Sample records for drop effective radius

  1. The Roles of Cloud Drop Effective Radius and LWP in Determining Rain Properties in Marine Stratocumulus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenfeld, Daniel; Wang, Hailong; Rasch, Philip J.

    2012-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerical simulations described in previous studies showed that adding cloud condensation nuclei to marine stratocumulus can prevent their breakup from closed into open cells. Additional analyses of the same simulations show that the suppression of rain is well described in terms of cloud drop effective radius (re). Rain is initiated when re near cloud top is around 12-14 um. Cloud water starts to get depleted when column-maximum rain intensity (Rmax) exceeds 0.1 mm h-1. This happens when cloud-top re reaches 14 um. Rmax is mostly less than 0.1 mm h-1 at re<14 um, regardless of the cloud water path, but increases rapidly when re exceeds 14 um. This is in agreement with recent aircraft observations and theoretical observations in convective clouds so that the mechanism is not limited to describing marine stratocumulus. These results support the hypothesis that the onset of significant precipitation is determined by the number of nucleated cloud drops and the height (H) above cloud base within the cloud that is required for cloud drops to reach re of 14 um. In turn, this can explain the conditions for initiation of significant drizzle and opening of closed cells providing the basis for a simple parameterization for GCMs that unifies the representation of both precipitating and non-precipitating clouds as well as the transition between them. Furthermore, satellite global observations of cloud depth (from base to top), and cloud top re can be used to derive and validate this parameterization.

  2. Effects of errors in the solar radius on helioseismic inferences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarbani Basu

    1997-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Frequencies of intermediate-degree f-modes of the Sun seem to indicate that the solar radius is smaller than what is normally used in constructing solar models. We investigate the possible consequences of an error in radius on results for solar structure obtained using helioseismic inversions. It is shown that solar sound speed will be overestimated if oscillation frequencies are inverted using reference models with a larger radius. Using solar models with radius of 695.78 Mm and new data sets, the base of the solar convection zone is estimated to be at radial distance of $0.7135\\pm 0.0005$ of the solar radius. The helium abundance in the convection zone as determined using models with OPAL equation of state is $0.248\\pm 0.001$, where the errors reflect the estimated systematic errors in the calculation, the statistical errors being much smaller. Assuming that the OPAL opacities used in the construction of the solar models are correct, the surface $Z/X$ is estimated to be $0.0245\\pm 0.0006$.

  3. Symmetry energy, neutron skin, and neutron star radius from chiral effective field theory interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Hebeler; A. Schwenk

    2014-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss neutron matter calculations based on chiral effective field theory interactions and their predictions for the symmetry energy, the neutron skin of 208 Pb, and for the radius of neutron stars.

  4. Broken and inhomogeneous cloud impact on satellite cloud particle effective radius and cloudphase retrievals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffelen, Ad

    on the particle size distribution, height, and thermo- dynamic phase of clouds. Water and ice clouds have parameterizations is the global dis- tribution of cloud thermodynamic phase, i.e., whether a cloud is composed on satellitederived cloud particle effective radius (re) and cloud phase (CPH) for broken and overcast inhomogeneous

  5. Design of a Shadowband Spectral Radiometer for the Retrieval of Thin Cloud Optical Depth, Liquid Water Path, and the Effective Radius

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartholomew M. J.; Reynolds, R. M.; Vogelmann, A. M.; Min, Q.; Edwards, R.; Smith, S.

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design and operation of a Thin-Cloud Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (TCRSR) described here was used to measure the radiative intensity of the solar aureole and enable the simultaneous retrieval of cloud optical depth, drop effective radius, and liquid water path. The instrument consists of photodiode sensors positioned beneath two narrow metal bands that occult the sun by moving alternately from horizon to horizon. Measurements from the narrowband 415-nm channel were used to demonstrate a retrieval of the cloud properties of interest. With the proven operation of the relatively inexpensive TCRSR instrument, its usefulness for retrieving aerosol properties under cloud-free skies and for ship-based observations is discussed.

  6. The effect of confinement on the deformation of microfluidic drops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulloa, Camilo; Cordero, María Luisa

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the deformation of drops squeezed between the floor and ceiling of a microchannel and subjected to a hyperbolic flow. We observe that the maximum deformation of drops depends on both the drop size and the rate of strain of the external flow and can be described with power laws with exponents 2.59 +/- 0.28 and 0.94 +/- 0.04 respectively. We develop a theoretical model to describe the deformation of squeezed drops based on the Darcy approximation for shallow geometries and the use of complex potentials. The model describes the steady-state deformation of the drops as a function of a non-dimensional parameter Ca d^2, where Ca is the capillary number (proportional to the strain rate and the drop size) and d is a confinement parameter equal to the drop size divided by the channel height. For small deformations, the theoretical model predicts a linear relationship between the deformation of drops and this parameter, in good agreement with the experimental observations.

  7. How to Cons-Train Your M Dwarf: measuring effective temperature, bolometric luminosity, mass, and radius

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mann, Andrew W; Gaidos, Eric; Boyajian, Tabetha

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Precise and accurate parameters for late-type (late K and M) dwarf stars are important for proper characterization of any planets they host, but studies have been hampered by these stars' complex spectra and dissimilarity to the Sun. We exploited a calibrated method of spectroscopic effective temperature ($T_{\\rm{eff}}$) estimation and the Stefan-Boltzmann law to determine radii with an accuracy of 2-5% and expand the sample to 161 nearby K7-M7 dwarf stars covering a wider range of $T_{\\rm{eff}}$ and metallicity. We developed improved relations between $T_{\\rm{eff}}$, radius, and luminosity, as well as between $T_{\\rm{eff}}$ and color. Our $T_{\\rm{eff}}$-radius relation depends strongly on [Fe/H], as predicted by theory. We derived a relation between absolute $K_S$ magnitude and radius that is accurate to better than 3%. We derived bolometric correction to the $VR_CI_CgrizJHK_S$ and Gaia passbands as a function of color, accurate to 1-3%. We confronted the reliability of predictions from Dartmouth stellar evo...

  8. PARAMETERIZATIONS FOR THE KELVIN (SURFACE TENSION) EFFECT ON THE EQUILIBRIUM RADIUS AND ASSOCIATED OPTICAL PROPERTIES OF A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PARAMETERIZATIONS FOR THE KELVIN (SURFACE TENSION) EFFECT ON THE EQUILIBRIUM RADIUS AND ASSOCIATED as the volume-equivalent dry radius rdry) and the fractional relative humidity h (RH/100). Surface tension also the dependence of the equilibrium size of a particle with given rdry at given relative humidity on surface

  9. Ion finite Larmor radius effects on the interchange instability in an open system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katanuma, I.; Sato, S.; Okuyama, Y.; Kato, S.; Kubota, R. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan)] [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A particle simulation of an interchange instability was performed by taking into account the ion finite Larmor radius (FLR) effects. It is found that the interchange instability with large FLR grows in two phases, that is, linearly growing phase and the nonlinear phase subsequent to the linear phase, where the instability grows exponentially in both phases. The linear growth rates observed in the simulation agree well with the theoretical calculation. The effects of FLR are usually taken in the fluid simulation through the gyroviscosity, the effects of which are verified in the particle simulation with large FLR regime. The gyroviscous cancellation phenomenon observed in the particle simulation causes the drifts in the direction of ion diamagnetic drifts.

  10. Effect of bed pressure drop on performance of a CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hairui Yang; Hai Zhang; Shi Yang; Guangxi Yue; Jun Su; Zhiping Fu [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Department of Thermal Engineering

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of bed pressure drop and bed inventory on the performances of a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler was studied. By using the state specification design theory, the fluidization state of the gas-solids flow in the furnace of conventional CFB boilers was reconstructed to operate at a much lower bed pressure drop by reducing bed inventory and control bed quality. Through theoretical analysis, it was suggested that there would exist a theoretical optimal value of bed pressure drop, around which the boiler operation can achieve the maximal combustion efficiency and with significant reduction of the wear of the heating surface and fan energy consumption. The analysis was validated by field tests carried out in a 75 t/h CFB boiler. At full boiler load, when bed pressure drop was reduced from 7.3 to 3.2 kPa, the height of the dense zone in the lower furnace decreased, but the solid suspension density profile in the upper furnace and solid flow rate were barely influenced. Consequently, the average heat transfer coefficient in the furnace was kept nearly the same and the furnace temperature increment was less than 17{sup o}C. It was also found that the carbon content in the fly ash decreased first with decreasing bed pressure drop and then increased with further increasing bed pressure drop. The turning point with minimal carbon content was referred to as the point with optimal bed pressure drop. For this boiler, at the optimum point the bed pressure was around 5.7 kPa with the overall excess air ratio of 1.06. When the boiler was operated around this optimal point, not only the combustion efficiency was improved, but also fan energy consumption and wear of heating surface were reduced. 23 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Effective Radius of Cloud Droplets by Ground-Based Remote Sensing: Relationships to Aerosol?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed NewcatalystNeutronEnvironmentZIRKLE FRUITYearEffect0/2002 Yun (Helen) He,

  12. Effects of slitted fins on the heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of a compact heat exchanger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, C.H.; Yun, J.Y. [LG Electronics Living System Research Lab., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact heat exchanger which consists of air-cooled aluminum fins and copper tubes circulating refrigerant has been used in a cooling system for a long time. There are two key parameters to be seriously considered for a design of the heat exchanger and its performance improvement. These are the heat transfer rate and pressure drop coefficient which varies with the change of the tube size, its arrangement and the fin configuration. In here, a numerical study was carried to understand the effect of the fin configuration on the heat transfer and pressure drop of the heat exchanger. The diameter and the arrangement of tubes were fixed but three different types of the fin configuration were used to see its effect on the heat transfer capacity and the static pressure drop. The calculation results were compared with that of a flat plate fin. From the comparison, it was found that the slitted fins have higher pressure drop; however, they have higher heat transfer rate. It means that the simpler of the fin configuration, the lower pressure drop and heat transfer coefficients are obtained. It is mainly due to the discretisation of the thermal boundary layer on the fin surface to maximize the heat transfer to air. The slitted sides of fins act like obstacles in the airflow path. From the experimental result, it was found that the same trend in the variation of the heat transfer rate and the pressure drop with the change of the fin configuration was obtained.

  13. Interfacial Phenomena and Heat Transfer, 1 (4): 339356 (2013) EFFECT OF DROP SHAPE ON HEAT TRANSFER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khandekar, Sameer

    equipment used in thermal and nuclear power plants. Several researchers have reported that drops form, followed by fresh nucleation. Numerical data obtained from the simulation show that wall shear stress

  14. Drop Formation and Breakup of Low Viscosity Elastic Fluids: Effects of Molecular Weight and Concentration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tirtaatmadja, Viyada

    2007-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamics of drop formation and pinch-off have been investigated for a series of low viscosity elastic fluids possessing similar shear viscosities, but differing substantially in elastic properties. On initial approach ...

  15. The effect of particle shape on pressure drop in a turbulent gas-solid suspension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coughran, Mark Thomas

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    was to experimentally compare the pressure drop in suspensions of spherical particles versus fibrous particles in the same apparatus and at the same operating conditions. The previous investigators have varied the particle size, loading ratio (lbs. flowing solids... is for a model which will predict the suspension pressure drop based on such variables as particle size and shape, Reynolds number, loading ratio, electrostatic charge, and other variables. CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE A. General Interest in Gas-Solid...

  16. Evaluate the Effect of Upper-Level Cirrus Clouds on Satellite Retrievals of Low-Level Cloud Droplet Effective Radius

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  17. Effect of certain admixtures on coalescence of drops in the extraction system TBP-HNO{sub 3} (HCl)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinegribova, O.A.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An attempt is made to characterize quantitatively the effect of the TBP hydrolysis products (butanol and dibutyl phosphate) and silica admixtures on the drop coalescene in the two-phase system TBP-HNO{sub 3} (or HCl). Lifetimes of a great number of particular drops on the planar phase boundary were measured, and the lifetime distribution was analyzed. This allowed determination of the coalescence constant and also (using physicochemical properties of the two-phase systems) estimation of depth of the continuous phase layer between the drop and the planar phase boundary at the instant of the drop appearance on the surface, at the point when the coalescence becomes possible as a result of mechanical and thermal fluctuations, and at the point when the coalescence is decelerated by virtue of certain reasons. The coalescence rate at practically the same physical parameters of the system is determined to a great extent by the nature of compounds occurring on the interface. The structural-mechanical barriers due to the occurrence of silica in the surface layer of the aqueous solution containing 3 M HNO{sub 3} and 0.03 M SiO{sub 2} are estimated at the planar phase boundary. In this case, the interface region is sharply different in physical properties from the bulk of the phases.

  18. Fast Particle Finite Orbit Width and Larmor Radius Effects on Lown Toroidicity induced Alfv'en Eigenmode Excitation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and localized heat load on plasma facing components. Both experimental [3,4] and theoretical [5] studies 4040 (1994)] which includes FOW effects in the growth rate calculation based on a small radial orbit by the neutral beam injection (NBI), ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) etc., have finite radial orbit width

  19. Effective Radius of Cloud Droplets Derived from Ground-based Remote Sensing at the ARM SGP site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed NewcatalystNeutronEnvironmentZIRKLE FRUITYearEffect0/2002 Yun (Helen) He, GHC2002

  20. ARM - Measurement - Aerosol effective radius

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  1. ARM - Measurement - Cloud effective radius

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUC : XDCResearch Related InformationAciddroplet size ARM Data Discovery

  2. Correct Use of the Lifshitz-Slyosov-Wagner Expression for the Calculation of the Average Radius of an Oil-In-Water (o/w) Emulsion Subject to Coalescence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kareem Rahn-Chique; German Urbina-Villalba

    2015-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The analytic expression proposed by Lifshitz-Slyozov and Wagner (LSW theory) for the linear variation of the cube average radius (R3) of an emulsion as function of time (t) is commonly used to appraise the effect of Ostwald ripening. However, we proved here both experimentally and theoretically that such approach is incorrect in those cases in which the coalescence of the drops cannot be prevented. In this event, the expression of LSW should be corrected in order to account for the actual average radius of the emulsion at each time, and instead of the radius predicted by the equations of LSW without consideration of the coalescence process.

  3. Correct Use of the Lifshitz-Slyosov-Wagner Expression for the Calculation of the Average Radius of an Oil-In-Water (o/w) Emulsion Subject to Coalescence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kareem Rahn-Chique; German Urbina-Villalba

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The analytic expression proposed by Lifshitz-Slyozov and Wagner (LSW theory) for the linear variation of the cube average radius (R3) of an emulsion as function of time (t) is commonly used to appraise the effect of Ostwald ripening. However, we proved here both experimentally and theoretically that such approach is incorrect in those cases in which the coalescence of the drops cannot be prevented. In this event, the expression of LSW should be corrected in order to account for the actual average radius of the emulsion at each time, and instead of the radius predicted by the equations of LSW without consideration of the coalescence process.

  4. Effects of a potential drop of a shipping cask, a waste container, and a bare fuel assembly during waste-handling operations; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, C.L.; Lee, J.; Lu, D.L.; Jardine, L.J. [Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study investigates the effects of potential drops of a typical shipping cask, waste container, and bare fuel assembly during waste-handling operations at the prospective Yucca Mountain Repository. The waste-handling process (one stage, no consolidation configuration) is examined to estimate the maximum loads imposed on typical casks and containers as they are handled by various pieces of equipment during waste-handling operations. Maximum potential drop heights for casks and containers are also evaluated for different operations. A nonlinear finite-element model is employed to represent a hybrid spent fuel container subject to drop heights of up to 30 ft onto a reinforced concrete floor. The impact stress, strain, and deformation are calculated, and compared to the failure criteria to estimate the limiting (maximum permissible) drop height for the waste container. A typical Westinghouse 17 {times} 17 PWR fuel assembly is analyzed by a simplified model to estimate the energy absorption by various parts of the fuel assembly during a 30 ft drop, and to determine the amount of kinetic energy in a fuel pin at impact. A nonlinear finite-element analysis of an individual fuel pin is also performed to estimate the amount of fuel pellet fracture due to impact. This work was completed on May 1990.

  5. Lifetime of oil drops pressed by buoyancy against a planar interface: Large drops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clara Rojas; Máximo García-Sucre; Germán Urbina-Villalba

    2011-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In a previous report [10] it was shown that emulsion stability simulations are able to reproduce the lifetime of micrometer-size drops of hexadecane pressed by buoyancy against a planar water-hexadecane interface. It was confirmed that small drops (rioil stabilized with bovine serum albumin. The potential obtained is then employed to study the lifetime of deformable drops in the range 10 \\leq ri \\leq 1000 {\\mu}m. It is established that the average lifetime of these drops can be adequately replicated using the model of truncated spheres. However, the results depend sensibly on the expressions of the initial distance of deformation and the maximum film radius used in the calculations. The set of equations adequate for large drops is not satisfactory for medium-size drops (10 \\leq ri \\leq 100 {\\mu}m), and vice versa. In the case of large particles, the increase in the interfacial area as a consequence of the deformation of the drops generates a very large repulsive barrier which opposes coalescence. Nevertheless, the buoyancy force prevails. As a consequence, it is the hydrodynamic tensor of the drops which determine the characteristic behavior of the lifetime as a function of the particle size. While the average values of the coalescence time of the drops can be justified by the mechanism of film thinning, the scattering of the experimental data of large drops cannot be rationalized using the methodology previously described. A possible explanation of this phenomenon required elaborate simulations which combine deformable drops, capillary waves, repulsive interaction forces, and a time-dependent surfactant adsorption.

  6. The influence of return bends on the downstream pressure drop and condensation heat transfer in tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Traviss, Donald P.

    1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of return bends on the downstream pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient of condensing refrigerant R-12 was studied experimentally. Flow patterns in glass return bends of 1/2 to 1 in. radius and 0.315 ...

  7. Administrative Policy: Drop/Add Policy Page 1 of 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardy, Christopher R.

    Administrative Policy: Drop/Add Policy Page 1 of 1 Governance & Policies Effective: October 1997 Administrative Policy DROP/ADD POLICY Approved: October 1997 Revised: 2002; 2004; June 8, 2011 Deans' Council. There is no automatic drop policy for nonattendance. PASSHE universities are expected to adhere to the System

  8. Delayed Frost Growth on Jumping-Drop Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boreyko, Jonathan B [ORNL; Collier, Pat [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Self-propelled jumping drops are continuously removed from a condensing superhydrophobic surface to enable a micrometric steady-state drop size. Here, we report that subcooled condensate on a chilled superhydrophobic surface are able to repeatedly jump off the surface before heterogeneous ice nucleation occurs. Frost still forms on the superhydrophobic surface due to ice nucleation at neighboring edge defects, which eventually spreads over the entire surface via an inter-drop frost wave. The growth of this inter-drop frost front is shown to be up to three times slower on the superhydrophobic surface compared to a control hydrophobic surface, due to the jumping-drop effect dynamically minimizing the average drop size and surface coverage of the condensate. A simple scaling model is developed to relate the success and speed of inter-drop ice bridging to the drop size distribution. While other reports of condensation frosting on superhydrophobic surfaces have focused exclusively on liquid-solid ice nucleation for isolated drops, these findings reveal that the growth of frost is an inter-drop phenomenon that is strongly coupled to the wettability and drop size distribution of the surface. A jumping-drop superhydrophobic condenser was found to be superior to a conventional dropwise condenser in two respects: preventing heterogeneous ice nucleation by continuously removing subcooled condensate, and delaying frost growth by minimizing the success of interdrop ice bridge formation.

  9. Nonlinear buckling analyses of a small-radius carbon nanotube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Ning, E-mail: liuxiao@ase.buaa.edu.cn; Li, Min; Jia, Jiao [School of Aeronautic Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100091 (China); Wang, Yong-Gang [Department of Applied Mechanics, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) was first discovered by Sumio Iijima. It has aroused extensive attentions of scholars from all over the world. Over the past two decades, we have acquired a lot of methods to synthesize carbon nanotubes and learn their many incredible mechanical properties such as experimental methods, theoretical analyses, and computer simulations. However, the studies of experiments need lots of financial, material, and labor resources. The calculations will become difficult and time-consuming, and the calculations may be even beyond the realm of possibility when the scale of simulations is large, as for computer simulations. Therefore, it is necessary for us to explore a reasonable continuum model, which can be applied into nano-scale. This paper attempts to develop a mathematical model of a small-radius carbon nanotube based on continuum theory. An Isotropic circular cross-section, Timoshenko beam model is used as a simplified mechanical model for the small-radius carbon nanotube. Theoretical part is mainly based on modified couple stress theory to obtain the numerical solutions of buckling deformation. Meanwhile, the buckling behavior of the small radius carbon nanotube is simulated by Molecular Dynamics method. By comparing with the numerical results based on modified couple stress theory, the dependence of the small-radius carbon nanotube mechanical behaviors on its elasticity constants, small-size effect, geometric nonlinearity, and shear effect is further studied, and an estimation of the small-scale parameter of a CNT (5, 5) is obtained.

  10. An Experimental Investigaton of the Effect of Oil on Convective Heat Trasfer and Pressure Drop of a HFC-32/HRC-125 Mixture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McJimsey, Bert Ashford

    The heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops of HCFC-22 and a 50% mass mixture of HFC-32/HFC-125 were experimentally measured under flow boiling conditions in a smooth tube. The refrigerants were flowed through an 8 mm diameter smooth tube...

  11. PICARD SOL, a new ground-based facility for long-term solar radius measurements: first results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    PICARD SOL, a new ground-based facility for long-term solar radius measurements: first results M solar radius measured in space and on ground and to better understand and calibrate atmospheric effects observations and corrections for atmospheric refraction, first estimates of the mean solar radius at the five

  12. About evaluation of radius of compactification and vacuum energy in the Randall-Sundrum model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergey Yakovlev

    2011-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the base of the RS-model by introducing effective terms in common five-dimensional action an equation for radius of fifth dimension through cosmological constant and Planck mass was defined. Such a model have not a RS limit cause of the dependence vacuum energy from radius of additional dimension.

  13. Grout long radius flow testing to support Saltstone disposal Unit 5 design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefanko, D. B.; Langton, C. A.; Serrato, M. G.; Brooks, T. E. II; Huff, T. H.

    2013-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Saltstone Facility, located within the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina, consists of two facility segments: The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) and the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The SPF receives decontaminated legacy low level sodium salt waste solution that is a byproduct of prior nuclear material processing. The salt solution is mixed with cementitious materials to form a grout slurry known as “Saltstone”. The grout is pumped to the SDF where it is placed in a Saltstone Disposal Unit (SDU) to solidify. SDU 6 is referred to as a “mega vault” and is currently in the design stage. The conceptual design for SDU 6 is a single cell, cylindrical geometry approximately 114.3 meters in diameter by 13.1 meter high and is larger than previous cylindrical SDU designs, 45.7 meters in diameter by 7.01 meters high (30 million gallons versus 2.9 million gallons of capacity). Saltstone slurry will be pumped into the new waste disposal unit through roof openings at a projected flow rate of about 34.1 cubic meters per hour. Nine roof openings are included in the design to discharge material into the SDU with an estimated grout pour radius of 22.9 to 24.4 meters and initial drop height of 13.1 meters. The conceptual design for the new SDU does not include partitions to limit the pour radius of the grout slurry during placement other than introducing material from different pour points. This paper addresses two technical issues associated with the larger diameter of SDU 6; saltstone flow distance in a tank 114.3 meters in diameter and quality of the grout. A long-radius flow test scaled to match the velocity of an advancing grout front was designed to address these technology gaps. The emphasis of the test was to quantify the flow distance and to collect samples to evaluate cured properties including compressive strength, porosity, density, and saturated hydraulic conductivity. Two clean cap surrogate mixes (saltstone premix plus water) were designed to simulate slurry with the reference saltstone rheology and a saltstone with extra water from the process flushing operation. Long-radius flow tests were run using approximately 4.6 cubic meters of each of these mixes. In both tests the pump rate was 0.063 liters/second (1 gpm). A higher pump rate, 0.19 liters/second (3 gpm), was used in a third long-radius flow test. The angle of repose of the grout wedges increased as a function of time in all three tests. The final angles of repose were measured at 3.0º, 2.4º, and 0.72º. The pump rate had the largest effect on the radial flow distance and slope of the grout surface. The slope on the pour placed at 0.19 liters/second (3 gpm) was most representative of the slope on the grout currently being pumped into SDU 2 which is estimated to be 0.7º to 0.9º. The final grout heights at 1/3 of a meter from the discharge point were 115, 105, and 38 cm. Entrapped air (? 0.25 cm bubbles) was also observed in all of the mixes. The entrapped air appeared to be released from the flows within about 3.1 meters (10 feet) of the discharge point. The bleed water was clear but had a thin layer of floating particulates. The bleed water should be retrievable by a drain water collection system in SDU 6 assuming the system does not get clogged. Layering was observed and was attributed to intervals when the hopper was being cleaned. Heat from the hydration reactions was noticeable to the touch.

  14. Grout Long Radius Flow Testing to Support Saltstone Disposal Unit 6 Design - 13352

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stefanko, D.B.; Langton, C.A.; Serrato, M.G. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Brooks, T.E. II; Huff, T.H. [Savannah River Remediation, LLC, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)] [Savannah River Remediation, LLC, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Saltstone Facility, located within the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina, consists of two facility segments: The Saltstone Production Facility (SPF) and the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). The SPF receives decontaminated legacy low level sodium salt waste solution that is a byproduct of prior nuclear material processing. The salt solution is mixed with cementitious materials to form a grout slurry known as 'Saltstone'. The grout is pumped to the SDF where it is placed in a Saltstone Disposal Unit (SDU) to solidify. SDU 6 is referred to as a 'mega vault' and is currently in the design stage. The conceptual design for SDU 6 is a single cell, cylindrical geometry approximately 114.3 meters in diameter by 13.1 meter high and is larger than previous cylindrical SDU designs, 45.7 meters in diameter by 7.01 meters high (30 million gallons versus 2.9 million gallons of capacity). Saltstone slurry will be pumped into the new waste disposal unit through roof openings at a projected flow rate of about 34.1 cubic meters per hour. Nine roof openings are included in the design to discharge material into the SDU with an estimated grout pour radius of 22.9 to 24.4 meters and initial drop height of 13.1 meters. The conceptual design for the new SDU does not include partitions to limit the pour radius of the grout slurry during placement other than introducing material from different pour points. This paper addresses two technical issues associated with the larger diameter of SDU 6; Saltstone flow distance in a tank 114.3 meters in diameter and quality of the grout. A long-radius flow test scaled to match the velocity of an advancing grout front was designed to address these technology gaps. The emphasis of the test was to quantify the flow distance and to collect samples to evaluate cured properties including compressive strength, porosity, density, and saturated hydraulic conductivity. Two clean cap surrogate mixes (Saltstone premix plus water) were designed to simulate slurry with the reference Saltstone rheology and a Saltstone with extra water from the process flushing operation. Long-radius flow tests were run using approximately 4.6 cubic meters of each of these mixes. In both tests the pump rate was 0.063 liters/second (1 gpm). A higher pump rate, 0.19 liters/second (3 gpm), was used in a third long-radius flow test. The angle of repose of the grout wedges increased as a function of time in all three tests. The final angles of repose were measured at 3.0 deg., 2.4 deg., and 0.72 deg.. The pump rate had the largest effect on the radial flow distance and slope of the grout surface. The slope on the pour placed at 0.19 liters/second (3 gpm) was most representative of the slope on the grout currently being pumped into SDU 2 which is estimated to be 0.7 deg. to 0.9 deg. The final grout heights at 1/3 of a meter from the discharge point were 115, 105, and 38 cm. Entrapped air (? 0.25 cm bubbles) was also observed in all of the mixes. The entrapped air appeared to be released from the flows within about 3.1 meters (10 feet) of the discharge point. The bleed water was clear but had a thin layer of floating particulates. The bleed water should be retrievable by a drain water collection system in SDU 6 assuming the system does not get clogged. Layering was observed and was attributed to intervals when the hopper was being cleaned. Heat from the hydration reactions was noticeable to the touch. (authors)

  15. On the critical flame radius and minimum ignition energy for spherical flame initiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Zheng; Burke, M. P.; Ju, Yiguang

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spherical flame initiation from an ignition kernel is studied theoretically and numerically using different fuel/oxygen/helium/argon mixtures (fuel: hydrogen, methane, and propane). The emphasis is placed on investigating the critical flame radius controlling spherical flame initiation and its correlation with the minimum ignition energy. It is found that the critical flame radius is different from the flame thickness and the flame ball radius and that their relationship depends strongly on the Lewis number. Three different flame regimes in terms of the Lewis number are observed and a new criterion for the critical flame radius is introduced. For mixtures with Lewis number larger than a critical Lewis number above unity, the critical flame radius is smaller than the flame ball radius but larger than the flame thickness. As a result, the minimum ignition energy can be substantially over-predicted (under-predicted) based on the flame ball radius (the flame thickness). The results also show that the minimum ignition energy for successful spherical flame initiation is proportional to the cube of the critical flame radius. Furthermore, preferential diffusion of heat and mass (i.e. the Lewis number effect) is found to play an important role in both spherical flame initiation and flame kernel evolution after ignition. It is shown that the critical flame radius and the minimum ignition energy increase significantly with the Lewis number. Therefore, for transportation fuels with large Lewis numbers, blending of small molecule fuels or thermal and catalytic cracking will significantly reduce the minimum ignition energy.

  16. Environmental disaster or just a drop in the bucket: Texas scientists on the real effects of the Deewater Horizon oil spill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Leslie

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Winter 2011 tx H2O 3 or just a drop in thebucket?Texas scientists on the real e#31;ects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill 4 tx H2O Winter 2011 Environmental Disaster Continued What if gasoline pumped into cars, seafood eaten at restaurants... but forgo#27;en as the wreckage of the Deepwater Horizon MC#31;#30;#31; drilling platform sank into its waters. A crude awakening Like any large oil spill, this one took its toll in many ways. Eleven BP employees on the rig died in the explosion...

  17. Environmental disaster or just a drop in the bucket?: Texas scientists on the real effects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Leslie

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Winter 2011 tx H2O 3 or just a drop in thebucket?Texas scientists on the real e#31;ects of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill 4 tx H2O Winter 2011 Environmental Disaster Continued What if gasoline pumped into cars, seafood eaten at restaurants... but forgo#27;en as the wreckage of the Deepwater Horizon MC#31;#30;#31; drilling platform sank into its waters. A crude awakening Like any large oil spill, this one took its toll in many ways. Eleven BP employees on the rig died in the explosion...

  18. Electrically modulated dynamic spreading of drops on soft surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ranabir Dey; Ashish Daga; Sunando DasGupta; Suman Chakraborty

    2015-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The intricate interaction between the deformability of a substrate and the dynamic spreading of a liquid drop on the same, under the application of an electrical voltage, has remained far from being well understood. Here, we demonstrate that electrospreading dynamics on soft substrates is dictated by the combined interplay of electrocapillarity, the wetting line friction and the viscoelastic energy dissipation at the contact line. Our results reveal that during such electro-elastocapillarity mediated spreading of a sessile drop, the contact radius evolution exhibits a universal power law in a substrate elasticity based non-dimensional time, with an electric potential dependent spreading exponent. Simultaneously, the macroscopic dynamic contact angle variation follows a general power law in the contact line velocity, normalized by elasticity dependent characteristic velocity scale. Our results are likely to provide the foundation for the development of a plethora of new applications involving droplet manipulations by exploiting the interplay between electrically triggered spreading and substrate-compliance over interfacial scales.

  19. On the coefficients of the liquid drop model mass formulae and nuclear radii

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Royer

    2008-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The coefficients of different mass formulae derived from the liquid drop model and including or not the curvature energy, the diffuseness correction to the Coulomb energy, the charge exchange correction term, different forms of the Wigner term and different powers of the relative neutron excess $I=(N-Z)/A$ have been determined by a least square fitting procedure to 2027 experimental atomic masses. The Coulomb diffuseness correction $Z^2/A$ term or the charge exchange correction $Z^{4/3}/A^{1/3}$ term plays the main role to improve the accuracy of the mass formula. The Wigner term and the curvature energy can also be used separately for the same purpose. The introduction of an $|I|$ dependence in the surface and volume energies improves slightly the efficiency of the expansion and is more effective than an $I^4$ dependence. Different expressions reproducing the experimental nuclear charge radius are provided. The different fits lead to a surface energy coefficient of around 17-18 MeV and a relative equivalent rms charge radius r$_0$ of 1.22-1.23 fm.

  20. New charge radius relations for atomic nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. H. Sun; Y. Lu; J. P. Peng; C. Y. Liu; Y. M. Zhao

    2014-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that the charge radii of neighboring atomic nuclei, independent of atomic number and charge, follow remarkably very simple relations, despite the fact that atomic nuclei are complex finite many-body systems governed by the laws of quantum mechanics. These relations can be understood within the picture of independent-particle motion and by assuming neighboring nuclei having similar pattern in the charge density distribution. A root-mean-square (rms) deviation of 0.0078 fm is obtained between the predictions in these relations and the experimental values, i.e., a comparable precision as modern experimental techniques. Such high accuracy relations are very useful to check the consistence of nuclear charge radius surface and moreover to predict unknown nuclear charge radii, while large deviations from experimental data is seen to reveal the appearance of nuclear shape transition or coexsitence.

  1. Thermal Structure and Radius Evolution of Irradiated Gas Giant Planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phil Arras; Lars Bildsten

    2006-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the thermal structure and radii of strongly irradiated gas giant planets over a range in mass and irradiating flux. The cooling rate of the planet is sensitive to the surface boundary condition, which depends on the detailed manner in which starlight is absorbed and energy redistributed by fluid motion. We parametrize these effects by imposing an isothermal boundary condition $T \\equiv T_{\\rm deep}$ below the photosphere, and then constrain $T_{\\rm deep}$ from the observed masses and radii. We compute the dependence of luminosity and core temperature on mass, $T_{\\rm deep}$ and core entropy, finding that simple scalings apply over most of the relevant parameter space. These scalings yield analytic cooling models which exhibit power-law behavior in the observable age range $0.1-10 {\\rm Gyr}$, and are confirmed by time-dependent cooling calculations. We compare our model to the radii of observed transiting planets, and derive constraints on $T_{\\rm deep}$. Only HD 209458 has a sufficiently accurate radius measurement that $T_{\\rm deep}$ is tightly constrained; the lower error bar on the radii for other planets is consistent with no irradiation. More accurate radius and age measurements will allow for a determination of the correlation of $T_{\\rm deep}$ with the equilibrium temperature, informing us about both the greenhouse effect and day-night asymmetries.

  2. The muonic hydrogen Lamb shift and the proton radius

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clara Peset

    2014-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We obtain a model independent expression for the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift up to $\\mathcal O (m_\\mu \\alpha^6, m_\\mu \\alpha^5 \\frac{m_\\mu^2}{m_\\rho^2})$. The hadronic effects are controlled by the chiral theory, which allows for their model independent determination. We give their complete expression including the pion and Delta particles. Out of this analysis and the experimental measurement of the muonic hydrogen Lamb shift we determine the electromagnetic proton radius: $r_p$=0.8412(15) fm. This number is at 6.8$\\sigma$ variance with respect to the CODATA value. The parametric control of the uncertainties allows us to obtain a model independent determination of the error, which is dominated by hadronic effects.

  3. Method for reducing pressure drop through filters, and filter exhibiting reduced pressure drop

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sappok, Alexander; Wong, Victor

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods for generating and applying coatings to filters with porous material in order to reduce large pressure drop increases as material accumulates in a filter, as well as the filter exhibiting reduced and/or more uniform pressure drop. The filter can be a diesel particulate trap for removing particulate matter such as soot from the exhaust of a diesel engine. Porous material such as ash is loaded on the surface of the substrate or filter walls, such as by coating, depositing, distributing or layering the porous material along the channel walls of the filter in an amount effective for minimizing or preventing depth filtration during use of the filter. Efficient filtration at acceptable flow rates is achieved.

  4. Drop History? No! | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phasesDataTranslocationDiurnalCommittee Draftfor $1.14 Per GallontheDrop

  5. Drop short control of electrode gap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fisher, Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM); Maroone, James P. (Albuquerque, NM); Tipping, Donald W. (Albuquerque, NM); Zanner, Frank J. (Sandia Park, NM)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During vacuum consumable arc remelting the electrode gap between a consumable electrode and a pool of molten metal is difficult to control. The present invention monitors drop shorts by detecting a decrease in the voltage between the consumable electrode and molten pool. The drop shorts and their associated voltage reductions occur as repetitive pulses which are closely correlated to the electrode gap. Thus, the method and apparatus of the present invention controls electrode gap based upon drop shorts detected from the monitored anode-cathode voltage. The number of drop shorts are accumulated, and each time the number of drop shorts reach a predetermined number, the average period between drop shorts is calculated from this predetermined number and the time in which this number is accumulated. This average drop short period is used in a drop short period electrode gap model which determines the actual electrode gap from the drop short. The actual electrode gap is then compared with a desired electrode gap which is selected to produce optimum operating conditions and the velocity of the consumable error is varied based upon the gap error. The consumable electrode is driven according to any prior art system at this velocity. In the preferred embodiment, a microprocessor system is utilized to perform the necessary calculations and further to monitor the duration of each drop short. If any drop short exceeds a preset duration period, the consumable electrode is rapidly retracted a predetermined distance to prevent bonding of the consumable electrode to the molten remelt.

  6. Drop shaping by laser-pulse impact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klein, Alexander L; Visser, Claas Willem; Lhuissier, Henri; Sun, Chao; Snoeijer, Jacco H; Villermaux, Emmanuel; Lohse, Detlef; Gelderblom, Hanneke

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the hydrodynamic response of a falling drop hit by a laser pulse. Combining high-speed with stroboscopic imaging we report that a millimeter-sized dyed water drop hit by a milli-Joule nanosecond laser-pulse deforms and propels forward at several meters per second, until it eventually fragments. We show that the drop motion results from the recoil momentum imparted at the drop surface by water vaporization. We measure the propulsion speed and the time-deformation law of the drop, complemented by boundary integral simulations. We explain the drop propulsion and shaping in terms of the laser pulse energy and drop surface tension. These findings are crucial for the generation of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light in lithography machines.

  7. Maximal air bubble entrainment at liquid drop impact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bouwhuis, Wilco; Tran, Tuan; Keij, Diederik L; Winkels, Koen G; Peters, Ivo R; van der Meer, Devaraj; Sun, Chao; Snoeijer, Jacco H; Lohse, Detlef

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At impact of a liquid drop on a solid surface an air bubble can be entrapped. Here we show that two competing effects minimize the (relative) size of this entrained air bubble: For large drop impact velocity and large droplets the inertia of the liquid flattens the entrained bubble, whereas for small impact velocity and small droplets capillary forces minimize the entrained bubble. However, we demonstrate experimentally, theoretically, and numerically that in between there is an optimum, leading to maximal air bubble entrapment. Our results have a strong bearing on various applications in printing technology, microelectronics, immersion lithography, diagnostics, or agriculture.

  8. Policy for Dropped/Excused Assignments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Devlin, Patrick M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Policy for Dropped and Excused Quizzes/Homework. • QUIZZES/HOMEWORK. On average, students can expect about 1 quiz and 3 homework assignments per

  9. Banner course drop/add instructions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    skorty

    2008-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    To travel to a specific topic, please click its corresponding page number. How to Drop/Add a Class ................................................... 2. Getting Started .

  10. Meso-scale controlled motion for a microfluidic drop ejector.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galambos, Paul C.; Givler, Richard C.; Pohl, Kenneth Roy; Czaplewski, David A.; Luck, David L.; Braithwaite, Mark J.; Atwood, Clinton L.; Benavides, Gilbert Lawrence

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this LDRD was to develop a uniquely capable, novel droplet solution based manufacturing system built around a new MEMS drop ejector. The development all the working subsystems required was completed, leaving the integration of these subsystems into a working prototype still left to accomplish. This LDRD report will focus on the three main subsystems: (1) MEMS drop ejector--the MEMS ''sideshooter'' effectively ejected 0.25 pl drops at 10 m/s, (2) packaging--a compact ejector package based on a modified EMDIP (Electro-Microfluidic Dual In-line Package--SAND2002-1941) was fabricated, and (3) a vision/stage system allowing precise ejector package positioning in 3 dimensions above a target was developed.

  11. Pressure Drop in a Pebble Bed Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Changwoo

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressure drops over a packed bed of pebble bed reactor type are investigated. Measurement of porosity and pressure drop over the bed were carried out in a cylindrical packed bed facility. Air and water were used for working fluids. There are several...

  12. Condensation on Surface Energy Gradient Shifts Drop Size Distribution toward Small Drops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel, Susan

    Condensation on Surface Energy Gradient Shifts Drop Size Distribution toward Small Drops Ashley M condensation from vapor onto a cooled surface, distributions of drops evolve by nucleation, growth is condensed onto a horizontally oriented surface that has been treated by silanization to deliver either

  13. Measurement of Dynamical Forces between Deformable Drops Using the Atomic Force Microscope. I. Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Derek Y C

    effects of electrical double layer repulsion between oil drops charged by adsorbed surfactant mainly to hydrodynamic lubrication forces. 1. Introduction The atomic force microscope (AFM) has long, such as the interaction between rigid probe particles and oil drops1-4 or between a particle and a bubble.5

  14. Spreading of Viscous Fluid Drops on a Solid Substrate Assisted by Thermal Fluctuations Benny Davidovitch,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moro, Esteban

    on a solid substrate, taking into account the effects of thermal fluctuations in the fluid momentum. A nonlinear stochastic lubrication equation is derived and studied using numerical simulations and scaling, 68.08.Bc, 68.15.+e Water drops spreading on a table and oil drops lubricat- ing a pan are two common

  15. Estimate for the size of the compactification radius of a one extra dimension universe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Da Rosa, Felipe S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pascoal, F [DEPARTAMENTO DE FISICA; Oliveira, L F [CIDADE UNIV; Farina, C [INSTITUTO DE FISICA

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, we use the Casimir effect to probe the existence of one extra dimension. We begin by evaluating the Casimir pressure between two plates in a M{sup 4} x S{sup 1} manifold, and then use an appropriate statistical analysis in order to compare the theoretical expression with a recent experimental data and set bounds for the compactification radius.

  16. Evidence for a Snow Line Beyond the Transitional Radius in the TW Hya Protoplanetary Disk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, K; Salyk, C; Blake, G A

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an observational reconstruction of the radial water vapor content near the surface of the TW Hya transitional protoplanetary disk, and report the first localization of the snow line during this phase of disk evolution. The observations are comprised of Spitzer-IRS, Herschel-PACS, and Herschel-HIFI archival spectra. The abundance structure is retrieved by fitting a two-dimensional disk model to the available star+disk photometry and all observed H2O lines, using a simple step-function parameterization of the water vapor content near the disk surface. We find that water vapor is abundant (~10^{-4} per H2) in a narrow ring, located at the disk transition radius some 4AU from the central star, but drops rapidly by several orders of magnitude beyond 4.2 AU over a scale length of no more than 0.5AU. The inner disk (0.5-4AU) is also dry, with an upper limit on the vertically averaged water abundance of 10^{-6} per H2. The water vapor peak occurs at a radius significantly more distant than that expected fo...

  17. The Potato Radius: a Lower Minimum Size for Dwarf Planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lineweaver, Charles H

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gravitational and electronic forces produce a correlation between the mass and shape of objects in the universe. For example, at an average radius of ~ 200 km - 300 km, the icy moons and rocky asteroids of our Solar System transition from a rounded potato shape to a sphere. We derive this potato-to-sphere transition radius -- or "potato radius" -- from first principles. Using the empirical potato radii of asteroids and icy moons, we derive a constraint on the yield strength of these bodies during their formative years when their shapes were determined. Our proposed ~ 200 km potato radius for icy moons would substantially increase the number of trans-Neptunian objects classified as dwarf planets.

  18. Pressure recovery in a radiused sudden expansion Barton L. Smith

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Barton L.

    Pressure recovery in a radiused sudden expansion Barton L. Smith Abstract Experiments on a steady were motivated by a similar study for oscillatory flow in the same geometry. Smith and Swift (2003

  19. Squat exercise biomechanics during short-radius centrifugation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duda, Kevin R., 1979-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Artificial gravity (AG) created by short-radius centrifugation is a promising countermeasure to the physiological de-conditioning that results from long-duration spaceflight. However, as on Earth, gravity alone does not ...

  20. active drop counting: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    new stain morphologies left by drying drops. Julian Freed-Brown 2014-10-09 52 A kinematic wave theory of capacity drop Mathematical Physics (arXiv) Summary: Capacity drop...

  1. Symmetric and Asymmetric Coalescence of Drops on a Substrate J. F. Hernandez-Sanchez, L. A. Lubbers, A. Eddi, and J. H. Snoeijer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snoeijer, Jacco

    of raindrops or sprays, inkjet printing, or stability of foams and emulsions [1­4]. The initial stages liquid bridge connects the two drops and the bridge grows rapidly with time. Depending on the viscosity of the liquid, the radius of the bridge grows as r $ t (high viscosity) [5­8], or r $ t1=2 (low viscosity

  2. Accelerated drop detachment in granular suspensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Claire Bonnoit; Thibault Bertrand; Éric Clément; Anke Lindner

    2010-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We experimentally study the detachment of drops of granular suspensions using a density matched model suspension with varying volume fraction ({\\phi} = 15% to 55%) and grain diameter (d = 20 {\\mu}m to 140 {\\mu}m). We show that at the beginning of the detachment process, the suspensions behave as an effective fluid. The detachment dynamics in this regime can be entirely described by the shear viscosity of the suspension. At later stages of the detachment the dynamics become independent of the volume fraction and are found to be identical to the dynamics of the interstitial fluid. Surprisingly, visual observation reveals that at this stage particles are still present in the neck. We suspect rearrangements of particles to locally free the neck of grains, causing the observed dynamics. Close to the final pinch off, the detachment of the suspensions is further accelerated, compared to the dynamics of pure interstitial fluid. This acceleration might be due to the fact that the neck diameter gets of the order of magnitude of the size of the grains and a continuous thinning of the liquid thread is not possible any more. The crossover between the different detachment regimes is function of the grain size and the initial volume fraction. We characterize the overall acceleration as a function of the grain size and volume fraction.

  3. Assessing the Accuracy of Contact Angle Measurements for Sessile Drops on Liquid-Repellent Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srinivasan, Siddarth

    Gravity-induced sagging can amplify variations in goniometric measurements of the contact angles of sessile drops on super-liquid-repellent surfaces. The very large value of the effective contact angle leads to increased ...

  4. Refining the Radius-Luminosity Relationship for Active Galactic Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Misty C. Bentz; Kelly D. Denney; Bradley M. Peterson; Richard W. Pogge

    2007-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We have measured the host-galaxy starlight contribution to four lower-luminosity AGNs (NGC 3516, NGC 4593, IC 4329A, and NGC 7469). We include these objects with new broad line region measurements for NGC 4151 and NGC 4593 to present a revised version of the radius-luminosity relationship for AGNs.

  5. Greenpass RADIUS Tools for Delegated Authorization in Wireless Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , New Hampshire June 3, 2004 Examining Committee: ____________________________ Sean Smith (chair. Folt Dean of Graduate Studies #12;#12;ii Abstract* Dartmouth's Greenpass project extends how public key cryptography can be used to secure the wireless LAN with a RADIUS (Remote Authentication Dial In User Service

  6. absorption radius measurements: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    absorption radius measurements First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Measuring Neutron Star...

  7. Drops, Slugs, and FloodingDrops, Slugs, and Flooding in PEM Fuel Cellsin PEM Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petta, Jason

    Drops, Slugs, and FloodingDrops, Slugs, and Flooding in PEM Fuel Cellsin PEM Fuel Cells A Study Fuel CellBackground: PEM Fuel Cell Graphic by Marc Marshall, Schatz Energy Research Center http ProjectDrag Project SetupSetup MFC (H2, N2 Inputs) Bubbler Current Humidity Sensor Modified PEM Fuel Cell

  8. Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, Dipen N. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids. The present invention includes the use of two closely spaced transducers, or one transducer and a closely spaced reflector plate, to form an interferometer suitable for ultrasonic characterization of droplet-size and smaller samples without the need for a container. The droplet is held between the interferometer elements, whose distance apart may be adjusted, by surface tension. The surfaces of the interferometer elements may be readily cleansed by a stream of solvent followed by purified air when it is desired to change samples. A single drop of liquid is sufficient for high-quality measurement. Examples of samples which may be investigated using the apparatus and method of the present invention include biological specimens (tear drops; blood and other body fluid samples; samples from tumors, tissues, and organs; secretions from tissues and organs; snake and bee venom, etc.) for diagnostic evaluation, samples in forensic investigations, and detection of drugs in small quantities.

  9. A kinematic wave theory of capacity drop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wen-Long Jin; Qi-Jian Gan; Jean-Patrick Lebacque

    2013-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Capacity drop at active bottlenecks is one of the most puzzling traffic phenomena, but a thorough understanding is practically important for designing variable speed limit and ramp metering strategies. In this study, we attempt to develop a simple model of capacity drop within the framework of kinematic wave theory based on the observation that capacity drop occurs when an upstream queue forms at an active bottleneck. In addition, we assume that the fundamental diagrams are continuous in steady states. This assumption is consistent with observations and can avoid unrealistic infinite characteristic wave speeds in discontinuous fundamental diagrams. A core component of the new model is an entropy condition defined by a discontinuous boundary flux function. For a lane-drop area, we demonstrate that the model is well-defined, and its Riemann problem can be uniquely solved. We theoretically discuss traffic stability with this model subject to perturbations in density, upstream demand, and downstream supply. We clarify that discontinuous flow-density relations, or so-called "discontinuous" fundamental diagrams, are caused by incomplete observations of traffic states. Theoretical results are consistent with observations in the literature and are verified by numerical simulations and empirical observations. We finally discuss potential applications and future studies.

  10. Neutron charge radius and the neutron electric form factor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gentile, T. R. [Stop 8461, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Crawford, C. B. [University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40506 (United States)

    2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    For nearly forty years, the Galster parametrization has been employed to fit existing data for the neutron electric form factor, G{sub E}{sup n}, vs the square of the four-momentum transfer, Q{sup 2}. Typically this parametrization is constrained to be consistent with experimental data for the neutron charge radius. However, we find that the Galster form does not have sufficient freedom to accommodate reasonable values of the radius without constraining or compromising the fit. In addition, the G{sub E}{sup n} data are now at sufficient precision to motivate a two-parameter fit (or three parameters if we include thermal neutron data). Here we present a modified form of a two-dipole parametrization that allows this freedom and fits both G{sub E}{sup n} (including recent data at both low and high four-momentum transfer) and the charge radius well with simple, well-defined parameters. Analysis reveals that the Galster form is essentially a two-parameter approximation to the two-dipole form but becomes degenerate if we try to extend it naturally to three parameters.

  11. HZ Her: Stellar Radius from X-ray Eclipse Observations, Evolutionary State and a New Distance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leahy, D A

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Observations of HZ Her/ Her X-1 by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) covering high state eclipses of the neutron star are analyzed here. Models of the eclipse are used to measure the radius and atmospheric scale height of HZ Her, the stellar companion to the neutron star. The radius is 2.61 to 3.03 $\\times10^{11}$ cm, depending on system inclination and mass ratio(q), with accuracy of $\\sim$1 part in 1000 for given inclination and q. We fit Kurucz model stellar atmosphere models to archival optical observations. The resulting effective temperature ($T_{eff}$) of the unheated face of HZ Her is determined to be in the 2$\\sigma$ range 7440K to 7620K, and metallicity ($log(Z/Z_{\\odot})$) in the range -0.14 to +.08. The model atmosphere surface flux and new radius yield a new distance to HZ Her/ Her X-1, depending on system inclination and q. We calculate stellar evolution models for the range of allowed masses (from orbital parameters), and allowed metallicities (from optical spectrum fits). The stellar mode...

  12. Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, D.N.

    1998-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultrasonic characterization of single drops of liquids is disclosed. The present invention includes the use of two closely spaced transducers, or one transducer and a closely spaced reflector plate, to form an interferometer suitable for ultrasonic characterization of droplet-size and smaller samples without the need for a container. The droplet is held between the interferometer elements, whose distance apart may be adjusted, by surface tension. The surfaces of the interferometer elements may be readily cleansed by a stream of solvent followed by purified air when it is desired to change samples. A single drop of liquid is sufficient for high-quality measurement. Examples of samples which may be investigated using the apparatus and method of the present invention include biological specimens (tear drops; blood and other body fluid samples; samples from tumors, tissues, and organs; secretions from tissues and organs; snake and bee venom, etc.) for diagnostic evaluation, samples in forensic investigations, and detection of drugs in small quantities. 5 figs.

  13. Self-excited hydrothermal waves in evaporating sessile drops 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sefiane K.; Moffat J.R.; Matar O.K.; Craster R.V.

    2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pattern formation driven by the spontaneous evaporation of sessile drops of methanol, ethanol, and FC-72 using infrared thermography is observed and, in certain cases, interpreted in terms of hydrothermal waves. Both methanol and ethanol drops...

  14. Experimental Investigation of Wind-Forced Drop Stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmucker, Jason

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    aluminum (RA = 3.26 micrometers) floor of a tiltable wind tunnel and brought to critical conditions, when the drop begins to run downstream. Various combinations of drop size, inclination angle, and flow speed were employed. A measurement technique capable...

  15. Controlling drop coalescence using nano-engineered surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corral, Manuel, Jr

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dynamics of drop coalescence are explored on micro-scale surface features for the first time. Drop coalescence is defined as a process by which two or more droplets, bubbles or particles merge during contact to form a ...

  16. Vertical vibration and shape oscillation of acoustically levitated water drops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geng, D. L.; Xie, W. J.; Yan, N.; Wei, B., E-mail: bbwei@nwpu.edu.cn [Department of Applied Physics, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an 710072 (China)

    2014-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the vertical harmonic vibration of levitated water drops within ultrasound field. The restoring force to maintain such a vibration mode is provided by the resultant force of acoustic radiation force and drop gravity. Experiments reveal that the vibration frequency increases with the aspect ratio for drops with the same volume, which agrees with the theoretical prediction for those cases of nearly equiaxed drops. During the vertical vibration, the floating drops undergo the second order shape oscillation. The shape oscillation frequency is determined to be twice the vibration frequency.

  17. The Potato Radius: a Lower Minimum Size for Dwarf Planets Charles H. Lineweaver & Marc Norman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lineweaver, Charles H.

    The Potato Radius: a Lower Minimum Size for Dwarf Planets Charles H. Lineweaver & Marc Norman a rounded potato shape to a sphere. We derive this potato-to-sphere transition radius -- or "potato radius" -- from first principles. Using the empirical potato radii of asteroids and icy moons, we derive

  18. THE RADIUS DISCREPANCY IN LOW-MASS STARS: SINGLE VERSUS BINARIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spada, F. [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482, Potsdam (Germany); Demarque, P. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Kim, Y.-C. [Yonsei University Observatory and Astronomy Department, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Sills, A., E-mail: fspada@aip.de [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2013-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A long-standing issue in the theory of low-mass stars is the discrepancy between predicted and observed radii and effective temperatures. In spite of the increasing availability of very precise radius determinations from eclipsing binaries and interferometric measurements of radii of single stars, there is no unanimous consensus on the extent (or even the existence) of the discrepancy and on its connection with other stellar properties (e.g., metallicity, magnetic activity). We investigate the radius discrepancy phenomenon using the best data currently available (accuracy ?< 5%). We have constructed a grid of stellar models covering the entire range of low-mass stars (0.1-1.25 M{sub ?}) and various choices of the metallicity and mixing length parameter, ?. We used an improved version of the Yale Rotational stellar Evolution Code, implementing surface boundary conditions based on the most up-to-date PHOENIX atmosphere models. Our models are in good agreement with others in the literature and improve and extend the low mass end of the Yale-Yonsei isochrones. Our calculations include rotation-related quantities, such as moments of inertia and convective turnover timescales, useful in studies of magnetic activity and rotational evolution of solar-like stars. Consistent with previous works, we find that both binaries and single stars have radii inflated by about 3% with respect to the theoretical models; among binaries, the components of short orbital period systems are found to be the most deviant. We conclude that both binaries and single stars are comparably affected by the radius discrepancy phenomenon.

  19. Coalescence of bubbles and drops in an outer fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph D. Paulsen; Rémi Carmigniani; Anerudh Kannan; Justin C. Burton; Sidney R. Nagel

    2014-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    When two liquid drops touch, a microscopic connecting liquid bridge forms and rapidly grows as the two drops merge into one. Whereas coalescence has been thoroughly studied when drops coalesce in vacuum or air, many important situations involve coalescence in a dense surrounding fluid, such as oil coalescence in brine. Here we study the merging of gas bubbles and liquid drops in an external fluid. Our data indicate that the flows occur over much larger length scales in the outer fluid than inside the drops themselves. Thus we find that the asymptotic early regime is always dominated by the viscosity of the drops, independent of the external fluid. A phase diagram showing the crossovers into the different possible late-time dynamics identifies a dimensionless number that signifies when the external viscosity can be important.

  20. Measuring the Neutron's Mean Square Charge Radius Using Neutron Interferometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. E. Wietfeldt; M. Huber; T. C. Black; H. Kaiser; M. Arif; D. L. Jacobson; S. A. Werner

    2005-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The neutron is electrically neutral, but its substructure consists of charged quarks so it may have an internal charge distribution. In fact it is known to have a negative mean square charge radius (MSCR), the second moment of the radial charge density. In other words the neutron has a positive core and negative skin. In the first Born approximation the neutron MSCR can be simply related to the neutron-electron scattering length b_ne. In the past this important quantity has been extracted from the energy dependence of the total transmission cross-section of neutrons on high-Z targets, a very difficult and complicated process. A few years ago S.A. Werner proposed a novel approach to measuring b_ne from the neutron's dynamical phase shift in a perfect crystal close to the Bragg condition. We are conducting an experiment based on this method at the NIST neutron interferometer which may lead to a five-fold improvement in precision of b_ne and hence the neutron MSCR.

  1. PHOTOSPHERIC RADIUS EXPANSION IN SUPERBURST PRECURSORS FROM NEUTRON STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keek, L., E-mail: keek@nscl.msu.edu [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2012-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermonuclear runaway burning of carbon is in rare cases observed from accreting neutron stars as day-long X-ray flares called superbursts. In the few cases where the onset is observed, superbursts exhibit a short precursor burst at the start. In each instance, however, the data are of insufficient quality for spectral analysis of the precursor. Using data from the propane anti-coincidence detector of the Proportional Counter Array instrument on the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, we perform the first detailed time-resolved spectroscopy of precursors. For a superburst from 4U 1820-30 we demonstrate the presence of photospheric radius expansion. We find the precursor to be 1.4-2 times more energetic than other short bursts from this source, indicating that the burning of accreted helium is insufficient to explain the full precursor. Shock heating would be able to account for the shortfall in energy. We argue that this precursor is a strong indication that the superburst starts as a detonation, and that a shock induces the precursor. Furthermore, we employ our technique to study the superexpansion phase of the same superburst in greater detail.

  2. Simulation and analysis of the plutonium shipping container subject to 30-foot drops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gong, C.; Gupta, N.K.; Gromada, R.J. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Technology Center

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The shipping container 5320 is a shipping package for radioactive materials. In order to maintain the component in this packaging within the sub-critical state when subjected to any kind of Hypothetical Accident conditions (HAC), this Type B packaging is designed with various impact limiters. The present study is to examine the energy absorbing capacity of the impact limiter design of this container subjected to a 30-foot drop onto a flat unyielding horizontal surface in each of the three critical dropping orientations. This paper presents the results of a three dimensional nonlinear dynamic impact analysis. This analysis shows the deformed configuration of the container caused by the impact and also determines the effects of different stress wave paths in three distinct drops on the stress states in the critical component. The solution to the problem was obtained using the ABAQUS (explicit) finite element computer code. The nonlinearity of this analysis involves large structural deformation, elasto-plastic materials with strain hardening as well as multiple contact interfaces. Three drop orientations were studied, namely, top down impact, bottom down impact and side impact. Results will be compared against actual drop test data.

  3. Strong plasma screening in thermonuclear reactions: Electron drop model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kravchuk, P A

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze enhancement of thermonuclear fusion reactions due to strong plasma screening in dense matter using a simple electron drop model. The model assumes fusion in a potential that is screened by an effective electron cloud around colliding nuclei (extended Salpeter ion-sphere model). We calculate the mean field screened Coulomb potentials for atomic nuclei with equal and nonequal charges, appropriate astrophysical S factors, and enhancement factors of reaction rates. As a byproduct, we study analytic behavior of the screening potential at small separations between the reactants. In this model, astrophysical S factors depend not only on nuclear physics but on plasma screening as well. The enhancement factors are in good agreement with calculations by other methods. This allows us to formulate the combined, pure analytic model of strong plasma screening in thermonuclear reactions. The results can be useful for simulating nuclear burning in white dwarfs and neutron stars.

  4. Strong plasma screening in thermonuclear reactions: Electron drop model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. A. Kravchuk; D. G. Yakovlev

    2014-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze enhancement of thermonuclear fusion reactions due to strong plasma screening in dense matter using a simple electron drop model. The model assumes fusion in a potential that is screened by an effective electron cloud around colliding nuclei (extended Salpeter ion-sphere model). We calculate the mean field screened Coulomb potentials for atomic nuclei with equal and nonequal charges, appropriate astrophysical S factors, and enhancement factors of reaction rates. As a byproduct, we study analytic behavior of the screening potential at small separations between the reactants. In this model, astrophysical S factors depend not only on nuclear physics but on plasma screening as well. The enhancement factors are in good agreement with calculations by other methods. This allows us to formulate the combined, pure analytic model of strong plasma screening in thermonuclear reactions. The results can be useful for simulating nuclear burning in white dwarfs and neutron stars.

  5. Dipole induced transparency in drop-filter cavity-waveguide systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edo Waks; Jelena Vuckovic

    2005-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that a waveguide that is normally opaque due to interaction with a drop-filter cavity can be made transparent when the drop filter is also coupled to a dipole. A transparency condition is derived between the cavity lifetime and vacuum Rabi frequency of the dipole. This condition is much weaker than strong coupling, and amounts to simply achieving large Purcell factors. Thus, we can observe transparency in the weak coupling regime. We describe how this effect can be useful for designing quantum repeaters for long distance quantum communication.

  6. Head-on impact of liquid drops Robert D. Schroll

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Wendy

    ) ]1/2 U0 impact speed 1 m/s C speed of sound 1500 m/s Us variation ! liquid ejected radially ! = radius / impact speed impact time-scale #12;Deformation Dominated by Inertia volume conservation ! pressure variation ! liquid ejected radially ! = radius / impact speed

  7. Segregation in desiccated sessile drops of biological fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuri Yu. Tarasevich; Dina M. Pravoslavnova

    2006-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown here that concurrence between advection and diffusion in a drying sessile drop of a biological fluid can produce spatial redistribution of albumen and salt. The result gives an explanation for the patterns observed in the dried drops of the biological fluids.

  8. Drop Tests of the Closure Ring for the 9975 Package

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, A.C

    1999-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The drop tests of the closure ring for 9975 packages, described here, were performed to answer questions raised by the regulatory authority as a result of deformation of the closure ring and drum rim observed during drop tests conducted in September 1998.

  9. Casimir energy and force induced by an impenetrable flux tube of finite radius

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gorkavenko, V M; Stepanov, O B

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A perfectly reflecting (Dirichlet) boundary condition at the edge of an impenetrable magnetic-flux-carrying tube of nonzero transverse size is imposed on the charged massive scalar matter field which is quantized outside the tube. We show that the vacuum polarization effects outside the tube give rise to a macroscopic force acting at the increase of the tube radius (if the magnetic flux is held steady). The Casimir energy and force are periodic in the value of the magnetic flux, being independent of the coupling to the space-time curvature scalar. We conclude that a topological defect of the vortex type can polarize the vacuum of only those quantum fields that have masses which are much less than a scale of the spontaneous symmetry breaking.

  10. Casimir energy and force induced by an impenetrable flux tube of finite radius

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. M. Gorkavenko; Yu. A. Sitenko; O. B. Stepanov

    2013-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A perfectly reflecting (Dirichlet) boundary condition at the edge of an impenetrable magnetic-flux-carrying tube of nonzero transverse size is imposed on the charged massive scalar matter field which is quantized outside the tube. We show that the vacuum polarization effects outside the tube give rise to a macroscopic force acting at the increase of the tube radius (if the magnetic flux is held steady). The Casimir energy and force are periodic in the value of the magnetic flux, being independent of the coupling to the space-time curvature scalar. We conclude that a topological defect of the vortex type can polarize the vacuum of only those quantum fields that have masses which are much less than a scale of the spontaneous symmetry breaking.

  11. Analysis of pressure drops under reversing flow conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krazinski, J.L.; Holtz, R.E.; Uherka, K.L.; Lottes, P.A.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines pressure-drop data from the Reversing Flow Test Facility (RFTF) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The data comprise part of an initial series of measurements conducted with pressurized helium gas under reversing flow conditions. The characteristics of fluid pressure drops in compressible, reversing flows are discussed in the paper and compared with pressure-drop measurements for steady, incompressible flows. The methodology used to calculate instantaneous mass flows in the test section of the RFTF is summarized. The measured pressure drops are analyzed in terms of their frictional and inertial components. Pressure-drop data are presented for both tubes and wire mesh regenerators over a range of flow reversal frequencies. The results are discussed with reference to other experimental data and analytical models available in the literature. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Maximal Air Bubble Entrainment at Liquid-Drop Impact Wilco Bouwhuis, Roeland C. A. van der Veen, Tuan Tran, Diederik L. Keij, Koen G. Winkels, Ivo R. Peters,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snoeijer, Jacco

    Maximal Air Bubble Entrainment at Liquid-Drop Impact Wilco Bouwhuis, Roeland C. A. van der Veen the (relative) size of this entrained air bubble: for large drop impact velocity and large droplets, the inertia on a solid surface, an air bubble can be entrapped. Here, we show that two competing effects minimize

  13. Maps preserving the joint numerical radius distance of operators Chi-Kwong Li

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Chi-Kwong

    Maps preserving the joint numerical radius distance of operators Chi-Kwong Li and Edward Poon Dedicated to Professor David Lutzer on the occasion of his retirement. Abstract Denote the joint numerical radius of an m-tuple of bounded operators A = (A1, . . . , Am) by w(A). We give a complete description

  14. On the critical flame radius and minimum ignition energy for spherical flame initiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ju, Yiguang

    , methane, and propane). The emphasis is placed on investigating the critical flame radius controlling to the cube of the critical flame radius. Furthermore, preferential diffusion of heat and mass (i.e. the Lewis igni- tion energy. Ã? 2010 The Combustion Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved

  15. Self-ratcheting Stokes drops driven by oblique vibrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karin John; Uwe Thiele

    2009-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop and analyze a minimal hydrodynamic model in the overdamped limit to understand why a drop climbs a smooth homogeneous incline that is harmonically vibrated at an angle different from the substrate normal [Brunet, Eggers and Deegan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 144501 (2007)]. We find that the vibration component orthogonal to the substrate induces a nonlinear (anharmonic) response in the drop shape. This results in an asymmetric response of the drop to the parallel vibration and, in consequence, in the observed net motion. Beside establishing the basic mechanism, we identify scaling laws valid in a broad frequency range and a flow reversal at high frequencies.

  16. Systematic variation in the apparent burning area of thermonuclear bursts and its implication for neutron star radius measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sudip Bhattacharyya; M. Coleman Miller; Duncan K. Galloway

    2009-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Precision measurements of neutron star radii can provide a powerful probe of the properties of cold matter beyond nuclear density. Beginning in the late 1970s it was proposed that the radius could be obtained from the apparent or inferred emitting area during the decay portions of thermonuclear (type I) X-ray bursts. However, this apparent area is generally not constant, preventing reliable measurement of the source radius. Here we report for the first time a correlation between the variation of the inferred area and the burst properties, measured in a sample of almost 900 bursts from 43 sources. We found that the rate of change of the inferred area during decay is anticorrelated with the burst decay duration. A Spearman rank correlation test shows that this relation is significant at the <10^{-45} level for our entire sample, and at the 7x10^{-37} level for the 625 bursts without photospheric radius expansion. This anticorrelation is also highly significant for individual sources exhibiting a wide range of burst durations, such as 4U 1636-536 and Aql X-1. We suggest that variations in the colour factor, which relates the colour temperature resulted from the scattering in the neutron star atmosphere to the effective temperature of the burning layer, may explain the correlation. This in turn implies significant variations in the composition of the atmosphere between bursts with long and short durations.

  17. Compact stars with a small electric charge: the limiting radius to mass relation and the maximum mass for incompressible matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    José P. S. Lemos; Francisco J. Lopes; Gonçalo Quinta; Vilson T. Zanchin

    2015-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the stiffest equations of state for matter in a compact star is constant energy density and this generates the interior Schwarzschild radius to mass relation and the Misner maximum mass for relativistic compact stars. If dark matter populates the interior of stars, and this matter is supersymmetric or of some other type, some of it possessing a tiny electric charge, there is the possibility that highly compact stars can trap a small but non-negligible electric charge. In this case the radius to mass relation for such compact stars should get modifications. We use an analytical scheme to investigate the limiting radius to mass relation and the maximum mass of relativistic stars made of an incompressible fluid with a small electric charge. The investigation is carried out by using the hydrostatic equilibrium equation, i.e., the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff (TOV) equation, together with the other equations of structure, with the further hypothesis that the charge distribution is proportional to the energy density. The approach relies on Volkoff and Misner's method to solve the TOV equation. For zero charge one gets the interior Schwarzschild limit, and supposing incompressible boson or fermion matter with constituents with masses of the order of the neutron mass one gets that the maximum mass is the Misner mass. For a small electric charge, our analytical approximating scheme valid in first order in the star's electric charge, shows that the maximum mass increases relatively to the uncharged case, whereas the minimum possible radius decreases, an expected effect since the new field is repulsive aiding the pressure to sustain the star against gravitational collapse.

  18. The influence of surface tension gradients on drop coalescence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bush, John W. M.

    We present the results of a combined experimental and numerical investigation of the coalescence of a drop with a liquid reservoir of a miscible but distinct fluid. Particular attention is given to elucidating the influence ...

  19. Stability issues in IC Low Drop Out voltage regulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chava, Krishna Chaitanya

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Performance issues of IC Low Drop Out (LDO) voltage regulators, with specific reference to stability, are discussed in this thesis. Evaluation of existing frequency compensation schemes and their performances across operating loads is presented...

  20. Drop-in replacement biofuels : meeting the challenge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhargava, Alok (Alok Kishore)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents a discussion on the challenges that must be met to fulfill the U.S. Navy's strategic imperatives for its energy vision. It provides an introduction to drop-in replacement biofuels, the options amongst ...

  1. A quasi-static model of drop impact

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bush, John W. M.

    We develop a conceptually simple theoretical model of non-wetting drop impact on a rigid surface at small Weber numbers. Flat and curved impactor surfaces are considered, and the influence of surface curvature is elucidated. ...

  2. Heat transfer and pressure drop in tape generated swirl flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lopina, Robert F.

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of water in tape generated swirl flow were investigated. The test sections were electrically heated small diameter nickel tubes with tight fitting full length Inconel ...

  3. Pressure drop with surface boiling in small-diameter tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dr?mer, Thomas

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressure drop for water flowing in small-diameter tubes under isothermal, nonboiling, and surface-boiling conditions was investigated. Experimental results for local pressure gradient and heattransfer coefficients are ...

  4. Drop tests of the Three Mile Island knockout canister

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Box, W.D.; Aaron, W.S.; Shappert, L.B.; Childress, P.C.; Quinn, G.J.; Smith, J.V.

    1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A type of Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) defueling canister, called a ''knockout'' canister, was subjected to a series of drop tests at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Drop Test Facility. These tests were designed to confirm the structural integrity of internal fixed neutron poisons in support of a request for NRC licensing of this type of canister for the shipment of TMI-2 reactor fuel debris to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for the Core Examination R and D Program. Work conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory included (1) precise physical measurements of the internal poison rod configuration before assembly, (2) canister assembly and welding, (3) nondestructive examination (an initial hydrostatic pressure test and an x-ray profile of the internals before and after each drop test), (4) addition of a simulated fuel load, (5) instrumentation of the canister for each drop test, (6) fabrication of a cask simulation vessel with a developed and tested foam impact limiter, (7) use of refrigeration facilities to cool the canister to well below freezing prior to three of the drops, (8) recording the drop test with still, high-speed, and normal-speed photography, (9) recording the accelerometer measurements during impact, (10) disassembly and post-test examination with precise physical measurements, and (11) preparation of the final report.

  5. Microwave Dielectric Heating of Drops in Microfluidic Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Issadore; Katherine J. Humphry; Keith A. Brown; Lori Sandberg; David Weitz; Robert M. Westervelt

    2009-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a technique to locally and rapidly heat water drops in microfluidic devices with microwave dielectric heating. Water absorbs microwave power more efficiently than polymers, glass, and oils due to its permanent molecular dipole moment that has a large dielectric loss at GHz frequencies. The relevant heat capacity of the system is a single thermally isolated picoliter drop of water and this enables very fast thermal cycling. We demonstrate microwave dielectric heating in a microfluidic device that integrates a flow-focusing drop maker, drop splitters, and metal electrodes to locally deliver microwave power from an inexpensive, commercially available 3.0 GHz source and amplifier. The temperature of the drops is measured by observing the temperature dependent fluorescence intensity of cadmium selenide nanocrystals suspended in the water drops. We demonstrate characteristic heating times as short as 15 ms to steady-state temperatures as large as 30 degrees C above the base temperature of the microfluidic device. Many common biological and chemical applications require rapid and local control of temperature, such as PCR amplification of DNA, and can benefit from this new technique.

  6. Weak charge form factor and radius of 208Pb through parity violation in electron scattering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Horowitz, C J; Jen, C -M; Rakhman, A; Souder, P A; Dalton, M M; Liyanage, N; Paschke, K D; Saenboonruang, K; Silwal, R; Franklin, G B; Friend, M; Quinn, B; Kumar, K S; McNulty, D; Mercado, L; Riordan, S; Wexler, J

    2012-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We use distorted wave electron scattering calculations to extract the weak charge form factor FW(q?), the weak charge radius RW, and the point neutron radius Rn, of 208Pb from the PREX parity violating asymmetry measurement. The form factor is the Fourier transform of the weak charge density at the average momentum transfer q? = 0.475 fm-1. We find FW(q?) = 0.204 ± 0.028(exp) ± 0.001(model). We use the Helm model to infer the weak radius from FW(q?). We find RW = 5.826 ± 0.181(exp) ± 0.027(model) fm. Here the exp error includes PREX statistical and systematic errors, while the model error describes the uncertainty in RW from uncertainties in the surface thickness ? of the weak charge density. The weak radius is larger than the charge radius, implying a 'weak charge skin' where the surface region is relatively enriched in weak charges compared to (electromagnetic) charges. We extract the point neutron radius Rn = 5.751 ± 0.175 (exp) ± 0.026(model) ± 0.005(strange) fm, from RW. Here there is only a very small error (strange) from possible strange quark contributions. We find Rn to be slightly smaller than RW because of the nucleon's size. Finally, we find a neutron skin thickness of Rn-Rp = 0.302 ± 0.175 (exp) ± 0.026 (model) ± 0.005 (strange) fm, where Rp is the point proton radius.

  7. Proton radioactivity within a generalized liquid drop model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. M. Dong; H. F. Zhang; G. Royer

    2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The proton radioactivity half-lives of spherical proton emitters are investigated theoretically. The potential barriers preventing the emission of protons are determined in the quasimolecular shape path within a generalized liquid drop model (GLDM) including the proximity effects between nuclei in a neck and the mass and charge asymmetry. The penetrability is calculated with the WKB approximation. The spectroscopic factor has been taken into account in half-life calculation, which is obtained by employing the relativistic mean field (RMF) theory combined with the BCS method with the force NL3. The half-lives within the GLDM are compared with the experimental data and other theoretical values. The GLDM works quite well for spherical proton emitters when the spectroscopic factors are considered, indicating the necessity of introducing the spectroscopic factor and the success of the GLDM for proton emission. Finally, we present two formulas for proton emission half-life calculation similar to the Viola-Seaborg formulas and Royer's formulas of alpha decay.

  8. E-Print Network 3.0 - all-pressure fluid drop Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Environmental Engineering, University of California at Santa Barbara Collection: Engineering 4 Drop Impact of Newtonian and Elastic Fluids Submitted by Summary: Drop...

  9. Inductive Sustainment of Oblate FRCs with the Assistance of Magnetic Diffusion, Shaping and Finite-Lamor Radius Stabilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Gerhardt, E.V. Belova, M. Yamada, H. Ji, M. Inomoto, C.M. Jacobson, R. Maqueda, B. McGeehan and Y. Ren

    2008-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Oblate field-reversed configurations FRCs have been sustained for >300 µs, or >15 magnetic diffusion times, through the use of an inductive solenoid. These argon FRCs can have their poloidal flux sustained or increased, depending on the timing and strength of the induction. An inward pinch is observed during sustainment, leading to a peaking of the pressure profile and maintenance of the FRC equilibrium. The good stability observed in argon (and krypton) does not transfer to lighter gases, which develop terminal co-interchange instabilities. The stability in argon and krypton is attributed to a combination of external field shaping, magnetic diffusion, and finite-Larmor radius effects.

  10. E-Print Network 3.0 - abnormal radius dimension Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    codes with covering radius R and minimum Hamming distance at least R-l are given. Index Terms- BCH... codes are abnormal. One important factor is the ratio between the covering...

  11. THE SPECTRAL RADIUS OF INFINITE GRAPHS N. L. BIGGS, BOJAN MOHAR AND JOHN SHAWE-TAYLOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohar, Bojan

    THE SPECTRAL RADIUS OF INFINITE GRAPHS N. L. BIGGS, BOJAN MOHAR AND JOHN SHAWE-TAYLOR 1 follows from Theorem 2.2. #12;118 N. L. BIGGS, B. MOHAR AND J. SHAWE-TAYLOR 3. The expanding case

  12. Some remarks on the radius of spatial analyticity for the Euler equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marco Cappiello; Fabio Nicola

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the Euler equations on $\\mathbb{T}^d$ with analytic data and prove lower bounds for the radius of spatial analyticity $\\epsilon(t)$ of the solution using a new method based on inductive estimates in standard Sobolev spaces. Our results are consistent with similar previous results proved by Kukavica and Vicol, but give a more precise dependence of $\\epsilon(t)$ on the radius of analyticity of the initial datum.

  13. indications of r-mode oscillations in soho/mdi solar radius measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sturrock, P A; Gough, D O; Scargle, J D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analysis of solar radius measurements acquired by the Michelson Doppler Imager on the SOHO spacecraft supports previously reported evidence of solar internal r-mode oscillations in Mt Wilson radius data and in nuclear-decay data acquired at the Lomonosov Moscow State University. The frequencies of these oscillations are compatible with oscillations in a putative inner tachocline that separates a slowly rotating core from the radiative envelope.

  14. Counting Rises, Levels and Drops in Compositions 1 Counting Rises, Levels and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heubach, Silvia

    Counting Rises, Levels and Drops in Compositions 1 Counting Rises, Levels and Drops in Compositions Mansour Department of Mathematics, Haifa University, Israel #12;Counting Rises, Levels and Drops;Counting Rises, Levels and Drops in Compositions 3 Definitions · A composition = 12 . . . m of n N

  15. Physical test report for drop test of a 9974 radioactive material shipping packaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanton, P.S. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the drop test results for the 9974 radioactive material shipping package being dropped onto 6-inch diameter, 40-inch long puncture pin. Also reported are the drop test resuls for a 30-foot impact that failed the drum confinement boundary. The purpose of these drops was to show that the package lid would remain attached to the drum.

  16. Calculation of the Electric and Magnetic Root Mean Squared Radiuses of Proton Based on MIT Bag Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feili, Maryam Momeni

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electric and magnetic bag radiuses of the proton can be determined by MIT bag model based on electric and magnetic form factors of the proton. Also we determined electric and magnetic root mean squared radiuses of the proton, using of bag radius and compared with other results suggests a suitable compatibility.

  17. Weak charge form factor and radius of 208Pb through parity violation in electron scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. J. Horowitz; Z. Ahmed; C. -M. Jen; A. Rakhman; P. A. Souder; M. M. Dalton; N. Liyanage; K. D. Paschke; K. Saenboonruang; R. Silwal; G. B. Franklin; M. Friend; B. Quinn; K. S. Kumar; J. M. Mammei; D. McNulty; L. Mercado; S. Riordan; J. Wexler; R. W. Michaels; G. M. Urciuoli

    2014-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We use distorted wave electron scattering calculations to extract the weak charge form factor F_W(q), the weak charge radius R_W, and the point neutron radius R_n, of 208Pb from the PREX parity violating asymmetry measurement. The form factor is the Fourier transform of the weak charge density at the average momentum transfer q=0.475 fm$^{-1}$. We find F_W(q) =0.204 \\pm 0.028 (exp) \\pm 0.001 (model). We use the Helm model to infer the weak radius from F_W(q). We find R_W= 5.826 \\pm 0.181 (exp) \\pm 0.027 (model) fm. Here the exp error includes PREX statistical and systematic errors, while the model error describes the uncertainty in R_W from uncertainties in the surface thickness \\sigma of the weak charge density. The weak radius is larger than the charge radius, implying a "weak charge skin" where the surface region is relatively enriched in weak charges compared to (electromagnetic) charges. We extract the point neutron radius R_n=5.751 \\pm 0.175 (exp) \\pm 0.026 (model) \\pm 0.005 (strange) fm$, from R_W. Here there is only a very small error (strange) from possible strange quark contributions. We find R_n to be slightly smaller than R_W because of the nucleon's size. Finally, we find a neutron skin thickness of R_n-R_p=0.302\\pm 0.175 (exp) \\pm 0.026 (model) \\pm 0.005 (strange) fm, where R_p is the point proton radius.

  18. High precision measurement of the proton charge radius: The PRad experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meziane, Mehdi [Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Collaboration: PRad Collaboration

    2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The recent high precision measurements of the proton charge radius performed at PSI from muonic hydrogen Lamb shift puzzled the hadronic physics community. A value of 0.8418 ± 0.0007 fm was extracted which is 7? smaller than the previous determinations obtained from electron-proton scattering experiments and based on precision spectroscopy of electronic hydrogen. An additional extraction of the proton charge radius from electron scattering at Mainz is also in good agreement with these 'electronic' determinations. An independent measurement of the proton charge radius from unpolarized elastic ep scattering using a magnetic spectrometer free method was proposed and fully approved at Jefferson Laboratory in June 2012. This novel technique uses the high precision calorimeter HyCal and a windowless hydrogen gas target which makes possible the extraction of the charge radius at very forward angles and thus very low momentum transfer Q{sup 2} up to 10{sup ?4} (GeV/c){sup 2} with an unprecedented sub-percent precision for this type of experiment. In this paper, after a review of the recent progress on the proton charge radius extraction and the new high precision experiment PRad will be presented.

  19. Numerical Investigation of the Dynamics of drop formation and pitch ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Dec 3, 2012 ... Modeling and simulations of drop pinch-off from liquid crystal filaments and the leaky ... c Institute of Software, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100090, China ... An energy-based, phase field model is developed for the coupling of two incompressible, ...... 5.2 show the comparisons of zero level sets.

  20. CFD analysis uncovers ways to lower condenser pressure drop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rhodes, N.; Bell, R.J.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article describes the use of computer simulation to evaluate condenser performance and evaluate proposed modifications to the condenser. The topics of the article include the basic principles of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), surface condenser design, performance evaluation, pressure drop reduction, application to a United Kingdom utility.

  1. Two phase pressure drop in inclined and vertical pipes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffith, P.

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of calculating the pressure drop in inclined and vertical oil-gas wells is proposed. The data used to establish the method is from a variety of sources but is largely from air and water flowing in systems close ...

  2. Drop Off & Parking Information Photo courtesy of Fowler Museum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grether, Gregory

    KIDSMUSE Drop Off & Parking Information Photo courtesy of Fowler Museum The Fowler Museum-up of campers is available near the Museum. Enter UCLA from Sunset Blvd. at the Westwood Plaza entrance. Take Museum. You must bring your child into the Museum on the first day of camp. The rest of the week you may

  3. Chemically etched modulation in wire radius for wire array Z-pinch perturbation studies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bland, Simon Nicholas (Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London, UK); Lebedev, S. V. (Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London, UK); Hall, G. (Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London, UK); Ramacciotti, J. P. (MPCL/Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, New Mexico); Griego, A. E. (MPCL/Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, New Mexico); Lobley, Dennis Keith (MPCL/Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, New Mexico); Martin, K. L. (MPCL/Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, New Mexico); Ampleford, David J. (Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London, UK); McKenney, John Lee; Bott, S. C. (Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London, UK); Garrity, James Emmett (MPCL/Ktech Corp., Albuquerque, New Mexico); Jones, B.; Rapley, J. (Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London, UK); Deeney, Christopher; Palmer, J. B. A. (Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London, UK)

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique for manufacturing wires with imposed modulation in radius with axial wavelengths as short as 1 mm is presented. Extruded aluminum 5056 with 15 {micro}m diameter was masked and chemically etched to reduce the radius by {approx}20% in selected regions. Characterized by scanning electron microscopy, the modulation in radius is a step function with a {approx}10 {micro}m wide conical transition between thick and thin segments, with some pitting in etched regions. Techniques for mounting and aligning these wires in arrays for fast z-pinch experiments will be discussed. Axially mass-modulated wire arrays of this type will allow the study of seeded Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in z pinches, corona formation, wire initiation with varying current density in the wire core, and correlation of perturbations between adjacent wires. This tool will support magnetohydrodynamics code validation in complex three-dimensional geometries, and perhaps x-ray pulse shaping.

  4. REEVALUATING THE MASS-RADIUS RELATION FOR LOW-MASS, MAIN-SEQUENCE STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feiden, Gregory A.; Chaboyer, Brian, E-mail: Gregory.A.Feiden.GR@Dartmouth.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, 6127 Wilder Laboratory, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States)

    2012-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine the agreement between the observed and theoretical low-mass (<0.8 M{sub Sun }) stellar main-sequence mass-radius relationship by comparing detached eclipsing binary (DEB) data with a new, large grid of stellar evolution models. The new grid allows for a realistic variation in the age and metallicity of the DEB population, characteristic of the local galactic neighborhood. Overall, our models do a reasonable job of reproducing the observational data. A large majority of the models match the observed stellar radii to within 4%, with a mean absolute error of 2.3%. These results represent a factor of two improvement compared to previous examinations of the low-mass mass-radius relationship. The improved agreement between models and observations brings the radius deviations within the limits imposed by potential starspot-related uncertainties for 92% of the stars in our DEB sample.

  5. Solar cycle variation in solar f-mode frequencies and radius

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. M. Antia; Sarbani Basu; J. Pintar; B. Pohl

    2000-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Using data from the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) covering the period from 1995 to 1998, we study the change with solar activity in solar f-mode frequencies. The results are compared with similar changes detected from the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) data. We find variations in f-mode frequencies which are correlated with solar activity indices. If these changes are due to variation in solar radius then the implications are that the solar radius decreases by about 5 km from minimum to maximum activity.

  6. TAKE-HOME EXP. # 2 A Calculation of the Circumference and Radius of the Earth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pickett, Galen T.

    TAKE-HOME EXP. # 2 A Calculation of the Circumference and Radius of the Earth On two dates during the year, the geometric relationship of Earth to the Sun produces "equinox", a word literally meaning and sunset is approximately 12 hours everywhere on Earth. b) The Sun is directly overhead at noon

  7. Proposal to the ISOLDE Committee Nuclear Charge Radius Measurements of Radioactive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    that by far exceed those of their neighbors. The matter radii were extracted from interaction-cross section extensively investigated using various techniques from nuclear and atomic physics and many properties were RMSNuclearMatterRadius[fm] He Li Be A 11 Li Fig. 1: Nuclear Matter Radii of helium, lithium, and beryllium

  8. Larmor radius size density holes discovered in the solar wind upstream of Earth's bow shock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Larmor radius size density holes discovered in the solar wind upstream of Earth's bow shock G. K. Cao Key Laboratory for Space Weather, CSSAR, CAS, Beijing, China K. Meziane Physics Department that are five or more times the solar wind density. Particle distributions show the steepened edge can behave

  9. The Fuel Tank Consider a cylindrical fuel tank of radius r and length L, that is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feldman, Joel

    The Fuel Tank Question Consider a cylindrical fuel tank of radius r and length L, that is lying on its side. Suppose that fuel is being pumped into the tank at a rate q. At what rate is the fuel level rising? r L Solution Here is an end view of the tank. The shaded part of the circle is filled with fuel

  10. Evaluation of Cask Drop Criticality Issues at K Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GOLDMANN, L.H.

    2000-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    An analysis of ability of Multi-canister Overpack (MCO) to withstand drops at K Basin without exceeding the criticality design requirements. Report concludes the MCO will function acceptably. The spent fuel currently residing in the 105 KE and 105 KW storage basins will be placed in fuel storage baskets which will be loaded into the MCO cask assembly. During the basket loading operations the MCO cask assembly will be positioned near the bottom of the south load out pit (SLOP). The loaded MCO cask will be lifted from the SLOP transferred to the transport trailer and delivered to the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). In the wet condition there is a potential for criticality problems if significant changes in the designed fuel configurations occur. The purpose of this report is to address structural issues associated with criticality design features for MCO cask drop accidents in the 105 KE and 105 KW facilities.

  11. Optical add/drop filter for wavelength division multiplexed systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deri, Robert J. (Pleasanton, CA); Strand, Oliver T. (Castro Valley, CA); Garrett, Henry E. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical add/drop filter for wavelength division multiplexed systems and construction methods are disclosed. The add/drop filter includes a first ferrule having a first pre-formed opening for receiving a first optical fiber; an interference filter oriented to pass a first set of wavelengths along the first optical fiber and reflect a second set of wavelengths; and, a second ferrule having a second pre-formed opening for receiving the second optical fiber, and the reflected second set of wavelengths. A method for constructing the optical add/drop filter consists of the steps of forming a first set of openings in a first ferrule; inserting a first set of optical fibers into the first set of openings; forming a first set of guide pin openings in the first ferrule; dividing the first ferrule into a first ferrule portion and a second ferrule portion; forming an interference filter on the first ferrule portion; inserting guide pins through the first set of guide pin openings in the first ferrule portion and second ferrule portion to passively align the first set of optical fibers; removing material such that light reflected from the interference filter from the first set of optical fibers is accessible; forming a second set of openings in a second ferrule; inserting a second set of optical fibers into the second set of openings; and positioning the second ferrule with respect to the first ferrule such that the second set of optical fibers receive the light reflected from the interference filter.

  12. Dynamic Structure Formation at the Fronts of Volatile Liquid Drops Y. Gotkis,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kondic, Lou

    video clips [5]). As a (mother) drop of isopropyl alcohol (IPA) is deposited on a surface, it expands drops of IPA or IPA-deionized water (DIW) mixtures of a typical size of 30­50 mm3

  13. Fidelity of Analytic Drop Size Distributions in Drizzling Stratiform Clouds Based on Large-Eddy Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kogan, Yefim L.; Kogan, Zena N.; Mechem, David B.

    2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cloud microphysical parameterizations and retrievals rely heavily on knowledge of the shape of drop size distributions (DSDs). Many investigations assume that DSDs in the entire or partial drop size range may be approximated ...

  14. 2014 Hydrogen Student Design Contest to Design Drop-In Hydrogen...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2014 Hydrogen Student Design Contest to Design Drop-In Hydrogen Fueling Station 2014 Hydrogen Student Design Contest to Design Drop-In Hydrogen Fueling Station December 16, 2013 -...

  15. Dependence of post-drop reactivity on data analysis model for rod drop experiment in a subcritical reactor with external source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taninaka, H. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kinki Univ., 3-4-1, Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka, 577-8502 (Japan); Hashimoto, K. [Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kinki Univ., 3-4-1, Kowakae, Higashi-Osaka, 577-8502 (Japan)

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents an improved rod-drop reactivity and source strength measurement by the inverse kinetics method in subcritical reactor system. The inverse kinetics method extended to be applicable to subcritical system, which is referred to as least squares inverse kinetics method (LSIKM), can estimate both the reactivity and the external source strength by applying least square approximation. However, the application of the conventional fitting model of the LSIKM to fluctuating data leads to serious errors in the estimation. In this study, a specific fitting model proposed by Itagaki and Kitano is used for the LSIKM and the effectiveness for fluctuating data is demonstrated experimentally. Furthermore, the spatial dependence of the estimated results is investigated and the reduction method is proposed. (authors)

  16. Finite Larmor Radius Effects and Quantum Chaos R L Dewar and B F McMillan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of Theoretical Physics and Plasma Research Laboratory, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering

  17. The influence of surface tension gradients on drop coalescence Franois Blanchette,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bush, John W.M.

    The influence of surface tension gradients on drop coalescence François Blanchette,1 Laura Messio,2 to elucidating the influence on the coalescence process of a surface tension difference between drop coalescence may occur. Three distinct regimes, depending on the reservoir to drop surface tension ratio, R

  18. Ratchet-like motion of a shaken drop Xavier Noblin, Richard Kofman, and Franck Celestini

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Ratchet-like motion of a shaken drop Xavier Noblin, Richard Kofman, and Franck Celestini the underlying mechanism leading to this ratchet-like motion of the drop. Our model includes the particular case do not provide the ratchet- like asymmetry necessary to induce a net drop displace- ment. Brunet et

  19. RISES, LEVELS, DROPS AND "+" SIGNS IN COMPOSITIONS: EXTENSIONS OF A PAPER BY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heubach, Silvia

    RISES, LEVELS, DROPS AND "+" SIGNS IN COMPOSITIONS: EXTENSIONS OF A PAPER BY ALLADI AND HOGGATT S, levels (a summand followed by itself), rises (a summand followed by a larger one), and drops (a summand of levels, rises and drops for compositions, as well as interesting connections between these quantities

  20. Radius of curvature approach to the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy of dilute hard particles in equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Astrid S. de Wijn; Henk van Beijeren

    2011-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy for dilute gases of $N$ hard disks or spheres. This can be expanded in density as $h_{\\mathrm{KS}} \\propto n N [\\ln n a^d+ B + O(n a^d)+O(1/N)]$, with $a$ the diameter of the sphere or disk, $n$ the density, and $d$ the dimensionality of the system. We estimate the constant $B$ by solving a linear differential equation for the approximate distribution of eigenvalues of the inverse radius of curvature tensor. We compare the resulting values of $B$ both to previous estimates and to existing simulation results, finding very good agreement with the latter. Also, we compare the distribution of eigenvalues of the inverse radius of curvature tensor resulting from our calculations to new simulation results. For most of the spectrum the agreement between our calculations and the simulations again is very good.

  1. A statistical view on nuclear mass formula based on liquid drop model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cenxi Yuan

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The statistical method can be used to verify whether a theory is improved or not. As an example, a statistical study is applied to the error of the nuclear binding energy between the observed values and the theoretical values from the mass formula based on the liquid drop model (LDM). A new shell correction term is introduced to the traditional LDM. With such improvement, the error shows smaller standard deviation, better normality, reduced systematic part, and less dependent on the shell effect. The inclusion of the shell effect can be concluded to be an improvement purely from a statistical view. The present eight-parameter mass formula including shell effect gives standard deviation $\\sigma=1.4$ MeV for $2350$ observed binding energies from AME2012.

  2. Meausrement of the Neutron Radius of {sup 208}Pb Through Parity Violation in Electron Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saenboonruang, Kiadtisak [Virginia U., JLAB

    2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In contrast to the nuclear charge densities, which have been accurately measured with electron scattering, the knowledge of neutron densities still lack precision. Previous model-dependent hadron experiments suggest the difference between the neutron radius, R{sub n}, of a heavy nucleus and the proton radius, R{sub p}, to be in the order of several percent. To accurately obtain the difference, R{sub n}-R{sub p}, which is essentially a neutron skin, the Jefferson Lab Lead ({sup 208}Pb) Radius Experiment (PREX) measured the parity-violating electroweak asymmetry in the elastic scattering of polarized electrons from {sup 208}Pb at an energy of 1.06 GeV and a scattering angle of 5{degrees}#14;. Since Z{sup 0} boson couples mainly to neutrons, this asymmetry provides a clean measurement of R{sub n} with respect to R{sub p}. PREX was conducted at the Jefferson lab experimental Hall A, from March to June 2010. The experiment collected a final data sample of 2x#2;10{sup 7} helicity-window quadruplets. The measured parity-violating electroweak asymmetry A{sub PV} = 0.656 {+-}#6; 0.060 (stat) {+-}#6; 0.014 (syst) ppm corresponds to a difference between the radii of the neutron and proton distributions, R{sub n}-R{sub p} = 0.33{sup +0.16}{sub -0.18} fm and provides the #12;first electroweak observation of the neutron skin as expected in a heavy, neutron-rich nucleus. The value of the neutron radius of {sup 208}Pb has important implications for models of nuclear structure and their application in atomic physics and astrophysics such as atomic parity non-conservation (PNC) and neutron stars.

  3. Ab Initio study of neutron drops with chiral Hamiltonians

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. D. Potter; S. Fischer; P. Maris; J. P. Vary; S. Binder; A. Calci; J. Langhammer; R. Roth

    2014-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We report ab initio calculations for neutron drops in a 10 MeV external harmonic-oscillator trap using chiral nucleon-nucleon plus three-nucleon interactions. We present total binding energies, internal energies, radii and odd-even energy differences for neutron numbers N = 2 - 18 using the no-core shell model with and without importance truncation. Furthermore, we present total binding energies for N = 8, 16, 20, 28, 40, 50 obtained in a coupled-cluster approach. Comparisons with Green's Function Monte Carlo results, where available, using Argonne v8' with three-nucleon interactions reveal important dependences on the chosen Hamiltonian.

  4. Drop In Fuels: Where the Road Leads | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat Pump Models |Conduct, Parent(CRADA andDriving Innovation at the NationalDrop In

  5. Advanced Drop-In Biofuels Initiative Agenda | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartment of EnergyAdministrative RecordsBiofuelseffortEnergyDrop-In

  6. Energy Innovator Drops Costs for Titanium Metalwork | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series toESnet4: Networking for37 EastEIA-64A Annual ReportInnovator Drops Costs

  7. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Drop-In Biofuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUCProductstwrmrAreSmartWay TransportEthanolAll-ElectricCNGDieselDrop-In Biofuels

  8. Drop Dynamics and Speciation in Isolation of Metals from Liquid Wastes by Reactive Scavenging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arne J. Pearlstein; Alexander Scheeline

    2002-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Computational and experimental studies of the motion and dynamics of liquid drops in gas flows were conducted with relevance to reactive scavenging of metals from atomized liquid waste. Navier-Stoke's computations of deformable drops revealed a range of conditions from which prolate drops are expected, and showed how frajectiones of deformable drops undergoing deceleration can be computed. Experimental work focused on development of emission fluorescence, and scattering diagnostics. The instrument developed was used to image drop shapes, soot, and nonaxisymmetric departures from steady flow in a 22kw combustor

  9. Safety First Safety Last Safety Always Accessible areas within the swing radius of the rear of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Safety First Safety Last Safety Always Accessible areas within the swing radius of the rear is permissible to meet the OSHA barricade requirement. Crane Swing Radius Safety Tip #12 Better to be dead sure on the reverse side of this safety tip sheet. Please refrain from reading the information verbatim

  10. The nuclear radius from alpha decay (*) Centre d'Etudes Nuclaires, Le Haut Vigneau, 33170 Gradignan, France

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ] have shown that the nuclear radius is not so simple and the law A 1/3 is only an approximationL-181 The nuclear radius from alpha decay (*) L. Marquez Centre d'Etudes Nucléaires, Le Haut structures qui sont en corrélation. Abstract. 2014 Nuclear radii for mass numbers between A = 140 and 252

  11. Fundamental limitations to tests of the universality of free fall by dropping atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nobili, Anna M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tests of the universality of free fall and the weak equivalence principle probe the foundations of General Relativity. Evidence of a violation may lead to the discovery of a new force. The best torsion balance experiments have ruled it out to 10^-13[1]. Cold-atom tests[2-5] have reached 10^-7 and promise to do 7 to 10 orders of magnitude better[6-10] on ground or in space. As mass-dropping experiments[2-4] in a non uniform gravitational field they are sensitive to initial conditions. Errors in the relative position and velocity of the atom clouds at release give rise to a systematic effect which mimics a violation, and these offsets are never measured concurrently with the drop. At the current 10^-7 level they are not an issue. Here we show that when aiming at 2x10^-15 as in[9-10], a fundamental limitation arises. Heisenberg's principle does not allow the centre of mass of free atom clouds to be confined at will in both position and velocity space. The required confinement would be short of the position-momen...

  12. A study of the relationship between anthropogenic sulfate and cloud drop nucleation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chuang, C. C..; Penner, J. E.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document investigates the relationship between anthropogenic sulfate-containing aerosols and the condensationally produced cloud drops. The changes in aerosol size distribution associated with anthropogenic sulfur emissions may increase the number of cloud drops with subsequent influence on cloud albedo and climate. It has been suggested that the increase in CCN in industrial regions might explain why the Northern Hemisphere has not been warming as rapidly as the Southern Hemisphere over the last 50 Years (Wigley, 1989). In reality, the aerosol size distribution is the result of processes working simultaneously and continuously with such sources as sulfur, soot, particulate organic carbon, nitrate, ammonium, etc. Instead of applying a complete aerosol model to investigate the effect of anthropogenic sulfur emissions on the aerosol size distribution, we simply derived the anthropogenic sulfate-containing aerosol distribution by assuming that 75% of the anthropogenic was formed through aqueous-phase oxidation and the remaining 25% condensed onto a Prescribed preexisting particle distribution. Uncertainties may arise from the assumed fraction of sulfate produced by condensation and in cloud oxidation. In addition, new particle formation through homogeneous nucleation of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O is ignored in this paper.

  13. Measurement of the Neutron Radius of 208Pb Through Parity-Violation in Electron Scattering

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abrahamyan, Sergey; Albataineh, Hisham; Aniol, Konrad; Armstrong, David; Armstrong, Whitney; Averett, Todd; Babineau, Benjamin; Barbieri, A; Bellini, Vincenzo; Beminiwattha, Rakitha; Benesch, Jay; Benmokhtar, Fatiha; Bierlarski, Trevor; Boeglin, Werner; Camsonne, Alexandre; Canan, Mustafa; Carter, Philip; Cates, Gordon; Chen, Chunhua; Chen, Jian-Ping; Hen, O; Cusanno, Francesco; Dalton, Mark; De Leo, Raffaele; De Jager, Cornelis; Deconinck, Wouter; Decowski, Piotr; Deng, Xiaoyan; Deur, Alexandre; Dutta, Dipangkar; Etile, Asenath; Flay, David; Franklin, Gregg; Friend, Megan; Frullani, Salvatore; Fuchey, Eric; Garibaldi, Franco; Gasser, Estelle; Gilman, Ronald; Guisa, Antonio; Glamazdin, Oleksandr; Gomez, Javier; Grames, Joseph; Gu, Chao; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Hansknecht, John; Higinbotham, Douglas; Holmes, Richard; Holmstrom, Timothy; Horowitz, Charles; Hoskins, Joshua; Huang, Jin; Hyde, Charles; Itard, Florian; Jen, Chun-Min; Jensen, Eric; Jin, Ge; Johnston, Sereres; Kelleher, Aidan; Kliakhandler, Konstantin; King, Paul; Kowalski, Stanley; Kumar, Krishna; Leacock, John; Leckey, John; Lee, Jeong Han; LeRose, John; Lindgren, Richard; Liyanage, Nilanga; Lubinsky, Nicholas; Mammei, Juliette; Mammoliti, Francesco; Margaziotis, Demetrius; Markowitz, Pete; McCreary, Amber; McNulty, Dustin; Mercado, Luis; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Michaels, Robert; Mihovilovic, Miha; Muangma, Navaphon; Munoz Camacho, Carlos; Nanda, Sirish; Nelyubin, Vladimir; Nuruzzaman,; Oh, Yongseok; Palmer, Alvin; Parno, Diana; Paschke, Kent; Phillips, Sarah; Poelker, Benard; Pomatsalyuk, Roman; Posik, Matthew; Puckett, Andrew; Quinn, Brian; Rakhman, A; Reimer, Paul; Riordan, Seamus; Rogan, Patrick; Ron, Guy; Russo, Guiseppe; Saenboonruang, Kiadtisak; Saha, Arunava; Sawatzky, Bradley; Shahinyan, Albert; Silwal, Rupesh; Sirca, Simon; Slifer, Karl; Solvignon-Slifer, Patricia; Souder, Paul; Leda Sperduto, Maria; Subedi, Ramesh; Suleiman, Riad; Sulkosky, Vincent; Sutera, Concetta; Tobias, William; Troth, Wolfgang; Urciuoli, Guido; Buddhini Waidyawansa, Dinayadura; Wang, Diancheng; Wexler, Jonathan; Wilson, Richard; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Yan, Xinhu; Yao, Huan; Ye, Yunxiu; Ye, Zhiohong; Yim, Vireak; Zana, Lorenzo; Zhan, Xiaohui; Zhang, Jixie; Zhang, Y; Zheng, Xiaochao; Zhu, Pengjia

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the first measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry APV in the elastic scattering of polarized electrons from 208Pb. APV is sensitive to the radius of the neutron distribution (Rn). The result APV = 0.656 ± 0.060 (stat) ± 0.013 (syst) corresponds to a difference between the radii of the neutron and proton distributions Rn-Rp = 0.33-0.18+0.16 fm and provides the first electroweak observation of the neutron skin which is expected in a heavy, neutron-rich nucleus.

  14. Measurement of the Neutron Radius of 208Pb Through Parity-Violation in Electron Scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Abrahamyan; Z. Ahmed; H. Albataineh; K. Aniol; D. S. Armstrong; W. Armstrong; T. Averett; B. Babineau; A. Barbieri; V. Bellini; R. Beminiwattha; J. Benesch; F. Benmokhtar; T. Bielarski; W. Boeglin; A. Camsonne; M. Canan; P. Carter; G. D. Cates; C. Chen; J. -P. Chen; O. Hen; F. Cusanno; M. M. Dalton; R. De Leo; K. de Jager; W. Deconinck; P. Decowski; X. Deng; A. Deur; D. Dutta; A. Etile; D. Flay; G. B. Franklin; M. Friend; S. Frullani; E. Fuchey; F. Garibaldi; E. Gasser; R. Gilman; A. Giusa; A. Glamazdin; J. Gomez; J. Grames; C. Gu; O. Hansen; J. Hansknecht; D. W. Higinbotham; R. S. Holmes; T. Holmstrom; C. J. Horowitz; J. Hoskins; J. Huang; C. E. Hyde; F. Itard; C. -M. Jen; E. Jensen; G. Jin; S. Johnston; A. Kelleher; K. Kliakhandler; P. M. King; S. Kowalski; K. S. Kumar; J. Leacock; J. Leckey IV; J. H. Lee; J. J. LeRose; R. Lindgren; N. Liyanage; N. Lubinsky; J. Mammei; F. Mammoliti; D. J. Margaziotis; P. Markowitz; A. McCreary; D. McNulty; L. Mercado; Z. -E. Meziani; R. W. Michaels; M. Mihovilovic; N. Muangma; C. Muñoz-Camacho; S. Nanda; V. Nelyubin; N. Nuruzzaman; Y. Oh; A. Palmer; D. Parno; K. D. Paschke; S. K. Phillips; B. Poelker; R. Pomatsalyuk; M. Posik; A. J. R. Puckett; B. Quinn; A. Rakhman; P. E. Reimer; S. Riordan; P. Rogan; G. Ron; G. Russo; K. Saenboonruang; A. Saha; B. Sawatzky; A. Shahinyan; R. Silwal; S. Sirca; K. Slifer; P. Solvignon; P. A. Souder; M. L. Sperduto; R. Subedi; R. Suleiman; V. Sulkosky; C. M. Sutera; W. A. Tobias; W. Troth; G. M. Urciuoli; B. Waidyawansa; D. Wang; J. Wexler; R. Wilson; B. Wojtsekhowski; X. Yan; H. Yao; Y. Ye; Z. Ye; V. Yim; L. Zana; X. Zhan; J. Zhang; Y. Zhang; X. Zheng; P. Zhu

    2012-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the first measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry A_PV in the elastic scattering of polarized electrons from 208Pb. A_PV is sensitive to the radius of the neutron distribution (Rn). The result A_PV = 0.656 \\pm 0.060 (stat) \\pm 0.014 (syst) ppm corresponds to a difference between the radii of the neutron and proton distributions Rn - Rp = 0.33 +0.16 -0.18 fm and provides the first electroweak observation of the neutron skin which is expected in a heavy, neutron-rich nucleus.

  15. Building America Case Study: Duct in Conditioned Space in a Dropped Ceiling or Fur-down, Gainesville, Florida (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Forced air distribution systems (duct systems) typically are installed out of sight for aesthetic reasons, most often in unconditioned areas such as an attic or crawlspace. Any leakage of air to or from the duct system (duct leakage) in unconditioned space not only loses energy, but impacts home and equipment durability and indoor air quality. An obvious solution to this problem is to bring the duct system into the interior of the house, either by sealing the area where the ducts are installed (sealed attic or crawlspace) or by building an interior cavity or chase above the ceiling plane (raised ceiling or fur-up chase) or below the ceiling plane (dropped ceiling or fur-down) for the duct system. This case study examines one Building America builder partner's implementation of an inexpensive, quick and effective method of building a fur-down or dropped ceiling chase.

  16. Heat transfer and pressure drop in an annular channel with downflow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolan, F.X.; Crowley, C.J. [Creare, Inc., Hanover, NH (United States); Qureshi, Z.H. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The onset of a flow instability (OFI) determines the minimum flow rate for cooling in the flow channels of a nuclear fuel assembly. A test facility was constructed with full-scale models (length and diameter) of annular flow channels incorporating many instruments to measure heat transfer and pressure drop with downflow in the annulus. Tests were performed both with and without axial centering ribs at prototypical values of pressure, flow rate and uniform wall heat flux. The axial ribs have the effect of subdividing the annulus into quadrants, so the problem becomes one of parallel channel flow, unlike previous experiments in tubes (upflow and downflow). Other tests were performed to determine the effects if any of asymmetric and non-uniform circumferential wall heating, operating pressure level and dissolved gas concentration. Data from the tests are compared with models for channel heat transfer and pressure drop profiles in several regimes of wall heating from single-phase forced convection through partially and fully developed nucleate boiling. Minimum stable flow rates were experimentally determined as a function of wall heat flux and heat distribution and compared with the model for the transition to fully developed boiling which is a key criterion in determining the OFI condition in the channel. The heat transfer results in the channel without ribs are in excellent agreement with predictions from a computer model of the flow in the annulus and with empirical correlations developed from similar tests. The test results with centering ribs show that geometrical variations between the channels can lead to differences in subchannel behavior which can make the effect of the ribs and the geometry an important factor when assessing the power level at which the fuel assembly (and the reactor) can be operated to prevent overheating in the event of a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA).

  17. Heat transfer and pressure drop in an annular channel with downflow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dolan, F.X.; Crowley, C.J. (Creare, Inc., Hanover, NH (United States)); Qureshi, Z.H. (Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The onset of a flow instability (OFI) determines the minimum flow rate for cooling in the flow channels of a nuclear fuel assembly. A test facility was constructed with full-scale models (length and diameter) of annular flow channels incorporating many instruments to measure heat transfer and pressure drop with downflow in the annulus. Tests were performed both with and without axial centering ribs at prototypical values of pressure, flow rate and uniform wall heat flux. The axial ribs have the effect of subdividing the annulus into quadrants, so the problem becomes one of parallel channel flow, unlike previous experiments in tubes (upflow and downflow). Other tests were performed to determine the effects if any of asymmetric and non-uniform circumferential wall heating, operating pressure level and dissolved gas concentration. Data from the tests are compared with models for channel heat transfer and pressure drop profiles in several regimes of wall heating from single-phase forced convection through partially and fully developed nucleate boiling. Minimum stable flow rates were experimentally determined as a function of wall heat flux and heat distribution and compared with the model for the transition to fully developed boiling which is a key criterion in determining the OFI condition in the channel. The heat transfer results in the channel without ribs are in excellent agreement with predictions from a computer model of the flow in the annulus and with empirical correlations developed from similar tests. The test results with centering ribs show that geometrical variations between the channels can lead to differences in subchannel behavior which can make the effect of the ribs and the geometry an important factor when assessing the power level at which the fuel assembly (and the reactor) can be operated to prevent overheating in the event of a loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA).

  18. Slant visual range from drop-size distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arrance, Edwin Stanley

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    . 1796 x 10 -5 6. 4781 x 10 -5 6. 8817 x 10 7. 4708 x 10 -5 6. 4Z3Z x 10 3. 4338 x 10 -5 l. 8538 x 10 9. 1Z32 x 10 5. 1436 x 10 3. 1019 x 10 3. 3120 x 10 -6 3. 6597 x 10 6. Z636 x 10 4. 2730 x 10 3. 8357 x 10 1 4. OZ10 x 10 1 4. Z715 x 10...'laj or Subject: Mete orol oqy SLANT VISUAL RANGE FROM DROP-SIZE DISTRIBUTION A Thesis by EDWIN STANLEY ARRANCE Approved as to style and content by: Dr. Vance E. Moyer; (Chairman of Committee) Dr. Geor L. Huebner, Jr. (Member) Dr. Glen N. Williams...

  19. Measurement Of Neutron Radius In Lead By Parity Violating Scattering Flash ADC DAQ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmed, Zafar [Christopher Newport U.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation reports the experiment PREx, a parity violation experiment which is designed to measure the neutron radius in {sup 208}Pb. PREx is performed in hall A of Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility from March 19th to June 21st. Longitudionally polarized electrons at energy 1 GeV scattered at and angle of {theta}{sub lab} = 5.8 {degrees} from the Lead target. Beam corrected pairty violaing counting rate asymmetry is (A{sub corr} = 594 ± 50(stat) ± 9(syst))ppb at Q{sup 2} = 0.009068GeV {sup 2}. This dissertation also presents the details of Flash ADC Data Acquisition(FADC DAQ) system for Moller polarimetry in Hall A of Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The Moller polarimeter measures the beam polarization to high precision to meet the specification of the PREx(Lead radius experiment). The FADC DAQ is part of the upgrade of Moller polarimetery to reduce the systematic error for PREx. The hardware setup and the results of the FADC DAQ analysis are presented

  20. A PRECISE ASTEROSEISMIC AGE AND RADIUS FOR THE EVOLVED SUN-LIKE STAR KIC 11026764

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metcalfe, T. S. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO 80307 (United States); Monteiro, M. J. P. F. G. [Centro de Astrofisica and DFA-Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto (Portugal); Thompson, M. J. [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Molenda-Zakowicz, J. [Astronomical Institute, University of Wroclaw, ul. Kopernika 11, 51-622 Wroclaw (Poland); Appourchaux, T. [Institut d'Astrophysique Spatiale, Universite Paris XI-CNRS (UMR8617), Batiment 121, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Chaplin, W. J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Dogan, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Eggenberger, P. [Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, Maillettes 51, 1290 Sauverny (Switzerland); Bedding, T. R.; Stello, D. [Sydney Institute for Astronomy (SIfA), School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Bruntt, H. [Observatoire de Paris, 5 place Jules Janssen, 92190 Meudon Principal Cedex (France); Creevey, O. L. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna (Spain); Quirion, P.-O. [Canadian Space Agency, 6767 Boulevard de l'Aeroport, Saint-Hubert, QC, J3Y 8Y9 (Canada); Bonanno, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania (Italy); Silva Aguirre, V. [Max-Planck-Institute for Astrophysics, Karl Schwarzschild Str. 1, Garching, D-85741 (Germany); Basu, S.; Esch, L.; Gai, N. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Di Mauro, M. P. [INAF-IASF Roma, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Roma (Italy); Kosovichev, A. G. [HEPL, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305-4085 (United States)

    2010-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary science goal of the Kepler Mission is to provide a census of exoplanets in the solar neighborhood, including the identification and characterization of habitable Earth-like planets. The asteroseismic capabilities of the mission are being used to determine precise radii and ages for the target stars from their solar-like oscillations. Chaplin et al. published observations of three bright G-type stars, which were monitored during the first 33.5 days of science operations. One of these stars, the subgiant KIC 11026764, exhibits a characteristic pattern of oscillation frequencies suggesting that it has evolved significantly. We have derived asteroseismic estimates of the properties of KIC 11026764 from Kepler photometry combined with ground-based spectroscopic data. We present the results of detailed modeling for this star, employing a variety of independent codes and analyses that attempt to match the asteroseismic and spectroscopic constraints simultaneously. We determine both the radius and the age of KIC 11026764 with a precision near 1%, and an accuracy near 2% for the radius and 15% for the age. Continued observations of this star promise to reveal additional oscillation frequencies that will further improve the determination of its fundamental properties.

  1. El fenmeno pro-drop en portugus de Brasil y espaol peninsular Resumen: espaol y portugus son lenguas pro-drop. No obstante, diversos estudios indican que el

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El fenómeno pro-drop en portugués de Brasil y español peninsular Resumen: español y portugués son portugués de Brasil una lengua parcialmente pro-drop. En este trabajo se analiza el fenómeno pro-drop en portugués de Brasil a través de una comparación con el español peninsular, utilizando para ello corpus

  2. DropBot: An open-source digital microfluidic control system with precise control of electrostatic driving force and instantaneous drop velocity measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fobel, Ryan [Institute for Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, 164 College St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G9 (Canada) [Institute for Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, 164 College St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G9 (Canada); Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research, 160 College St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E1 (Canada); Fobel, Christian [School of Computer Science, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 (Canada)] [School of Computer Science, University of Guelph, 50 Stone Road East, Guelph, Ontario N1G 2W1 (Canada); Wheeler, Aaron R. [Institute for Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, 164 College St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G9 (Canada) [Institute for Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering, University of Toronto, 164 College St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G9 (Canada); Donnelly Centre for Cellular and Biomolecular Research, 160 College St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E1 (Canada); Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St. George St., Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6 (Canada)

    2013-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce DropBot: an open-source instrument for digital microfluidics (http://microfluidics.utoronto.ca/dropbot). DropBot features two key functionalities for digital microfluidics: (1) real-time monitoring of instantaneous drop velocity (which we propose is a proxy for resistive forces), and (2) application of constant electrostatic driving forces through compensation for amplifier-loading and device capacitance. We anticipate that this system will enhance insight into failure modes and lead to new strategies for improved device reliability, and will be useful for the growing number of users who are adopting digital microfluidics for automated, miniaturized laboratory operation.

  3. Dynamics of a drop trapped inside a horizontal circular hydraulic jump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duchesne, Alexis; Lebon, Luc; Pirat, Christophe; Limat, Laurent

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A drop of moderate size deposited inside a horizontal circular hydraulic jump of the same liquid remains trapped at the shock front and does not coalesce. In this situation the drop is moving along the jump and one observes two different motions: a periodic one (it orbitates at constant speed) and an irregular one involving reversals of the orbital motion. Modeling the drop as a rigid sphere exchanging friction with liquid across a thin film of air, we recover the orbital motion and the internal rotation of the drop. This internal rotation is experimentally observed.

  4. Orbits and reversals of a drop rolling inside a horizontal circular hydraulic jump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexis Duchesne; Clément Savaro; Luc Lebon; Christophe Pirat; Laurent Limat

    2013-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore the complex dynamics of a non-coalescing drop of moderate size inside a circular hydraulic jump of the same liquid formed on a horizontal disk. In this situation the drop is moving along the jump and one observes two different motions: a periodic one (it orbitates at constant speed) and an irregular one involving reversals of the orbital motion. Modeling the drop as a rigid sphere exchanging friction with liquid across a thin film of air, we recover the orbital motion and the internal rotation of the drop. This internal rotation is experimentally observed.

  5. E-Print Network 3.0 - actigait implanted drop-foot Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Toronto Collection: Engineering ; Biology and Medicine 6 Force-Controllable Ankle Foot Orthosis (AFO) to Assist Drop Foot Gait Joaquin A. Blaya Summary:...

  6. Fluid characterisation and drop impact in inkjet printing for organic semiconductor devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Sungjune

    2011-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    process. The switching speed of a circuit relies on mobility and the ratio between channel length and channel width of the transistor. Commercial DoD inkjet printers can produce drops with a volume of some picoliters which correspond to a drop diameter... , and of my new-born baby Jisu. I love you both so much. iii List of symbols (Roman) A Area c Polymer concentration c* Critical concentration Ca Capillary number D Drop diameter Do Drop diameter at impact Dj Jet diameter...

  7. E-Print Network 3.0 - air drop Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage, Conversion and Utilization ; Engineering 33 Proceedings of FEDSM2005 2005 ASME Fluids Engineering Summer Conference Summary: hydraulic diameter m dP pressure drop...

  8. The Mayer series of the Lennard-Jones gas: improved bounds for the convergence radius

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernardo N. B. de Lima; Aldo Procacci

    2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We provide a lower bound for the convergence radius of the Mayer series of the Lennard-Jones gas which strongly improves on the classical bound obtained by Penrose and Ruelle 1963. To obtain this result we use an alternative estimate recently proposed by Morais et al. (J. Stat. Phys. 2014) for a restricted class of stable and tempered pair potentials (namely those which can be written as the sum of a non-negative potential plus an absolutely integrable and stable potential) combined with a method developed by Locatelli and Schoen (J. Glob. Optim. 2002) for establishing a lower bound for the minimal interatomic distance between particles interacting via a Morse potential in a cluster of minimum-energy configurations.

  9. A precise asteroseismic age and radius for the evolved Sun-like star KIC 11026764

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metcalfe, T S; Thompson, M J; Molenda-Zakowicz, J; Appourchaux, T; Chaplin, W J; Dogan, G; Eggenberger, P; Bedding, T R; Bruntt, H; Creevey, O L; Quirion, P -O; Stello, D; Bonanno, A; Aguirre, V Silva; Basu, S; Esch, L; Gai, N; Di Mauro, M P; Kosovichev, A G; Kitiashvili, I N; Suarez, J C; Moya, A; Piau, L; Garcia, R A; Marques, J P; Frasca, A; Biazzo, K; Sousa, S G; Dreizler, S; Bazot, M; Karoff, C; Frandsen, S; Wilson, P A; Brown, T M; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Gilliland, R L; Kjeldsen, H; Campante, T L; Fletcher, S T; Handberg, R; Regulo, C; Salabert, D; Schou, J; Verner, G A; Ballot, J; Broomhall, A -M; Elsworth, Y; Hekker, S; Huber, D; Mathur, S; New, R; Roxburgh, I W; Sato, K H; White, T R; Borucki, W J; Koch, D G; Jenkins, J M

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The primary science goal of the Kepler Mission is to provide a census of exoplanets in the solar neighborhood, including the identification and characterization of habitable Earth-like planets. The asteroseismic capabilities of the mission are being used to determine precise radii and ages for the target stars from their solar-like oscillations. Chaplin et al. (2010) published observations of three bright G-type stars, which were monitored during the first 33.5 days of science operations. One of these stars, the subgiant KIC 11026764, exhibits a characteristic pattern of oscillation frequencies suggesting that it has evolved significantly. We have derived asteroseismic estimates of the properties of KIC 11026764 from Kepler photometry combined with ground-based spectroscopic data. We present the results of detailed modeling for this star, employing a variety of independent codes and analyses that attempt to match the asteroseismic and spectroscopic constraints simultaneously. We determine both the radius and ...

  10. Can we constrain interior structure of rocky exoplanets from mass and radius measurements?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorn, Caroline; Heng, Kevin; Alibert, Yann; Connolly, James A D; Benz, Willy; Tackley, Paul

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an inversion method based on Bayesian analysis to constrain the interior structure of terrestrial exoplanets, in the form of chemical composition of the mantle and core size. Specifically, we identify what parts of the interior structure of terrestrial exoplanets can be determined from observations of mass, radius, and stellar elemental abundances. We perform a full probabilistic inverse analysis to formally account for observational and model uncertainties and obtain confidence regions of interior structure models. This enables us to characterize how model variability depends on data and associated uncertainties. We test our method on terrestrial solar system planets and find that our model predictions are consistent with independent estimates. Furthermore, we apply our method to synthetic exoplanets up to 10 Earth masses and up to 1.7 Earth radii as well as to exoplanet Kepler-36b. Importantly, the inversion strategy proposed here provides a framework for understanding the level of precision requ...

  11. Do liquid drops roll or slide on inclined surfaces?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sumesh P. Thampi; Ronojoy Adhikari; Rama Govindarajan

    2014-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the motion of a two-dimensional droplet on an inclined surface, under the action of gravity, using a diffuse interface model which allows for arbitrary equilibrium contact angles. The kinematics of motion is analysed by decomposing the gradient of the velocity inside the droplet into a shear and a residual flow. This decomposition helps in distinguishing sliding versus rolling motion of the drop. Our detailed study confirms intuition, in that rolling motion dominates as the droplet shape approaches a circle, and the viscosity contrast between the droplet and the ambient fluid becomes large. As a consequence of kinematics, the amount of rotation in a general droplet shape follows a universal curve characterised by geometry, and independent of Bond number, surface inclination and equilibrium contact angle, but determined by the slip length and viscosity contrast. Our results open the way towards a rational design of droplet-surface properties, both when rolling motion is desirable (as in self-cleaning hydrophobic droplets) or when it must be prevented (as in insecticide sprays on leaves).

  12. Ein Zylinder mit dem Radius R rollt ab auf zwei nicht dehnbaren Fden. Zu einem Zeitpunkt ist die Winkelgeschwindigkeit des Zylinders gleich

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    Aufgabe 1: Ein Zylinder mit dem Radius R rollt ab auf zwei nicht dehnbaren Fäden. Zu einem . Wie gro� ist die Geschwin- digkeit des Zentrums des Zylinders? Aufgabe 2. Ein Rad mit dem Radius 0r rollt auf einer Kreisbahn vom Radius 02l r= . Man bestimme die Lage der momentanen Rotationsachse und

  13. Scaling law in liquid drop coalescence driven by surface tension Mingming Wua)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cubaud, Thomas

    Scaling law in liquid drop coalescence driven by surface tension Mingming Wua) Department experimental results on the coalescence of two liquid drops driven by surface tension. Using a high speed that such scaling law is robust when using fluids of different viscosities and surface tensions. The prefactor

  14. Rate Shaping by Block Dropping for Transmission of MPEGprecoded Video over Channels of Dynamic Bandwidth

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeng, Wenjun "Kevin"

    ) and much better visual quality than conventional ap­ proaches. We also show that by jointly dropping blocksRate Shaping by Block Dropping for Transmission of MPEG­precoded Video over Channels of Dynamic of the compressed video in cases that the network capacity is reduced. This pa­ per proposes a novel block

  15. MEASUREMENT OF HEAT TRANSFER DURING DROP-WISE CONDENSATION OF WATER ON POLYETHYLENE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khandekar, Sameer

    MEASUREMENT OF HEAT TRANSFER DURING DROP-WISE CONDENSATION OF WATER ON POLYETHYLENE Gagan Deep distribution of temperature during drop-wise condensation over a polyethylene substrate was measured using on the substrate was simultaneously visualized. Static contact angles of water on polyethylene are measured

  16. ADSORPTION OF INTAN-100 AT THE BITUMEN/AQUEOUS SOLUTION INTERFACE STUDIED BY SPINNING DROP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, Daniel D.

    1 ADSORPTION OF INTAN-100 AT THE BITUMEN/AQUEOUS SOLUTION INTERFACE STUDIED BY SPINNING DROP an experimental study on the adsorption behaviour of Intan-100, a non- ionic surfactant, at the bitumen Spinning Drop Tensiometer, bitumen, heavy water, Intan-100, Gibbs adsorption isotherm. #12;2 Introduction

  17. Control of drop rebound with solid target motion Heon Ju Lee and Ho-Young Kima)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Ho-Young

    and a low viscosity, such as water and molten metal drops, exhibit a vigorous recoiling and a long having a high impact inertia, a low viscosity, and a high surface tension, such as a large water drop upon impact with solid surfaces plays important roles in many applications. When spraying herbicide

  18. APPLICATION OF BUTTERFLY VALVES FOR FREE DISCHARGE, MINIMUM PRESSURE DROP, AND FOR CHOKING CAVITATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahmeyer, William J.

    CAVITATION Butterfly valves are commonly used as control valves in applications where the pressure drops and the use of a butterfly valve for flashing or choking cavitation service. Free discharge typically produces high pipe velocities at moderate pressure drops, and choking cavitation typically produces high

  19. Real-Time Detection of Packet Drop Attacks on Synchrophasor Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sikdar, Biplab

    , NY, 12180 Abstract--The importance of phasor measurement unit (PMU) or synchrophasor data towardsReal-Time Detection of Packet Drop Attacks on Synchrophasor Data Seemita Pal, Biplab Sikdar and Joe attack, where the adversary arbitrarily drops packets with synchrophasor data. This paper develops a real

  20. Fully Integrated NxN MEMS Wavelength Selective Switch with 100% Colorless Add-Drop Ports

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowers, John

    Fully Integrated NxN MEMS Wavelength Selective Switch with 100% Colorless Add-Drop Ports Shifu Yuan/drop ports. © 2007 Optical Society of America OCIS codes: (060.2330) Fiber optics communications; (060 multi-port wavelength selective switches using liquid crystal devices. Micro-Electro-Mechanical System

  1. CLEANING OF VISCOUS DROPS ON A FLAT INCLINED SURFACE USING GRAVITY-DRIVEN FILM FLOWS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dalziel, Stuart

    then transports it away. To assess the impact of the drop on the velocity of the cleaning fluid, we have developed it is perturbed by a solid obstacle representing a very viscous drop. We find that at intermediate Reynolds number as in our daily life (Yeckel and Middleman, 1987), such as in a household dishwasher. In a full dishwasher

  2. Detecting and Evaluating the Effect of Overlaying Thin Cirrus Cloud on MODIS Retrieved Water-Cloud Droplet Effective Radius

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phasesData FilesShape, Density, andagingaboutDrizzle inDetecting and

  3. Electrohydrodynamic migration of a spherical drop in a general quadratic flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mandal, Shubhadeep; Chakraborty, Suman

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the motion of a spherical drop in a general quadratic flow acted upon by an arbitrarily oriented externally applied uniform electric field. The drop and media are considered to be leaky dielectrics. The flow field affects the distribution of charges on the drop surface, which leads to alteration in the electric field, thereby affecting the velocity field through the Maxwell stress on the fluid-fluid interface. The two-way coupled electrohydrodynamics is central towards dictating the motion of the drop in the flow field. We analytically address the electric potential distribution and Stokesian flow field in and around the drop in a general quadratic flow for small electric Reynolds number (which is the ratio of the charge relaxation time scale to the convective time scale). As a special case, we consider a drop in an unbounded cylindrical Poiseuille flow and show that, an otherwise absent, cross-stream drop migration may be obtained in the presence of a uniform electric field. Depending on the d...

  4. EMERGING TRENDS IN A PERIOD-RADIUS DISTRIBUTION OF CLOSE-IN PLANETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beauge, C. [Instituto de Astronomia Teorica y Experimental (IATE), Observatorio Astronomico, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Laprida 854, X5000BGR Cordoba (Argentina)] [Instituto de Astronomia Teorica y Experimental (IATE), Observatorio Astronomico, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Laprida 854, X5000BGR Cordoba (Argentina); Nesvorny, D. [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)] [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut Street, Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)

    2013-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the distribution of extrasolar planets (both confirmed and Kepler candidates) according to their orbital periods P and planetary radii R. Among confirmed planets, we find compelling evidence for a paucity of bodies with 3 R {sub Circled-Plus} < R < 10 R {sub Circled-Plus }, where R {sub Circled-Plus} is Earth's radius and P < 2-3 days. We have christened this region a sub-Jovian Pampas. The same trend is detected in multiplanet Kepler candidates. Although approximately 16 Kepler single-planet candidates inhabit this Pampas, at least 7 are probable false positives (FPs). This last number could be significantly higher if the ratio of FPs is higher than 10%, as suggested by recent studies. In a second part of the paper we analyze the distribution of planets in the (P, R) plane according to stellar metallicities. We find two interesting trends: (1) a lack of small planets (R < 4 R {sub Circled-Plus }) with orbital periods P < 5 days in metal-poor stars and (2) a paucity of sub-Jovian planets (4 R {sub Circled-Plus} < R < 8 R {sub Circled-Plus }) with P < 100 days, also around metal-poor stars. Although all these trends are preliminary, they appear statistically significant and deserve further scrutiny. If confirmed, they could represent important constraints on theories of planetary formation and dynamical evolution.

  5. Radius of influence for a cosmic-ray soil moisture probe : theory and Monte Carlo simulations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desilets, Darin

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The lateral footprint of a cosmic-ray soil moisture probe was determined using diffusion theory and neutron transport simulations. The footprint is radial and can be described by a single parameter, an e-folding length that is closely related to the slowing down length in air. In our work the slowing down length is defined as the crow-flight distance traveled by a neutron from nuclear emission as a fast neutron to detection at a lower energy threshold defined by the detector. Here the footprint is defined as the area encompassed by two e-fold distances, i.e. the area from which 86% of the recorded neutrons originate. The slowing down length is approximately 150 m at sea level for neutrons detected over a wide range of energies - from 10{sup 0} to 10{sup 5} eV. Both theory and simulations indicate that the slowing down length is inversely proportional to air density and linearly proportional to the height of the sensor above the ground for heights up to 100 m. Simulations suggest that the radius of influence for neutrons >1 eV is only slightly influenced by soil moisture content, and depends weakly on the energy sensitivity of the neutron detector. Good agreement between the theoretical slowing down length in air and the simulated slowing down length near the air/ground interface support the conclusion that the footprint is determined mainly by the neutron scattering properties of air.

  6. Radius determination of solar-type stars using asteroseismology: What to expect from the Kepler mission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stello, D; Bruntt, H; Creevey, O L; García-Hernández, A; Monteiro, M J P F G; Moya, A; Quirion, P -O; Sousa, S G; Suárez, J -C; Appourchaux, T; Arentoft, T; Ballot, J; Bedding, T R; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Elsworth, Y; Fletcher, S T; García, R A; Houdek, Günter; Jiménez-Reyes, S J; Kjeldsen, H; New, R; Régulo, C; Salabert, D; Toutain, T

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For distant stars, as observed by the NASA Kepler satellite, parallax information is currently of fairly low quality and is not complete. This limits the precision with which the absolute sizes of the stars and their potential transiting planets can be determined by traditional methods. Asteroseismology will be used to aid the radius determination of stars observed during NASA's Kepler mission. We report on the recent asteroFLAG hare-and-hounds Exercise#2, where a group of `hares' simulated data of F-K main-sequence stars that a group of `hounds' sought to analyze, aimed at determining the stellar radii. Based on the asteroseismic large frequency spacing, obtained from simulations of 4-year time series data from the Kepler mission, we demonstrate that the stellar radii can be correctly and precisely determined, when combined with traditional stellar parameters from the Kepler Input Catalogue. The radii found by the various methods used by each independent hound generally agree with the true values of the arti...

  7. Physical test report to drop test of a 9975 radioactive material shipping packaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanton, P.S.

    1997-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the drop test results for the 9975 radioactive material shipping package being dropped 30 feet onto a unyielding surface followed by a 40-inch puncture pin drop. The purpose of these drops was to show that the package lid would remain attached to the drum. The 30-foot drop was designed to weaken the lid closure lug while still maintaining maximum extension of the lugs from the drum surface. This was accomplished by angling the drum approximately 30 degrees from horizontal in an inverted position. In this position, the drum was rotated slightly so as not to embed the closure lugs into the drum as a result of the 30-foot drop. It was determined that this orientation would maximize deformation to the closure ring around the closure lug while still maintaining the extension of the lugs from the package surface. The second drop was from 40 inches above a 40-inch tall 6-inch diameter puncture pin. The package was angled 10 degrees from vertical and aligned over the puncture pin to solidly hit the drum lug(s) in an attempt to disengage the lid when dropped.Tests were performed in response to DOE EM-76 review Q5 inquires that questioned the capability of the 9975 drum lid to remain in place under this test sequence. Two packages were dropped utilizing this sequence, a 9974 and 9975. Test results for the 9974 package are reported in WSRC-RP-97-00945. A series of 40-inch puncture pin tests were also performed on undamaged 9975 and 9974 packages.

  8. Measurements of control rod efficiency in RBMK critical assembly upon dropping of the rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhitarev, V. E., E-mail: vejitarev@nnrd.kiae.su; Kachanov, V. M.; Sergevnin, A. Yu.; Lebedev, G. V., E-mail: lgv2004@mail.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The efficiency of control rods in the RBMK critical assembly was measured in the case where one manual-control rod (MCR) is dropped from a steady critical state, and several other MCRs were additionally dropped after 44 s. The measured number of neutrons in the assembly during and after dropping of the rods was used to calculate the efficiency values of the rods by solution of the system of point kinetics equations. A series of methods of the initial data treatment for determination of the desired values of reactivity without the calculated corrections were used.

  9. Laboratory manual for static pressure drop experiments in LMFBR wire wrapped rod bundles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, K.J.; Todreas, N.E.

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose of this experiment is to determine both interior and edge subchannel axial pressure drops for a range of Reynolds numbers. The subchannel static pressure drop is used to calculate subchannel and bundle average friction factors, which can be used to verify existing friction factor correlations. The correlations for subchannel friction factors are used as input to computer codes which solve the coupled energy, continuity, and momentum equations, and are also used to develop flow split correlations which are needed as input to codes which solve only the energy equation. The bundle average friction factor is used to calculate the overall bundle pressure drop, which determines the required pumping power.

  10. Drop Traffic in Microfluidic Ladder Networks with Fore-Aft Structural Asymmetry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeevan Maddala; William S. Wang; Siva A. Vanapalli; Raghunathan Rengaswamy

    2012-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the dynamics of pairs of drops in microfluidic ladder networks with slanted bypasses, which break the fore-aft structural symmetry. Our analytical results indicate that unlike symmetric ladder networks, structural asymmetry introduced by a single slanted bypass can be used to modulate the relative drop spacing, enabling them to contract, synchronize, expand, or even flip at the ladder exit. Our experiments confirm all these behaviors predicted by theory. Numerical analysis further shows that while ladder networks containing several identical bypasses are limited to nearly linear transformation of input delay between drops, mixed combination of bypasses can cause significant non-linear transformation enabling coding and decoding of input delays.

  11. Pressure drop in cyclone separators commonly used in the agricultural processing industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guzman, Francisco Alejandro

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of their s1mplic1ty of construction, low initial cost and operational safety. Cyclone design procedures are needed in order to obtain the maximum collection eff1ciency with a minimum pressure drop. In this study, three cyclone sizes (203, 305 and 406 mm...1ty as well as the inlet height and width of the cyclone. This algorithm and Shepherd and Lapple's (1939) equation were used to predict the pressure drop across a 305 mm d1ameter cyclone. The predicted pressure drop values were compared...

  12. Quantification of Liquid Holdup in the Dropping Zone of a Blast Furnace--A Cold Model Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .S. GUPTA and K. NAVEEN A two-dimensional cold model study, replicating an ironmaking blast furnace dropping

  13. Influence of material, lay-up, and geometry on the radius of curvature of spoolable composite tubulars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, Douglas E.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -point flexure tests are conducted to simulate the spooling conditions where angle-ply asymmetric glass and carbon polymeric matrix composite tubes with various lay-up and radius/thickness ratios are loaded until failure. The loading grips are designed...

  14. Positive pressure drop-on-demand printhead for Three-Dimensional Printing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gleason, Blake Wilbur

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In drop-on-demand printing, wetting out of the binder fluid onto the orifice face typically has been prevented by some combination of the following: coatings on the orifice face, high surface energy fluids, and negative ...

  15. HES Human Environmental Sciences KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacAdam, Keith

    HES Human Environmental Sciences KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped SchoolofHumanEnvironmentalSciences HES 100 AN INTRODUCTION TO PROFESSIONS IN HUMAN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES. (1) An orientation to human environmental sciences, its history, contemporary issues and philosophy

  16. Laser capillary spectrophotometric acquisition of bivariate drop size and concentration data for liquid-liquid dispersion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tavlarides, L.L.; Bae, J.H.

    1991-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser capillary spectrophotometric technique measures real time or near real time bivariate drop size and concentration distribution for a reactive liquid-liquid dispersion system. The dispersion is drawn into a precision-bore glass capillary and an appropriate light source is used to distinguish the aqueous phase from slugs of the organic phase at two points along the capillary whose separation is precisely known. The suction velocity is measured, as is the length of each slug from which the drop free diameter is calculated. For each drop, the absorptivity at a given wavelength is related to the molar concentration of a solute of interest, and the concentration of given drops of the organic phase is derived from pulse heights of the detected light. This technique permits on-line monitoring and control of liquid-liquid dispersion processes. 17 figures.

  17. Heat transfer to impacting drops and post critical heat flux dispersed flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kendall, Gail E.

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat transfer to drops impacting on a hot surface is examined in context of dispersions of flowing, boiling fluids. The liquid contribution to heat transfer from a hot tube to a two-phase dispersion is formulated in terms ...

  18. Vaporization modeling of petroleum-biofuel drops using a hybrid multi-component approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Lei; Kong, Song-Charng [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Iowa State University, 2025 Black Engineering Building, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerical modeling of the vaporization characteristics of multi-component fuel mixtures is performed in this study. The fuel mixtures studied include those of binary components, biodiesel, diesel-biodiesel, and gasoline-ethanol. The use of biofuels has become increasingly important for reasons of environmental sustainability. Biofuels are often blended with petroleum fuels, and the detailed understanding of the vaporization process is essential to designing a clean and efficient combustion system. In this study, a hybrid vaporization model is developed that uses continuous thermodynamics to describe petroleum fuels and discrete components to represent biofuels. The model is validated using the experimental data of n-heptane, n-heptane-n-decane mixture, and biodiesel. Since biodiesel properties are not universal due to the variation in feedstock, methods for predicting biodiesel properties based on the five dominant fatty acid components are introduced. Good levels of agreement in the predicted and measured drop size histories are obtained. Furthermore, in modeling the diesel-biodiesel drop, results show that the drop lifetime increases with the biodiesel concentration in the blend. During vaporization, only the lighter components of diesel fuel vaporize at the beginning. Biodiesel components do not vaporize until some time during the vaporization process. On the other hand, results of gasoline-ethanol drops indicate that both fuels start to vaporize once the process begins. At the beginning, the lighter components of gasoline have a slightly higher vaporization rate than ethanol. After a certain time, ethanol vaporizes faster than the remaining gasoline components. At the end, the drop reduces to a regular gasoline drop with heavier components. Overall, the drop lifetime increases as the concentration of ethanol increases in the drop due to the higher latent heat. (author)

  19. Measurement of bitumen viscosity in the room-temperature drop experiment: student education, public outreach and modern science in one

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. T. Widdicombe; P. Ravindrarajah; A. Sapelkin; A. E. Phillips; D. Dunstan; M. T. Dove; V. V. Brazhkin; K. Trachenko

    2014-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Slow flow of the viscous liquid is a thought-provoking experiment that challenges students, academics and public to think about some fundamental questions in modern science. In the Queensland demonstration, the world-longest running experiment earning the Ig Nobel prize, one drop of pitch takes about 10 years to fall, leading to problems of actually observing the drops. Here, we describe our recent demonstration of slowly-flowing bitumen where appreciable flow is observed on the time scale of months. The experiment is free from dissipative heating effects and has the potential to improve the accuracy of measurement. Bitumen viscosity was calculated by undergraduate students during the summer project. The worldwide access to the running experiment is provided by webcams uploading the images to a dedicated website, enhancing student education experience and promotion of science. This demonstration serves as an attractive student education exercise and stimulates the discussion of fundamental concepts and hotly debated ideas in modern physics research: difference between solids and liquids, the nature of liquid-glass transition, emergence of long time scales in a physical process, and the conflict between human intuition and physical reality.

  20. IMPACT ANALYSIS OF SPENT FUEL DRY CASKS UNDER ACCIDENTAL DROP SCENARIOS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BRAVERMAN,J.I.; MORANTE,R.J.; XU,J.; HOFMAYER,C.H.; SHAUKAT,S.K.

    2003-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of analyses were performed to assess the structural response of spent nuclear fuel dry casks subjected to various handling and on-site transfer events. The results of these analyses are being used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to perform a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Although the PRA study is being performed for a specific nuclear plant, the PRA study is also intended to provide a framework for a general methodology that could also be applied to other dry cask systems at other nuclear plants. The dry cask system consists of a transfer cask, used for handling and moving the multi-purpose canister (MPC) that contains the fuel, and a storage cask, used to store the MPC and fuel on a concrete pad at the site. This paper describes the analyses of the casks for two loading events. The first loading consists of dropping the transfer cask while it is lowered by a crane to a concrete floor at ground elevation. The second loading consists of dropping the storage cask while it is being transferred to the concrete storage pad outdoors. Three dimensional finite element models of the transfer cask and storage cask, containing the MPC and fuel, were utilized to perform the drop analyses. These models were combined with finite element models of the target structures being impacted. The transfer cask drop analyses considered various drop heights for the cask impacting the reinforced concrete floor at ground level. The finite element model of the target included a section of the concrete floor and concrete wall supporting the floor. The storage cask drop analyses evaluated a 30.5 cm (12 in.) drop of the cask impacting three different surfaces: reinforced concrete, asphalt, and gravel.

  1. IMPACT ANALYSIS OF SPENT FUEL DRY CASKS UNDER ACCIDENTAL DROP SCENARIOS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BRAVERMAN,J.I.; MORANTE,R.J.; XU,J.; HOFMAYER,C.H.; SHAUKAT,S.K.

    2003-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of analyses were performed to assess the structural response of spent nuclear fuel dry casks subjected to various handling and on-site transfer events. The results of these analyses are being used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to perform a probabilistic risk assessment (PRA). Although the PRA study is being performed for a specific nuclear plant, the PRA study is also intended to provide a framework for a general methodology that could also be applied to other dry cask systems at other nuclear plants. The dry cask system consists of a transfer cask, used for handling and moving the multi-purpose canister OLIIpC that contains the fuel, and a storage cask, used to store the MPC and fuel on a concrete pad at the site. This paper describes the analyses of the casks for two loading events. The first loading consists of dropping the transfer cask while it is lowered by a crane to a concrete floor at ground elevation. The second loading consists of dropping the storage cask while it is being transferred to the concrete storage pad outdoors. Three dimensional finite element models of the transfer cask and storage cask, containing the MPC and fuel, were utilized to perform the drop analyses. These models were combined with finite element models of the target structures being impacted. The transfer cask drop analyses considered various drop heights for the cask impacting the reinforced concrete floor at ground level. The finite element model of the target included a section of the concrete floor and concrete wall supporting the floor. The storage cask drop analyses evaluated a 30.5 cm (12 in.) drop of the cask impacting three different surfaces: reinforced concrete, asphalt, and gravel.

  2. Investigation of pressure drop in capillary tube for mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson cryocooler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ardhapurkar, P. M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, MS 400 076 India and S. S. G. M. College of Engineering Shegaon, MS 444 203 (India); Sridharan, Arunkumar; Atrey, M. D. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, MS 400 076 (India)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A capillary tube is commonly used in small capacity refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. It is also a preferred expansion device in mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson (MR J-T) cryocoolers, since it is inexpensive and simple in configuration. However, the flow inside a capillary tube is complex, since flashing process that occurs in case of refrigeration and air-conditioning systems is metastable. A mixture of refrigerants such as nitrogen, methane, ethane, propane and iso-butane expands below its inversion temperature in the capillary tube of MR J-T cryocooler and reaches cryogenic temperature. The mass flow rate of refrigerant mixture circulating through capillary tube depends on the pressure difference across it. There are many empirical correlations which predict pressure drop across the capillary tube. However, they have not been tested for refrigerant mixtures and for operating conditions of the cryocooler. The present paper assesses the existing empirical correlations for predicting overall pressure drop across the capillary tube for the MR J-T cryocooler. The empirical correlations refer to homogeneous as well as separated flow models. Experiments are carried out to measure the overall pressure drop across the capillary tube for the cooler. Three different compositions of refrigerant mixture are used to study the pressure drop variations. The predicted overall pressure drop across the capillary tube is compared with the experimentally obtained value. The predictions obtained using homogeneous model show better match with the experimental results compared to separated flow models.

  3. A model for pressure drop in two-phase gas-liquid downflow through packed columns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, V.G.; Drinkenburg, A.A.H.

    1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The nature of the interaction between the flowing phases in a cocurrent gasliquid downflow through packed beds depends on the type of the flow regime. The interaction is poor and geometric in nature in gas-continuous flow and becomes high and dynamic in pulse flow due to gas dispersion, acceleration, and mixing of the liquid in the pulses. Models to calculate pressure drop in each of the flow regimes are presented, taking into account the respective interactions. Experimental data on pressure drops and liquid holdups were measured in gas-continuous flow for 3 mm glass spheres and 6 mm Raschig rings. An air-water system is used. The literature data on pressure drops and the experimental data, covering liquid velocities from 0.001 m/s to 0.029 m/s and gas velocities from 0.097 m/s to 2 m/s, were compared with the calculated values. It was found that the pressure drop due to dynamic interaction can be as low as 10% and as much as 80% of the total pressure drop for the data examined in this work. An empirical correlation for holdup in gas-continuous flow is given for Raschig rings.

  4. Solar radius determination from SODISM/PICARD and HMI/SDO observations of the decrease of the spectral solar radiance during the June

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Solar radius determination from SODISM/PICARD and HMI/SDO observations of the decrease of the spectral solar radiance during the June 2012 Venus transit A. Hauchecorne1 , M. Meftah1 , A. Irbah1 , S of Venus provided a rare opportunity to determine the radius of the Sun using solar imagers observing

  5. A quantum mechanical derivation of the Schwarzschild radius and its quantum correction using a model density distribution: Skin of a black hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subodha Mishra

    2007-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a single particle density distribution for a system of self-gravitating particles which ultimately forms a black hole, we from a condensed matter point of view derive the Schwarzschild radius and by including the quantum mechanical exchange energy we find a small correction to the Schwarzschild radius, which we designate as the skin of the black hole.

  6. Mineral matter transformations in a pressurized drop-tube furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanson, M.L.; Tibbetts, J.E.

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    To meet the objectives of the program, a pressurized combustion vessel was built to allow the operating parameters of a direct-fired gas turbine combustor to be simulated. One goal in building this equipment was to design the gas turbine simulator as small as possible to reduce the quantity of test fuel needed, while not undersizing the combustor such that wall effects had a significant effect on the measured combustion performance. Based on computer modeling, a rich-lean, two-stage, nonslagging combustor was constructed to simulate a direct-fired gas turbine. This design was selected to maximize the information that could be obtained on the impact of low-rank coal`s unique properties on the gas turbine combustor, its turbomachinery, and the required hot-gas cleanup devices (such as high-temperature/high-pressure (HTHP) cyclones). Seventeen successful combustion tests using coal-water fuels were completed. These tests included seven tests with a commercially available Otisca Industries-produced, Taggart seam bituminous fuel and five tests each with physically and chemically cleaned Beulah-Zap lignite and a chemically cleaned Kemmerer subbituminous fuel. LRC-fueled heat engine testing conducted at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) has indicated that LRC fuels perform very well in short residence time heat engine combustion systems. Analyses of the emission and fly ash samples highlighted the superior burnout experienced by the LRC fuels as compared to the bituminous fuel even under a longer residence time profile for the bituminous fuel.

  7. Mineral matter transformations in a pressurized drop-tube furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanson, M.L.; Tibbetts, J.E.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To meet the objectives of the program, a pressurized combustion vessel was built to allow the operating parameters of a direct-fired gas turbine combustor to be simulated. One goal in building this equipment was to design the gas turbine simulator as small as possible to reduce the quantity of test fuel needed, while not undersizing the combustor such that wall effects had a significant effect on the measured combustion performance. Based on computer modeling, a rich-lean, two-stage, nonslagging combustor was constructed to simulate a direct-fired gas turbine. This design was selected to maximize the information that could be obtained on the impact of low-rank coal's unique properties on the gas turbine combustor, its turbomachinery, and the required hot-gas cleanup devices (such as high-temperature/high-pressure (HTHP) cyclones). Seventeen successful combustion tests using coal-water fuels were completed. These tests included seven tests with a commercially available Otisca Industries-produced, Taggart seam bituminous fuel and five tests each with physically and chemically cleaned Beulah-Zap lignite and a chemically cleaned Kemmerer subbituminous fuel. LRC-fueled heat engine testing conducted at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) has indicated that LRC fuels perform very well in short residence time heat engine combustion systems. Analyses of the emission and fly ash samples highlighted the superior burnout experienced by the LRC fuels as compared to the bituminous fuel even under a longer residence time profile for the bituminous fuel.

  8. "Millikan oil drops" as quantum transducers between electromagnetic and gravitational radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raymond Y. Chiao

    2007-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Pairs of Planck-mass-scale drops of superfluid helium coated by electrons (i.e., "Millikan oil drops"), when levitated in the presence of strong magnetic fields and at low temperatures, can be efficient quantum transducers between electromagnetic (EM) and gravitational (GR) radiation. A Hertz-like experiment, in which EM waves are converted at the source into GR waves, and then back-converted at the receiver from GR waves back into EM waves, should be practical to perform. This would open up observations of the gravity-wave analog of the Cosmic Microwave Background from the extremely early Big Bang, and also communications directly through the interior of the Earth.

  9. Influence of a local change of depth on the behavior of bouncing oil drops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carmigniani, Remi; Symon, Sean; McKeon, Beverley J

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The work of Couder \\textit{et al} (see also Bush \\textit{et al}) inspired consideration of the impact of a submerged obstacle, providing a local change of depth, on the behavior of oil drops in the bouncing regime. In the linked videos, we recreate some of their results for a drop bouncing on a uniform depth bath of the same liquid undergoing vertical oscillations just below the conditions for Faraday instability, and show a range of new behaviors associated with change of depth. This article accompanies a fluid dynamics video entered into the Gallery of Fluid Motion of the 66th Annual Meeting of the APS Division of Fluid Dynamics.

  10. Log of a young author's thinking: George W. Cable's "Drop Shot".

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinitiere, Autry James

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . . t 1974 Major Subject: English LOG OF A YOUNG AUTHOR'S THINKING: GEORGE W CABLE'S "DROP SHOT" A Thesis by AUTRY JAMES SINITIERE Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Committe Hea of Department M er ember) August 1974 & s ~~. )$, gg... APSTRACT Log of a Young Author's Thinking: George W. Cable's "Drop Shot" (August 1974) Autry James Sinitiere, B. A. , College of Santa Fe Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr Richard H. Ballinger In February 1870 George W. Cable began writing a * p p...

  11. Tailored Ink For Piston-Driven Electrostatic Liquid Drop Modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, Raymond W. (Mississauga, CA); Breton, Marcel P. (Mississauga, CA); Bedford, Christine E. (Toronto, CA); Carreira, Leonard M. (Penfield, NY); Gooray, Arthur M. (Penfield, NY); Roller, George J. (Penfield, NY); Zavadil, Kevin (Benalillo, NM); Galambos, Paul (Albuquerque, NM); Crowley, Joseph (Morgan Hill, CA)

    2005-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to an ink composition including water, a solvent, a solvent-soluble dye, and a surfactant, where the ink exhibits a stable liquid microemulsion phase at a first temperature and a second temperature higher than the first temperature and has a conductivity of at most about 200 .mu.S/cm and a dielectric constant of at least about 60, and methods of making such ink compositions. The present invention also relates to a method of making an ink composition for use in a microelectromechanical system-based fluid ejector. The method involves providing a solution or dispersion including a dye or a pigment and adding to the solution or dispersion an additive which includes a material that enhances dielectric permittivity and/or reduces conductivity under conditions effective to produce an ink composition having a conductivity of at most about 200 .mu.S/cm and a dielectric constant of at least about 60.

  12. Nucleate boiling pressure drop in an annulus: Book 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Block, J.A.; Crowley, C.; Dolan, F.X.; Sam, R.G.; Stoedefalke, B.H.

    1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of the work described in this report is the production reactors at the Savannah River Site, and the context is nuclear reactor safety. The Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario considered involves a double-ended break of a primary coolant pipe in the reactor. During a LOCA, the flow through portions of the reactor may reverse direction or be greatly reduced, depending upon the location of the break. The reduced flow rate of coolant (D{sub 2}O) through the fuel assembly channels of the reactor -- downflow in this situation -- can lead to boiling and to the potential for flow instabilities which may cause some of the fuel assembly channels to overheat and melt. That situation is to be avoided. The experimental approach is to provide a test annulus which simulates geometry, materials, and flow conditions in a Mark-22 fuel assembly (Coolant Channel 3) to the extent possible. The annulus has a full-scale geometry, and in fat uses SRL dummy hardware for the inner annulus wall in the ribbed geometry. The materials aluminum. The annulus is uniformly heated in the axial direction, but the circumferential heat flux can be varied to provide ``power tilt`` or asymmetric heating of the inner and outer annulus walls. The test facility uses H{sub 2}O rather than D{sub 2}O, but it includes the effects of dissolved helium gas present in the reactor. The key analysis approaches are: To compare the minima in the measured demand curves with analytical criteria, in particular the Saha-Zuber (1974) model; and to compare the pressure and temperature as a function of length in the annulus with an integral model for flow boiling in a heated channel. Nineteen test series and a total of 178 tests were performed. Testing addressed the effects of: Heat flux; pressure; helium gas; power tilt; ribs; asymmetric heat flux.

  13. Indenter tip radius effect on the NixGao relation in micro-and nanoindentation hardness experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Hanqing

    University, Beijing 100084, China (Received 24 June 2004; accepted 20 August 2004) Nix and Gao established an important relation between microindentation hardness and indentation depth. Such a relation has been the microindentation hardness data for single- crystal and polycrystalline copper8 as well as for single- crystal

  14. Ground-based retrievals of optical depth, effective radius, and composition of airborne mineral dust above the Sahel

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsingFun with Big Sky LearningGetGraphene's 3DRise

  15. Ratcheting Motion of Liquid Drops on Gradient Surfaces Susan Daniel, Sanjoy Sircar, Jill Gliem, and Manoj K. Chaudhury*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhury, Manoj K.

    Ratcheting Motion of Liquid Drops on Gradient Surfaces Susan Daniel, Sanjoy Sircar, Jill Gliem an interesting scenario when thedropissubjectedtoaperiodicforce.Likeaconventional ratchet, the periodic force

  16. Conceptual Design Report Cask Loadout Sys and Cask Drop Redesign for the Immersion Pail Support Structure and Operator Interface Platform at 105 K West

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LANGEVIN, A.S.

    1999-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This conceptual design report documents the redesign of the IPSS and the OIP in the 105 KW Basin south loadout pit due to a postulated cask drop accident, as part of Project A.5/A.6, Canister Transfer Facility Modifications. Project A.5/A.6 involves facility modifications needed to transfer fuel from the basin into the cask-MCO. The function of the IPSS is to suspend, guide, and position the immersion pail. The immersion pail protects the cask-MCO from contamination by basin water and acts as a lifting device for the cask-MCO. The OIP provides operator access to the south loadout pit. Previous analyses studied the effects of a cask-MCO drop on the south loadout pit concrete structure and on the IPSS. The most recent analysis considered the resulting loads at the pit slab/wall joint (Kanjilal, 1999). This area had not been modeled previously, and the analysis results indicate that the demand capacity exceeds the allowable at the slab/wall joint. The energy induced on the south loadout pit must be limited such that the safety class function of the basin is maintained. The solution presented in this CDR redesigns the IPSS and the OIP to include impact-absorbing features that will reduce the induced energy. The impact absorbing features of the new design include: Impact-absorbing material at the IPSS base and at the upper portion of the IPSS legs. A sleeve which provides a hydraulic means of absorbing energy. Designing the OIP to act as an impact absorber. The existing IPSS structure in 105 KW will be removed. This conceptual design considers only loads resulting from drops directly over the IPSS and south loadout pit area. Drops in other areas of the basin are not considered, and will be covered as part of a future revision to this CDR.

  17. The High-Energy Polarization-Limiting Radius of Neutron Star Magnetospheres II -- Magnetized Hydrogen Atmospheres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeremy S. Heyl; Don Lloyd; Nir J. Shaviv

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    In the presence of strong magnetic fields, the vacuum becomes a birefringent medium. We show that this QED effect couples the direction of the polarization of photons leaving the NS surface, to the direction of the magnetic field along the ray's path. We analyze the consequences that this effect has on aligning the polarization vectors to generate large net polarizations, while considering thermal radiation originating from a thermal hydrogen atmosphere. Counter to previous predictions, we show that the thermal radiation should be highly polarized even in the optical. When detected, this polarization will be the first demonstration of vacuum birefringence. It could be used as a tool to prove the high magnetic field nature of AXPs and it could also be used to constrain physical NS parameters, such as $R/M$, to which the net polarization is sensitive.

  18. Equilibrium behavior of sessile drops under surface tension, applied external fields, and material variations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapiro, Benjamin

    Equilibrium behavior of sessile drops under surface tension, applied external fields, and material properties such as dielectric constants, resistivities, and surface tension coefficients. The analysis energy storage in the liquid, will lead to 1/R ``line-tension''-type terms if and only if the energy

  19. Compound pendant drop tensiometry for surface tension measurement at zero Bond

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Derek Y C

    is stationary, the net force acting on it must be zero. The net force is the sum of three forces: (iCompound pendant drop tensiometry for surface tension measurement at zero Bond number of the particle Fweight acting downwards. We now calculate each of these components separately, adopting

  20. Analytical and Experimental Study of Annular Two-Phase Flow Friction Pressure Drop Under Microgravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Ngoc Thanh

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    to design reliable two-phase systems. The main objective of this present research is to develop a new mathematical model that can accurately predict the annular two-phase friction pressure drop to optimize the design of two-phase systems. The two-phase flow...

  1. Fig. 1: Journal Articles Tab on library homepage Fig. 2 Drop down menu Engineering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -campus, you will be prompted to enter your myWSU ID and password as soon as you click the "search" button allows you to separate several search terms or phrases in various fields with the drop-down menu (figure search terms and list the databases it is searching (fig. 8). When the search is completed, the window

  2. 8:30am Registration and Drop-Off (EPS Building Lobby*)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maxwell, Bruce D.

    Schedule 8:30am Registration and Drop-Off (EPS Building Lobby*) 9­9:20am Color Group Activity 9 Activity, Wrap-up 3:15 pm Pickup (EPS Lobby*) *The Engineering and Physical Sciences (EPS) Building

  3. Use of Drop-nets for Wild Pig Damage and Disease Abatement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaskamp, Joshua Alden

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    pigs were first observed on the ranch in the mid 1990?s. In 2000, NF took ownership of ORR. Bill Hoffmann owns HR. It is unknown when pigs were first observed on ORR or HR. Past wild pig management included drop-nets and corral traps on ORR...

  4. Academic Renewal Policy Undergraduate students who have dropped out or have been suspended because of poor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selmic, Sandra

    Academic Renewal Policy Undergraduate students who have dropped out or have been suspended because at Louisiana Tech University under the provisions of academic renewal. The following conditions apply: 1 was last registered for credit at any college or university and being enrolled under academic renewal. 2

  5. Granular impact cratering by liquid drops: Understanding raindrop imprints through an analogy to asteroid strikes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Runchen Zhao; Qianyun Zhang; Hendro Tjugito; Xiang Cheng

    2014-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    When a granular material is impacted by a sphere, its surface deforms like a liquid yet it preserves a circular crater like a solid. Although the mechanism of granular impact cratering by solid spheres is well explored, our knowledge on granular impact cratering by liquid drops is still very limited. Here, by combining high-speed photography with high-precision laser profilometry, we investigate liquid-drop impact dynamics on granular surface and monitor the morphology of resulting impact craters. Surprisingly, we find that, despite the enormous energy and length difference, granular impact cratering by liquid drops follows the same energy scaling and reproduces the same crater morphology as that of asteroid impact craters. Inspired by this similarity, we integrate the physical insight from planetary sciences, the liquid marble model from fluid mechanics and the concept of jamming transition from granular physics into a simple theoretical framework that quantitatively describes all the main features of liquid-drop imprints in granular media. Our study sheds light on the mechanisms governing raindrop impacts on granular surfaces and reveals a remarkable analogy between familiar phenomena of raining and catastrophic asteroid strikes.

  6. Coalescence of Drops Near A Hydrophilic Boundary Leads to Long Range Directed Motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manoj K. Chaudhury; Aditi Chakrabarti; Tapasya Tibrewal

    2014-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A new mechanism for the passive removal of drop on a horizontal surface is described that does not require pre-fabrication of a surface energy gradient. The method relies upon the preparation of alternate hydrophilic/hydrophobic stripes on a surface. When one side of this surface is exposed to steam, with its other surface convectively cooled with cold water, steam condenses as a continuous film on the hydrophilic stripes but as droplets on the hydrophobic stripes. Coalescence leads to a random motion of the center of mass of the fused drops on the surface, which are readily removed as they reach near the boundary of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic zones thus resulting in a net diffusive flux of the coalesced drops from the hydrophobic to the hydrophilic stripes of the surface. Although an in-situ produced thermal gradient due to differential heat transfer coefficients of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic stripes could provide additional driving force for such a motion, it is, however, not a necessary condition for motion to occur. This method of creating directed motion of drops does not require a pre-existing wettability gradient and may have useful applications in thermal management devices.

  7. Pressure drops for direct steam generation in line-focus solar thermal systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Early direct steam generation prototypes include two central tower projects: a solar-powered enhanced oil recovery project called STEOR in the early 1980s (Romero 2002), and a solar tower projectPressure drops for direct steam generation in line-focus solar thermal systems John Pye1 , Graham

  8. Under consideration for publication in J. Fluid Mech. 1 Splashing from drop impact into a deep

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deegan, Robert

    surrounding gases. We find that the splashing threshold depends on the gas's dynamic viscosity, but not its, and disintegrates into a spray of secondary droplets. Nonetheless, many basic details of this process remain obscure. Fezzaa and R. D. Deegan Fluid Viscosity Density Surface tension Drop Diameter (cp) (g/cm3 ) (dyne/cm) (cm

  9. College of Fine Arts KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacAdam, Keith

    College of Fine Arts TAD Dance KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped University of Kentucky 2013-2014 Undergraduate Bulletin 1 *TAD 140 INTRODUCTION TO DANCE. (3) This course will provide of the semester. TAD 141 MODERN DANCE I. (2) Foundationscourseinbasicmovementconceptsoftime

  10. Water usage dropping on campus, but UT hopes to lower it more

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnston, Daniel

    Water usage dropping on campus, but UT hopes to lower it more Photo Credit: Zachary Strain | Daily six years, UT has worked to decrease its water usage, but the University still has a ways to go if it the University was using one billion gallons of water per year. Across buildings, irrigation, chilling stations

  11. Dual Predictive Control of Electrically Stimulated Muscle using Biofeedback for Drop Foot Correction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    artificially generate action potential in the place of central nervous system (CNS) for inducing muscle) is one of the solutions for drop foot correction. Conventional ES systems deliver prede- fined to adequately dorsiflex or lift the foot. It is associated with a variety of conditions such as stroke, spinal

  12. Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2012 Space Vehicle Water Drop Test and Vehicle Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    PENNSTATE Department of Mechanical Engineering Spring 2012 Space Vehicle Water Drop Test and Vehicle Design Overview The team was tasked with modelling the accelerations and pressures of an impact of the scaled landing vehicle to reduce the accelerations and pressures of the vehicle. Objectives Provide

  13. Potential drop mapping for the monitoring of corrosion or erosion Giuseppe Sposito a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagy, Peter B.

    of the probe. Finite Element simulations show that the electrode array configuration commonly used in existing commercial setups can lead to an underestimation of the defect depth. The novel electrode arrangement on potential drop (PD) are well established as a tool for the non-destructive evaluation of material properties

  14. Design and fabrication of a 100 GHz channel-drop filter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smirnova, Evgenya I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Earley, Lawrence M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Heath, Cynthia E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shchegolkov, Dmitry Y [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have designed and are fabricating a novel passive mm-wave spectrometer based on a Photonic Band Gap (PBG) channel-drop filter (CDF). There is a need for a compact wide-band versatile and configurable mm-wave spectrometer for applications in mm-wave communications, radio astronomy, and radar receivers for remote sensing and nonproliferation.

  15. CBER-DETR Nevada Coincident and Leading Employment Both Indexes Drop in July

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    Statistics. The Nevada Coincident Employment Index includes four employment measures ­ household employmentCBER-DETR Nevada Coincident and Leading Employment Indexes1 Both Indexes Drop in July The Nevada Coincident Employment Index measures the ups and downs of the Nevada economy using an index of employment

  16. CBER-DETR Nevada Coincident and Leading Employment Both Indexes Drop for Second Month

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    the seasonally adjusted data reported by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The Nevada Coincident Employment IndexCBER-DETR Nevada Coincident and Leading Employment Indexes1 Both Indexes Drop for Second Month The Nevada Coincident Employment Index measures the ups and downs of the Nevada economy using an index

  17. Applied Probability and Stochastic Processes EPFL -Fall Semester 2013-2014 "Money drop" updated game rules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lévêque, Olivier

    Applied Probability and Stochastic Processes EPFL - Fall Semester 2013-2014 "Money drop" updated game rules Principle of the game: 1. At the beginning of the game, a certain amount of money is given your (current) amount of money on these possible answers. - All the money put on a wrong answer

  18. Containment and Analysis Capability Insights Gained from Drop Testing Representative Spent Nuclear Fuel Containers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morton, Dana Keith; Snow, Spencer David; Rahl, Tommy Ervin; Ware, Arthur Gates

    2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program (NSNFP), operating from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), developed the standardized Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canister. This canister is designed to be loaded with DOE SNF (including other radioactive materials) and then be used during interim storage, during transportation to the nation’s repository, and for final disposal at the repository without having to be reopened. The canister has been fully designed and has completed significant testing that clearly demonstrates that it can safely achieve its intended design goals. During 1999, nine 457-mm diameter test canisters were fabricated at the INEEL to represent the standardized DOE SNF canister design. Various "worst case" internals were incorporated. Seven of the test canisters were 4.57 m long and weighed approximately 2721 kg, while two were 3.00 m long and weighed approximately 1360 kg and 1725 kg. Seven of the test canisters were dropped from 9 m onto an essentially unyielding flat surface and one of the test canisters was dropped from 1 m onto a 15-cm diameter puncture post. The final test canister was dropped from 61 cm onto a 50.8 mm thick vertically oriented steel plate, and then fell over to impact another 50.8 mm thick vertically oriented steel plate. This last test represented a canister dropping onto another larger container such as a repository disposal container or waste package. The 1999 drop testing was performed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The nine test canisters experienced varying degrees of damage to their skirts, lifting rings, and pressure boundary components (heads and main body). However, all of the canisters were shown to have maintained their pressure boundary (through pressure testing). Four heavily damaged canisters were also shown to be leaktight via helium leak testing. Pre- and post-drop finite element (FE) analyses were also performed. The results clearly indicated that accurate predictions of canister responses to the drop tests were achieved. The results achieved for the standardized canister can also be applicable to other well-constructed containers (canisters, casks, cans, vessels, etc.) subjected to similar loads. Properly designed containers can maintain a containment system after being subjected to dynamically induced high strains and FE computer analyses can accurately predict the resulting responses.

  19. Curved and diffuse interface effects on the nuclear surface tension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. M. Kolomietz; S. V. Lukyanov; A. I. Sanzhur

    2012-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We redefine the surface tension coefficient for a nuclear Fermi-liquid drop with a finite diffuse layer. Following Gibbs-Tolman concept, we introduce the equimolar radius R_e of sharp surface droplet at which the surface tension is applied and the radius of tension surface R_s which provides the minimum of the surface tension coefficient \\sigma. This procedure allows us to derive both the surface tension and the corresponding curvature correction (Tolman length) correctly for the curved and diffuse interface. We point out that the curvature correction depends significantly on the finite diffuse interface. This fact is missed in traditional nuclear considerations of curvature correction to the surface tension. We show that Tolman's length \\xi is negative for nuclear Fermi-liquid drop. The value of the Tolman length is only slightly sensitive to the Skyrme force parametrization and equals \\xi=-0.36 fm.

  20. Blackboard Learning Services V-F1 Page 1 Blackboard Inc. Digital Drop Box vs. Assignment Manager Tip Sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blackboard Learning Services V-F1 Page 1 Blackboard Inc. Digital Drop Box vs. Assignment Manager Tip Sheet Blackboard Best Practices: Digital Drop Box vs. Assignment Manager A Blackboard Learning causes confusion for students and instructors alike. Adding a File When a user elects to Add File

  1. Experimental and numerical study of pressure drop and heat transfer in a single-phase micro-channel heat sink

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qu, Weilin

    Experimental and numerical study of pressure drop and heat transfer in a single-phase micro Received 6 July 2001; received in revised form 26 October 2001 Abstract The pressure drop and heat transfer-dimensional heat transfer characteristics of the heat sink were analyzed numerically by solving the conjugate heat

  2. Does the universe obey the energy conservation law by a constant mass or an increasing mass with radius during its evolution?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akinbo Ojo

    2008-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    How the energy conservation law is obeyed by the universe during its evolution is an important but not yet unanimously resolved question. Does the universe have a constant mass during its evolution or has its mass been increasing with its radius? Here, we evaluate the two contending propositions within the context of the Friedmann equations and the standard big bang theory. We find that though both propositions appeal to the Friedmann equations for validity, an increasing mass with increasing radius is more in harmony with the thermal history of the big bang model. In addition, temperature and flatness problems that plague the constant mass proposal are mitigated by the increasing mass with radius proposal. We conclude that the universe has been increasing in mass and radius in obedience to the energy conservation law.

  3. A connectionist model of the effect of pro-drop on SVO languages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Everbroeck, Ezra Laurens

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. Kempe, V. , & MacWhinney, B. (of German and Russian (Kempe and MacWhinney 1999).In this study, Kempe & MacWhinney found that a simple

  4. A connectionist model of the effect of pro-drop on SVO languages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Everbroeck, Ezra Laurens

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Turkish, and Serbo-Croatian – all spoken in the same regionchildren learning Serbo-Croatian or Turkish were presentedof Turkish and Serbo-Croatian. The former is being learned

  5. A connectionist model of the effect of pro-drop on SVO languages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Everbroeck, Ezra Laurens

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    from our language learning simulations to what is known1999). Human simulations of vocabulary learning. Cognition,but our simulations have demonstrated that learning several

  6. Drops on soft solids: Free energy and double transition of contact angles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luuk A. Lubbers; Joost H. Weijs; Lorenzo Botto; Siddhartha Das; Bruno Andreotti; Jacco H. Snoeijer

    2014-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The equilibrium shape of liquid drops on elastic substrates is determined by minimising elastic and capillary free energies, focusing on thick incompressible substrates. The problem is governed by three length scales: the size of the drop $R$, the molecular size $a$, and the ratio of surface tension to elastic modulus $\\gamma/E$. We show that the contact angles undergo two transitions upon changing the substrates from rigid to soft. The microscopic wetting angles deviate from Young's law when $\\gamma/Ea \\gg 1$, while the apparent macroscopic angle only changes in the very soft limit $\\gamma/ER \\gg 1$. The elastic deformations are worked out in the simplifying case where the solid surface energy is assumed constant. The total free energy turns out lower on softer substrates, consistent with recent experiments.

  7. Accurate potential drop sheet resistance measurements of laser-doped areas in semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heinrich, Martin, E-mail: mh.seris@gmail.com [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); NUS Graduate School for Integrative Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117456 (Singapore); Kluska, Sven; Binder, Sebastian [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE), Heidenhofstrasse 2, D-79110 Freiburg (Germany); Hameiri, Ziv [The School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney NSW 2052 (Australia); Hoex, Bram [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); Aberle, Armin G. [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117574 (Singapore); NUS Graduate School for Integrative Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117456 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117456 (Singapore)

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    It is investigated how potential drop sheet resistance measurements of areas formed by laser-assisted doping in crystalline Si wafers are affected by typically occurring experimental factors like sample size, inhomogeneities, surface roughness, or coatings. Measurements are obtained with a collinear four point probe setup and a modified transfer length measurement setup to measure sheet resistances of laser-doped lines. Inhomogeneities in doping depth are observed from scanning electron microscope images and electron beam induced current measurements. It is observed that influences from sample size, inhomogeneities, surface roughness, and coatings can be neglected if certain preconditions are met. Guidelines are given on how to obtain accurate potential drop sheet resistance measurements on laser-doped regions.

  8. Measurement of the Neutron Radius of 208Pb Through Parity-Violation in Electron Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abrahamyan, Sergey; Albataineh, Hisham; Aniol, Konrad; Armstrong, David; Armstrong, Whitney; Averett, Todd; Babineau, Benjamin; Barbieri, A; Bellini, Vincenzo; Beminiwattha, Rakitha; Benesch, Jay; Benmokhtar, Fatiha; Bierlarski, Trevor; Boeglin, Werner; Camsonne, Alexandre; Canan, Mustafa; Carter, Philip; Cates, Gordon; Chen, Chunhua; Chen, Jian-Ping; Hen, O; Cusanno, Francesco; Dalton, Mark; De Leo, Raffaele; De Jager, Cornelis; Deconinck, Wouter; Decowski, Piotr; Deng, Xiaoyan; Deur, Alexandre; Dutta, Dipangkar; Etile, Asenath; Flay, David; Franklin, Gregg; Friend, Megan; Frullani, Salvatore; Fuchey, Eric; Garibaldi, Franco; Gasser, Estelle; Gilman, Ronald; Guisa, Antonio; Glamazdin, Oleksandr; Gomez, Javier; Grames, Joseph; Gu, Chao; Hansen, Jens-Ole; Hansknecht, John; Higinbotham, Douglas; Holmes, Richard; Holmstrom, Timothy; Horowitz, Charles; Hoskins, Joshua; Huang, Jin; Hyde, Charles; Itard, Florian; Jen, Chun-Min; Jensen, Eric; Jin, Ge; Johnston, Sereres; Kelleher, Aidan; Kliakhandler, Konstantin; King, Paul; Kowalski, Stanley; Kumar, Krishna; Leacock, John; Leckey, John; Lee, Jeong Han; LeRose, John; Lindgren, Richard; Liyanage, Nilanga; Lubinsky, Nicholas; Mammei, Juliette; Mammoliti, Francesco; Margaziotis, Demetrius; Markowitz, Pete; McCreary, Amber; McNulty, Dustin; Mercado, Luis; Meziani, Zein-Eddine; Michaels, Robert; Mihovilovic, Miha; Muangma, Navaphon; Munoz Camacho, Carlos; Nanda, Sirish; Nelyubin, Vladimir; Nuruzzaman,; Oh, Yongseok; Palmer, Alvin; Parno, Diana; Paschke, Kent; Phillips, Sarah; Poelker, Benard; Pomatsalyuk, Roman; Posik, Matthew; Puckett, Andrew; Quinn, Brian; Rakhman, A; Reimer, Paul; Riordan, Seamus; Rogan, Patrick; Ron, Guy; Russo, Guiseppe; Saenboonruang, Kiadtisak; Saha, Arunava; Sawatzky, Bradley; Shahinyan, Albert; Silwal, Rupesh; Sirca, Simon; Slifer, Karl; Solvignon-Slifer, Patricia; Souder, Paul; Leda Sperduto, Maria; Subedi, Ramesh; Suleiman, Riad; Sulkosky, Vincent; Sutera, Concetta; Tobias, William; Troth, Wolfgang; Urciuoli, Guido; Buddhini Waidyawansa, Dinayadura; Wang, Diancheng; Wexler, Jonathan; Wilson, Richard; Wojtsekhowski, Bogdan; Yan, Xinhu; Yao, Huan; Ye, Yunxiu; Ye, Zhiohong; Yim, Vireak; Zana, Lorenzo; Zhan, Xiaohui; Zhang, Jixie; Zhang, Y; Zheng, Xiaochao; Zhu, Pengjia

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the first measurement of the parity-violating asymmetry APV in the elastic scattering of polarized electrons from 208Pb. APV is sensitive to the radius of the neutron distribution (Rn). The result APV = 0.656 ± 0.060 (stat) ± 0.013 (syst) corresponds to a difference between the radii of the neutron and proton distributions Rn-Rp = 0.33-0.18+0.16 fm and provides the first electroweak observation of the neutron skin which is expected in a heavy, neutron-rich nucleus.

  9. Ten year RPV inspections experiences in a PWR in Spain: Improvements in the inner-radius inspection techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, E.; Willke, A. [Tecnatom, S.A., Madrid (Spain)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The in-service inspection of an RPV, performed in accordance with the scope and requirements of Section 11 of the ASME Code at the end of the ten year interval, is one of the most complicated ISI activities carried out. Special resources and tools are required for successful performance of this type of inspection: (1) preparation and planning; (2) mechanical scanner; (3) data acquisition and analysis system; and (4) ultrasonic techniques. This paper describes the most relevant issues relating to RPV inspection, along with the experience obtained during the inspection of the RPV of a 930 MW Spanish PWR plant in 1992. Special attention is paid to the improvements achieved with respect to inspection of the inner-radius areas of the primary nozzles.

  10. The ESO Nearby Abell Cluster Survey IX. The morphology-radius and morphology-density relations in rich galaxy clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Thomas; P. Katgert

    2005-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the morphology-radius (MR-) and morphology-density (MD-) relations for a sample of about 850 galaxies (with M = -22), the S0 galaxies and the early spirals have different Sigma1-distributions. The reason for this is that Sigma1 is much less correlated with R than is Sigma10, and thus has much less cross-talk from the (MR-) relation. On average, the 'normal' ellipticals populate environments with higher projected density than do the S0 galaxies while the early spirals populate even less dense environments. The segregation of the brightest ellipticals and the late spirals is driven mostly by global factors, while the segregation between 'normal' ellipticals, S0 galaxies and early spirals is driven primarily by local factors.

  11. SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS: THE MASS OF THE ACCRETION DISK AND THE INITIAL RADIUS OF THE OUTFLOW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan Yizhong; Wei Daming, E-mail: yzfan@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: dmwei@pmo.ac.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, we estimate the accretion-disk mass in the specific scenario of binary-neutron-star merger with current observational data. Assuming that the outflows of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are driven via neutrino-antineutrino annihilation we estimate the disk mass of about half of short bursts in the sample to be {approx}0.01-0.1 M{sub sun}, in agreement with that obtained in the numerical simulations. Massive disks ({approx}several 0.1 M{sub sun}) found in some other short GRBs may point to the more efficient magnetic process of extracting energy or the neutron star and black hole binary progenitor. Our results suggest that some short bursts may be really due to the coalescence of double neutron stars and are promising gravitational wave radiation sources. For future short GRBs with simultaneous gravitational-wave detections, the disk mass may be reliably inferred and the validity of our approach will be tested. We also propose a method to constrain the initial radius of a baryonic outflow where it is launched (R{sub 0}) without the need of identifying an ideal thermal spectrum component. We then apply it to GRB 090510 and get R{sub 0} {approx}< 6.5 x 10{sup 6}({Gamma}{sub ph}/2000){sup -4} cm, suggesting that the central engine is a black hole with a mass <22 M{sub sun}({Gamma}{sub ph}/2000){sup -4}, where {Gamma}{sub ph} is the bulk Lorentz factor of the outflow at the photospheric radius.

  12. Experimental characterization of pressure drops and channel instabilities in helical coil SG tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colombo, M.; Cammi, A.; De Amicis, J.; Ricotti, M. E. [Politecnico di Milano, Dept. of Energy, Nuclear Engineering Div. - CeSNEF, Via La Masa 34, 20156, Milano (Italy)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Helical tube heat exchangers provide better heat transfer characteristics, an improved capability to accommodate stresses due to thermal expansions and a more compact design with respect to straight tube heat exchangers. For these advantages they are considered as an option for the Steam Generator (SG) of many new reactor projects of Generation III+ and Generation IV. In particular, their compactness fits well with the requirements of Small-medium Modular Reactors (SMRs) of integral design, where all the primary system components are located inside the reactor vessel. In this framework, thermal hydraulics of helical pipes has been studied in recent years by Politecnico di Milano in different experimental campaigns. Experiments have been carried out in a full-scale open loop test facility installed at SIET labs in Piacenza (Italy)), to simulate the SG of a typical SMR. The facility includes two helical pipes (1 m coil diameter, 32 m length, 8 m height), connected via lower and upper headers. Following recently completed experimental campaigns dedicated to pressure drops and density wave instabilities, this paper deals with a new experimental campaign focused on both pressure drops (single-phase flow and two-phase flow, laminar and turbulent regimes) and flow instabilities. The availability of a large number of experimental data, in particular on two-phase flow, is of fundamental interest for correlation development, model validation and code assessment. Two-phase pressure drops have been measured in adiabatic conditions, ranging from 200 to 600 kg/m{sup 2}s for the mass flux, from 30 to 60 bar for the pressure and from 0.1 to 1.0 for the flow quality. The channel characteristics mass flow rate - pressure drop has been determined experimentally in the range 10-40 bar, varying the mass flow rate at a fixed value of the thermal flux. In addition, single-phase pressure drops have been measured in both laminar and turbulent conditions. Density wave instabilities have been studied at mass flux from 100 to 400 kg/m{sup 2}s and pressure from 10 to 20 bar, to confirm the particular behavior of the stability boundary in helical geometry at low pressure and low mass flow rate. Finally, starting from the unstable regions identified from the experimental channel characteristics, Ledinegg type instabilities have been investigated to drawn stability maps with complete stable and unstable regions in the dimensionless plane N sub-N pch. (authors)

  13. The Radius of Home

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Etzel Jr., Dennis

    2010-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    one] 23 The April 1984 Ice Storm 24 when out comes to 25 RE: TWO MOTHERS 26 Imagine: lesbian sitcom meets soap opera 29 RE: TWO MOTHERS (continued) 30 fast job as to 32 The first thing I did was to slip it on 33 Potatoes, cows, chickens, fish... 34 iv Table of Contents, continued As toasted buns report like young soldiers 35 I scrape the carbon off the flat grill 36 Drive-thru always yells the need 37 As punishment after being seen 38 Slang is slung side to side 39 Waste: how...

  14. The representation of rainfall drop-size distribution and kinetic energy Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 8(5), 10011007 (2004) EGU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -size distribution and kinetic energy Neil I. Fox Department of Soil, Environmental and Atmospheric Sciences373 Mc To relate observed rainfall rates (R) to the kinetic energy flux (E) that affects soil erosion component of drop velocity. Keywords: drop-size distribution, drop kinetic energy, soil erosion Introduction

  15. What does a measurement of mass and/or radius of a neutron star constrain: Equation of state or gravity?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kazim Yavuz Ek?i; Can Güngör; Murat Metehan Türko?lu

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutron stars (NSs) are thought to be excellent laboratories for determining the equation of state (EoS) of cold dense matter. Their strong gravity suggests that they can also be used to constrain gravity models. The mass and radius (M-R) of a NS both depend on the choice of EoS and gravity, meaning that NSs cannot be simultaneously good laboratories for both of these questions. A measurement of M-R would constrain the less well known physics input. The assumption that M-R measurements can be used to constrain EoS-presumes general relativity (GR) is the ultimate model of gravity in the classical regime. We calculate the radial profile of compactness and curvature (square root of the full contraction of the Weyl tensor) within a NS and determine the domain not probed by the Solar System tests of GR. We find that, except for a tiny sphere of radius less than a millimeter at the center, the curvature is several orders of magnitude above the values present in Solar System tests. The compactness is beyond the solar surface value for r>10 m, and increases by 5 orders of magnitude towards the surface. With the density being only an order of magnitude higher than that probed by nuclear scattering experiments, our results suggest that the employment of GR as the theory of gravity describing the hydrostatic equilibrium of NSs is a rather remarkable extrapolation from the regime of tested validity, as opposed to that of EoS models. Our larger ignorance of gravity within NSs suggests that a measurement of M-R constrains gravity rather than EoS, and given that EoS has yet to be determined by nucleon scattering experiments, M-R measurements cannot tightly constrain the gravity models either. Near the surface the curvature and compactness attain their largest values, while EoS in this region is fairly well known. This renders the crust as the best site to look for deviations from GR.

  16. An experimental and analytical study of annular two phase flow friction pressure drop in a reduced acceleration field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wheeler, Montgomery

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for the same mass fluxes and mass qualities. The reduced acceleration pressure drops were found to be 45% greater overall than the 1-g pressure drops. In addition, the reduced acceleration flows were modeled using a universal velocity profile integral... approach to determine the liquid film thickness and the interfacial friction factor. The reduced acceleration annular flow interfacial friction factors were compared with current models for vertical up-flow in a 1-g environment. The reduced acceleration...

  17. Sensitivity of fusion and quasi-elastic barrier distributions of {sub 16}O+{sub 144}Sm reaction on the coupling radius parameter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zamrun, Muhammad; Usman, Ida; Variani, Viska Inda [Department of Physics, Haluoleo University, Kendari, Sulawesi Tengagra, 93232 (Indonesia); Kassim, Hasan Abu [Department of Physics, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the heavy-ion collision at sub-barrier energies of {sub 16}O+{sub 144}Sm system using full order coupled-channels formalism. We especially investigate the sensitivity of fusion and quasi-elastic barrier distributions for this system on the coupling radius parameter. We found that the coupled-channels calculations of the fusion and the quasi-elastic barrier distributions are sensitive to the coupling radius for this reaction in contrast to the fusion and quasi-elastic cross section. Our study indicates that the larger coupling radius, i.e., r{sub coup}=1.20, is required by the experimental quasi-elastic barrier distribution. However, the experimental fusion barrier distribution compulsory the small value, i.e., r{sub coup}=1.06.

  18. Syracuse Univesity Test Report On Uptake Factor Resulting From A Dropped Storage Container - Phase II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhi; Zhang, Jianshun S.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under certain circumstances, powder from an accidently dropped container can become airborne and inhaled by people nearby such as those who are moving the containers. The inhaled fine particles can deposit on respiratory tracts and lungs, causing asthma, lung cancer, and other acute respiratory illnesses and chronic symptoms. The objective of this study was to develop a standard procedure to measure the airborne concentrations of different size particles within the vicinity of a dropped container where a significant portion of the contained powder is ejected. Tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) was selected in this study to represent relatively heavy powders (7.16 g/cm3 specific gravity for WO{sub 3}). A typical can with the outer dimensions of 4.25” diameter and 4.875” tall was used as the container. The powder was dropped in two different configurations: 1) contained within a can covered by a lid that has a 0.25” diameter hole, and 2) contained within a can without a lid. The packing volume of the powder was 51.4 in3 (842.7 cm{sup 3}) and the target mass was 1936 g. The tests were carried out in a full-scale stainless steel environmental chamber with an interior volume of 852 ft3 (24.1 m3). The chamber system includes an internal recirculation loop with a rectangular air diffuser and 10 variable frequency drive fans to provide a typical room air recirculation flow pattern. Two air filters were installed in the chamber air supply duct and return duct to achieve the required low background particle concentration. The initial chamber air conditions were set at 70°F (± 5°F) and 50% (± 10%) RH. A supporting frame and releasing device were designed and built to trigger consistently the dropping of the can. The particle sampling inlet was placed 5 ft above the floor and 6 inches laterally away from the can’s falling path. Concentrations of particles between 0.5 ?m and 20 ?m were recorded in units of mass and number of particles per unit volume. The data acquisition rate was once every 2 seconds during the first 2 hours. A test procedure was developed and verified. A total of thirty two drop tests were performed, eight in Phase I and twenty four in Phase II, covering variations in dropping height (8 ft or 4 ft from the floor), room air movement (0.25-0.30 m/s or 0.10-0.15 m/s near the ceiling), landing scenario (on a flat plate or a block), and lid condition (¼” lid hole or no lid). There were ten tests with flat plate and ¼” lid hole, ten tests with flat plate no lid and twelve tests with block no lid.

  19. Non-axisymmetric wind-accretion simulations; 1, velocity gradients of 3% and 20% over one accretion radius

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruffert, M

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the hydrodynamics of a variant of classical Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion: a totally absorbing sphere moves at various Mach numbers (3 and 10) relative to a medium, which is taken to be an ideal gas having a velocity gradient (of 3% or 20% over one accretion radius) perpendicular to the relative motion. We examine the influence of the Mach number of the flow and the strength of the gradient upon the physical behaviour of the flow and the accretion rates of the angular momentum in particular. The hydrodynamics is modeled by the ``Piecewise Parabolic Method'' (PPM). The resolution in the vicinity of the accretor is increased by multiply nesting several grids around the sphere. Similarly to the 3D models without gradients published previously, models exhibit non-stationary flow patterns, although the Mach cone remains fairly stable. The accretion rates of mass, linear and angular momenta do not fluctuate as strongly as published previously for 2D models, but similarly to the 2D models, transient...

  20. Transport of free surface liquid films and drops by external ratchets and self-ratcheting mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uwe Thiele; Karin John

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the usage of ratchet mechanisms to transport a continuous phase in several micro-fluidic settings. In particular, we study the transport of a dielectric liquid in a heterogeneous ratchet capacitor that is periodically switched on and off. The second system consists of drops on a solid substrate that are transported by different types of harmonic substrate vibrations. We argue that the latter can be seen as a self-ratcheting process and discuss analogies between the employed class of thin film equations and Fokker-Planck equations for transport of discrete objects in a 'particle ratchet'.

  1. Foot Drop after Ethanol Embolization of Calf Vascular Malformation: A Lesson on Nerve Injury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tay, Vincent Khwee-Soon, E-mail: vincentkstay@gmail.com [Singapore General Hospital, Department of Plastic, Reconstructive, and Aesthetic Surgery (Singapore); Mohan, P. Chandra, E-mail: chandra.mohan@sgh.com.sg [Singapore General Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Singapore); Liew, Wendy Kein Meng, E-mail: wendy.liew.km@kkh.com.sg [KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Department of Paediatrics (Neurology Service) (Singapore); Mahadev, Arjandas, E-mail: arjandas.mahadev@kkh.com.sg [KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery (Singapore); Tay, Kiang Hiong, E-mail: tay.kiang.hiong@sgh.com.sg [Singapore General Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology (Singapore)

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ethanol is often used in sclerotherapy to treat vascular malformations. Nerve injury is a known complication of this procedure. However, the management of this complication is not well described in literature. This case describes a 10-year-old boy with a slow flow vascular malformation in the right calf who underwent transarterial ethanol embolization following prior unsuccessful direct percutaneous sclerotherapy. The development of a dense foot drop that subsequently recovered is described, and the management of this uncommon but distressful complication is discussed.

  2. KC-135 zero-gravity two-phase flow pressure drop experiments and modelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lambert, Anne

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    )ttpt for X&100 (/he m(N] tp for X&IQQ 0 1 = E+ 3 24 ? I. 'tl Fo. 045 Wee. oss AP2e m-(~ Jtlspt(t X & 0. 6 (OYERFREDIcr) LOW AND MIDRANGE QUALITIES (UNDERPREDICI) EQUATIONS APPLICABLE REGION @z pl~ DpsUs HIGH QUALITIES ANNULAR FLOW P~P &i (D-25... that: D 1 D-25 (24) where u is the void fraction. Thus, equation (14)becomes: (dE) d 24 Finally, the two-phase pressure drop is: Apze = -(~)zy L = ? ~ 4z; dz D Ma (25). (2~). m~dl Mcd 3 Friedel [13] proposed a method based on a bank of 25...

  3. Power Supply Rejection Improvement Techniques In Low Drop-Out Voltage Regulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganta, Saikrishna

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    because of packaging and cooling requirements [1,2]. These aspects lead to breakthrough of power management IC design whose basic functionality is improving the systems power efficiency. A full on-chip power management unit (PMU) is highly desirable... components such as inductors and capacitors has to be reduced in order to reduce (BOM). There are two important blocks in a PMU namely DC-DC switched mode power supplies (SMPS) and Low Drop Out (LDO) voltage regulators. Both of these provide the basic...

  4. Biofuels Fuels Technology Pathway Options for Advanced Drop-in Biofuels Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin L Kenney

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced drop-in hydrocarbon biofuels require biofuel alternatives for refinery products other than gasoline. Candidate biofuels must have performance characteristics equivalent to conventional petroleum-based fuels. The technology pathways for biofuel alternatives also must be plausible, sustainable (e.g., positive energy balance, environmentally benign, etc.), and demonstrate a reasonable pathway to economic viability and end-user affordability. Viable biofuels technology pathways must address feedstock production and environmental issues through to the fuel or chemical end products. Potential end products include compatible replacement fuel products (e.g., gasoline, diesel, and JP8 and JP5 jet fuel) and other petroleum products or chemicals typically produced from a barrel of crude. Considering the complexity and technology diversity of a complete biofuels supply chain, no single entity or technology provider is capable of addressing in depth all aspects of any given pathway; however, all the necessary expert entities exist. As such, we propose the assembly of a team capable of conducting an in-depth technology pathway options analysis (including sustainability indicators and complete LCA) to identify and define the domestic biofuel pathways for a Green Fleet. This team is not only capable of conducting in-depth analyses on technology pathways, but collectively they are able to trouble shoot and/or engineer solutions that would give industrial technology providers the highest potential for success. Such a team would provide the greatest possible down-side protection for high-risk advanced drop-in biofuels procurement(s).

  5. Syracuse University Test Report On Uptake Factor Resulting From A Dropped Storage Container

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Z.; Zhang, J. S.

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under certain circumstances, powder from an accidently dropped container can become airborne and inhaled by people nearby such as those who are moving the containers. The inhaled fine particles can deposit on respiratory tracts and lungs, causing asthma, lung cancer, and other acute respiratory illnesses and chronic symptoms. The objective of this study was to develop a standard procedure to measure the airborne concentrations of different size particles within the vicinity of a dropped container where a significant portion of the contained powder is ejected. Tungsten oxide (WO{sub 3}) was selected in this study to represent relatively heavy powders (7.16 g/cm3 specific gravity for WO{sub 3}). A typical can with the outer dimensions of 4.25” diameter and 4.875” tall was used as the container. The powder was dropped in two different configurations: 1) contained within a can covered by a lid that has a 0.25” diameter hole, and 2) contained within a can without a lid. The packing volume of the powder was 51.4 in{sup 3} (842.7 cm{sup 3}) and the target mass was 1936 g. The tests were carried out in a full-scale stainless steel environmental chamber with an interior volume of 852 ft{sup 3} (24.1 m{sup 3}). The chamber system includes an internal recirculation loop with a rectangular air diffuser and 10 variable frequency drive fans to provide a typical room air recirculation flow pattern. Two air filters were installed in the chamber air supply duct and return duct to achieve the required low background particle concentration. The initial chamber air conditions were set at 70°F (± 5°F) and 50% (± 10%) RH. A supporting frame and releasing device were designed and built to trigger consistently the dropping of the can at a height of 8 feet from the bottom of the can to the impacting surface. The particle sampling inlet was placed 5 ft above the floor and 6 inches laterally away from the can’s falling path. Concentrations of particles between 0.5 ?m and 20 ?m were recorded in units of mass and number of particles per unit volume. The data acquisition rate was once every 2 seconds during the first 2 hours and every 20 seconds thereafter. A test procedure was developed and a total of nine drop tests were performed. In most cases (seven tests), the can tipped over after dropping. The can in Test 1 stayed upright. The can in Test 7 showed a special behavior: after the rebound, it turned upside down and stayed upright. Major findings are summarized below: ? The amount of spilled powder varied from 0.12 g to 252.35 g and the non-recovered powder varied from 0.11 g to 1.18 g. The corresponding percentage of the spilled powder ranged from 0.01% to 13%. ? The peak value of particle number concentration after the dropping of the can occurred at approximately 0.9 ?m particle size per measured data of individual channels. The peak value of particle mass concentration occurred in the range of 4.3 - 10 ?m particle size per grouped data calculated from the measured data with the exception of Test 4 where a different batch powder with unexpectedly different bulk density and particle size distribution. ? After the dropping of the can, the total airborne mass concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 0.35 mg/m{sup 3}, while the total airborne number concentrations ranged from 2 to 125 #/cm{sup 3} except for Test 4. The number concentration in Test 4 was 1 or 2 orders of magnitude less than those of other tests because the powder was from a different batch. However, its mass concentration was comparable to that in Test 7 because relatively more big airborne particles were detected in Test 4. In general, tests with lid (Test 5, 6, 7 and 8) had smaller concentrations than tests without lid (Test 0, 1, 2, and 3). The influence of lid was not as prominent as the powder (Test 4). However, this needs more tests for verification. ? The ratio of airborne mass to non-recovered mass ranged from 0.1% to 2%. This means that it is challenging to use this method to check the mass balance, while the uptake factor and associated inhalation exposur

  6. Non-axisymmetric wind-accretion simulations I. Velocity gradients of 3% and 20% over one accretion radius

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maximilian Ruffert

    1996-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the hydrodynamics of a variant of classical Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion: a totally absorbing sphere moves at various Mach numbers (3 and 10) relative to a medium, which is taken to be an ideal gas having a velocity gradient (of 3% or 20% over one accretion radius) perpendicular to the relative motion. We examine the influence of the Mach number of the flow and the strength of the gradient upon the physical behaviour of the flow and the accretion rates of the angular momentum in particular. The hydrodynamics is modeled by the ``Piecewise Parabolic Method'' (PPM). The resolution in the vicinity of the accretor is increased by multiply nesting several grids around the sphere. Similarly to the 3D models without gradients published previously, models exhibit non-stationary flow patterns, although the Mach cone remains fairly stable. The accretion rates of mass, linear and angular momenta do not fluctuate as strongly as published previously for 2D models, but similarly to the 2D models, transient disks form around the accretor that alternate their direction of rotation with time. The average specific angular momentum accreted is roughly between 7% and 70% of the total angular momentum available in the accretion cylinder and is always smaller than the value of a vortex with Kepler velocity around the surface of the accretor. The fluctuations of the mass accretion rate in the models with small gradients (2%) are similar to the values of the models without gradients, while the models with large gradients (20%) exhibit larger fluctuations. The mass accretion rate is maximal when the specific angular momentum is zero, while the specific entropy tends to be smaller when the disks are prograde.

  7. Vertical Drop of the Naval SNF Long Waste Package On Unyielding Surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Mastilovic

    2006-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this calculation is to determine the structural response of a Naval SNF (Spent Nuclear Fuel) Long Waste Package (WP) subjected to 2 m-vertical drop on unyielding surface (US). The scope of this document is limited to reporting the calculation results in terms of maximum stress intensities. This calculation is associated with the waste package design; calculation is performed by the Waste Package Design group. AP-3.12Q, Revision 0, ICN 0, Calculations, is used to perform the calculation and develop the document. The finite element calculation is performed by using the commercially available ANSYS Version (V) 5.4 finite element code. The result of this calculation is provided in terms of maximum stress intensities.

  8. An active drop counting device using condenser microphone for superheated emulsion detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Mala; Marick, C.; Kanjilal, D.; Saha, S. [Nuclear and Atomic Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Arya, A S. [Department of Physics, VIT University, Vellore, Tamilnadu 632014 (India)

    2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An active device for superheated emulsion detector is described. A capacitive diaphragm sensor or condenser microphone is used to convert the acoustic pulse of drop nucleation to electrical signal. An active peak detector is included in the circuit to avoid multiple triggering of the counter. The counts are finally recorded by a microprocessor based data acquisition system. Genuine triggers, missed by the sensor, were studied using a simulated clock pulse. The neutron energy spectrum of {sup 252}Cf fission neutron source was measured using the device with R114 as the sensitive liquid and compared with the calculated fission neutron energy spectrum of {sup 252}Cf. Frequency analysis of the detected signals was also carried out.

  9. Evaluation of Analytical and Numerical Techniques for Defining the Radius of Influence for an Open-Loop Ground Source Heat Pump System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freedman, Vicky L.; Mackley, Rob D.; Waichler, Scott R.; Horner, Jacob A.

    2013-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In an open-loop groundwater heat pump (GHP) system, groundwater is extracted, run through a heat exchanger, and injected back into the ground, resulting in no mass balance changes to the flow system. Although the groundwater use is non-consumptive, the withdrawal and injection of groundwater may cause negative hydraulic and thermal impacts to the flow system. Because GHP is a relatively new technology and regulatory guidelines for determining environmental impacts for GHPs may not exist, consumptive use metrics may need to be used for permit applications. For consumptive use permits, a radius of influence is often used, which is defined as the radius beyond which hydraulic impacts to the system are considered negligible. In this paper, the hydraulic radius of influence concept was examined using analytical and numerical methods for a non-consumptive GHP system in southeastern Washington State. At this location, the primary hydraulic concerns were impacts to nearby contaminant plumes and a water supply well field. The results of this study showed that the analytical techniques with idealized radial flow were generally unsuited because they over predicted the influence of the well system. The numerical techniques yielded more reasonable results because they could account for aquifer heterogeneities and flow boundaries. In particular, the use of a capture zone analysis was identified as the best method for determining potential changes in current contaminant plume trajectories. The capture zone analysis is a more quantitative and reliable tool for determining the radius of influence with a greater accuracy and better insight for a non-consumptive GHP assessment.

  10. The mass and the radius of the neutron star in the transient low mass X-ray binary SAX J1748.9-2021

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanikoglu, Berrin

    .9-2021 Tolga G¨uver1 , Feryal ¨Ozel2,3 ABSTRACT We use time resolved spectroscopy of thermonuclear X-ray bursts of thermonuclear flashes on the neutron star surface (Galloway et al. 2008). In this paper, we use the time-resolved spectroscopy of a subsample of these thermonuclear bursts to determine the mass and radius of the neutron star

  11. AB INITIO EQUATION OF STATE FOR HYDROGEN-HELIUM MIXTURES WITH RECALIBRATION OF THE GIANT-PLANET MASS-RADIUS RELATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Militzer, B. [Departments of Earth and Planetary Science and of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hubbard, W. B. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Using density functional molecular dynamics simulations, we determine the equation of state (EOS) for hydrogen-helium mixtures spanning density-temperature conditions typical of giant-planet interiors, {approx}0.2-9 g cm{sup -3} and 1000-80,000 K for a typical helium mass fraction of 0.245. In addition to computing internal energy and pressure, we determine the entropy using an ab initio thermodynamic integration technique. A comprehensive EOS table with 391 density-temperature points is constructed and the results are presented in the form of a two-dimensional free energy fit for interpolation. Deviations between our ab initio EOS and the semi-analytical EOS model by Saumon and Chabrier are analyzed in detail, and we use the results for initial revision of the inferred thermal state of giant planets with known values for mass and radius. Changes are most pronounced for planets in the Jupiter mass range and below. We present a revision to the mass-radius relationship that makes the hottest exoplanets increase in radius by {approx}0.2 Jupiter radii at fixed entropy and for masses greater than {approx}0.5 Jupiter mass. This change is large enough to have possible implications for some discrepant ''inflated giant exoplanets''.

  12. Determination of the ReA Electron Beam Ion Trap electron beam radius and current density with an X-ray pinhole camera

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baumann, Thomas M., E-mail: baumannt@nscl.msu.edu; Lapierre, Alain, E-mail: lapierre@nscl.msu.edu; Kittimanapun, Kritsada; Schwarz, Stefan; Leitner, Daniela; Bollen, Georg [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), Michigan State University (MSU), 640 S. Shaw Lane, East Lansing, Michigan, 48824 (United States)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) of the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University is used as a charge booster and injector for the currently commissioned rare isotope re-accelerator facility ReA. This EBIT charge breeder is equipped with a unique superconducting magnet configuration, a combination of a solenoid and a pair of Helmholtz coils, allowing for a direct observation of the ion cloud while maintaining the advantages of a long ion trapping region. The current density of its electron beam is a key factor for efficient capture and fast charge breeding of continuously injected, short-lived isotope beams. It depends on the radius of the magnetically compressed electron beam. This radius is measured by imaging the highly charged ion cloud trapped within the electron beam with a pinhole camera, which is sensitive to X-rays emitted by the ions with photon energies between 2 keV and 10 keV. The 80%-radius of a cylindrical 800 mA electron beam with an energy of 15 keV is determined to be r{sub 80%}=(212±19)?m in a 4 T magnetic field. From this, a current density of j = (454 ± 83)A/cm{sup 2} is derived. These results are in good agreement with electron beam trajectory simulations performed with TriComp and serve as a test for future electron gun design developments.

  13. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 20 JULY 2009 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS1340 Single-drop fragmentation determines size

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    measurements exploiting rain's radar echo reflectivity6,7 . If the interpretations of this law are diverse, its at the ground level are believed to result from a complex mutual interaction with their neighbours. We show of the individual drops, both in the same and different rainfalls'. Indeed, subsequent measurements by Laws

  14. periods of inconvenience when they drop fruit and create litter problems on paved surfaces such as patios, walks, driveways,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    periods of inconvenience when they drop fruit and create litter problems on paved surfaces a flowering or fruiting tree lives up to its potential for health and beauty is largely dependent upon its will thrive and flower well. Flowering and fruiting are greatly influenced by duration and intensity

  15. Published in the Proceedings of ASES-2001, the American Solar Energy Society A DRAG-AND-DROP ENERGY DESIGN TOOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Published in the Proceedings of ASES-2001, the American Solar Energy Society A DRAG-AND-DROP ENERGY the program to more precisely predict the building's performance and the energy cost savings of the ratepayer a building's energy consumption, yet they are also the most tedious to describe. Therefore we developed

  16. A Two-Phase Pressure Drop Model Incorporating Local Water Balance and Reactant Consumption in PEM Fuel Cell Gas Channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    ), and directly affects cost and sizing of fuel cell subsystems. Within several regions of PEMFC operating Fuel Cell Gas Channels E. J. See and S. G. Kandlikar Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rochester in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). The ability to model two-phase flow and pressure drop

  17. Influence of Droplet Geometry on the Coalescence of Low Viscosity Drops A. Eddi, K. G. Winkels, and J. H. Snoeijer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snoeijer, Jacco

    Influence of Droplet Geometry on the Coalescence of Low Viscosity Drops A. Eddi, K. G. Winkels involving sprays and print- ing [4,5]. Breakup and coalescence are singular events during which the liquid-off is universal in the sense that it is completely independent of initial conditions. In this regime, viscosity

  18. Heat transfer and pressure drop data for high heat flux densities to water at high subcritical pressures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohsenow, Warren M.

    1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Local surface ooeffioients of heat t-ansfer, overall pressure drop data and mean friction factor are presented for heat flamms up to 3.52106 BtuAr ft2 for water flowing in a nickel tabe isder the following conditions: mass ...

  19. Free energy of colloidal particles at the surface of sessile drops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Guzowski; M. Tasinkevych; S. Dietrich

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of finite system size on the free energy of a spherical particle floating at the surface of a sessile droplet is studied both analytically and numerically. In the special case that the contact angle at the substrate equals $\\pi/2$ a capillary analogue of the method of images is applied in order to calculate small deformations of the droplet shape if an external force is applied to the particle. The type of boundary conditions for the droplet shape at the substrate determines the sign of the capillary monopole associated with the image particle. Therefore, the free energy of the particle, which is proportional to the interaction energy of the original particle with its image, can be of either sign, too. The analytic solutions, given by the Green's function of the capillary equation, are constructed such that the condition of the forces acting on the droplet being balanced and of the volume constraint are fulfilled. Besides the known phenomena of attraction of a particle to a free contact line and repulsion from a pinned one, we observe a local free energy minimum for the particle being located at the drop apex or at an intermediate angle, respectively. This peculiarity can be traced back to a non-monotonic behavior of the Green's function, which reflects the interplay between the deformations of the droplet shape and the volume constraint.

  20. Characterization of Vertical Velocity and Drop Size Distribution Parameters in Widespread Precipitation at ARM Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giangrande S. E.; Luke, E. P.; Kollias, P.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extended, high-resolution measurements of vertical air motion and median volume drop diameter D0 in widespread precipitation from three diverse Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM) locations [Lamont, Oklahoma, Southern Great Plains site (SGP); Niamey, Niger; and Black Forest, Germany] are presented. The analysis indicates a weak (0-10 cm{sup -1}) downward air motion beneath the melting layer for all three regions, a magnitude that is to within the typical uncertainty of the retrieval methods. On average, the hourly estimated standard deviation of the vertical air motion is 0.25 m s{sup -1} with no pronounced vertical structure. Profiles of D0 vary according to region and rainfall rate. The standard deviation of 1-min-averaged D0 profiles for isolated rainfall rate intervals is 0.3-0.4 mm. Additional insights into the form of the raindrop size distribution are provided using available dual-frequency Doppler velocity observations at SGP. The analysis suggests that gamma functions better explain paired velocity observations and radar retrievals for the Oklahoma dataset. This study will be useful in assessing uncertainties introduced in the measurement of precipitation parameters from ground-based and spaceborne remote sensors that are due to small-scale variability.

  1. In-drop capillary spooling of spider capture thread inspires highly extensible fibres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hervé Elettro; Sébastien Neukirch; Fritz Vollrath; Arnaud Antkowiak

    2015-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Spiders' webs and gossamer threads are often paraded as paradigms for lightweight structures and outstanding polymers. Probably the most intriguing of all spider silks is the araneid capture thread, covered with tiny glycoprotein glue droplets. Even if compressed, this thread remains surprisingly taut, a property shared with pure liquid films, allowing both thread and web to be in a constant state of tension. Vollrath and Edmonds proposed that the glue droplets would act as small windlasses and be responsible for the tension, but other explanations have also been suggested, involving for example the macromolecular properties of the flagelliform silk core filaments. Here we show that the nanolitre glue droplets of the capture thread indeed induce buckling and coiling of the core filaments: microscopic in-vivo observations reveal that the slack fibre is spooled into and within the droplets. We model windlass activation as a structural phase transition, and show that fibre spooling essentially results from the interplay between elasticity and capillarity. This is demonstrated by reproducing artificially the mechanism on a synthetic polyurethane thread/silicone oil droplet system. Fibre size is the key in natural and artificial setups which both require micrometer-sized fibres to function. The spools and coils inside the drops are further shown to directly affect the mechanical response of the thread, evidencing the central role played by geometry in spider silk mechanics. Beside shedding light on araneid capture thread functionality, we argue that the properties of this biological system provide novel insights for bioinspired synthetic actuators.

  2. Results of the Sandia National Laboratories MOSAIK cask drop test program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorenson, K.; Salzbrenner, R.; Wellman, G.; Bobbe, J.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There has been a significant international effort over the past ten years to qualify structural materials for construction of radioactive material (RAM) transportation casks. As total life cycle cost analyses argue the necessity for more efficient casks, new candidate structural materials are evaluated relative to the historically accepted austenitic stainless steels. New candidate cask containment materials include ferritic steels, ductile iron, depleted uranium, and titanium. Another material, borated stainless steel is being considered for structural cask internals because of its neutron absorption properties. The mechanical performance of the borated stainless steels is a function of the boron content and metallurgical processing conditions. A separate paper in this symposium (Stephens et al. 1992) deals with the properties of a range of borated stainless steels. A major technical issue involved with the qualification of afl these candidate materials is that they may, under certain combinations of mechanical and environmental loading, fail in a brittle fashion. Such a failure would of course not be acceptable for a RAM transport cask involved in an accident. The cask designer must assure cask owners, regulators as well as the general public that the cask will not undergo brittle fracture for all regulatory loading conditions. This paper summarizes the drop tests that were conducted using the MOSAIK casks to verify the fracture mechanics cask design approach and to demonstrate that ductile iron could be subjected to severe loading conditions without failing in a brittle manner.

  3. Self-organization of bouncing oil drops: Two-dimensional lattices and spinning clusters Suzanne I. Lieber, Melissa C. Hendershott, Apichart Pattanaporkratana, and Joseph E. Maclennan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weeks, Eric R.

    Self-organization of bouncing oil drops: Two-dimensional lattices and spinning clusters Suzanne I Received 16 October 2006; published 18 May 2007 Multiple oil drops bouncing on the surface of a vertically vibrating bath of the same oil exhibit self- organization behavior in two dimensions S. Protière, Y. Couder

  4. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURING, VOL. 18, NO. 2, MAY 2005 297 Dishing-Radius Model of Copper CMP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    of Copper CMP Dishing Effects Runzi Chang, Member, IEEE, and Costas J. Spanos, Fellow, IEEE Abstract--Copper, a metric that assumes cylin- drically shaped post-CMP copper surface and directly captures the extent the interlayer dielectric (ILD) and metal surface. It has been the enabling technology for the copper damascene

  5. The Effect of Well Trajectory on Production Performance of Tight Gas Wells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aldousari, Mohammad

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    been studied. The aim of this research is to investigate the effect of the trajectory angle on pressure drop in horizontal wells. In addition, the contribution of water flow to pressure drop is a part of this research. Generally, water comes from...

  6. MEASUREMENT OF THE RADIUS OF NEUTRON STARS WITH HIGH SIGNAL-TO-NOISE QUIESCENT LOW-MASS X-RAY BINARIES IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guillot, Sebastien; Rutledge, Robert E. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montreal, QC, H2X-3R4 (Canada); Servillat, Mathieu [Laboratoire AIM (CEA/DSM/IRFU/SAp, CNRS, Universite Paris Diderot), CEA Saclay, Bat. 709, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Webb, Natalie A., E-mail: guillots@physics.mcgill.ca, E-mail: rutledge@physics.mcgill.ca [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, Toulouse (France)

    2013-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the measurement of the neutron star (NS) radius using the thermal spectra from quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries (qLMXBs) inside globular clusters (GCs). Recent observations of NSs have presented evidence that cold ultra dense matter-present in the core of NSs-is best described by ''normal matter'' equations of state (EoSs). Such EoSs predict that the radii of NSs, R{sub NS}, are quasi-constant (within measurement errors, of {approx}10%) for astrophysically relevant masses (M{sub NS}>0.5 M{sub Sun }). The present work adopts this theoretical prediction as an assumption, and uses it to constrain a single R{sub NS} value from five qLMXB targets with available high signal-to-noise X-ray spectroscopic data. Employing a Markov chain Monte-Carlo approach, we produce the marginalized posterior distribution for R{sub NS}, constrained to be the same value for all five NSs in the sample. An effort was made to include all quantifiable sources of uncertainty into the uncertainty of the quoted radius measurement. These include the uncertainties in the distances to the GCs, the uncertainties due to the Galactic absorption in the direction of the GCs, and the possibility of a hard power-law spectral component for count excesses at high photon energy, which are observed in some qLMXBs in the Galactic plane. Using conservative assumptions, we found that the radius, common to the five qLMXBs and constant for a wide range of masses, lies in the low range of possible NS radii, R{sub NS}=9.1{sup +1.3}{sub -1.5} km (90%-confidence). Such a value is consistent with low-R{sub NS} equations of state. We compare this result with previous radius measurements of NSs from various analyses of different types of systems. In addition, we compare the spectral analyses of individual qLMXBs to previous works.

  7. Interphase transfer kinetics of thorium between nitric acid and tributyl phosphate solutions using the single drop and the Lewis cell techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horner, D.E.; Mailen, J.C.; Coggins, J.R. Jr.; Thiel, S.W.; Scott, T.C.; Pih, N.; Yates, R.G.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The kinetic rate constants for the interphase transfer of thorium between an aqueous phase and an organic phase of tributyl phosphate-n-paraffin hydrocarbon have been measured using the single drop and the Lewis cell techniques. Results from individual tests performed with the two techniques agree within experimental error. As with uranium, the data are consistent with a model in which the rate-controlling step is the rate of reaction of the components at the phase interface. An organic-soluble complex, represented by Th(NO/sub 3/)/sub 4/.2TBP, forms in the organic phase. The composition of this complex is confirmed by equilibrium, as well as by kinetic, data. The kinetic data include results from tests showing the effects of TBP concentration and nitrate concentration on the values of the forward and the reverse kinetic constants. Other tests show the effect of temperature on the kinetic constant in both the forward and the reverse transfer directions, and the activation energies and enthalpy for the extraction reactions were estimated from these data. Unlike uranium, thorium extraction was shown to have a Marangoni effect under certain conditions. 10 figures, 1 table.

  8. An Investigation of the Perceptions of Latino High School Males Who Were in Danger of Dropping Out but Persevered

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nell, Jan Elizabeth

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Chambers Fred Bonner Anita McCormick Head of Department, Fredrick Nafukho December 2010 Major Subject: Educational Administration iii ABSTRACT An Investigation of the Perceptions of Latino High School Males Who Were in Danger of Dropping.... Fred Bonner, Dr. Tara Venzant Chambers, and Dr. Anita McCormick, was insightful and invaluable. I never felt discouraged or criticized when they offered constructive comments to improve the study. For that, I am truly grateful. Dr. Jim Scheurich, my...

  9. The dust sublimation radius as an outer envelope to the bulk of the narrow Fe Kalpha line emission in Type 1 AGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gandhi, Poshak; Kishimoto, Makoto

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fe Kalpha emission line is the most ubiquitous feature in the X-ray spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGN), but the origin of its narrow core remains uncertain. Here, we investigate the connection between the sizes of the Fe Kalpha core emission regions and the measured sizes of the dusty tori in 13 local Type 1 AGN. The observed Fe Kalpha emission radii (R_fe) are determined from spectrally resolved line widths in X-ray grating spectra, and the dust sublimation radii (R_dust) are measured either from optical/near-infrared reverberation time lags or from resolved near-infrared interferometric data. This direct comparison shows that the dust sublimation radius forms an outer envelope to the bulk of the Fe Kalpha emission. R_fe matches R_dust well in the AGN with the best constrained line widths currently. In a significant fraction of objects without a clear narrow line core, R_fe is similar to, or smaller than the radius of the optical broad line region. These facts place important constraints on the toru...

  10. Ab Initio Equation of State for Hydrogen-Helium Mixtures with Recalibration of the Giant-Planet Mass-Radius Relation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Militzer, B

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using density functional molecular dynamics simulations, we determine the equation of state for hydrogen-helium mixtures spanning density-temperature conditions typical of giant planet interiors, ~0.2-9 g/cc and 1000-80000 K for a typical helium mass fraction of 0.245. In addition to computing internal energy and pressure, we determine the entropy using an ab initio thermodynamic integration technique. A comprehensive equation of state (EOS) table with 391 density-temperature points is constructed and the results are presented in form of two-dimensional free energy fit for interpolation. Deviations between our ab initio EOS and the semi-analytical EOS model by Saumon and Chabrier are analyzed in detail, and we use the results for initial revision of the inferred thermal state of giant planets with known values for mass and radius. Changes are most pronounced for planets in the Jupiter mass range and below. We present a revision to the mass-radius relationship which makes the hottest exoplanets increase in rad...

  11. A model study of the effect of bucket dentations on a ski-jump spillway jet: with a mathematical analysis of critical bucket radius determination.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gladwell, John Stuart

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    investigations have not shown this high a degree of success, however, the reduction is con- siderable in most cases. 10 The problem of cavitation must be dealt with any time there is an abrupt change of direction of flow of a high speed stream. lnas- rnuch... as rounding of sharp corners has a tendency to reduce cavita- tion it can be seen that dentations with rounded crowns have a dual advantage. The problem of cavitation will not become evident in the normal spillway model tests. Relative Velocit of Jet...

  12. Nuclear EMC effect in non-extensive statistical model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trevisan, Luis A. [Departamento de Matematica e Estatistica, Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, 84010-790, Ponta Grossa, PR (Brazil); Mirez, Carlos [ICET, Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri - UFVJM, Campus do Mucuri, Rua do Cruzeiro 01, Jardim Sao Paulo, 39803-371, Teofilo Otoni, MG (Brazil)

    2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In the present work, we attempt to describe the nuclear EMC effect by using the proton structure functions obtained from the non-extensive statistical quark model. We record that such model has three fundamental variables, the temperature T, the radius, and the Tsallis parameter q. By combining different small changes, a good agreement with the experimental data may be obtained. Another interesting point of the model is to allow phenomenological interpretation, for instance, with q constant and changing the radius and the temperature or changing the radius and q and keeping the temperature.

  13. Screen and slotted liner horizontal completion: : correcting for wellbore pressure drop in the inflow performance relationships (IPR)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agbongiator, Eddie Osarenmwida

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the formation, md r = radius of investigation, ft c, = total compressibility, I/psi P = pressure, psi t = time, days Initial and boundary conditions, p(r, t = 0) = pi constant dl p ? p?t ? ln ? ' ? ? + s where pwf average reservoir pressure... in the drainage area, psi wellbore flowing pressure, psi net thickness of the formation, ft formation volume factor, RB/S'I'B production rate, S I'B/D skin duc to formation damage 13 Eq. 2. 3 is the equation for the productivity index, 3, of an oil well...

  14. The Lead Radius Experiment PREX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Michaels

    2006-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed PREX experiment at Jefferson Lab will measure the parity-violating electroweak asymmetry in the elastic scattering of polarized electrons at an energy of 850 MeV and a scattering angle of 6 degrees. Since the Z0 boson couples mainly to neutrons, this asymmetry provides a clean measurement of R{sub n} with a projected experimental precision of 1 %. In addition to being a fundamental test of nuclear theory, a precise measurement of R{sub n} pins down the density dependence of the symmetry energy of neutron rich nuclear matter which has impacts on neutron star structure, heavy ion collisions, and atomic parity violation experiments.

  15. Dynamic interactions between drops--a critical assessment Rogerio Manica,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Derek Y C

    provides the essen- tial foundations in effective control of polymer blending processes1 and droplet in the interstitial film in a mutually consistent fashion using standard lubrication theory coupled with the Young) in silicon oil with a contact angle q ¼ 90 at the capillary. Careful alignment of the capillary axes ensured

  16. Radiative Impacts on the Growth of Drops within Simulated Marine Stratocumulus. Part I: Maximum Solar Heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrington, Jerry Y.

    November 2004) ABSTRACT The effects of solar heating and infrared cooling on the vapor depositional growth of as much as 45 min. Including infrared cooling as well as solar heating in the LES and microphysical bin Solar Heating CHRISTOPHER M. HARTMAN AND JERRY Y. HARRINGTON Department of Meteorology, The Pennsylvania

  17. Sensitivity analysis of a directional potential drop sensor for creep monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagy, Peter B.

    and irreversible thermal effects. The sensitivity of the square-electrode PD sensor to geometrical and material and mechanical stress. The specific form of degradation is material dependent, but in creep- resistant steels of the degradation process, the presence of voids and microcracks becomes more evident. For creep-resistant materials

  18. Delamination at Thick Ply Drops in Carbon and Glass Fiber Laminates Under Fatigue Loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    used for glass fibers in wind turbine blades. Introduction The primary structural elements in most wind extent, in wind turbine blade technology. 6,7 Methodologies for predicting delamination under static literature, for the wind turbine blade application the effects of thicker plies and lower cost processing

  19. Standard test method for conducting drop-weight test to determine nil-ductility transition temperature of ferritic steels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of the nil-ductility transition (NDT) temperature of ferritic steels, 5/8 in. (15.9 mm) and thicker. 1.2 This test method may be used whenever the inquiry, contract, order, or specification states that the steels are subject to fracture toughness requirements as determined by the drop-weight test. 1.3 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  20. Numerical Simulation of Hydrodynamics of a Heavy Liquid Drop Covered by Vapor Film in a Water Pool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, W.M.; Yang, Z.L.; Giri, A.; Sehgal, B.R. [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Drottning Kristinas vaeg 33 A, 100 44, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A numerical study on the hydrodynamics of a droplet covered by vapor film in water pool is carried out. Two level set functions are used as to implicitly capture the interfaces among three immiscible fluids (melt-drop, vapor and coolant). This approach leaves only one set of conservation equations for the three phases. A high-order Navier-Stokes solver, called Cubic-Interpolated Pseudo-Particle (CIP) algorithm, is employed in combination with level set approach, which allows large density ratios (up to 1000), surface tension and jump in viscosity. By this calculation, the hydrodynamic behavior of a melt droplet falling into a volatile coolant is simulated, which is of great significance to reveal the mechanism of steam explosion during a hypothetical severe reactor accident. (authors)

  1. CLEANING OF VISCOUS DROPS ON A FLAT INCLINED SURFACE USING GRAVITY-DRIVEN FILM FLOWS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landel, Julien R.; McEvoy, Harry; Dalziel, Stuart B.

    2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    the plate surface is critical. Moreover, minimizing the water consumption and the energy of such automatic cleaning devices can have an important environmental and sustainable impact. Dussan (1987) analysed the effect of a shearing immiscible fluid... liquid films on non-porous substrates with topography, J. Fluid Mech. 509, 253–280. Gillham, C. R., Fryer, P. J., Hasting, A. P. M. and Wilson, D. I. (2000) Enhanced cleaning of whey protein soils using pulsed flows, J. Food Eng. 46, 199–209. Hayes, M...

  2. Evidence for the role of fluctuations in the thermodynamics of nanoscale drops and the implications in computations of the surface tension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jose G. Sampayo; Alexandr Malijevsky; Erich A. Muller; E. de Miguel; G. Jackson

    2012-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Test area deformations are used to analyse vapour-liquid interfaces of Lennard-Jones particles by molecular dynamics simulation. For planar vapour-liquid interfaces the change in free energy is captured by the average of the corresponding change in energy, the leading-order contribution. This is consistent with the commonly used mechanical (pressure tensor) route for the surface tension. By contrast for liquid drops one finds a large second-order contribution associated with fluctuations in energy. Both the first- and second-order terms make comparable contributions, invalidating the mechanical relation for the surface tension of small drops. The latter is seen to increase above the planar value for drop radii of ~8 particle diameters, followed by an apparent weak maximum and slow decay to the planar limit, consistent with a small negative Tolman length.

  3. Fluids Mechanics -1 Consider a circular plate of outer radius Ro (a portion of which is shown in the figure). A fluid filled gap of thickness h(t)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    Fluids Mechanics - 1 Consider a circular plate of outer radius Ro (a portion of which is shown in the figure). A fluid filled gap of thickness h(t) exists between the bottom of the plate and the flat surface that the fluid filling the gap is incompressible, inviscid and its motion is irrotational. Also assume the radial

  4. Toward Direct Biosynthesis of Drop-in Ready Biofuels in Plants: Rapid Screening and Functional Genomic Characterization of Plant-derived Advanced Biofuels and Implications for Coproduction in Lignocellulosic Feedstocks.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joyce, Blake Lee

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Advanced biofuels that are “drop-in” ready, completely fungible with petroleum fuels, and require minimal infrastructure to process a finished fuel could provide transportation fuels in… (more)

  5. Effects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed NewcatalystNeutronEnvironmentZIRKLE FRUITYearEffect0/2002 Yun (Helen)

  6. Numerical study of effect of the gas-coolant free surface on the droplet fragmentation behavior of coolants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, H.X.; Anh, B.V.; Dinh, T.N.; Sehgal, B.R.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents results of a numerical investigation on the behavior of melt drops falling in a gas (vapor) space and then penetrating into a liquid volume through the gas-liquid interface. The phenomenon studied here is, usually, observed when a liquid drop falls through air into a water pool and is, specially, of interest when a hypothetical severe reactor core meltdown accident is considered. The objective of this work is to study the effect of the gas-liquid interface on the dynamic evolution of the interaction area between the fragmenting melt drop and water. In the present study, the Navier-Stokes equations are solved for three phases (gas, liquid and melt-drop) using a higher-order, explicit, numerical method, called Cubic-Interpolated Pseudo-Particle (CIP) method, which is employed in combination with an advanced front-capturing scheme, named the Level Set Algorithm (LSA). By using this method, reasonable physical pictures of droplet deformation and fragmentation during movement in a stationary uniform water pool, and in a gas-liquid two-layer volume, is simulated. Effect of the gas-liquid interface on the drop deformation and fragmentation is analyzed by comparing the simulation results obtained for the two cases. Effects of the drop geometry, and of the flow conditions, on the behavior of the melt drop are also analyzed.

  7. Effective models for excitons in carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horia D. Cornean; Pierre Duclos; Benjamin Ricaud

    2006-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyse the low lying spectrum of a model of excitons in carbon nanotubes. Consider two particles with an attractive Coulomb self-interaction, placed on an infinitely long cylinder. If the cylinder radius becomes small, the low lying spectrum is well described by a one-dimensional effective Hamiltonian which is exactly solvable.

  8. Contact line deposits in an evaporating drop Robert D. Deegan, Olgica Bakajin, Todd F. Dupont, Greg Huber, Sidney R. Nagel, and Thomas A. Witten

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deegan, Robert

    Contact line deposits in an evaporating drop Robert D. Deegan, Olgica Bakajin, Todd F. Dupont, Greg, 68.10.Jy, 47.55.Dz, 83.70.Hq I. INTRODUCTION The residue left when coffee dries on the countertop on washed glassware, banded deposits of salt on the sidewalk during winter, and enhanced edges in water

  9. Use the drop-down search menus and operators (AND, OR, NOT) to customize your search. Search by topic, author, journal title, publication year, and other fields.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    by topic, author, journal title, publication year, and other fields. Topic Enter your search words, joined, and subject terms; choose Title from the drop-down search menu to restrict your search to document titles only for the most comprehensive search. 1.To find all articles by Francis Harry Compton Crick, click , enter Crick F

  10. Int..l. MsltiphaseFlow,Vol.3, pp. 23-33. Pergamon/Elsevier, 1976. Printedin Cheat Britain. MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC PRESSURE DROP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Julian

    , owever, been directed to the prediction of gas-fiquid two-phase magneto, moreover, has practical significance. For example, in a steady state deuterium-tritium fusion reactor for the computation of pressure drop in MHD two-phase flow at high Hartmann numbers. A comparison is made between

  11. Bureau of Land Management Assists Drop in Housing Affordability The National Association of Home Builders (NAHB) recently released the first quarter of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    Builders (NAHB) recently released the first quarter of 2006 NAHB-Wells Fargo Housing Opportunity IndexBureau of Land Management Assists Drop in Housing Affordability The National Association of Home housing expense depends on the purchase price of homes, the mortgage down payment percentage of 10

  12. Gear coupling effects on rotordynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Robert Warren

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Subject: WIechanical Engineering GEAR COUPLING EFFECTS ON ROTORDYNAMICS A Thesis by ROBERT WARREN CLARK, JR. Approved as to style and content by: Alan P alas o (Chairman of Committee) Make McDermott (Member) Jorgen Nikolajsen (Member) ay W... A. 'vIancuso 4 = misalignment angle AI, = transmitted torque R = pitch radius of gear mesh p = coefficient of friction A = arc of gear tooth contact W = load per tooth D?= diameter of curvature oi' tooth Gibbons Ts ? transmitted torque W...

  13. Every Drop Counts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Supercinski, Danielle

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    allows producers to assess economic trade-offs of allocating limited water resources between various crops at varying crop growth stages. Water is the primary factor limiting the production of many crops in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas... and concentrate as alternative water sources for irrigation in rural and urban areas. The research strategy is to remove salts prior to irri- gation to levels acceptable for salt-tolerant crops. RGBI researchers have evaluated more than 70 differ- ent...

  14. The Great Marble Drop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cups Marbles Fishing line or fine string Masking tape Index cards Paper clips Bull's-eye target Instructions: Students form teams Each team receives 1 Dixie cup, 1 marble, a...

  15. The Great Marble Drop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    lower point so it forms an incline. You can use a desk or chair back. 4. Set the bull's-eye paper target on the floor about halfway between the wall and the chair. 5. Challenge...

  16. The Great Marble Drop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism in Layered NbS2 and NbSe2DifferentThe FiveD. The Law ofGorgeGreat

  17. The Great Marble Drop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatus TomAboutManusScience andFebruaryTheFarrel W.Great Gas

  18. Numerical and Experimental Investigations of Polyurethane Foam for Use as Cask Impact Limiter in Accidental Drop Scenarios - 12099

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasparek, Eva M.; Voelzke, Holger; Scheidemann, Robert; Zencker, Uwe [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, 12200 Berlin (Germany)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rigid, closed-cell polyurethane foams are frequently used as cask impact limiters in nuclear materials and hazardous waste transport due to their high energy-absorption potential. When assessing the cask integrity in accidental scenarios based on numerical simulations, a description of the foam damping properties is required for different strain rates and for a wide temperature range with respect to waste heat generation in conjunction with critical operating and environmental conditions. Implementation and adaption of a respective finite element material model strongly relies on an appropriate experimental data base. Even though extensive impact experiments were conducted e.g. in Sandia National Laboratories, Savannah River National Laboratory and by Rolls Royce plc, not all relevant factors were taken into account. Hence, BAM who is in charge of the mechanical evaluation of such packages within the approval procedure in Germany, incorporated systematic test series into a comprehensive research project aimed to develop numerical methods for a couple of damping materials. In a first step, displacement driven compression tests have been performed on confined, cubic specimens at five loading rates ranging from 0.02 mm/s to 3 m/s at temperatures between +90 deg. C and -40 deg. C. Materials include two different polyurethane foam types called FR3718 and FR3730 having densities of 280 kg/m{sup 3} and 488 kg/m{sup 3} from the product line-up of General Plastics Manufacturing Company. Their data was used to adapt an advanced plasticity model allowing for reliably simulating cellular materials under multi-axial compression states. Therefore, an automated parameter identification procedure had been established by combining an artificial neural network with local optimization techniques. Currently, the selected numerical material input values are validated and optimized by means of more complex loading configurations with the prospect of establishing methods applicable to impact limiters under severe accidental conditions. The reference data base is provided by experiments, where weights between 212 kg and 1200 kg have been dropped from heights between 1.25 m and 7 m on confined 10 cm cubic foam specimens. By presenting the deviations between experimental values and the corresponding output of finite element simulations, the potentials and restrictions of the resulting models are highlighted. Systematic compression tests on polyurethane foams had been performed at BAM test site within the framework of a research project on impact limiters for handling casks for radioactive waste. The experimental results had been used to adapt numerical models for simulating the behaviour of different foam types at different temperatures. The loading speed, however, turned out to have a major influence on their flow curves that can not be captured by simple strain-rate dependent multipliers. Especially for guided drop tests that come close to real accidental scenarios there is a significant gap between experimental and numerical results even when applying such advanced material models. Hence, the extensive data base is currently deployed for expanding the standard algorithms to include adequate dynamic hardening factors. (authors)

  19. Compression effects on pressure loss in flexible HVAC ducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abushakra, Bass; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of compression on pressure drop in flexible, spiral wire helix core ducts used in residential and light commercial applications. Ducts of 6 inches, 8 inches and 10 inches (150, 200 and 250 mm) nominal diameters were tested under different compression configurations following ASHRAE Standard 120-1999--Methods of Testing to Determine Flow Resistance of HVAC Air Ducts and Fittings. The results showed that the available published references tend to underestimate the effects of compression. The study demonstrated that moderate compression in flexible ducts, typical of that often seen in field installations, could increase the pressure drop by a factor of four, while further compression could increase the pressure drop by factors close to ten. The results proved that the pressure drop correction factor for compressed ducts cannot be independent of the duct size, as suggested by ASHRAE Fundamentals, and therefore a new relationship was developed for better quantification of the pressure drop in flexible ducts. This study also suggests potential improvements to ASHRAE Standard 120-1999 and provides new data for duct design.

  20. Experimental Performance of R-1234yf and R-1234ze as Drop-in Replacements for R-134a in Domestic Refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karber, Kyle M [ORNL] [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concerns about anthropogenic climate change have generated an interest in low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants and have spawned policies and regulations that encourage the transition to low GWP refrigerants. Recent research has largely focused on hydrofluoroolefins (HFOs), including R-1234yf (GWP = 4) as a replacement for R-134a (GWP = 1430) in automotive air-conditioning applications. While R-1234yf and R-1234ze (GWP = 6) have been investigated theoretically as a replacements for R-134a in domestic refrigeration, there is a lack of experimental evidence. This paper gives experimental performance data for R-1234yf and R-1234ze as drop-in replacements for R134a in two household refrigerators one baseline and one advanced technology. An experiment was conducted to evaluate and compare the performance of R-134a to R-1234yf and R-1234ze, using AHAM standard HRF-1 to evaluate energy consumption. These refrigerants were tested as drop-in replacements, with no performance enhancing modifications to the refrigerators. In Refrigerator 1 and 2, R-1234yf had 2.7% and 1.3% higher energy consumption than R-134a, respectively. This indicates that R-1234yf is a suitable drop-in replacement for R-134a in domestic refrigeration applications. In Refrigerator 1 and 2, R-1234ze had 16% and 5.4% lower energy consumption than R-134a, respectively. In order to replace R-134a with R-1234ze in domestic refrigerators the lower capacity would need to be addressed, thus R-1234ze might not be suitable for drop-in replacement.

  1. Building Curiosity Landing System Drop Test [00:00:06]Hi, I'm Savannah McCoy and I'm the rover verification and validation lead.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waliser, Duane E.

    Building Curiosity ­ Landing System Drop Test [00:00:06]Hi, I'm Savannah McCoy and I'm the rover verification and validation lead. [00:00:11]My job is to run system-level tests on the rover's structure build two rovers in parallel. One's the flight rover [00:00:22]and one's the test rover, or DTM

  2. Probability of Potential Multi-Canister Overpack Loading System Drop of Proof Load in the K West Basin South Loadout Pit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SHULTZ, M.V.

    2000-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents the results of a probabilistic analysis of the potential for load drop during the load test of the K West Basin South Loadout Pit Gantry. The calculations are in support of the cask loading system (CLS) subproject load test of the gantry. The purpose of this calculation note is to document the probabilistic calculation of the per lift potential for drop of a test load by the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) Loading System (MLS) during load testing at the K West Basin south loadout pit. The MLS subproject needs to load test the MLS in the K West Basin south loadout pit. To perform this test, a basket mockup weighing approximately 4,500 lb (125% of a fully loaded MCO basket accounting for water displacement) needs to be used for one or more load tests. The test load will comprise a standard basket lifting attachment with several ring-shaped steel segments to provide the required weight. The test load will exceed the K Basin Safety Analysis Report (WHC-SD-WM-SAR-062) (SAR) allowances for load drop in the K West Basin south loadout pit. This probabilistic calculation will be used as part of the basis for seeking U.S. Department of Energy approval to use an MLS test weight that exceeds SAR allowances.

  3. Diode pumped solid state kilohertz disk laser system for time-resolved combustion diagnostics under microgravity at the drop tower Bremen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagner, Volker; Paa, Wolfgang; Triebel, Wolfgang [Institute of Photonic Technology, Laser Diagnostics, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 07745 Jena (Germany)] [Institute of Photonic Technology, Laser Diagnostics, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Eigenbrod, Christian; Klinkov, Konstantin [Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity, University Bremen, Am Fallturm, 28359 Bremen (Germany)] [Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity, University Bremen, Am Fallturm, 28359 Bremen (Germany); Larionov, Mikhail; Giesen, Adolf; Stolzenburg, Christian [Institut für Strahlwerkzeuge (IFSW), Pfaffenwaldring 43, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)] [Institut für Strahlwerkzeuge (IFSW), Pfaffenwaldring 43, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a specially designed diode pumped solid state laser system based on the disk laser architecture for combustion diagnostics under microgravity (?g) conditions at the drop tower in Bremen. The two-stage oscillator-amplifier-system provides an excellent beam profile (TEM{sub 00}) at narrowband operation (?? < 1 pm) and is tunable from 1018 nm to 1052 nm. The laser repetition rate of up to 4 kHz at pulse durations of 10 ns enables the tracking of processes on a millisecond time scale. Depending on the specific issue it is possible to convert the output radiation up to the fourth harmonic around 257 nm. The very compact laser system is integrated in a slightly modified drop capsule and withstands decelerations of up to 50 g (>11 ms). At first the concept of the two-stage disk laser is briefly explained, followed by a detailed description of the disk laser adaption to the drop tower requirements with special focus on the intended use under ?g conditions. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the capsule laser as a tool for ?g combustion diagnostics, we finally present an investigation of the precursor-reactions before the droplet ignition using 2D imaging of the Laser Induced Fluorescence of formaldehyde.

  4. The Transition between Star Clusters and Dwarf Galaxies -- On the existence of a mass-radius relation for star clusters of masses >10^7 Mo: are these objects formed in mergers of stellar systems?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markus Kissler-Patig; Andres Jordan; Nate Bastian

    2005-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    At which masses does the regime of globular clusters end and the one of dwarf galaxies begin? And what separates these two classes of hot stellar systems? We examine to what extend very massive (>10^7 Mo) young star clusters are similar to their lower mass counter parts and to which degree they resemble other objects in their mass regime (dwarf--globular transition objects (DGTOs), ultra compact dwarf galaxies (UCDs), galaxy nuclei). The comparison is performed by placing the recently observed very massive young clusters onto known scaling relation defined by globular clusters (with typical masses 10^{6.5-7} Mo) young clusters seem to show a mass--radius relation compatible with the one defined by hot stellar systems of galaxy mass. This, in turn, can explain their location on the other scaling relations investigated. It contrasts with the behaviour of the less massive young clusters and of globular clusters, which do not exhibit any mass-radius relation. However, the behaviour of the most massive clusters is similar to that of most other objects in that mass regime (10^6-10^8 Mo). We show that the properties of young massive clusters are compatible with other objects in the same mass regime such as DGTOs/UCDs. They present a possible direct avenue of formation for those objects, which does not require the transformation of a previously existing stellar system. Simulations and observations support the possibility of the formation of such very massive young clusters by early mergers of lower mass stellar clusters, which could explain the emergence of a mass--radius relation.

  5. ABSTRACT : Wave propagation phenomena in soils can be experimentally simulated using centrifuge scale models. An original excitation device (drop-ball arrangement) is proposed to generate short wave trains.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ABSTRACT : Wave propagation phenomena in soils can be experimentally simulated using centrifuge. Propagation is investigated through dispersion laws. For drop-ball experiments, spherical wave field analysis assuming linear viscoelasticity leads to a complete analytical description of wave propagation. Damping

  6. Rental rate includes liability insurance (LDW), vehicle licensing fees, unlimited roundtrip mileage; $0.25/mile for one-way rentals and no drop fees for vehicles that are picked up and returned in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold, Jonathan

    ; $0.25/mile for one-way rentals and no drop fees for vehicles that are picked up and returned in setting up direct billing for your department, please click link below: http://www

  7. Electron-exchange effects on the charge capture process in degenerate quantum plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Young-Dae, E-mail: ydjung@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, New York 12180-3590 (United States) [Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, New York 12180-3590 (United States); Department of Applied Physics and Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M. [Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Physics, 51745-406 Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of) [Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, Faculty of Sciences, Department of Physics, 51745-406 Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); International Centre for Advanced Studies in Physical Sciences and Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ruhr University Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The electron-exchange effects on the charge capture process are investigated in degenerate quantum plasmas. The Bohr-Lindhard formalism with the effective interaction potential is employed to obtain the charge capture radius, capture probability, and capture cross section as functions of the impact parameter, projectile energy, electron-exchange parameter, Fermi energy, and plasmon energy. The result shows that the electron-exchange effect enhances the charge capture radius and the charge capture cross section in semiconductor quantum plasmas. It is also found that the charge capture radius and charge capture cross section increases with an increase of the Fermi energy and, however, decreases with increasing plasmon energy. Additionally, it is found that the peak position of the charge capture cross section is receded from the collision center with an increase of the electron-exchange parameter.

  8. Case studies of low socioeconomic Mexican American graduates in the Austin Independent School District: why they didn't drop out

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duncan, Lucila Diaz

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    CASE STUDIES OF LOW SOCIOECONOMIC MEXICAN AMERICAN GRADUATES IN THE AUSTIN INDEPENDENT SCHOOL DISTRICT: WHY THEY DIDN?T DROP OUT A Record of Study by LUCILA DIAZ DUNCAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... Record of Study by LUCILA DIAZ DUNCAN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF EDUCATION Approved by: Chair of Committee, Linda Skrla Committee Members...

  9. STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF HYDROTHERMAL PROCESS CONDITIONS ON PASTA QUALITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF HYDROTHERMAL PROCESS CONDITIONS ON PASTA QUALITY Authors: Z. Maache Science 41, 3 (2005) 267-275" DOI : 10.1016/j.jcs.2004.10.008 #12;Abstract. Effect of hydrothermal. The Instantaneous Controlled Pressure Drop (DIC) treatment is defined as a hydrothermal treatment that involves

  10. Gamma Ray Burst engine activity within the quark nova scenario: Prompt emission, X-ray Plateau, and sharp drop-off

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan Staff; Brian Niebergal; Rachid Ouyed

    2007-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a three-stage model for a long GRB inner engine to explain the prompt gamma ray emission, and interpret recent Swift satellite observations of early X-ray afterglow plateaus followed by a sharp drop off or a shallow power law decay. The three stages involves a neutron star phase, a quark star (QS) and a black hole phase as described in Staff et al. (2007). We find that the QS stage allows for more energy to be extracted from neutron star to QS conversion as well as from ensuing accretion onto the QS. The QS accretion phase naturally extends the engine activity and can account for both the prompt emission and irregular early X-ray afterglow activity. Following the accretion phase, the QS can spin-down by emission of a baryon-free outflow. The magnetar-like magnetic field strengths resulting from the NS to QS transition provide enough spin-down energy, for the correct amount of time, to account for the plateau in the X-ray afterglow. In our model, a sharp drop-off following the plateau occurs when the QS collapses to a BH during the spin-down, thus shutting-off the secondary outflow. We applied our model to GRB 070110 and GRB 060607A and found that we can consistently account for the energetics and duration during the prompt and plateau phases.

  11. Evaluation of impact limiter performance during end-on and slapdown drop tests of a one-third scale model storage/transport cask system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshimura, H.R.; Bronowski, D.R.; Uncapher, W.L.; Attaway, S.W.; Bateman, V.I.; Carne, T.G.; Gregory, D.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Huerta, M. (Southwest Engineering Associates, El Paso, TX (USA))

    1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes drop testing of a one-third scale model shipping cask system. Two casks were designed and fabricated by Transnuclear, Inc., to ship spent fuel from the former Nuclear Fuel Services West Valley reprocessing facility in New York to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for a long-term spent fuel dry storage demonstration project. As part of the NRC's regulatory certification process, one-third scale model tests were performed to obtain experimental data on impact limiter performance during impact testing. The objectives of the testing program were to (1) obtain deceleration and displacement information for the cask and impact limiter system, (2) obtain dynamic force-displacement data for the impact limiters, (3) verify the integrity of the impact limiter retention system, and (4) examine the crush behavior of the limiters. Two 30-ft (9-m) drop tests were conducted on a mass model of the cask body and scaled balsa and redwood-filled impact limiters. This report describes the results of both tests in terms of measured decelerations, posttest deformation measurements, and the general structural response of the system. 3 refs., 32 figs.

  12. Physical and Chemical Characterization of Kuwaiti Atmospheric Dust and Synthetic Dusts: Effects on the Pressure Drop and Fractional Efficiency of HEPA Filters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Attar, I.; Wakeman, R. J.; Tarleton, E. S.; Husain, A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The importance of clean air to the indoor air quality affecting the well-being of human occupants and rising energy consumption has highlighted the critical role of air filter performance. Actual performance of air filters installed in air handling...

  13. The effects of channel diameter on flow pattern, void fraction and pressure drop of two-phase air-water flow in circular micro-channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saisorn, Sira [Energy Division, The Joint Graduate School of Energy and Environment (JGSEE), King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Wongwises, Somchai [Fluid Mechanics, Thermal Engineering and Multiphase Flow Research Lab. (FUTURE), Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi, Bangmod, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Two-phase air-water flow characteristics are experimentally investigated in horizontal circular micro-channels. Test sections are made of fused silica. The experiments are conducted based on three different inner diameters of 0.53, 0.22 and 0.15 mm with the corresponding lengths of 320, 120 and 104 mm, respectively. The test runs are done at superficial velocities of gas and liquid ranging between 0.37-42.36 and 0.005-3.04 m/s, respectively. The flow visualisation is facilitated by systems mainly including stereozoom microscope and high-speed camera. The flow regime maps developed from the observed flow patterns are presented. The void fractions are determined based on image analysis. New correlation for two-phase frictional multiplier is also proposed for practical applications. (author)

  14. 380 Solutions Manual x Fluid Mechanics, Fifth Edition If Y is negligible, drops out also, leaving: .AnsU

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    of viscosity. If the exponent n is less than (greater than) unity, the material simulates a pseudoplastic of windmill diameter D, wind velocity V, air density U, windmill height H as compared to atmospheric boundary layer height L, and the number of blades N: : fcn(D, V, U, H/L, N). Viscosity effects are negligible

  15. Infrared detection of (H2O)20 isomers of exceptional stability: a drop-like and a face-sharing pentagonal prism cluster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pradzynski, Christoph C.; Dierking, Christoph W.; Zurheide, Florian; Forck, Richard M.; Buck, Udo; Zeuch, Thomas; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2014-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Water clusters containing fully coordinated water molecules are model systems that mimic the local environment of the condensed phase. Present knowledge about the water cluster size regime in which the transition from the allsurface to the fully solvated water molecules occurs is mainly based on theoretical predictions in lieu of the absence of precisely size resolved experimental measurements. Here, we report size and isomer selective infrared (IR) spectra of (H2O)20 clusters tagged with a sodium atom by employing IR excitation modulated photoionization spectroscopy. The observed absorption patterns in the OH stretching ”fingerprint” region are consistent with the theoretically predicted spectra of two structurally distinct isomers: A drop-like cluster with a fully coordinated (interior) water and an edge-sharing pentagonal prism cluster in which all atoms are on the surface. The observed isomers show exceptional stability and are predicted to be nearly isoenergetic.

  16. Studies of 3D-cloud optical depth from small to very large values, and of the radiation and remote sensing impacts of larger-drop clustering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2007-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We have basically completed all the goals stated in the previous proposal and published or submitted journal papers thereon, the only exception being First-Principles Monte Carlo which has taken more time than expected. We finally finished the comprehensive book on 3D cloud radiative transfer (edited by Marshak and Davis and published by Springer), with many contributions by ARM scientists; this book was highlighted in the 2005 ARM Annual Report. We have also completed (for now) our pioneering work on new models of cloud drop clustering based on ARM aircraft FSSP data, with applications both to radiative transfer and to rainfall. This clustering work was highlighted in the FY07 “Our Changing Planet” (annual report of the US Climate Change Science Program). Our group published 22 papers, one book, and 5 chapters in that book, during this proposal period. All are listed at the end of this section. Below, we give brief highlights of some of those papers.

  17. Effect of doping on growth and field emission properties of spherical carbon nanotube tip placed over cylindrical surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santolia, Isha; Tewari, Aarti; Sharma, Suresh C.; Sharma, Rinku [Department of Applied Physics, Delhi Technological University, Shahbad Daulatpur, Bawana Road, Delhi 110 042 (India)

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Theoretical investigations to study the effect of doping of hetero-atoms on the growth and field emission properties of Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) tip placed over a cylindrical surface in complex plasma have been carried out. A theoretical model incorporating kinetics of plasma species such as electron, ions, and neutral atoms including doping elements like nitrogen (N) and boron (B) and energy balance of CNTs in a complex plasma has been developed. The effect of doping elements of N and B on the growth of CNTs, namely, the tip radius has been carried out for typical glow discharge plasma parameters. It is found that N and B as doping elements affect the radius of CNTs extensively. We obtain small radii of CNT doped with N and large radius of CNT doped with B. The field emission characteristics from CNTs have therefore been suggested on the basis of results obtained. Some of theoretical results are in compliance with the existing experimental observations.

  18. VOLUME 16, NUMBER 3 HVAC&R RESEARCH MAY 2010 The Effects of Filtration on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, Jeffrey

    VOLUME 16, NUMBER 3 HVAC&R RESEARCH MAY 2010 273 The Effects of Filtration on Pressure Drop and Energy Consumption in Residential HVAC Systems (RP-1299) Brent Stephens Atila Novoselac, PhD Jeffrey A of high-efficiency HVAC filters is a common strategy to control exposure to airborne particulate matter

  19. ISDAC Microphysics

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    McFarquhar, Greg

    Best estimate of cloud microphysical parameters derived using data collected by the cloud microphysical probes installed on the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada Convair-580 during ISDAC. These files contain phase, liquid and ice crystal size distributions (Nw(D) and Ni(D) respectively), liquid water content (LWC), ice water content (IWC), extinction of liquid drops (bw), extinction of ice crystals (bi), effective radius of water drops (rew) and of ice crystals (rei) and median mass diameter of liquid drops (Dmml) and of ice crystals (Dmmi) at 30 second resolution.

  20. Casimir Effect on the Worldline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holger Gies; Kurt Langfeld; Laurent Moyaerts

    2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a method to compute the Casimir effect for arbitrary geometries. The method is based on the string-inspired worldline approach to quantum field theory and its numerical realization with Monte-Carlo techniques. Concentrating on Casimir forces between rigid bodies induced by a fluctuating scalar field, we test our method with the parallel-plate configuration. For the experimentally relevant sphere-plate configuration, we study curvature effects quantitatively and perform a comparison with the ``proximity force approximation'', which is the standard approximation technique. Sizable curvature effects are found for a distance-to-curvature-radius ratio of a/R >~ 0.02. Our method is embedded in renormalizable quantum field theory with a controlled treatment of the UV divergencies. As a technical by-product, we develop various efficient algorithms for generating closed-loop ensembles with Gaussian distribution.

  1. Development and Manufacture of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James C. Leslie; James C. Leslie, II; Lee Truong; James T. Heard

    2006-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This technical report presents the engineering research, process development and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report presents progress made from October 1, 2005 through September 30, 2006 and contains the following discussions: Qualification Testing; Prototype Development and Testing of ''Smart Design'' Configuration; Field Test Demonstration; Development of Ultra-Short Radius Composite Drill Pipe (USR-CDP); and Development of Smart USR-CDP.

  2. Diesel prices see slight drop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to UserProduct: CrudeOfficeNERSC HelpsDieseldieselDieselDiesel prices see

  3. Kinetic effects on robustness of electron magnetohydrodynamic structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hata, M. [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Sakagami, H. [Fundamental Physics Simulation Research Division, National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Das, A. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Following recent remarkable progress in the development of high-power short-pulse lasers, exploration is ongoing into hitherto unknown phenomena at fast time scales of electrons, the understanding of which is becoming crucial. For a simplified description of such phenomena, the Electron Magnetohydrodynamics (EMHDs) fluid description is often adopted. For the possibility of electron transport in high-density plasma, exact solutions of the EMHD model in the form of electron vortex currents, together with their associated magnetic fields, have been considered. However, the fluid EMHD model does not incorporate kinetic effects. Here, the finite Larmor radius effects owing to a finite electron temperature on the robustness of the exact EMHD structures are investigated using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. It is found that larger EMHD vortex structures can sustain themselves for long periods, even in high temperature plasma; however, sustaining structures at higher temperatures tends to be difficult. With increasing temperature, electrons with finite Larmor radii become disengaged from the localized region. It is also shown that structures localized in smaller regions are more difficult to sustain. A quantitative criterion in terms of the structure size and Larmor radius has been established by simulations over a wide range of parameters. Finally, we conclude that a structure, larger than about eight times the typical Larmor radius at r=R, could form and exist even under the effects of finite electron temperature.

  4. Implementation of surface tension with wall adhesion effects in a three-dimensional finite element model for fluid flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    - 1 - Implementation of surface tension with wall adhesion effects in a three-dimensional finite element modelling of surface tension. The external stress vectors associated with surface tension a drop of liquid on a plane is treated. Keywords : surface tension, finite element method, average

  5. Effect of various solvents on core behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irby, Tom L

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -Section of Core Holder with Core 12 6. Effect of Dri-Film on Sessile Drop Ratios of Kerosene on Silica Crystals in Brine 7. Bar Graph Showing Results of Water Flood Test 8. Plot of Resistivity vs. Brine Saturation for Tests No. 1, 4, 7, 9 and 14 27 9. Plot... Resistance Measurements at Various Brine Saturations For Displacement of Brine with Kerosene 35 III. Electrical Resistance Measurements at Various Brine Saturations for Displacement of Brine with East Texas Crude-Kerosene Mixture 36 ABSTRACT Recently...

  6. Extended fluid models: Pressure tensor effects and equilibria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cerri, S. S. [Physics Department “E. Fermi,” University of Pisa and CNISM, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy) [Physics Department “E. Fermi,” University of Pisa and CNISM, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM association, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Henri, P. [Physics Department “E. Fermi,” University of Pisa and CNISM, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy) [Physics Department “E. Fermi,” University of Pisa and CNISM, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Université de Nice Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, BP 4229 06304, Nice Cedex 4 (France); Califano, F.; Pegoraro, F. [Physics Department “E. Fermi,” University of Pisa and CNISM, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy)] [Physics Department “E. Fermi,” University of Pisa and CNISM, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Del Sarto, D. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS – Université de Lorraine, BP 239 F-54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France)] [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198 CNRS – Université de Lorraine, BP 239 F-54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy (France); Faganello, M. [International Institute for Fusion Science/PIIM, UMR 7345 CNRS Aix-Marseille University, Marseille (France)] [International Institute for Fusion Science/PIIM, UMR 7345 CNRS Aix-Marseille University, Marseille (France)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the use of “extended fluid models” as a viable alternative to computationally demanding kinetic simulations in order to manage the global large scale evolution of a collisionless plasma while accounting for the main effects that come into play when spatial micro-scales of the order of the ion inertial scale d{sub i} and of the thermal ion Larmor radius ?{sub i} are formed. We present an extended two-fluid model that retains finite Larmor radius (FLR) corrections to the ion pressure tensor while electron inertia terms and heat fluxes are neglected. Within this model we calculate analytic FLR plasma equilibria in the presence of a shear flow and elucidate the role of the magnetic field asymmetry. Using a Hybrid Vlasov code, we show that these analytic equilibria offer a significant improvement with respect to conventional magnetohydrodynamic shear-flow equilibria when initializing kinetic simulations.

  7. On the Debye–Hückel effect of electric screening

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campos, L. M. B. C.; Lau, F. J. P. [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Aeronauticas e Espaciais (CCTAE) and Área Científica de Mecânica Aplicada e Aeroespacial (ACMAA), Instituto Superior Técnico IST, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper considers non-linear self-consistent electric potential equation (Sec. I), due to a cloud made of a single species of electric charges, satisfying a Boltzmann distribution law (Sec. II). Exact solutions are obtained in a simple logarithmic form, in three cases: (Sec. III) spherical radial symmetry; (Sec. IV) plane parallel symmetry; (Sec. V) a special case of azimuthal-cylindrical symmetry. All these solutions, and their transformations (Sec. VI), involve the Debye-Hückel radius; the latter was originally defined from a solution of the linearized self-consistent potential equation. Using an exact solution of the self-consistent potential equation, the distance at which the potential vanishes differs from the Debye-Hückel radius by a factor of ?(2). The preceding (Secs. II–VI) simple logarithmic exact solutions of the self-consistent potential equations involve no arbitrary constants, and thus are special or singular integrals not the general integral. The general solution of the self-consistent potential equation is obtained in the plane parallel case (Sec. VII), and it involves two arbitrary constants that can be reduced to one via a translation (Sec. VIII). The plots of dimensionless potential (Figure 1), electric field (Figure 2), charge density (Figure 3), and total charge between ? and infinity (Figure 4), versus distance normalized to Debye-Hückel radius ? ? z/a, show that (Sec. IX) there is a continuum of solutions, ranging from a charge distribution concentrated inside the Debye-Hückel radius to one spread-out beyond it. The latter case leads to the limiting case of logarithmic potential, and stronger electric field; the former case, of very concentrated charge distribution, leads to a fratricide effect and weaker electric field.

  8. Axisymmetric oscillation modes of a double droplet system

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ramalingam, Santhosh K.; Basaran, Osman A.

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A double droplet system (DDS) consists of a sessile and a pendant drop that are coupled through a liquid filled cylindrical hole in a plate of thickness d. For a small hole radius R, equilibrium shapes of both drops are sections of spheres. While DDSs have a number of applications in microfluidics, a DDS oscillating about its equilibrium state can be used as a fast focusing liquid lens. Here, a DDS consisting of an isothermal, incompressible Newtonian fluid of constant density p and constant viscosity u that is surrounded by a gas is excited by oscillating in time (a) the pressure in the gas surrounding either drop (pressure excitation), (b) the plate perpendicular to its plane (axial excitation), and (c) the hole radius (radial excitation). In contrast to previous works that assumed transient drop shapes are spherical, they are determined here by simulation and used to identify the natural modes of axisymmetric oscillations from resonances observed during frequency sweeps with DDSs for which the combined volume V of the two drops is less than (4/3)?R3. Pressure and axial excitations are found to have identical responses but axial and radial excitations are shown to excite different modes. These modes are compared to those exhibited by single pendant (sessile) drop systems. In particular, while a single pendant (sessile) drop has one additional oscillation mode compared to a free drop, a DDS is found to exhibit roughly twice as many oscillation modes as a pendant (sessile) drop. The effects of dimensionless volume V/R3, dimensionless plate thickness d/R, and Ohnesorge number Oh =?/??R? , where ? is the surface tension of the DDS-gas interface, on the resonance frequencies are also investigated.

  9. Axisymmetric oscillation modes of a double droplet system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramalingam, Santhosh K.; Basaran, Osman A.

    2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A double droplet system (DDS) consists of a sessile and a pendant drop that are coupled through a liquid filled cylindrical hole in a plate of thickness d. For a small hole radius R, equilibrium shapes of both drops are sections of spheres. While DDSs have a number of applications in microfluidics, a DDS oscillating about its equilibrium state can be used as a fast focusing liquid lens. Here, a DDS consisting of an isothermal, incompressible Newtonian fluid of constant density p and constant viscosity u that is surrounded by a gas is excited by oscillating in time (a) the pressure in the gas surrounding either drop (pressure excitation), (b) the plate perpendicular to its plane (axial excitation), and (c) the hole radius (radial excitation). In contrast to previous works that assumed transient drop shapes are spherical, they are determined here by simulation and used to identify the natural modes of axisymmetric oscillations from resonances observed during frequency sweeps with DDSs for which the combined volume V of the two drops is less than (4/3)?R3. Pressure and axial excitations are found to have identical responses but axial and radial excitations are shown to excite different modes. These modes are compared to those exhibited by single pendant (sessile) drop systems. In particular, while a single pendant (sessile) drop has one additional oscillation mode compared to a free drop, a DDS is found to exhibit roughly twice as many oscillation modes as a pendant (sessile) drop. The effects of dimensionless volume V/R3, dimensionless plate thickness d/R, and Ohnesorge number Oh =?/??R? , where ? is the surface tension of the DDS-gas interface, on the resonance frequencies are also investigated.

  10. The Effects of Indoor Air Velocity on Occupant Thermal Comfort in Winter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, J.; Chen, L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Maximize Comfort: Temperature, Humidity, and IAQ, Vol. I-2-5 The Effects of Indoor Air Velocity on Occupant Thermal Comfort in Winter Jiaolin Wang Lu Chen Postgrauate Master... surface temperature decline to reduce the body?s heat loss. Meanwhile shudder will promote the body?s heat production. So the temperature of organism doesn?t drop with decline of the environmental temperature. But if organism stays at cool environment...

  11. Preparations for the motional Stark effect diagnostic on EAST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, J.; Li, Y. Y.; Lyu, B., E-mail: blu@ipp.ac.cn; Sheng, P.; Wan, B. N. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Zhang, Y.; Yin, X. H.; Yu, Y.; Ye, M. Y. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Shi, Y. J. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); WCI for Fusion Theory, National Fusion Research Institute, 52 Eoeun-Dong, Yusung-Gu, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurement and control of the current profile is essential for high performance and steady state operation of Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). For this purpose, a conventional Motional Stark Effect (MSE) diagnostics utilizing photoelastic modulators is proposed and investigated. The pilot experiment includes one channel to verify the feasibility of MSE, whose sightline intersects with Neutral Beam Injection at major radius of R = 2.12 m. A beam splitter is adopted for simultaneous measurements of Stark multiplets and their polarization directions. A simplified simulation code was also developed to explore the Stark splitting spectra. Finally, the filter is optimized based on the viewing geometry and neutral beam parameters.

  12. Pressure drop, heat transfer, critical heat flux, and flow stability of two-phase flow boiling of water and ethylene glycol/water mixtures - final report for project "Efficent cooling in engines with nucleate boiling."

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, W.; France, D. M.; Routbort, J. L. (Energy Systems)

    2011-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Because of its order-of-magnitude higher heat transfer rates, there is interest in using controllable two-phase nucleate boiling instead of conventional single-phase forced convection in vehicular cooling systems to remove ever increasing heat loads and to eliminate potential hot spots in engines. However, the fundamental understanding of flow boiling mechanisms of a 50/50 ethylene glycol/water mixture under engineering application conditions is still limited. In addition, it is impractical to precisely maintain the volume concentration ratio of the ethylene glycol/water mixture coolant at 50/50. Therefore, any investigation into engine coolant characteristics should include a range of volume concentration ratios around the nominal 50/50 mark. In this study, the forced convective boiling heat transfer of distilled water and ethylene glycol/water mixtures with volume concentration ratios of 40/60, 50/50, and 60/40 in a 2.98-mm-inner-diameter circular tube has been investigated in both the horizontal flow and the vertical flow. The two-phase pressure drop, the forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient, and the critical heat flux of the test fluids were determined experimentally over a range of the mass flux, the vapor mass quality, and the inlet subcooling through a new boiling data reduction procedure that allowed the analytical calculation of the fluid boiling temperatures along the experimental test section by applying the ideal mixture assumption and the equilibrium assumption along with Raoult's law. Based on the experimental data, predictive methods for the two-phase pressure drop, the forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient, and the critical heat flux under engine application conditions were developed. The results summarized in this final project report provide the necessary information for designing and implementing nucleate-boiling vehicular cooling systems.

  13. Gyrofluid turbulence models with kinetic effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dorland, W.; Hammett, G.W.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonlinear gyrofluid equations are derived by taking moments of the nonlinear, electrostatic gyrokinetic equation. The principal model presented includes evolution equations for the guiding center n, u[parallel], T[parallel], and T[perpendicular] along with an equation expressing the quasineutrality constraint. Additional evolution equations for higher moments are derived which may be used if greater accuracy is desired. The moment hierarchy is closed with a Landau-damping model which is equivalent to a multi-pole approximation to the plasma dispersion function, extended to include finite Larmor radius effects. In particular, new dissipative, nonlinear terms are found which model the perpendicular phase-mixing of the distribution function along contours of constant electrostatic potential. These FLR phase-mixing'' terms introduce a hyperviscosity-like damping [proportional to] k[sub [perpendicular

  14. Aerodynamic effects in ink-jet printing on a moving web

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsiao, W.-K.; Hoath, S.D.; Martin, G.D.; Hutchings, I.M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hsiao, W.-K., Hoath, S.D., Martin, G.D. and Hutchings, I.M., paper for NIP28 2012, 'Aerodynamic effects in ink-jet printing on a moving web' (accepted) Aerodynamic Effects in Ink-Jet Printing on a Moving Web Wen-Kai Hsiao, Stephen D Hoath... airflow and the wakes from the printed ink drops should be investigated as the primary source of aerodynamically-related print quality issues. Introduction The scope of commercial ink-jet printing has extended significant- ly in recent years. For new...

  15. Scaling laws, transient times and shell effects in helium induced nuclear fission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Th. Rubehn; K. X. Jing; L. G. Moretto; L. Phair; K. Tso; G. J. Wozniak

    1996-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Fission excitation functions of He-3 and He-4 induced compound nuclei are shown to scale exactly according to the Bohr-Wheeler transition state prediction once the shell effects are accounted for. The presented method furthermore allows one to model-independently extract values for the shell effects which are in good agreement to those obtained from liquid-drop model calculations. The fact that no deviations from the transition state method have been observed within the experimentally investigated excitation energy regime allows one to assign an upper limit for the transient time of 10 zs.

  16. Insulating and sheathing materials of electric and optical cables - Common test methods - Part 5-1: Methods specific to filling compounds - Drop-point - Separation of oil - Lower temperature brittleness - Total acid number - Absence of corrosive components - Permittivity at 23 °C - DC resistivity at 23 °C and 100 °C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Specifies the test methods for filling compounds of electric cables used with telecommunication equipment. Gives the methods for drop-point, separation of oil, lower temperature brittleness, total acid number, absence of corrosive components, permittivity at 23 °C, d.c. resistivity at 23°C and 100°C.

  17. Distributed estimation of diameter, radius and eccentricities in anonymous networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    properties of being fully distributed, parallel and scalable. We analytically characterize the statistics of the network by maintaining a certain efficiency in communicating using less energy (Chen et al., 2002 to these results has received funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme [FP7/2007-2013] under

  18. ELECTROMAGNETIC CONSTRUCTION OF A 1 KM-RADIUS RADIATION SHIELD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in the light of recent studies on bootstrapped lunar solar-electric power plants, mass drivers, and autonomous-drivers, (g) teleoperation of lunar and orbital facilities, (h) orbital assembly of lunar-derived solar power presence beyond Earth is limited to a very few government employees and robots who are sent up, entirely

  19. Radius of B-8 halo from the asymptotic normalization coefficient

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carstoiu, F.; Trache, L.; Gagliardi, Carl A.; Tribble, Robert E.; Mukhamedzhanov, AM.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    W !& 5 ( lB ,mlB jBm jB ^JAM A jBm jBuJBM B& 3^JpM plBmlBu jbm jB&i lBY lBmlB~r? !IAplB jB B ~r !. ~1! A is the antisymmetrization operator, w is a bound-state IAplB jB B ~r !?CAplB jB B WhB ,lB11/2~2kBr ! r . ~3! Here CAplB jB B... overlap integrals I(r). The multipole expansion is carried out over lB , jB values allowed by angular momentum and parity conservation for the virtual process B?A1p . The overlap integral is not an eigenfunction of the total Hamiltonian, and hence...

  20. Exercise protocols during short-radius centrifugation for artificial gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edmonds, Jessica Leigh

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Long-duration spaceflight results in severe physiological deconditioning, threatening the success of interplanetary travel. Exercise combined with artificial gravity provided by centrifugation may be the comprehensive ...

  1. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Radius and refractive

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD) by Microtops AtmosphericApplication andAn AssessmentARMArcticCloudvariabilityandProfiles inindex of

  2. Surface evolver simulations of drops on microposts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthew L. Blow; Julia M. Yeomans

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An important feature in the design of superhydrophobic surfaces is their robustness against collapse from the Cassie-Baxter configuration to the Wenzel state. Upon such a transition a surface loses its properties of low adhesion and friction. We describe how to adapt the Surface Evolver algorithm to predict the parameters and mechanism of the collapse transition on posts of arbitrary shape. In particular, contributions to the free energy evaluated over the solid-liquid surface are reduced to line integrals to give good convergence. The algorithm is validated for straight, vertical and inclined, posts. Numerical results for curved posts with a horizontal section at their ends show that these are more efficient in stabilising the Cassie state than straight posts, and identify whether the interface first depins from the post sides or the post tips.

  3. Filling an emulsion drop with motile bacteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. D. Vladescu; E. J. Marsden; J. Schwarz-Linek; V. A. Martinez; J. Arlt; A. N. Morozov; D. Marenduzzo; M. E. Cates; W. C. K. Poon

    2014-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We have measured the spatial distribution of motile Escherichia coli inside spherical water droplets emulsified in oil. At low cell concentrations, the cell density peaks at the water-oil interface; at increasing concentration, the bulk of each droplet fills up uniformly while the surface peak remains. Simulations and theory show that the bulk density results from a `traffic' of cells leaving the surface layer, increasingly due to cell-cell scattering as the surface coverage rises above $\\sim 10\\%$. Our findings show similarities with the physics of a rarefied gas in a spherical cavity with attractive walls.

  4. Electromyographic responses to aerodynamic vs. drop handlebars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Layne, Donald Jodel

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    electrical stimulation of the muscles of the human body. Practical use of the knowledge that potentials exist within muscles first began with the development of the string galvanometer by Schweigger in 1820. Piper (1912) was the first to discuss...

  5. Dynamically reconfigurable optical packet switch (DROPS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, C H; Chou, H F; Bowers, J E; Toudeh-Fallah, F; Gyurek, R

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) enablesbased on the microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are the

  6. A Better Drop to Drink | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience hands-onASTROPHYSICSHe β- DecayBenew20-Year6 GeneralAAA BetterA

  7. Life in a drop of water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bagby, Sarah Catherine

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The last century of biology brought a revolution to our understanding of life at the molecular level; the last decade, a widening re-evaluation of the claim that understanding gained in vitro could reflect the true ...

  8. Correlation and dimensional effects of trions in carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Troels F. Rønnow; Thomas G. Pedersen; Horia D. Cornean

    2010-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the binding energies of singlet trions, i.e. charged excitons, in carbon nanotubes. The problem is modeled, through the effective-mass model, as a three-particle complex on the surface of a cylinder, which we investigate using both one- and two-dimensional expansions of the wave function. The effects of dimensionality and correlation are studied in detail. We find that the Hartree-Fock approximation significantly underestimates the trion binding energy. Combined with band structures calculated using a non-orthogonal nearest neighbour tight binding model, the results from the cylinder model are used to compute physical binding energies for a wide selection of carbon nanotubes. In addition, the dependence on dielectric screening is examined. Our findings indicate that trions are detectable at room temperature in carbon nanotubes with radius below 8{\\AA}.

  9. The effect of diamagnetic flows on turbulent driven ion toroidal rotation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, J. P. [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, New York 10003 (United States)] [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, New York 10003 (United States); Barnes, M. [Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)] [Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Parra, F. I. [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom)] [Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, Oxford University, Oxford OX1 3NP (United Kingdom); Belli, E. A.; Candy, J. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States)] [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Turbulent momentum redistribution determines the radial profile of rotation in a tokamak. The momentum transport driven by diamagnetic flow effects is an important piece of the radial momentum transport for sub-sonic rotation, which is often observed in experiments. In a non-rotating state, the diamagnetic flow and the E × B flow must cancel. The diamagnetic flow and the E × B flow have different effects on the turbulent momentum flux, and this difference in behavior induces intrinsic rotation. The momentum flux is evaluated using gyrokinetic equations that are corrected to higher order in the ratio of the poloidal Larmor radius to the minor radius, which requires evaluation of the diamagnetic corrections to Maxwellian equilibria. To study the momentum transport due to diamagnetic flow effects, three experimental observations of ion rotation are examined. First, a strong pressure gradient at the plasma edge is shown to result in a significant inward momentum transport due to the diamagnetic effect, which may explain the observed peaking of rotation in a high confinement mode. Second, the direction of momentum transport is shown to change as collisionality increases, which is qualitatively consistent with the observed reversal of intrinsic rotation by varying plasma density and current. Last, the dependence of the intrinsic momentum flux on the magnetic shear is found, and it may explain the observed rotation changes in the presence of lower hybrid current drive.

  10. Quantum size effects in classical hadrodynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nix, J.R.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The author discusses future directions in the development of classical hydrodynamics for extended nucleons, corresponding to nucleons of finite size interacting with massive meson fields. This new theory provides a natural covariant microscopic approach to relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions that includes automatically spacetime nonlocality and retardation, nonequilibrium phenomena, interactions among all nucleons, and particle production. The present version of the theory includes only the neutral scalar ({sigma}) and neutral vector ({omega}) meson fields. In the future, additional isovector pseudoscalar ({pi}{sup +}, {pi}{sup {minus}}, {pi}{sup 0}), isovector vector ({rho}{sup +}, {rho}{sup {minus}}, {rho}{sup 0}), and neutral pseudoscalar ({eta}) meson fields should be incorporated. Quantum size effects should be included in the equations of motion by use of the spreading function of Moniz and Sharp, which generates an effective nucleon mass density smeared out over a Compton wavelength. However, unlike the situation in electrodynamics, the Compton wavelength of the nucleon is small compared to its radius, so that effects due to the intrinsic size of the nucleon dominate.

  11. Mass and Angular Momentum of Black Holes: An Overlooked Effect of General Relativity Applied to the Galactic Center Black Hole Sgr A*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Aschenbach

    2006-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    I report the discovery of a new effect of General Relativity which is important to understand very rapidly rotating (Kerr) black holes. The orbital velocity of a test particle is no longer a monotonic function of the orbit radius when the spin of the black hole is >0.9953, but displays a local minimum-maximum structure for radii smaller than 1.8 gravitational radii. There the rate of change of the orbital velocity per radius unit equals the radial epicyclic frequency and is exactly one third of the polar epicyclic frequency, suggesting a 3:1 resonant oscillatory motion of the particle. If associated with the observed quasi-periods - including the most recent 2005/2006 data - the mass of the supermassive black hole Sgr A* in the centre of the our Galaxy is determined to 3.3 million solar masses and the spin is 0.99616.

  12. Effect of energetic electrons on near-wall sheath voltage in the cathode region of a cold cathode direct current discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blessington, J. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Adams, S. F. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); Demidov, V. I. [UES, Inc., 4401 Dayton-Xenia Road, Beavercreek, Ohio 45432 (United States); Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Williamson, J. M. [Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc., 2766 Indian Ripple Road, Ohio 45440-3638 (United States)

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It is experimentally demonstrated that energetic electrons originating from the cathode or produced in volumetric processes in the cathode region of a cold cathode direct current discharge can create a large potential drop in the near-wall sheath. This voltage drop may be much greater than kT{sub e}/e (where k is the Boltzmann constant, T{sub e} is the electron temperature, and e is the electron charge). Due to the large near-wall sheath voltage, slow and moderately energetic electrons cannot reach the wall and move toward the anode. Application of additional potentials to the wall can change the amount of energetic electrons reaching the wall. This effect can be used for regulation of the near-cathode plasma and near-wall sheath properties and thus may be useful in technical applications.

  13. Effective dynamics of a classical point charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polonyi, Janos, E-mail: polonyi@iphc.cnrs.fr

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effective Lagrangian of a point charge is derived by eliminating the electromagnetic field within the framework of the classical closed time path formalism. The short distance singularity of the electromagnetic field is regulated by an UV cutoff. The Abraham–Lorentz force is recovered and its similarity to quantum anomalies is underlined. The full cutoff-dependent linearized equation of motion is obtained, no runaway trajectories are found but the effective dynamics shows acausality if the cutoff is beyond the classical charge radius. The strength of the radiation reaction force displays a pole in its cutoff-dependence in a manner reminiscent of the Landau-pole of perturbative QED. Similarity between the dynamical breakdown of the time reversal invariance and dynamical symmetry breaking is pointed out. -- Highlights: •Extension of the classical action principle for dissipative systems. •New derivation of the Abraham–Lorentz force for a point charge. •Absence of a runaway solution of the Abraham–Lorentz force. •Acausality in classical electrodynamics. •Renormalization of classical electrodynamics of point charges.

  14. Induced Current and Aharonov-Bohm Effect in Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Jackiw; A. I. Milstein; S. -Y. Pi; I. S. Terekhov

    2009-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of vacuum polarization in the field of an infinitesimally thin solenoid at distances much larger than the radius of solenoid is investigated. The induced charge density and induced current are calculated. Though the induced charge density turned out to be zero, the induced current is finite periodical function of the magnetic flux $\\Phi$. The expression for this function is found exactly in a value of the flux. The induced current is equal to zero at the integer values of $\\Phi/\\Phi_0$ as well as at half-integer values of this ratio, where $\\Phi_0=2\\pi\\hbar c/e$ is the elementary magnetic flux. The latter is a consequence of the Furry theorem and periodicity of the induced current with respect to magnetic flux. As an example we consider the graphene in the field of solenoid perpendicular to the plane of a sample.

  15. DEVELOPMENT AND MANUFACTURE OF COST EFFECTIVE COMPOSITE DRILL PIPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James C. Leslie; James C. Leslie II; Lee Truong; James T. Heard

    2003-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This technical report presents the engineering research and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report presents accomplishments made from October 1, 2002 through September 30, 2003. The following have been accomplished and are reported in detail herein: Metal-to-Composite Interface (MCI) redesign and testing; Successful demonstration of MCI connection for both SR and ER/DW CDP; Specifications for a 127mm (5 inch) ID by 152.4 mm (6 inch) OD composite drill pipe have been finalized for Extended Reach/Deep Water applications (ER/DW); Field testing of Short Radius CDP (SR); Sealing composite laminate to contain high pressure; Amendments; Amendment for ''Smart'' feature added to ER/DW development along with time and funding to complete battery of qualification tests with option for field demonstration; and Preparation of papers for publication and conference presentations.

  16. Effects of Enhanced Eathode Electron Emission on Hall Thruster Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y. Raitses, A. Smirnov and N. J. Fisch

    2009-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Interesting discharge phenomena are observed that have to do with the interaction between the magnetized Hall thruster plasma and the neutralizing cathode. The steadystate parameters of a highly ionized thruster discharge are strongly influenced by the electron supply from the cathode. The enhancement of the cathode electron emission above its self-sustained level affects the discharge current and leads to a dramatic reduction of the plasma divergence and a suppression of large amplitude, low frequency discharge current oscillations usually related to an ionization instability. These effects correlate strongly with the reduction of the voltage drop in the region with the fringing magnetic field between the thruster channel and the cathode. The measured changes of the plasma properties suggest that the electron emission affects the electron cross-field transport in the thruster discharge. These trends are generalized for Hall thrusters of various configurations.

  17. Size effect on the electronic and optical band gap of CdSe QD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sisodia, Namita, E-mail: namitasisodiya@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Holkar Science College, Indore-45200 (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Present paper deals with a critical and comprehensive analysis of the dependence of photo emission (PE) electronic band gap and optical absorption (OA) excitonic band gap on the size of CdSe QD, via connecting it with excitonic absorbance wavelength. Excitonic absorbance wavelength is determined through an empirical fit of established experimental evidences. Effective excitonic charge and Bohr radius is determined as a function of size. Increase in size of the CdSe QD results in greater Bohr radius and smaller effective excitonic charge. Excitonic binding energy as a degree of size of QD is also calculated which further relates with the difference in PE electronic and OA optical band gaps. It is also shown that with increase in size of CdSe QD, the excitonic binding energy decreases which consequently increases differences in two band gaps. Our results are very well comparable with the established results. Explanation for the origin of the unusual optical properties of CdSe QD has been also discussed.

  18. Rapid disappearance of shell effects in the fission of transfermium nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hulet, E.K.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the last fifteen years we have learned that nuclear shells have a very broad and pervasive impact on the fission process. In the first few decades after the discovery of nuclear fission, the nucleus was treated as a drop of liquid with smoothly varying attractive and repulsive forces. Although this model still forms the underlying basis for fission, we also observe large effects from the superimposition of shell corrections derived from coupling the quantum states of individual nucleons. The consequences of single-particle coupling on the fission process can be striking and may often overshadow that originating from the intrinsic liquid-drop component. Here, we point out several major features attributable to shell effects in the spontaneous fission (SF) of the lighter actinides, the sudden transition to symmetric fission in the fermium isotopes, and finally new experimental information indicating another transition in the SF of transfermium nuclides due to the disappearance of shell perturbations. In each transition, the abruptness is surprising, and for the moment, such rapid changes in fission behavior lack a theoretical rationale.

  19. A new model of cloud drop distribution that simulates the observed drop

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered‰PNGExperience hands-onASTROPHYSICSHeResearchcharm thatA8 14theA new

  20. Bell-Plesset effects for an accelerating interface with contiguous density gradients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amendt, P

    2005-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A Plesset-type treatment [J. Appl. Phys. 25, 96 (1954)] is used to assess the effects of contiguous density gradients at an accelerating spherical classical interface on Rayleigh-Taylor and Bell-Plesset perturbation growth. Analytic expressions are obtained that describe enhanced Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth from contiguous density gradients aligned with the acceleration and which increase the effective Atwood number of the perturbed interface. A new pathway for geometric amplification of surface perturbations on an accelerating interface with contiguous density gradients is identified. A resonance condition between the density-gradient scalelength and the radius of the interface is also predicted based on a linearized analysis of Bernoulli's equation, potentially leading to enhanced perturbation growth. Comparison of the analytic treatment with detailed two-dimensional single-mode growth-factor simulations shows good agreement for low-mode numbers where the effects of spherical geometry are most manifested.

  1. Ripple Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wythe, Kathy

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    policies and practices might have on producers? incomes and water savings, as well as the ripple effects on the regional economy. Drs. Steve Amosson of Texas Cooperative Extension in Amarillo, Lal K. Almas of West Texas A&M University, Jeff Peterson... will do to the Ripple Effects Water conservation policies, practices impact Ogallala region?s economy Ripple Effects Story by Kathy Wythe tx H2O | pg. 27 overall economy and society in the region, including household incomes and employment levels...

  2. Effect of substitution of In for Co on magnetostructural coupling and magnetocaloric effect in MnCo{sub 1-x}In{sub x}Ge compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, R. R.; Bao, L. F.; Hu, F. X., E-mail: fxhu@iphy.ac.cn, E-mail: hufx@g203.iphy.ac.cn; Wang, J.; Zheng, X. Q.; Liu, Y.; Sun, J. R.; Shen, B. G. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and State Key Laboratory of Magnetism, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Effect of replacement of Co by In with larger atomic radius but fewer valence numbers on magnetostructural coupling and magnetocaloric effect is studied in MnCo{sub 1-x}In{sub x}Ge compounds. The substitution of Co by a small amount of In (1.5%–2%) can shift martensitic transformation T{sub stru} to lower temperature and make it overlap with Curie temperature T{sub C}. As a result, magnetostructural coupling is created and large entropy change (?S) takes place. Further increasing In content to x?=?0.03 leads to decoupling, but the martensitic transition (T{sub stru} ? 249?K) is still close to the magnetic transition (T{sub c}{sup A}???269?K). As a result, two close ?S peaks appear. Mechanism related to different large entropy change in the coupled and decoupled samples are discussed.

  3. Gyrofluid turbulence models with kinetic effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dorland, W.; Hammett, G.W.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonlinear gyrofluid equations are derived by taking moments of the nonlinear, electrostatic gyrokinetic equation. The principal model presented includes evolution equations for the guiding center n, u{parallel}, T{parallel}, and T{perpendicular} along with an equation expressing the quasineutrality constraint. Additional evolution equations for higher moments are derived which may be used if greater accuracy is desired. The moment hierarchy is closed with a Landau-damping model which is equivalent to a multi-pole approximation to the plasma dispersion function, extended to include finite Larmor radius effects. In particular, new dissipative, nonlinear terms are found which model the perpendicular phase-mixing of the distribution function along contours of constant electrostatic potential. These ``FLR phase-mixing`` terms introduce a hyperviscosity-like damping {proportional_to} k{sub {perpendicular}}{sup 2}{vert_bar}{Phi}{sub {rvec k}}{rvec k} {times}{rvec k}{prime}{vert_bar} which should provide a physics-based damping mechanism at high k{perpendicular}{rho} which is potentially as important as the usual polarization drift nonlinearity. The moments are taken in guiding center space to pick up the correct nonlinear FLR terms and the gyroaveraging of the shear. The equations are solved with a nonlinear, three dimensional initial value code. Linear results are presented, showing excellent agreement with linear gyrokinetic theory.

  4. A numerical study of the effect of different aerosol types on East Asian summer clouds and precipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Yiquan; Liu, Xiaohong; Yang, Xiuqun; Wang, Minghuai

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The impact of anthropogenic aerosol on the East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) is investigated with NCAR CAM5, a state-of-the-art climate model with aerosol’s direct and indirect effects. Results indicate that anthropogenic aerosol tends to cause a weakened EASM with a southward shift of precipitation in East Asia mostly by its radiative effect. Anthropogenic aerosol induced surface cooling stabilizes the boundary layer, suppresses the convection and latent heat release in northern China, and reduces the tropospheric temperature over land and land-sea thermal contrast, thus leading to a weakened EASM. Meanwhile, acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), anthropogenic aerosol can significantly increase the cloud droplet number concentration but decrease the cloud droplet effective radius over Indochina and Indian Peninsulas as well as over southwestern and northern China, inhibiting the precipitation in these regions. Thus, anthropogenic aerosol tends to reduce Southeast and South Asian summer monsoon precipitation by its indirect effect.

  5. Main-Sequence Effective Temperatures from a Revised Mass-Luminosity Relation Based on Accurate Properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eker, Z; Soydugan, E; Bilir, S; Gokce, E Yaz; Steer, I; Tuysuz, M; Senyuz, T; Demircan, O

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mass-luminosity (M-L), mass-radius (M-R) and mass-effective temperature ($M-T_{eff}$) diagrams for a subset of galactic nearby main-sequence stars with masses and radii accurate to $\\leq 3\\%$ and luminosities accurate to $\\leq 30\\%$ (268 stars) has led to a putative discovery. Four distinct mass domains have been identified, which we have tentatively associated with low, intermediate, high, and very high mass main-sequence stars, but which nevertheless are clearly separated by three distinct break points at 1.05, 2.4, and 7$M_{\\odot}$ within the mass range studied of $0.38-32M_{\\odot}$. Further, a revised mass-luminosity relation (MLR) is found based on linear fits for each of the mass domains identified. The revised, mass-domain based MLRs, which are classical ($L \\propto M^{\\alpha}$), are shown to be preferable to a single linear, quadratic or cubic equation representing as an alternative MLR. Stellar radius evolution within the main-sequence for stars with $M>1M_{\\odot}$ is clearly evident on the M-R d...

  6. EFFECT OF UNCERTAINTIES IN STELLAR MODEL PARAMETERS ON ESTIMATED MASSES AND RADII OF SINGLE STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basu, Sarbani [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States); Verner, Graham A.; Chaplin, William J.; Elsworth, Yvonne, E-mail: sarbani.basu@yale.edu, E-mail: gav@bison.ph.bham.ac.uk, E-mail: w.j.chaplin@bham.ac.uk, E-mail: y.p.elsworth@bham.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Accurate and precise values of radii and masses of stars are needed to correctly estimate properties of extrasolar planets. We examine the effect of uncertainties in stellar model parameters on estimates of the masses, radii, and average densities of solar-type stars. We find that in the absence of seismic data on solar-like oscillations, stellar masses can be determined to a greater accuracy than either stellar radii or densities; but to get reasonably accurate results the effective temperature, log g, and metallicity must be measured to high precision. When seismic data are available, stellar density is the most well-determined property, followed by radius, with mass the least well-determined property. Uncertainties in stellar convection, quantified in terms of uncertainties in the value of the mixing length parameter, cause the most significant errors in the estimates of stellar properties.

  7. Dependence of the wave function of a bound nucleon on its momentum and the EMC effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atti, C. Ciofi degli; Frankfurt, L. L.; Kaptari, L. P.; Strikman, M. I. [Department of Physics, University of Perugia and INFN Sezione di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, RU-141980 JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation) and Department of Physics, University of Perugia and INFN Sezione di Perugia, Via A. Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Department of Physics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It is widely discussed in the literature that the wave function of the nucleon bound in a nucleus is modified by the interaction with the surrounding medium. We argue that the modification should strongly depend on the momentum of the nucleon. We study such an effect in the case of the pointlike configuration component of the wave function of a nucleon bound in a nucleus A, considering the case of arbitrary final states of the spectator A-1 system. We show that for nonrelativistic values of the nucleon momentum, the momentum dependence of the nucleon deformation appears to follow from rather general considerations and discuss the implications of our theoretical observation for two different phenomena: (i) the search for medium-induced modifications of the nucleon radius of a bound nucleon through the measurement of the electromagnetic nucleon form factors via the A(e,e{sup '}p)X process and (ii) the A dependence of the EMC effect.

  8. Effect of energetic electrons on dust charging in hot cathode filament discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kakati, B.; Kausik, S. S.; Saikia, B. K. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Nazirakhat, Sonapur 782 402, Kamrup, Assam (India); Bandyopadhyay, M. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of energetic electrons on dust charging for different types of dust is studied in hydrogen plasma. The hydrogen plasma is produced by hot cathode filament discharge method in a dusty plasma device. A full line cusped magnetic field cage is used to confine the plasma elements. To study the plasma parameters for various discharge conditions, a cylindrical Langmuir probe having 0.15 mm diameter and 10.0 mm length is used. An electronically controlled dust dropper is used to drop the dust particles into the plasma. For different discharge conditions, the dust current is measured using a Faraday cup connected to an electrometer. The effect of secondary emission as well as discharge voltage on charging of dust grains in hydrogen plasma is studied with different dust.

  9. Coarse-coal hydrotransport studies using the separate effects test stand: FY 1980-1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powers, T.B.

    1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Separate Effects Test Stand (SETS) was built to evaluate the rotating pipe-wheel stand concept for hydrotransport testing and to obtain hydrotransport data in support of the US Department of Energy's Hydraulic Transport Research Facility (HTRF). The SETS program involved three phases of testing. The first phase was to evaluate the wheel test stand as an adequate mechanism for testing the hydrotransport of coarse-particle coal through pipe. The second phase was to obtain preliminary data on coal head loss (flow pressure drop) during hydrotransport. The third phase was to determine the effects of coal hydrotransport on water quality. Other data obtained during the program included pipe wear and the size degradation of coal particles. The SETS was tested with water only and the resultant head loss data were compared with head loss values recorded for water flow in staight pipe. These tests were run to determine how well the SETS modeled straight pipe flow.

  10. Application of a generalized matrix averaging method for the calculation of the effective properties of thin multiferroic layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starkov, A. S. [St. Petersburg National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, Institute of Refrigeration and Biotechnology (Russian Federation); Starkov, I. A., E-mail: ferroelectrics@ya.ru [Brno University of Technology, SIX Research Centre (Czech Republic)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It is proposed to use a generalized matrix averaging (GMA) method for calculating the parameters of an effective medium with physical properties equivalent to those of a set of thin multiferroic layers. This approach obviates the need to solve a complex system of magnetoelectroelasticity equations. The required effective characteristics of a system of multiferroic layers are obtained using only operations with matrices, which significantly simplifies calculations and allows multilayer systems to be described. The proposed approach is applicable to thin-layer systems, in which the total thickness is much less than the system length, radius of curvature, and wavelengths of waves that can propagate in the system (long-wave approximation). Using the GMA method, it is also possible to obtain the effective characteristics of a periodic structure with each period comprising a number of thin multiferroic layers.

  11. System Effectiveness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powell, Danny H [ORNL] [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An effective risk assessment system is needed to address the threat posed by an active or passive insider who, acting alone or in collusion, could attempt diversion or theft of nuclear material. It is critical that a nuclear facility conduct a thorough self-assessment of the material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) system to evaluate system effectiveness. Self-assessment involves vulnerability analysis and performance testing of the MPC&A system. The process should lead to confirmation that mitigating features of the system effectively minimize the threat, or it could lead to the conclusion that system improvements or upgrades are necessary to achieve acceptable protection against the threat. Analysis of the MPC&A system is necessary to understand the limits and vulnerabilities of the system to internal threats. Self-assessment helps the facility be prepared to respond to internal threats and reduce the risk of theft or diversion of nuclear material. MSET is a self-assessment or inspection tool utilizing probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) methodology to calculate the system effectiveness of a nuclear facility's MPC&A system. MSET analyzes the effectiveness of an MPC&A system based on defined performance metrics for MPC&A functions based on U.S. and international best practices and regulations. A facility's MC&A system can be evaluated at a point in time and reevaluated after upgrades are implemented or after other system changes occur. The total system or specific subareas within the system can be evaluated. Areas of potential performance improvement or system upgrade can be assessed to determine where the most beneficial and cost-effective improvements should be made. Analyses of risk importance factors show that sustainability is essential for optimal performance. The analyses reveal where performance degradation has the greatest detrimental impact on total system risk and where performance improvements have the greatest reduction in system risk. The risk importance factors show the amount of risk reduction achievable with potential upgrades and the amount of risk reduction actually achieved after upgrades are completed. Applying the risk assessment tool gives support to budget prioritization by showing where budget support levels must be sustained for MC&A functions most important to risk. Results of the risk assessment are also useful in supporting funding justifications for system improvements that significantly reduce system risk.

  12. Development and Manufacture of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James C. Leslie; James C. Leslie II; Lee Truong; James T. Heard; Steve Loya

    2006-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This technical report presents the engineering research, process development and data accomplishments that have transpired to date in support of the development of Cost Effective Composite Drill Pipe (CDP). The report presents progress made from October 1, 2004 through September 30, 2005 and contains the following discussions: (1) Qualification Testing; (2) Prototype Development and Testing of ''Smart Design'' Configuration; (3) Field Test Demonstration; and (4) Commercial order for SR-CDP from Torch International. The objective of this contract is to develop and demonstrate ''cost effective'' Composite Drill Pipe. It is projected that this drill pipe will weigh less than half of its steel counter part. The resultant weight reduction will provide enabling technology that will increase the lateral distance that can be reached from an offshore drilling platform and the depth of water in which drilling and production operations can be carried out. Further, composite drill pipe has the capability to carry real time signal and power transmission within the pipe walls. CDP can also accommodate much shorter drilling radius than is possible with metal drill pipe. As secondary benefits, the lighter weight drill pipe can increase the storage capability of floating off shore drilling platforms and provide substantial operational cost savings.

  13. Charged and neutral hyperonic effects on the driplines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Roy Chowdhury; C. Samanta; D. N. Basu

    2006-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Modification of neutron and proton driplines by the capture of strange hyperon(s) by normal nuclei has been investigated. A generalised mass formula (BWMH) based on the strangeness dependent extended liquid drop model is used to calculate the binding energy of normal nuclei as well as strange hypernuclei. The neutron (Sn) and proton (Sp) separation energies of all hypernuclei with neutral hyperons Lambda, double Lambda or charged hyperons Cascade(-), Theta(+) inside are calculated using BWMH mass formula. The normal neutron and proton driplines get modified due to the addition of the hyperon(s)(Lambda, double Lambda, Cascade(-), Theta(+) etc.) to the core of normal nuclei. The hypernuclei containing the charged hyperon(s) like those with neutral hyperon(s) have similar nucleon separation energies like core nuclei if proton number instead of net charge is used in the symmetry term. Due to the effect of opposite charges present in Theta(+) and Cascade(-), hyperons their corresponding driplines get separated from each other. All the hyperons modify mean field potential due to strong hyperon-nucleon coupling. Addition of a single charged hyperon in normal nuclei affects the entire proton drip line more prominently than that by neutral hyperon. The neutral hyperonic effect on proton dripline is significant for lighter nuclei than for heavier ones whereas both the charged as well as neutral hyperons affect almost the entire neutron dripline.

  14. Effect of water in salt repositories. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baes, C.F. Jr.; Gilpatrick, L.O.; Kitts, F.G.; Bronstein, H.R.; Shor, A.J.

    1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Additional results confirm that during most of the consolidation of polycrystalline salt in brine, the previously proposed rate expression applies. The final consolidation, however, proceeds at a lower rate than predicted. The presence of clay hastens the consolidation process but does not greatly affect the previously observed relationship between permeability and void fraction. Studies of the migration of brine within polycrystalline salt specimens under stress indicate that the principal effect is the exclusion of brine as a result of consolidation, a process that evidently can proceed to completion. No clear effect of a temperature gradient could be identified. A previously reported linear increase with time of the reciprocal permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine was confirmed, though the rate of increase appears more nearly proportional to the product of sigma ..delta..P rather than sigma ..delta..P/sup 2/ (sigma is the uniaxial stress normal to the interface and ..delta..P is the hydraulic pressure drop). The new results suggest that a limiting permeability may be reached. A model for the permeability of salt-crystal interfaces to brine is developed that is reasonably consistent with the present results and may be used to predict the permeability of bedded salt. More measurements are needed, however, to choose between two limiting forms of the model.

  15. Acceleration and Parallax Effects in Gravitational Microlensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. C. Smith; S. Mao; B. Paczynski

    2003-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    To generate the standard microlensing light curve one assumes that the relative motion of the source, the lens, and the observer is linear. In reality, the relative motion is likely to be more complicated due to accelerations of the observer, the lens and the source. The simplest approximation beyond the linear-motion assumption is to add a constant acceleration. Microlensing light curves due to accelerations can be symmetric or asymmetric depending on the angle between the acceleration and the velocity. We show that it is possible that some of the previously reported shorter marginal parallax events can be reproduced with constant-acceleration models, while the longer, multi-year parallax events are ill-fitted by such models. We find that there is a generic degeneracy inherent in constant-acceleration microlensing models. We also find that there is an equivalent degeneracy in parallax models, which manifests itself in short-duration events. The importance of this new parallax degeneracy is illustrated with an example, using one of these marginal parallax events. Our new analysis suggests that another of these previously suspected parallax candidate events may be exhibiting some weak binary-source signatures. If this turns out to be true, spectroscopic observations of the source could determine some parameters in the model and may also constrain or even determine the lens mass. We also point out that symmetric light curves with constant accelerations can mimic blended light curves, producing misleading Einstein-radius crossing time-scales when fitted by the standard `blended' microlensing model; this may have some effect on the estimation of optical depth.

  16. Thermal Effects of Circumplanetary Disk Formation around Proto-Gas Giant Planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Machida, Masahiro N

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The formation of a circumplanetary disk and accretion of angular momentum onto a protoplanetary system are investigated using 3D hydrodynamical simulations. The local region around a protoplanet in a protoplanetary disk is considered with sufficient spatial resolution: the region from outside the Hill sphere to the Jovian radius is covered by the nested-grid method. To investigate the thermal effects of the circumplanetary disk, various equations of state are adopted. Large thermal energy around the protoplanet slightly changes the structure of the circumplanetary disk. Compared with a model adopting an isothermal equation of state, in a model with an adiabatic equation of state, the protoplanet's gas envelope extends farther, and a slightly thick disk appears near the protoplanet. However, different equations of state do not affect the acquisition process of angular momentum for the protoplanetary system. Thus, the specific angular momentum acquired by the system is fitted as a function only of the protoplan...

  17. The Effect of Radiative Feedback on Bondi--Hoyle Flow around a Massive Star

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. G. Edgar; Cathie Clarke

    2003-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We apply an algorithm for radiative feedback on a dusty flow (detailed in Edgar and Clarke (2003)) to the problem of Bondi--Hoyle accretion. This calculation is potentially relevant to the formation of massive stars in ultradense cores of stellar clusters. We find that radiative feedback is \\emph{more effective} than in the case of previous calculations in spherical symmetry. The Bondi-Hoyle geometry implies that material is flowing nearly tangentially when it experiences the sharp radiative impulse at the dust destruction radius, and consequently it is readily perturbed into outflowing orbits. We find that it is difficult for stellar masses to grow beyond around 10 M_sol (for standard interstellar dust abundances). We discuss the possible implications of this result for the formation mechanism of OB stars in cluster cores. We end by proposing a series of conditions which must be fulfilled if Bondi--Hoyle accretion is to continue.

  18. Improving Bulk Microphysics Parameterizations in Simulations of Aerosol Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yuan; Fan, Jiwen; Zhang, Renyi; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Franklin, Charmaine N.

    2013-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    To improve the microphysical parameterizations for simulations of the aerosol indirect effect (AIE) in regional and global climate models, a double-moment bulk microphysical scheme presently implemented in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model is modified and the results are compared against atmospheric observations and simulations produced by a spectral bin microphysical scheme (SBM). Rather than using prescribed aerosols as in the original bulk scheme (Bulk-OR), a prognostic doublemoment aerosol representation is introduced to predict both the aerosol number concentration and mass mixing ratio (Bulk-2M). The impacts of the parameterizations of diffusional growth and autoconversion and the selection of the embryonic raindrop radius on the performance of the bulk microphysical scheme are also evaluated. Sensitivity modeling experiments are performed for two distinct cloud regimes, maritime warm stratocumulus clouds (SC) over southeast Pacific Ocean from the VOCALS project and continental deep convective clouds (DCC) in the southeast of China from the Department of Energy/ARM Mobile Facility (DOE/AMF) - China field campaign. The results from Bulk-2M exhibit a much better agreement in the cloud number concentration and effective droplet radius in both the SC and DCC cases with those from SBM and field measurements than those from Bulk-OR. In the SC case particularly, Bulk-2M reproduces the observed drizzle precipitation, which is largely inhibited in Bulk-OR. Bulk-2M predicts enhanced precipitation and invigorated convection with increased aerosol loading in the DCC case, consistent with the SBM simulation, while Bulk-OR predicts the opposite behaviors. Sensitivity experiments using four different types of autoconversion schemes reveal that the autoconversion parameterization is crucial in determining the raindrop number, mass concentration, and drizzle formation for warm 2 stratocumulus clouds. An embryonic raindrop size of 40 ?m is determined as a more realistic setting in the autoconversion parameterization. The saturation adjustment employed in calculating condensation/evaporation in the bulk scheme is identified as the main factor responsible for the large discrepancies in predicting cloud water in the SC case, suggesting that an explicit calculation of diffusion growth with predicted supersaturation is necessary for further improvements of the bulk microphysics scheme. Lastly, a larger rain evaporation rate below cloud is found in the bulk scheme in comparison to the SBM simulation, which could contribute to a lower surface precipitation in the bulk scheme.

  19. Influence of image charge effect on exciton fine structure in an organic-inorganic quantum well material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takagi, Hidetsugu; Kunugita, Hideyuki; Ema, Kazuhiro [Department of Physics, Sophia University, 7-1 Kioi-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Sato, Mikio; Takeoka, Yuko [Department of Materials and Life Sciences, Sophia University, 7-1 Kioi-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan)

    2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated experimentally excitonic properties in organic-inorganic hybrid multi quantum well crystals, (C{sub 4}H{sub 9}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}PbBr{sub 4} and (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}?C{sub 2}H{sub 4}NH{sub 3}){sub 2}PbBr{sub 4}, by measuring photoluminescence, reflectance, photoluminescence excitation spectra. In these materials, the excitonic binding energies are enhanced not only by quantum confinement effect (QCE) but also by image charge effect (ICE), since the dielectric constant of the barrier layers is much smaller than that of the well layers. By comparing the 1s-exciton and 2s-exciton energies, we have investigated the influence of ICE with regard to the difference of the Bohr radius.

  20. Review on the effects of hydrogen at extreme pressures and temperatures on the mechanical behavior of polymers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hecht, Ethan S.

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects of hydrogen on the mechanics (e.g. strength, ductility, and fatigue resistance) of polymer materials are outlined in this report. There are a small number of studies reported in the literature on this topic, and even fewer at the extreme temperatures to which hydrogen service materials will be exposed. Several studies found little evidence that hydrogen affects the static tensile properties, long term creep, or ductile fracture of high density polyethylene or polyamide. However, there has been a report that a recoverable drop in the modulus of high density polyethylene is observable under high hydrogen pressure. A research need exists on the mechanical effects of hydrogen on the wide range of polymers used or considered for use in the hydrogen economy, due to the lack of data in the literature.

  1. Effects of operating conditions on a heat transfer fluid aerosol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sukmarg, Passaporn

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of heat transfer fluid aerosols from process leaks. To simulate industrial leaks, aerosol formation from a plain orifice into ambient air is studied by measuring liquid drop sizes and size distributions at various distances from an orifice. Measurements...

  2. Shell effects in hot nuclei and their influence on nuclear composition in supernova matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishimura, Suguru [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Takano, Masatoshi [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555, Japan and Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan)

    2014-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate nuclear composition in supernova (SN) matter explicitly taking into account the temperature dependence of nuclear shell effects. The abundance of nuclei in SN matter is important in the dynamics of core-collapse supernovae and, in recently constructed equations of state (EOS) for SN matter, the composition of nuclei are calculated assuming nuclear statistical equilibrium wherein the nuclear internal free energies govern the composition. However, in these EOS, thermal effects on the shell energy are not explicitly taken into account. To address this shortfall, we calculate herein the shell energies of hot nuclei and examine their influence on the composition of SN matter. Following a simplified macroscopic-microscopic approach, we first calculate single-particle (SP) energies by using a spherical Woods-Saxon potential. Then we extract shell energies at finite temperatures using Strutinsky method with the Fermi distribution as the average occupation probability of the SP levels. The results show that at relatively low temperatures, shell effects are still important and magic nuclei are abundant. However, at temperatures above approximately 2 MeV, shell effects are almost negligible, and the mass fractions with shell energies including the thermal effect are close to those obtained from a simple liquid drop model at finite temperatures.

  3. Nuclear structure effects in light muonic atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pachucki, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear structure corrections to energy levels of light muonic atoms are derived with particular attention to the correct nuclear mass dependence. The obtained result for the 2P-2S transition of 1.717(19) meV serves for determination of the nuclear charge radius from the spectroscopic measurement in muonic deuterium.

  4. Development and Manufacture of Cost-Effective Composite Drill Pipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James C. Leslie

    2008-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced Composite Products and Technology, Inc. (ACPT) has developed composite drill pipe (CDP) that matches the structural and strength properties of steel drill pipe, but weighs less than 50 percent of its steel counterpart. Funding for the multiyear research and development of CDP was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy through the Natural Gas and Oil Projects Management Division at the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). Composite materials made of carbon fibers and epoxy resin offer mechanical properties comparable to steel at less than half the weight. Composite drill pipe consists of a composite material tube with standard drill pipe steel box and pin connections. Unlike metal drill pipe, composite drill pipe can be easily designed, ordered, and produced to meet specific requirements for specific applications. Because it uses standard joint connectors, CDP can be used in lieu of any part of or for the entire steel drill pipe section. For low curvature extended reach, deep directional drilling, or ultra deep onshore or offshore drilling, the increased strength to weight ratio of CDP will increase the limits in all three drilling applications. Deceased weight will reduce hauling costs and increase the amount of drill pipe allowed on offshore platforms. In extreme extended reach areas and high-angle directional drilling, drilling limits are associated with both high angle (fatigue) and frictional effects resulting from the combination of high angle curvature and/or total weight. The radius of curvature for a hole as small as 40 feet (12.2 meters) or a build rate of 140 degrees per 100 feet is within the fatigue limits of specially designed CDP. Other properties that can be incorporated into the design and manufacture of composite drill pipe and make it attractive for specific applications are corrosion resistance, non-magnetic intervals, and abrasion resistance coatings. Since CDP has little or no electromagnetic force fields up to 74 kilohertz (KHz), a removable section of copper wire can be placed inside the composite pipe to short the tool joints electrically allowing electromagnetic signals inside the collar to induce and measure the same within the rock formation. By embedding a pair of wires in the composite section and using standard drill pipe box and pin ends equipped with a specially developed direct contact joint electrical interface, power can be supplied to measurement-while-drilling (MWD) and logging-while-drilling (LWD) bottom hole assemblies. Instantaneous high-speed data communications between near drill bit and the surface are obtainable utilizing this 'smart' drilling technology. The composite drill pipe developed by ACPT has been field tested successfully in several wells nationally and internationally. These tests were primarily for short radius and ultra short radius directional drilling. The CDP in most cases performed flawlessly with little or no appreciable wear. ACPT is currently marketing a complete line of composite drill collars, subs, isolators, casing, and drill pipe to meet the drilling industry's needs and tailored to replace metal for specific application requirements.

  5. Instrumentation for a multichord motional Stark effect diagnostic in KSTAR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, J., E-mail: jinil@nfri.re.kr; Ko, J. [National Fusion Research Institute, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); De Bock, M. F. M.; Jaspers, R. J. E. [Eindhoven University of Technology, 5612 AZ, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic is used to measure the radial magnetic pitch angle profile in neutral beam heated plasmas. This information is used to calculate the safety factor, q, with magnetic equilibrium reconstruction codes such as EFIT. The MSE diagnostic is important during active shaping of the q profile to optimize confinement and stability, and it has become a key diagnostic in high performance tokamaks. A multichord photo-elastic modulator (PEM) based MSE system is being developed for a real-time plasma current profile control in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR). The PEM-based approach is a standard method that measures the polarization direction of a single Stark line with narrow tunable bandpass filters. A tangential view of the heating beam provides good spatial resolution of 1–3 cm, which provides an opportunity to install 25 spatial channels spanning the major radius from 1.74 m to 2.84 m. Application of real-time control is a long-term technical goal after commissioning the diagnostic in KSTAR, which is expected in 2015. In this paper, we describe the design of this newly-constructed multichord MSE diagnostic in KSTAR.

  6. Discreteness effects in cosmological N-body simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James Binney

    2003-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    An estimate of the convergence radius of a simulated CDM halo is obtained under the assumption that the peak phase-space density in the system is set by discreteness effects that operate prior to relaxation. The predicted convergence radii are approximately a factor 2 larger than those estimated for numerical convergence studies. A toy model is used to study the formation of sheets of the cosmic web, from which DM haloes form later. This model demonstrates the interplay between phase mixing and violent relaxation that must also be characteristic of spherical collapse. In the limit that sheets contain arbitrarily many particles, it seems that power-law profiles are established in both distance and energy. When only a finite number of particles is employed, relaxation is prematurely terminated and the power laws are broken. In a given simulation, the sheets with the highest peak phase-space densities are those that form from the longest waves. Hence simulations with little small-scale power are expected to form the cuspiest haloes.

  7. POWER LEVEL EFFECT IN A PWR ROD EJECTION ACCIDENT.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DIAMOND,D.J.; BROMLEY,B.P.; ARONSON,A.L.

    2002-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of the initial power level during a rod ejection accident (REA) on the ejected rod worth and the resulting energy deposition in the fuel. The model used is for the hot zero power (HZP) conditions at the end of a typical fuel cycle for the Three Mile Island Unit 1 pressurized water reactor. PARCS, a transient, three-dimensional, two-group neutron nodal diffusion code, coupled with its own thermal-hydraulics model, is used to perform both steady-state and transient simulations. The worth of an ejected control rod is affected by both power level, and the positions of control banks. As the power level is increased, the worth of a single central control rod tends to drop due to thermal-hydraulic feedback and control bank removal, both of which flatten the radial neutron flux and power distributions. Although the peak fuel pellet enthalpy rise during an REA will be greater for a given ejected rod worth at elevated initial power levels, it is more likely the HZP condition will cause a greater net energy deposition because an ejected rod will have the highest worth at HZP. Thus, the HZP condition can be considered the most conservative in a safety evaluation.

  8. Thermal Effects of Circumplanetary Disk Formation around Proto-Gas Giant Planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masahiro N. Machida

    2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The formation of a circumplanetary disk and accretion of angular momentum onto a protoplanetary system are investigated using 3D hydrodynamical simulations. The local region around a protoplanet in a protoplanetary disk is considered with sufficient spatial resolution: the region from outside the Hill sphere to the Jovian radius is covered by the nested-grid method. To investigate the thermal effects of the circumplanetary disk, various equations of state are adopted. Large thermal energy around the protoplanet slightly changes the structure of the circumplanetary disk. Compared with a model adopting an isothermal equation of state, in a model with an adiabatic equation of state, the protoplanet's gas envelope extends farther, and a slightly thick disk appears near the protoplanet. However, different equations of state do not affect the acquisition process of angular momentum for the protoplanetary system. Thus, the specific angular momentum acquired by the system is fitted as a function only of the protoplanet's mass. A large fraction of the total angular momentum contributes to the formation of the circumplanetary disk. The disk forms only in a compact region in very close proximity to the protoplanet. Adapting the results to the solar system, the proto-Jupiter and Saturn have compact disks in the region of r < 21 r_J (r < 0.028 r_HJ) and r < 66 r_S (r < 0.061 r_HS), respectively, where r_J (r_HJ) and r_S (r_HS) are the Jovian and Saturnian (Hill) radius, respectively. The surface density has a peak in these regions due to the balance between centrifugal force and gravity of the protoplanet. The size of these disks corresponds well to the outermost orbit of regular satellites around Jupiter and Saturn. Regular satellites may form in such compact disks around proto-gas giant planets.

  9. Water-lithium bromide double-effect absorption cooling analysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vliet, G.C.; Lawson, M.B.; Lithgow, R.A.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This investigation involved the development of a numerical model for the transient simulation of the double-effect, water-lithium bromide absorption cooling machine, and the use of the model to determine the effect of the various design and input variables on the absorption unit performance. The performance parameters considered were coefficient of performance and cooling capacity. The sensitivity analysis was performed by selecting a nominal condition and determining performance sensitivity for each variable with others held constant. The variables considered in the study include source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water temperatures; source hot water, cooling water, and chilled water flow rates; solution circulation rate; heat exchanger areas; pressure drop between evaporator and absorber; solution pump characteristics; and refrigerant flow control methods. The performance sensitivity study indicated in particular that the distribution of heat exchanger area among the various (seven) heat exchange components is a very important design consideration. Moreover, it indicated that the method of flow control of the first effect refrigerant vapor through the second effect is a critical design feature when absorption units operate over a significant range of cooling capacity. The model was used to predict the performance of the Trane absorption unit with fairly good accuracy. The dynamic model should be valuable as a design tool for developing new absorption machines or modifying current machines to make them optimal based on current and future energy costs.

  10. Polarization-independent optical wavelength filter for channel dropping applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deri, Robert J. (Pleasanton, CA); Patterson, Frank (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The polarization dependence of optical wavelength filters is eliminated by using waveguide directional couplers. Material birefringence is used to compensate for the waveguide (electromagnetic) birefringence which is the original cause of the polarization dependence. Material birefringence is introduced in a controllable fashion by replacing bulk waveguide layers by finely layered composites, such as multiple quantum wells using III-V semiconductor materials. The filter has use in wavelength-division-multiplexed fiber optic communication systems. This filter has broad application for wavelength-tunable receivers in fiber optic communication links, which may be used for telecommunications, optical computer interconnect links, or fiber optic sensor systems. Since multiple-wavelength systems are increasingly being used for all of these applications, the filter is useable whenever a rapidly tunable, wavelength-filtering receiver is required.

  11. High speed shadowgraphy for the study of liquid drops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castrejon-Pita, J.R.; Castrejon-Garcia, R.; Hutchings, I.M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the separation and size of the electrodes and the surrounding medium. Many of the commercially available systems use argon gas, and produce pulse durations of the order of 5 to 20 ns, 9 to 25 mJ of electric flash ener- gy, and utilize 3- 5 kV power supplies... Sciences Ltd A-series single nozzle CIJ printer with a re- ported nozzle diameter of 60 µm. Essentially, in CIJ mode the liquid is pumped continuously into the head, generating an internal pressure which drives the liquid through the nozzle and creates a...

  12. Drop-in replacement biofuels : meeting the challenge .

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhargava, Alok (Alok Kishore)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??This thesis presents a discussion on the challenges that must be met to fulfill the U.S. Navy's strategic imperatives for its energy vision. It provides… (more)

  13. U-199: Drupal Drag & Drop Gallery Module Arbitrary File Upload...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The vulnerability is caused due to the sitesallmodulesdragdropgalleryupload.php script improperly validating uploaded files, which can be exploited to execute...

  14. Polarization-independent optical wavelength filter for channel dropping applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deri, R.J.; Patterson, F.

    1996-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The polarization dependence of optical wavelength filters is eliminated by using waveguide directional couplers. Material birefringence is used to compensate for the waveguide (electromagnetic) birefringence which is the original cause of the polarization dependence. Material birefringence is introduced in a controllable fashion by replacing bulk waveguide layers by finely layered composites, such as multiple quantum wells using III-V semiconductor materials. The filter has use in wavelength-division multiplexed fiber optic communication systems. This filter has broad application for wavelength-tunable receivers in fiber optic communication links, which may be used for telecommunications, optical computer interconnect links, or fiber optic sensor systems. Since multiple-wavelength systems are increasingly being used for all of these applications, the filter is useable whenever a rapidly tunable, wavelength-filtering receiver is required. 14 figs.

  15. Drops of Energy Conserving Urban Water in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    , and unpredictable water supplies. In addition, rising sea levels from global warming and glacial melting threaten like to thank Anne Finucane, Global Chief Strategy and Marketing Officer, and Chair of the Bank

  16. Puget Sound acidity levels drop after ASARCO shutdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The levels of acidity in Puget Sound region rainfall have decreased significantly since the shutdown of the ASARCO copper smelter in Tacoma, Washington, according to a study funded by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Results indicate that sulfate and hydrogen ion concentrations obtained from samples taken before the closure were significantly different than those collected after the shutdown. Rainwater samples collected downwind during smelter operation were also significantly different from those collected upwind. Sulfur dioxide is considered to be one of the principal contributors to acid rain. The smelter was a major source of sulfur dioxide emissions in the Puget Sound region before it shut down in March 1985.

  17. QUICK FACTS Official Development Assistance (ODA) dropped from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    % of the population lacks access to electricity.There is an urgent need to strengthen global public-private the public sector and 63% through the private sector. Making available the benefits of new technologies, in cooperation with the private sector,has seen rapid progress in bridging the gap on the mobile phone sector

  18. A drop-in-concept for deep borehole canister emplacement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bates, Ethan Allen

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disposal of high-level nuclear waste in deep boreholes drilled into crystalline bedrock (i.e., "granite") is an interesting repository alternative of long standing. Work at MIT over the past two decades, and more recently ...

  19. Virginia store chain drops EMS, blames overspecification. [CFM Associates, Richmond

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deans, B.

    1982-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    CFM Associates Inc. blames oversophistication and the lack of manual override for its decision to replace Sunkeeper energy management systems (EMS) with simplier equipment before it finishes paying for the five Sunkeeper systems. The manufacturer blames store personnel and the stores' owners for refusing to accept training and a service contract for reducing the 25% energy savings obtained during the first year. The systems are blamed for interrupting store operations by rendering equipment inoperative, which is unacceptable in food stores. (DCK)

  20. Pion production in relativistic collisions of nuclear drops

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alonso, C.T.; Wilson, J.R.; McAbee, T.L.; Zingman, J.A.

    1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a continuation of the long-standing effort of the nuclear physics community to model atomic nuclei as droplets of a specialized nuclear fluid, we have developed a hydrodynamic model for simulating the collisions of heavy nuclei at relativistic speeds. Our model couples ideal relativistic hydrodynamics with a new Monte Carlo treatment of dynamic pion production and tracking. The collective flow for low-energy (200 MeV/N) collisions predicted by this model compares favorably with results from earlier hydrodynamic calculations which used quite different numerical techniques. Our pion predictions at these lower energies appear to differ, however, from the experimental data on pion multiplicities. In this case of ultra-relativistic (200 GeV/N) collisions, our hydrodynamic model has produced baryonic matter distributions which are in reasonable agreement with recent experimental data. These results may shed some light on the sensitivity of relativistic collision data to the nuclear equation of state. 20 refs., 12 figs.

  1. Undergraduate Education KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacAdam, Keith

    ) In this foundational course you will start from the human past, explore the role of the Agricultural Revolution 10 asanalysesofliterarytexts,film

  2. California: Advanced 'Drop-In' Biofuels Power the Navy's Green...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Developing Cheaper Algae Biofuels, Brings Jobs to Pennsylvania Fueling the Navy's Great Green Fleet with Advanced Biofuels Cellana, Inc.'s Kona Demonstration Facility is working...

  3. Control of emulsion drop production in flow focusing microfluidics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Haejune

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Generating droplets using flow-focusing microfluidics in multiphase flows has reached its limit that it cannot generate submicrometer droplets in size. Flow focusing geometry together with an electric field has been used to make smaller droplets...

  4. Diffuse-Interface Simulations of Drop Coalescence and Retraction in ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2004-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    In nature and in industrial processes, many such materials have components that are complex ... are balanced through the nonlocal mixing energy. In contrast ..... drainage commences, the strain rate starts to decrease in time. .... curve fitting.

  5. Working with partners: Institute is making every drop count

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orth, Melanie

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    manager; Leslie Lee, program assistant; Jaclyn Tech, software applications manager; Courtney Swyden, training program coordinator; and Supercinski. TWRI?s Water Resources Training Program offers training Story by Melanie Orth txH2O | pg. 3... ary Payt on, D r. B. L. Ha rris, and Kath y Wo odar d; (front row, left to right) Aaron Hoff, Danielle Supercinski, Allen Berthold, Kathy Wythe, Leslie Lee, Courtney Swyden, and Sarah Seidel. ...

  6. Fat Man Dropped on Nagasaki | National Nuclear Security Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing ZirconiaPolicy andExsolutionFES6FYRANDOMOverview The652 Please note thatFast,Fat

  7. Eliminate Excessive In-Plant Distribution System Voltage Drops | Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists'Montana.Program - LibbyofThisStatementNOTElectricityof Energy Studies indicate

  8. Eliminate Excessive In-Plant Distribution System Voltage Drops

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecord ofESPC ENABLE: ECMConstruction andElectrolytes |inExcessive In-Plant

  9. Little Boy Dropped on Hiroshima | National Nuclear Security Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: VegetationEquipment Surfaces and Interfaces Sample6, 2011LiisaInnovation Portal Solar

  10. NREL: Technology Transfer - Discovering Drop-In Biofuels to Leverage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the Contributions andData and ResourcesOther Federal AgencyTransformation

  11. NREL: Transportation Research - Discovering Drop-In Biofuels to Leverage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the Contributions andData and ResourcesOtherForecastingAlternative FuelPetroleum

  12. The 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey: The blue galaxy fraction and implications for the Butcher-Oemler effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberto De Propris; Matthew Colless; John Peacock; Warrick Couch; Simon Driver; Michael Balogh; Ivan Baldry; Carlton Baugh; Joss Bland-Hawthorn; Terry Bridges; Russell Cannon; Shaun Cole; Chris Collins; Nicholas Cross; Gavin Dalton; George Efstathiou; Richard Ellis; Carlos Frenk; Karl Glazebrook; Edward Hawkins; Carole Jackson; Ofer Lahav; Ian Lewis; Stuart Lumsden; Steve Maddox; Darren Madgwick; Peder Norberg; Will Percival; Bruce Peterson; Will Sutherland; Keith Taylor

    2004-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive the fraction of blue galaxies in a sample of clusters at z < 0.11 and the general field at the same redshift. The value of the blue fraction is observed to depend on the luminosity limit adopted, cluster-centric radius and, more generally, local galaxy density, but it does not depend on cluster properties. Changes in the blue fraction are due to variations in the relative proportions of red and blue galaxies but the star formation rate for these two galaxy groups remains unchanged. Our results are most consistent with a model where the star formation rate declines rapidly and the blue galaxies tend to be dwarfs and do not favour mechanisms where the Butcher-Oemler effect is caused by processes specific to the cluster environment.

  13. Electron Transport Behavior on Gate Length Scaling in Sub-50 nm GaAs Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Jaeheon [Department of Electronic Engineering, Kangnam University, 111 Gugal-dong, Giheung-gu, Yongin-city, Gyeonggi-do, Korea 446-702 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Short channel GaAs Metal Semiconductor Field Effect Transistors (MESFETs) have been fabricated with gate length to 20 nm, in order to examine the characteristics of sub-50 nm MESFET scaling. Here the rise in the measured transconductance is mainly attributed to electron velocity overshoot. For gate lengths below 40 nm, however, the transconductance drops suddenly. The behavior of velocity overshoot and its degradation is investigated and simulated by using a transport model based on the retarded Langevin equation (RLE). This indicates the existence of a minimum acceleration length needed for the carriers to reach the overshoot velocity. The argument shows that the source resistance must be included as an internal element, or appropriate boundary condition, of relative importance in any model where the gate length is comparable to the inelastic mean free path of the carriers.

  14. Experimental investigation of interfacial shear in downward, two-phase, annular, co-current flow with diameter effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hajiloo, M.

    1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An experimental rig has been designed and built to provide two phase annular cocurrent downward flow of air and water in tubes of four different inside diameters, ranging from 1.563 cm - 4.127 cm. Flow rates of the phases and static pressure drop were measured over a range of liquid film Reynolds numbers from 5000 to 26,700, and a range of air Reynolds numbers of 4500 to 21,400. The resulting data for the skin friction coefficient are in qualitative agreement with most previously obtained pertinent data. Various ways of presenting the data are explored and discussed, including the use of superficial, true, and relative gas velocities. The effect of the controlled parameters on the skin friction coefficient is discussed, and the importance of the dependence of skin friction coefficient on tube diameter is emphasized.

  15. WASC EDUCATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS REVIEW EDUCATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS APPROACH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    of institutional review and planning within which we address the educational effectiveness of our programs. In our our students, our courses, and our programs to assure continued and enhanced educational vitalityWASC EDUCATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS REVIEW EDUCATIONAL EFFECTIVENESS APPROACH UC Santa Cruz ... ranked

  16. The EMC effect in effective field theory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Detmold, William [Department of Physics, Box 351560, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2005-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Using effective field theory, we investigate nuclear modification of nucleon parton distributions (for example, the EMC effect). We show that the universality of the shape distortion in nuclear parton distributions (the factorisation of the Bjorken x and atomic number (A) dependence) is model independent and emerges naturally in effective field theory. We present simple fits to experimental data that incorporate this factorisation.

  17. Adequacy for Algebraic Effects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plotkin, Gordon; Power, John

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Moggi proposed a monadic account of computational effects. He also presented the computational lamda-calculus, c, a core call-by-value functional programming language for effects; the effects are obtained by adding ...

  18. EFFECTS OF LOCAL DISSIPATION PROFILES ON MAGNETIZED ACCRETION DISK SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Ted [Department of Physics, St. Mary's College of Maryland, St. Mary's City, MD 20686 (United States); Blaes, Omer [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)

    2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We present spectral calculations of non-LTE accretion disk models appropriate for high-luminosity stellar mass black hole X-ray binary systems. We first use a dissipation profile based on scaling the results of shearing box simulations of Hirose et al. to a range of annuli parameters. We simultaneously scale the effective temperature, orbital frequency, and surface density with luminosity and radius according to the standard {alpha}-model. This naturally brings increased dissipation to the disk surface layers (around the photospheres) at small radii and high luminosities. We find that the local spectrum transitions directly from a modified blackbody to a saturated Compton scattering spectrum as we increase the effective temperature and orbital frequency while decreasing midplane surface density. Next, we construct annuli models based on the parameters of a L/L{sub Edd} = 0.8 disk orbiting a 6.62 solar mass black hole using two modified dissipation profiles that explicitly put more dissipation per unit mass near the disk surface. The new dissipation profiles are qualitatively similar to the one found by Hirose et al., but produce strong near power-law spectral tails. Our models also include physically motivated magnetic acceleration support based once again on scaling the Hirose et al. results. We present three full-disk spectra, each based on one of the dissipation prescriptions. Our most aggressive dissipation profile results in a disk spectrum that is in approximate quantitative agreement with certain observations of the steep power-law spectral states from some black hole X-ray binaries.

  19. The influence of the curvature dependence of the surface tension on the geometry of electrically charged menisci

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramiro dell'Erba; Francesco dell'Isola; Giacomo Rotoli

    2010-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We evaluate how the curvature dependence of surface tension affects the shape of electrically charged interfaces between a perfectly conducting fluid and its vapour. We consider two cases: i) spherical droplets in equilibrium with their vapour; ii) menisci pending in a capillary tube in presence of a conducting plate at given electric potential drop. Tolman-like dependence of surface tension on curvature becomes important when the "nucleation radius" is comparable with the interface curvature radius. In case i) we prove existence of the equilibrium minimal radius and estimate its dependence on the electric field and Tolmanlike curvature effects. In case ii) the menisci are subject to the gravitational force, surface tension and electrostatic fields We determine the unknown surface of the menisci to which the potential is assigned using an iterative numerical method and show that Tolman-like corrections imply: 1) a variation of the height (up to 10% in some cases) of the tip of the menisci; 2) a decrease of the maximum electrical potential applicable to the menisci before their breakdown amounting to 40V over 800V in the considered cases. We conjecture that these effects could be used in new experiments based on electric measurements to determine the dependence of the equilibrium surface tension on curvature

  20. An analytical model to predict curvature effects of the carbon nanotube on the overall behavior of nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, B. J.; Souri, H.; Lee, H. K., E-mail: leeh@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sunghwan; Ryu, Seunghwa [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, analytical expressions are introduced to provide a better understanding of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) curvature on the overall behavior of nanocomposites. The curviness of CNT is modeled as the wave geometries, and the transformed physical characteristics are applied to micromechanical framework. Since five independent elastic constants of CNTs are essential to derive the waviness effect, atomistic molecular statics simulations with varying nanotube radii are conducted. Influences of CNT curviness on the effective stiffness of the nanocomposites are analyzed, noting that the curvature effect is significantly influential on the effective stiffness of the nanocomposites, and it may improve or reduce the reinforcing effect depending on the orientation of CNTs. In addition, the predictions are compared with experimental data of the CNT-reinforced nanocomposites to assess the reliability of the proposed method. The developed constitutive model is expected to be used to determine the volume concentration of the reinforcing CNTs and mechanical responses of CNT-reinforced composites under various CNT curvature, radius, and orientation conditions.

  1. E-Print Network 3.0 - axisymmetric varying-radius waveguides...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    -Fourier Method the Cylindrical Waveguide With Axially Rippled Wall Joaquim Jos Barroso, Joaquim Paulino Leite... Neto, and Konstantin G. Kostov Abstract--Axially corrugated...

  2. E-Print Network 3.0 - adiabatic major radius Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ATOMIC, MOLECULAR AND OPTICAL PHYSICS Summary: molecules are investigated. The Born-Oppenheimer adiabatic representation of the two-body dynamics provides... at r r0 R0D. 3....

  3. Dependence of the signal-to-noise ratio on the radius of cylindrical scintillators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zav'yalkin, F.M.; Osipov, S.P.; Zubkov, Y.G.

    1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of a theoretical and experimental investigation conducted of the dependence of the signalto noise ratio of the scintillator of a radiometric inspection device with the use of photon emission in the energy range 0.5-5 MeV. Analytical expressions are given.

  4. Absolutely and uniformly convergent iterative approach to inverse scattering with an infinite radius of convergence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kouri, Donald J. (Houston, TX); Vijay, Amrendra (Houston, TX); Zhang, Haiyan (Houston, TX); Zhang, Jingfeng (Houston, TX); Hoffman, David K. (Ames, IA)

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and system for solving the inverse acoustic scattering problem using an iterative approach with consideration of half-off-shell transition matrix elements (near-field) information, where the Volterra inverse series correctly predicts the first two moments of the interaction, while the Fredholm inverse series is correct only for the first moment and that the Volterra approach provides a method for exactly obtaining interactions which can be written as a sum of delta functions.

  5. A study of the minimum meniscus radius as a function of vapor temperature using heat pipes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sonnier, Ronald James

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    /sec 2 latent heat of vaporization, BTU/lb m wick permeability, ft 2 length, ft molecular weight, ibm water parameter, hf pfof/uf fgff f pressure, lbf/ft 2 desorption pressure, lbf/ft 2 saturation pressure, lbf/ft 2 heat transfer rate, BTU... into Cosgrove's equation, assuming the temperature is uni- form inside the heat pipe, replacing the sum of the section lengths by the total length of the heat pipe, and combining the fluid prop- erties into one var1able there is obtained N = hf pfof/uf...

  6. Characterizing the spreading behavior of radius, contact angle, and spreading velocity of trisiloxane "superspreader" surfactants:/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaskov, Sean K. (Sean Kikeri)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability of surfactants to lower surface tension makes them a key element in many products in a variety of industries. Trisiloxane surfactants have shown extraordinary wetting on hydrophobic surfaces, and are known as ...

  7. E-Print Network 3.0 - accurate radius determination Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Four Eyes Lab. Collection: Computer Technologies and Information Sciences 38 Home Work in Data Reduction and Error Analysis Chem 3111-Computers in Chemistry Summary: known? Would...

  8. RADiUs Research Group @ CICESE TECHNICAL REPORT/WHITE PAPER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    -QOS CONFIDENTIAL, © Gallardo, Sánchez, Villaseñor, Wang and Gadh, UCLA-WINMEC-2003-502-WIFI-QOS, December 2003*, Luis A. Villaseñor*, Shu Wang **, Rajit Gadh ** * CICESE Research Center, Electronics

  9. Numerical radius and distance from unitary operators Catalin Badea and Michel Crouzeix

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of . Indeed, we have A = A-1, w(A) = 1 + y2 = r, and A = y + 1+y2 = r + r2-1. Our first aim is to improve

  10. The Vlasov-Poisson system with strong external magnetic field. Finite Larmor radius regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bostan, Mihai

    = De n 0 E t T , x D , B = De n me 20P B t T , x D . Observing that De n me 0P = pthme PeTp , we also

  11. Explicit mean-field radius for nearly parallel vortex filaments in statistical equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timothy D. Andersen; Chjan C. Lim

    2006-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Geophysical research has focused on flows, such as ocean currents, as two dimensional. Two dimensional point or blob vortex models have the advantage of having a Hamiltonian, whereas 3D vortex filament or tube systems do not necessarily have one, although they do have action functionals. On the other hand, certain classes of 3D vortex models called nearly parallel vortex filament models do have a Hamiltonian and are more accurate descriptions of geophysical and atmospheric flows than purely 2D models, especially at smaller scales. In these ``quasi-2D'' models we replace 2D point vortices with vortex filaments that are very straight and nearly parallel but have Brownian variations along their lengths due to local self-induction. When very straight, quasi-2D filaments are expected to have virtually the same planar density distributions as 2D models. An open problem is when quasi-2D model statistics behave differently than those of the related 2D system and how this difference is manifested. In this paper we study the nearly parallel vortex filament model of Klein, Majda, Damodaran in statistical equilibrium. We are able to obtain a free-energy functional for the system in a non-extensive thermodynamic limit that is a function of the mean square vortex position $R^2$ and solve \\emph{explicitly} for $R^2$. Such an explicit formula has never been obtained for a non-2D model. We compare the results of our formula to a 2-D formula of \\cite{Lim:2005} and show qualitatively different behavior even when we disallow vortex braiding. We further confirm our results using Path Integral Monte Carlo (Ceperley (1995)) \\emph{without} permutations and that the Klein, Majda, Damodaran model's asymptotic assumptions \\emph{are valid} for parameters where these deviations occur.

  12. Mid-term functional outcome after the internal fixation of distal radius fractures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadnis, Joideep; Trompeter, Alex; Gallagher, Kieran; Bradshaw, Lucy; Elliott, David S; Newman, Kevin J

    2012-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    with a volar locking plate. Methods 180 patients with 183 fractures and a mean age of 62.4 years were followed up retrospectively at a mean of 30 months (Standard deviation = 10.4). Functional assessment was performed using the Disabilities of the Arm...

  13. Operational and Environmental Monitoring Within a Three-Mile Radius of Project Rulison

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartment ofDepartment ofof EnergyYou$0.C. 20545*.MSE Cores" _August 4, 1992DOC

  14. Operational and Environmental Monitoring Within a Three-Mile Radius of Project Rulison

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartment ofDepartment ofof EnergyYou$0.C. 20545*.MSE Cores" _August 4, 1992DOCTHIRD

  15. Operational and Environmental Monitoring Within a Three-Mile Radius of Project Rulison

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarlyEnergyDepartment ofDepartment ofof EnergyYou$0.C. 20545*.MSE Cores" _August 4,

  16. Effects of ternary mixed crystal and size on optical phonons in wurtzite nitride core-shell nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, J.; Guan, J. Y.; Zhang, S. F.; Ban, S. L.; Qu, Y., E-mail: quyuan@imu.edu.cn [School of Physical Science and Technology, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot 010021 (China)

    2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Within the framework of dielectric continuum and Loudon's uniaxial crystal models, existence conditions dependent on components and frequencies for optical phonons in wurtzite nitride core-shell nanowires (CSNWs) are discussed to obtain dispersion relations and electrostatic potentials of optical phonons in In{sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}N/GaN CSNWs. The results show that there may be four types of optical phonons in In{sub x}Ga{sub 1?x}N/GaN CSNWs for a given ternary mixed crystal (TMC) component due to the phonon dispersion anisotropy. This property is analogous to wurtzite planar heterojunctions. Among the optical phonons, there are two types of quasi-confined optical (QCO) phonons (named, respectively, as QCO-A and QCO-B), one type of interface (IF) phonons and propagating (PR) phonons existing in certain component and frequency domains while the dispersion relations and electrostatic potentials of same type of optical phonons vary with components. Furthermore, the size effect on optical phonons in CSNWs is also discussed. The dispersion relations of IF and QCO-A are independent of the boundary location of CSNWs. Meanwhile, dispersion relations and electrostatic potentials of QCO-B and PR phonons vary obviously with size, especially, when the ratio of a core radius to a shell radius is small, and dispersion relation curves of PR phonons appear to be close to each other, whereas, this phenomenon disappears when the ratio becomes large. Based on our conclusions, one can further discuss photoelectric properties in nitride CSNWs consisting of TMCs associated with optical phonons.

  17. Using X-Ray Computed Tomography in Pore Structure Characterization for a Berea Sandstone: Resolution Effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, Sheng; Hu, Qinhong; Dultz, Stefan; Zhang, Ming

    2012-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    X-raycomputedtomography (XCT) is a powerful tool for detecting the micro-scale porestructure and has been applied to many natural and synthetic porous media. However, due to the resolution limitations, either non-representative view of the sample or inaccurate results can be produced from the XCT image processing. In this paper, two XCT (micro-CT and CT with synchrotron radiation) with different resolutions of 12.7 ?m and 0.35 ?m, as well as mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) with a minimum detection limit of 3 nm, were used for Berea sandstone to investigate the effect of detecting resolution on the porestructure. Several key porestructure parameters, including porosity, pore size distribution, pore connectivity, surface area, hydraulic radius, and aspect ratio were analyzed in a manner of quantitative comparison between different resolutions of XCT and MIP. The low resolution XCT can capture the large-pore porosity, while overestimates the pore size and pore connectivity. The high resolution XCT is more accurate in describing the pore shape, porosity, pore size; however, it is not representative since narrower detecting pore size range and small volume represented. A representative element volume related to large-pore porosity and probably large-pore connectivity with diameter and height of 2.8 mm is obtained through scale effect analysis. Therefore, selecting an appropriate resolution should be a compromise between the pore size and the representative element volume for the specific property or process of interest.

  18. Effects of surface voids on burning rate measurements of pulverized coal at diffusion-limited conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bayless, D.J.; Schroeder, A.R.; Peters, J.E.; Buckius, R.O. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering] [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research explores the effects of voids (pores on the particle surface that are deeper than their surface radius) on burning area at diffusion-limited combustion conditions. Scanning electron microscopy and digital processing of images of quenched particles were used to quantify surface void area, perimeter, and reacting void wall area for voids with diameters larger than 1 {micro}m. After careful analysis, the most accurate determination of particle burning area at diffusion-limited conditions was achieved by measuring particle surface area using the technique of discrete revolution, subtracting surface void area, and adding reacting void wall area. In situ measurements of reacting coal particle temperatures and images were taken for three coals and spherocarb particles at conditions that limit the formation of CO{sub 2} from reacting carbon under various oxygen concentrations and heating rates. The results of these experiments indicate that correcting the measured surface area for void area and reacting void wall area produces calculated burning rates closely matching diffusion-limited burning rates for all conditions and all coals investigated. These results suggest that void area effects should be included for accurate determination of burning area at diffusion-limited conditions.

  19. THE SIZE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN RED AND BLUE GLOBULAR CLUSTERS IS NOT DUE TO PROJECTION EFFECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, Jeremy J.; Harris, William E.; Sills, Alison, E-mail: webbjj@mcmaster.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton ON L8S 4M1 (Canada)

    2012-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal-rich (red) globular clusters in massive galaxies are, on average, smaller than metal-poor (blue) globular clusters. One of the possible explanations for this phenomenon is that the two populations of clusters have different spatial distributions. We test this idea by comparing clusters observed in unusually deep, high signal-to-noise images of M87 with a simulated globular cluster population in which the red and blue clusters have different spatial distributions, matching the observations. We compare the overall distribution of cluster effective radii as well as the relationship between effective radius and galactocentric distance for both the observed and simulated red and blue sub-populations. We find that the different spatial distributions does not produce a significant size difference between the red and blue sub-populations as a whole or at a given galactocentric distance. These results suggest that the size difference between red and blue globular clusters is likely due to differences during formation or later evolution.

  20. Electrical and Optical Gain Lever Effects in InGaAs Double Quantum Well Diode Lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pocha, M D; Goddard, L L; Bond, T C; Nikolic, R J; Vernon, S P; Kallman, J S; Behymer, E M

    2007-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In multisection laser diodes, the amplitude or frequency modulation (AM or FM) efficiency can be improved using the gain lever effect. To study gain lever, InGaAs double quantum well (DQW) edge emitting lasers have been fabricated with integrated passive waveguides and dual sections providing a range of split ratios from 1:1 to 9:1. Both the electrical and the optical gain lever have been examined. An electrical gain lever with greater than 7 dB enhancement of AM efficiency was achieved within the range of appropriate DC biasing currents, but this gain dropped rapidly outside this range. We observed a 4 dB gain in the optical AM efficiency under non-ideal biasing conditions. This value agreed with the measured gain for the electrical AM efficiency under similar conditions. We also examined the gain lever effect under large signal modulation for digital logic switching applications. To get a useful gain lever for optical gain quenched logic, a long control section is needed to preserve the gain lever strength and a long interaction length between the input optical signal and the lasing field of the diode must be provided. The gain lever parameter space has been fully characterized and validated against numerical simulations of a semi-3D hybrid beam propagation method (BPM) model for the coupled electron-photon rate equation. We find that the optical gain lever can be treated using the electrical injection model, once the absorption in the sample is known.

  1. THE EFFECT OF LOW CONCENTRATIONS OF TETRACHLOROETHYLENE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF PEM FUEL CELLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    COLON-MERCHADO, H.; MARTINEZ-RODRIGUEZ, M.; FOX, E.; RHODES, W.; MCWHORTER, C.; GREENWAY, S.

    2011-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells use components that are susceptible to contaminants in the fuel stream. To ensure fuel quality, standards are being set to regulate the amount of impurities allowable in fuel. The present study investigates the effect of chlorinated impurities on fuel cell systems using tetrachloroethylene (PCE) as a model compound for cleaning and degreasing agents. Concentrations between 0.05 parts per million (ppm) and 30 ppm were studied. We show how PCE causes rapid drop in cell performances for all concentrations including 0.05 ppm. At concentrations of 1 and 0.05 ppm, PCE poisoned the cell at a rate dependent on the dosage of the contaminant delivered to the cell. PCE appears to affect the cell when the cell potential was over potentials higher than approximately 0.2 V. No effects were observed at voltages around or below 0.2 V and the cells could be recovered from previous poisoning performed at higher potentials. Recoveries at those low voltages could be induced by changing the operating voltage or by purging the system. Poisoning did not appear to affect the membrane conductivity. Measurements with long-path length IR results suggested catalytic decomposition of the PCE by hydrogen over the anode catalyst.

  2. 3rd International symposium on fluid flow measurement effects of acoustic noise on orifice meters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman, R.; Graham, P.; Drew, W.A. [Engineering Research Station, Newcastle Upon Tyne (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    It is known that in-pipe acoustic noise can cause errors in orifice plate metering. The international metering community voted this topic as the highest priority for further research during a {open_quotes}working{close_quotes} held at N.T.I.S. in 1983. Most published work to date has been concerned with periodic, low frequency noise or pulsations, as encountered on reciprocating compressor installations where errors or their side effects may be readily noticed. Many orifice metering locations are, however, subject to high frequency noise emanating from control valves and centrifugal compressors. High frequency in-pipe noise is seldom suspected as a source of metering error and consequently it is a neglected topic. Square root error, which stems form the non-linear flow-differential pressure relationship of an orifice plate, has been well researched for low frequencies but the work has not been extended to high frequencies. To investigate this topic, high pressure studies at the British Gas Bishop Auckland Test Facility were carried out with a noise source (a pressure drop across a ball valve) and a 600 mm 0.4 {beta} orifice meter. These studies identified the effect of high frequency acoustic noise on orifice plate accuracy.

  3. Final Report fir DE-SC0005507 (A1618): The Development of an Improved Cloud Microphysical Product for Model and Remote Sensing Evaluation using RACORO Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarquhar, Greg M.

    2012-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We proposed to analyze data collected during the Routine Aerial Facilities (AAF) Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths (CLOWD) Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) in order to develop an integrated product of cloud microphysical properties (number concentration of drops in different size bins, total liquid drop concentration integrated over all bin sizes, liquid water content LWC, extinction of liquid clouds, effective radius of water drops, and radar reflectivity factor) that could be used to evaluate large-eddy simulations (LES), general circulation models (GCMs) and ground-based remote sensing retrievals, and to develop cloud parameterizations with the end goal of improving the modeling of cloud processes and properties and their impact on atmospheric radiation. We have completed the development of this microphysical database. we investigated the differences in the size distributions measured by the Cloud and Aerosol Spectrometer (CAS) and the Forward Scattering Probe (FSSP), between the one dimensional cloud imaging probe (1DC) and the two-dimensional cloud imaging probe (2DC), and between the bulk LWCs measured by the Gerber probe against those derived from the size resolved probes.

  4. Final Report on the Development of an Improved Cloud Microphysical Product for Model and Remote Sensing Evaluation using RACORO Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarquhar, Greg

    2012-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We proposed to analyze data collected during the Routine Aerial Facilities (AAF) Clouds with Low Optical Water Depths (CLOWD) Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) in order to develop an integrated product of cloud microphysical properties (number concentration of drops in different size bins, total liquid drop concentration integrated over all bin sizes, liquid water content LWC, extinction of liquid clouds bw, effective radius of water drops re, and radar reflectivity factor) that could be used to evaluate large-eddy simulations (LES), general circulation models (GCMs) and ground-based remote sensing retrievals, and to develop cloud parameterizations with the end goal of improving the modeling of cloud processes and properties and their impact on atmospheric radiation. We have completed the development of this microphysical database and have submitted it to ARM for consideration of its inclusion on the ARM database as a PI product. This report describes the development of this database, and also describes research that has been conducted on cloud-aerosol interactions using the data obtained during RACORO. A list of conference proceedings and publications is also included.

  5. Effective 4-H Meetings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howard, Jeff W.

    2005-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    As a 4-H volunteer, you will have different functions. An especially important task is to prepare interesting and effective meetings where youth can obtain the greatest educational benefit while having fun. This publication outlines effective...

  6. Experimental Techniques to Study the Effects of Nanoparticle Additives on Heterogeneous Monopropellant Combustion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCown, Kenneth Woodrow

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of order ? ? Burner tube thermal diffusivity ?i Temperature profile eigenvalue ?r Finite-difference radius step ?t Finite-difference time step vii ?x Finite-difference height step Common Acronyms AP Ammonium perchlorate EIL Energetic ionic...

  7. RESEARCH PAPER Effect of geometry on droplet formation in the squeezing regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Amit

    field Ca Capillary number = lcUc/r cs Speed of sound D Diameter of the drop ei Lattice speed that generate emul- sions of liquid droplets suspended in an outer immiscible liquid have found widespread

  8. Sorghum tannins: Interaction with Starch and its Effects on in vitro Starch Digestibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ribeiro de Barros, Frederico

    2012-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    phenolic extracts with pure amylose/amylopectin, extractable polymeric PA was in much lower concentration (62% less) in presence of amylose compared to amylopectin. This drop in concentration increased to 85% when purified tannin extract (90% polymeric PA...

  9. Parameterizations of Cloud Microphysics and Indirect Aerosol Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo [NASA/GSFC] [NASA/GSFC

    2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    1. OVERVIEW Aerosols and especially their effect on clouds are one of the key components of the climate system and the hydrological cycle [Ramanathan et al., 2001]. Yet, the aerosol effect on clouds remains largely unknown and the processes involved not well understood. A recent report published by the National Academy of Science states "The greatest uncertainty about the aerosol climate forcing - indeed, the largest of all the uncertainties about global climate forcing - is probably the indirect effect of aerosols on clouds [NRC, 2001]." The aerosol effect on clouds is often categorized into the traditional "first indirect (i.e., Twomey)" effect on the cloud droplet sizes for a constant liquid water path [Twomey, 1977] and the "semi-direct" effect on cloud coverage [e.g., Ackerman et al., 2000]. Enhanced aerosol concentrations can also suppress warm rain processes by producing a narrow droplet spectrum that inhibits collision and coalescence processes [e.g., Squires and Twomey, 1961; Warner and Twomey, 1967; Warner, 1968; Rosenfeld, 1999]. The aerosol effect on precipitation processes, also known as the second type of aerosol indirect effect [Albrecht, 1989], is even more complex, especially for mixed-phase convective clouds. Table 1 summarizes the key observational studies identifying the microphysical properties, cloud characteristics, thermodynamics and dynamics associated with cloud systems from high-aerosol continental environments. For example, atmospheric aerosol concentrations can influence cloud droplet size distributions, warm-rain process, cold-rain process, cloud-top height, the depth of the mixed phase region, and occurrence of lightning. In addition, high aerosol concentrations in urban environments could affect precipitation variability by providing an enhanced source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Hypotheses have been developed to explain the effect of urban regions on convection and precipitation [van den Heever and Cotton, 2007 and Shepherd, 2005]. Recently, a detailed spectral-bin microphysical scheme was implemented into the Goddard Cumulus Ensemble (GCE) model. Atmospheric aerosols are also described using number density size-distribution functions. A spectral-bin microphysical model is very expensive from a computational point of view and has only been implemented into the 2D version of the GCE at the present time. The model is tested by studying the evolution of deep tropical clouds in the west Pacific warm pool region and summertime convection over a mid-latitude continent with different concentrations of CCN: a low "clean" concentration and a high "dirty" concentration. The impact of atmospheric aerosol concentration on cloud and precipitation will be investigated. 2. MODEL DESCRIPTION AND CASE STUDIES 2.1 GCE MODEL The model used in this study is the 2D version of the GCE model. Modeled flow is anelastic. Second- or higher-order advection schemes can produce negative values in the solution. Thus, a Multi-dimensional Positive Definite Advection Transport Algorithm (MPDATA) has been implemented into the model. All scalar variables (potential temperature, water vapor, turbulent coefficient and all five hydrometeor classes) use forward time differencing and the MPDATA for advection. Dynamic variables, u, v and w, use a second-order accurate advection scheme and a leapfrog time integration (kinetic energy semi-conserving method). Short-wave (solar) and long-wave radiation as well as a subgrid-scale TKE turbulence scheme are also included in the model. Details of the model can be found in Tao and Simpson (1993) and Tao et al. (2003). 2.2 Microphysics (Bin Model) The formulation of the explicit spectral-bin microphysical processes is based on solving stochastic kinetic equations for the size distribution functions of water droplets (cloud droplets and raindrops), and six types of ice particles: pristine ice crystals (columnar and plate-like), snow (dendrites and aggregates), graupel and frozen drops/hail. Each type is described by a special size distribution function containing 33 categories (bin

  10. Effect of surfactant on evaporative heat transfer coefficients in vertical film forced convection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shah, Basit Husain

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for different concentrations of surfactant (log-log scale) (Boiling liquid flow rate of 1. 025 gpm) Evaporative coefficient as function of tempera- ture drop over the liquid film for different concentrations of surfactant (log-log scale) (Boiling liquid... flow rate of 1. 275 gpm) Evaporative coefficient as function of tempera- ture drop over the liquid film for different concentrations of surfactant (log-log scale) (Boiling liquid flow rate of 1. 55 gpm) 47 84 85 86 87 10 Evaporative...

  11. Blowing Ratio Effects on Film Cooling Effectiveness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Kuo-Chun

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The research focuses on testing the film cooling effectiveness on a gas turbine blade suction side surface. The test is performed on a five bladed cascade with a blow down facility. Four different blowing ratios are used in this study, which are 0...

  12. Fluctuations in Water and their Relation to the Hydrophobic Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varilly, Patrick Stephen

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cavities of radius R in SPC/E water. After Ref. [49].hydrophobic polymer, in explicit SPC/E water. The collectiveA 60 × 60 × 60 ? A 3 slab of SPC/E water is set up in a 60 ×

  13. Fuel and Lubricant Effects

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Fuel and Lubricant Effects Fuels Research, DOE agreements 13415, 13425 Bruce G. Bunting, Mike Bunce, Kukwon Cho, Jun Qu, Robert Crawford, Jim Szybist, Scott Sluder, John Storey,...

  14. Surface-Energy-Anisotropy-Induced Orientation Effects on RayleighInstabilities in Sapphire

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santala, Melissa; Glaeser, Andreas M.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Arrays of controlled-geometry, semi-infinite pore channels of systematically varied crystallographic orientation were introduced into undoped m-plane (10{bar 1}0) sapphire substrates using microfabrication techniques and ion-beam etching and subsequently internalized by solid-state diffusion bonding. A series of anneals at 1700 C caused the breakup of these channels into discrete pores via Rayleigh instabilities. In all cases, channels broke up with a characteristic wavelength larger than that expected for a material with isotropic surface energy, reflecting stabilization effects due to surface-energy anisotropy. The breakup wavelength and the time required for complete breakup varied significantly with channel orientation. For most orientations, the instability wavelength for channels of radius R was in the range of 13.2R-25R, and complete breakup occurred within 2-10 h. To first order, the anneal times for complete breakup scale with the square of the breakup wavelength. Channels oriented along a <11{bar 2}0> direction had a wavelength of {approx} 139R, and required 468 h for complete breakup. Cross-sectional analysis of channels oriented along a <11{bar 2}0> direction showed the channel to be completely bounded by stable c(0001), r{l_brace}{bar 1}012{r_brace}, and s{l_brace}10{bar 1}1{r_brace} facets.

  15. On the possible environmental effect in distributing heavy elements beyond individual gaseous halos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Sean D; Mulchaey, John S

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a study of extended galaxy halo gas through HI and OVI absorption over two decades in projected distance at $z\\approx0.2$. The study is based on a sample of $95$ galaxies from a highly complete ($ > 80\\%$) survey of faint galaxies ($L > 0.1L_*$) with archival quasar absorption spectra and $53$ galaxies from the literature. A clear anti-correlation is found between HI (OVI) column density and virial radius normalized projected distance, $d/R_{\\rm h}$. Strong HI (OVI) absorption systems with column densities greater than $10^{14.0}$ ($10^{13.5}$) cm$^{-2}$ are found for $48$ of $54$ ($36$ of $42$) galaxies at $d R_{\\rm h}$ compared to isolated galaxies ($\\kappa_{\\rm OVI}\\approx0.13$ versus $0.04$) but no excess HI absorption. These findings suggest that environmental effects play a role in distributing heavy elements beyond the enriched gaseous halos of individual galaxies. Finally, we find that differential HI and OVI absorption between early- and late-type galaxies continues from $d < R_{\\rm h}$...

  16. Effect of vacuum polarization of charged massive fermions in an Aharonov--Bohm field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. R. Khalilov

    2014-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of vacuum polarization of charged massive fermions in an Aharonov-Bohm (AB) potential in 2+1 dimensions is investigated. The causal Green's function of the Dirac equation with the AB potential is represented via the regular and irregular solutions of the two-dimensional radial Dirac equation. It is shown that the vacuum current density contains the contribution from free filled states of the negative energy continuum as well as that from a bound unfilled state, which can emerge in the above background due to the interaction of the fermion spin magnetic moment with the AB magnetic field while the induced charge density contains only the contribution from the bound state. The expressions for the vacuum charge and induced current densities are obtained (recovered for massless fermions) for the graphene in the field of infinitesimally thin solenoid perpendicular to the plane of a sample. We also find the bound state energy as a function of magnetic flux, fermion spin and the radius of solenoid as well as discuss the role of the so-called self-adjoint extension parameter and determine it in terms of the physics of the problem.

  17. Conversion of experimental half-life to effective electron neutrino mass in 0nubetabeta decay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smolnikov, Anatoly; Grabmayr, Peter [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia, and Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kepler Center for Astro and Particle Physics, Eberhard Karls Universitaet Tuebingen (Germany)

    2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Germanium Detector Array (GERDA) collaboration will be searching for neutrinoless double beta decay of {sup 76}Ge. As a result it will measure the half-life T{sub 1/2} of this rare process; or at least a new value for the lower limit for T{sub 1/2} will be derived. The sensitivity of the GERDA experiment on the effective electron neutrino mass depends on the theoretical value for the nuclear matrix element M and the kinematical phase space factor G.In this Brief Report we focus on existing difficulties in applying the dimensionless values of M calculated by various theoretical groups, which use different methods and parametrizations. The implicit radius dependencies in M and G are discussed. Resulting values of the neutrino mass are tabulated for various representative half-lives T{sub 1/2} representing the sensitivity of the various phases of the GERDA experiment.

  18. Effect of ionic liquid treatment on the structures of lignins in solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Gang [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Kent, Michael S [ORNL; He, Lilin [ORNL; Varanasi, Patanjali [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Dibble, Dean [Joint Bioenergy Institute; Melnichenko, Yuri B [ORNL; Simmons, Blake [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Singh, Seema [Joint Bioenergy Institute

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solution structures of three types of isolated lignin - organosolv (OS), Kraft (K), and low sulfonate (LS) - before and after treatment with 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate were studied using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) over a concentration range of 0.3-2.4 wt %. The results indicate that each of these lignins is comprised of aggregates of well-defined basal subunits, the shapes and sizes of which, in D{sub 2}O and DMSO-d{sub 6}, are revealed using these techniques. LS lignin contains a substantial amount of nanometer-scale individual subunits. In aqueous solution these subunits have a well-defined elongated shape described well by ellipsoidal and cylindrical models. At low concentration the subunits are highly expanded in alkaline solution, and the effect is screened with increasing concentration. OS lignin dissolved in DMSO was found to consist of a narrow distribution of aggregates with average radius 200 {+-} 30 nm. K lignin in DMSO consists of aggregates with a very broad size distribution. After ionic liquid (IL) treatment, LS lignin subunits in alkaline solution maintained the elongated shape but were reduced in size. IL treatment of OS and K lignins led to the release of nanometer-scale subunits with well-defined size and shape.

  19. The polarized EMC effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. Bentz; I. C. Cloet; A. W. Thomas

    2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate both the spin independent and spin dependent nuclear structure functions in an effective quark theory. The nucleon is described as a composite quark-diquark state, and the nucleus is treated in the mean field approximation. We predict a sizable polarized EMC effect, which could be confirmed in future experiments.

  20. The polarized EMC effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bentz, W. [Department of Physics, Tokai University, Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Cloet, I. C. [Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter, University of Adelaide, SA 5005 (Australia); Jefferson Lab, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Thomas, A. W. [Jefferson Lab, 12000 Jefferson Avenue, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2007-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculate both the spin independent and spin dependent nuclear structure functions in an effective quark theory. The nucleon is described as a composite quark-diquark state, and the nucleus is treated in the mean field approximation. We predict a sizable polarized EMC effect, which could be confirmed in future experiments.

  1. Proton effects on low noise and high responsivity silicon-based photodiodes for space environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pedroza, Guillaume; Gilard, Olivier [Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales, 18 Avenue E. Belin, 31401 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Bourqui, Marie-Lise; Bechou, Laurent; Deshayes, Yannick [IMS Laboratory, University of Bordeaux I-ENSEIRB-CNRS, UMR 5218, 351 Cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence Cedex (France); How, Lip Sun; Rosala, Francois [AdvEOTec, 6/8 Rue de la Closerie, Lisses-ZAC Clos aux Pois, 91052 Evry Cedex (France)

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of proton irradiations has been carried out on p-n silicon photodiodes for the purpose of assessing the suitability of these devices for the European Galileo space mission. The irradiations were performed at energies of 60, 100, and 150 MeV with proton fluences ranging from 1.7x10{sup 10} to 1x10{sup 11} protons/cm{sup 2}. Dark current, spectral responsivity, and dark current noise were measured before and after each irradiation step. We observed an increase in both dark current, dark current noise, and noise equivalent power and a drop of the spectral responsivity with increasing displacement damage dose. An analytical model has been developed to investigate proton damage effects through the modeling of the electro-optical characteristics of the photodiode. Experimental degradations were successfully explained taking into account the degradation of the minority carrier diffusion length in the N-region of the photodiode. The degradation model was then applied to assess the end-of-life performance of these devices in the framework of the Galileo mission.

  2. Effect of a sudden fuel shortage on freight transport in the United States: an overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooker, J N

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A survey was made of the potential effects of a sudden reduction of fuel supplies on freight transport via truck, rail, water, and pipeline. After a brief discussion of the energy characteristics of each of these modes of transport, short-term strategies for making better use of fuel in a crisis are investigated. Short-term is taken to mean something on the order of six months, and a crisis is taken to be the result of something on the order of a 20% drop in available fuel. Although no succinct or well-established conclusions are drawn, the gist of the paper is that the potential for short-term conservation, without a serious disruption of service, exists but does not appear to be large. It is remarked that it is possible, through further study, to obtain a fairly accurate reckoning of the physical ability of the freight transport network to weather a fuel crisis, but that it is impossible to say in advance what freight carriers will in fact do with the network.

  3. The effect of mix on capsule yields as a function of shell thickness and gas fill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, P. A., E-mail: pbradley@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An investigation of direct drive capsules with different shell thicknesses and gas fills was conducted to examine the amount of shock induced (Richtmyer-Meshkov) mix versus Rayleigh-Taylor mix from deceleration of the implosion. The RAGE (Eulerian) code with a turbulent mix model was used to model these capsules for neutron yields along with time-dependent mix amounts. The amount of Richtmyer-Meshkov induced mix from the shock breaking out of the shell is about 0.1??g (0.15??m of shell material), while the Rayleigh-Taylor mix is of order 1??g and determines the mixed simulation yield. The simulations were able to calculate a yield over mix (YOM) ratio (experiment/mix simulation) between 0.5 and 1.0 for capsules with shell thicknesses ranging from 7.5 to 20??m and with gas fills between 3.8 and 20?atm of D{sub 2} or DT. The simulated burn averaged T{sub ion} values typically lie with 0.5?keV of the data, which is within the measurement error. For capsules with shell thicknesses >25??m, the YOM values drop to 0.10?±?0.05, suggesting that some unmodeled effect needs to be accounted for in the thickest capsules.

  4. Effect of rotation on the isovector giant dipole resonance in certain calcium isotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shanmugam, G.; Thiagasundaram, M.

    1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The isovector giant dipole resonances in certain rapidly rotating calcium isotopes wherein the bulk of the angular momentum is of an aligned nature are analyzed microscopically in the framework of the random phase approximation. The shape and deformation of the above nuclei at high spins are determined by the Mottelson-Nilsson method for rotating light nuclei. The allowed angular velocities for these deformations are obtained by the Fermi liquid drop model. The splitting of the resonance energies and the changes in the photoabsorption cross sections caused by rotation are studied in these nuclei by a simple schematic model of a rotating anisotropic harmonic oscillator which is justifiable in the case of the light nuclei considered. The results obtained show the general broadening of resonance widths in these light nuclei similar to that observed in the case of rare earth nuclei. The narrowing down of resonance widths in certain cases at higher angular momenta, suspected in lighter nuclei experimentally, is also theoretically observed and explained in the case of /sup 40/Ca as due to the shrinking effect of nuclear deformation at high spins.

  5. Effect of defocusing on picosecond laser-coupling into gold cones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bush, I. A., E-mail: ian.bush@gmail.com; Pasley, J. [York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DQ (United Kingdom) [York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DQ (United Kingdom); Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Thomas, A. G. R. [Center for Ultrafast Optical Science, Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2099 (United States)] [Center for Ultrafast Optical Science, Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2099 (United States); Gartside, L.; Sarfraz, S.; Wagenaars, E. [York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DQ (United Kingdom)] [York Plasma Institute, Department of Physics, University of York, York YO10 5DQ (United Kingdom); Green, J. S.; Notley, M.; Lowe, H.; Spindloe, C.; Winstone, T.; Robinson, A. P. L.; Clarke, R. [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton OX11 0QX (United Kingdom)] [Central Laser Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Ma, T.; Yabuuchi, T.; Wei, M.; Beg, F. N. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0411 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0411 (United States); Stephens, R. B. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121-1122 (United States)] [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121-1122 (United States); MacPhee, A.; MacKinnon, A. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550-9234 (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550-9234 (United States); and others

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Here, we show that defocusing of the laser in the interaction of a picosecond duration, 1.053??m wavelength, high energy pulse with a cone-wire target does not significantly affect the laser energy coupling efficiency, but does result in a drop in the fast electron effective temperature. This may be beneficial for fast ignition, since not only were more electrons with lower energies seen in the experiment but also the lower prepulse intensity will reduce the amount of preplasma present on arrival of the main pulse, reducing the distance the hot electrons have to travel. We used the Vulcan Petawatt Laser at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory and gold cone targets with approximately 1?mm long, 40??m diameter copper wires attached to their tip. Diagnostics included a quartz crystal imager, a pair of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite crystal spectrometers and a calibrated CCD operating in the single photon counting regime, all of which looked at the copper K{sub ?} emission from the wire. A short pulse optical probe, delayed 400 ps relative to the main pulse was employed to diagnose the extent of plasma expansion around the wire. A ray-tracing code modeled the change in intensity on the interior surface of the cone with laser defocusing. Using a model for the wire copper K{sub ?} emission coupled to a hybrid Vlasov-Fokker-Planck code, we ran a series of simulations, holding the total energy in electrons constant whilst varying the electron temperature, which support the experimental conclusions.

  6. Numerical study of the effects of upstream flow condition upon orifice flow meter performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrison, G.L.; Panak, D.L.; DeOtte, R.E. Jr. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Mechanical Engineering Dept.)

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent experimental work has shown that when the mean velocity profile upstream of an orifice plate has a deficit on the centerline and higher velocities at the outer edges of the pipe, the pressure drop across the orifice is greater than if the flow upstream is fully developed. It is proposed that this increase in [Delta]P is directly correlated with the radial distribution of momentum upstream of the orifice plate. In an effort to investigate how the upstream flow condition affects the pressure distribution along the pipe wall and to determine if the hypothesis is correct, Creare.X Inc. 's FLUENT numerical analysis program was used to simulate the effects. Two [beta] ratios (0.50 and 0.75) have been considered with various mean velocity inlet profiles. Inlet profiles include the 1/16th, 1/7th, 1/8th, 1/9th and 1/10th power law power law, uniform flow, and two linear distributions. The results indicate that there is a correlation between the second and third-order moments of momentum and the value of the discharge coefficient. This empirical correlation, after being fully verified by experimental data, can be used to estimate the change in the coefficient of discharge given the inlet velocity profile.

  7. Daily air pollution effects on children's respiratory symptoms and peak expiratory flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vedal, S.; Schenker, M.B.; Munoz, A.; Samet, J.M.; Batterman, S.; Speizer, F.E.

    1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To identify acute respiratory health effects associated with air pollution due to coal combustion, a subgroup of elementary school-aged children was selected from a large cross-sectional study and followed daily for eight months. Children were selected to obtain three equal-sized groups: one without respiratory symptoms, one with symptoms of persistent wheeze, and one with cough or phlegm production but without persistent wheeze. Parents completed a daily diary of symptoms from which illness constellations of upper respiratory illness (URI) and lower respiratory illness (LRI) and the symptom of wheeze were derived. Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) was measured daily for nine consecutive weeks during the eight-month study period. Maximum hourly concentrations of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and coefficient of haze for each 24-hour period, as well as minimum hourly temperature, were correlated with daily URI, LRI, wheeze, and PEFR using multiple regression models adjusting for illness occurrence or level of PEFR on the immediately preceding day. Respiratory illness on the preceding day was the most important predictor of current illness. A drop in temperature was associated with increased URI and LRI but not with increased wheeze or with a decrease in level of PEFR. No air pollutant was strongly associated with respiratory illness or with level of PEFR, either in the group of children as a whole, or in either of the symptomatic subgroups; the pollutant concentrations observed, however, were uniformly lower than current ambient air quality standards.

  8. Boron-10 Lined Proportional Counter Wall Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siciliano, Edward R.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241) is supporting the project 'Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology' at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for development of an alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a boron-lined proportional tube based system in the configuration of a coincidence counter. This report provides information about how variations in proportional counter radius and gas pressure in a typical coincident counter design might affect the observed signal from boron-lined tubes. A discussion comparing tubes to parallel plate counters is also included.

  9. Mathematical modeling of spray drying

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jayanthi, Gopal Vithal

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solution of nickel nitrate. The radius reached at the time at which precipitation starts was found to decrease with decreasing the initial radius of the drop and theinitial concentration of the solute. For a given initial concentration of nickel nitrate... the initial concentration of nickel nitrate and by increasing the ambient temperature. To my mother and late father ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank Dr. Ahmed M. Gadalla, chairman of committee, for his constant support and encouragement of this work...

  10. Effect of capacitive coupling in a miniature inductively coupled plasma source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takao, Yoshinori; Eriguchi, Koji; Ono, Kouichi [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Yoshida-Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan)

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two-dimensional axisymmetric particle-in-cell simulations with a Monte Carlo collision algorithm (PIC-MCC) have been conducted to investigate the effect of capacitive coupling in a miniature inductively coupled plasma source (mICP) by using two models: an inductive model and a hybrid model. The mICP is 3 mm in radius and 6 mm in height with a three-turn planar coil, where argon plasma is sustained. In the inductive model, the coil is assumed to be electrostatically shielded, and thus the discharge is purely inductive coupling. In the hybrid model, we assume that the different turns of the coil act like electrodes in capacitive discharge to include the effect of capacitive coupling. The voltage applied to these electrodes decreases linearly from the powered end of the coil towards the grounded end. The numerical analysis has been performed for rf frequencies in the range of 100-1000 MHz, and the power absorbed by the plasma in the range of 5-50 mW at a fixed pressure of 500 mTorr. The PIC-MCC results show that potential oscillations at the plasma-dielectric interface are not negligible, and thus the major component of the absorbed power is caused by the axial motion of electrons in the hybrid model, although almost all of the power absorption is due to the azimuthal motion of electrons in the inductive model. The effect of capacitive coupling is more significant at lower rf frequencies and at higher absorbed powers under the calculation conditions examined. Moreover, much less coil currents are required in the hybrid model.

  11. Assessment of Uncertainty in Cloud Radiative Effects and Heating Rates through Retrieval Algorithm Differences: Analysis using 3-years of ARM data at Darwin, Australia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Comstock, Jennifer M.; Protat, Alain; McFarlane, Sally A.; Delanoe, Julien; Deng, Min

    2013-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground-based radar and lidar observations obtained at the Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program’s Tropical Western Pacific site located in Darwin, Australia are used to retrieve ice cloud properties in anvil and cirrus clouds. Cloud microphysical properties derived from four different retrieval algorithms (two radar-lidar and two radar only algorithms) are compared by examining mean profiles and probability density functions of effective radius (Re), ice water content (IWC), extinction, ice number concentration, ice crystal fall speed, and vertical air velocity. Retrieval algorithm uncertainty is quantified using radiative flux closure exercises. The effect of uncertainty in retrieved quantities on the cloud radiative effect and radiative heating rates are presented. Our analysis shows that IWC compares well among algorithms, but Re shows significant discrepancies, which is attributed primarily to assumptions of particle shape. Uncertainty in Re and IWC translates into sometimes-large differences in cloud radiative effect (CRE) though the majority of cases have a CRE difference of roughly 10 W m-2 on average. These differences, which we believe are primarily driven by the uncertainty in Re, can cause up to 2 K/day difference in the radiative heating rates between algorithms.

  12. BSM Primary Effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rick S. Gupta; Alex Pomarol; Francesco Riva

    2014-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the predictive power of the effective field theory approach, we present a physical parametrization of the leading effects beyond the SM (BSM), that give us at present the best way to constrain heavy new-physics at low-energies. We show that other BSM effects are not independent from these ones, and we provide the explicit correlations. This information is useful to know where to primarily look for new physics in future experiments, and to know how this new physics is related to previous measurements, most importantly in electroweak-symmetry breaking processes or Higgs physics.

  13. On the dependence of the wave function of a bound nucleon on its momentum and the EMC effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Ciofi degli Atti; L. L. Frankfurt; L. P. Kaptari; M. I. Strikman

    2007-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    It is widely discussed in the literature that the wave function of the nucleon bound in a nucleus is modified due to the interaction with the surrounding medium. We argue that the modification should strongly depend on the momentum of the nucleon. We study such an effect in the case of the point-like configuration component of the wave function of a nucleon bound in a nucleus A, considering the case of arbitrary final state of the spectator A-1 system. We show that for non relativistic values of the nucleon momentum, the momentum dependence of the nucleon deformation appears to follow from rather general considerations and discuss the implications of our theoretical observation for two different phenomena: i) the search for medium induced modifications of the nucleon radius of a bound nucleon through the measurement of the electromagnetic nucleon form factors via the A(e,e'p)X process, and ii) the A-dependence of the EMC effect; in this latter case we also present a new method of estimating the fraction of the nucleus light-cone momentum carried by the photons and find that in a heavy nuclei protons loose about 2% of their momentum.

  14. Un-Casimir effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antonia M. Frassino; Piero Nicolini; Orlando Panella

    2013-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we present the un-Casimir effect, namely the study of the Casimir energy related to the presence of an un-particle component in addition to the electromagnetic field contribution. We derive this result by considering modifications of the Feynman propagator in the unparticle sector. The contribution of unparticles turns out to be the integral of Casimir energies for particles at fixed mass with a weight depending on the scaling dimension. The distinctive feature of the un-Casimir effect is a fractalization of metallic plates. This fact emerges through a new dependence of the Casimir energy on the distance between plates, that scales with a continuous power controlled by the scaling dimension. More importantly the un-Casimir effect offers a reliable testbed for unparticle physics. We find bounds on the unparticle scale that are independent on the effective coupling constant describing the interaction between the scale invariant sector and ordinary matter. Therefore the un-Casimir effect, contrary to what found in previous unparticle physics situations (\\textit{e.g.} g-2 and a variety LEP/LHC data analyses), actually removes the ambiguity associated to the value of such a coupling. We also discuss some of the possible implications for unparticle physics when non-perfect conducting plates are considered.

  15. Cost effective lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morse, O.; Verderber, R.

    1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Long-life replacement lamps for the incandescent lamp have been evaluated with regard to their cost effectiveness. The replacements include the use of energy buttons that extend lamp life as well as an adaptive fluorescent circline lamp that will fit into existing incandescent lamp sockets. The initial, operating, and replacement costs for one million lumen-hours are determined for each lamp system. We find the most important lighting cost component is the operating cost. Using lamps that are less efficient or devices that cause lamps to operate less efficiently are not cost-effective. The adaptive fluorescent circline lamp, even at an initial cost of $15.00, is the most cost effective source of illumination compared to the incandescent lamp and lamp systems examined. 3 refs., 6 tabs.

  16. Disentangling the EMC Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piasetzky, E; Weinstein, L B

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The deep inelastic scattering cross section for scattering from bound nucleons differs from that of free nucleons.This phenomena, first discovered 30 years ago, is known as the EMC effect and is still not fully understood. Recent analysis of world data showed that the strength of the EMC effect is linearly correlated with the relative amount of Two-Nucleon Short Range Correlated pairs (2N-SRC) in nuclei. The latter are pairs of nucleons whose wave functions overlap, giving them large relative momentum and low center of mass momentum, where high and low is relative to the Fermi momentum of the nucleus. The observed correlation indicates that the EMC effect, like 2N-SRC pairs, is related to high momentum nucleons in the nucleus. This paper reviews previous studies of the EMC-SRC correlation and studies its robustness. It also presents a planned experiment aimed at studying the origin of this EMC-SRC correlation.

  17. Disentangling the EMC Effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Piasetzky; O. Hen; L. B. Weinstein

    2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The deep inelastic scattering cross section for scattering from bound nucleons differs from that of free nucleons.This phenomena, first discovered 30 years ago, is known as the EMC effect and is still not fully understood. Recent analysis of world data showed that the strength of the EMC effect is linearly correlated with the relative amount of Two-Nucleon Short Range Correlated pairs (2N-SRC) in nuclei. The latter are pairs of nucleons whose wave functions overlap, giving them large relative momentum and low center of mass momentum, where high and low is relative to the Fermi momentum of the nucleus. The observed correlation indicates that the EMC effect, like 2N-SRC pairs, is related to high momentum nucleons in the nucleus. This paper reviews previous studies of the EMC-SRC correlation and studies its robustness. It also presents a planned experiment aimed at studying the origin of this EMC-SRC correlation.

  18. Journal of Crystal Growth 280 (2005) 320334 Three-dimensional phase-field simulations of the effect of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckermann, Christoph

    of fusion, cp is the specific heat, and D is the thermal diffusivity. According to microscopic solvability, and radius of curvature, Rp, of the tip of a dendritic needle crystal of a pure substance ARTICLE IN PRESS

  19. THE EFFECTS OF IRRADIATION ON HOT JOVIAN ATMOSPHERES: HEAT REDISTRIBUTION AND ENERGY DISSIPATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perna, Rosalba [JILA and Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Heng, Kevin [ETH Zuerich, Institute for Astronomy, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zuerich (Switzerland); Pont, Frederic [College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QL (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Hot Jupiters, due to the proximity to their parent stars, are subjected to a strong irradiating flux that governs their radiative and dynamical properties. We compute a suite of three-dimensional circulation models with dual-band radiative transfer, exploring a relevant range of irradiation temperatures, both with and without temperature inversions. We find that, for irradiation temperatures T{sub irr} {approx}< 2000 K, heat redistribution is very efficient, producing comparable dayside and nightside fluxes. For T{sub irr} Almost-Equal-To 2200-2400 K, the redistribution starts to break down, resulting in a high day-night flux contrast. Our simulations indicate that the efficiency of redistribution is primarily governed by the ratio of advective to radiative timescales. Models with temperature inversions display a higher day-night contrast due to the deposition of starlight at higher altitudes, but we find this opacity-driven effect to be secondary compared to the effects of irradiation. The hotspot offset from the substellar point is large when insolation is weak and redistribution is efficient, and decreases as redistribution breaks down. The atmospheric flow can be potentially subjected to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (as indicated by the Richardson number) only in the uppermost layers, with a depth that penetrates down to pressures of a few millibars at most. Shocks penetrate deeper, down to several bars in the hottest model. Ohmic dissipation generally occurs down to deeper levels than shock dissipation (to tens of bars), but the penetration depth varies with the atmospheric opacity. The total dissipated Ohmic power increases steeply with the strength of the irradiating flux and the dissipation depth recedes into the atmosphere, favoring radius inflation in the most irradiated objects. A survey of the existing data, as well as the inferences made from them, reveals that our results are broadly consistent with the observational trends.

  20. Model analysis of the anthropogenic aerosol effect on clouds over East Asia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Yi; Zhang, Meigen; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhao, Chun

    2012-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A coupled meteorology and aerosol/chemistry model WRF-Chem (Weather Research and Forecast model coupled with Chemistry) was used to conduct a pair of simulations with present-day (PD) and preindustrial (PI) emissions over East Asia to examine the aerosol indirect effect on clouds. As a result of an increase in aerosols in January, the cloud droplet number increased by 650 cm{sup -3} over the ocean and East China, 400 cm{sup -3} over Central and Southwest China, and less than 200 cm{sup -3} over North China. The cloud liquid water path (LWP) increased by 40-60 g m{sup -2} over the ocean and Southeast China and 30 g m{sup -2} over Central China; the LWP increased less than 5 g m{sup -2} or decreased by 5 g m{sup -2} over North China. The effective radius (Re) decreased by more than 4 {mu}m over Southwest, Central, and Southeast China and 2 {mu}m over North China. In July, variations in cloud properties were more uniform; the cloud droplet number increased by approximately 250-400 cm{sup -3}, the LWP increased by approximately 30-50 g m{sup -2}, and Re decreased by approximately 3 {mu}m over most regions of China. In response to cloud property changes from PI to PD, shortwave (SW) cloud radiative forcing strengthened by 30 W m{sup -2} over the ocean and 10 W m{sup -2} over Southeast China, and it weakened slightly by approximately 2-10 W m{sup -2} over Central and Southwest China in January. In July, SW cloud radiative forcing strengthened by 15 W m{sup -2} over Southeast and North China and weakened by 10 W m{sup -2} over Central China. The different responses of SW cloud radiative forcing in different regions was related to cloud feedbacks and natural variability.