1 vitrification in the RPP. This particle size is recommended as a design basis for the WFD transfer system.

  3. Morphological changes in ultrafast laser ablation plumes with varying spot size

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Harilal, S. S.; Diwakar, P. K.; Polek, M. P.; Phillips, M. C.

    2015-06-04

    We investigated the role of spot size on plume morphology during ultrafast laser ablation of metal targets. Our results show that the spatial features of fs LA plumes are strongly dependent on the focal spot size. Two-dimensional self-emission images showed that the shape of the ultrafast laser ablation plumes changes from spherical to cylindrical with an increasing spot size from 100 to 600 ?m. The changes in plume morphology and internal structures are related to ion emission dynamics from the plasma, where broader angular ion distribution and faster ions are noticed for the smallest spot size used. The present resultsmoreclearly show that the morphological changes in the plume with spot size are independent of laser pulse width.less

  4. Characterizing and Improving Distributed Intrusion Detection Systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurd, Steven A.; Proebstel, Elliot P.

    2007-11-01

    Due to ever-increasing quantities of information traversing networks, network administrators are developing greater reliance upon statistically sampled packet information as the source for their intrusion detection systems (IDS). Our research is aimed at understanding IDS performance when statistical packet sampling is used. Using the Snort IDS and a variety of data sets, we compared IDS results when an entire data set is used to the results when a statistically sampled subset of the data set is used. Generally speaking, IDS performance with statistically sampled information was shown to drop considerably even under fairly high sampling rates (such as 1:5). Characterizing and Improving Distributed Intrusion Detection Systems4AcknowledgementsThe authors wish to extend our gratitude to Matt Bishop and Chen-Nee Chuah of UC Davis for their guidance and support on this work. Our thanks are also extended to Jianning Mai of UC Davis and Tao Ye of Sprint Advanced Technology Labs for their generous assistance.We would also like to acknowledge our dataset sources, CRAWDAD and CAIDA, without which this work would not have been possible. Support for OC48 data collection is provided by DARPA, NSF, DHS, Cisco and CAIDA members.

  5. Domestic and Foreign Distribution

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2008 Final May 2010 Domestic and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2008 (Thousand Short Tons) State Region Domestic Foreign...

  6. Distributed Energy Resource Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Note: A series of orders issued on July 15, 2015 in  Docket 2015-53-E, Docket 2015-54-E, and Docket 2015-55-E approved the incentive programs for South Carolina's Distributed Energy Resource...

  7. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4Q 2009 April 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 4Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal...

  8. Coal Distribution Database, 2008

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3Q 2009 February 2010 Quarterly Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources 3Q 2009 In keeping with EIA's efforts to increase the timeliness of its reports, this Quarterly Coal...

  9. Distributed Wind Energy Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Join instructor Brent Summerville for a fun and interactive workshop at Appalachian State University's Small Wind Research and Demonstration Site. Learn about a variety of distributed wind energy...

  10. Sizing of DNA fragments by flow cytometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, M.E.; Goodwin, P.M.; Ambrose, W.P.; Martin, J.C.; Marrone, B.L.; Jett, J.H.; Keller, R.A.

    1993-02-01

    Individual, stained DNA fragments were sized using a modified flow cytometer with high sensitivity fluorescence detection. The fluorescent intercalating dye ethidium homodimer was used to stain stoichiometrically lambda phage DNA and a Kpn I digest of lambda DNA. Stained, individual fragments of DNA were passed through a low average power, focused, mode-locked laser beam, and the fluorescence from each fragment was collected and quantified. Time-gated detection was used to discriminate against Raman scattering from the water solvent. The fluorescence burst from each fragment was related directly to its length, thus providing a means to size small quantities of kilobase lengths of DNA quickly. Improvements of several orders of magnitude in analysis time and sample size over current gel electrophoresis techniques were realized. Fragments of 17.1,29.9, and 48.5 thousand base pairs were well resolved, and were sized in 164 seconds. Less than one pg of DNA was required for analysis. We have demonstrated sizing of individual, stained DNA fragments with resolution approaching that of gel electrophoresis for moderately large fragments, but with significant reductions in the analysis time and the amount of sample required. Furthermore, system response is linear with DNA fragment length, in contrast to the logarithmic response in gel electrophoresis. There exists the potential to perform this sizing using relatively simple instrumentation, i.e. a continuous wave laser of low power and current mode detection.

  11. Sizing of DNA fragments by flow cytometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, M.E.; Goodwin, P.M.; Ambrose, W.P.; Martin, J.C.; Marrone, B.L.; Jett, J.H.; Keller, R.A.

    1993-01-01

    Individual, stained DNA fragments were sized using a modified flow cytometer with high sensitivity fluorescence detection. The fluorescent intercalating dye ethidium homodimer was used to stain stoichiometrically lambda phage DNA and a Kpn I digest of lambda DNA. Stained, individual fragments of DNA were passed through a low average power, focused, mode-locked laser beam, and the fluorescence from each fragment was collected and quantified. Time-gated detection was used to discriminate against Raman scattering from the water solvent. The fluorescence burst from each fragment was related directly to its length, thus providing a means to size small quantities of kilobase lengths of DNA quickly. Improvements of several orders of magnitude in analysis time and sample size over current gel electrophoresis techniques were realized. Fragments of 17.1,29.9, and 48.5 thousand base pairs were well resolved, and were sized in 164 seconds. Less than one pg of DNA was required for analysis. We have demonstrated sizing of individual, stained DNA fragments with resolution approaching that of gel electrophoresis for moderately large fragments, but with significant reductions in the analysis time and the amount of sample required. Furthermore, system response is linear with DNA fragment length, in contrast to the logarithmic response in gel electrophoresis. There exists the potential to perform this sizing using relatively simple instrumentation, i.e. a continuous wave laser of low power and current mode detection.

  12. Glass bead size and morphology characteristics in support of Crystal Mist field experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Einfeld, W.

    1995-03-01

    One of the tasks of the Lethality Group within US Army Space and Strategic Defense Command (USASSDC) is the development of a capability to simulate various missile intercept scenarios using computer codes. Currently under development within USASSDC and its various contractor organizations is a group of codes collected under a master code called PEGEM for Post Event Ground Effects Model. Among the various components of the code are modules which are used to predict atmospheric dispersion and transport of particles or droplets following release at the altitude specified in the missile intercept scenario. The atmospheric transport code takes into account various source term data from the intercept such as: initial cloud size; droplet or particle size distribution; and, total mass of agent released. An ongoing USASSDC experimental program termed Crystal Mist involved release of precision glass beads under various altitude and meteorological conditions to assist in validation and refinement of various codes that are components of PEGEM used to predict particle atmospheric transport and diffusion following a missile intercept. Here, soda-lime glass beads used in the Crystal Mist series of atmospheric transport and diffusion tests were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and automated image processing routines in order to fully define their size distributions and morphology. Four bead size classifications ranging from a median count diameter of 45 to 200 micrometers were found to be approximately spherical and to fall within the supplier`s sizing specifications. Log-normal functions fit to the measured size distributions resulted in geometric standard deviations ranging from 1.08 to 1.12, thereby fulfilling the field trial requirements for a relatively narrow bead size distribution.

  13. Quantum dense key distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Degiovanni, I.P.; Ruo Berchera, I.; Castelletto, S.; Rastello, M.L.; Bovino, F.A.; Colla, A.M.; Castagnoli, G.

    2004-03-01

    This paper proposes a protocol for quantum dense key distribution. This protocol embeds the benefits of a quantum dense coding and a quantum key distribution and is able to generate shared secret keys four times more efficiently than the Bennet-Brassard 1984 protocol. We hereinafter prove the security of this scheme against individual eavesdropping attacks, and we present preliminary experimental results, showing its feasibility.

  14. Hydrogen Pathway Cost Distributions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pathway Cost Distributions Jim Uihlein Fuel Pathways Integration Tech Team January 25, 2006 2 Outline * Pathway-Independent Cost Goal * Cost Distribution Objective * Overview * H2A Influence * Approach * Implementation * Results * Discussion Process * Summary 3 Hydrogen R&D Cost Goal * Goal is pathway independent * Developed through a well defined, transparent process * Consumer fueling costs are equivalent or less on a cents per mile basis * Evolved gasoline ICE and gasoline-electric

  15. Distributed generation hits market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    The pace at which vendors are developing and marketing gas turbines and reciprocating engines for small-scale applications may signal the widespread growth of distributed generation. Loosely defined to refer to applications in which power generation equipment is located close to end users who have near-term power capacity needs, distributed generation encompasses a broad range of technologies and load requirements. Disagreement is inevitable, but many industry observers associate distributed generation with applications anywhere from 25 kW to 25 MW. Ten years ago, distributed generation users only represented about 2% of the world market. Today, that figure has increased to about 4 or 5%, and probably could settle in the 20% range within a 3-to-5-year period, according to Michael Jones, San Diego, Calif.-based Solar Turbines Inc. power generation marketing manager. The US Energy Information Administration predicts about 175 GW of generation capacity will be added domestically by 2010. If 20% comes from smaller plants, distributed generation could account for about 35 GW. Even with more competition, it`s highly unlikely distributed generation will totally replace current market structures and central stations. Distributed generation may be best suited for making market inroads when and where central systems need upgrading, and should prove its worth when the system can`t handle peak demands. Typical applications include small reciprocating engine generators at remote customer sites or larger gas turbines to boost the grid. Additional market opportunities include standby capacity, peak shaving, power quality, cogeneration and capacity rental for immediate demand requirements. Integration of distributed generation systems--using gas-fueled engines, gas-fired combustion engines and fuel cells--can upgrade power quality for customers and reduce operating costs for electric utilities.

  16. Investigations of initiation spot size effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clarke, Steven A; Akinci, Adrian A; Leichty, Gary; Schaffer, Timothy; Murphy, Michael J; Munger, Alan; Thomas, Keith A

    2010-01-01

    As explosive components become smaller, a greater understanding of the effect of initiation spot size on detonation becomes increasingly critical. A series of tests of the effect of initiation spot size will be described. A series of DOI (direct optical initiation) detonators with initiation spots sizes from {approx}50 um to 1000um have been tested to determine laser parameters for threshold firing of low density PETN pressings. Results will be compared with theoretical predictions. Outputs of the initiation source (DOI ablation) have been characterized by a suite of diagnostics including PDV and schlieren imaging. Outputs of complete detonators have been characterized using PDV, streak, and/or schlieren imaging. At present, we have not found the expected change in the threshold energy to spot size relationship for DOI type detonators found in similar earlier for projectiles, slappers and EBWs. New detonators designs (Type C) are currently being tested that will allow the determination of the threshold for spot sizes from 250 um to 105um, where we hope to see change in the threshold vs. spot size relationship. Also, one test of an extremely small diameter spot size (50um) has resulted in preliminary NoGo only results even at energy densities as much as 8 times the energy density of the threshold results presented here. This gives preliminary evidence that 50um spot may be beyond the critical initiation diameter. The constant threshold energy to spot size relationship in the data to date does however still give some insight into the initiation mechanism of DOI detonators. If the DOI initiation mechanism were a 1D mechanism similar to a slapper or a flyer impact, the expected inflection point in the graph would have been between 300um and 500um diameter spot size, within the range of the data presented here. The lack of that inflection point indicates that the DOI initiation mechanism is more likely a 2D mechanism similar to a sphere or rod projectile. We expect to

  17. Top 10 Things You Didn't Know About Distributed Wind Power | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Distributed Wind Power Top 10 Things You Didn't Know About Distributed Wind Power August 10, 2015 - 8:20am Addthis Small-Scale Distributed Wind: Northern Power Systems 100 kW turbine at the top of Burke Mountain in East Burke, Vermont. | Photo courtesy of Northern Power Systems. Small-Scale Distributed Wind: Northern Power Systems 100 kW turbine at the top of Burke Mountain in East Burke, Vermont. | Photo courtesy of Northern Power Systems. Mid-Sized Distributed Wind: Two mid-sized

  18. Distributed Wind Market Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsyth, T.; Baring-Gould, I.

    2007-11-01

    Distributed wind energy systems provide clean, renewable power for on-site use and help relieve pressure on the power grid while providing jobs and contributing to energy security for homes, farms, schools, factories, private and public facilities, distribution utilities, and remote locations. America pioneered small wind technology in the 1920s, and it is the only renewable energy industry segment that the United States still dominates in technology, manufacturing, and world market share. The series of analyses covered by this report were conducted to assess some of the most likely ways that advanced wind turbines could be utilized apart from large, central station power systems. Each chapter represents a final report on specific market segments written by leading experts in this field. As such, this document does not speak with one voice but rather a compendium of different perspectives, which are documented from a variety of people in the U.S. distributed wind field.

  19. Distributed data transmitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Kenneth Dewayne; Dunson, David

    2008-06-03

    A distributed data transmitter (DTXR) which is an adaptive data communication microwave transmitter having a distributable architecture of modular components, and which incorporates both digital and microwave technology to provide substantial improvements in physical and operational flexibility. The DTXR has application in, for example, remote data acquisition involving the transmission of telemetry data across a wireless link, wherein the DTXR is integrated into and utilizes available space within a system (e.g., a flight vehicle). In a preferred embodiment, the DTXR broadly comprises a plurality of input interfaces; a data modulator; a power amplifier; and a power converter, all of which are modularly separate and distinct so as to be substantially independently physically distributable and positionable throughout the system wherever sufficient space is available.

  20. Distributed data transmitter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Kenneth Dewayne; Dunson, David

    2006-08-08

    A distributed data transmitter (DTXR) which is an adaptive data communication microwave transmitter having a distributable architecture of modular components, and which incorporates both digital and microwave technology to provide substantial improvements in physical and operational flexibility. The DTXR has application in, for example, remote data acquisition involving the transmission of telemetry data across a wireless link, wherein the DTXR is integrated into and utilizes available space within a system (e.g., a flight vehicle). In a preferred embodiment, the DTXR broadly comprises a plurality of input interfaces; a data modulator; a power amplifier; and a power converter, all of which are modularly separate and distinct so as to be substantially independently physically distributable and positionable throughout the system wherever sufficient space is available.

  1. VAR Support from Distributed Wind Energy Resources: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romanowitz, H.; Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Yinger, R.

    2004-07-01

    As the size and quantity of wind farms and other distributed generation facilities increase, especially in relation to local grids, the importance of a reactive power compensator or VAR support from these facilities becomes more significant. Poorly done, it can result in cycling or inadequate VAR support, and the local grid could experience excessive voltage regulation and, ultimately, instability. Improved wind turbine and distributed generation power control technologies are creating VAR support capabilities that can be used to enhance the voltage regulation and stability of local grids. Locating VAR support near the point of consumption, reducing step size, and making the control active all improve the performance of the grid. This paper presents and discusses alternatives for improving the integration of VAR support from distributed generation facilities such as wind farms. We also examine the relative effectiveness of distributed VAR support on the local grid and how it can b e integrated with the VAR support of the grid operator.

  2. Size separation of analytes using monomeric surfactants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeung, Edward S.; Wei, Wei

    2005-04-12

    A sieving medium for use in the separation of analytes in a sample containing at least one such analyte comprises a monomeric non-ionic surfactant of the of the general formula, B-A, wherein A is a hydrophilic moiety and B is a hydrophobic moiety, present in a solvent at a concentration forming a self-assembled micelle configuration under selected conditions and having an aggregation number providing an equivalent weight capable of effecting the size separation of the sample solution so as to resolve a target analyte(s) in a solution containing the same, the size separation taking place in a chromatography or electrophoresis separation system.

  3. Neutron and weak-charge distributions of the 48Ca nucleus

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hagen, Gaute; Forssen, Christian; Nazarewicz, Witold; Papenbrock, Thomas F.; Bacca, S.; Barnea, Nir; Carlsson, Boris; Drischler, Christian; Hebeler, Kai; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; et al

    2015-11-02

    What is the size of the atomic nucleus? This deceivably simple question is difficult to answer. Although the electric charge distributions in atomic nuclei were measured accurately already half a century ago, our knowledge of the distribution of neutrons is still deficient. In addition to constraining the size of atomic nuclei, the neutron distribution also impacts the number of nuclei that can exist and the size of neutron stars. We present an ab initio calculation of the neutron distribution of the neutron-rich nucleus 48Ca. We show that the neutron skin (difference between the radii of the neutron and proton distributions)more » is significantly smaller than previously thought. We also make predictions for the electric dipole polarizability and the weak form factor; both quantities that are at present targeted by precision measurements. Here, based on ab initio results for 48Ca, we provide a constraint on the size of a neutron star.« less

  4. Power-law and exponential rank distributions: A panoramic Gibbsian perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2015-04-15

    Rank distributions are collections of positive sizes ordered either increasingly or decreasingly. Many decreasing rank distributions, formed by the collective collaboration of human actions, follow an inverse power-law relation between ranks and sizes. This remarkable empirical fact is termed Zipf’s law, and one of its quintessential manifestations is the demography of human settlements — which exhibits a harmonic relation between ranks and sizes. In this paper we present a comprehensive statistical-physics analysis of rank distributions, establish that power-law and exponential rank distributions stand out as optimal in various entropy-based senses, and unveil the special role of the harmonic relation between ranks and sizes. Our results extend the contemporary entropy-maximization view of Zipf’s law to a broader, panoramic, Gibbsian perspective of increasing and decreasing power-law and exponential rank distributions — of which Zipf’s law is one out of four pillars.

  5. Distributed Sensors Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-08-30

    The Distributed Sensors Simulator (DSS) is an infrastructure that allows the user to debug and test software for distributed sensor networks without the commitment inherent in using hardware. The flexibility of DSS allows developers and researchers to investigate topological, phenomenological, networking, robustness, and scaling issues; explore arbitrary algorithms for DSNs; and is particularly useful as a proof-of-concept tool. The user provides data on node location and specifications, defines event phenomena, and plugs in the application(s)more » to run. DSS in turn provides the virtual environmental embedding — but exposed to the user like no true embedding could ever be.« less

  6. Distributed Wind | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distributed Wind Distributed Wind The Wind Program's activities in wind technologies in distributed applications-or distributed wind-address the performance and reliability challenges associated with smaller turbines by focusing on technology development, testing, certification, and manufacturing. What is Distributed Wind? Photo of a turbine behind a school. The Wind Program defines distributed wind in terms of technology application, based on a wind plant's location relative to end-use and

  7. Aerosol distribution apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hanson, W.D.

    An apparatus for uniformly distributing an aerosol to a plurality of filters mounted in a plenum, wherein the aerosol and air are forced through a manifold system by means of a jet pump and released into the plenum through orifices in the manifold. The apparatus allows for the simultaneous aerosol-testing of all the filters in the plenum.

  8. Two Photon Distribution Amplitudes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El Beiyad, M.; Pire, B.; Szymanowski, L.; Wallon, S.

    2008-08-29

    The factorization of the amplitude of the process {gamma}*{gamma}{yields}{gamma}{gamma} in the low energy and high photon virtuality region is demonstrated at the Born order and in the leading logarithmic approximation. The leading order two photon (generalized) distribution amplitudes exhibit a characteristic ln Q{sup 2} behaviour and obey new inhomogeneous evolution equations.

  9. Annual Coal Distribution Tables

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    and Foreign Distribution of U.S. Coal by State of Origin, 2001 State Region Domestic Foreign Total Alabama 14,828 4,508 19,336 Alaska 825 698 1,524 Arizona 13,143 - 13,143...

  10. Distribution Category: Water R

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Distribution Category: Water R e a c t o r Safety- R e s e a r c h - - A n a l y s i s ... 8 10 I TOTAL VOLUMETRIC FLUX, ms Fig. 9. Fully Developed Air-Water Flow Data.30 ANL Neg. ...

  11. Size-dependent structure of silver nanoparticles under high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koski, Kristie Jo

    2008-12-31

    Silver noble metal nanoparticles that are<10 nm often possess multiply twinned grains allowing them to adopt shapes and atomic structures not observed in bulk materials. The properties exhibited by particles with multiply twinned polycrystalline structures are often far different from those of single-crystalline particles and from the bulk. I will present experimental evidence that silver nanoparticles<10 nm undergo a reversible structural transformation under hydrostatic pressures up to 10 GPa. Results for nanoparticles in the intermediate size range of 5 to 10 nm suggest a reversible linear pressure-dependent rhombohedral distortion which has not been previously observed in bulk silver. I propose a mechanism for this transitiion that considers the bond-length distribution in idealized multiply twinned icosahedral particles. Results for nanoparticles of 3.9 nm suggest a reversible linear pressure-dependent orthorhombic distortion. This distortion is interpreted in the context of idealized decahedral particles. In addition, given these size-dependent measurements of silver nanoparticle compression with pressure, we have constructed a pressure calibration curve. Encapsulating these silver nanoparticles in hollow metal oxide nanospheres then allows us to measure the pressure inside a nanoshell using x-ray diffraction. We demonstrate the measurement of pressure gradients across nanoshells and show that these nanoshells have maximum resolved shear strengths on the order of 500 MPa to IGPa.

  12. Define and Quantify the Physics of Air Flow, Pressure Drop and Aerosol Collection in Nuclear Grade HEPA Filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, Murray E.

    2015-02-23

    Objective: Develop a set of peer-review and verified analytical methods to adjust HEPA filter performance to different flow rates, temperatures and altitudes. Experimental testing will measure HEPA filter flow rate, pressure drop and efficiency to verify the analytical approach. Nuclear facilities utilize HEPA (High Efficiency Particulate Air) filters to purify air flow for workspace ventilation. However, the ASME AG-1 technical standard (Code on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment) does not adequately describe air flow measurement units for HEPA filter systems. Specifically, the AG-1 standard does not differentiate between volumetric air flow in ACFM (actual cubic feet per minute)compared to mass flow measured in SCFM (standard cubic feet per minute). More importantly, the AG-1 standard has an overall deficiency for using HEPA filter devices at different air flow rates, temperatures, and altitudes. Technical Approach: The collection efficiency and pressure drops of 18 different HEPA filters will be measured over a range of flow rates, temperatures and altitudes. The experimental results will be compared to analytical scoping calculations. Three manufacturers have allocated six HEPA filters each for this effort. The 18 filters will be tested at two different flow rates, two different temperatures and two different altitudes. The 36 total tests will be conducted at two different facilities: the ATI Test facilities (Baltimore MD) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (Los Alamos NM). The Radiation Protection RP-SVS group at Los Alamos has an aerosol wind tunnel that was originally designed to evaluate small air samplers. In 2010, modifications were started to convert the wind tunnel for HEPA filter testing. (Extensive changes were necessary for the required aerosol generators, HEPA test fixtures, temperature control devices and measurement capabilities.) To this date, none of these modification activities have been funded through a specific DOE or NNSA program. This is

  13. 2012 Market Report on U.S. Wind Technologies in Distributed Applications |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy An annual report on U.S. wind power in distributed applications--expanded to include small, mid-size, and utility-scale installations--including key statistics, economic data, installation, capacity, and generation statistics, and more. 2012_distributed_wind_technologies_market_report.pdf (7.63 MB) More Documents & Publications 2012 Market Report on U.S. Wind Technologies in Distributed Applications 2012 Market Report on U.S. Wind Technologies in Distributed

  14. 2012 Market Report on U.S. Wind Technologies in Distributed Applications |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Market Report on U.S. Wind Technologies in Distributed Applications 2012 Market Report on U.S. Wind Technologies in Distributed Applications The 2012 Market Report on U.S. Wind Technologies in Distributed Applications is an annual report on U.S. wind power in distributed applications--expanded to include small, mid-size, and utility-scale installations--including key statistics, economic data, installation, capacity, and generation statistics, and more. 2012 Market

  15. DROP TESTS RESULTS OF REVISED CLOSURE BOLT CONFIGURATION OF THE STANDARD WASTE BOX, STANDARD LARGE BOX 2, AND TEN DRUM OVERPACK PACKAGINGS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, C.; Opperman, E.; Mckeel, C.

    2010-04-15

    The Transuranic (TRU) Disposition Project at Savannah River Site will require numerous transfers of radioactive materials within the site boundaries for sorting and repackaging. The three DOT Type A shipping packagings planned for this work have numerous bolts for securing the lids to the body of the packagings. In an effort to reduce operator time to open and close the packages during onsite transfers, thus reducing personnel exposure and costs, an evaluation was performed to analyze the effects of reducing the number of bolts required to secure the lid to the packaging body. The evaluation showed the reduction to one-third of the original number of bolts had no effect on the packagings capability to sustain vibratory loads, shipping loads, internal pressure loads, and the loads resulting from a 4-ft drop. However, the loads caused by the 4-ft drop are difficult to estimate and the study recommended each of the packages be dropped to show the actual effects on the package closure. Even with reduced bolting, the packagings were still required to meet the 49 CFR 178.350 performance criteria for Type A packaging. This paper discusses the effects and results of the drop testing of the three packagings.

  16. Evaluation of impact tests of solid steel billet onto concrete pads, and application to generic ISFSI storage cask for tipover and side drop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Witte, M.C.; Chen, T.F.; Murty, S.S.; Tang, D.T.; Mok, G.C.; Fischer, L.E.; Carlson, R.W.

    1997-05-01

    Twelve tests were performed at LLNL to assess loading conditions on a spent fuel casts for side drops, end drops and tipover events. The tests were performed with a 1/3-scale model concrete pad to benchmark the structural analysis code DYNA3D. The side drop and tipover test results are discussed in this report. The billet and test pad were modified with DYNA3D using material properties and techniques used in earlier tests. The peak or maximum deceleration test results were compared to the simulated analytical results. It was concluded that an analytical model based on DYNA3D code and has been adequately benchmarked for this type of application. A generic or represented cask was modified with the DYNA3D code and evaluated for ISFSI side drop and tipover events. The analytical method can be applied to similar casks to estimate impact loads on storage casks resulting from low-velocity side or tip impacts onto concrete storage pads.

  17. Heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops for R-134a and an ester lubricant mixture in a smooth tube and a micro-fin tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckels, S.J.; Doerr, T.M.; Pate, M.B.

    1998-10-01

    This paper reports average heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops during the evaporation and condensation of mixtures of R-134a and a 150 SUS penta erythritol ester branched-acid lubricant. The smooth tube and micro-fin tube tested in this study had outer diameters of 9.52 mm (3/8 in.). The micro-fin tube had 60 fins, a fin height of 0.2 mm (0.008 in), and a spiral angle of 18{degree}. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the micro-fin tube with R-134a and to determine the effect of circulating lubricant. The experimental results show that the micro-fin tube has distinct performance advantages over the smooth tube. For example, the average heat transfer coefficients during evaporation and condensation in the micro-fin tube were 50--200% higher than those for the smooth tube, while the average pressure drops were on average only 10--50% higher. The experimental results indicate that the presence of a lubricant degrades the average heat transfer coefficients during both evaporation and condensation at high lubricant concentrations. Pressure drops during evaporation increased with the addition of a lubricant in both tubes. For condensation, pressure drops were unaffected by the addition of a lubricant.

  18. Departments of the Navy, Energy and Agriculture Invest in Construction of Three Biorefineries to Produce Drop-In Biofuel for Military

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    As part of a 2011 Presidential directive, the Departments of Navy, Energy, and Agriculture announced today that three companies have been awarded contracts to construct and commission biorefineries capable of producing “drop-in” biofuels to meet the transportation needs of the military and private sector.

  19. Multipartite secure state distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duer, W.; Briegel, H.-J.; Calsamiglia, J.

    2005-04-01

    We introduce the distribution of a secret multipartite entangled state in a real-world scenario as a quantum primitive. We show that in the presence of noisy quantum channels (and noisy control operations), any state chosen from the set of two-colorable graph states (Calderbank-Shor-Steane codewords) can be created with high fidelity while it remains unknown to all parties. This is accomplished by either blind multipartite entanglement purification, which we introduce in this paper, or by multipartite entanglement purification of enlarged states, which offers advantages over an alternative scheme based on standard channel purification and teleportation. The parties are thus provided with a secret resource of their choice for distributed secure applications.

  20. Properly Understanding the Impacts of Distributed Resources on Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rizy, D Tom; Li, Fangxing; Li, Huijuan; Adhikari, Sarina; Kueck, John D

    2010-01-01

    The subject paper discusses important impacts of distributed resources on distribution networks and feeders. These include capacity, line losses, voltage regulation, and central system support (such as volt/var via central generators and substation) as the number, placement and penetration levels of distributed resources are varied. Typically, the impacts of distributed resources on the distribution system are studied by using steady-state rather than dynamic analysis tools. However, the response time and transient impacts of both system equipment (such as substation/feeder capacitors) and distributed resources needs to be taken into account and only dynamic analysis will provide the full impact results. ORNL is wrapping up a study of distributed resources interconnected to a large distribution system considering the above variables. A report of the study and its results will be condensed into a paper for this panel session. The impact of distributed resources will vary as the penetration level reaches the capacity of the distribution feeder/system. The question is how high of a penetration of distributed resource can be accommodated on the distribution feeder/system without any major changes to system operation, design and protection. The impacts most surely will vary depending upon load composition, distribution and level. Also, it is expected that various placement of distributed resources will impact the distribution system differently.

  1. U.S. Distributed Wind Sector Finds Support from NREL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinclair, Karin

    2015-02-02

    Small and mid-sized wind turbine manufacturers in the United States have led the international distributed wind market in installed capacity for decades. Continued reductions in the cost of distributed wind systems are essential to successfully compete with currently economical photovoltaic systems. Annual capacity additions in 2013 were particularly low. In an effort to reduce the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of distributed wind systems manufactured in the United States, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has provided funding through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to support several projects.

  2. Symmetric generalized binomial distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergeron, H.; Curado, E. M. F.; Instituto Nacional de Cincia e Tecnologia - Sistemas Complexos, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180 - Rio de Janeiro, RJ ; Gazeau, J. P.; APC, UMR 7164, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cit, 75205 Paris ; Rodrigues, Ligia M. C. S. E-mail: evaldo@cbpf.br E-mail: ligia@cbpf.br

    2013-12-15

    In two recent articles, we have examined a generalization of the binomial distribution associated with a sequence of positive numbers, involving asymmetric expressions of probabilities that break the symmetry win-loss. We present in this article another generalization (always associated with a sequence of positive numbers) that preserves the symmetry win-loss. This approach is also based on generating functions and presents constraints of non-negativeness, similar to those encountered in our previous articles.

  3. MEMORANDUM FOR DISTRIBUTION

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    * Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 December 20, 2007 MEMORANDUM FOR DISTRIBUTION FROM: MICHAEL W. OWEN /<f /c / DIRECTOR, OFFICE OF LEGACY MANAGEM.ENT SUBJECT: Compliance with Established Policies and Guidance for Contractor Work Force Restructuring As you know, the Office of Legacy Management (LM) is the Department's fical point for all work force restructuring actions. As a reminder of policies and guidance that should continue to be followed when implementing work force

  4. Computing Frontier: Distributed Computing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computing Frontier: Distributed Computing and Facility Infrastructures Conveners: Kenneth Bloom 1 , Richard Gerber 2 1 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska-Lincoln 2 National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory 1.1 Introduction The field of particle physics has become increasingly reliant on large-scale computing resources to address the challenges of analyzing large datasets, completing specialized computations and

  5. Distributed generation implementation guidelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guzy, L.; O`Sullivan, J.B.; Jacobs, K.; Major, W.

    1999-11-01

    The overall economics of a distributed generation project is based on cost elements which include: Equipment and financing, fuel, displaced electricity cost, operation and maintenance. Of critical importance is how the facility is managed, including adequate provision for a comprehensive operator training program. Proper equipment maintenance and fuel procurement policy will also lead to greater system availability and optimal system economics. Various utility tariffs are available which may be economically attractive, with an added benefit to the utility of providing a peak shaving resource during peak periods. Changing modes of operation of the distributed generation system may affect staff readiness, require retraining and could affect maintenance costs. The degree of control and oversight that is provided during a project`s implementation and construction phases will impact subsequent maintenance and operating costs. The long term effect of siting impacts, such as building facades that restrict turbine inlet airflow will affect subsequent operations and require supplemental maintenance action. It is possible to site a variety of distributed generation technologies in settings which vary from urban to remote unattended locations with successful results from both an economic and operational perspective.

  6. Calibration of optical particle-size analyzer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pechin, William H.; Thacker, Louis H.; Turner, Lloyd J.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to a system for the calibration of an optical particle-size analyzer of the light-intercepting type for spherical particles, wherein a rotary wheel or disc is provided with radially-extending wires of differing diameters, each wire corresponding to a particular equivalent spherical particle diameter. These wires are passed at an appropriate frequency between the light source and the light detector of the analyzer. The reduction of light as received at the detector is a measure of the size of the wire, and the electronic signal may then be adjusted to provide the desired signal for corresponding spherical particles. This calibrator may be operated at any time without interrupting other processing.

  7. Sort-First, Distributed Memory Parallel Visualization and Rendering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bethel, E. Wes; Humphreys, Greg; Paul, Brian; Brederson, J. Dean

    2003-07-15

    While commodity computing and graphics hardware has increased in capacity and dropped in cost, it is still quite difficult to make effective use of such systems for general-purpose parallel visualization and graphics. We describe the results of a recent project that provides a software infrastructure suitable for general-purpose use by parallel visualization and graphics applications. Our work combines and extends two technologies: Chromium, a stream-oriented framework that implements the OpenGL programming interface; and OpenRM Scene Graph, a pipelined-parallel scene graph interface for graphics data management. Using this combination, we implement a sort-first, distributed memory, parallel volume rendering application. We describe the performance characteristics in terms of bandwidth requirements and highlight key algorithmic considerations needed to implement the sort-first system. We characterize system performance using a distributed memory parallel volume rendering application, a nd present performance gains realized by using scene specific knowledge to accelerate rendering through reduced network bandwidth. The contribution of this work is an exploration of general-purpose, sort-first architecture performance characteristics as applied to distributed memory, commodity hardware, along with a description of the algorithmic support needed to realize parallel, sort-first implementations.

  8. Quantum size effects in classical hadrodynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nix, J.R.

    1994-03-01

    The author discusses future directions in the development of classical hydrodynamics for extended nucleons, corresponding to nucleons of finite size interacting with massive meson fields. This new theory provides a natural covariant microscopic approach to relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions that includes automatically spacetime nonlocality and retardation, nonequilibrium phenomena, interactions among all nucleons, and particle production. The present version of the theory includes only the neutral scalar ({sigma}) and neutral vector ({omega}) meson fields. In the future, additional isovector pseudoscalar ({pi}{sup +}, {pi}{sup {minus}}, {pi}{sup 0}), isovector vector ({rho}{sup +}, {rho}{sup {minus}}, {rho}{sup 0}), and neutral pseudoscalar ({eta}) meson fields should be incorporated. Quantum size effects should be included in the equations of motion by use of the spreading function of Moniz and Sharp, which generates an effective nucleon mass density smeared out over a Compton wavelength. However, unlike the situation in electrodynamics, the Compton wavelength of the nucleon is small compared to its radius, so that effects due to the intrinsic size of the nucleon dominate.

  9. Sizing a New Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Is your water heater the right size for you house? | Photo credit ENERGY STAR Is your water heater the right size for you house? | Photo credit ENERGY STAR A properly sized ...

  10. Sizing a New Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Heat & Cool Water Heating Sizing a New Water Heater Sizing a New Water Heater Is your water heater the right size for you house? | Photo credit ENERGY STAR Is your water ...

  11. Impact of aerosol size representation on modeling aerosol-cloud interactions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Y.; Easter, R. C.; Ghan, S. J.; Abdul-Razzak, H.

    2002-11-07

    In this study, we use a 1-D version of a climate-aerosol-chemistry model with both modal and sectional aerosol size representations to evaluate the impact of aerosol size representation on modeling aerosol-cloud interactions in shallow stratiform clouds observed during the 2nd Aerosol Characterization Experiment. Both the modal (with prognostic aerosol number and mass or prognostic aerosol number, surface area and mass, referred to as the Modal-NM and Modal-NSM) and the sectional approaches (with 12 and 36 sections) predict total number and mass for interstitial and activated particles that are generally within several percent of references from a high resolution 108-section approach.more » The modal approach with prognostic aerosol mass but diagnostic number (referred to as the Modal-M) cannot accurately predict the total particle number and surface areas, with deviations from the references ranging from 7-161%. The particle size distributions are sensitive to size representations, with normalized absolute differences of up to 12% and 37% for the 36- and 12-section approaches, and 30%, 39%, and 179% for the Modal-NSM, Modal-NM, and Modal-M, respectively. For the Modal-NSM and Modal-NM, differences from the references are primarily due to the inherent assumptions and limitations of the modal approach. In particular, they cannot resolve the abrupt size transition between the interstitial and activated aerosol fractions. For the 12- and 36-section approaches, differences are largely due to limitations of the parameterized activation for non-log-normal size distributions, plus the coarse resolution for the 12-section case. Differences are larger both with higher aerosol (i.e., less complete activation) and higher SO2 concentrations (i.e., greater modification of the initial aerosol distribution).« less

  12. Method of making metal oxide ceramic membranes with small pore sizes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI); Xu, Qunyin (Madison, WI)

    1992-01-01

    A method for the production of metal oxide ceramic membranes is composed of very small pore size. The process is particularly useful in the creation of titanium and other transition metal oxide membranes. The method utilizes a sol-gel process in which the rate of particle formation is controlled by substituting a relatively large alcohol in the metal alkoxide and by limiting the available water. Stable, transparent metal oxide ceramic membranes are created having a narrow distribution of pore size, with the pore diameter being manipulable in the range of 5 to 40 Angstroms.

  13. Measuring the mass, density, and size of particles and cells using a suspended microchannel resonator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godin, Michel; Bryan, Andrea K.; Burg, Thomas P.; Babcock, Ken; Manalis, Scott R.

    2007-09-17

    We demonstrate the measurement of mass, density, and size of cells and nanoparticles using suspended microchannel resonators. The masses of individual particles are quantified as transient frequency shifts, while the particles transit a microfluidic channel embedded in the resonating cantilever. Mass histograms resulting from these data reveal the distribution of a population of heterogeneously sized particles. Particle density is inferred from measurements made in different carrier fluids since the frequency shift for a particle is proportional to the mass difference relative to the displaced solution. We have characterized the density of polystyrene particles, Escherichia coli, and human red blood cells with a resolution down to 10{sup -4} g/cm{sup 3}.

  14. 2012 Market Report on U.S. Wind Technologies in Distributed Applicatio...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    An annual report on U.S. wind power in distributed applications--expanded to include small, mid-size, and utility-scale installations--including key statistics, economic data, ...

  15. 2012 Market Report on U.S. Wind Technologies in Distributed Applicatio...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    report on U.S. wind power in distributed applications--expanded to include small, mid-size, and utility-scale installations--including key statistics, economic data, installation, ...

  16. Real-Time Simultaneous Measurements of Size, Density, and Composition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Simultaneous Measurements of Size, Density, and Composition of Single Ultrafine Diesel Tailpipe Particles Real-Time Simultaneous Measurements of Size, Density, and Composition of ...

  17. Overview of Detailed Chemical Speciation and Particle Sizing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Detailed Chemical Speciation and Particle Sizing for Diesel Exhaust, Both Real Time and Filter Based Measurements Overview of Detailed Chemical Speciation and Particle Sizing for ...

  18. Sandia Energy - Self-Regulated Fabrication of Size-Controlled...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Self-Regulated Fabrication of Size-Controlled Quantum Nanostructures Home Highlights - Energy Research Self-Regulated Fabrication of Size-Controlled Quantum Nanostructures Previous...

  19. Development of Model Filtration Media for Investigating Size...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Model Filtration Media for Investigating Size-Dependent Filtration Efficiency Development of Model Filtration Media for Investigating Size-Dependent Filtration Efficiency A novel ...

  20. CBEI: Coordinating RTUs in Small and Medium Sized Commercial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coordinating RTUs in Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review CBEI: Coordinating RTUs in Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review ...

  1. Finite-size effects of hysteretic dynamics in multilayer graphene...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Publisher's Accepted Manuscript: Finite-size effects of hysteretic dynamics in multilayer graphene on a ferroelectric Prev Next Title: Finite-size effects of hysteretic ...

  2. Magnetic agglomeration method for size control in the synthesis...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Magnetic agglomeration method for size control in the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles Title: Magnetic agglomeration method for size control in the synthesis of magnetic ...

  3. Distributed Optimization System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hurtado, John E.; Dohrmann, Clark R.; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2004-11-30

    A search system and method for controlling multiple agents to optimize an objective using distributed sensing and cooperative control. The search agent can be one or more physical agents, such as a robot, and can be software agents for searching cyberspace. The objective can be: chemical sources, temperature sources, radiation sources, light sources, evaders, trespassers, explosive sources, time dependent sources, time independent sources, function surfaces, maximization points, minimization points, and optimal control of a system such as a communication system, an economy, a crane, and a multi-processor computer.

  4. Spark Distributed Analytic Framework

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Apache Spark Spark Distributed Analytic Framework Description and Overview Apache Spark(tm) is a fast and general engine for large-scale data processing. How to Use Spark Because of its high memory and I/O bandwidth requirements, we recommend you run your spark jobs on Cori. Follow the steps below to use spark, note that the order of the commands matters. DO NOT load the spark module until you are inside a batch job. Interactive mode Submit an interactive batch job with at least 2 nodes: salloc

  5. Impact of Increasing Distributed Wind Power and Wind Turbine Siting on Rural Distribution Feeder Voltage Profiles: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, A.; Zhang, Y. C.; Hodge, B. M.

    2013-09-01

    Many favorable wind energy resources in North America are located in remote locations without direct access to the transmission grid. Building transmission lines to connect remotely-located wind power plants to large load centers has become a barrier to increasing wind power penetration in North America. By connecting utility-sized megawatt-scale wind turbines to the distribution system, wind power supplied to consumers could be increased greatly. However, the impact of including megawatt-scale wind turbines on distribution feeders needs to be studied. The work presented here examined the impact that siting and power output of megawatt-scale wind turbines have on distribution feeder voltage. This is the start of work to present a general guide to megawatt-scale wind turbine impact on the distribution feeder and finding the amount of wind power that can be added without adversely impacting the distribution feeder operation, reliability, and power quality.

  6. PULSE AMPLITUDE DISTRIBUTION RECORDER

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cowper, G.

    1958-08-12

    A device is described for automatica1ly recording pulse annplitude distribution received from a counter. The novelty of the device consists of the over-all arrangement of conventional circuit elements to provide an easy to read permanent record of the pulse amplitude distribution during a certain time period. In the device a pulse analyzer separates the pulses according to annplitude into several channels. A scaler in each channel counts the pulses and operates a pen marker positioned over a drivable recorder sheet. Since the scalers in each channel have the sanne capacity, the control circuitry permits counting of the incoming pulses until one scaler reaches capacity, whereupon the input is removed and an internal oscillator supplies the necessary pulses to fill up the other scalers. Movement of the chart sheet is initiated wben the first scaler reaches capacity to thereby give a series of marks at spacings proportional to the time required to fill the remaining scalers, and accessory equipment marks calibration points on the recorder sheet to facilitate direct reading of the number of external pulses supplied to each scaler.

  7. Right-Sizing Laboratory Equipment Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frenze, David; Greenberg, Steve; Mathew, Paul; Sartor, Dale; Starr, William

    2005-11-29

    Laboratory equipment such as autoclaves, glass washers, refrigerators, and computers account for a significant portion of the energy use in laboratories. However, because of the general lack of measured equipment load data for laboratories, designers often use estimates based on 'nameplate' rated data, or design assumptions from prior projects. Consequently, peak equipment loads are frequently overestimated. This results in oversized HVAC systems, increased initial construction costs, and increased energy use due to inefficiencies at low part-load operation. This best-practice guide first presents the problem of over-sizing in typical practice, and then describes how best-practice strategies obtain better estimates of equipment loads and right-size HVAC systems, saving initial construction costs as well as life-cycle energy costs. This guide is one in a series created by the Laboratories for the 21st Century ('Labs21') program, a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy. Geared towards architects, engineers, and facilities managers, these guides provide information about technologies and practices to use in designing, constructing, and operating safe, sustainable, high-performance laboratories.

  8. LNG fleet increases in size and capabilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linser, H.J. Jr.; Drudy, M.J.; Endrizzi, F.; Urbanelli, A.A.

    1997-06-02

    The LNG fleet as of early 1997 consisted of 99 vessels with total cargo capacity of 10.7 million cu m, equivalent to approximately 4.5 million tons. One of the newest additions to the fleet, the 137,000-cu m tanker Al Zubarah, is five times the size of the original commercial vessel Methane Princess. Al Zubarah`s first loading of more than 60,000 tons occurred in December 1996 for deliver to Japanese buyers from the newly commissioned Qatargas LNG plant at Ras Laffan. That size cargo contains enough clean-burning energy to heat 60,000 homes in Japan for 1 month. Measuring nearly 1,000 ft long, the tanker is among the largest in the industry fleet and joined 70 other vessels of more than 100,000 cu m. Most LNG tankers built since 1975 have been larger-capacity vessels. The paper discusses LNG shipping requirements, containment systems, vessel design, propulsion, construction, operations and maintenance, and the future for larger vessels.

  9. Particle size analysis in a turbid media with a single-fiber, optical probe while using a visible spectrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Canpolat, Murat; Mourant, Judith R.

    2003-12-09

    Apparatus and method for measuring scatterer size in a dense media with only a single fiber for both light delivery and collection are disclosed. White light is used as a source and oscillations of the detected light intensities are measured as a function of wavelength. The maximum and minimum of the oscillations can be used to determine scatterer size for monodisperse distributions of spheres when the refractive indices are known. In addition several properties of the probe relevant to tissue diagnosis are disclosed including the effects of absorption, a broad distribution of scatterers, and the depth probed.

  10. Distributed charging of electrical assets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Soumyadip; Phan, Dung; Sharma, Mayank; Wu, Chai Wah; Xiong, Jinjun

    2016-02-16

    The present disclosure relates generally to the field of distributed charging of electrical assets. In various examples, distributed charging of electrical assets may be implemented in the form of systems, methods and/or algorithms.

  11. Coal Fired Power Generation Market Size | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Coal Fired Power Generation Market Size Home There are currently no posts in this category. Syndicate...

  12. Offshore Lubricants Market Size | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Offshore Lubricants Market Size Home There are currently no posts in this category. Syndicate content...

  13. Distributed road assessment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

    2014-03-25

    A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

  14. DISTRIBUTED AMPLIFIER INCORPORATING FEEDBACK

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, P.R. Jr.

    1958-10-21

    An improved distributed amplifier system employing feedback for stabilization is presented. In accordance with the disclosed invention, a signal to be amplified is applled to one end of a suitable terminated grid transmission line. At intervals along the transmission line, the signal is fed to stable, resistance-capacitance coupled amplifiers incorporating feedback loops therein. The output current from each amplifier is passed through an additional tube to minimize the electrostatic capacitance between the tube elements of the last stage of the amplifier, and fed to appropriate points on an output transmission line, similar to the grid line, but terminated at the opposite (input) end. The output taken from the unterminated end of the plate transmission line is proportional to the input voltage impressed upon the grid line.

  15. Integrated Distribution Planning Concept Paper

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Distribution Planning Concept Paper www.irecusa.org A Proactive Approach for Accommodating High Penetrations of Distributed Generation Resources May 2013 Integrated Distribution Planning Concept Paper A Proactive Approach for Accommodating High Penetrations of Distributed Generation Resources Tim Lindl and Kevin Fox Interstate Renewable Energy Council, Inc. Abraham Ellis and Robert Broderick Sandia National Laboratories May 2013 IREC enables greater use of clean energy in a sustainable way by

  16. GTT 2012 Distribution Workshop- Documents

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Use the links below to download documents from the GTT's Distribution Workshop, held September 24-26, 2012

  17. Interconnection of Distributed Energy Resources

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Interconnection of Distributed Energy Resources Delivered to: Transmission and Grid Basics for Tribal Economic and Energy Development Dave Narang Principal Engineer, NREL March 30, 2016 2 Discussion Topics * Distribution System Interconnections - Part 1 o Background o Distribution Systems Overview o Electric Utility Operations o Emerging Topics in Grid Integration o DOE Grid Modernization Initiative * Distribution System Interconnections - Part 2 o Permitting o Interconnection * Wrap up o

  18. Advanced Energy Storage Management in Distribution Network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Guodong; Ceylan, Oguzhan; Xiao, Bailu; Starke, Michael R; Ollis, T Ben; King, Daniel J; Irminger, Philip; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    With increasing penetration of distributed generation (DG) in the distribution networks (DN), the secure and optimal operation of DN has become an important concern. In this paper, an iterative mixed integer quadratic constrained quadratic programming model to optimize the operation of a three phase unbalanced distribution system with high penetration of Photovoltaic (PV) panels, DG and energy storage (ES) is developed. The proposed model minimizes not only the operating cost, including fuel cost and purchasing cost, but also voltage deviations and power loss. The optimization model is based on the linearized sensitivity coefficients between state variables (e.g., node voltages) and control variables (e.g., real and reactive power injections of DG and ES). To avoid slow convergence when close to the optimum, a golden search method is introduced to control the step size and accelerate the convergence. The proposed algorithm is demonstrated on modified IEEE 13 nodes test feeders with multiple PV panels, DG and ES. Numerical simulation results validate the proposed algorithm. Various scenarios of system configuration are studied and some critical findings are concluded.

  19. Shoosing the appropriate size wind turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynette, R.

    1996-12-31

    Within the past several years, wind turbines rated at 400 kW and higher have been introduced into the market, and some manufacturers are developing machines rated at 750 - 1,000+ kW. This raises the question: What is the appropriate size for utility-grade wind turbines today? The answer depends upon the site where the machines will be used and the local conditions. The issues discussed in the paper are: (1) Site-Related (a) Visual, noise, erosion, television interference, interference with aviation (b) Siting efficiency (2) Logistics (a) Adequacy of roads and bridges to accept large vehicles (b) Availability and cost of cranes for erection and maintenance (c) Capability of local repair/overhauls (3) Cost Effectiveness (a) Capital costs (1) Wind Turbine (2) Infrastructure costs (b) Maintenance costs (4) Technical/Financial Risk. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. New program sizes pressure-relief drums

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durand, A.A.; Osorio, R.A.; Suarez, R.H.

    1996-05-06

    In accordance with API Recommended Practice 521, a new procedure has been developed for the design of relief drums. The calculation method determines by convergence the most economical length-to-diameter ratio for gas-liquid separation vessels. Drum sizing is based on the separation of a two-phase stream, taking into account the special condition of intermittent flow. Design parameters such as settling velocity and residence time also must be calculated to determine an optimum design. A new program based on a programmable algorithm can be converted from basic language to any other computer language to facilitate vessel-design computations. The program quickly and efficiently computes design values for relief systems used in refineries and petrochemical plants.

  1. Experimental Performance of R-1234yf and R-1234ze as Drop-in Replacements for R-134a in Domestic Refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karber, Kyle M; Abdelaziz, Omar; Vineyard, Edward Allan

    2012-01-01

    Concerns about anthropogenic climate change have generated an interest in low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants and have spawned policies and regulations that encourage the transition to low GWP refrigerants. Recent research has largely focused on hydrofluoroolefins (HFOs), including R-1234yf (GWP = 4) as a replacement for R-134a (GWP = 1430) in automotive air-conditioning applications. While R-1234yf and R-1234ze (GWP = 6) have been investigated theoretically as a replacements for R-134a in domestic refrigeration, there is a lack of experimental evidence. This paper gives experimental performance data for R-1234yf and R-1234ze as drop-in replacements for R134a in two household refrigerators one baseline and one advanced technology. An experiment was conducted to evaluate and compare the performance of R-134a to R-1234yf and R-1234ze, using AHAM standard HRF-1 to evaluate energy consumption. These refrigerants were tested as drop-in replacements, with no performance enhancing modifications to the refrigerators. In Refrigerator 1 and 2, R-1234yf had 2.7% and 1.3% higher energy consumption than R-134a, respectively. This indicates that R-1234yf is a suitable drop-in replacement for R-134a in domestic refrigeration applications. In Refrigerator 1 and 2, R-1234ze had 16% and 5.4% lower energy consumption than R-134a, respectively. In order to replace R-134a with R-1234ze in domestic refrigerators the lower capacity would need to be addressed, thus R-1234ze might not be suitable for drop-in replacement.

  2. Conceptual Design Report Cask Loadout Sys and Cask Drop Redesign for the Immersion Pail Support Structure and Operator Interface Platform at 105 K West

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LANGEVIN, A.S.

    1999-07-12

    This conceptual design report documents the redesign of the IPSS and the OIP in the 105 KW Basin south loadout pit due to a postulated cask drop accident, as part of Project A.5/A.6, Canister Transfer Facility Modifications. Project A.5/A.6 involves facility modifications needed to transfer fuel from the basin into the cask-MCO. The function of the IPSS is to suspend, guide, and position the immersion pail. The immersion pail protects the cask-MCO from contamination by basin water and acts as a lifting device for the cask-MCO. The OIP provides operator access to the south loadout pit. Previous analyses studied the effects of a cask-MCO drop on the south loadout pit concrete structure and on the IPSS. The most recent analysis considered the resulting loads at the pit slab/wall joint (Kanjilal, 1999). This area had not been modeled previously, and the analysis results indicate that the demand capacity exceeds the allowable at the slab/wall joint. The energy induced on the south loadout pit must be limited such that the safety class function of the basin is maintained. The solution presented in this CDR redesigns the IPSS and the OIP to include impact-absorbing features that will reduce the induced energy. The impact absorbing features of the new design include: Impact-absorbing material at the IPSS base and at the upper portion of the IPSS legs. A sleeve which provides a hydraulic means of absorbing energy. Designing the OIP to act as an impact absorber. The existing IPSS structure in 105 KW will be removed. This conceptual design considers only loads resulting from drops directly over the IPSS and south loadout pit area. Drops in other areas of the basin are not considered, and will be covered as part of a future revision to this CDR.

  3. Measurement of the soot concentration and soot particle sizes in propane oxygen flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bockhorn, H.; Fetting, F.; Meyer, U.; Reck, R.; Wannemacher, G.

    1981-01-01

    Soot concentrations and particle sizes were measured by light scattering and probe measurements in the burnt gas region of atmospheric pressure propane-oxygen flames and propane-oxygen flames to which hydrogen or ammonia were added. The results show that the soot concentrations in propane-oxygen flames, to which hydrogen is added are lower compared to propane-oxygen flames. The decrease of soot concentration is much stronger when ammonia is added. Associated with the reduction of soot concentration is a reduction of mean particle size of the soot particles and a lower breadth of the particle size distributions. Electron micrographs of soot particles from the probe measurements showed that soot particles from flames with high soot concentrations (propane oxygen flames) are aggregates with chain or cluster structure while the structure of the particles from flames with lower soot concentration (propane oxygen flames with hydrogen or ammonia added) is more compact. 24 refs.

  4. Single-Species Aerosol Coagulation and Deposition with Arbitrary Size Resolution.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-07-31

    Version 00 SAEROSA solves the dynamic aerosol coagulation and deposition problem with arbitrary computational precision under a variety of conditions. The code includes numerous user-selectable coagulation kernels, alone or in combinations, and permits an arbitrary initial size distribution. Many parameter combinations and what-if scenarios under user control are possible. The output gives the particle size distribution suspended in the carrier fluid initially and after the desired aerosol aging time in terms of both differential andmore » integral aerosol volume concentrations. An auxiliary routine designed for the Mac OSX environment provides plotting capability. The output can be further processed by e.g., spreadsheets. The code has been benchmarked against three computer models, including MAEROS, and analytical models with excellent agreement. The test cases also included scenarios where previously published computational coagulation models lack capabilities or exhibit numerical instabilities. These included narrow, delta function, and non-lognormal initial size distributions, and further conditions, such as the presence of simultaneous coagulation mechanisms, including electrostatic effects, spanning multiple flow-regimes.« less

  5. A comparison of the heat transfer and pressure drop performance of R-134a-lubricant mixtures in different diameter smooth tubes and micro-fin tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckels, S.J.; Doerr, T.M.; Pate, M.B.

    1998-10-01

    The average heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops during evaporation and condensation are reported for mixtures of R-134a and an ester lubricant in tubes of 12.7 mm (1/2 in.) outer diameter. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the performance of the R-134a-lubricant mixtures in these tubes and determine the performance benefits of the micro-fin tube. The performance benefits of the tubes with 12.7 mm (1/2 in.) outer diameter are compared to those of smaller tubes with 9.52 mm (3/8 in.) outer diameter. The lubricant used was a 169 SUS penta erythritol ester mixed-acid lubricant. The lubricant concentration was varied from 0--5.1% in the mixture. The average heat transfer coefficients in the 12.7 mm (1/2 in.) micro-fin tube were 50--150% higher than those for the 12.7 mm (1/2 in.) smooth tube, while pressure drops in the micro-fin tube were 5% to 50% higher than in the smooth tube. The addition of lubricant degraded the average heat transfer coefficients in all cases except during evaporation at low lubricant concentrations. Pressure drops were always increased with the addition of lubricant. The experimental results also indicate that tube diameter has some effect on the performance benefits of the micro-fin tube over that of the smooth tube.

  6. An instrument to measure extended particle size and velocity ranges in multiphase flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, C.P.; Hess, C.F.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes a miniaturized particle sizing velocimeter developed and built by MetroLaser to measure the spatial and temporal distributions of particle size and velocity. The instrument is the first of its kind to utilize the pulse displacement technique (PDT) to measure particle size. PDT is based on the detection of scattered refraction and reflection pulses which sweep past a detector at different times as a particle traverses a narrow laser sheet. In conjunction with Mie scattering and a time-of-fight velocity measuring technique, the instrument provides detailed distributions of particle size from 2 {micro}m to 6,000 {micro}m in two optical configurations, and particle velocity from 0.5 m/s to 150 m/s. This paper summarizes the theoretical foundation of PDT which allows the calculation of particle diameter from various optical parameters such as refractive index and collection angle. An overview of the instrument is presented, followed by a brief description of the miniaturized optical probe. The processing of data is described and, lastly, the results of experimental studies are presented which verify the accuracy and versatility of the instrument.

  7. 2014 Distributed Wind Market Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wind Capacity Nearing 1 GW Distributed wind cumulative capacity has reached a total of 906 MW from nearly 74,000 wind turbines. In 2014, 23 states added 63.6 MW of new distributed wind capacity, represent- ing nearly 1,700 units and $170 million in investment. 2014 a Mixed Year for Distributed Wind The market for distributed wind systems using large-scale turbines (greater than 1 MW) showed signs of a recovery after low capacity additions in 2013. The markets for distributed wind systems using

  8. Chemical distribution in high-solids paint overspray aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D'Arcy, J.B.; Chan, T.L. )

    1990-03-01

    The chemical composition of high-solids basecoat paint overspray aerosols was determined as a function of particle size. Detailed information on the chemical composition of the overspray aerosols is important in health hazard evaluation since the composition and distribution within the airborne particles may differ significantly from the bulk paint material. This study was conducted in a typical down-draft paint booth equipped with air-atomized spray painting equipment. A fixed paint target was used to simulate typical overspray generation conditions and the aerosols were collected isokinetically with a seven-stage cascade impactor for size-fractionated analysis. The overspray aerosol from six paints consisted of organic paint binders with varying amounts of inorganic species as pigments or luster enhancers. These overspray aerosols had mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMAD) ranging from 2.9 to 9.7 microns. The size-fractionated paint samples collected on the impaction stages were analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry on a scanning electron microscope (SEM-EDXRS) to identify the metallic elements. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the mass distribution of aluminum and iron as indicators of nonuniform distribution. Three of the aerosols containing aluminum were found to have bimodal distributions with most aluminum distributions having cumulative MMADs larger than the total aerosol. Iron in the aerosols was bimodal for three of the paints with all samples having an overall iron MMAD less than or equal to the overspray aerosol MMAD. Analysis using ultraviolet spectrometry revealed that the organic compounds present in the size-fractionated particulate samples consisted of a single, polydispersed mode with an MMAD similar to that of the total overspray aerosol.

  9. Distributed Merge Trees

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morozov, Dmitriy; Weber, Gunther

    2013-01-08

    Improved simulations and sensors are producing datasets whose increasing complexity exhausts our ability to visualize and comprehend them directly. To cope with this problem, we can detect and extract significant features in the data and use them as the basis for subsequent analysis. Topological methods are valuable in this context because they provide robust and general feature definitions. As the growth of serial computational power has stalled, data analysis is becoming increasingly dependent on massively parallel machines. To satisfy the computational demand created by complex datasets, algorithms need to effectively utilize these computer architectures. The main strength of topological methods, their emphasis on global information, turns into an obstacle during parallelization. We present two approaches to alleviate this problem. We develop a distributed representation of the merge tree that avoids computing the global tree on a single processor and lets us parallelize subsequent queries. To account for the increasing number of cores per processor, we develop a new data structure that lets us take advantage of multiple shared-memory cores to parallelize the work on a single node. Finally, we present experiments that illustrate the strengths of our approach as well as help identify future challenges.

  10. Distributed generation technology in a newly competitive electric power industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfeifenberger, J.P.; Ammann, P.R.; Taylor, G.A.

    1996-10-01

    The electric utility industry is in the midst of enormous changes in market structure. While the generation sector faces increasing competition, the utilities` transmission and distribution function is undergoing a transition to more unbundled services and prices. This article discusses the extent to which these changes will affect the relative advantage of distributed generation technology. Although the ultimate market potential for distributed generation may be significant, the authors find that the market will be very heterogeneous with many small and only a few medium-sized market segments narrowly defined by operating requirements. The largest market segment is likely to develop for distributed generation technology with operational and economical characteristics suitable for peak-shaving. Unbundling of utility costs and prices will make base- and intermediate-load equipment, such as fuel cells, significantly less attractive in main market segments unless capital costs fall significantly below $1,000/kW.

  11. THE SIZE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RED AND BLUE GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IS NOT DUE TO PROJECTION EFFECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, Jeremy J.; Harris, William E.; Sills, Alison

    2012-11-10

    Metal-rich (red) globular clusters in massive galaxies are, on average, smaller than metal-poor (blue) globular clusters. One of the possible explanations for this phenomenon is that the two populations of clusters have different spatial distributions. We test this idea by comparing clusters observed in unusually deep, high signal-to-noise images of M87 with a simulated globular cluster population in which the red and blue clusters have different spatial distributions, matching the observations. We compare the overall distribution of cluster effective radii as well as the relationship between effective radius and galactocentric distance for both the observed and simulated red and blue sub-populations. We find that the different spatial distributions does not produce a significant size difference between the red and blue sub-populations as a whole or at a given galactocentric distance. These results suggest that the size difference between red and blue globular clusters is likely due to differences during formation or later evolution.

  12. From medium-sized to megawatt turbines...

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dongen, W. van

    1996-12-31

    One of the world`s first 500 kW turbines was installed in 1989 in the Netherlands. This forerunner of the current NedWind 500 kW range also represents the earliest predesign of the NedWind megawatt turbine. After the first 500 kW turbines with steel rotor blades and rotor diameter of 34 m, several design modifications followed, e.g. the rotor diameter was increased to 35 m and a tip brake was added. Later polyester blades were introduced and the rotor diameter was increased with 5 in. The drive train was also redesigned. Improvements on the 500 kW turbine concept has resulted in decreased cost, whereas annual energy output has increased to approx. 1.3 million kWh. Wind energy can substantially contribute to electricity supply. Maximum output in kiloWatthours is the target. Further improvement of the existing technology and implementation of flexible components may well prove to be a way to increase energy output, not only in medium or large sized wind turbines. 7 figs.

  13. How robust are the size measurements of high-redshift compact galaxies?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davari, Roozbeh; Ho, Luis C.; Peng, Chien Y.; Huang, Song

    2014-05-20

    Massive quiescent galaxies at z ≈ 2 are apparently much more compact than galaxies of comparable mass today. How robust are these size measurements? We perform comprehensive simulations to determine possible biases and uncertainties in fitting single-component light distributions to real galaxies. In particular, we examine the robustness of the measurements of the luminosity, size, and other structural parameters. We devise simulations with increasing realism to systematically disentangle effects due to the technique (specifically using GALFIT) and the intrinsic structures of the galaxies. By accurately capturing the detailed substructures of nearby elliptical galaxies and then rescaling their sizes and signal-to-noise to mimic galaxies at different redshifts, we confirm that the massive quiescent galaxies at z ≈ 2 are significantly more compact intrinsically than their local counterparts. Their observed compactness is not a result of missing faint outer light due to systematic errors in modeling. In fact, we find that fitting multi-component galaxies with a single Sérsic profile, the procedure most commonly adopted in the literature, biases the inferred sizes higher by up to 10%-20%, which accentuates the amount of size evolution required. If the sky estimation has been done robustly and the model for the point-spread function is fairly accurate, GALFIT can retrieve the properties of single-component galaxies over a wide range of signal-to-noise ratios without introducing any systematic errors.

  14. Incentivizing Distributed Solar: Best Practices (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, L.; Reger, A.

    2013-06-01

    The presentation discussed findings of a recent NREL technical report on best practices for designing and implementing incentives for small and mid-sized residential and commercial distributed solar energy projects. Topics covered included: factors to consider in setting and modifying incentive levels over time, differentiating incentives to encourage various market segments, and administrative issues such as providing equitable access to incentives and customer protection. In addition, the presentation explored how incentive programs can be designed to respond to changing market conditions while attempting to provide a longer-term and stable environment for the solar industry. The findings of the report were based on interviews with program administrators, regulators, and industry representatives as well as data from numerous incentive programs nationally, particularly the largest and longest-running programs.

  15. Rotary seal with improved film distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietle, Lannie Laroy; Schroeder, John Erick

    2013-10-08

    The present invention is a generally circular rotary seal that establishes sealing between relatively rotatable machine components for lubricant retention and environmental exclusion, and incorporates seal geometry that interacts with the lubricant during relative rotation to distribute a lubricant film within the dynamic sealing interface. The features of a variable inlet size, a variable dynamic lip flank slope, and a reduction in the magnitude and circumferentially oriented portion of the lubricant side interfacial contact pressure zone at the narrowest part of the lip, individually or in combination thereof, serve to maximize interfacial lubrication in severe operating conditions, and also serve to minimize lubricant shear area, seal torque, seal volume, and wear, while ensuring retrofitability into the seal grooves of existing equipment.

  16. Rotary seal with improved film distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietle, Lannie Laroy; Schroeder, John Erick

    2015-09-01

    The present invention is a generally circular rotary seal that establishes sealing between relatively rotatable machine components for lubricant retention and environmental exclusion, and incorporates seal geometry that interacts with the lubricant during relative rotation to distribute a lubricant film within the dynamic sealing interface. The features of a variable inlet size, a variable dynamic lip flank slope, and a reduction in the magnitude and circumferentially oriented portion of the lubricant side interfacial contact pressure zone at the narrowest part of the lip, individually or in combination thereof, serve to maximize interfacial lubrication in severe operating conditions, and also serve to minimize lubricant shear area, seal torque, seal volume, and wear, while ensuring retrofitability into the seal grooves of existing equipment.

  17. Distributed Energy | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distributed Energy Distributed Energy Distributed energy consists of a range of smaller-scale and modular devices designed to provide electricity, and sometimes also thermal energy, in locations close to consumers. They include fossil and renewable energy technologies (e.g., photovoltaic arrays, wind turbines, microturbines, reciprocating engines, fuel cells, combustion turbines, and steam turbines); energy storage devices (e.g., batteries and flywheels); and combined heat and power systems.

  18. Distribution of Clokey's Eggvetch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David C. Anderson

    1998-12-01

    monophylla), Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma), and big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp. tridentata). Overall, the populations of Clokey's eggvetch on the NTS appear to be vigorous and do not appear threatened. It is estimated that there are approximately 2300 plants on the NTS. It should be considered as a species of concern because of its localized distribution, but it does not appear to warrant protection under the ESA.

  19. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Triples in Size to 16 Members...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Triples in Size to 16 Members Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Triples in Size to 16 Members September 16, 2007 - 2:33pm Addthis Nations Sign On...

  20. Solar Trackers Market Size | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Trackers Market Size Home John55364's picture Submitted by John55364(100) Contributor 12 May, 2015 - 03:54 Solar Trackers Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share,...

  1. AGENDA: PETROLEUM PRODUCT TRANSMISSION & DISTRIBUTION

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The agenda for the Quadrennial Energy Review (QER) public stakeholder meeting in New Orleans on petroleum product transmission, distribution, and storage.

  2. Distribution Drive | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search Name: Distribution Drive Place: Dallas, Texas Zip: 75205 Product: Biodiesel fuel distributor. Coordinates: 32.778155, -96.795404 Show Map Loading map......

  3. Singularities of Generalized Parton Distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anatoly Radyushkin

    2012-05-14

    The basic ideas of the theory of Generalized Parton Distributions (GPDs) are reviewed. Recent developments in the study of singularities of GPDs are discussed.

  4. Distributed Wind | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    facility's anaerobic digesters. Photo from Kathryn Craddock, NREL 16710 Distributed wind energy systems provide clean, renewable power for on-site use and help relieve...

  5. NREL: Distributed Grid Integration - Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL's distributed energy projects support the integration of new technologies into the electric power grid. This work involves industry, academia, other national laboratories, and ...

  6. NREL: Distributed Grid Integration - Capabilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Capabilities Photo of a man in safety glasses working with laboratory equipment. NREL's distributed grid integration researchers conduct testing and evaluation at the one-of-a-kind ...

  7. 2013 Distributed Wind Market Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orrell, A. C.

    2014-08-15

    This report describes the status of the U.S. distributed wind industry in 2013; its trends, performance, market drivers and future outlook.

  8. Method for determining aerosol particle size device for determining aerosol particle size

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, Vincent J.

    1998-01-01

    A method for determining the mass median diameter D of particles contained in a fluid is provided wherein the data of the mass of a pre-exposed and then a post-exposed filter is mathematically combined with data concerning the pressure differential across the same filter before and then after exposure to a particle-laden stream. A device for measuring particle size is also provided wherein the device utilizes the above-method for mathematically combining the easily quantifiable data.

  9. EIS Distribution (DOE, 2006) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EIS Distribution (DOE, 2006) EIS Distribution (DOE, 2006) This DOE guidance presents a series of recommendations related to the EIS distribution process, which includes creating ...

  10. Articles about Distributed Wind | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Articles about Distributed Wind Articles about Distributed Wind Below are stories about distributed wind featured by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Program. October 1,...

  11. Hydrogen Pathway Cost Distributions | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pathway Cost Distributions Hydrogen Pathway Cost Distributions Presentation on hydrogen pathway cost distributions presented January 25, 2006. PDF icon wkshpstorageuihlein.pdf...

  12. Distributed Power Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Distributed Power Inc Place: Lime Rock, Connecticut Zip: 6039 Product: Focused on distributed generation power technology. References: Distributed Power Inc1 This article is a...

  13. Distributed Energy Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Distributed Energy Projects Distributed Energy Projects Distributed Energy Projects At the National Clean Energy Summit 8.0 in Nevada, President Obama announced that the Loan...

  14. Ash reduction strategies in corn stover facilitated by anatomical and size fractionation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lacey, Jeffrey A.; Emerson, Rachel M.; Thompson, David N.; Westover, Tyler L.

    2016-04-22

    There is growing interest internationally to produce fuels from renewable biomass resources. Inorganic components of biomass feedstocks, referred to collectively as ash, damage equipment and decrease yields in thermal conversion processes, and decrease feedstock value for biochemical conversion processes. Decreasing the ash content of feedstocks improves conversion efficiency and lowers process costs. Because physiological ash is unevenly distributed in the plant, mechanical processes can be used to separate fractions of the plant based on ash content. This study focuses on the ash separation that can be achieved by separating corn stover by particle size and anatomical fraction. Baled corn stovermore » was hand-separated into anatomical fractions, ground to <19.1 mm, and size separated using six sieves ranging from 9.5 to 0.150 mm. Size fractions were analyzed for total ash content and ash composition. Particle size distributions observed for the anatomical fractions varied considerably. Cob particles were primarily 2.0 mm or greater, while most of the sheath and husk particles were 2.0 mm and smaller. Particles of leaves greater than 0.6 mm contained the greatest amount of total ash, ranging from approximately 8 to 13% dry weight of the total original material, while the fractions with particles smaller than 0.6 mm contained less than 2% of the total ash of the original material. As a result, based on the overall ash content and the elemental ash, specific anatomical and size fractions can be separated to optimize the feedstocks being delivered to biofuels conversion processes and minimize the need for more expensive ash reduction treatments.« less

  15. Quality monitored distributed voting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skogmo, David

    1997-01-01

    A quality monitoring system can detect certain system faults and fraud attempts in a distributed voting system. The system uses decoy voters to cast predetermined check ballots. Absent check ballots can indicate system faults. Altered check ballots can indicate attempts at counterfeiting votes. The system can also cast check ballots at predetermined times to provide another check on the distributed voting system.

  16. Quality monitored distributed voting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skogmo, D.

    1997-03-18

    A quality monitoring system can detect certain system faults and fraud attempts in a distributed voting system. The system uses decoy voters to cast predetermined check ballots. Absent check ballots can indicate system faults. Altered check ballots can indicate attempts at counterfeiting votes. The system can also cast check ballots at predetermined times to provide another check on the distributed voting system. 6 figs.

  17. Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE funded "Best Practices for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind" to identify distributed wind technology policy best practices and to help policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers examine their effectiveness using a pro forma model. Incorporating a customized feed from the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE), the Web-based Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool is designed to assist state, local, and utility officials in understanding the financial impacts of different policy options to help reduce the cost of distributed wind technologies. The Tool can be used to evaluate the ways that a variety of federal and state policies and incentives impact the economics of distributed wind (and subsequently its expected market growth).

  18. 2014 Distributed Wind Market Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orell, A.; Foster, N.

    2015-08-01

    The cover of the 2014 Distributed Wind Market Report.According to the 2014 Distributed Wind Market Report, distributed wind reached a cumulative capacity of almost 1 GW (906 MW) in the United States in 2014, reflecting nearly 74,000 wind turbines deployed across all 50 states, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. In total, 63.6 MW of new distributed wind capacity was added in 2014, representing nearly 1,700 units and $170 million in investment across 24 states. In 2014, America's distributed wind energy industry supported a growing domestic industrial base as exports from United States-based small wind turbine manufacturers accounted for nearly 80% of United States-based manufacturers' sales.

  19. E-H heating mode transition in inductive discharges with different antenna sizes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Hyo-Chang Chung, Chin-Wook

    2015-05-15

    The spatial distribution of plasma density and the transition power for capacitive (E) to inductive (H) mode transition are studied in planar type inductively coupled plasmas with different antenna sizes. The spatial plasma distribution has a relatively flat profile at a low gas pressure, while the plasma profile is affected by the antenna size at higher gas pressure. The transition power for the E to H mode transition is shown to be critically affected by the antenna size. When the discharge is sustained by a small one-turn antenna coil, the transition power has a minimum value at Ar gas of 20 mTorr. However, the minimum transition power is shown at a relatively high gas pressure (40–60 mTorr) in the case of a large one-turn antenna coil. This change in the transition power can be understood by the thermal transport of the energetic electrons with non-local kinetics to the chamber wall. This non-local kinetic effect indicates that the transition power can also increase even for a small antenna if the antenna is placed near the wall.

  20. Control of nanoparticle size, reactivity and magnetic properties during the bioproduction of magnetite by Geobacter sulfurreducens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byrne, J. M.; Telling, N. D.; Coker, V. S.; Pattrick, R. A. D.; Laan, G. van der; Arenholz, E.; Tuna, F.; Lloyd, J. R.

    2011-08-02

    The bioproduction of nano-scale magnetite by Fe(III)-reducing bacteria offers a potentially tunable, environmentally benign route to magnetic nanoparticle synthesis. Here, we demonstrate that it is possible to control the size of magnetite nanoparticles produced by Geobacter sulfurreducens, by adjusting the total biomass introduced at the start of the process. The particles have a narrow size distribution and can be controlled within the range of 10-50 nm. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that controlled production of a number of different biominerals is possible via this method including goethite, magnetite and siderite, but their formation is strongly dependent upon the rate of Fe(III) reduction and total concentration and rate of Fe(II) produced by the bacteria during the reduction process. Relative cation distributions within the structure of the nanoparticles has been investigated by X-ray magnetic circular dichroism and indicates the presence of a highly reduced surface layer which is not observed when magnetite is produced through abiotic methods. The enhanced Fe(II)-rich surface, combined with small particle size, has important environmental applications such as in the reductive bioremediation of organics, radionuclides and metals. In the case of Cr(VI), as a model high-valence toxic metal, optimised biogenic magnetite is able to reduce and sequester the toxic hexavalent chromium very efficiently in the less harmful trivalent form.

  1. Distribution System Voltage Regulation by Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ceylan, Oguzhan; Liu, Guodong; Xu, Yan; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a control method to regulate voltages in 3 phase unbalanced electrical distribution systems. A constrained optimization problem to minimize voltage deviations and maximize distributed energy resource (DER) active power output is solved by harmony search algorithm. IEEE 13 Bus Distribution Test System was modified to test three different cases: a) only voltage regulator controlled system b) only DER controlled system and c) both voltage regulator and DER controlled system. The simulation results show that systems with both voltage regulators and DER control provide better voltage profile.

  2. Weld defect distributions in offshore structures and their influence on structural reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogerson, J.H.; Wong, W.K.

    1982-01-01

    Failure by fracture is a serious possible fracture mode of steel offshore structures particularly in hostile, low-temperature environments. Such fracture usually initiates from flaws in regions of stress concentration. For any probabilistic failure analysis to be credible, it is necessary to have a good estimate of the flaw size and distribution. For fixed steel platforms the important flaw size distribution is the distribution of defect height in welds in node connections. Previous work has shown that different structures have similar defect distributions which suggests that a function can be derived for the generality of such structures. Data has been analyzed relating to > 1000 m of weld in one North Sea structure. From this can be seen that a Weibull distribution is the appropriate function to use for defect height. Conclusions also are drawn about the required reliability of even an imperfect inspection and repair technique to significantly reduce failure probability.

  3. Method for determining aerosol particle size, device for determining aerosol particle size

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, V.J.

    1998-10-06

    A method for determining the mass median diameter D of particles contained in a fluid is provided wherein the data of the mass of a pre-exposed and then a post-exposed filter is mathematically combined with data concerning the pressure differential across the same filter before and then after exposure to a particle-laden stream. A device for measuring particle size is also provided wherein the device utilizes the above-method for mathematically combining the easily quantifiable data. 2 figs.

  4. A versatile technique to minimize electrical losses in distribution feeders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyaruzi, A.L.

    1994-12-31

    This dissertation presents a method of minimizing electrical losses in radial distribution feeders by the use of shunt capacitors. The engineering benefits of reducing peak electrical power and energy losses are compared to the costs associated with the current engineering practice of buying, installing and servicing capacitor banks in the distribution feeders. The present analysis defines this cost-benefit problem and the formulation of the problem of nonuniform feeders with different wire gauges at various feeder sections. Standard utility capacitor bank sizes are used to give a more realistic model. An original computer solution methodology based on techniques developed for this study determines: (i) Whether it is economical to install compensating capacitor banks on a particular radial distribution feeder or not. (ii) The locations at which capacitor banks should be installed. (iii) The types and sizes of capacitor banks to be installed. (iv) The time setting of switched capacitor banks. The techniques have been applied to a typical radial distribution feeder in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. The results and the engineering implications of this work are discussed and recommendations for the engineering community made.

  5. Microfluidic sorting of protein nanocrystals by size for X-ray free-electron laser diffraction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abdallah, Bahige G.; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Roy-Chowdhury, Shatabdi; Coe, Jesse; Conrad, Chelsie E.; Dörner, Katerina; Sierra, Raymond G.; Stevenson, Hilary P.; Camacho-Alanis, Fernanda; Grant, Thomas D.; et al

    2015-08-19

    We report that the advent and application of the X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) has uncovered the structures of proteins that could not previously be solved using traditional crystallography. While this new technology is powerful, optimization of the process is still needed to improve data quality and analysis efficiency. One area is sample heterogeneity, where variations in crystal size (among other factors) lead to the requirement of large data sets (and thus 10–100 mg of protein) for determining accurate structure factors. To decrease sample dispersity, we developed a high-throughput microfluidic sorter operating on the principle of dielectrophoresis, whereby polydisperse particles canmore » be transported into various fluid streams for size fractionation. Using this microsorter, we isolated several milliliters of photosystem I nanocrystal fractions ranging from 200 to 600 nm in size as characterized by dynamic light scattering, nanoparticle tracking, and electron microscopy. Sorted nanocrystals were delivered in a liquid jet via the gas dynamic virtual nozzle into the path of the XFEL at the Linac Coherent Light Source. We obtained diffraction to ~4 Å resolution, indicating that the small crystals were not damaged by the sorting process. We also observed the shape transforms of photosystem I nanocrystals, demonstrating that our device can optimize data collection for the shape transform-based phasing method. Using simulations, we show that narrow crystal size distributions can significantly improve merged data quality in serial crystallography. From this proof-of-concept work, we expect that the automated size-sorting of protein crystals will become an important step for sample production by reducing the amount of protein needed for a high quality final structure and the development of novel phasing methods that exploit inter-Bragg reflection intensities or use variations in beam intensity for radiation damage-induced phasing. Ultimately, this method

  6. The Smallest Drops of the Hottest Matter? New Investigations at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (493rd Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sickles, Anne

    2014-03-19

    Pool sharks at the billiards hall know that sometimes you aim to rocket the cue ball for a head-on collision, and other times, a mere glance will do. Physicists need to know more than a thing or two about collision geometry too, as they sift through data from the billions of ions that smash together at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). Determining whether ions crash head-on or just glance is crucial for the physicists analyzing data to study quark-gluon plasmathe ultra-hot, "perfect" liquid of quarks and gluons that existed more than 13 billion years ago, before the first protons and neutrons formed. For these physicists, collision geometry data provides insights about quark-gluon plasma's extremely low viscosity and other unusual properties, which are essential for understanding more about the "strong force" that holds together the nucleus, protons, and neutrons of every atom in the universe. Dr. Sickles explains how physicists use data collected at house-sized detectors like PHENIX and STAR to determine what happens before, during, and after individual particle collisions among billions at RHIC. She also explains how the ability to collide different "species" of nuclei at RHICincluding protons and gold ions today and possibly more with a proposed future electron-ion collider upgrade (eRHIC)enables physicists to probe deeper into the mysteries of quark-gluon plasma and the strong force.

  7. A large drop in atmospheric [sup 14]C/[sup 12]C and reduced melting in the younger dryas, documented with [sup 230]Th ages of corals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, R.L.; Beck, J.W. ); Burr, G.S.; Donahue, D.J. ); Chappell, J.M.A. ); Bloom, A.L. ); Druffel, E.R.M. ); Taylor, F.W. )

    1993-05-14

    Paired carbon-14 ([sup 14]C) and thorium-230 ([sup 230]Th) ages were determined on fossil corals from the Huon Peninsula, Papua New Guinea. The ages were used to calibrate part of the [sup 14]C time scale and to estimate rates of sea-level rise during the last deglaciation. An abrupt offset between the [sup 14]C and [sup 230]Th ages suggests that the atmospheric [sup 14]C/[sup 12]C ratio dropped by 15 percent during the latter part of and after the Younger Dryas (YD). This prominent drop coincides with greatly reduced rates of sea-level rise. Reduction of melting because of cooler conditions during the YD may have caused an increase in the rate of ocean ventilation, which caused the atmospheric [sup 14]C/[sup 12]C ratio to fall. The record of sea-level rise also shows that globally averaged rates of melting were relatively high at the beginning of the YD. Thus, these measurements satisfy one of the conditions required by the hypothesis that the diversion of meltwater from the Mississippi to the St. Lawrence River triggered the YD event. 41 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Evaluation of impact limiter performance during end-on and slapdown drop tests of a one-third scale model storage/transport cask system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshimura, H.R.; Bronowski, D.R.; Uncapher, W.L.; Attaway, S.W.; Bateman, V.I.; Carne, T.G.; Gregory, D.L. ); Huerta, M. )

    1990-12-01

    This report describes drop testing of a one-third scale model shipping cask system. Two casks were designed and fabricated by Transnuclear, Inc., to ship spent fuel from the former Nuclear Fuel Services West Valley reprocessing facility in New York to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for a long-term spent fuel dry storage demonstration project. As part of the NRC's regulatory certification process, one-third scale model tests were performed to obtain experimental data on impact limiter performance during impact testing. The objectives of the testing program were to (1) obtain deceleration and displacement information for the cask and impact limiter system, (2) obtain dynamic force-displacement data for the impact limiters, (3) verify the integrity of the impact limiter retention system, and (4) examine the crush behavior of the limiters. Two 30-ft (9-m) drop tests were conducted on a mass model of the cask body and scaled balsa and redwood-filled impact limiters. This report describes the results of both tests in terms of measured decelerations, posttest deformation measurements, and the general structural response of the system. 3 refs., 32 figs.

  9. Prediction of the effects of size and morphology on the structure of water around hematite nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spagnoli, D.; Gilbert, B.; Waychunas, G.A.; Banfield, J. F.

    2009-05-15

    Compared with macroscopic surfaces, the structure of water around nanoparticles is difficult to probe directly. We used molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the effects of particle size and morphology on the time-averaged structure and the dynamics of water molecules around two sizes of hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles. Interrogation of the simulations via atomic density maps, radial distribution functions and bound water residence times provide insight into the relationships between particle size and morphology and the behavior of interfacial water. Both 1.6 and 2.7 nm particles are predicted to cause the formation of ordered water regions close to the nanoparticle surface, but the extent of localization and ordering, the connectivity between regions of bound water, and the rates of molecular exchange between inner and outer regions are all affected by particle size and morphology. These findings are anticipated to be relevant to understanding the rates of interfacial processes involving water exchange and the transport of aqueous ions to surface sites.

  10. Size-Resolved Particle Number and Volume Emission Factors for On-Road Gasoline and Diesel Motor Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ban-Weiss, George A.; Lunden, Melissa M.; Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Harley, Robert A.

    2009-04-10

    Average particle number concentrations and size distributions from {approx}61,000 light-duty (LD) vehicles and {approx}2500 medium-duty (MD) and heavy-duty (HD) trucks were measured during the summer of 2006 in a San Francisco Bay area traffic tunnel. One of the traffic bores contained only LD vehicles, and the other contained mixed traffic, allowing pollutants to be apportioned between LD vehicles and diesel trucks. Particle number emission factors (particle diameter D{sub p} > 3 nm) were found to be (3.9 {+-} 1.4) x 10{sup 14} and (3.3 {+-} 1.3) x 10{sup 15} kg{sup -1} fuel burned for LD vehicles and diesel trucks, respectively. Size distribution measurements showed that diesel trucks emitted at least an order of magnitude more particles for all measured sizes (10 < D{sub p} < 290 nm) per unit mass of fuel burned. The relative importance of LD vehicles as a source of particles increased as D{sub p} decreased. Comparing the results from this study to previous measurements at the same site showed that particle number emission factors have decreased for both LD vehicles and diesel trucks since 1997. Integrating size distributions with a volume weighting showed that diesel trucks emitted 28 {+-} 11 times more particles by volume than LD vehicles, consistent with the diesel/gasoline emission factor ratio for PM{sub 2.5} mass measured using gravimetric analysis of Teflon filters, reported in a companion paper.

  11. 2013 Distributed Wind Market Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orrell, Alice C.; Rhoads-Weaver, H. E.; Flowers, Larry T.; Gagne, Matthew N.; Pro, Boyd H.; Foster, Nikolas AF

    2014-08-20

    The purpose of this report is to quantify and summarize the 2013 U.S. distributed wind market to help plan and guide future investments and decisions by industry stakeholders, utilities, state and federal agencies, and other interested parties.

  12. Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming R. Evans, S. Czernik, R. French, M. Ratcliff National ... GAS 7 BIOMASS BIO-OIL CHAR For reactor or export Gas recycle For fluidization or export ...

  13. Multiple complementary gas distribution assemblies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ng, Tuoh-Bin; Melnik, Yuriy; Pang, Lily L; Tuncel, Eda; Nguyen, Son T; Chen, Lu

    2016-04-05

    In one embodiment, an apparatus includes a first gas distribution assembly that includes a first gas passage for introducing a first process gas into a second gas passage that introduces the first process gas into a processing chamber and a second gas distribution assembly that includes a third gas passage for introducing a second process gas into a fourth gas passage that introduces the second process gas into the processing chamber. The first and second gas distribution assemblies are each adapted to be coupled to at least one chamber wall of the processing chamber. The first gas passage is shaped as a first ring positioned within the processing chamber above the second gas passage that is shaped as a second ring positioned within the processing chamber. The gas distribution assemblies may be designed to have complementary characteristic radial film growth rate profiles.

  14. Distribution Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    On September 24-26, 2012, the GTT presented a workshop on grid integration on the distribution system at the Sheraton Crystal City near Washington, DC. This technical workshop was ...

  15. EVIDENCE FOR (AND AGAINST) PROGENITOR BIAS IN THE SIZE GROWTH OF COMPACT RED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keating, Stephanie K.; Abraham, Roberto G.; Schiavon, Ricardo; Graves, Genevieve; Damjanov, Ivana; Yan, Renbin; Newman, Jeffrey; Simard, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Most massive, passive galaxies are compact at high redshifts, but similarly compact massive galaxies are rare in the local universe. The most common interpretation of this phenomenon is that massive galaxies have grown in size by a factor of about five since redshift z = 2. An alternative explanation is that recently quenched massive galaxies are larger (a {sup p}rogenitor bias{sup )}. In this paper, we explore the importance of progenitor bias by looking for systematic differences in the stellar populations of compact early-type galaxies in the DEEP2 survey as a function of size. Our analysis is based on applying the statistical technique of bootstrap resampling to constrain differences in the median ages of our samples and to begin to characterize the distribution of stellar populations in our co-added spectra. The light-weighted ages of compact early-type galaxies at redshifts 0.5 < z < 1.4 are compared to those of a control sample of larger galaxies at similar redshifts. We find that massive compact early-type galaxies selected on the basis of red color and high bulge-to-total ratio are younger than similarly selected larger galaxies, suggesting that size growth in these objects is not driven mainly by progenitor bias, and that individual galaxies grow as their stellar populations age. However, compact early-type galaxies selected on the basis of image smoothness and high bulge-to-total ratio are older than a control sample of larger galaxies. Progenitor bias will play a significant role in defining the apparent size changes of early-type galaxies if they are selected on the basis of the smoothness of their light distributions.

  16. Double distributions and evolution equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.V. Radyushkin

    1998-05-01

    Applications of perturbative QCD to deeply virtual Compton scattering and hard exclusive meson electroproduction processes require a generalization of usual parton distributions for the case when long-distance information is accumulated in nonforward matrix elements < p{prime} {vert_bar}O(0,z){vert_bar}p > of quark and gluon light-cone operators. In their previous papers the authors used two types of nonperturbative functions parameterizing such matrix elements: double distributions F(x,y;t) and nonforward distribution functions F{sub {zeta}}(X;t). Here they discuss in more detail the double distributions (DD's) and evolution equations which they satisfy. They propose simple models for F(x,y;t=0) DD's with correct spectral and symmetry properties which also satisfy the reduction relations connecting them to the usual parton densities f(x). In this way, they obtain self-consistent models for the {zeta}-dependence of nonforward distributions. They show that, for small {zeta}, one can easily obtain nonforward distributions (in the X > {zeta} region) from the parton densities: F{sub {zeta}} (X;t=0) {approx} f(X{minus}{zeta}/2).

  17. Development of Model Filtration Media for Investigating Size-Dependent

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Filtration Efficiency | Department of Energy Model Filtration Media for Investigating Size-Dependent Filtration Efficiency Development of Model Filtration Media for Investigating Size-Dependent Filtration Efficiency A novel method for fabricating custom porous filtration media for emission control has been developed. Controlled pore sizes could be used to optimize high-capture efficiency with low backpressure. p-25_strzelec.pdf (2.84 MB) More Documents & Publications Fuel-Neutral Studies

  18. Quantum-size-controlled photoelectrochemical etching of semiconductor nanostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Arthur J.; Tsao, Jeffrey Y.; Wierer, Jr., Jonathan J.; Xiao, Xiaoyin; Wang, George T.

    2016-03-01

    Quantum-size-controlled photoelectrochemical (QSC-PEC) etching provides a new route to the precision fabrication of epitaxial semiconductor nanostructures in the sub-10-nm size regime. For example, quantum dots (QDs) can be QSC-PEC-etched from epitaxial InGaN thin films using narrowband laser photoexcitation, and the QD sizes (and hence bandgaps and photoluminescence wavelengths) are determined by the photoexcitation wavelength.

  19. CBEI: Coordinating RTUs in Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2015 Peer Review | Department of Energy Coordinating RTUs in Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review CBEI: Coordinating RTUs in Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: James Braun, Purdue University View the Presentation CBEI: Coordinating RTUs in Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review (1.8 MB) More Documents & Publications Control and Diagnostics for Rooftop Units - 2014 BTO Peer Review CBEI: Lessons

  20. Finite size effects in the static structure factor of dusty plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davletov, A. E. Yerimbetova, L. T.; Mukhametkarimov, Ye. S.; Ospanova, A. K.

    2014-07-15

    Based on the previously developed pseudopotential model of the dust particles interaction, which takes into account both the finite size and screening effects, the equilibrium distribution functions are investigated in a broad range of plasma parameters. The treatment stems entirely from the renormalization theory of plasma particles interactions which leads to the so-called generalized Poisson-Boltzmann equation. In particular, an analytical expression for the static structure factor of the dust particles is proposed and its non-monotonic behavior in the hyper-netted chain approximation is found in a specified domain of plasma parameters to indicate the formation of short- or even long-range order in the system.

  1. Size-Controlled Synthesis of Porphyrinic Metal-Organic Framework...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Size-Controlled Synthesis of Porphyrinic Metal-Organic Framework and Functionalization for Targeted Photodynamic Therapy Previous Next List Jiang, Juncong; Zhao, Yingbo; and Yaghi, ...

  2. CBEI: HVAC Packages for Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CBEI: HVAC Packages for Small and Medium Sized Commercial Buildings - 2015 Peer Review Presenter: Russell Taylor, United Technologies Research Center View the Presentation CBEI: ...

  3. Sizing a New Water Heater | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    systems: Tankless or demand-type water heaters Solar water heating system Storage and heat pump (with tank) water heaters. For sizing combination water and space heating systems --...

  4. Reduce Pumping Costs Through Optimum Pipe Sizing | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reduce Pumping Costs Through Optimum Pipe Sizing (October 2005) (209.25 KB) More Documents & Publications Select an Energy-Efficient Centrifugal Pump Effect of Intake on Compressor ...

  5. Building America Webinar: HVAC Right-Sizing Part 1-Calculating...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the key criteria required to create accurate heating and cooling load calculations. ... HVAC Right-Sizing Part 1: Calculating Loads ZERH Webinar: Low Load HVAC in Zero Energy ...

  6. Reduce Pumping Costs through Optimum Pipe Sizing: Industrial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    power required depends on flow rate, pipe size (diameter), overall pipe length, pipe characteristics (surface roughness, material, etc.), and properties of the fluid being pumped. ...

  7. Nano-sized structured layered positive electrode materials to...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    positive electrode materials to enable high energy density and high rate capability lithium batteries Title: Nano-sized structured layered positive electrode materials to ...

  8. Property:Incentive/EligSysSize | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    minimum
    Recycled Energy: 15 Megawatt maximum Alameda Municipal Power - Solar Photovoltaics Rebate Program (California) + Maximum size is 1 MW or 110% of customer's...

  9. Efficient Algorithm for Locating and Sizing Series Compensation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Compensation Devices in Large Transmission Grids: Model Implementation We explore optimization methods for planning the placement, sizing and operations of Flexible Alternating...

  10. Size and composition-controlled fabrication of VO2 nanocrystals...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    by terminated cluster growth Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Size and composition-controlled fabrication of VO2 nanocrystals by terminated cluster growth You are ...

  11. Size and composition-controlled fabrication of VO2 nanocrystals...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    by terminated cluster growth Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Size and composition-controlled fabrication of VO2 nanocrystals by terminated cluster growth A physical ...

  12. Neutrons measure phase behavior in pores at Angstrom size (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanoporous carbons can also serve as electrode material for supercapacitors and batteries. The researchers successfully determined that the most efficiently condensing pore size in ...

  13. Solar Trackers Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Trackers Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast, 2010 - 2020 Home > Groups > Increase Natural Gas Energy Efficiency John55364's picture...

  14. Level: National Data; Row: Employment Sizes within NAICS Codes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: Employment Sizes within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios; Unit: Varies. Consumption Consumption per ...

  15. Level: National Data; Row: Employment Sizes within NAICS Codes...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Consumption Ratios of Fuel, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: Employment Sizes within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy-Consumption Ratios; Unit: Varies. Consumption Consumption per ...

  16. TVA - Mid-Sized Renewable Standard Offer Program | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    kWh Summary The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) now compliments the small generation Green Power Providers Program by providing incentives for mid-sized renewable energy...

  17. SBA Increases Size Standards for Waste Remediation Services ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a larger pool of small businesses to choose from for small business procurement ... An SBA-issued White Paper entitled, "Size Standards Methodology," which explains how SBA ...

  18. Rational Design of Bi Nanoparticles for Efficient Electrochemical CO2 Reduction: The Elucidation of Size and Surface Condition Effects

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Chi, Miaofang; Veith, Gabriel M.; Zhang, Pengfei; Lutterman, Daniel A.; Rosenthal, Joel; Overbury, Steven H.; Dai, Sheng; Zhu, Huiyuan

    2016-08-08

    Here we report an efficient electrochemical conversion of CO2 to CO on surface-activated bismuth nanoparticles (NPs) in acetonitrile (MeCN) under ambient conditions, with the assistance of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate ([bmim][OTf]). Through the comparison between electrodeposited Bi films (Bi-ED) and different types of Bi NPs, we, for the first time, demonstrate the effects of catalyst’s size and surface condition on organic phase electrochemical CO2 reduction. Our study reveals that the surface inhibiting layer (hydrophobic surfactants and Bi3+ species) formed during the synthesis and purification process hinders the CO2 reduction, leading to a 20% drop in Faradaic efficiency for CO evolution (FECO). Bimore » particle size showed a significant effect on FECO when the surface of Bi was air-oxidized, but this effect of size on FECO became negligible on surface-activated Bi NPs. After the surface activation (hydrazine treatment) that effectively removed the native inhibiting layer, activated 36-nm Bi NPs exhibited an almost-quantitative conversion of CO2 to CO (96.1% FECO), and a mass activity for CO evolution (MACO) of 15.6 mA mg–1, which is three-fold higher than the conventional Bi-ED, at ₋2.0 V (vs Ag/AgCl). Ultimately, this work elucidates the importance of the surface activation for an efficient electrochemical CO2 conversion on metal NPs and paves the way for understanding the CO2 electrochemical reduction mechanism in nonaqueous media.« less

  19. Size control, quantum confinement, and oxidation kinetics of silicon nanocrystals synthesized at a high rate by expanding thermal plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Lihao E-mail: A.H.M.Smets@tudelft.nl; Zeman, Miro; Smets, Arno H. M. E-mail: A.H.M.Smets@tudelft.nl

    2015-05-25

    The growth mechanism of silicon nanocrystals (Si NCs) synthesized at a high rate by means of expanding thermal plasma chemical vapor deposition technique are studied in this letter. A bimodal Gaussian size distribution is revealed from the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images, and routes to reduce the unwanted large Si NCs are discussed. Photoluminescence and Raman spectroscopies are employed to study the size-dependent quantum confinement effect, from which the average diameters of the small Si NCs are determined. The surface oxidation kinetics of Si NCs are studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and the importance of post-deposition passivation treatments of hydrogenated crystalline silicon surfaces are demonstrated.

  20. Distributed Wind Energy in Idaho

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, John; Ferguson, James; Ahmed-Zaid, Said; Johnson, Kathryn; Haynes, Todd; Bennett, Keith

    2009-01-31

    Project Objective: This project is a research and development program aimed at furthering distributed wind technology. In particular, this project addresses some of the barriers to distributed wind energy utilization in Idaho. Background: At its core, the technological challenge inherent in Wind Energy is the transformation of a highly variable form of energy to one which is compatible with the commercial power grid or another useful application. A major economic barrier to the success of distributed wind technology is the relatively high capital investment (and related long payback periods) associated with wind turbines. This project will carry out fundamental research and technology development to address both the technological and economic barriers. • Active drive train control holds the potential to improve the overall efficiency of a turbine system by allowing variable speed turbine operation while ensuring a tight control of generator shaft speed, thus greatly simplifying power conditioning. • Recent blade aerodynamic advancements have been focused on large, utility-scale wind turbine generators (WTGs) as opposed to smaller WTGs designed for distributed generation. Because of Reynolds Number considerations, blade designs do not scale well. Blades which are aerodynamically optimized for distributed-scale WTGs can potentially reduce the cost of electricity by increasing shaft-torque in a given wind speed. • Grid-connected electric generators typically operate at a fixed speed. If a generator were able to economically operate at multiple speeds, it could potentially convert more of the wind’s energy to electricity, thus reducing the cost of electricity. This research directly supports the stated goal of the Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program for Distributed Wind Energy Technology: By 2007, reduce the cost of electricity from distributed wind systems to 10 to 15 cents/kWh in Class 3 wind resources, the same level

  1. Uncertainty in Modeling Dust Mass Balance and Radiative Forcing from Size Parameterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Chun; Chen, Siyu; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Qian, Yun; Kok, Jasper; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Huang, J.

    2013-11-05

    This study examines the uncertainties in simulating mass balance and radiative forcing of mineral dust due to biases in the aerosol size parameterization. Simulations are conducted quasi-globally (180oW-180oE and 60oS-70oN) using the WRF24 Chem model with three different approaches to represent aerosol size distribution (8-bin, 4-bin, and 3-mode). The biases in the 3-mode or 4-bin approaches against a relatively more accurate 8-bin approach in simulating dust mass balance and radiative forcing are identified. Compared to the 8-bin approach, the 4-bin approach simulates similar but coarser size distributions of dust particles in the atmosphere, while the 3-mode pproach retains more fine dust particles but fewer coarse dust particles due to its prescribed og of each mode. Although the 3-mode approach yields up to 10 days longer dust mass lifetime over the remote oceanic regions than the 8-bin approach, the three size approaches produce similar dust mass lifetime (3.2 days to 3.5 days) on quasi-global average, reflecting that the global dust mass lifetime is mainly determined by the dust mass lifetime near the dust source regions. With the same global dust emission (~6000 Tg yr-1), the 8-bin approach produces a dust mass loading of 39 Tg, while the 4-bin and 3-mode approaches produce 3% (40.2 Tg) and 25% (49.1 Tg) higher dust mass loading, respectively. The difference in dust mass loading between the 8-bin approach and the 4-bin or 3-mode approaches has large spatial variations, with generally smaller relative difference (<10%) near the surface over the dust source regions. The three size approaches also result in significantly different dry and wet deposition fluxes and number concentrations of dust. The difference in dust aerosol optical depth (AOD) (a factor of 3) among the three size approaches is much larger than their difference (25%) in dust mass loading. Compared to the 8-bin approach, the 4-bin approach yields stronger dust absorptivity, while the 3-mode

  2. Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-12-01

    Power through Policy: 'Best Practices' for Cost-Effective Distributed Wind is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded project to identify distributed wind technology policy best practices and to help policymakers, utilities, advocates, and consumers examine their effectiveness using a pro forma model. Incorporating a customized feed from the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE), the Web-based Distributed Wind Policy Comparison Tool (Policy Tool) is designed to assist state, local, and utility officials in understanding the financial impacts of different policy options to help reduce the cost of distributed wind technologies. The Policy Tool can be used to evaluate the ways that a variety of federal and state policies and incentives impact the economics of distributed wind (and subsequently its expected market growth). It also allows policymakers to determine the impact of policy options, addressing market challenges identified in the U.S. DOE’s '20% Wind Energy by 2030' report and helping to meet COE targets.

  3. Distributed resource management: garbage collection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bagherzadeh, N.

    1987-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a great interest in designing high-performance distributed symbolic-processing computers. These architectures have special needs for resource management and dynamic reclamation of unused memory cells and objects. The memory management or garbage-collection aspects of these architectures are studied. Also introduced is a synchronous distributed algorithm for garbage collection. A special data structure is defined to handle the distributed nature of the problem. The author formally expresses the algorithm and shows the results of a synchronous garbage-collection simulation and its effect on the interconnection-network message to traffic. He presents an asynchronous distributed garbage collection to handle the resource management for a system that does not require a global synchronization mechanism. The distributed data structure is modified to include the asynchronous aspects of the algorithm. This method is extended to a multiple-mutator scheme, and the problem of having several processors share portion of a cyclical graph is discussed. Two models for the analytical study of the garbage-collection algorithms discussed are provided.

  4. Method of producing non-agglomerating submicron size particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourne, Roy S.; Eichman, Clarence C.; Welbon, William W.

    1989-01-01

    Submicron size particles are produced by using a sputtering process to deposit particles into a liquid. The liquid is processed to recover the particles therefrom, and the particles have sizes in the range of twenty to two hundred Angstroms. Either metallic or non-metallic particles can be produced, and the metallic particles can be used in "metallic inks".

  5. Method of producing submicron size particles and product produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourne, R.S.; Eichman, C.C.; Welbon, W.W.

    1988-05-11

    Submicron size particles are produced by using a sputtering process to deposit particles into a liquid. The liquid is processed to recover the particles therefrom, and the particles have sizes in the range of twenty to two hundred Angstroms. Either metallic or non-metallic particles can be produced, and the metallic particles can be used in ''metallic inks.'' 4 figs.

  6. Thermal conductivity of graphene mediated by strain and size

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kuang, Youdi; Shi, Sanqiang; Wang, Xinjiang; Huang, Baoling; Lindsay, Lucas

    2016-06-09

    Based on first-principles calculations and full iterative solution of the linearized Boltzmann–Peierls transport equation for phonons, we systematically investigate effects of strain, size and temperature on the thermal conductivity k of suspended graphene. The calculated size-dependent and temperature-dependent k for finite samples agree well with experimental data. The results show that, contrast to the convergent room-temperature k = 5450 W/m-K of unstrained graphene at a sample size ~8 cm, k of strained graphene diverges with increasing the sample size even at high temperature. Out-of-plane acoustic phonons are responsible for the significant size effect in unstrained and strained graphene due tomore » their ultralong mean free path and acoustic phonons with wavelength smaller than 10 nm contribute 80% to the intrinsic room temperature k of unstrained graphene. Tensile strain hardens the flexural modes and increases their lifetimes, causing interesting dependence of k on sample size and strain due to the competition between boundary scattering and intrinsic phonon–phonon scattering. k of graphene can be tuned within a large range by strain for the size larger than 500 μm. These findings shed light on the nature of thermal transport in two-dimensional materials and may guide predicting and engineering k of graphene by varying strain and size.« less

  7. EFFECTS OF SAMPLE SIZE ON THE STRESS-PERMEABILITY RELATIONSHIP FOR NATURAL FRACTURES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gale, J. E.; Raven, K. G.

    1980-10-01

    Five granite cores (10.0, 15.0, 19.3, 24.5, and 29.4 cm in diameter) containing natural fractures oriented normal to the core axis, were used to study the effect of sample size on the permeability of natural fractures. Each sample, taken from the same fractured plane, was subjected to three uniaxial compressive loading and unloading cycles with a maximum axial stress of 30 MPa. For each loading and unloading cycle, the flowrate through the fracture plane from a central borehole under constant (±2% of the pressure increment) injection pressures was measured at specified increments of effective normal stress. Both fracture deformation and flowrate exhibited highly nonlinear variation with changes in normal stress. Both fracture deformation and flowrate hysteresis between loading and unloading cycles were observed for all samples, but this hysteresis decreased with successive loading cycles. The results of this study suggest that a sample-size effect exists. Fracture deformation and flowrate data indicate that crushing of the fracture plane asperities occurs in the smaller samples because of a poorer initial distribution of contact points than in the larger samples, which deform more elastically. Steady-state flow tests also suggest a decrease in minimum fracture permeability at maximum normal stress with increasing sample size for four of the five samples. Regression analyses of the flowrate and fracture closure data suggest that deformable natural fractures deviate from the cubic relationship between fracture aperture and flowrate and that this is especially true for low flowrates and small apertures, when the fracture sides are in intimate contact under high normal stress conditions, In order to confirm the trends suggested in this study, it is necessary to quantify the scale and variation of fracture plane roughness and to determine, from additional laboratory studies, the degree of variation in the stress-permeability relationship between samples of the same

  8. Neutron and weak-charge distributions of the 48Ca nucleus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagen, Gaute; Forssen, Christian; Nazarewicz, Witold; Papenbrock, Thomas F.; Bacca, S.; Barnea, Nir; Carlsson, Boris; Drischler, Christian; Hebeler, Kai; Hjorth-Jensen, M.; Miorelli, Mirko; Orlandini, Giuseppina; Schwenk, Achim; Simonis, Johannes; Jansen, Gustav R.; Ekstrom, A.; Wendt, K. A.

    2015-11-02

    What is the size of the atomic nucleus? This deceivably simple question is difficult to answer. Although the electric charge distributions in atomic nuclei were measured accurately already half a century ago, our knowledge of the distribution of neutrons is still deficient. In addition to constraining the size of atomic nuclei, the neutron distribution also impacts the number of nuclei that can exist and the size of neutron stars. We present an ab initio calculation of the neutron distribution of the neutron-rich nucleus 48Ca. We show that the neutron skin (difference between the radii of the neutron and proton distributions) is significantly smaller than previously thought. We also make predictions for the electric dipole polarizability and the weak form factor; both quantities that are at present targeted by precision measurements. Here, based on ab initio results for 48Ca, we provide a constraint on the size of a neutron star.

  9. Solar wind thermal electron distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, J.L.; Gosling, J.T.

    1991-01-01

    Solar wind thermal electron distributions exhibit distinctive trends which suggest Coulomb collisions and geometric expansion in the interplanetary magnetic field play keys roles in electron transport. We introduce a simple numerical model incorporating these mechanisms, discuss the ramifications of model results, and assess the validity of the model in terms of ISEE-3 and Ulysses observations. Although the model duplicates the shape of the electron distributions, and explains certain other observational features, observed gradients in total electron temperature indicate the importance of additional heating mechanisms. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF HETEROGENEITIES AT THE RESERVOIR SCALE: SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION AND INFLUENCE ON FLUID FLOW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael R. Gross; Kajari Ghosh; Alex K. Manda; Sumanjit Aich

    2006-05-08

    The theory behind how chemically reactive tracers are used to characterize the velocity and temperature distribution in steady flowing systems is reviewed. Kinetic parameters are established as a function of reservoir temperatures and fluid residence times for selecting appropriate reacting systems. Reactive tracer techniques are applied to characterize the temperature distribution in a laminar-flow heat exchanger. Models are developed to predict reactive tracer behavior in fractured geothermal reservoirs of fixed and increasing size.

  11. Distribution of radionuclides during melting of carbon steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thurber, W.C.; MacKinney, J.

    1997-02-01

    During the melting of steel with radioactive contamination, radionuclides may be distributed among the metal product, the home scrap, the slag, the furnace lining and the off-gas collection system. In addition, some radionuclides will pass through the furnace system and vent to the atmosphere. To estimate radiological impacts of recycling radioactive scrap steel, it is essential to understand how radionuclides are distributed within the furnace system. For example, an isotope of a gaseous element (e.g., radon) will exhaust directly from the furnace system into the atmosphere while a relatively non-volatile element (e.g., manganese) can be distributed among all the other possible media. This distribution of radioactive contaminants is a complex process that can be influenced by numerous chemical and physical factors, including composition of the steel bath, chemistry of the slag, vapor pressure of the particular element of interest, solubility of the element in molten iron, density of the oxide(s), steel melting temperature and melting practice (e.g., furnace type and size, melting time, method of carbon adjustment and method of alloy additions). This paper discusses the distribution of various elements with particular reference to electric arc furnace steelmaking. The first two sections consider the calculation of partition ratios for elements between metal and slag based on thermodynamic considerations. The third section presents laboratory and production measurements of the distribution of various elements among slag, metal, and the off-gas collection system; and the final section provides recommendations for the assumed distribution of each element of interest.

  12. Improved particle impactor assembly for size selective high volume air sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Langer, G.

    1987-03-23

    Air containing entrained particulate matter is directed through a plurality of parallel, narrow, vertically oriented apertures of an inlet element toward an adjacently located, relatively large, dust impaction surface preferably covered with an adhesive material. The air flow turns over the impaction surface, leaving behind, the relatively larger particles and passes through two elongate apertures defining the outer bounds of the impaction collection surface to pass through divergent passages which slow down and distribute the air flow, with entrained smaller particles, over a fine filter element that separates the fine particles from the air. By appropriate selection of dimensions and the number of inlet apertures air flow through the inlet element is provided a nonuniform velocity distribution with the lower velocities being obtained near the center of the inlet apertures, to separate out particles larger than a certain predetermined size on the impaction collection surface. The impaction collection surface, even in a moderately sized apparatus, is thus relatively large and permits the prolonged sampling of air for periods extending to four weeks. 6 figs.

  13. Nuclear design of small-sized high temperature gas-cooled reactor for developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goto, M.; Seki, Y.; Inaba, Y.; Ohashi, H.; Sato, H.; Fukaya, Y.; Tachibana, Y.

    2012-07-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has started a conceptual design of a small-sized HTGR with 50 MW thermal power (HTR50S), which is a first-of-a-kind commercial or demonstration plant of a small-sized HTGR to be deployed in developing countries such as Kazakhstan in the 2020's. The nuclear design of the HTR50S is performed by upgrading the proven technology of the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) to reduce the cost for the construction. In the HTTR design, twelve kinds of fuel enrichment was used to optimize the power distribution, which is required to make the maximum fuel temperature below the thermal limitation during the burn-up period. However, manufacture of many kinds of fuel enrichment causes increase of the construction cost. To solve this problem, the present study challenges the nuclear design by reducing the number of fuel enrichment to as few as possible. The nuclear calculations were performed with SRAC code system whose validity was proven by the HTTR burn-up data. The calculation results suggested that the optimization of the power distribution was reasonably achieved and the maximum fuel temperature was kept below the limitation by using three kinds of fuel enrichment. (authors)

  14. Method for producing solid or hollow spherical particles of chosen chemical composition and of uniform size

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hendricks, Charles D.

    1988-01-01

    A method is provided for producing commercially large quantities of high melting temperature solid or hollow spherical particles of a predetermined chemical composition and having a uniform and controlled size distribution. An end (18, 50, 90) of a solid or hollow rod (20, 48, 88) of the material is rendered molten by a laser beam (14, 44, 82). Because of this, there is no possibility of the molten rod material becoming contaminated with extraneous material. In various aspects of the invention, an electric field is applied to the molten rod end (18, 90), and/or the molten rod end (50, 90) is vibrated. In a further aspect of the invention, a high-frequency component is added to the electric field applied to the molten end of the rod (90). By controlling the internal pressure of the rod, the rate at which the rod is introduced into the laser beam, the environment of the process, the vibration amplitude and frequency of the molten rod end, the electric field intensity applied to the molten rod end, and the frequency and intensity of the component added to the electric field, the uniformity and size distribution of the solid or hollow spherical particles (122) produced by the inventive method is controlled. The polarity of the electric field applied to the molten rod end can be chosen to eliminate backstreaming electrons, which tend to produce run-away heating in the rod, from the process.

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Distribution

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Natural Gas Distribution to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Distribution on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Distribution on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Distribution on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Distribution on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Distribution on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas

  16. 2012 Market Report on U.S. Wind Technologies in Distributed Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orrell, Alice C.; Flowers, L. T.; Gagne, M. N.; Pro, B. H.; Rhoads-Weaver, H. E.; Jenkins, J. O.; Sahl, K. M.; Baranowski, R. E.

    2013-08-06

    At the end of 2012, U.S. wind turbines in distributed applications reached a 10-year cumulative installed capacity of more than 812 MW from more than 69,000 units across all 50 states. In 2012 alone, nearly 3,800 wind turbines totaling 175 MW of distributed wind capacity were documented in 40 states and in the U.S. Virgin Islands, with 138 MW using utility-scale turbines (i.e., greater than 1 MW in size), 19 MW using mid-size turbines (i.e., 101 kW to 1 MW in size), and 18.4 MW using small turbines (i.e., up to 100 kW in size). Distributed wind is defined in terms of technology application based on a wind project’s location relative to end-use and power-distribution infrastructure, rather than on technology size or project size. Distributed wind systems are either connected on the customer side of the meter (to meet the onsite load) or directly to distribution or micro grids (to support grid operations or offset large loads nearby). Estimated capacity-weighted average costs for 2012 U.S. distributed wind installations was $2,540/kW for utility-scale wind turbines, $2,810/kW for mid-sized wind turbines, and $6,960/kW for newly manufactured (domestic and imported) small wind turbines. An emerging trend observed in 2012 was an increased use of refurbished turbines. The estimated capacity-weighted average cost of refurbished small wind turbines installed in 2012 was $4,080/kW. As a result of multiple projects using utility-scale turbines, Iowa deployed the most new overall distributed wind capacity, 37 MW, in 2012. Nevada deployed the most small wind capacity in 2012, with nearly 8 MW of small wind turbines installed in distributed applications. In the case of mid-size turbines, Ohio led all states in 2012 with 4.9 MW installed in distributed applications. State and federal policies and incentives continued to play a substantial role in the development of distributed wind projects. In 2012, U.S. Treasury Section 1603 payments and grants and loans from the U

  17. Main Injector power distribution system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cezary Jach and Daniel Wolff

    2002-06-03

    The paper describes a new power distribution system for Fermilab's Main Injector. The system provides 13.8 kV power to Main Injector accelerator (accelerator and conventional loads) and is capable of providing power to the rest of the laboratory (backfeed system). Design criteria, and features including simulation results are given.

  18. Parallel, Distributed Scripting with Python

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, P J

    2002-05-24

    Parallel computers used to be, for the most part, one-of-a-kind systems which were extremely difficult to program portably. With SMP architectures, the advent of the POSIX thread API and OpenMP gave developers ways to portably exploit on-the-box shared memory parallelism. Since these architectures didn't scale cost-effectively, distributed memory clusters were developed. The associated MPI message passing libraries gave these systems a portable paradigm too. Having programmers effectively use this paradigm is a somewhat different question. Distributed data has to be explicitly transported via the messaging system in order for it to be useful. In high level languages, the MPI library gives access to data distribution routines in C, C++, and FORTRAN. But we need more than that. Many reasonable and common tasks are best done in (or as extensions to) scripting languages. Consider sysadm tools such as password crackers, file purgers, etc ... These are simple to write in a scripting language such as Python (an open source, portable, and freely available interpreter). But these tasks beg to be done in parallel. Consider the a password checker that checks an encrypted password against a 25,000 word dictionary. This can take around 10 seconds in Python (6 seconds in C). It is trivial to parallelize if you can distribute the information and co-ordinate the work.

  19. Confined energy distribution for charged particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jason, Andrew J.; Blind, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    A charged particle beam is formed to a relatively larger area beam which is well-contained and has a beam area which relatively uniformly deposits energy over a beam target. Linear optics receive an accelerator beam and output a first beam with a first waist defined by a relatively small size in a first dimension normal to a second dimension. Nonlinear optics, such as an octupole magnet, are located about the first waist and output a second beam having a phase-space distribution which folds the beam edges along the second dimension toward the beam core to develop a well-contained beam and a relatively uniform particle intensity across the beam core. The beam may then be expanded along the second dimension to form the uniform ribbon beam at a selected distance from the nonlinear optics. Alternately, the beam may be passed through a second set of nonlinear optics to fold the beam edges in the first dimension. The beam may then be uniformly expanded along the first and second dimensions to form a well-contained, two-dimensional beam for illuminating a two-dimensional target with a relatively uniform energy deposition.

  20. Annual Coal Distribution Report - Energy Information Administration

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    & distribution Coal-fired electric power plants Transportation costs to electric power ... domestic distribution, while industrial plants excluding coke received 4.8%, coke plants ...

  1. Fact Sheet: 2013 Distributed Wind Market Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This fact sheet summarizes findings from the forthcoming 2013 Distributed Wind Market Report, offering a snapshot of the distributed wind market based on 2013 data.

  2. US Solar Distributing | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Distributing Place: California Product: California-based distributor of PV modules, inverters, mounting systems and accessories. References: US Solar Distributing1 This article...

  3. Distributed Energy Systems Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Distributed Energy Systems Corp Jump to: navigation, search Name: Distributed Energy Systems Corp Place: Wallingford, Connecticut Zip: CT 06492 Product: The former holding company...

  4. Distributed Energy Projects | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Distributed Energy Projects Distributed Energy Projects At the National Clean Energy Summit 8.0 in Nevada, President Obama announced that the Loan Programs Office (LPO) has issued ...

  5. NREL: Electric Infrastructure Systems Research - Distributed...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electricity Integration Research Printable Version Distributed Energy Resources Test Facility Virtual Tour The Distributed Energy Resources Test Facility (DERTF), located at the ...

  6. Distributed Energy Research Center | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Distributed Energy Research Center Argonne's Distributed Energy Research Center (DERC) allows researchers to develop and demonstrate novel technologies to reduce emissions and ...

  7. Feasibility Study of Sustainable Distributed Generation Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Sustainable Distributed Generation Technologies for the Duck Valley Reservation Feasibility Study of Sustainable Distributed Generation Technologies for the Duck Valley ...

  8. Structure Learning in Power Distribution Networks (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Structure Learning in Power Distribution Networks Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structure Learning in Power Distribution Networks Authors: Deka, ...

  9. Fact Sheet: 2012 Distributed Wind Market Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alice Orrell, Bret Barker

    2013-04-06

    This fact sheet summarizes findings from the forthcoming 2012 Distributed Wind Market Report, offering a snapshot of the distributed wind market based on 2012 data.

  10. IPCC Data Distribution Centre | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Data Distribution Centre Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: IPCC Data Distribution Centre AgencyCompany Organization: World Meteorological Organization,...

  11. Structure Learning in Power Distribution Networks (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Structure Learning in Power Distribution Networks Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structure Learning in Power Distribution Networks You are accessing a document from ...

  12. Heat Distribution Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat & Cool Home Heating Systems Heat Distribution Systems Heat Distribution Systems Radiators are used in steam and hot water heating. | Photo courtesy of iStockphoto...

  13. Building America Webinar: Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building America Webinar: Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems Building America Webinar: Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems This webinar was presented by research team...

  14. Regulatory Considerations for Developing Distributed Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Regulatory Considerations for Developing Distributed Generation Projects Webinar May 23, 2012 Regulatory Considerations for Developing Distributed Generation Projects Webinar May 23, ...

  15. Regulatory Considerations for Developing Distributed Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distributed Generation Projects Webinar May 23, 2012 Regulatory Considerations for Developing Distributed Generation Projects Webinar May 23, 2012 Document covers the Regulatory ...

  16. NREL: Energy Systems Integration Facility - Fuel Distribution...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuel Distribution Buses The Energy Systems Integration Facility's integrated fuel distribution buses provide natural gas, hydrogen, and diesel for fueling applications. Standard, ...

  17. Helping Policymakers Evaluate Distributed Wind Options | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Helping Policymakers Evaluate Distributed Wind Options Helping Policymakers Evaluate Distributed Wind Options April 18, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis With EERE support, eFormative Options...

  18. Other Distributed Generation Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Other Distributed Generation Technologies Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Other Distributed Generation Technologies Incentives Retrieved from "http:...

  19. Magnetoresistance of polycrystalline gadolinium with varying grain size

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakravorty, Manotosh Raychaudhuri, A. K.

    2015-01-21

    In this paper, we report a study of evolution of low field magnetoresistance (MR) of Gadolinium as the grain size in the sample is changed from few microns (∼4 μm) to the nanoscopic regime (∼35 nm). The low field MR has a clear effect on varying grain size. In large grain sample (few μm), the magnetic domains are controlled by local anisotropy field determined mainly by the magnetocrystalline anisotropy. The low field MR clearly reflects the temperature dependence of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy. For decreasing gain size, the contribution of spin disorder at the grain boundary increases and enhances the local anisotropy field.

  20. The influence of aluminum grain size on alumina nanoporous structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feil, A. F.; Costa, M. V. da; Amaral, L.; Teixeira, S. R.; Migowski, P.; Dupont, J.; Machado, G.; Peripolli, S. B.

    2010-01-15

    An approach to control the interpore distances and nanopore diameters of 150-nm-thick thin aluminum films is reported here. The Al thin films were grown by sputtering on p-type silicon substrate and anodized with a conventional anodization process in a phosphoric acid solution. It was found that interpore distance and pore diameter are related to the aluminum grain size and can be controlled by annealing. The grain contours limit the sizes of alumina cells. This mechanism is valid for grain sizes supporting only one alumina cell and consequently only one pore.