Sample records for drapes reflective film

  1. Method of making reflecting film reflector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cottingham, James G. (Center Moriches, NY)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A reflector of the reflecting film type is disclosed and which may be used in a heliostatic system for concentrating solar energy and comprising a reflecting film bonded to an appropriate rigid substrate in such a way that specularity of a very high order is achieved. A method of bonding the reflecting film to the substrate is also disclosed and comprises the steps of initially adhering the film to a smooth, clean flat rigid surface with a non-bonding liquid between the rigid surface and film, and then bonding the substrate and film. The non-bonding liquid has a molecular adhesion greater than any stresses due to handling or curing of the bonding agent which is applied between the film and the opposing surface of the rigid substrate.

  2. ADVANCED REFLECTIVE FILMS AND PANELS FOR NEXT GENERATION SOLAR...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ADVANCED REFLECTIVE FILMS AND PANELS FOR NEXT GENERATION SOLAR COLLECTORS ADVANCED REFLECTIVE FILMS AND PANELS FOR NEXT GENERATION SOLAR COLLECTORS This presentation was delivered...

  3. A replaceable reflective film for solar concentrators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 3M Company manufactures a silvered acrylic film called ECP-305 that is regarded as the preferred reflective film for use on stretched-membrane heliostats. However, ECP-305 will degrade in time, due to both corrosion of the silver layer and delamination at the film's silver-to-acrylic interface, and will eventually need to be replaced. 3M uses a very aggressive adhesive on this film, and once it is laminated, replacement is very difficult. The purpose of this investigation was the development of a replaceable reflector, a reflective film that can be easily removed and replaced. A replaceable reflector was successfully configured by laminating ECP-305 to the top surface of a smooth, dimensionally stable polymer film, with a removable adhesive applied to the underside of the polymer film. Several stages of screening and testing led to the selection of a 0.010-inch thick polycarbonate (GE 8030) as the best polymer film and a medium tack tape (3M Y-9425) was selected as the best removable adhesive. To demonstrate the feasibility of the replaceable reflector concept and to provide a real-time field test, the chosen construction was successfully applied to the 50-m{sup 2} SKI heliostat at the Central Receiver Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque. 4 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

  4. The elements of draping E. Cerdaa,b,c

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahadevan, L.

    a qualitative guide to fashion design and virtual reality animation. The couturier drapes the 3D human body

  5. Study of anisotropy of spin cast and vapor deposited polyimide films using internal reflection techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liberman, V.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have compared anisotropy of spin cast and vapor deposited polyimide (VDP) films, using internal reflection infrared spectroscopy. The films were deposited directly on the internal reflection element. We find that spin cast films are more anisotropic than their VDP counterparts, with the polyimide chains tending to align parallel to the substrate. Both films are found to contain more and less ordered regions. Within the ordered regions, the plane of the phenyl ring tends to align parallel to the substrate.

  6. Movement of oxygen vacancies in oxide film during annealing observed by an optical reflectivity difference technique

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Xiangdong

    Movement of oxygen vacancies in oxide film during annealing observed by an optical reflectivity. The growth and annealing of the film in vacuum and in oxygen ambient are monitored in real time by an oblique tell whether the oxygen vacancies are moving into or moving out of the film during the annealing

  7. ADVANCED REFLECTIVE FILMS AND PANELS FOR NEXT GENERATION SOLAR...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    film based panel -formed at high accuracy (<1.5 mrad RMS slope error) Adaptive optics (minimizes canting errors) Space frame based support structure Operation and...

  8. Ice iron/sodium film as cause for high noctilucent cloud radar reflectivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bellan, Paul M.

    Ice iron/sodium film as cause for high noctilucent cloud radar reflectivity P. M. Bellan1 Received] Noctilucent clouds, tiny cold electrically charged ice grains located at about 85 km altitude, exhibit by assuming the ice grains are coated by a thin metal film; substantial evidence exists indicating

  9. Molecular orientation in soft matter thin films studied by resonant soft X-ray reflectivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mezger, Markus; Jerome, Blandine; Kortright, Jeffrey B.; Valvidares, Manuel; Gullikson, Eric; Giglia, Angelo; Mahne, Nicola; Nannarone, Stefano

    2011-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a technique to study depth profiles of molecular orientation in soft matter thin films with nanometer resolution. The method is based on dichroism in resonant soft X-ray reflectivity using linear s- and p-polarization. It combines the chemical sensitivity of Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy to specific molecular bonds and their orientation relative to the polarization of the incident beam with the precise depth profiling capability of X-ray reflectivity. We demonstrate these capabilities on side chain liquid crystalline polymer thin films with soft X-ray reflectivity data at the carbon K edge. Optical constants of the anisotropic refractive index ellipsoid were obtained from a quantitative analysis using the Berreman formalism. For films up to 50 nm thickness we find that the degree of orientation of the long axis exhibits no depth variation and isindependent of the film thickness.

  10. Gafchromic EBT2 film dosimetry in reflection mode with a novel plan-based calibration method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendez, I.; Hartman, V.; Hudej, R.; Strojnik, A.; Casar, B. [Department of Medical Physics, Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, Zaloska cesta 2, Ljubljana 1000 (Slovenia)

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose:A dosimetric system formed by Gafchromic EBT2 radiochromic film and Epson Expression 10000XL flatbed scanner was commissioned for dosimetry. In this paper, several open questions concerning the commissioning of radiochromic films for dosimetry were addressed: (a) is it possible to employ this dosimetric system in reflection mode; (b) if so, can the methods used in transmission mode also be used in reflection mode; (c) is it possible to obtain accurate absolute dose measurements with Gafchromic EBT2 films; (d) which calibration method should be followed; (e) which calibration models should be used; and (f) does three-color channel dosimetry offer a significant improvement over single channel dosimetry. The purpose of this paper is to help clarify these questions. Methods: In this study, films were scanned in reflection mode, the effect of surrounding film was evaluated and the feasibility of EBT2 film dosimetry in reflection mode was studied. EBT2's response homogeneity has been reported to lead to excessive dose uncertainties. To overcome this problem, a new plan-based calibration method was implemented. Plan-based calibration can use every pixel and each of the three color channels of the scanned film to obtain the parameters of the calibration model. A model selection analysis was conducted to select lateral correction and sensitometric curve models. The commonly used calibration with fragments was compared with red-channel plan-based calibration and with three-channel plan-based calibration. Results: No effect of surrounding film was found in this study. The film response inhomogeneity in EBT2 films was found to be important not only due to differences in the fog but also due to differences in sensitivity. The best results for lateral corrections were obtained using absolute corrections independent of the dose. With respect to the sensitometric curves, an empirical polynomial fit of order 4 was found to obtain results equivalent to a gamma-distributed single hit model based on physical assumptions. Three-channel dosimetry was found to be substantially superior to red-channel dosimetry. Conclusions: Reflection mode with Gafchromic EBT2 radiochromic film was found to be a viable alternative to transmission mode. The same methods that are used in transmission mode can be followed in reflection mode. A novel plan-based method was developed for calibration and multichannel dosimetry. This novel method offers increased robustness against film response inhomogeneities and reduces considerably the time required for calibration.

  11. Fluorine-containing composition for forming anti-reflection film on resist surface and pattern formation method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nishi, Mineo (Kitakyushu, JP); Makishima, Hideo (Kitakyushu, JP)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A composition for forming anti-reflection film on resist surface which comprises an aqueous solution of a water soluble fluorine compound, and a pattern formation method which comprises the steps of coating a photoresist composition on a substrate; coating the above-mentioned composition for forming anti-reflection film; exposing the coated film to form a specific pattern; and developing the photoresist, are provided. Since the composition for forming anti-reflection film can be coated on the photoresist in the form of an aqueous solution, not only the anti-reflection film can be formed easily, but also, the film can be removed easily by rinsing with water or alkali development. Therefore, by the pattern formation method according to the present invention, it is possible to form a pattern easily with a high dimensional accuracy.

  12. Suppressing light reflection from polycrystalline silicon thin films through surface texturing and silver nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akhter, Perveen [Department of Physics, University at Albany-SUNY, Albany, New York 12222 (United States); Huang, Mengbing, E-mail: mhuang@albany.edu; Kadakia, Nirag; Spratt, William; Malladi, Girish; Bakhru, Hassarum [SUNY College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering, Albany, New York 12203 (United States)

    2014-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This work demonstrates a novel method combining ion implantation and silver nanostructures for suppressing light reflection from polycrystalline silicon thin films. Samples were implanted with 20-keV hydrogen ions to a dose of 10{sup 17}/cm{sup 2}, and some of them received an additional argon ion implant to a dose of 5?×?10{sup 15} /cm{sup 2} at an energy between 30 and 300?keV. Compared to the case with a single H implant, the processing involved both H and Ar implants and post-implantation annealing has created a much higher degree of surface texturing, leading to a more dramatic reduction of light reflection from polycrystalline Si films over a broadband range between 300 and 1200?nm, e.g., optical reflection from the air/Si interface in the AM1.5 sunlight condition decreasing from ?30% with an untextured surface to below 5% for a highly textured surface after post-implantation annealing at 1000?°C. Formation of Ag nanostructures on these ion beam processed surfaces further reduces light reflection, and surface texturing is expected to have the benefit of diminishing light absorption losses within large-size (>100?nm) Ag nanoparticles, yielding an increased light trapping efficiency within Si as opposed to the case with Ag nanostructures on a smooth surface. A discussion of the effects of surface textures and Ag nanoparticles on light trapping within Si thin films is also presented with the aid of computer simulations.

  13. Thin film transistors on plastic substrates with reflective coatings for radiation protection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Jesse D. (Fairfield, CA); Theiss, Steven D. (Woodbury, MN); Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Smith, Patrick M. (San Ramon, CA); Wickbold, Paul (Walnut Creek, CA)

    2006-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Fabrication of silicon thin film transistors (TFT) on low-temperature plastic substrates using a reflective coating so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The TFT can be used in large area low cost electronics, such as flat panel displays and portable electronics such as video cameras, personal digital assistants, and cell phones.

  14. Thin film transistors on plastic substrates with reflective coatings for radiation protection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Jesse D.; Theiss, Steven D.; Carey, Paul G.; Smith, Patrick M.; Wickboldt, Paul

    2003-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Fabrication of silicon thin film transistors (TFT) on low-temperature plastic substrates using a reflective coating so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The TFT can be used in large area low cost electronics, such as flat panel displays and portable electronics such as video cameras, personal digital assistants, and cell phones.

  15. Infrared reflection of GaN and AlGaN thin film heterostructures with AlN buffer layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wetzel, Christian M.

    Infrared reflection of GaN and AlGaN thin film heterostructures with AlN buffer layers C. Wetzel, Nagoya, Japan Received 11 December 1995; accepted for publication 21 February 1996 Infrared reflection, their alloys and potential substrates need to be investigated as well. Here we present a study of the infrared

  16. A New Stochastic Modeling of 3-D Mud Drapes Inside Point Bar Sands in Meandering River Deposits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, Yanshu, E-mail: yys6587@126.com [Yangtze University, School of Geosciences (China)] [Yangtze University, School of Geosciences (China)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The environment of major sediments of eastern China oilfields is a meandering river where mud drapes inside point bar sand occur and are recognized as important factors for underground fluid flow and distribution of the remaining oil. The present detailed architectural analysis, and the related mud drapes' modeling inside a point bar, is practical work to enhance oil recovery. This paper illustrates a new stochastic modeling of mud drapes inside point bars. The method is a hierarchical strategy and composed of three nested steps. Firstly, the model of meandering channel bodies is established using the Fluvsim method. Each channel centerline obtained from the Fluvsim is preserved for the next simulation. Secondly, the curvature ratios of each meandering river at various positions are calculated to determine the occurrence of each point bar. The abandoned channel is used to characterize the geometry of each defined point bar. Finally, mud drapes inside each point bar are predicted through random sampling of various parameters, such as number, horizontal intervals, dip angle, and extended distance of mud drapes. A dataset, collected from a reservoir in the Shengli oilfield of China, was used to illustrate the mud drapes' building procedure proposed in this paper. The results show that the inner architectural elements of the meandering river are depicted fairly well in the model. More importantly, the high prediction precision from the cross validation of five drilled wells shows the practical value and significance of the proposed method.

  17. Memory and power : reflections on history, memory, and Auschwitz in contemporary art and film

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shevi, Orly

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1967. Prelude to Downfall; Hitler and the United States,2004. From Caligari to Hitler : a Psychological History ofon his provocative film Hitler, film from Germany; in Italy

  18. Use of double-layer ITO films in reflective contacts for blue and near-UV LEDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markov, L. K., E-mail: l.markov@mail.ioffe.ru; Smirnova, I. P.; Pavluchenko, A. S. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Kukushkin, M. V. [ZAO Innovation Company TETIS (Russian Federation); Zakheim, D. A.; Pavlov, S. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The structural and optical properties of multilayer ITO/SiO{sub 2}/Ag composites are studied. In these composites, the ITO (indium-tin oxide) layer is produced by two different methods: electron-beam evaporation and a combined method including electron-beam evaporation and subsequent magnetron sputtering. It is shown that the reflectance of the composite based on the ITO film produced by electron-beam evaporation is substantially lower. This can be attributed to the strong absorption of light at both boundaries of the SiO{sub 2} layer, which results from the complex surface profile of ITO films deposited by electron-beam evaporation. Samples with a film deposited by the combined method have a reflectance of about 90% at normal light incidence, which, combined with their higher electrical conductivity, makes these samples advantageous for use as reflective contacts to the p-type region of AlInGaN light-emitting diodes of the flip-chip design.

  19. MGS MAG/ER observations at the magnetic pileup boundary of Mars: draping enhancement and low frequency waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    MGS MAG/ER observations at the magnetic pileup boundary of Mars: draping enhancement and low Propulsion Laboratory, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109, USA Received 26 November 2002; received in revised form 19 March 2003; accepted 24 April 2003 Abstract The magnetic pileup boundary (MPB) is a sharp

  20. Anti-reflection zinc oxide nanocones for higher efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mailoa, Jonathan P

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin film silicon solar cells, which are commonly made from microcrystalline silicon ([mu]c-Si) or amorphous silicon (a-Si), have been considered inexpensive alternatives to thick polycrystalline silicon (polysilicon) solar ...

  1. anti-reflective thin film: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mailoa, Jonathan P 2012-01-01 3 Technological assessment of light-trapping technology for thin-film Si solar cell MIT - DSpace Summary: The proposed light trapping technology of...

  2. An antidot array as an edge for total non-reflection of spin waves in yttrium iron garnet films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gieniusz, R., E-mail: gieniusz@uwb.edu.pl; Guzowska, U.; Maziewski, A. [Faculty of Physics, University of Bia?ystok, Lipowa 41, 15-424 Bia?ystok (Poland); Bessonov, V. D. [Faculty of Physics, University of Bia?ystok, Lipowa 41, 15-424 Bia?ystok (Poland); Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Division of RAS, Yekaterinburg 620041 (Russian Federation); Stognii, A. I. [Scientific-Practical Materials Research Center at National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, ul. P. Brovki 19, Minsk 220072 (Belarus)

    2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    An array of antidots has been used as an edge to create the phenomenon of total non-reflection of spin waves in yttrium iron garnet films. At the critical angle between the line of antidots and the magnetic field, we observe a high-intensity beam of spin waves moving along the line of antidots. The properties of these waves are investigated experimentally by Brillouin light scattering spectroscopy. The conditions required for the occurrence of this phenomenon based on an analysis of the properties of the isofrequency dependencies are presented. The numerical simulations are in good agreement with those of the experimental measurements.

  3. Time-resolved reflectivity techniques for dynamic studies of electron beam recrystallization of silicon-on-insulator films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timans, P.J.; McMahon, R.A.; Ahmed, H.

    1988-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A time-resolved reflectivity (TRR) technique has been developed for dynamic studies of swept beam heating of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) materials. The method exploits the temperature dependence of the reflectivity of SOI films to allow noncontact temperature measurement with high spatial and temporal resolution. This technique is of considerable practical importance for beam processing, since it allows the temperature distribution induced by a beam being scanned across a specimen to be determined. The temperature distribution produced by a line electron beam swept across a SOI specimen was experimentally measured and found to be consistent with a theoretical prediction. The TRR technique can also be used to study melting and will prove useful for characterizing zone melting recrystallization, where thermal modeling is often inadequate for the complex structures involved.

  4. Fabrication and performance of polymer-nanocomposite anti-reflective thin films deposited by RIR-MAPLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singaravelu, S.; Mayo, D. C.; Park, H-. K.; Schriver, K. E.; Klopf, John M. [W& M, JLAB; Kelley, Michael J. [W& M; Haglund, R. F. [VANDERBILT

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Design of polymer anti-reflective (AR) optical coatings for plastic substrates is challenging because polymers exhibit a relatively narrow range of refractive indices. Here, we report synthesis of a four-layer AR stack using hybrid polymer: nanoparticle materials deposited by resonant infrared matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation. An Er: YAG laser ablated frozen solutions of a high-index composite containing TiO2 nanoparticles and poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA), alternating with a layer of PMMA. The optimized AR coatings, with thicknesses calculated using commercial software, yielded a coating for polycarbonate with transmission over 97 %, scattering <3 %, and a reflection coefficient below 0.5 % across the visible range, with a much smaller number of layers than would be predicted by a standard thin film calculation. The TiO2 nanoparticles contribute more to the enhanced refractive index of the high-index layers than can be accounted for by an effective medium model of the nanocomposite.

  5. Development of electron reflection suppression materials for improved thermionic energy converter performance using thin film deposition techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Islam, Mohammad; Inal, Osman T.; Luke, James R. [Department of Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, New Mexico 87801 (United States); New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Institute for Engineering Research and Applications (IERA) , 901 University Blvd. SE, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87106-4339 (United States)

    2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonideal electrode surfaces cause significant degree of electron reflection from collector during thermionic converter operation. The effect of the collector surface structure on the converter performance was assessed through the development of several electron reflection suppression materials using various thin film deposition techniques. The double-diode probe method was used to compare the J-V characteristics of converters with polished and modified collector surfaces for emitter temperature and cesium vapor pressure in the ranges of 900-2000 K and 0.02-1.5 torr, respectively. The coadsorption of cesium and oxygen with respective partial vapor pressures of {approx}1.27 torr and a few microtorrs reduced the emitter work function to a minimum value of 0.99 eV. It was found that the collector surfaces with matte black appearance such as platinum black, voided nickel from radio-frequency plasma sputtering, and etched electroless Ni-P with craterlike pore morphology exhibited much better performance compared with polished collector surface. For these thin films, the increase in the maximum output voltage was up to 2.0 eV. For optimum performance with minimum work function and maximum saturation emission current density, the emitter temperature was in the range of 1100-1500 K, depending on the collector surface structure. The use of these materials in cylindrical converter design and/or in combination with hybrid mode triode configuration holds great potential in low and medium scale power generators for commercial use.

  6. Measuring the structure of thin soft matter films under confinement: A surface-force type apparatus for neutron reflection, based on a flexible membrane approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vos, Wiebe M. de [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock's close, BS8 1TS Bristol (United Kingdom); School of Physics, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, BS8 1TL Bristol (United Kingdom); Mears, Laura L. E.; Richardson, Robert M. [School of Physics, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, BS8 1TL Bristol (United Kingdom); Cosgrove, Terence; Prescott, Stuart W. [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock's close, BS8 1TS Bristol (United Kingdom); Dalgliesh, Robert M. [ISIS Neutron Source, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, OX11 0QX Didcot (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A unique surface force type apparatus that allows the investigation of a confined thin film using neutron reflection is described. The central feature of the setup consists of a solid substrate (silicon) and a flexible polymer membrane (Melinex{sup Registered-Sign }). We show that inflation of the membrane against the solid surface provides close and even contact between the interfaces over a large surface area. Both heavy water and air can be completely squeezed out from between the flexible film and the solid substrate, leaving them in molecular contact. The strength of confinement is controlled by the pressure used to inflate the membrane. Dust provides a small problem for this approach as it can get trapped between membrane and substrate to prevent a small part of the membrane from making good contact with the substrate. This results in the measured neutron reflectivity containing a small component of an unwanted reflection, between 10% and 20% at low confining pressures (1 bar) and between 1% and 5% at high confining pressures (5 bar). However, we show that this extra signal does not prevent good and clear information on the structure of thin films being extracted from the neutron reflectivity. The effects of confinement are illustrated with data from a poly(vinyl pyrollidone) gel layer in water, a polyelectrolyte multilayer in water, and with data from a stack of supported lipid-bilayers swollen with D{sub 2}O vapor. The data demonstrates the potential of this apparatus to provide information on the structure of thin films under confinement for a known confining pressure.

  7. Local order measurement in SnGe alloys and monolayer Sn films on Si with reflection electron energy loss spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwater, Harry

    fine structure EXELFS data obtained by reflection electron energy loss spectrometry REELS-range order obtained using reflection high energy electron diffraction. The results suggest that EXELFS synthesis of artificial structures with abrupt strain and composition profiles. Re- flection high energy

  8. Mesozoic sedimentary rock features resulting from volume movements required in drape folds at corners of basement blocks--Casper Mountain Area, Wyoming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaughn, Patty Holyfield

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    environment resulted in 700 feet of varicolored shale and sandstone of Jurassic age which lie unconformably upon the Triassic rocks. During Cretaceous time 5, 000 feet of marine sandstone and shale were deposited unconformably on tne Jurassic sediments...MESOZOIC SEDIMENTARY ROCK FEATURES RESULTING FROM VOLUME MOVEMENTS REQUIRED IN DRAPE FOLDS AT CORNERS OF BASEMENT BIOCKS ? CASPER MOUNTAIN AREA, MYOMING A Thesis by PATTY HOLYFIELD VAUGHN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A...

  9. Variable area light reflecting assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howard, T.C.

    1986-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Device is described for tracking daylight and projecting it into a building. The device tracks the sun and automatically adjusts both the orientation and area of the reflecting surface. The device may be mounted in either a wall or roof of a building. Additionally, multiple devices may be employed in a light shaft in a building, providing daylight to several different floors. The preferred embodiment employs a thin reflective film as the reflecting device. One edge of the reflective film is fixed, and the opposite end is attached to a spring-loaded take-up roller. As the sun moves across the sky, the take-up roller automatically adjusts the angle and surface area of the film. Additionally, louvers may be mounted at the light entrance to the device to reflect incoming daylight in an angle perpendicular to the device to provide maximum reflective capability when daylight enters the device at non-perpendicular angles. 9 figs.

  10. Variable area light reflecting assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howard, Thomas C. (Raleigh, NC)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Device for tracking daylight and projecting it into a building. The device tracks the sun and automatically adjusts both the orientation and area of the reflecting surface. The device may be mounted in either a wall or roof of a building. Additionally, multiple devices may be employed in a light shaft in a building, providing daylight to several different floors. The preferred embodiment employs a thin reflective film as the reflecting device. One edge of the reflective film is fixed, and the opposite end is attached to a spring-loaded take-up roller. As the sun moves across the sky, the take-up roller automatically adjusts the angle and surface area of the film. Additionally, louvers may be mounted at the light entrance to the device to reflect incoming daylight in an angle perpendicular to the device to provide maximum reflective capability when daylight enters the device at non-perpendicular angles.

  11. In situ x-ray absorption fine structure and optical reflectance studies of electrodeposited nickel hydrous oxide films in alkaline electrolytes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Y.; Bae, I. T.; Mo, Y.; Antonio, M. R.; Scherson, D. A.; Chemistry; Case Western Reserve Univ.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) and optical reflectance spectroscopy (RS) have been used to examine in situ electronic and structural aspects of nickel hydrous oxide, a-Ni(OH)2(hyd), electrodes supported on gold in alkaline electrolytes as a function of their state of charge. The extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) of a-Ni(OH)2(hyd) electrodes in the uncharged (UC, or discharged) and overcharged (OC, or fully charged) states yielded, in each case, a single set of two distinct nearest-neighbor shells, with distances, d(Ni-O)1 = 2.05 {+-} 0.02 {angstrom} and d(Ni-Ni)1 = 3.11 {+-} 0.02 {angstrom} for UC, and d(Ni-O)1 = 1.87 {+-} 0.02 {angstrom} and d(Ni-Ni)1 = 2.83 {+-} 0.02 {angstrom} for OC. The in situ EXAFS of films allowed to self-discharge following overcharge could be fit with contributions from both sets of shells, suggesting that only two types of nickel sites are sufficient to account for the redox chemistry of this material. These data, in addition to information derived both from quantitative X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) and optical RS in the visible range, indicate that the excess anodic charge, i.e., beyond the one-electron oxidation of Ni2+ sites, observed during the first oxidation of freshly prepared a-Ni(OH)2(hyd) electrodes may not be related to oxidation state changes involving nickel sites in the lattice, and, therefore, do not support the existence of nickel sites with a formal oxidation state higher than three for charged or overcharged electrodes in this media.

  12. Interactive modeler for cloth draping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thumrugoti, Umakanth

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2. Bezier Curves . 3. Hyperpatches. . . B. Deformation 1. Free Form Deformation (FFD) 2. Extended Free Form Deformation (EFFD) . C. Overview of the Model 1. Lattice 2. Newton ? Raphson Method . 3. LU Decomposition . 4. Newell's Method... 14 14 15 20 25 25 29 30 30 33 35 37 38 39 39 40 41 46 46 51 54 Page REFERENCES . APPENDIX A A. Menubar B. Lattice Buttons VITA 59 59 59 vn LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page Parallelepipedical 3D lattice A Bezier curve...

  13. Dispositional reflections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brummans, Boris H. J. M.

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    analysis suggests that the studied scholars enact these games to understand a more or less common object of knowledge, but also to constitute a more or less identifiable position in this given social space. Reflection on the ontological complicity between...

  14. INTERFERENCE Interference from Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    La Rosa, Andres H.

    INTERFERENCE Interference from Thin Films Lecture notes La Rosa Portland State University PH-213 through, a sheet of glass #12;Out of phase #12;In phase #12;#12;Interference from thin films Key reasoning for analyzing interference in a thin film: Waves undergo phase shift due to i) reflections at a interface

  15. Mirror contamination and secondary electron effects during EUV reflectivity analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    Mirror contamination and secondary electron effects during EUV reflectivity analysis M. Catalfanoa, USA; b SEMATECH Inc., Albany, NY 12203, USA ABSTRACT We investigated Ru mirror contamination film at different angles. During the contamination process, the EUV reflectivity of the Ru film

  16. POLYMERIC MIRROR FILMS: DURABILITY IMPROVEMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    eviewmeeting042413chen.pdf More Documents & Publications ADVANCED REFLECTIVE FILMS AND PANELS FOR NEXT GENERATION SOLAR COLLECTORS Development of an Advanced, Low-Cost parabolic...

  17. Process to form mesostructured films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM); Anderson, Mark T. (Woodbury, MN); Ganguli, Rahul (Camarillo, CA); Lu, Yunfeng (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention comprises a method to form a family of supported films film with pore size in the approximate range 0.8-20 nm exhibiting highly ordered microstructures and porosity derived from an ordered micellar or liquid-crystalline organic-inorganic precursor structure that forms during film deposition. Optically transparent, 100-500-nm thick films exhibiting a unique range of microstructures and uni-modal pore sizes are formed in seconds in a continuous coating operation. Applications of these films include sensors, membranes, low dielectric constant interlayers, anti-reflective coatings, and optical hosts.

  18. Thin-film optical initiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erickson, Kenneth L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin-film optical initiator having an inert, transparent substrate, a reactive thin film, which can be either an explosive or a pyrotechnic, and a reflective thin film. The resultant thin-film optical initiator system also comprises a fiber-optic cable connected to a low-energy laser source, an output charge, and an initiator housing. The reactive thin film, which may contain very thin embedded layers or be a co-deposit of a light-absorbing material such as carbon, absorbs the incident laser light, is volumetrically heated, and explodes against the output charge, imparting about 5 to 20 times more energy than in the incident laser pulse.

  19. Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction Beam-Induced Structural...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beam-Induced Structural and Property Changes on WO3 Thin Films. Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction Beam-Induced Structural and Property Changes on WO3 Thin...

  20. Magnetron sputtered boron films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Jankowski, A.F.

    1998-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for producing hardened surfaces, surfacing machine tools, etc. and for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z optical components, such as mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence. 8 figs.

  1. Magnetron sputtered boron films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for producing hardened surfaces, surfacing machine tools, etc. and for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z optical components, such as mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence.

  2. Reflections on fieldwork among the Gurungs of Nepal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2003-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

      REFLECTIONS ON FIELDWORK AMONG THE GURUNGS OF NEPAL     These reflections on work among the Gurungs were filmed in the autumn of 2000 A.D. I talked into the camera in order to capture some of the reasons why I ended up doing fieldwork...

  3. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, James L. (Drayton Plains, MI)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources.

  4. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, J.L.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. 2 figs.

  5. Electrochromic control of thin film light scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindstroem, T.; Kullman, L.; Roennow, D.; Ribbing, C.; Granqvist, C.G. [Department of Technology, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, S-752 21, Uppsala (Sweden)] [Department of Technology, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, S-752 21, Uppsala (Sweden)

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Total and diffuse reflectance spectra were measured on Al surfaces covered with electrochromic W oxide films in colored and bleached states. Vector perturbation theory was used for analyzing the spectra. The diffuse reflectance appeared to originate from correlated (uncorrelated) interface roughness when the W oxide film was fully colored (bleached). Assuming partially correlated interfaces led to agreement between experimental and calculated spectra. The use of an electrochromic film appears a promising method to control the relative contributions of the interfaces to the resulting scattering. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Corrosion-resistant multilayer structures with improved reflectivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soufli, Regina; Fernandez-Perea, Monica; Robinson, Jeff C.

    2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    In one general embodiment, a thin film structure includes a substrate; a first corrosion barrier layer above the substrate; a reflective layer above the first corrosion barrier layer, wherein the reflective layer comprises at least one repeating set of sub-layers, wherein one of the sub-layers of each set of sub-layers being of a corrodible material; and a second corrosion barrier layer above the reflective layer. In another general embodiment, a system includes an optical element having a thin film structure as recited above; and an image capture or spectrometer device. In a further general embodiment, a laser according to one embodiment includes a light source and the thin film structure as recited above.

  7. Nanocomposite films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitlin, David (Edmonton, CA); , Ophus, Colin (Edmonton, CA); Evoy, Stephane (Edmonton, CA); Radmilovic, Velimir (Piedmont, CA); Mohammadi, Reza (Edmonton, CA); Westra, Ken (Edmonton, CA); Nelson-Fitzpatrick, Nathaniel (Edmonton, CA); Lee, Zonghoon (Albany, CA)

    2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin-film composition of nanocrystal molybdenum in an amorphous metallic matrix may be formed by co-sputtering Mo with aluminum or nickel. NEMS cantilevers may be formed from the film. The films exhibit high nanoindentation hardness and a reduction in roughness and intrinsic stress, while maintaining resistivity in the metallic range.

  8. Carrier Dynamics in a-Fe2O3 (0001) Thin Films and Single Crystals...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carrier Dynamics in a-Fe2O3 (0001) Thin Films and Single Crystals Probed by Femtosecond Transient Absorption and Reflectivity. Carrier Dynamics in a-Fe2O3 (0001) Thin Films and...

  9. Tandem resonator reflectance modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fritz, I.J.; Wendt, J.R.

    1994-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors. 8 figs.

  10. Neutron reflecting supermirror structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, James L. (Drayton Plains, MI)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. One layer of each set of bilayers consist of titanium, and the second layer of each set of bilayers consist of an alloy of nickel with carbon interstitially present in the nickel alloy.

  11. Method of fabricating reflection-mode EUV diffraction elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Naulleau, Patrick P. (Oakland, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Techniques for fabricating a well-controlled, quantized-level, engineered surface that serves as substrates for EUV reflection multilayer overcomes problems associated with the fabrication of reflective EUV diffraction elements. The technique when employed to fabricate an EUV diffraction element that includes the steps of: (a) forming an etch stack comprising alternating layers of first and second materials on a substrate surface where the two material can provide relative etch selectivity; (b) creating a relief profile in the etch stack wherein the relief profile has a defined contour; and (c) depositing a multilayer reflection film over the relief profile wherein the film has an outer contour that substantially matches that of the relief profile. For a typical EUV multilayer, if the features on the substrate are larger than 50 nm, the multilayer will be conformal to the substrate. Thus, the phase imparted to the reflected wavefront will closely match that geometrically set by the surface height profile.

  12. Reflecting to learn mathematics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rachael Kenney

    2013-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    integrating reflective practice and writing to learn mathematics (WTLM) in order ... concern or interest as well as potential explanations for and solutions to ..... teacher, I know I need to be universally good in both language and numbers. ... The PSMTs' reflections also revealed that completing the prompts encouraged them to.

  13. Nanostructural characterization of amorphous diamondlike carbon films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SIEGAL,MICHAEL P.; TALLANT,DAVID R.; MARTINEZ-MIRANDA,L.J.; BARBOUR,J. CHARLES; SIMPSON,REGINA L.; OVERMYER,DONALD L.

    2000-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanostructural characterization of amorphous diamondlike carbon (a-C) films grown on silicon using pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) is correlated to both growth energetic and film thickness. Raman spectroscopy and x-ray reflectivity probe both the topological nature of 3- and 4-fold coordinated carbon atom bonding and the topographical clustering of their distributions within a given film. In general, increasing the energetic of PLD growth results in films becoming more ``diamondlike'', i.e. increasing mass density and decreasing optical absorbance. However, these same properties decrease appreciably with thickness. The topology of carbon atom bonding is different for material near the substrate interface compared to material within the bulk portion of an a-C film. A simple model balancing the energy of residual stress and the free energies of resulting carbon topologies is proposed to provide an explanation of the evolution of topographical bonding clusters in a growing a-C film.

  14. Carbonaceous film coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maya, Leon (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making a carbonaceous film comprising heating tris(1,3,2-benzodiazaborolo)borazine or dodecahydro tris[1,3,2]diazaborine[1,2-a:1'2'-c:1"2"-e]borazine in an inert atmosphere in the presence of a substrate to a temperature at which the borazine compound decomposes, and the decomposition products deposit onto the substrate to form a thin, tenacious, highly reflective conductive coating having a narrow band gap which is susceptible of modification and a relatively low coefficient of friction.

  15. Carbonaceous film coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maya, L.

    1988-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making a carbonaceous film comprising heating tris(1,3,2-benzodiazaborolo)borazine or dodecahydro tris(1,3,2)diazaborine(1,2-a:1'2'-c:1''2''-e)borazine in an inert atmosphere in the presence of a substrate to a temperature at which the borazine compound decomposes, and the decomposition products deposit onto the substrate to form a thin, tenacious, highly reflective conductive coating having a narrow band gap which is susceptible of modification and a relatively low coefficient of friction.

  16. Fiber optic hydrophone sensor arrays using low reflectance internal mirrors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jong-Seo

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new design of fiber optic hydrophone sensor arrays phics. using low reflectance internal mirrors in optical fibers is investigated. The mirrors are produced by fusion arc splicing of two fibers, one of which has a thin film of TiO2 on the end. A...

  17. Analytical model for the optical functions of amorphous semiconductors from the near-infrared to ultraviolet: Applications in thin film

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Xunming

    Analytical model for the optical functions of amorphous semiconductors from the near functions of thin film semiconductors are useful for two important purposes, namely, materials, reflectance, and ellipso- metric spectra obtained on the thin film semiconductors. The conventional analysis

  18. Electrochromic window with high reflectivity modulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldner, Ronald B. (Lexington, MA); Gerouki, Alexandra (Medford, MA); Liu, Te-Yang (Arlington, MA); Goldner, Mark A. (Cambridge, MA); Haas, Terry E. (Southborough, MA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-layered, active, thin film, solid-state electrochromic device having a high reflectivity in the near infrared in a colored state, a high reflectivity and transmissivity modulation when switching between colored and bleached states, a low absorptivity in the near infrared, and fast switching times, and methods for its manufacture and switching are provided. In one embodiment, a multi-layered device comprising a first indium tin oxide transparent electronic conductor, a transparent ion blocking layer, a tungsten oxide electrochromic anode, a lithium ion conducting-electrically resistive electrolyte, a complimentary lithium mixed metal oxide electrochromic cathode, a transparent ohmic contact layer, a second indium oxide transparent electronic conductor, and a silicon nitride encapsulant is provided. Through elimination of optional intermediate layers, simplified device designs are provided as alternative embodiments. Typical colored-state reflectivity of the multi-layered device is greater than 50% in the near infrared, bleached-state reflectivity is less than 40% in the visible, bleached-state transmissivity is greater than 60% in the near infrared and greater than 40% in the visible, and spectral absorbance is less than 50% in the range from 0.65-2.5 .mu.m.

  19. Electrochromic window with high reflectivity modulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldner, R.B.; Gerouki, A.; Liu, T.Y.; Goldner, M.A.; Haas, T.E.

    2000-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-layered, active, thin film, solid-state electrochromic device having a high reflectivity in the near infrared in a colored state, a high reflectivity and transmissivity modulation when switching between colored and bleached states, a low absorptivity in the near infrared, and fast switching times, and methods for its manufacture and switching are provided. In one embodiment, a multi-layered device comprising a first indium tin oxide transparent electronic conductor, a transparent ion blocking layer, a tungsten oxide electrochromic anode, a lithium ion conducting-electrically resistive electrolyte, a complimentary lithium mixed metal oxide electrochromic cathode, a transparent ohmic contact layer, a second indium oxide transparent electronic conductor, and a silicon nitride encapsulant is provided. Through elimination of optional intermediate layers, simplified device designs are provided as alternative embodiments. Typical colored-state reflectivity of the multi-layered device is greater than 50% in the near infrared, bleached-state reflectivity is less than 40% in the visible, bleached-state transmissivity is greater than 60% in the near infrared and greater than 40% in the visible, and spectral absorbance is less than 50% in the range from 0.65-2.5 mum.

  20. Polymer films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Granick, Steve (Champaign, IL); Sukhishvili, Svetlana A. (Maplewood, NJ)

    2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A film contains a first polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond donating moieties, and a second polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond accepting moieties. The second polymer is hydrogen bonded to the first polymer.

  1. FLUORESCENCE AND FIBER-OPTICS BASED REAL-TIME THICKNESS SENSOR FOR DYNAMIC LIQUID FILMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narain, Amitabh

    /analyzed the incident reflected waves to identify and measure the total transit time of the sound wave (of known wave-speed1 FLUORESCENCE AND FIBER-OPTICS BASED REAL-TIME THICKNESS SENSOR FOR DYNAMIC LIQUID FILMS T. W. Ng/disadvantages of many known liquid film thickness sensing devices (viz. conductivity probes, reflectance based fiber

  2. A monolithic thin film electrochromic window

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldner, R.B.; Arntz, F.O.; Berera, G.; Haas, T.E.; Wong, K.K. [Tufts Univ., Medford, MA (United States). Electro-Optics Technology Center; Wei, G. [Mobil Solar Energy Corp., Billerica, MA (United States); Yu, P.C. [PPG Industries, Inc., Monroeville, PA (United States)

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Three closely related thin film solid state ionic devices that are potentially important for applications are: electrochromic smart windows, high energy density thin film rechargeable batteries, and thin film electrochemical sensors. Each usually has at least on mixed ion/electron conductor, an electron-blocking ion conductor, and an ion-blocking electron conductor, and many of the technical issues associated with thin film solid state ionics are common to all three devices. Since the electrochromic window has the added technical requirement of electrically-controlled optical modulation, (over the solar spectrum), and since research at the authors` institution has focused primarily on the window structure, this paper will address the electrochromic window, and particularly a monolithic variable reflectivity electrochromic window, as an illustrative example of some of the challenges and opportunities that are confronting the thin film solid state ionics community. 33 refs.

  3. Reflective optical imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shafer, David R. (Fairfield, CT)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements are characterized in order from object to image as convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention increases the slit dimensions associated with ringfield scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density.

  4. ADVANCED REFLECTIVE FILMS AND PANELS FOR NEXT GENERATION SOLAR COLLECTORS |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2UraniumEnergyDepartment54th LessonsADepartment of

  5. Simultaneous imaging/reflectivity measurements to assess diagnostic mirror cleaning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skinner, C. H.; Gentile, C. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Doerner, R. [University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Practical methods to clean ITER's diagnostic mirrors and restore reflectivity will be critical to ITER's plasma operations. We describe a technique to assess the efficacy of mirror cleaning techniques and detect any damage to the mirror surface. The method combines microscopic imaging and reflectivity measurements in the red, green, and blue spectral regions and at selected wavelengths. The method has been applied to laser cleaning of single crystal molybdenum mirrors coated with either carbon or beryllium films 150-420 nm thick. It is suitable for hazardous materials such as beryllium as the mirrors remain sealed in a vacuum chamber.

  6. Optical method for the determination of stress in thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maris, Humphrey J. (Barrington, RI)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and optical system is disclosed for measuring an amount of stress in a film layer disposed over a substrate. The method includes steps of: (A) applying a sequence of optical pump pulses to the film layer, individual ones of said optical pump pulses inducing a propagating strain pulse in the film layer, and for each of the optical pump pulses, applying at least one optical probe pulse, the optical probe pulses being applied with different time delays after the application of the corresponding optical probe pulses; (B) detecting variations in an intensity of a reflection of portions of the optical probe pulses, the variations being due at least in part to the propagation of the strain pulse in the film layer; (C) determining, from the detected intensity variations, a sound velocity in the film layer; and (D) calculating, using the determined sound velocity, the amount of stress in the film layer. In one embodiment of this invention the step of detecting measures a period of an oscillation in the intensity of the reflection of portions of the optical probe pulses, while in another embodiment the step of detecting measures a change in intensity of the reflection of portions of the optical probe pulses and determines a time at which the propagating strain pulse reflects from a boundary of the film layer.

  7. Large area ceramic thin films on plastics: A versatile route via solution processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozuka, H.; Yamano, A.; Uchiyama, H.; Takahashi, M. [Faculty of Chemistry, Materials and Bioengineering, Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho, Suita, 564-8680 (Japan); Fukui, T.; Yoki, M.; Akase, T. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho, Suita, 564-8680 (Japan)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new general route for large area, submicron thick ceramic thin films (crystalline metal oxide thin films) on plastic substrates is presented, where the crystallization of films is guaranteed by a firing process. Gel films are deposited on silicon substrates with a release layer and fired to be ceramic films, followed by transferring onto plastic substrates using adhesives. The ceramic films thus fabricated on plastics exhibit a certain degree of flexibility, implying the possibility of the technique to be applied to high-throughput roll-to-roll processes. Using this technique, we successfully realized transparent anatase thin films that provide high optical reflectance and transparent indium tin oxide thin films that exhibit electrical conductivity on polycarbonate and acrylic resin substrates, respectively. Crystallographically oriented zinc oxide films and patterned zinc oxide films are also demonstrated to be realized on acrylic resin substrates.

  8. Solar Reflectance Index Calculator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz9MorganYouof Energy Projects to ReduceReflectance

  9. Mixed metal films with switchable optical properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, Thomas J.; Slack, Jonathan L.; Farangis, Baker; Rubin, Michael D.

    2001-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin, Pd-capped metallic films containing magnesium and first row transition metals (Mn, Fe, Co) switch reversibly from their initial reflecting state to visually transparent states when exposed to gaseous hydrogen or following cathodic polarization in an alkaline electrolyte. Reversion to the reflecting state is achieved by exposure to air or by anodic polarization. The films were prepared by co-sputtering from one magnesium target and one manganese, iron, or cobalt target. Both the dynamic optical switching range and the speed of the transition depend on the magnesium-transition metal ratio. Infrared spectra of films in the transparent, hydrided (deuterided) states support the presence of the intermetallic hydride phases Mg3MnH7, Mg2FeH6, and Mg2CoH5.

  10. Magnetron sputtered boron films and TI/B multilayer structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Jankowski, A.F.

    1993-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence.

  11. Magnetron sputtered boron films and TI/B multilayer structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence.

  12. Magnetron sputtered boron films and Ti/B multilayer structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Jankowski, A.F.

    1995-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence. 6 figs.

  13. Magnetron sputtered boron films and Ti/B multilayer structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence.

  14. Liquid film thickness measurement by two-line TDLAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Huinan [School of Energy and Power Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, 200093, Shanghai, China and IVG, University of Duisburg-Essen, 47057, Duisburg (Germany); Chen, Jun; Cai, Xiaoshu [School of Energy and Power Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, 200093, Shanghai (China); Greszik, Daniel; Dreier, Thomas; Schulz, Christof [IVG, University of Duisburg-Essen, 47057, Duisburg (Germany)

    2014-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A fiber-based two-line tunable diode-laser absorption sensor with two near-infrared (NIR) distributed-feedback (DFB) diode lasers at ?1.4 ?m was used for non-intrusive time-resolved liquid water film thickness measurement. When probing the liquid film at two different wavelengths with significantly different absorption cross-sections, the additional signal losses due to surface fowling, reflection and beam steering can be eliminated. In this work, the evaporation process of a liquid film on transparent quartz plate was tracked and large fluctuations of film thickness were found at the end of the evaporation.

  15. Ferroelectric ultrathin perovskite films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rappe, Andrew M; Kolpak, Alexie Michelle

    2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein are perovskite ferroelectric thin-film. Also disclosed are methods of controlling the properties of ferroelectric thin films. These films can be used in a variety materials and devices, such as catalysts and storage media, respectively.

  16. Device for translating negative film image to a line scan

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutton, G.W.

    1998-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A negative film reader records high-resolution optical density changes across negative film radiographic images to allow precise image dimensions to be determined. A laser light source capable of high-resolution focusing is passed through an intensity control filter, focused by a lens, and reflected off a mirror to focus in the plane of the negative film. The light transmitted through the film is collected by a second lens and directed to a photo diode detector which senses the transmitted intensity. The output of the photo diode signal amplifier is sent to the Y-axis input of an X-Y recorder. The film sample is transported in a plane perpendicular to the beam axis by means of a slide. The film position is monitored, with the signal amplified and recorded as the X-axis on the X-Y recorder. The linear dimensions and positions of image components can be determined by direct measurement of the amplified recording.

  17. Thin film solar energy collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aykan, Kamran (Monmouth Beach, NJ); Farrauto, Robert J. (Westfield, NJ); Jefferson, Clinton F. (Millburn, NJ); Lanam, Richard D. (Westfield, NJ)

    1983-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-layer solar energy collector of improved stability comprising: (1) a substrate of quartz, silicate glass, stainless steel or aluminum-containing ferritic alloy; (2) a solar absorptive layer comprising silver, copper oxide, rhodium/rhodium oxide and 0-15% by weight of platinum; (3) an interlayer comprising silver or silver/platinum; and (4) an optional external anti-reflective coating, plus a method for preparing a thermally stable multi-layered solar collector, in which the absorptive layer is undercoated with a thin film of silver or silver/platinum to obtain an improved conductor-dielectric tandem.

  18. Reduction of Glass Surface Reflectance by Ion Beam Surface Modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Spitzer

    2011-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report for DOE contract DE-EE0000590. The purpose of this work was to determine the feasibility of the reduction of the reflection from the front of solar photovoltaic modules. Reflection accounts for a power loss of approximately 4%. A solar module having an area of one square meter with an energy conversion efficiency of 18% generates approximately 180 watts. If reflection loss can be eliminated, the power output can be increased to 187 watts. Since conventional thin-film anti-reflection coatings do not have sufficient environmental stability, we investigated the feasibility of ion beam modification of the glass surface to obtain reduction of reflectance. Our findings are generally applicable to all solar modules that use glass encapsulation, as well as commercial float glass used in windows and other applications. Ion implantation of argon, fluorine, and xenon into commercial low-iron soda lime float glass, standard float glass, and borosilicate glass was studied by implantation, annealing, and measurement of reflectance. The three ions all affected reflectance. The most significant change was obtained by argon implantation into both low-iron and standard soda-lime glass. In this way samples were formed with reflectance lower than can be obtained with a single-layer coatings of magnesium fluoride. Integrated reflectance was reduced from 4% to 1% in low-iron soda lime glass typical of the glass used in solar modules. The reduction of reflectance of borosilicate glass was not as large; however borosilicate glass is not typically used in flat plate solar modules. Unlike conventional semiconductor ion implantation doping, glass reflectance reduction was found to be tolerant to large variations in implant dose, meaning that the process does not require high dopant uniformity. Additionally, glass implantation does not require mass analysis. Simple, high current ion implantation equipment can be developed for this process; however, before the process can be employed on full scale solar modules, equipment must be developed for ion implanting large sheets of glass. A cost analysis shows that the process can be economical. Our finding is that the reduction of reflectance by ion beam surface modification is technically and economically feasible. The public will benefit directly from this work by the improvement of photovoltaic module efficiency, and indirectly by the greater understanding of the modification of glass surfaces by ion beams.

  19. Enhanced absorption of thin-film photovoltaic cells using an optical cavity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hsu, Wei-Chun

    We show via numerical simulations that the absorption and solar energy conversion efficiency of a thin-film photovoltaic (PV) cell can be significantly enhanced by embedding it into an optical cavity. A reflective ...

  20. Technological assessment of light-trapping technology for thin-film Si solar cell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Susantyoko, Rahmat Agung

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed light trapping technology of Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) with Diffraction Grating (DG) and Anti-Reflection Coating (ARC) for thin film Si solar cell was analyzed from the technology, market, and ...

  1. Ferroelectric Sm-doped BiMnO_3 Thin Films with Ferromagnetic Transition Temperature Enhanced to 140 K

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Eun-Mi; Kursumovic, Ahmed; Lee, Oon Jew; Kleibeuker, Josée E.; Chen, Aiping; Zhang, Wenrui; Wang, Haiyan; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L.

    2014-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    of undoped-BMO (black line) and BSMO (red line) films. (d) 360° ?-scan of the (110) reflection of STO substrate (top panel) and the BSMO film (bottom panel). Atomic force microscopy surface topography images of (e) a 200 nm thick undoped-BMO film and (f) a... ) and the BSMO film (bottom panel). Atomic force microscopy surface topography images of (e) a 200 nm thick undoped-BMO film and (f) a 200 nm thick BSMO film. The inset shows AFM images with 2 × 2 ?m2. White circles indicate twinning domains. ACS Applied...

  2. Investigation of nanostructured transparent conductive films grown by rotational-sequential-sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Jong-Hong, E-mail: jonghonglu@mail.mcut.edu.tw; Chen, Bo-Ying; Wang, Chih-Hsuan [Department of Materials Engineering, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gungjuan Rd., Taishan Dist. New Taipei City 24301, Taiwan and Center for Thin Film Technologies and Applications, Ming Chi University of Technology, 84 Gungjuan Rd., Taishan Dist. New Taipei City 24301, Taiwan (China)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This study fabricates three types of nanostructured conductive transparent films using a rotational-sequential-sputtering method. These films include (1) TiO{sub 2}/indium-tin oxide (ITO) and SiO{sub x}/ITO nanomultilayer films, the optical refractive indices of which can be manipulated in the range of 2.42–1.63 at a wavelength of 550?nm with a controlled resistivity range of 1?×?10{sup ?3} to 2?×?10{sup ?4} ?·cm. (2) Multilayer ITO films are deposited on polyethylene terephthalate substrates, providing good flexibility and resistivity as low as 5?×?10{sup ?4} ?·cm. Finally, (3) ultrathin ITO films ranging from subnanometer to a few nanometers in thickness enable exploration of ITO film growth and thermal stability. X-ray reflection characterization provides a rapid, non-destructive method to measure the single-layer thicknesses of the nanomultilayer films and ultrathin ITO films at subnanoscale resolution.

  3. Save Money with Your Very Own Drapes | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO Overview OCHCO OverviewRepository | DepartmentSEA-04:DepartmentSara C. PryorKMoney with

  4. Method of fabricating reflection-mode EUV diffusers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Erik; Naulleau, Patrick P.

    2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Techniques for fabricating well-controlled, random relief, engineered surfaces that serve as substrates for EUV optical devices are accomplished with grayscale exposure. The method of fabricating a multilevel EUV optical element includes: (a) providing a substrate; (b) depositing a layer of curable material on a surface of the substrate; (c) creating a relief profile in a layer of cured material from the layer of curable material wherein the relief profile comprises multiple levels of cured material that has a defined contour; and (d) depositing a multilayer reflection film over the relief profile wherein the film has an outer contour that substantially matches that of the relief profile. The curable material can comprise photoresist or a low dielectric constant material.

  5. Ultrasonic flowmetering with reflected pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoyle, David C.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A transit time type ultrasonic flowmeter was tested with two different reflected pulse trajectories in flowing air at ambient conditions against an orifice meter. The flowmeter was designed to be highly accurate, to require ...

  6. Wurtzite GaN Surface Structures Studied by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Reflection High Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feenstra, Randall

    Wurtzite GaN Surface Structures Studied by Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Reflection High Energy studies of the surface reconstructions for both the Ga-face and the N-face of wurtzite GaN films grown a surface phenomenon. Although numerous surface studies of wurtzite GaN have been performed, progress

  7. Low reflectance radio frequency load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  8. Sandia National Laboratories: reflected optical wave

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    reflected optical wave New Sandia Mirror Isn't Shiny: Instead It Reflects Infrared Light Using a Metamaterial On December 12, 2014, in Capabilities, Materials Science, News, News &...

  9. Liu UCD Phy9B 07 9 35-4. Interference in Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoo, S. J. Ben

    change at the interface: (if reflects off an optically denser material) Normal incidence 2t =m, no phase shift 2t = m, m=0, 1, 2, 3... Destructive reflection 2t = (m+1/2), m=0, 1, 2, 3... : Light wavelength in the film : Light wavelength in air = /n #12;Liu UCD Phy9B 07 10 Phase Shift at Interface When

  10. December2010 AboutReflections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller, Jens-Dominik

    in the student-nominated category. In addition we focus on a range of innovations in teaching, learning of Reflections, the newsletter which focuses on teaching, learning and assessment in Queen's and more generally and this time focused on Increasing Students' Satisfaction in the context of the National Student Survey (NSS

  11. Multiple reflection solar energy absorber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooley, W.L.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of converting solar energy into heat energy thereby generating power is described comprising the steps: (a) focusing said solar energy by means of a primary concentrator, (b) concentrating said solar energy from said primary concentrator by means of a secondary concentrator located at the focal point of said primary concentrator, (c) slowing the flux of said solar energy from said secondary concentrator by means of a multiple reflection chamber attached to the rear aperture of the secondary concentrator, (d) circulating a working fluid by means of a working fluid delivery tube into said secondary concentrator and said multiple reflection chamber, (e) absorbing said solar energy into said working fluid by means of an ultra high concentration of said solar energy in said multiple reflection chamber, (f) insulating said working fluid by means of a surrounding thermal barrier, (g) exhausting the heat working fluid by means as of a nozzle joined to said multiple reflection chamber, (h) replacing said working fluid by means of a working fluid delivery tube, thereby completing a cycle for generating power.

  12. INVERSION OF REFLECTIVITY DATA FOR NONDECAYING POTENTIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ­ray reflectometry, thin film structure, material prop­ erties of thin films, phase identification, surfaces University Ames, IA 50011 Abstract: The recovery of material properties of thin films is considered­line and asymptotic to a positive constant. The reconstruction of such a potential is studied in terms

  13. Nonhyperbolic reflection moveout for orthorhombic media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Dajani, A.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reflection moveout in azimuthally anisotropic media is not only azimuthally dependent but it is also

  14. Fabrication of highly transparent diamond-like carbon anti-reflecting coating for Si solar cell application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banerjee, Amit, E-mail: erdd@iacs.res.in; Das, Debajyoti, E-mail: erdd@iacs.res.in [Nano-Science Group, Energy Research Unit, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata-700032 (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    ARC grade highly transparent unhydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were produced, directly from a-C target, using RF magnetron sputtering deposition technique, for optoelectronic applications. Optical band gap, transmittance, reflectance, sp{sup 3} fraction, I{sub D}/I{sub G}, density, and refractive index of the films have been estimated with the help of optical tools like Uv-vis spectrophotometer, ellipsometer and micro-Raman. Optimum ARC-qualities have been identified in low-temperature grown DLC films at an Ar pressure of 4 mTorr in the reactor, accomplishing its key requirements for use in silicon solar cells.

  15. Method for providing mirror surfaces with protective strippable polymeric film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Edwards, Charlene C. (Powell, TN); Day, Jack R. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a method for forming a protective, strippable, elastomeric film on a highly reflective surface. The method is especially well suited for protecting diamond-machined metallic mirrors, which are susceptible not only to abrasion and mechanical damage but also to contamination and corrosion by various fluids. In a typical use of the invention, a diamond-machined copper mirror surface is coated uniformly with a solution comprising a completely polymerized and completely cured thermoplastic urethane elastomer dissolved in tetrahydrofuran. The applied coating is evaporated to dryness, forming a tough, adherent, impermeable, and transparent film which encapsulates dust and other particulates on the surface. The film may be left in place for many months. When desired, the film may be stripped intact, removing the entrapped particulates and leaving no residue on the mirror surface.

  16. Method for providing mirror surfaces with protective strippable polymeric film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, C.C.; Day, J.R.

    1980-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a method for forming a protective, strippable, elastomeric film on a highly reflective surface. The method is especially well suited for protecting diamond-machined metallic mirrors, which are susceptible not only to abrasion and mechanical damage but also to contamination and corrosion by various fluids. In a typical use of the invention, a diamond-machined copper mirror surface is coated uniformly with a solution comprising a completely polymerized and completely cured thermoplastic urethane elastomer dissolved in tetrahydrofuran. The applied coating is evaporated to dryness, forming a tough, adherent, impermeable, and transparent film which encapsulates dust and other particulates on the surface. The film may be left in place for many months. When desired, the film may be stripped intact, removing the entrapped particulates and leaving no residue on the mirror surface.

  17. Properties of micrometer-thick plasma-polymerized tetrafluoroethylene films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butler, M.A.; Buss, R.J.; Galuska, A. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico (USA))

    1991-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Several physical properties of thin plasma-polymerized films have been measured using a new fiber-optic-based technique. Films of plasma-polymerized tetrafluoroethylene (PPTFE) deposited on the end of an optical fiber form an optical cavity, the reflectivity of which is very sensitive to the film thickness. The fiber is used as an {ital in} {ital situ} monitor of the deposition rate in the plasma and, after removal from the plasma, the mechanical properties of the film can be measured. With this measurement technique the thermal expansion of the film normal to its surface as well as the swelling of the film when exposed to an array of organic solvents have been determined. A significantly smaller thermal-expansion coefficient and larger degree of swelling are observed relative to bulk PTFE. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements show that the fluorocarbon chains are highly branched and have a fluorine-to-carbon ratio of 1.45. These results suggest that the plasma-polymerized films are not crystalline and are heavily cross linked.

  18. Free-Space Time-Domain Method for Measuring Thin Film Dielectric Properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Ming; Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Cho, Gyu Cheon

    2000-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-contact method for determining the index of refraction or dielectric constant of a thin film on a substrate at a desired frequency in the GHz to THz range having a corresponding wavelength larger than the thickness of the thin film (which may be only a few microns). The method comprises impinging the desired-frequency beam in free space upon the thin film on the substrate and measuring the measured phase change and the measured field reflectance from the reflected beam for a plurality of incident angles over a range of angles that includes the Brewster's angle for the thin film. The index of refraction for the thin film is determined by applying Fresnel equations to iteratively calculate a calculated phase change and a calculated field reflectance at each of the plurality of incident angles, and selecting the index of refraction that provides the best mathematical curve fit with both the dataset of measured phase changes and the dataset of measured field reflectances for each incident angle. The dielectric constant for the thin film can be calculated as the index of refraction squared.

  19. Bending elasticity of a curved amphiphilic film decorated anchored copolymers: a small angle neutron scattering study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacqueline Appell; Christian Ligoure; Gregoire Porte

    2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Microemulsion droplets (oil in water stabilized by a surfactant film) are progressively decorated with increasing amounts of poly ethylene- oxide (PEO) chains anchored in the film by the short aliphatic chain grafted at one end of the PEO chain . The evolution of the bending elasticity of the surfactant film with increasing decoration is deduced from the evolution in size and polydispersity of the droplets as reflected by small angle neutron scattering. The optimum curvature radius decreases while the bending rigidity modulus remains practically constant. The experimental results compare well with the predictions of a model developed for the bending properties of a curved film decorated by non-adsorbing polymer chains, which takes into account, the finite curvature of the film and the free diffusion of the chains on the film.

  20. Reflectance Function Approximation for Material Classification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dyer, Charles R.

    Reflectance Function Approximation for Material Classification Edward Wild CS 766 Final Project This report summarizes the results of a project to approximate reflectance functions and classify materials to classify materials. Classification algorithms are proposed to deal with unseen materials. Experimental

  1. GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoj, Toshiaki

    GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS University of Tokyo Noda, Chiba 278-8510, Japan Abstract. Green functions called symbols. Generali* *zing this, we define Green functions associated to complex reflection

  2. Reflective equilibrium and the 'moral conservatism' objection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandler, James Robert

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reflective equilibrium is widely accepted as a method of justifying ethical beliefs. Narrow reflective equilibrium justifies moral beliefs by achieving coherence between moral principles and moral judgments. However, this theory has been accused...

  3. Wurtzite GaN surface structures studied by scanning tunneling microscopy and reflection high energy electron diffraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wurtzite GaN surface structures studied by scanning tunneling microscopy and reflection high energy-face of wurtzite GaN films grown using molecular beam epitaxy. N-face reconstructions are primarily adatom numerous surface studies of wurtzite GaN have been performed, progress in determining the true surface

  4. Coatings on reflective mask substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tong, William Man-Wai (Oakland, CA); Taylor, John S. (Livermore, CA); Hector, Scott D. (Oakland, CA); Mangat, Pawitter J. S. (Gilbert, AZ); Stivers, Alan R. (San Jose, CA); Kofron, Patrick G. (San Jose, CA); Thompson, Matthew A. (Austin, TX)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for creating a mask substrate involving depositing: 1) a coating on one or both sides of a low thermal expansion material EUVL mask substrate to improve defect inspection, surface finishing, and defect levels; and 2) a high dielectric coating, on the backside to facilitate electrostatic chucking and to correct for any bowing caused by the stress imbalance imparted by either other deposited coatings or the multilayer coating of the mask substrate. An film, such as TaSi, may be deposited on the front side and/or back of the low thermal expansion material before the material coating to balance the stress. The low thermal expansion material with a silicon overlayer and a silicon and/or other conductive underlayer enables improved defect inspection and stress balancing.

  5. Discharge lamp with reflective jacket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD); Kipling, Kent (Gaithersburg, MD)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A discharge lamp includes an envelope, a fill which emits light when excited disposed in the envelope, a source of excitation power coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed around the envelope and defining an opening, the reflector being configured to reflect some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit through the opening. The reflector may be made from a material having a similar thermal index of expansion as compared to the envelope and which is closely spaced to the envelope. The envelope material may be quartz and the reflector material may be either silica or alumina. The reflector may be formed as a jacket having a rigid structure which does not adhere to the envelope. The lamp may further include an optical clement spaced from the envelope and configured to reflect an unwanted component of light which exited the envelope back into the envelope through the opening in the reflector. Light which can be beneficially recaptured includes selected wavelength regions, a selected polarization, and selected angular components.

  6. April 22, 2010 Seismic Reflection VI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ito, Garrett

    4/21/2010 1 GG450 April 22, 2010 Seismic Reflection VI Data Interpretation II Today's material section Chrono- stratigraphic section Relations of strata to boundaries of a depositional sequence Seismic stratigraphic reflection terminations within an idealized seismic sequence Reflection configurations #12

  7. Stabilized chromium oxide film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garwin, Edward L. (Los Altos, CA); Nyaiesh, Ali R. (Palo Alto, CA)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150.ANG. are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

  8. Stabilized chromium oxide film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nyaiesh, A.R.; Garwin, E.L.

    1986-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150A are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

  9. Thick film hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffheins, Barbara S. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.

  10. Film Studies Degree options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brierley, Andrew

    and national polls. * Academics at the cutting edge of their discipline introduce you to the latest ideas standards of teaching and student work. * Students take an active role in St Andrews's robust film culture equipped auditorium. There is a growing collection of films in the University Library. Our vibrant research

  11. Far From Threshold Buckling Analysis of Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benny Davidovitch; Robert D. Schroll; Dominic Vella; Mokhtar Adda-Bedia; Enrique Cerda

    2010-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin films buckle easily and form wrinkled states in regions of well defined size. The extent of a wrinkled region is typically assumed to reflect the zone of in-plane compressive stresses prior to buckling, but recent experiments on ultrathin sheets have shown that wrinkling patterns are significantly longer and follow different scaling laws than those predicted by standard buckling theory. Here we focus on a simple setup to show the striking differences between near-threshold buckling and the analysis of wrinkle patterns in very thin films, which are typically far from threshold.

  12. Long Range Hydration Effects in Electrolytic Free Suspended Black Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Sentenac; J. J. Benattar

    1998-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The force law within free suspended black films made of negatively charged Aerosol-OT (AOT) with added LiCl or CsCl is studied accurately using X-ray reflectivity (ca. 1{\\AA}). We find an electrolyte concentration threshold above which a substantial additional repulsion is detected in the LiCl films, up to distances of 100 {\\AA}. We interpret this phenomenon as an augmentation of the Debye screening length, due to the local screening of the condensed hydrophilic counterions by the primary hydration shell.

  13. Condenser optic with sacrificial reflective surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tichenor, Daniel A.; Kubiak, Glenn D.; Lee, Sang Hun

    2006-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Employing collector optics that have a sacrificial reflective surface can significantly prolong the useful life of the collector optics and the overall performance of the condenser in which the collector optics are incorporated. The collector optics are normally subject to erosion by debris from laser plasma source of radiation. The presence of an upper sacrificial reflective surface over the underlying reflective surface effectively increases the life of the optics while relaxing the constraints on the radiation source. Spatial and temporally varying reflectivity that results from the use of the sacrificial reflective surface can be accommodated by proper condenser design.

  14. Condenser optic with sacrificial reflective surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tichenor, Daniel A. (Castro Valley, CA); Kubiak, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA); Lee, Sung Hun (Sunnyvale, CA)

    2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Employing collector optics that has a sacrificial reflective surface can significantly prolong the useful life of the collector optics and the overall performance of the condenser in which the collector optics are incorporated. The collector optics is normally subject to erosion by debris from laser plasma source of radiation. The presence of an upper sacrificial reflective surface over the underlying reflective surface effectively increases the life of the optics while relaxing the constraints on the radiation source. Spatial and temporally varying reflectivity that results from the use of the sacrificial reflective surface can be accommodated by proper condenser design.

  15. B{sub 4}C thin films for neutron detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoeglund, Carina [European Spallation Source ESS AB, P.O. Box 176, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Thin Film Physics Division, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Birch, Jens; Jensen, Jens; Hultman, Lars [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Thin Film Physics Division, Linkoeping University, SE-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden); Andersen, Ken; Hall-Wilton, Richard [European Spallation Source ESS AB, P.O. Box 176, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Bigault, Thierry; Buffet, Jean-Claude; Correa, Jonathan; Esch, Patrick van; Guerard, Bruno; Piscitelli, Francesco [Institute Laue Langevin, Rue Jules Horowitz, FR-380 00 Grenoble (France); Khaplanov, Anton [European Spallation Source ESS AB, P.O. Box 176, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Institute Laue Langevin, Rue Jules Horowitz, FR-380 00 Grenoble (France); Vettier, Christian [European Spallation Source ESS AB, P.O. Box 176, SE-221 00 Lund (Sweden); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, BP 220, FR-380 43 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Vollenberg, Wilhelmus [Vacuum, Surfaces and Coatings Group (TE/VSC), CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the very limited availability of {sup 3}He, new kinds of neutron detectors, not based on {sup 3}He, are urgently needed. Here, we present a method to produce thin films of {sup 10}B{sub 4}C, with maximized detection efficiency, intended to be part of a new generation of large area neutron detectors. B{sub 4}C thin films have been deposited onto Al-blade and Si wafer substrates by dc magnetron sputtering from {sup nat}B{sub 4}C and {sup 10}B{sub 4}C targets in an Ar discharge, using an industrial deposition system. The films were characterized with scanning electron microscopy, elastic recoil detection analysis, x-ray reflectivity, and neutron radiography. We show that the film-substrate adhesion and film purity are improved by increased substrate temperature and deposition rate. A deposition rate of 3.8 A/s and substrate temperature of 400 deg. C result in films with a density close to bulk values and good adhesion to film thickness above 3 {mu}m. Boron-10 contents of almost 80 at. % are obtained in 6.3 m{sup 2} of 1 {mu}m thick {sup 10}B{sub 4}C thin films coated on Al-blades. Initial neutron absorption measurements agree with Monte Carlo simulations and show that the layer thickness, number of layers, neutron wavelength, and amount of impurities are determining factors. The study also shows the importance of having uniform layer thicknesses over large areas, which for a full-scale detector could be in total {approx}1000 m{sup 2} of two-side coated Al-blades with {approx}1 {mu}m thick {sup 10}B{sub 4}C films.

  16. Cultural Heritage in African Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bouteba, P.M.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the African film "Wend Kuuni," Diawara describes the majorstructure and meanings. Diawara states, "Kabore's strategy

  17. Ultrahard carbon nanocomposite films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SIEGAL,MICHAEL P.; TALLANT,DAVID R.; PROVENCIO,PAULA P.; OVERMYER,DONALD L.; SIMPSON,REGINA L.; MARTINEZ-MIRANDA,L.J.

    2000-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Modest thermal annealing to 600 C of diamondlike amorphous-carbon (a-C) films grown at room temperature results in the formation of carbon nanocomposites with hardness similar to diamond. These nanocomposite films consist of nanometer-sized regions of high density a-C embedded in an a-C matrix with a reduced density of 5--10%. The authors report on the evolution of density and bonding topologies as a function of annealing temperature. Despite a decrease in density, film hardness actually increases {approximately} 15% due to the development of the nanocomposite structure.

  18. Photothermal and thermo-refractive effects in high reflectivity mirrors at room and cryogenic temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alessandro Farsi; Mario Siciliani de Cumis; Francesco Marino; Francesco Marin

    2011-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Increasing requirements in the sensitivity of interferometric measurements is a common feature of several research fields, from gravitational wave detection to quantum optics. This motivates refined studies of high reflectivity mirrors and of noise sources that are tightly related to their structure. In this work we present an experimental characterization of photothermal and thermo-refractive effects in high reflectivity mirrors, i.e., of the variations in the position of their effective reflection plane due to weak residual power absorption. The measurements are performed by modulating the impinging power in the range 10 Hz $\\div$ 100 kHz. The experimental results are compared with an expressly derived theoretical model in order to fully understand the phenomena and exploit them to extract useful effective thermo-mechanical parameters of the coating. The measurements are extended at cryogenic temperature, where most high sensitivity experiments are performed (or planned in future versions) and where characterizations of dielectric film coatings are still poor.

  19. On multichannel film dosimetry with channel-independent perturbations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Méndez, I., E-mail: nmendez@onko-i.si; Peterlin, P.; Hudej, R.; Strojnik, A.; Casar, B. [Department of Medical Physics, Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, Zaloška cesta 2, Ljubljana 1000 (Slovenia)] [Department of Medical Physics, Institute of Oncology Ljubljana, Zaloška cesta 2, Ljubljana 1000 (Slovenia)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Different multichannel methods for film dosimetry have been proposed in the literature. Two of them are the weighted mean method and the method put forth byMicke et al. [“Multichannel film dosimetry with nonuniformity correction,” Med. Phys. 38, 2523–2534 (2011)] and Mayer et al. [“Enhanced dosimetry procedures and assessment for EBT2 radiochromic film,” Med. Phys. 39, 2147–2155 (2012)]. The purpose of this work was to compare their results and to develop a generalized channel-independent perturbations framework in which both methods enter as special cases. Methods: Four models of channel-independent perturbations were compared: weighted mean, Micke–Mayer method, uniform distribution, and truncated normal distribution. A closed-form formula to calculate film doses and the associated type B uncertainty for all four models was deduced. To evaluate the models, film dose distributions were compared with planned and measured dose distributions. At the same time, several elements of the dosimetry process were compared: film type EBT2 versus EBT3, different waiting-time windows, reflection mode versus transmission mode scanning, and planned versus measured dose distribution for film calibration and for ?-index analysis. The methods and the models described in this study are publicly accessible through IRISEU. Alpha 1.1 ( http://www.iriseu.com ). IRISEU. is a cloud computing web application for calibration and dosimetry of radiochromic films. Results: The truncated normal distribution model provided the best agreement between film and reference doses, both for calibration and ?-index verification, and proved itself superior to both the weighted mean model, which neglects correlations between the channels, and the Micke–Mayer model, whose accuracy depends on the properties of the sensitometric curves. With respect to the selection of dosimetry protocol, no significant differences were found between transmission and reflection mode scanning, between 75 ± 5 min and 20 ± 1 h waiting-time windows or between employing EBT2 or EBT3 films. Significantly better results were obtained when a measured dose distribution was used instead of a planned one as reference for the calibration, and when a planned dose distribution was used instead of a measured one as evaluation for the ?-analysis. Conclusions: The truncated normal distribution model of channel-independent perturbations was found superior to the other three models under comparison and the authors propose its use for multichannel dosimetry.

  20. Amorphous diamond films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falabella, S.

    1998-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Amorphous diamond films having a significant reduction in intrinsic stress are prepared by biasing a substrate to be coated and depositing carbon ions thereon under controlled temperature conditions. 1 fig.

  1. CFN | Thin Films Group

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Synthesis and Characterization Facility Thin-Film Processing Facility Online Manager (FOM) website FOM manual ESR for lab 1L32 (High-Resolution SEM and x-ray...

  2. Thin Film Photovoltaics Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) supports research and development of four thin-film technologies on the path to achieving cost-competitive solar energy, including:

  3. Photovoltaic module with light reflecting backskin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonsiorawski, Ronald C. (Danvers, MA)

    2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A photovoltaic module comprises electrically interconnected and mutually spaced photovoltaic cells that are encapsulated by a light-transmitting encapsulant between a light-transparent front cover and a back cover, with the back cover sheet being an ionomer/nylon alloy embossed with V-shaped grooves running in at least two directions and coated with a light reflecting medium so as to provide light-reflecting facets that are aligned with the spaces between adjacent cells and oriented so as to reflect light falling in those spaces back toward said transparent front cover for further internal reflection onto the solar cells, whereby substantially all of the reflected light will be internally reflected from said cover sheet back to the photovoltaic cells, thereby increasing the current output of the module. The internal reflector improves power output by as much as 67%.

  4. Thermonuclear Reflect AB-Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Bolonkin

    2008-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The author offers a new kind of thermonuclear reflect reactor. The remarkable feature of this new reactor is a three net AB reflector, which confines the high temperature plasma. The plasma loses part of its energy when it contacts with the net but this loss can be compensated by an additional permanent plasma heating. When the plasma is rarefied (has a small density), the heat flow to the AB reflector is not large and the temperature in the triple reflector net is lower than 2000 - 3000 K. This offered AB-reactor has significantly less power then the currently contemplated power reactors with magnetic or inertial confinement (hundreds-thousands of kW, not millions of kW). But it is enough for many vehicles and ships and particularly valuable for tunnelers, subs and space apparatus, where air to burn chemical fuel is at a premium or simply not available. The author has made a number of innovations in this reactor, researched its theory, developed methods of computation, made a sample computation of typical project. The main point of preference for the offered reactor is its likely cheapness as a power source. Key words: Micro-thermonuclear reactor, Multi-reflex AB-thermonuclear reactor, Self-magnetic AB-thermonuclear reactor, aerospace thermonuclear engine.

  5. Selectively patterning polymer opal films via microimprint lithography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ding, Tao; Zhao, Qibin; Smoukov, Stoyan; Baumberg, Jeremy J.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -imprinting these solid flexible films, the PEA matrix containing the hard spherical particles deforms into negative patterns of the stamp resulting in a rearrangement of the spheres as shown in Scheme 1. The intrusion of the hard posts squeezes the POF laterally... reflectivities drop to ~30%, which may arise because of non-homogeneous flows or the introduction of defects during squeezing and compression. For the sheared region II, squeezing might be expected to expand the lattice spacing vertically, but although...

  6. Optimization Online - Constrained optimization in seismic reflection ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Delbos

    2004-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Jul 7, 2004 ... Constrained optimization in seismic reflection tomography: an SQP augmented Lagrangian approach. F. Delbos (Frederic.Delbos ***at*** ifp.fr)

  7. Understanding teacher beliefs with reflective tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karwan, Vanessa Ann

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reflective Tools by Vanessa Ann Karwan Doctor of EducationLeadership by Vanessa Ann Karwan Committee in charge:Kathleen Cohn Copyright Vanessa Ann Karwan, 2009 All rights

  8. Parasitic oscillation suppression in solid state lasers using absorbing thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zapata, L.E.

    1994-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin absorbing film is bonded onto at least certain surfaces of a solid state laser gain medium. An absorbing metal-dielectric multilayer film is optimized for a broad range of incidence angles, and is resistant to the corrosive/erosive effects of a coolant such as water, used in the forced convection cooling of the film. Parasitic oscillations hamper the operation of solid state lasers by causing the decay of stored energy to amplified rays trapped within the gain medium by total and partial internal reflections off the gain medium facets. Zigzag lasers intended for high average power operation require the ASE absorber. 16 figs.

  9. Parasitic oscillation suppression in solid state lasers using absorbing thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zapata, Luis E. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin absorbing film is bonded onto at least certain surfaces of a solid state laser gain medium. An absorbing metal-dielectric multilayer film is optimized for a broad range of incidence angles, and is resistant to the corrosive/erosive effects of a coolant such as water, used in the forced convection cooling of the film. Parasitic oscillations hamper the operation of solid state lasers by causing the decay of stored energy to amplified rays trapped within the gain medium by total and partial internal reflections off the gain medium facets. Zigzag lasers intended for high average power operation require the ASE absorber.

  10. Optical properties of chemical-vapor-deposited diamond films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bi, X.X.; Eklund, P.C.; Zhang, J.G.; Rao, A.M. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (USA)); Perry, T.A.; Beetz, C.P. Jr. (Physics Department, General Motors Research Laboratory, Warren, MI (USA))

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of room-temperature optical studies on {similar to}10 micron thick, free-standing diamond films are reported. The films were grown on Si(100) substrates by hot filament-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) from a methane/hydrogen mixture. The as-grown, free surface of the films exhibited a surface roughness of scale {sigma}{similar to}0.2 to 5 microns, depending on the methane/hydrogen mixture, which introduces significant optical scattering loss for frequencies greater than 0.5 eV. Specular reflection and transmission spectra in the range 0.01--10 eV were collected. Below the threshold for interband adsorption near {similar to}5 eV, the films studied behaved approximately as thin parallel plates of refractive index 2.4, with the rough free surface leading to increasingly larger loss of specular transmission/reflection with decreasing wavelength. Structure in the mid-infrared transmission spectra was observed and attributed to disorder-induced one-phonon absorption, intrinsic multi-phonon absorption, and infrared active --C--H{sub 2} stretching modes. The strength of the C--H band was observed to increase with increasing methane pressure in the growth chamber. At 5.3 eV, the onset of interband absorption was observed, in good agreement with the value of the indirect bandgap in type IIa (intrinsic) diamond.

  11. The effect of Ta interface on the crystallization of amorphous phase change material thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghezzi, G. E. [CEA-LETI, MINATEC campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, F 38054 Grenoble (France); LMGP, CNRS Grenoble-INP, MINATEC, 3 parvis Louis Néel, F 38016 Grenoble (France); Noé, P., E-mail: pierre.noe@cea.fr; Marra, M.; Sabbione, C.; Fillot, F.; Bernier, N.; Ferrand, J.; Maîtrejean, S. [CEA-LETI, MINATEC campus, 17 rue des Martyrs, F 38054 Grenoble (France); Hippert, F. [LMGP, CNRS Grenoble-INP, MINATEC, 3 parvis Louis Néel, F 38016 Grenoble (France); LNCMI (CNRS, UJF, UPS, INSA), 25 rue des Martyrs, F 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2014-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The crystallization of amorphous GeTe and Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} phase change material films, with thickness between 10 and 100?nm, sandwiched between either Ta or SiO{sub 2} layers, was investigated by optical reflectivity. Ta cladding layers were found to increase the crystallization temperature, even for films as thick as 100?nm. X-Ray diffraction investigations of crystallized GeTe films showed a very weak texture in Ta cladded films, in contrast with the strong texture observed for SiO{sub 2} cladding layers. This study shows that crystallization mechanism of phase change materials can be highly impacted by interface effects, even for relatively thick films.

  12. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in epitaxially strained cobalt-ferrite (001) thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanagihara, H., E-mail: yanagiha@bk.tsukuba.ac.jp; Utsumi, Y.; Niizeki, T., E-mail: t-niizeki@imr.tohoku.ac.jp; Inoue, J.; Kita, Eiji [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the dependencies of both the magnetization characteristics and the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of Co{sub x}Fe{sub 3–x}O{sub 4}(001) epitaxial films (x?=?0.5 and 0.75) on the growth conditions of the reactive magnetron sputtering process. Both saturation magnetization and the magnetic uniaxial anisotropy constant K{sub u} are strongly dependent on the reactive gas (O{sub 2}) flow rate, although there is little difference in the surface structures for all samples observed by reflection high-energy electron diffraction. In addition, certain dead-layer-like regions were observed in the initial stage of the film growth for all films. Our results suggest that the magnetic properties of Co{sub x}Fe{sub 3–x}O{sub 4} epitaxial films are governed by the oxidation state and the film structure at the vicinity of the interface.

  13. GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoj, Toshiaki

    GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS TOSHIAKI SHOJI Department of Mathematics Science University of Tokyo Noda, Chiba 278­8510, Japan Abstract. Green functions of classical groups this, we define Green functions associated to complex reflection groups G(e, 1, n), and study

  14. Measurement of Marine Animal Reflectance Functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaffe, Jules

    angular reflectance behavior and point the way toward future studies. Definition of BRDF and REFF of the ridges seen in the enlarged light microscope image of the specimen (shown at right), reflectance exposure images, and combination of three measured wavelengths. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM

  15. Wideband reflectance tympanometry in chinchillas and humansa)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Jont

    Wideband reflectance tympanometry in chinchillas and humansa) Robert H. Margolis,b) Saurav Paul reflectance tympanometry was performed on twelve chinchillas ears. The complex input impedance of the middle. The complex impedance of the chinchilla ear has a lower stiffness reactance at low frequencies, a higher mass

  16. Use of bitumen reflectance in hydrocarbon exploration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodarzi, F.; Gentzis, T. (Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, Alberta)

    1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bitumen is a sensitive indicator of the thermal maturity of sedimentary rocks, particularly in carbonates and lower Paleozoic, where vitrinite is scarce. The optical properties of bitumen (at 546 nm) follow trends similar to those of vitrinite with increasing maturity. However, the following differences exist: (1) bitumen has lower reflectance than vitrinite up to the onset of oil generation, as determined by vitrinite reflectance; (2) reflectance of bitumen follows a higher trend than that of vitrinite at an R{sub 0} level of 1.0% (peak of oil generation). Bitumen reflectance can be converted to vitrinite reflectance using Jacob's formula. In lower Paleozoic rocks (Ordovician and older) bitumen can be used as a thermal indicator for determining the level of maturity with increasing burial depth. There are, however, complexities in the above application because of differentiation between reservoir-migrated and primary bitumen.

  17. Epitaxial thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Andrew Tye; Deshpande, Girish; Lin, Wen-Yi; Jan, Tzyy-Jiuan

    2006-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Epitatial thin films for use as buffer layers for high temperature superconductors, electrolytes in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), gas separation membranes or dielectric material in electronic devices, are disclosed. By using CCVD, CACVD or any other suitable deposition process, epitaxial films having pore-free, ideal grain boundaries, and dense structure can be formed. Several different types of materials are disclosed for use as buffer layers in high temperature superconductors. In addition, the use of epitaxial thin films for electrolytes and electrode formation in SOFCs results in densification for pore-free and ideal gain boundary/interface microstructure. Gas separation membranes for the production of oxygen and hydrogen are also disclosed. These semipermeable membranes are formed by high-quality, dense, gas-tight, pinhole free sub-micro scale layers of mixed-conducting oxides on porous ceramic substrates. Epitaxial thin films as dielectric material in capacitors are also taught herein. Capacitors are utilized according to their capacitance values which are dependent on their physical structure and dielectric permittivity. The epitaxial thin films of the current invention form low-loss dielectric layers with extremely high permittivity. This high permittivity allows for the formation of capacitors that can have their capacitance adjusted by applying a DC bias between their electrodes.

  18. CSC418 / CSCD18 / CSC2504 Basic Lighting and Reflection 8 Basic Lighting and Reflection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    CSC418 / CSCD18 / CSC2504 Basic Lighting and Reflection 8 Basic Lighting and Reflection Up things, on the lighting that illuminates the scene, and on the interaction of light with the objects in the scene. Some of the basic qualitative properties of lighting and object reflectance that we need

  19. Thin films and uses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baskaran, Suresh (Kennewick, WA); Graff, Gordon L. (Kennewick, WA); Song, Lin (Richland, WA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides a method for synthesizing a titanium oxide-containing film comprising the following steps: (a) preparing an aqueous solution of a titanium chelate with a titanium molarity in the range of 0.01M to 0.6M. (b) immersing a substrate in the prepared solution, (c) decomposing the titanium chelate to deposit a film on the substrate. The titanium chelate maybe decomposed acid, base, temperature or other means. A preferred method provides for the deposit of adherent titanium oxide films from C2 to C5 hydroxy carboxylic acids. In another aspect the invention is a novel article of manufacture having a titanium coating which protects the substrate against ultraviolet damage. In another aspect the invention provides novel semipermeable gas separation membranes, and a method for producing them.

  20. NMR characterization of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerald II, Rex E.; Klingler, Robert J.; Rathke, Jerome W.; Diaz, Rocio; Vukovic, Lela

    2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  1. NMR characterization of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerald, II, Rex E. (Brookfield, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Glenview, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Homer Glen, IL); Diaz, Rocio (Chicago, IL); Vukovic, Lela (Westchester, IL)

    2008-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

  2. Optimization of transparent and reflecting electrodes for amorphous silicon solar cells. Annual subcontract report, 1 May 1991--30 April 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, R.G. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes work to improve the performance of solar cells by improving the electrical and optical properties of their transparent conducting oxides (TCO) layers. Boron-doped zinc-oxide films were deposited by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition in a laminar-flow reactor from diethyl zinc, tert-butanol, and diborane in the temperature range between 300{degrees}C and 420{degrees}C. When the deposition temperature was above 320{degrees}C, both doped and undoped films have highly oriented crystallites with their c-axes perpendicular to the substrate plane. Films deposited from 0.07% diethyl zinc and 2.4% tert-butanol have electron densities between 3.5 {times} 10{sup 20} cm{sup {minus}3} and 5.5 {times} 10{sup 20} cm{sup {minus}3}, conductivities between 250 {Omega}{sup {minus}1} and 2500 {Omega}{sup {minus}1} and mobilities between 2.5 cm{sup 2}/V-s and 35.0 cm{sup 2}/V-s, depending on dopant concentration, film thickness, and deposition temperature. Optical measurements show that the maximum infrared reflectance of the doped films is close to 90%, compared to about 20% for undoped films. Film visible absorption and film conductivity were found to increase with film thickness. The ratio of conductivity to visible absorption coefficient for doped films was between 0.1 {Omega} and 1.1 {Omega}{sup {minus}1}. The band gap of the film changes from 3.3 eV to 3.7 eV when the film is doped with 0.012% diborane.

  3. Thin film photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Catalano, Anthony W. (Wilmington, DE); Bhushan, Manjul (Wilmington, DE)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids.

  4. Thin film photovoltaic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Catalano, A.W.; Bhushan, M.

    1982-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids. 5 figs.

  5. Metal film deposition by laser breakdown chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jervis, T.R.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dielectric breakdown of gas mixtures can be used to deposit homogeneous thin films by chemical vapor deposition with appropriate control of flow and pressure conditions to suppress gas phase nucleation and particle formation. Using a pulsed CO/sub 2/ laser operating at 10.6 microns where there is no significant resonant absorption in any of the source gases, we have succeeded in depositing homogeneous films from several gas phase precursors by gas phase laser pyrolysis. Nickel and molybdenum from the respective carbonyls and tungsten from the hexafluoride have been examined to date. In each case the gas precursor is buffered to reduce the partial pressure of the reactants and to induce breakdown. The films are spectrally reflective and uniform over a large area. Films have been characterized by Auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, pull tests, and resistivity measurements. The highest quality films have resulted from the nickel depositions. Detailed x-ray diffraction analysis of these films yields a very small domain size (approx. 50 A) consistent with rapid quenching from the gas phase reaction zone. This analysis also shows nickel carbide formation consistent with the temperature of the reaction zone and the Auger electron spectroscopy results which show some carbon and oxygen incorporation (8% and 1% respectively). Gas phase transport and condensation of the molybdenum carbonyl results in substantial carbon and oxygen contamination of the molybdenum films requiring heated substrates, a requirement not consistent with the goals of the program to maximize the quench rate of the deposition. Results from tungsten deposition experiments representing a reduction chemistry instead of the decomposition chemistry involved in the carbonyl experiments are also reported.

  6. Fresnel Reflection 9.0.3 polarization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

    Chapter 9 Fresnel Reflection 9.0.3 polarization: iE rE tE i r t 1 2 iH rH tH iE rE tE i r t 1 2 i that n1 sin i = n2 sin t (9.2) 45 #12;46 CHAPTER 9. FRESNEL REFLECTION Boundary conditions iH rH tH #12;48 CHAPTER 9. FRESNEL REFLECTION and here Ei + Er = Et (9.16) or Hi Z-1 1 + Hr Z-1 1

  7. Indium-Vanadium Oxides Deposited by Radio Frequency Sputtering: New Thin Film Transparent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Artuso, Florinda

    in order to determine their possible applications in electrochromic devices as optically passive ion-vis-NIR transmittance and reflectance modes, have demonstrated that films are electrochromic, but the presence in electrochromic devices (ECD) with variable light transmission ("smart windows").2,3 As has been demonstrated

  8. Tuning cationic composition of La:EuTiO{sub 3??} films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shkabko, Andrey, E-mail: shkabko@gmail.com [Forschungszentrum Jülich, Peter Grünberg Institut (PGI-7), D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Empa, Solid State Chemistry and Catalysis, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Xu, Chencheng; Meuffels, Paul; Gunkel, Felix; Dittmann, Regina; Waser, Rainer [Forschungszentrum Jülich, Peter Grünberg Institut (PGI-7), D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Weidenkaff, Anke [Empa, Solid State Chemistry and Catalysis, CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland)

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Eu{sub 1?x}La{sub x}TiO{sub 3??} (x = 0, 0.3, 0.5) films were deposited in a p(Ar(96%)/H{sub 2}(4%)) = 4 × 10{sup ?4} mbar atmosphere on (LaAlO{sub 3}){sub 0.3}-(Sr{sub 2}AlTaO{sub 6}){sub 0.7} vicinal substrates (0.1°). Reflection high-energy electron diffraction oscillation characteristics of a layer-by-layer growth mode were observed for stoichiometric and Ti-rich films and the laser fluence suited to deposit stoichiometric films was identified to be 1.25 J/cm{sup 2} independent of the La content. The variety of resulting film compositions follows the general trend of Eu-enrichment for low laser and Ti-enrichment for high laser fluence. X-ray diffraction confirms that all the films are compressively strained with a general trend of an increase of c-axis elongation for non-stoichiometric films. The surfaces of non-stoichiometric films have an increased roughness, the highest sheet resistances, exhibit the presence of islands, and are Eu{sup 3+} rich for films deposited at low laser fluence.

  9. Unmasking online reflective practices in higher education 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ross, Jennifer

    2012-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Online reflective practices that are high-stakes – summatively assessed, or used as evidence for progression or membership in a professional body – are increasingly prevalent in higher education, especially in professional ...

  10. Preparing reflective substrate surfaces for laser treatment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flick, F.F.

    1984-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A coating of either copper oxide or felt tip pen ink is used on reflective copper or gold substrates to enhance laser beam coupling when the substrates are cut or welded with a laser.

  11. Diffuse reflectance imaging with astronomical applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasinoff, Samuel W.

    Diffuse objects generally tell us little about the surrounding lighting, since the radiance they reflect blurs together incident lighting from many directions. In this paper we discuss how occlusion geometry can help invert ...

  12. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs...

  13. Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Imaging in Reflection Print Wednesday, 26 October 2011 00:00 The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field...

  14. Effective Field Theory for Bound State Reflection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michelle Pine; Dean Lee

    2013-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Elastic quantum bound-state reflection from a hard-wall boundary provides direct information regarding the structure and compressibility of quantum bound states. We discuss elastic quantum bound-state reflection and derive a general theory for elastic reflection of shallow dimers from hard-wall surfaces using effective field theory. We show that there is a small expansion parameter for analytic calculations of the reflection scattering length. We present a calculation up to second order in the effective Hamiltonian in one, two, and three dimensions. We also provide numerical lattice results for all three cases as a comparison with our effective field theory results. Finally, we provide an analysis of the compressibility of the alpha particle confined to a cubic lattice with vanishing Dirichlet boundaries.

  15. Oblique reflections of internal gravity wave beams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karimi, Hussain H. (Hussain Habibullah)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study nonlinear effects in reflections of internal gravity wave beams in a continuously stratified liquid which are incident upon a uniform slope at an oblique angle. Wave motion in a stratified fluid medium is unique ...

  16. REFLECTION PRINCIPLE IN HIGHER DIMENSION SERGEY PINCHUK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abbondandolo, Alberto

    's for Complex and CR-Geometry" held at ITC-IRST in Povo - Trento. The focus is on the reflection (Schwarz) (Diederich & Pinchuk [6] 2003) The previous results hold also when f is not a biholomorphism, but only

  17. Polarization characteristics of surface plasmon resonance in SnO{sub 2} nanocluster films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grinevich, V. S., E-mail: grinevich@onu.edu.ua [Mechnikov Odessa National University (Ukraine); Maximenko, L. S.; Matyash, I. E.; Mischuk, O. N.; Rudenko, S. P.; Serdega, B. K. [National Academy of Sciences, Lashkaryov Institute of Semiconductor Physics (Ukraine); Smyntyna, V. A.; Filevskaya, L. N. [Mechnikov Odessa National University (Ukraine)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Internal reflection features caused by the surface plasmon resonance in nanoscale films containing defect tin dioxide clusters in the stoichiometric dielectric matrix are studied by the method of polarization modulation of electromagnetic radiation. The angular and spectral characteristics of reflectances R{sub s}{sup 2} and R{sub p}{sup 2} of s- and p-polarized radiation and their polarization difference {rho} = R{sub s}{sup 2} - R{sub p}{sup 2} are measured in the wavelength range {lambda} = 400-1600 nm. The experimental characteristics {rho}({theta}, {lambda}) ({theta} is the radiation incidence angle) obtained represent the optical property features associated with the film structure and morphology. Surface plasmon polaritons and local plasmons excited by s- and p-polarized radiation are detected; their frequency and relaxation properties are determined. The structural sensitivity of the technique for studying the surface plasmon resonance for tin dioxide films is shown.

  18. Vibrational spectra of CO adsorbed on oxide thin films: A tool to probe the surface defects and phase changes of oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Savara, Aditya, E-mail: savaraa@ornl.gov [Chemical Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Lab, 1 Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin films of iron oxide were grown on Pt(111) single crystals using cycles of physical vapor deposition of iron followed by oxidative annealing in an ultrahigh vacuum apparatus. Two procedures were utilized for film growth of ?15–30 ML thick films, where both procedures involved sequential deposition+oxidation cycles. In procedure 1, the iron oxide film was fully grown via sequential deposition+oxidation cycles, and then the fully grown film was exposed to a CO flux equivalent to 8 × 10{sup ?7} millibars, and a vibrational spectrum of adsorbed CO was obtained using infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy. The vibrational spectra of adsorbed CO from multiple preparations using procedure 1 show changes in the film termination structure and/or chemical nature of the surface defects—some of which are correlated with another phase that forms (“phase B”), even before enough of phase B has formed to be easily detected using low energy electron diffraction (LEED). During procedure 2, CO vibrational spectra were obtained between deposition+oxidation cycles, and these spectra show that the film termination structure and/or chemical nature of the surface defects changed as a function of sequential deposition+oxidation cycles. The authors conclude that measurement of vibrational spectra of adsorbed CO on oxide thin films provides a sensitive tool to probe chemical changes of defects on the surface and can thus complement LEED techniques by probing changes not visible by LEED. Increased use of vibrational spectra of adsorbed CO on thin films would enable better comparisons between films grown with different procedures and by different groups.

  19. Diamond films: Historical perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Messier, R. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (United States)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This section is a compilation of notes and published international articles about the development of methods of depositing diamond films. Vapor deposition articles are included from American, Russian, and Japanese publications. The international competition to develop new deposition methodologies is stressed. The current status of chemical vapor deposition of diamond is assessed.

  20. Thin film photovoltaic cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meakin, John D. (Newark, DE); Bragagnolo, Julio (Newark, DE)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin film photovoltaic cell having a transparent electrical contact and an opaque electrical contact with a pair of semiconductors therebetween includes utilizing one of the electrical contacts as a substrate and wherein the inner surface thereof is modified by microroughening while being macro-planar.

  1. Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, D.A.; Turner, B.; Kipling, K.

    1999-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method wherein the light in a sulfur or selenium lamp is reflected through the fill a multiplicity of times to convert ultraviolet radiation to visible is disclosed. A light emitting device comprised of an electrodeless envelope which bears a light reflecting covering around a first portion which does not crack due to differential thermal expansion and which has a second portion which comprises a light transmissive aperture. 20 figs.

  2. Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A. (Butler, PA); Turner, Brian (Damascus, MD); Kipling, Kent (Gaithersburg, MD)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method wherein the light in a sulfur or selenium lamp is reflected through the fill a multiplicity of times to convert ultraviolet radiation to visible. A light emitting device comprised of an electrodeless envelope which bears a light reflecting covering around a first portion which does not crack due to differential thermal expansion and which has a second portion which comprises a light transmissive aperture.

  3. Reflective masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Khanh Bao

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extreme ultraviolet lithographic masks are made by patterning multilayer reflective coatings with high normal incidence reflectivity. Masks can be patterned by depositing a patterned absorber layer above the coating or by etching the pattern directly into the coating itself. Electromagnetic simulations showed that absorber-overlayer masks have superior imaging characteristics over etched masks (less sensitive to incident angles and pattern profiles). In an EUVL absorber overlayer mask, defects can occur in the mask substrate, reflective coating, and absorber pattern. Electromagnetic simulations showed that substrate defects cause the most severe image degradation. A printability study of substrate defects for absorber overlayer masks showed that printability of 25 nm high substrate defects are comparable to defects in optical lithography. Simulations also indicated that the manner in which the defects are covered by multilayer reflective coatings can affect printability. Coverage profiles that result in large lateral spreading of defect geometries amplify the printability of the defects by increasing their effective sizes. Coverage profiles of Mo/Si coatings deposited above defects were studied by atomic force microscopy and TEM. Results showed that lateral spread of defect geometry is proportional to height. Undercut at defect also increases the lateral spread. Reductions in defect heights were observed for 0.15 {mu}m wide defect lines. A long-term study of Mo/Si coating reflectivity revealed that Mo/Si coatings with Mo as the top layer suffer significant reductions in reflectivity over time due to oxidation.

  4. Unitary reflection groups for quantum fault tolerance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Planat, Michel

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper explores the representation of quantum computing in terms of unitary reflections (unitary transformations that leaves invariant a hyperplane of a vector space). The symmetries of qubit systems are found to be supported by Euclidean real reflections (i.e., Coxeter groups) or by specific imprimitive reflection groups, introduced (but not named) in a recent paper [Planat M and Jorrand Ph 2008, J Phys A: Math Theor 41, 182001]. The automorphisms of multiple qubit systems are found to relate to some Clifford operations once the corresponding group of reflections is identified. For a short list, one may point out the Coxeter systems of type B3 and G2 (for single qubits), D5 and A4 (for two qubits), E7 and E6 (for three qubits), and the complex reflection groups G(2l, 2, 5). The relevant fault tolerant groups of reflections (the Bell groups) are generated, as subgroups of the Clifford groups, by the Hadamard gate, the $\\pi$/4 phase gate and an entangling (braid) gate [Kauffman L H and Lomonaco S J 2004 Ne...

  5. Thin film superconductor magnetic bearings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinberger, Bernard R. (Avon, CT)

    1995-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A superconductor magnetic bearing includes a shaft (10) that is subject to a load (L) and rotatable around an axis of rotation, a magnet (12) mounted to the shaft, and a stator (14) in proximity to the shaft. The stator (14) has a superconductor thin film assembly (16) positioned to interact with the magnet (12) to produce a levitation force on the shaft (10) that supports the load (L). The thin film assembly (16) includes at least two superconductor thin films (18) and at least one substrate (20). Each thin film (18) is positioned on a substrate (20) and all the thin films are positioned such that an applied magnetic field from the magnet (12) passes through all the thin films. A similar bearing in which the thin film assembly (16) is mounted on the shaft (10) and the magnet (12) is part of the stator (14) also can be constructed.

  6. Method for making carbon films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, M.X.

    1999-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area ([approx equal]1000 m[sup 2] /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160 C for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750 C in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750--850 C for between 1--6 hours. 2 figs.

  7. Electronic and vibrational properties of ultrathin SiO2 films grown on Mo(112) S. Wendt, E. Ozensoy, T. Wei, M. Frerichs, Y. Cai, M. S. Chen, and D. W. Goodman*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    electron spectroscopy MIES , and po- larization modulation infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy PM. The physical properties of SiO2 films near one monolayer are influenced by the Mo substrate due to the Si

  8. REFLECT: A computer program for the x-ray reflectivity of bent perfect crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Etelaeniemi, V.; Suortti, P.; Thomlinson, W. (Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Physics; Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

    1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design of monochromators for x-ray applications, using either standard laboratory sources on synchrotron radiation sources, requires a knowledge of the reflectivity of the crystals. The reflectivity depends on the crystals used, the geometry of the reflection, the energy range of the radiation, and, in the present case, the cylindrical bending radius of the optical device. This report is intended to allow the reader to become familiar with, and therefore use, a computer program called REFLECT which we have used in the design of a dual beam Laue monochromator for synchrotron angiography. The results of REFLECT have been compared to measured reflectivities for both bent Bragg and Laue geometries. The results are excellent and should give full confidence in the use of the program. 6 refs.

  9. Subwavelength resonant nanostructured films for sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvine, Kyle J.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Suter, Jonathan D.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Edwards, Daniel L.; Mendoza, Albert

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a novel subwavelength nanostructure architecture that may be utilized for optical standoff sensing applications. The subwavelength structures are fabricated via a combination of nanoimprint lithography and metal sputtering to create metallic nanostructured films encased within a transparent media. The structures are based on the open ring resonator (ORR) architecture and have their analog in resonant LC circuits, which display a resonance frequency that is inversely proportional to the square root of the product of the inductance and capacitance. Therefore, any perturbation of the nanostructured films due to chemical or environmental effects can alter the inductive or capacitive behavior of the subwavelength features, which can shift the resonant frequency and provide an indication of the external stimulus. This shift in resonance can be interrogated remotely either actively using either laser illumination or passively using hyperspectral or multispectral sensing. These structures may be designed to be either anisotropic or isotropic, which can also provide polarization-sensitive interrogation. Due to the nanometer-scale of the structures, they can be tailored to be optically responsive in the visible or near infrared spectrum with a highly reflective resonant peak that is dependent solely on structural dimensions and material characteristics. We present experimental measurements of the optical response of these structures as a function of wavelength, polarization, and incident angle demonstrating the resonant effect in the near infrared region. Numerical modeling data showing the effect of different fabrication parameters such as structure parameters are also discussed.

  10. Camera-based reflectivity measurement for solar thermal applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . A survey of good practices for reflectivity measurement in CSP applications was completed by Solar of reflectivity includes both specular and diffuse reflectivity as well a directional and spectral measurement

  11. Low-temperature electrical transport in B-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Lin; Zhao, Jing; Hu, Zhaosheng; Quan, Baogang; Li, Junjie, E-mail: jjli@iphy.ac.cn; Gu, Changzhi, E-mail: czgu@iphy.ac.cn [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institution of Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    B-doped ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) films are grown using hot-filament chemical vapor deposition method, and their electrical transport properties varying with temperature are investigated. When the B-doped concentration of UNCD film is low, a step-like increase feature of the resistance is observed with decreasing temperature, reflecting at least three temperature-modified electronic state densities at the Fermi level according to three-dimensional Mott's variable range hopping transport mechanism, which is very different from that of reported B-doped nanodiamond. With increasing B-doped concentration, a superconductive transformation occurs in the UNCD film and the highest transformation temperature of 5.3?K is observed, which is higher than that reported for superconducting nanodiamond films. In addition, the superconducting coherence length is about 0.63?nm, which breaks a reported theoretical and experimental prediction about ultra-nanoscale diamond's superconductivity.

  12. Magnetron sputtered boron films for increasing hardness of a metal surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA)

    2003-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for producing hardened surfaces, surfacing machine tools, etc. and for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z optical components, such as mirrors which enhance reflectivity from grazing to normal incidence.

  13. Unitary reflection groups for quantum fault tolerance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michel Planat; Maurice R. Kibler

    2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper explores the representation of quantum computing in terms of unitary reflections (unitary transformations that leave invariant a hyperplane of a vector space). The symmetries of qubit systems are found to be supported by Euclidean real reflections (i.e., Coxeter groups) or by specific imprimitive reflection groups, introduced (but not named) in a recent paper [Planat M and Jorrand Ph 2008, {\\it J Phys A: Math Theor} {\\bf 41}, 182001]. The automorphisms of multiple qubit systems are found to relate to some Clifford operations once the corresponding group of reflections is identified. For a short list, one may point out the Coxeter systems of type $B_3$ and $G_2$ (for single qubits), $D_5$ and $A_4$ (for two qubits), $E_7$ and $E_6$ (for three qubits), the complex reflection groups $G(2^l,2,5)$ and groups No 9 and 31 in the Shephard-Todd list. The relevant fault tolerant subsets of the Clifford groups (the Bell groups) are generated by the Hadamard gate, the $\\pi/4$ phase gate and an entangling (braid) gate [Kauffman L H and Lomonaco S J 2004 {\\it New J. of Phys.} {\\bf 6}, 134]. Links to the topological view of quantum computing, the lattice approach and the geometry of smooth cubic surfaces are discussed.

  14. Thin film composite electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schucker, Robert C. (The Woodlands, TX)

    2007-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a thin film composite solid (and a means for making such) suitable for use as an electrolyte, having a first layer of a dense, non-porous conductive material; a second layer of a porous ionic conductive material; and a third layer of a dense non-porous conductive material, wherein the second layer has a Coefficient of thermal expansion within 5% of the coefficient of thermal expansion of the first and third layers.

  15. Constrained optimization in seismic reflection tomography: an SQP ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2004-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Seismic reflection tomography is a method for determining a subsurface velocity model from the traveltimes of seismic waves reflecting on geological interfaces.

  16. Characterization of the plastic substrates, the reflective layers...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the plastic substrates, the reflective layers, the adhesives, and the grooves of today's archival-grade Characterization of the plastic substrates, the reflective layers, the...

  17. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Robert

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    properties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces,transfer at the siding surface. Direct solar radiation tosiding, reflected solar radiation from nearby surfaces,

  18. Terra Sigillata: Evolution of Roman Ceramics Reflect Changes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Terra Sigillata: Evolution of Roman Ceramics Reflect Changes in Technology, Life Terra Sigillata: Evolution of Roman Ceramics Reflect Changes in Technology, Life Print Wednesday,...

  19. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, Paul H. (Oakland, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer (.mu.m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 .mu.m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 .mu.m to about 16 .mu.m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 .mu.m to about 2 .mu.m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments.

  20. X-ray induced optical reflectivity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Durbin, Stephen M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The change in optical reflectivity induced by intense x-ray pulses can now be used to study ultrafast many body responses in solids in the femtosecond time domain. X-ray absorption creates photoelectrons and core level holes subsequently filled by Auger or fluorescence processes, and these excitations ultimately add conduction and valence band carriers that perturb optical reflectivity.Optical absorption associated with band filling and band gap narrowing is shown to explain the basic features found in recent measurements on an insulator (silicon nitride, Si3N4), a semiconductor(gallium arsenide,GaAs), and a metal (gold,Au), obtained with ?100 fs x-ray pulses at 500-2000 eV and probed with 800 nm laser pulses. In particular GaAs exhibits an abrupt drop in reflectivity, persisting only for a time comparable to the x-ray excitation pulse duration, consistent with prompt band gap narrowing.

  1. Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer ({micro}m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 {micro}m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 {micro}m to about 16 {micro}m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 {micro}m to about 2 {micro}m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments. 4 figs.

  2. Reduced leakage in epitaxial BiFeO{sub 3} films following oxygen radio frequency plasma treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kothari, Deepti [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India) [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452 017 (India); Upadhyay, Sanjay K.; Raghavendra Reddy, V. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452 017 (India)] [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452 017 (India); Jariwala, C.; Raole, P. M. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2013-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Epitaxial BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) films were deposited using pulsed laser deposition method. The prepared films were characterized using x-ray diffraction, x-ray reflectivity, ferroelectric loop tracer, and leakage current measurements before and after oxygen plasma treatment. The leakage current of the films, a crucial parameter in device applications, is observed to be reduced by two orders of magnitude with oxygen plasma treatment at room temperature. P-E hysteresis loops were observed in oxygen plasma treated BFO films. The observed results indicate the usefulness of oxygen radio frequency plasma treatment (RF 13.56 MHz), which is an effective and low temperature processing technique, in such lossy ferroelectric thin films.

  3. Memory and power : reflections on history, memory, and Auschwitz in contemporary art and film

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shevi, Orly

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The men for whom Hals, Rembrandt, Ruysdael, Terborch,the same way as Manet and Rembrandt? Above all, Godard seeks

  4. Molecular orientation in soft matter thin films studied by resonant soft X-ray reflectivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mezger, Markus

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    delle Ricerche, 34149 Trieste, Italy Dipartimento diat ELETTRA Synchrotrone Trieste and at BL4.0.2 and BL6.3.2BEAR), ELETTRA, Synchrotrone Trieste The BEAR instrument 34

  5. Memory and power : reflections on history, memory, and Auschwitz in contemporary art and film

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shevi, Orly

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are the origins of cinematography in the 19 th century. Aspainting: that is – the cinematography [as he says this, thepainting: that is – the cinematography that says: a form

  6. Reflectance of Surfactant-Templated Mesoporous Silica Thin Films: Simulations Versus Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutchinson, Neal J.; Coquil, Thomas; Richman, Eric K.; Tolbert, Sarah H; Pilon, Laurent

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    medium approximation; photocatalysis INTRODUCTION Mesoporousk dielectrics [2–4], photocatalysis [5], optical materials [

  7. Reflection technique for thermal mapping of semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walter, Martin J. (Lee, NY)

    1989-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductors may be optically tested for their temperatures by illuminating them with tunable monochromatic electromagnetic radiation and observing the light reflected off of them. A transition point will occur when the wavelength of the light corresponds with the actual band gap energy of the semiconductor. At the transition point, the image of the semiconductor will appreciably darken as the light is transmitted through it, rather than being reflected off of it. The wavelength of the light at the transition point corresponds to the actual band gap energy and the actual temperature of the semiconductor.

  8. Metasurfaces for suppressing reflection over broadband

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patra, Anuradha; Nagarajan, Arvind; Achanta, Venu Gopal

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Surfaces patterned with arrays of quasi-periodic air holes having conical depth profile have been studied for their effectiveness in suppressing air-substrate reflection in the wavelength range of 450-1350 nm (limited by our measurement). The role of quasi-periodic air-hole pattern, depth of holes and launch angle on the observed antireflection behavior are investigated. The average optical transmittance of the patterned quartz substrate at near normal incidence is more than 97% and reflectance is less than 2%. Patterned quartz surfaces with 450 nm thin graded rarefaction region maintain the antireflective property up to 30{\\deg} (limited by our measurements) angle of incidence.

  9. Microstructure of amorphous indium oxide and tin oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rauf, I.A.; Brown, L.M. (Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom))

    1994-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Indium oxide, tin oxide, and some other doped and undoped oxide semiconductors show an interesting and technologically important combination of properties. They have high luminous transparency, good electrical conductivity and high infrared reflectivity. Numerous techniques for depositing these materials have been developed and have undergone a number of changes during last two decades. An understanding of the basic physics of these materials has begun to dawn. Most of the literature on transparent conducting oxides consists of studying the dependence of the properties on the composition, preparation conditions, such as deposition rate, substrate temperature or post-deposition heat treatment. In this paper the authors have employed the transmission electron microscopy to study the microstructure of reactively evaporated, electron beam evaporated, ion-beam sputtered amorphous indium oxide and reactively evaporated amorphous tin oxide thin films. These films, which have received little attention in the past, can have enormous potential as transparent conductive coatings on heat-sensitive substrates and inexpensive solar cells.

  10. Vertically Aligned Nanocomposite Thin Films 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bi, Zhenxing

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    microstructure is a brand new architecture in thin films and an exciting approach that promises tunable material functionalities as well as novel nanostructures....

  11. Metallophthalocyanine thin films : structure and physical properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colesniuc, Corneliu Nicolai

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in copper phthalocyanine thin film transistors”, J. Park, J.free phthalocyanine thin films”, F. I. Bohrer, A. Sharoni,copper phthalocyanine thin-film transistors”, R. D. Yang, J.

  12. Doping in Zinc Oxide Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Zheng

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    properties of ZnO:Mn thin films were comprehensivelyd exchange in ZnO:Mn DMS thin films. Both the ordinary andspin-obital ferromagnetism in ZnO:Mn DMS thin films.

  13. Templated dewetting of thin solid films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giermann, Amanda L. (Amanda Leah)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dewetting of solid metal polycrystalline films to form metal nanoparticles occurs by the nucleation and growth of holes in the film. For typical films on flat substrates, this process is not well-controlled and results ...

  14. Synthesis of copper nitride films doped with Fe, Co, or Ni by reactive magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Jianbo [School of Optoelectronics Engineering, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210046 (China); Huang, Saijia; Wang, Zhijiao; Hou, Yuxuan; Shi, Yuyu; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Jianping, E-mail: yangjp@njupt.edu.cn; Li, Xing'ao, E-mail: lxahbmy@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210046 (China)

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Copper nitride (Cu{sub 3}N) and Fe-, Co-, and Ni-doped Cu{sub 3}N films were prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering. The films were deposited on silicon substrates at room temperature using pure Cu target and metal chips. The molar ratio of Cu to N atoms in the as-prepared Cu{sub 3}N film was 2.7:1, which is comparable with the stoichiometry ratio 3:1. X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the films were composed of Cu{sub 3}N crystallites with anti-ReO{sub 3} structure and adopted different preferred orientations. The reflectance of the four samples decreased in the wavelength range of 400–830?nm, but increased rapidly within wavelength range of 830–1200?nm. Compared with the Cu{sub 3}N films, the resistivity of the doped Cu{sub 3}N films decreased by three orders of magnitude. These changes have great application potential in optical and electrical devices based on Cu{sub 3}N films.

  15. Optical Reflectivity of Graphene Christopher Yaluma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baltisberger, Jay H.

    Optical Reflectivity of Graphene Christopher Yaluma Stephen Johnson Patrick Hunley Andrei Terentiev Aaron Meacham Abhishek Sundararajan Santiago de León Doug Strachan #12;Graphene transistors on membranes · Want to construct few-layer graphene Field Effect Transistors (FETs) on transparent membranes #12

  16. Reflections of Murray F. Hawkins, Jr.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Jacqueline

    of petroleum engineering and technology came largely from several petroleum production research laboratoriesReflections of Murray F. Hawkins, Jr. On joining the petroleum engineering faculty at LSU in 1947 I and political implications for the world. It was about this time that U.S. energy usage of petroleum first

  17. Static corrections from shallow-reflection surveys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steeples, Don W.; Miller, Richard D.; Black, Ross A.

    1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of unconsolidated materials can be substantially less than the velocity of sound in air. Weathered-layer thickness variation of 1 m in these low-velocity materials could result in a static anomaly in excess of 3 ms. Shallow-reflection data from the Texas panhandle...

  18. Multi-reflective acoustic wave device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andle, Jeffrey C.

    2006-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An acoustic wave device, which utilizes multiple localized reflections of acoustic wave for achieving an infinite impulse response while maintaining high tolerance for dampening effects, is disclosed. The device utilized a plurality of electromechanically significant electrodes disposed on most of the active surface. A plurality of sensors utilizing the disclosed acoustic wave mode device are also described.

  19. Reflections "Welcome back! Have a good

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reflections "Welcome back! Have a good vacation"? "I wasn't on vacation. I was in the field." "I in a dig at the granting agency that spent nearly $1,750 in support of your research. A basic stock of fine, they will sprint to their typewriters and set their two forefingers to banging out near poetry in praise of basic

  20. Reflections of Edmond J. Langhetee, Jr.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephens, Jacqueline

    Reflections of Edmond J. Langhetee, Jr. My education at Louisiana State University began in March, wondering whether I should reconsider my decision to enter petroleum engineering. Nuclear energy in its most, I was able to handle these and many other projects because of my educational background

  1. Deep reflection-mode photoacoustic imaging of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Lihong

    near-infrared laser pulses of 804-nm wavelength for PA excitation to achieve deep penetration-frequency PAM system. To achieve deep penetration of light, we chose the 804-nm near-infrared wavelengthDeep reflection-mode photoacoustic imaging of biological tissue Kwang Hyun Song and Lihong V. Wang

  2. 14. Reflections on Legality Michael Caie

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitelson, Branden

    14. Reflections on Legality Michael Caie 85. The Primacy of Law -We have seen that, on Bennett, and in order to get from one event to the occurrence of another we need, as Bennett puts it, " `the cement. -Bennett claims to have little sympathy for this account, and levels three objections against it

  3. Electrical initiation of an energetic nanolaminate film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tringe, Joseph W. (Walnut Creek, CA); Gash, Alexander E. (Brentwood, CA); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA)

    2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A heating apparatus comprising an energetic nanolaminate film that produces heat when initiated, a power source that provides an electric current, and a control that initiates the energetic nanolaminate film by directing the electric current to the energetic nanolaminate film and joule heating the energetic nanolaminate film to an initiation temperature. Also a method of heating comprising providing an energetic nanolaminate film that produces heat when initiated, and initiating the energetic nanolaminate film by directing an electric current to the energetic nanolaminate film and joule heating the energetic nanolaminate film to an initiation temperature.

  4. Diamond films treated with alkali-halides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, D.F.; Kwan, S.W.

    1997-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A secondary electron emitter is provided and includes a substrate with a diamond film, the diamond film is treated or coated with an alkali-halide. 5 figs.

  5. Epitaxial GaN films by hyperthermal ion-beam nitridation of Ga droplets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerlach, J. W.; Ivanov, T.; Neumann, L.; Hoeche, Th.; Hirsch, D.; Rauschenbach, B. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung (IOM), D-04318 Leipzig (Germany)

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Epitaxial GaN film formation on bare 6H-SiC(0001) substrates via the process of transformation of Ga droplets into a thin GaN film by applying hyperthermal nitrogen ions is investigated. Pre-deposited Ga atoms in well defined amounts form large droplets on the substrate surface which are subsequently nitridated at a substrate temperature of 630 Degree-Sign C by a low-energy nitrogen ion beam from a constricted glow-discharge ion source. The Ga deposition and ion-beam nitridation process steps are monitored in situ by reflection high-energy electron diffraction. Ex situ characterization by x-ray diffraction and reflectivity techniques, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, and electron microscopy shows that the thickness of the resulting GaN films depends on the various amounts of pre-deposited gallium. The films are epitaxial to the substrate, exhibit a mosaic like, smooth surface topography and consist of coalesced large domains of low defect density. Possible transport mechanisms of reactive nitrogen species during hyperthermal nitridation are discussed and the formation of GaN films by an ion-beam assisted process is explained.

  6. Total reflection infrared spectroscopy of water-ice and frozen aqueous NaCl solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Rachel L.; Searles, Keith; Willard, Jesse A.; Michelsen, Rebecca R. H., E-mail: RMichelsen@rmc.edu [Department of Chemistry, Randolph-Macon College, P.O. Box 5005, Ashland, Virginia 23005 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Randolph-Macon College, P.O. Box 5005, Ashland, Virginia 23005 (United States)

    2013-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Liquid-like and liquid water at and near the surface of water-ice and frozen aqueous sodium chloride films were observed using attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR). The concentration of NaCl ranged from 0.0001 to 0.01 M and the temperature varied from the melting point of water down to 256 K. The amount of liquid brine at the interface of the frozen films with the germanium ATR crystal increased with salt concentration and temperature. Experimental spectra are compared to reflection spectra calculated for a simplified morphology of a uniform liquid layer between the germanium crystal and the frozen film. This morphology allows for the amount of liquid observed in an experimental spectrum to be converted to the thickness of a homogenous layer with an equivalent amount of liquid. These equivalent thickness ranges from a nanometer for water-ice at 260 K to 170 nm for 0.01 M NaCl close to the melting point. The amounts of brine observed are over an order of magnitude less than the total liquid predicted by equilibrium thermodynamic models, implying that the vast majority of the liquid fraction of frozen solutions may be found in internal inclusions, grain boundaries, and the like. Thus, the amount of liquid and the solutes dissolved in them that are available to react with atmospheric gases on the surfaces of snow and ice are not well described by thermodynamic equilibrium models which assume the liquid phase is located entirely at the surface.

  7. Catheter based mid-infrared reflectance and reflectance generated absorption spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holman, Hoi-Ying N

    2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of characterizing conditions in a tissue, by (a) providing a catheter that has a light source that emits light in selected wavenumbers within the range of mid-IR spectrum; (b) directing the light from the catheter to an area of tissue at a location inside a blood vessel of a subject; (c) collecting light reflected from the location and generating a reflectance spectra; and (d) comparing the reflectance spectra to a reference spectra of normal tissue, whereby a location having an increased number of absorbance peaks at said selected wavenumbers indicates a tissue inside the blood vessel containing a physiological marker for atherosclerosis.

  8. System for measuring film thickness

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Batishko, Charles R. (West Richland, WA); Kirihara, Leslie J. (Richland, WA); Peters, Timothy J. (Richland, WA); Rasmussen, Donald E. (Richland, WA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for determining the thicknesses of thin films of materials exhibiting fluorescence in response to exposure to excitation energy from a suitable source of such energy. A section of film is illuminated with a fixed level of excitation energy from a source such as an argon ion laser emitting blue-green light. The amount of fluorescent light produced by the film over a limited area within the section so illuminated is then measured using a detector such as a photomultiplier tube. Since the amount of fluorescent light produced is a function of the thicknesses of thin films, the thickness of a specific film can be determined by comparing the intensity of fluorescent light produced by this film with the intensity of light produced by similar films of known thicknesses in response to the same amount of excitation energy. The preferred embodiment of the invention uses fiber optic probes in measuring the thicknesses of oil films on the operational components of machinery which are ordinarily obscured from view.

  9. Liquid-film electron stripper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gavin, Basil F. (Albion, CA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved liquid-film electron stripper particularly for high intensity heavy ion beams which produces constant regenerated, stable, free-standing liquid films having an adjustable thickness between 0.3 to 0.05 microns. The improved electron stripper is basically composed of at least one high speed, rotating disc with a very sharp, precision-like, ground edge on one said of the disc's periphery and with a highly polished, flat, radial surface adjacent the sharp edge. A fine stream of liquid, such as oil, impinges at a 90.degree. angle adjacent the disc's sharp outer edge. Film terminators, located at a selected distance from the disc perimeter are positioned approximately perpendicular to the film. The terminators support, shape, and stretch the film and are arranged to assist in the prevention of liquid droplet formation by directing the collected film to a reservoir below without breaking or interfering with the film. One embodiment utilizes two rotating discs and associated terminators, with the discs rotating so as to form films in opposite directions, and with the second disc being located down beam-line relative to the first disc.

  10. Thin film ion conducting coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldner, Ronald B. (Lexington, MA); Haas, Terry (Sudbury, MA); Wong, Kwok-Keung (Watertown, MA); Seward, George (Arlington, MA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Durable thin film ion conducting coatings are formed on a transparent glass substrate by the controlled deposition of the mixed oxides of lithium:tantalum or lithium:niobium. The coatings provide durable ion transport sources for thin film solid state storage batteries and electrochromic energy conservation devices.

  11. Metal oxide films on metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Xin D. (Los Alamos, NM); Tiwari, Prabhat (Los Alamos, NM)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A structure including a thin film of a conductive alkaline earth metal oxide selected from the group consisting of strontium ruthenium trioxide, calcium ruthenium trioxide, barium ruthenium trioxide, lanthanum-strontium cobalt oxide or mixed alkaline earth ruthenium trioxides thereof upon a thin film of a noble metal such as platinum is provided.

  12. Thin films versus 2D sheets in layered structures: graphene and 2D metallic sheets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bo E. Sernelius

    2012-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We study an interface between two media separated by a strictly 2D sheet. We show how the amplitude reflection coefficient can be modeled by that for an interface where the 2D sheet has been replaced by a film of small but finite thickness. We give the relationship between the 3D dielectric function of the thin film and the 2D dielectric function of the sheet. We choose graphene and a 2D metallic sheet as illustrative examples. This approach turns out to be very useful when treating graphene or graphene like sheets in non-planar structures

  13. Mapping Local Strain in Thin Film/Substrate Systems using X-ray

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan,H.; Murray, C.; Noyan, I.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors report experimental data and modeling results for reflection microbeam x-ray topographs from a Si substrate strained by an overlying pseudomorphic SiGe film edge. The diffracted x-ray intensity from the Si substrate is strongly asymmetric as a function of distance from the film edge. A model of the diffracted intensity based on the classical Ewald-von Laue dynamical diffraction theory for an antisymmetric strain distribution indicates that the asymmetry in the diffracted beam profile is only due to the scattering process; individual intensity maxima in the intensity profile cannot be uniquely ascribed to individual features in the local strain distribution.

  14. Shielding superconductors with thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Posen, Sam; Catelani, Gianluigi; Liepe, Matthias U; Sethna, James P

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Determining the optimal arrangement of superconducting layers to withstand large amplitude AC magnetic fields is important for certain applications such as superconducting radiofrequency cavities. In this paper, we evaluate the shielding potential of the superconducting film/insulating film/superconductor (SIS') structure, a configuration that could provide benefits in screening large AC magnetic fields. After establishing that for high frequency magnetic fields, flux penetration must be avoided, the superheating field of the structure is calculated in the London limit both numerically and, for thin films, analytically. For intermediate film thicknesses and realistic material parameters we also solve numerically the Ginzburg-Landau equations. It is shown that a small enhancement of the superheating field is possible, on the order of a few percent, for the SIS' structure relative to a bulk superconductor of the film material, if the materials and thicknesses are chosen appropriately.

  15. EXPERIMENT #3 REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY We will use the reflectance attachment and fiber optics OceanOptics spectrophotometer to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nazarenko, Alexander

    EXPERIMENT #3 REFLECTANCE SPECTROSCOPY We will use the reflectance attachment and fiber optics OceanOptics spectrophotometer to measure the reflectance spectrum of several paint samples in the special optically flat-bottomed cell so that the bottom is completely covered. Scan the reflectance

  16. X-ray reflectivity and surface roughness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ocko, B.M.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the advent of high brightness synchrotron radiation sources there has been a phenomenal growth in the use of x-rays as a probe of surface structure. The technique of x-ray reflectivity is particularly relevant to electrochemists since it is capable of probing the structure normal to an electrode surface in situ. In this paper the theoretical framework for x-ray reflectivity is reviewed and the results from previous non-electrochemistry measurements are summarized. These measurements are from the liquid/air interface (CCl/sub 4/), the metal crystal vacuum interface (Au(100)), and from the liquid/solid interface(liquid crystal/silicon). 34 refs., 5 figs.

  17. Method for producing highly reflective metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, J.B.; Steger, P.J.; Wright, R.R.

    1982-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a novel method for producing mirror surfaces which are extremely smooth and which have high optical reflectivity. The method includes depositing, by electrolysis, an amorphous layer of nickel on an article and then diamond-machining the resulting nickel surface to increase its smoothness and reflectivity. The machined nickel surface then is passivated with respect to the formation of bonds with electrodeposited nickel. Nickel then is electrodeposited on the passivated surface to form a layer of electroplated nickel whose inside surface is a replica of the passivated surface. The mandrel then may be-re-passivated and provided with a layer of electrodeposited nickel, which is then recovered from the mandrel providing a second replica. The mandrel can be so re-used to provide many such replicas. As compared with producing each mirror-finished article by plating and diamond-machining, the new method is faster and less expensive.

  18. Reflective optical imaging method and circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shafer, David R. (Fairfield, CT)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements are characterized in order from object to image as convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention increases the slit dimensions associated with ringfield scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density.

  19. Compact reflective imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chrisp, Michael P. (Danville, CA)

    2006-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, a first mirror that receives said light and reflects said light, an immersive diffraction grating that diffracts said light, a second mirror that focuses said light, and a detector array that receives said focused light. The compact imaging spectrometer can be utilized for remote sensing imaging spectrometers where size and weight are of primary importance.

  20. A comparison of thick film and thin film traffic stripes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keese, Charles J

    1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Striys. . . Pigmented Bitusmn Stripes . Asphalt %uilt-Upa Striye vith Pigmented Portland Cement Mortar Cover Course 38 . ~ 41 Thin Film Stripes Used for Comparison Results of Comparing Thick Film Stripes and Thin Film Paint Stripes . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 43... was aspbaltio oonorets. The pavement in Test Areas 2y 3p and 4 vas portland cesmnh ooncrete, Two test areas (3 and 4) vere located in such manner as to provide uninterrupted flow of traffic over tbs entire length of the test area. The other two test areas (1...

  1. Multilayer films with sharp, stable interfaces for use in EUV and soft X-ray application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA); Bajt, Sasa (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reflectivity and thermal stability of Mo/Si (molybdenum/silicon) multilayer films, used in soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet region, is enhanced by deposition of a thin layer of boron carbide (e.g., B.sub.4 C) between alternating layers of Mo and Si. The invention is useful for reflective coatings for soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet optics, multilayer for masks, coatings for other wavelengths and multilayers for masks that are more thermally stable than pure Mo/Si multilayers

  2. Demonstration of a plasma mirror based on a laminar flow water film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panasenko, Dmitriy; Shu, Anthony; Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; Matlis, Nicholas; Toth, Csaba; Leemans, Wim

    2011-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A plasma mirror based on a laminar water film with low flow speed 0.5-2 cm/s has been developed and characterized, for use as an ultrahigh intensity optical reflector. The use of flowing water as atarget surface automatically results in each laser pulse seeing a new interaction surface and avoids the need for mechanical scanning of the target surface. In addition, the breakdown of water does notproduce contaminating debris that can be deleterious to vacuum chamber conditions and optics, such as is the case when using conventional solid targets. The mirror exhibits 70percent reflectivity, whilemaintaining high-quality of the reflected spot.

  3. Liquid-film electron stripper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leemann, B.T.; Yourd, R.B.

    1982-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin freestanding oil film is produced in vacuum by directing an oil stream radially inward to the hollow-ground sharp outer edge of a rotating disc. The sides of the edge are roughened somewhat to aid in dispersing oil from the disc. Oil is removed from the surface of disc to prevent formation of oil droplets which might spin off the disc and disrupt the oil film. An ion beam is directed through the thin oil film so that electrons are stripped from the ions to increase their charge.

  4. Vapor deposition of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, David C. (Los Alamos, NM); Pattillo, Stevan G. (Los Alamos, NM); Laia, Jr., Joseph R. (Los Alamos, NM); Sattelberger, Alfred P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A highly pure thin metal film having a nanocrystalline structure and a process of preparing such highly pure thin metal films of, e.g., rhodium, iridium, molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, platinum, or palladium by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition of, e.g., rhodium(allyl).sub.3, iridium(allyl).sub.3, molybdenum(allyl).sub.4, tungsten(allyl).sub.4, rhenium(allyl).sub.4, platinum(allyl).sub.2, or palladium(allyl).sub.2 are disclosed. Additionally, a general process of reducing the carbon content of a metallic film prepared from one or more organometallic precursor compounds by plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition is disclosed.

  5. Tailoring nanocrystalline diamond film properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, Dieter M. (Downers Grove, IL); McCauley, Thomas G. (Somerville, MA); Zhou, Dan (Orlando, FL); Krauss, Alan R. (Naperville, IL)

    2003-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for controlling the crystallite size and growth rate of plasma-deposited diamond films. A plasma is established at a pressure in excess of about 55 Torr with controlled concentrations of hydrogen up to about 98% by volume, of unsubstituted hydrocarbons up to about 3% by volume and an inert gas of one or more of the noble gases and nitrogen up to about 98% by volume. The volume ratio of inert gas to hydrogen is preferably maintained at greater than about 4, to deposit a diamond film on a suitable substrate. The diamond film is deposited with a predetermined crystallite size and at a predetermined growth rate.

  6. Shape controlled synthesis of CaMoO{sub 4} thin films and their photoluminescence property

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marques, Ana Paula de Azevedo [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar de Eletroquimica e Ceramica, Departamento de Quimica, Centro Multidisciplinar de Desenvolvimento de Materiais Ceramicos, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, C. Postal 676, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: apamarques@liec.ufscar.br; Longo, Valeria M. [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar de Eletroquimica e Ceramica, Departamento de Quimica, Centro Multidisciplinar de Desenvolvimento de Materiais Ceramicos, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, C. Postal 676, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Melo, Dulce M.A. de [Laboratorio de Analise Termica e Materiais, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970 Natal, RN (Brazil); Pizani, Paulo S. [Laboratorio de Semicondutores, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, C. Postal 676, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Leite, Edson R. [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar de Eletroquimica e Ceramica, Departamento de Quimica, Centro Multidisciplinar de Desenvolvimento de Materiais Ceramicos, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, C. Postal 676, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Varela, Jose Arana [CMDMC, LIEC, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 14801-907 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Longo, Elson [Laboratorio Interdisciplinar de Eletroquimica e Ceramica, Departamento de Quimica, Centro Multidisciplinar de Desenvolvimento de Materiais Ceramicos, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, C. Postal 676, 13565-905 Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); CMDMC, LIEC, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, 14801-907 Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    CaMoO{sub 4} (CMO) disordered and ordered thin films were prepared by the complex polymerization method (CPM). The films were annealed at different temperatures and time in a conventional resistive furnace (RF) and in a microwave (MW) oven. The microstructure and surface morphology of the structure were monitored by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM). Order and disorder were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical reflectance. A strong photoluminescence (PL) emission was observed in the disordered thin films and was attributed to complex cluster vacancies. The experimental results were compared with density functional and Hartree-Fock calculations. - Graphical abstract: CaMoO{sub 4} thin films were prepared by the complex polymerization method (CPM). The films were annealed at different temperatures and time in a conventional resistive furnace and in a microwave oven. A strong photoluminescence emission was observed in the disordered thin films and was attributed to complex cluster vacancies. The experimental results were confirmed by high level first principle calculations.

  7. Studies on optoelectronic properties of DC reactive magnetron sputtered CdTe thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, B. Rajesh, E-mail: rajphyind@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati - 517 502, A.P, India and Department of Physics, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur - 515 003, A.P (India); Hymavathi, B.; Rao, T. Subba [Department of Physics, Sri Krishnadevaraya University, Anantapur - 515 003, A.P (India)

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Cadmium telluride continues to be a leading candidate for the development of cost effective photovoltaics for terrestrial applications. In the present work two individual metallic targets of Cd and Te were used for the deposition of CdTe thin films on mica substrates from room temperature to 300 °C by DC reactive magnetron sputtering method. XRD patterns of CdTe thin films deposited on mica substrates exhibit peaks at 2? = 27.7°, 46.1° and 54.6°, which corresponds to reflection on (1 1 1), (2 2 0) and (3 1 1) planes of CdTe cubic structure. The intensities of XRD patterns increases with the increase of substrate temperature upto 150 °C and then it decreases at higher substrate temperatures. The conductivity of CdTe thin films measured from four probe method increases with the increase of substrate temperature. The activation energies (?E) are found to be decrease with the increase of substrate temperature. The optical transmittance spectra of CdTe thin films deposited on mica have a clear interference pattern in the longer wavelength region. The films have good transparency (T > 85 %) exhibiting interference pattern in the spectral region between 1200 – 2500 nm. The optical band gap of CdTe thin films are found to be in the range of 1.48 – 1.57. The refractive index, n decreases with the increase of wavelength, ?. The value of n and k increases with the increase of substrate temperature.

  8. Beyond apocalypse: Recent representations of nuclear war and its aftermath in U. S. narrative film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perrine, T.A.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of nuclear weapons and their destructive potential influences human consciousness and cultural production including US commercial narrative films that deal with the idea of nuclear war. Such films can be read to reflect and mediate cultural attitudes about nuclear war and the increasingly technological future. These issues are investigated through a close examination of several recent US narrative films. An historical outlines of the important events of the nuclear age and a survey of critical approaches to the study of nuclear war texts provide the context for this work. The ways in which popular cinema has constructed the idea of nuclear war are enumerated. A discussion of the formal and thematic concerns of the science fiction film genre follows since SF is the narrative category into which nuclear war films are frequently placed. Nuclear war is represented in quite a number of entertainment films recently which suggests our societal preoccupation with the possibility. At the same time, the representations of nuclear war have been limited to a fairly restricted range of scenographic and narrative options which often serve to trivialize or distanciate the subject.

  9. Wrinkling of Stiff Films on Stretched Compliant Films: Experimental and Theoretical Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Yi

    2013-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Wrinkling of stiff film on semi-infinite compliant substrates has attracted attentions recently due to its important applications in stretchable electronics and micro-pattern metrology. However, wrinkling of a stiff film on a compliant thin film...

  10. Modeling and control of thin film surface morphology: application to thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianqiao

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of a p-i-n thin-film solar cell with front transparent con-for thin-film a-si:h solar cells. Progress in Photovoltaics,in thin-film silicon solar cells. Optics Communications,

  11. Review: German Film after Germany. Toward a Transnational Aesthetic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theisen, Bianca

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Halle. German Film After Germany. Toward a Transnationalof film production in Germany has changed rapidly. Thescale. German Film After Germany: Toward a Transnational

  12. Engineering Performance in TCO Films for Energy Applications...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineering Performance in TCO Films for Energy Applications. Engineering Performance in TCO Films for Energy Applications. Abstract: Thin film materials that exhibit both good...

  13. Improved Electrical Conductivity of Graphene Films Integrated with Metal Nanowires

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    tin oxide films in electrochromic (EC) devices. The successful integration of such graphene/NW films. KEYWORDS: Graphene, nanowires, transparent conductive films, electrochromic devices Due to low electron

  14. Thermochromic undoped and Mg-doped VO{sub 2} thin films and nanoparticles: Optical properties and performance limits for energy efficient windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Shu-Yi, E-mail: Shuyi.Li@angstrom.uu.se; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Granqvist, Claes G. [Department of Engineering Sciences, The Ångström Laboratory, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, SE-75121 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Undoped and Mg-doped thermochromic VO{sub 2} films with atom ratios z???Mg/(Mg?+?V) of 0???z?reflectance measurements and were used for modeling the optical properties of thin films and dilute nanoparticle composite layers below and above the critical temperature for thermochromic switching between a low-temperature infrared transparent state and a high-temperature infrared reflecting or absorbing state. Mg-doped films showed superior luminous transmittance T{sub lum} and solar transmittance modulation ?T{sub sol} compared to undoped VO{sub 2} films, and both of these parameters could be further enhanced by anti-reflection. VO{sub 2}-containing nanocomposites had much larger values of T{sub lum} and ?T{sub sol} than VO{sub 2}-based films. Mg-doping was found to erode the properties of the nanocomposites. Approximate performance limits are given on T{sub lum} and ?T{sub sol} for thermochromic VO{sub 2} films, with and without Mg doping and antireflection coating, and also for VO{sub 2}-containing dilute nanocomposites.

  15. Molecular layer deposition of alucone films using trimethylaluminum and hydroquinone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhury, Devika; Sarkar, Shaibal K., E-mail: shaibal.sarkar@iitb.ac.in [Department of Energy Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Mahuli, Neha [Centre for Research in Nanotechnology and Science, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hybrid organic–inorganic polymer film grown by molecular layer deposition (MLD) is demonstrated here. Sequential exposures of trimethylaluminum [Al(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}] and hydroquinone [C{sub 6}H{sub 4}(OH){sub 2}] are used to deposit the polymeric films, which is a representative of a class of aluminum oxide polymers known as “alucones.” In-situ quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) studies are employed to determine the growth characteristics. An average growth rate of 4.1 Å per cycle at 150?°C is obtained by QCM and subsequently verified with x-ray reflectivity measurements. Surface chemistry during each MLD-half cycle is studied in depth by in-situ Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) vibration spectroscopy. Self limiting nature of the reaction is confirmed from both QCM and FTIR measurements. The conformal nature of the deposit, typical for atomic layer deposition and MLD, is verified with transmission electron microscopy imaging. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements confirm the uniform elemental distribution along the depth of the films.

  16. Spin, Statistics, and Reflections, II. Lorentz Invariance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernd Kuckert; Reinhard Lorenzen

    2005-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The analysis of the relation between modular P$_1$CT-symmetry -- a consequence of the Unruh effect -- and Pauli's spin-statistics relation is continued. The result in the predecessor to this article is extended to the Lorentz symmetric situation. A model $\\G_L$ of the universal covering $\\widetilde{L_+^\\uparrow}\\cong SL(2,\\complex)$ of the restricted Lorentz group $L_+^\\uparrow$ is modelled as a reflection group at the classical level. Based on this picture, a representation of $\\G_L$ is constructed from pairs of modular P$_1$CT-conjugations, and this representation can easily be verified to satisfy the spin-statistics relation.

  17. Reflective optical imaging systems with balanced distortion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hudyma, Russell M. (San Ramon, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical systems compatible with extreme ultraviolet radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate are described. The four optical elements comprise, in order from object to image, convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical systems are particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention enables the use of larger slit dimensions associated with ring field scanning optics, improves wafer throughput, and allows higher semiconductor device density. The inventive optical systems are characterized by reduced dynamic distortion because the static distortion is balanced across the slit width.

  18. Reflective optical imaging system with balanced distortion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapman, Henry N. (Sunol, CA); Hudyma, Russell M. (San Ramon, CA); Shafer, David R. (Fairfield, CT); Sweeney, Donald W. (San Ramon, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements comprise, in order from object to image, convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention enables the use of larger slit dimensions associated with ring field scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density. The inventive optical system is characterized by reduced dynamic distortion because the static distortion is balanced across the slit width.

  19. Reflective echo tomographic imaging using acoustic beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kisner, Roger; Santos-Villalobos, Hector J

    2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    An inspection system includes a plurality of acoustic beamformers, where each of the plurality of acoustic beamformers including a plurality of acoustic transmitter elements. The system also includes at least one controller configured for causing each of the plurality of acoustic beamformers to generate an acoustic beam directed to a point in a volume of interest during a first time. Based on a reflected wave intensity detected at a plurality of acoustic receiver elements, an image of the volume of interest can be generated.

  20. Reflection Survey (Majer, 2003) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎ | Roadmap Jump to:bJumpRed Bank, NewCatalystReflection

  1. Reflectance Infrared Spectroscopy on Operating Surface Acoustic Wave Chemical Sensors During Exposure to Gas-Phase Analytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hierlemann, A.; Hill, M.; Ricco, A.J.; Staton, A.W.; Thomas, R.C.

    1999-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed instrumentation to enable the combination of surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor measurements with direct, in-situ molecular spectroscopic measurements to understand the response of the SAW sensors with respect to the interfacial chemistry of surface-confined sensing films interacting with gas-phase analytes. Specifically, the instrumentation and software was developed to perform in-situ Fourier-transform infrared external-reflectance spectroscopy (FTIR-ERS) on operating SAW devices during dosing of their chemically modified surfaces with analytes. By probing the surface with IR spectroscopy during gas exposure, it is possible to understand in unprecedented detail the interaction processes between the sorptive SAW coatings and the gaseous analyte molecules. In this report, we provide details of this measurement system, and also demonstrate the utility of these combined measurements by characterizing the SAW and FTIR-ERS responses of organic thin-film sensor coatings interacting with gas-phase analytes.

  2. Mapping bedrock beneath glacial till using CDP seismic reflection methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keiswetter, Dean; Black, Ross A.; Steeples, Don W.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is a case history demonstrating the applicability of the common depth point (CDP) seismic reflection method to image bedrock beneath glacial till in northwestern Iowa. Reflections from the base of the 40-m thick glacial till are clearly...

  3. Vertically Aligned Nanocomposite Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bi, Zhenxing

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    and epitaxial growth ability on given substrates. In the present work, we investigated unique epitaxial two-phase VAN (BiFeO3)x:(Sm2O3)1-x and (La0.7Sr0.3MnO3)x:(Mn3O4)1-x thin film systems by pulsed laser deposition. These VAN thin films exhibit a highly...

  4. Superconducting epitaxial thin films of CeNi{sub x}Bi{sub 2} with a bismuth square net structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckow, Alexander; Kupka, Katharina; Retzlaff, Reiner; Kurian, Jose; Alff, Lambert [Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We have grown highly epitaxial and phase pure thin films of the arsenic-free pnictide compound CeNi{sub x}Bi{sub 2} on (100) MgO substrates by reactive molecular beam epitaxy (RMBE). X-ray diffraction and reflection high-energy electron diffraction of the films confirm the ZrCuSiAs structure with a Bi square net layer. Superconductivity was observed in magnetization and resistivity measurements for x= 0.75 to 0.93 in these CeNi{sub x}Bi{sub 2} thin films with the highest critical temperature of 4.05 K and a resistive transition width of 0.1 K for x= 0.86. Our results indicate that thin film deposition by RMBE provides a tool to synthesize high-quality pnictide superconductors of the novel 112 type.

  5. Chemical vapour deposition of thermochromic vanadium dioxide thin films for energy efficient glazing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warwick, Michael E.A. [Department of Chemistry, University College London, Christopher Ingold Laboratories, 20 Gordon Street, London, WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom); UCL Energy Institute, Central House, 14 Upper Woburn Place, London, WC1H 0NN (United Kingdom); Binions, Russell, E-mail: r.binions@qmul.ac.uk [School of Engineering and Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Road, London, E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vanadium dioxide is a thermochromic material that undergoes a semiconductor to metal transitions at a critical temperature of 68 °C. This phase change from a low temperature monoclinic structure to a higher temperature rutile structure is accompanied by a marked change in infrared reflectivity and change in resistivity. This ability to have a temperature-modulated film that can limit solar heat gain makes vanadium dioxide an ideal candidate for thermochromic energy efficient glazing. In this review we detail the current challenges to such glazing becoming a commercial reality and describe the key chemical vapour deposition technologies being employed in the latest research. - Graphical abstract: Schematic demonstration of the effect of thermochromic glazing on solar radiation (red arrow represents IR radiation, black arrow represents all other solar radiation). - Highlights: • Vanadium dioxide thin films for energy efficient glazing. • Reviews chemical vapour deposition techniques. • Latest results for thin film deposition for vanadium dioxide.

  6. Highly conducting SrMoO{sub 3} thin films for microwave applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radetinac, Aldin, E-mail: aldin@oxide.tu-darmstadt.de; Mani, Arzhang; Ziegler, Jürgen; Alff, Lambert; Komissinskiy, Philipp, E-mail: komissinskiy@oxide.tu-darmstadt.de [Institute of Materials Science, TU Darmstadt, Alarich-Weiss-Str. 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Melnyk, Sergiy; Nikfalazar, Mohammad; Zheng, Yuliang; Jakoby, Rolf [Institute for Microwave Engineering and Photonics, TU Darmstadt, Merckstraße 25, 64283 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We have measured the microwave resistance of highly conducting perovskite oxide SrMoO{sub 3} thin film coplanar waveguides. The epitaxial SrMoO{sub 3} thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition and showed low mosaicity and smooth surfaces with a root mean square roughness below 0.3?nm. Layer-by-layer growth could be achieved for film thicknesses up to 400?nm as monitored by reflection high-energy electron diffraction and confirmed by X-ray diffraction. We obtained a constant microwave resistivity of 29???·cm between 0.1 and 20?GHz by refining the frequency dependence of the transmission coefficients. Our result shows that SrMoO{sub 3} is a viable candidate as a highly conducting electrode material for all-oxide microwave electronic devices.

  7. Enhanced Efficiency of Light-Trapping Nanoantenna Arrays for Thin Film Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simovski, Constantin R; Voroshilov, Pavel M; Guzhva, Michael E; Belov, Pavel A; Kivshar, Yuri S

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We suggest a novel concept of efficient light-trapping structures for thin-film solar cells based on arrays of planar nanoantennas operating far from plasmonic resonances. The operation principle of our structures relies on the excitation of chessboard-like collective modes of the nanoantenna arrays with the field localized between the neighboring metal elements. We demonstrated theoretically substantial enhancement of solar-cell short-circuit current by the designed light-trapping structure in the whole spectrum range of the solar-cell operation compared to conventional structures employing anti-reflecting coating. Our approach provides a general background for a design of different types of efficient broadband light-trapping structures for thin-film solar-cell technologically compatible with large-area thin-film fabrication techniques.

  8. Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Xiaonan (Golden, CO); Sheldon, Peter (Lakewood, CO)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

  9. Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, X.; Sheldon, P.

    1998-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate is disclosed. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

  10. NREL Success Stories - SkyFuel Partnership Reflects Bright Future

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Jorgensen, Gary; Gee, Randy

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL Scientists and SkyFuel share a story about how their partnership has resulted in a revolutionary concentrating solar power technology ReflecTech Mirror Film.

  11. SX-02484-100, Rev. 2 Reflectance and Transmittance Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodall, Jerry M.

    ................................................. 10 Operating Procedures Measurements ................. 20 Maintenance through a sample medium. Labsphere offers two standard products for reflectance and transmittance

  12. Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrodeless microwave discharge lamp includes an envelope with a discharge forming fill disposed therein which emits light, the fill being capable of absorbing light at one wavelength and re-emitting the absorbed light at a different wavelength, the light emitted from the fill having a first spectral power distribution in the absence of reflection of light back into the fill, a source of microwave energy coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed within the microwave cavity and configured to reflect at least some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit, the exiting light having a second spectral power distribution with proportionately more light in the visible region as compared to the first spectral power distribution, wherein the light re-emitted by the fill is shifted in wavelength with respect to the absorbed light and the magnitude of the shift is in relation to an effective optical path length.

  13. Novel Structure and Dynamics of Polymer Thin Films in Supercritical Fluids-Effect of Density Fluctuation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koga,T.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) is being used increasingly as a green solvent in polymer processing. The major disadvantage thus far is that only a limited class of polymers, such as fluorinated or silicone-based polymers, can be dissolved in CO2. Here I show that large density fluctuations in scCO2 can significantly enhance the solubility of scCO2 in polymer thin films even when the bulk polymers have very poor miscibility with CO2. By using in situ neutron reflectivity, I found that a wide variety of polymer thin films can swell as much as 30-60% when exposed to scCO2 within a narrow temperature and pressure regime, known as the 'density fluctuation ridge', which defines the maximum density fluctuation amplitude in CO2. Furthermore, the swollen structures induced by the density fluctuation could be frozen by a flash evaporation of CO2 via the vitrification process of the polymer without a formation of void structures. X-ray reflectivity clearly showed that the scCO2 process could be used to produce uniform low-density polymer thin films. I also found that other properties of the vitrified films, such as index of refraction, dielectric constant and glass transition, were correlated with the low-density density profile.

  14. An experimental set-up to apply polarization modulation to infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy for improved in situ studies of atmospheric corrosion processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiesinger, R. [Institute of Science and Technology in Art, Academy of Fine Arts, 1010 Vienna (Austria); Schade, U. [Helmholtz-Zentrum für Materialien und Energy GmbH, Elektronenspeicherring BESSY II, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Kleber, Ch. [Centre for Electrochemical Surface Technology, 2700 Wiener Neustadt (Austria); Schreiner, M. [Institute of Science and Technology in Art, Academy of Fine Arts, 1010 Vienna (Austria); Institute for Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna University of Technology, 1060 Vienna (Austria)

    2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new set-up for improved monitoring of atmospheric corrosion processes in situ and in real-time is presented. To characterize chemical structures of thin films on metal surfaces surface sensitive analytical techniques are required. One possible technique is Infrared Reflection Absorption Spectroscopy (IRRAS) which has become an established method to investigate surface corrosion films of thicknesses less than 200 nm. However, there are limitations related to the sensitivity of these measurements, in case of investigating ultrathin films or absorption bands of interest, surface species are superimposed by atmospheric background absorption, which changes during in situ measurements in ambient atmospheres. These difficulties of in situ surface reflection measurements can be eliminated by availing the polarization selectivity of adsorbed surface species. At grazing angles of incidence the absorption of p-polarized infrared radiation by thin surface films on metals is enhanced, while the absorption of s-polarized light by this film is nearly zero. This different behavior of the polarization properties leads to strong selection rules at the surface and can therefore be used to identify molecules adsorbed on metal surfaces. Polarization Modulation (PM) of the infrared (IR) light takes advantage of this disparity of polarization on sample surfaces and in combination with IRRAS yielding a very sensitive and surface-selective method for obtaining IR spectra of ultra-thin films on metal surfaces. An already existing in situ IRRAS/Quartz Crystal Microbalance weathering cell was combined with PM and evaluated according to its applicability to study in situ atmospheric corrosion processes. First real-time measurements on silver samples exposed to different atmospheres were performed showing the advantage of PM-IRRAS compared to conventional IRRAS for such investigations.

  15. “How Could She?”: The “Inappropriate” Woman in Contemporary Appropriation Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baron, Jaimie

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Parrell took a number of porn films that she realized wereintended purposes. Within a porn film, people having sex into most people watching a porn film. Parrell’s film situates

  16. SU-E-T-32: An Application of GafChromic RTQA2 Film to the Patient Specified Quality Assurance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, J; Hu, W [Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center, Shanghai (China)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: GafChromic RTQA2 film is known as a quality assurance (QA) tool for light field and radiation field verification. This study is attempted to apply the RTQA2 film to the patient specified quality assurance. Methods: Pre-irradiated and post-irradiated RTQA2 films were scanned in a reflection mode using a flatbed scanner. A plan-based dose calibration method utilized the mapping information of calculated dose image and measured film image to create a dose vs. pixel value calibration model. This model was used to calibrate the measured film image from the pixel value (gray value) image to the dose image. The dose agreement between calculated and measured dose images were analyzed using the gamma analysis. To evaluate the feasibility of this method, three clinical approved RapidArc cases (one abdomen cancer and two head-and-neck cancer patients) were tested. The tolerance of 3% dose difference and 3 mm distance to agreement (DTA) and gamma index ? 1 were set for the analysis. Results: The calibrated film dose image from measurement was successfully compared to the predicted dose image from the commercial treatment planning. The gamma analysis results showed good consistency. Gamma passing rates were 99.02%, 94.84%, and 98.33% for the three patients, respectively. Conclusion: The plan based calibration method has the feasibility for dose verification without shortages of film batch and development time variation.

  17. Liquid soap film generates electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad Amjadi; Sadegh Feiz; Reza Montazeri Namin

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We have observed that a rotating liquid soap film generates electricity when placed between two non-contact electrodes with a sufficiently large potential difference. In our experiments suspended liquid film (water + soap film) is formed on the surface of a circular frame, which is forced to rotate in the $x-y$ horizontal plane by a motor. This system is located at the center of two capacitor-like vertical plates to apply an external electric voltage difference in the $x-$direction. The produced electric current is collected from the liquid film using two conducting electrodes that are separated in the $y-$direction. We previously reported that a liquid film in an external electric field rotates when an electric current passes through it, naming it the liquid film motor (LFM). In this paper we report a novel technique, in which a similar device can be used as an electric generator, converting the rotating mechanical energy to electrical energy. The liquid film electric generator (LFEG) is in stark contrast to the LFM, both of which could be designed similarly in very small scales like micro scales with different applications. Although the device is comparable to commercial electric motors or electric generators, there is a significant difference in their working principles. Usually in an electric motor or generator the magnetic field causes the driving force, while in a LFM or LFEG the Coulomb force is the driving force. This fact is also interesting from the Bio-science point of view and brings a similarity to bio motors. Here we have investigated the electrical characteristics of such a generator for the first time experimentally and modelled the phenomenon with electroconvection governing equations. A numerical simulation is performed using the local approximation for the charge-potential relation and results are in qualitative agreement with experiments.

  18. Thin-film fiber optic hydrogen and temperature sensor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nave, S.E.

    1998-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention discloses a sensor probe device for monitoring of hydrogen gas concentrations and temperatures by the same sensor probe. The sensor probe is constructed using thin-film deposition methods for the placement of a multitude of layers of materials sensitive to hydrogen concentrations and temperature on the end of a light transparent lens located within the sensor probe. The end of the lens within the sensor probe contains a lens containing a layer of hydrogen permeable material which excludes other reactive gases, a layer of reflective metal material that forms a metal hydride upon absorbing hydrogen, and a layer of semi-conducting solid that is transparent above a temperature dependent minimum wavelength for temperature detection. The three layers of materials are located at the distal end of the lens located within the sensor probe. The lens focuses light generated by broad-band light generator and connected by fiber-optics to the sensor probe, onto a reflective metal material layer, which passes through the semi-conducting solid layer, onto two optical fibers located at the base of the sensor probe. The reflected light is transmitted over fiber optic cables to a spectrometer and system controller. The absence of electrical signals and electrical wires in the sensor probe provides for an elimination of the potential for spark sources when monitoring in hydrogen rich environments, and provides a sensor free from electrical interferences. 3 figs.

  19. Thin-film fiber optic hydrogen and temperature sensor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nave, Stanley E. (Evans, GA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention discloses a sensor probe device for monitoring of hydrogen gas concentrations and temperatures by the same sensor probe. The sensor probe is constructed using thin-film deposition methods for the placement of a multitude of layers of materials sensitive to hydrogen concentrations and temperature on the end of a light transparent lens located within the sensor probe. The end of the lens within the sensor probe contains a lens containing a layer of hydrogen permeable material which excludes other reactive gases, a layer of reflective metal material that forms a metal hydride upon absorbing hydrogen, and a layer of semi-conducting solid that is transparent above a temperature dependent minimum wavelength for temperature detection. The three layers of materials are located at the distal end of the lens located within the sensor probe. The lens focuses light generated by broad-band light generator and connected by fiber-optics to the sensor probe, onto a reflective metal material layer, which passes through the semi-conducting solid layer, onto two optical fibers located at the base of the sensor probe. The reflected light is transmitted over fiberoptic cables to a spectrometer and system controller. The absence of electrical signals and electrical wires in the sensor probe provides for an elimination of the potential for spark sources when monitoring in hydrogen rich environments, and provides a sensor free from electrical interferences.

  20. Versatile Indian sari: Clothing insulation with different drapes of typical sari ensembles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Indraganti, Madhavi; Lee, Juyoun; Zhang, Hui; Arens, Edward

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Extension of the Clothing Insulation Database for Standardand air movement on that insulation. , s.l. : s.n. Havenith,Estimation of the thermal insulation and evaporative

  1. Thin film-coated polymer webs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wenz, Robert P. (Cottage Grove, MN); Weber, Michael F. (Shoreview, MN); Arudi, Ravindra L. (Woodbury, MN)

    1992-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to thin film-coated polymer webs, and more particularly to thin film electronic devices supported upon a polymer web, wherein the polymer web is treated with a purifying amount of electron beam radiation.

  2. Electrostatic thin film chemical and biological sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prelas, Mark A. (Columbia, MO); Ghosh, Tushar K. (Columbia, MO); Tompson, Jr., Robert V. (Columbia, MO); Viswanath, Dabir (Columbia, MO); Loyalka, Sudarshan K. (Columbia, MO)

    2010-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical and biological agent sensor includes an electrostatic thin film supported by a substrate. The film includes an electrostatic charged surface to attract predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A charge collector associated with said electrostatic thin film collects charge associated with surface defects in the electrostatic film induced by the predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A preferred sensing system includes a charge based deep level transient spectroscopy system to read out charges from the film and match responses to data sets regarding the agents of interest. A method for sensing biological and chemical agents includes providing a thin sensing film having a predetermined electrostatic charge. The film is exposed to an environment suspected of containing the biological and chemical agents. Quantum surface effects on the film are measured. Biological and/or chemical agents can be detected, identified and quantified based on the measured quantum surface effects.

  3. Nanomechanical properties of hydrated organic thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Jae Hyeok

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hydrated organic thin films are biological or synthetic molecularly thin coatings which impart a particular functionality to an underlying substrate and which have discrete water molecules associated with them. Such films ...

  4. Low work function, stable thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dinh, Long N. (Concord, CA); McLean, II, William (Oakland, CA); Balooch, Mehdi (Berkeley, CA); Fehring, Jr., Edward J. (Dublin, CA); Schildbach, Marcus A. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Generation of low work function, stable compound thin films by laser ablation. Compound thin films with low work function can be synthesized by simultaneously laser ablating silicon, for example, and thermal evaporating an alkali metal into an oxygen environment. For example, the compound thin film may be composed of Si/Cs/O. The work functions of the thin films can be varied by changing the silicon/alkali metal/oxygen ratio. Low work functions of the compound thin films deposited on silicon substrates were confirmed by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS). The compound thin films are stable up to 500.degree. C. as measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Tests have established that for certain chemical compositions and annealing temperatures of the compound thin films, negative electron affinity (NEA) was detected. The low work function, stable compound thin films can be utilized in solar cells, field emission flat panel displays, electron guns, and cold cathode electron guns.

  5. Semiconductor-nanocrystal/conjugated polymer thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul (Oakland, CA); Dittmer, Janke J. (Munich, DE); Huynh, Wendy U. (Munich, DE); Milliron, Delia (Berkeley, CA)

    2010-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention described herein provides for thin films and methods of making comprising inorganic semiconductor-nanocrystals dispersed in semiconducting-polymers in high loading amounts. The invention also describes photovoltaic devices incorporating the thin films.

  6. Nanopatterned Electrically Conductive Films of Semiconductor Nanocrystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mentzel, Tamar

    We present the first semiconductor nanocrystal films of nanoscale dimensions that are electrically conductive and crack-free. These films make it possible to study the electrical properties intrinsic to the nanocrystals ...

  7. Coherent growth of superconducting TiN thin films by plasma enhanced molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krockenberger, Yoshiharu; Karimoto, Shin-ichi; Yamamoto, Hideki; Semba, Kouich [NTT Basic Research Laboratories, NTT Corporation, 3-1 Morinosato-Wakamiya, Atsugi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We have investigated the formation of titanium nitride (TiN) thin films on (001) MgO substrates by molecular beam epitaxy and radio frequency acitvated nitrogen plasma. Although cubic TiN is stabile over a wide temperature range, superconducting TiN films are exclusively obtained when the substrate temperature exceeds 710 Degree-Sign C. TiN films grown at 720 Degree-Sign C show a high residual resistivity ratio of approximately 11 and the superconducting transition temperature (T{sub c}) is well above 5 K. Superconductivity has been confirmed also by magnetiztion measurements. In addition, we determined the upper critical magnetic field ({mu}{sub 0}H{sub c2}) as well as the corresponding coherence length ({xi}{sub GL}) by transport measurements under high magnetic fields. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy data revealed full in plane coherency to the substrate as well as a low defect density in the film, in agreement with a mean-free path length Script-Small-L Almost-Equal-To 106 nm, which is estimated from the residual resistivity value. The observations of reflection high energy electron diffraction intensity oscillations during the growth, distinct Laue fringes around the main Bragg peaks, and higher order diffraction spots in the reciprocal space map suggest the full controlability of the thickness of high quality superconducting TiN thin films.

  8. Biaxially oriented film on flexible polymeric substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Finkikoglu, Alp T. (Los Alamos, NM); Matias, Vladimir (Santa Fe, NM)

    2009-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A flexible polymer-based template having a biaxially oriented film grown on the surface of a polymeric substrate. The template having the biaxially oriented film can be used for further epitaxial growth of films of interest for applications such as photovoltaic cells, light emitting diodes, and the like. Methods of forming such a flexible template and providing the polymeric substrate with a biaxially oriented film deposited thereon are also described.

  9. Thin film buried anode battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Se-Hee (Lakewood, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); Liu, Ping (Denver, CO)

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A reverse configuration, lithium thin film battery (300) having a buried lithium anode layer (305) and process for making the same. The present invention is formed from a precursor composite structure (200) made by depositing electrolyte layer (204) onto substrate (201), followed by sequential depositions of cathode layer (203) and current collector (202) on the electrolyte layer. The precursor is subjected to an activation step, wherein a buried lithium anode layer (305) is formed via electroplating a lithium anode layer at the interface of substrate (201) and electrolyte film (204). The electroplating is accomplished by applying a current between anode current collector (201) and cathode current collector (202).

  10. Taught degree MA in Film Studies: Global Film Cultures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sussex, University of

    10 places to study in the UK in The Complete University Guide 2012-13 and The Times Good UniversityD in Film Studies Related degrees MA in Creative Media Practice (p119) MA in Digital Documentary (p120) MA in Digital Media (p121) MA in Gender and Media (p121) MA in Journalism and Documentary Practice (p111) MA

  11. LED structure with enhanced mirror reflectivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergmann, Michael; Donofrio, Matthew; Heikman, Sten; Schneider, Kevin S; Haberern, Kevin W; Edmond, John A

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Embodiments of the present invention are generally related to LED chips having improved overall emission by reducing the light-absorbing effects of barrier layers adjacent mirror contacts. In one embodiment, a LED chip comprises one or more LEDs, with each LED having an active region, a first contact under the active region having a highly reflective mirror, and a barrier layer adjacent the mirror. The barrier layer is smaller than the mirror such that it does not extend beyond the periphery of the mirror. In another possible embodiment, an insulator is further provided, with the insulator adjacent the barrier layer and adjacent portions of the mirror not contacted by the active region or by the barrier layer. In yet another embodiment, a second contact is provided on the active region. In a further embodiment, the barrier layer is smaller than the mirror such that the periphery of the mirror is at least 40% free of the barrier layer, and the second contact is below the first contact and accessible from the bottom of the chip.

  12. Fiber optic hydrophone sensor arrays using low reflectance internal mirrors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jong-Seo

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -Perot Interferometer 4 The Quadrature Point Page 5 Phase Fading in a 2x2 Coupler 6 Phase Fading a 3x3 Coupler 7 The Configuration of Electric Arc Fusion Splicer 8 The Theoretical Calculation of the Thin Film Thickness 10 15 17 9 Thin Film Thickness... film of Ti02 is used for making a mirror on a cleaved end surface of a fiber [3, 4], because this material has a high refractive index over visible and infrared ranges and strong molecular bonding on glass-based materials [5]. In addition, it has low...

  13. Quantum radiation from a partially reflecting moving mirror

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nistor Nicolaevici

    2000-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the quantum radiation from a partially reflecting moving mirror for the massless scalar field in 1+1 Minkowski space. Partial reflectivity is achieved by localizing a delta-type potential at the mirror's position. The radiated flux is exactly obtained for arbitrary motions as an integral functional of the mirror's past trajectory. Partial reflectivity corrections to the perfect mirror result are discussed.

  14. Quantum reflection and Liouville transformations from wells to walls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gabriel Dufour; Romain Guérout; Astrid Lambrecht; Serge Reynaud

    2014-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Liouville transformations map in a rigorous manner one Schr\\"odinger equation into another, with a changed scattering potential. They are used here to transform quantum reflection of an atom on an attractive well into reflection of the atom on a repulsive wall. While the scattering properties are preserved, the corresponding semiclassical descriptions are completely different. A quantitative evaluation of quantum reflection probabilities is deduced from this method.

  15. The important effect of electron reflection on thermionic converter performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rasor, N.S.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although only a few percent of high energy electrons are reflected from bare metal surfaces, 20--60% of low energy incident electrons are reflected from thermionic converter electrodes with adsorbed cesium and oxygen. The TECMDL computer model indicates that electron reflection in cesium vapor thermionic converters increases the arc potential drop, offsetting the gain in performance obtainable by lowering the collector work function via the coadsorbed Cs/O layer. The possible suppression of electron reflection by using electrodes with sub-micron surface structure is hypothesized and supported by experimental data obtained by employing a new method for testing in cesium-oxygen vapor.

  16. angular dependent reflection: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    structure factor near Bragg reflections: Graphite Physics Websites Summary: -binding model (see e. g. 15, 16) have been used extensively to study in-plane properties of...

  17. analyzing solar reflective: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and thermal emittance are referred to as "Cool Roof hot, light-colored surfaces reflect solar energy and stay cooler. However, high emittance is also 6 Microstructured...

  18. Ion reflection, gyration, and dissipation at supercritical shocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gosling, J.T.; Robson, A.E.

    1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This brief review emphasizes the following points: (1) Ion reflection is the dominant ion dissipation mechanism at nearly perpendicular, supercritical shocks. (2) An increasing fraction of the ions incident on a supercritical shock is reflected as the Mach number increases. The actual fraction reflected can be predicted using the Rankine-Hugoniot conservation relations. (3) The effective temperature associated with the dispersion in velocity space associated with ion reflection accounts for a large fraction of the temperature rise observed across supercritical, quasi-perpendicular shocks.

  19. KP solitons and Mach reflection in shallow water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuji Kodama

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This gives a survey of our recent studies on soliton solutions of the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation with an emphasis on the Mach reflection problem in shallow water.

  20. U-043: Attachmate Reflection Buffer Overflow in FTP Client Lets...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Lifecycle Attachmate Downloads SecurityTracker Alert ID: 1026340 IMPACT ASSESSMENT: Medium Discussion: A vulnerability was reported in Attachmate Reflection. A remote user...

  1. Methane production by attached film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jewell, William J. (202 Eastwood Ave., Ithaca, NY 14850)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for purifying wastewater of biodegradable organics by converting the organics to methane and carbon dioxide gases is disclosed, characterized by the use of an anaerobic attached film expanded bed reactor for the reaction process. Dilute organic waste material is initially seeded with a heterogeneous anaerobic bacteria population including a methane-producing bacteria. The seeded organic waste material is introduced into the bottom of the expanded bed reactor which includes a particulate support media coated with a polysaccharide film. A low-velocity upward flow of the organic waste material is established through the bed during which the attached bacterial film reacts with the organic material to produce methane and carbon dioxide gases, purified water, and a small amount of residual effluent material. The residual effluent material is filtered by the film as it flows upwardly through the reactor bed. In a preferred embodiment, partially treated effluent material is recycled from the top of the bed to the bottom of the bed for further treatment. The methane and carbon dioxide gases are then separated from the residual effluent material and purified water.

  2. Thin film polymeric gel electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derzon, Dora K. (1554 Rosalba St. NE., Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM 87112); Arnold, Jr., Charles (3436 Tahoe, NE., Albuquerque, Bernalillo County, NM 87111); Delnick, Frank M. (9700 Fleming Rd., Dexter, MI 48130)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel hybrid thin film electrolyte, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities .apprxeq.10.sup.-3 .OMEGA..sup.-1 cm.sup.-1 are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries.

  3. Thin film polymeric gel electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derzon, D.K.; Arnold, C. Jr.; Delnick, F.M.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel hybrid thin film electrolytes, based on an organonitrile solvent system, which are compositionally stable, environmentally safe, can be produced efficiently in large quantity and which, because of their high conductivities {approx_equal}10{sup {minus}3}{Omega}{sup {minus}1} cm{sup {minus}1} are useful as electrolytes for rechargeable lithium batteries. 1 fig.

  4. Jet impact on a soap film

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geoffroy Kirstetter; Christophe Raufaste; Franck Celestini

    2012-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We experimentally investigate the impact of a liquid jet on a soap film. We observe that the jet never breaks the film and that two qualitatively different steady regimes may occur. The first one is a refraction-like behavior obtained at small incidence angles when the jet crosses the film and is deflected by the film-jet interaction. For larger incidence angles, the jet is absorbed by the film, giving rise to a new class of flow in which the jet undulates along the film with a characteristic wavelength. Besides its fundamental interest, this study presents a new way to guide a micro-metric flow of liquid in the inertial regime and to probe foam stability submitted to violent perturbations at the soap film scale.

  5. Pico- and nanosecond laser ablation of mixed tungsten / aluminium films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisse, M; Steiner, R; Mathys, D; Stumpp, A; Joanny, M; Travere, J M; Meyer, E

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to extend the investigation of laser-assisted cleaning of ITER-relevant first mirror materials to the picosecond regime, a commercial laser system delivering 10 picosecond pulses at 355 nm at a frequency of up to 1 MHz has been used to investigate the ablation of mixed aluminium (oxide) / tungsten (oxide) layers deposited on poly- and nanocrystalline molybdenum as well as nanocrystalline rhodium mirrors. Characterization before and after cleaning using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and spectrophotometry shows heavy dust formation, resulting in a degradation of the reflectivity. Cleaning using a 5 nanosecond pulses at 350 and 532 nm, on the other hand, proved very promising. The structure of the film remnants suggests that in this case buckling was the underlying removal mechanism rather than ablation. Repeated coating and cleaning using nanosecond pulses is demonstrated.

  6. Method for fabricating hafnia films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hu, Michael Z [Knoxville, TN

    2007-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention comprises a method for fabricating hafnia film comprising the steps of providing a substrate having a surface that allows formation of a self-assembled monolayer thereon via covalent bonding; providing an aqueous solution that provides homogeneous hafnium ionic complexes and hafnium nanoclusters wherein the aqueous solution is capable of undergoing homogeneous precipitation under controlled conditions for a desired period of time at a controlled temperature and controlled solution acidity for desired nanocluster nucleation and growth kinetics, desired nanocluster size, desired growth rate of film thickness and desired film surface characteristics. The method further comprising forming the self-assembled monolayer on the surface of the substrate wherein the self-assembled monolayer comprises a plurality of hydrocarbon chains cross-linked together along the surface of the substrate, the hydrocarbon chains being uniformly spaced from one another and wherein each of the hydrocarbon chains having a functional anchoring group at a first end of the chain covalently bonded with the surface of the substrate and each of the hydrocarbon chains having a functional terminating group projected away from the surface wherein the functional terminating group provides a bonding site for the hafnium film to grow; and exposing the substrate to the aqueous solution for a desired period of time at a controlled temperature wherein the hafnium ionic complexes and the hafnium nanoclusters are deposited on the bonding site of the functional terminating group thereby forming the hafnia film wherein the hafnium bonded to the hydrocarbons and to one another provide a uniform ordered arrangement defined by the uniform arrangement of the hydrocarbons.

  7. Mass densification and defect restoration in chemical vapor deposition silicon dioxide film using Ar plasma excited by microwave

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawase, Kazumasa, E-mail: Kawase.Kazumasa@ak.MitsubishiElectric.co.jp; Motoya, Tsukasa; Uehara, Yasushi [Advanced Technology R and D Center, Mitsubishi Electric Corporation, 8-1-1 Tsukaguchi-honmachi, Amagasaki, Hyogo 661-8661 (Japan); Teramoto, Akinobu; Suwa, Tomoyuki; Ohmi, Tadahiro [New Industry Creation Hatchery Center, Tohoku University, 6-6-10 Aoba Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8579 (Japan)

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) films formed by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) have been treated with Ar plasma excited by microwave. The changes of the mass densities, carrier trap densities, and thicknesses of the CVD-SiO{sub 2} films with the Ar plasma treatments were investigated. The mass density depth profiles were estimated with X-Ray Reflectivity (XRR) analysis using synchrotron radiation. The densities of carrier trap centers due to defects of Si-O bond network were estimated with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) time-dependent measurement. The changes of the thicknesses due to the oxidation of Si substrates were estimated with the XRR and XPS. The mass densities of the CVD-SiO{sub 2} films are increased by the Ar plasma treatments. The carrier trap densities of the films are decreased by the treatments. The thicknesses of the films are not changed by the treatments. It has been clarified that the mass densification and defect restoration in the CVD-SiO{sub 2} films are caused by the Ar plasma treatments without the oxidation of the Si substrates.

  8. Morphology, microstructure, stress and damage properties of thin film coatings for the LCLS x-ray mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soufli, R; Baker, S L; Robinson, J C; Gullikson, E M; McCarville, T J; Pivovaroff, M J; Stefan, P; Hau-Riege, S P; Bionta, R

    2009-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The development and properties of reflective coatings for the x-ray offset mirror systems of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) free-electron laser (FEL) are discussed in this manuscript. The uniquely high instantaneous dose of the LCLS FEL beam translates to strict limits in terms of materials choice, thus leading to an x-ray mirror design consisting of a reflective coating deposited on a silicon substrate. Coherent wavefront preservation requirements for these mirrors result in stringent surface figure and finish specifications. DC-magnetron sputtered B{sub 4}C and SiC thin film coatings with optimized stress, roughness and figure properties for the LCLS x-ray mirrors are presented. The evolution of microstructure, morphology, and stress of these thin films versus deposition conditions is discussed. Experimental results on the performance of these coatings with respect to FEL damage are also presented.

  9. Applying Appearance Standards to Light Reflection Models Harold B. Westlund

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, Gary

    standards for gloss, haze, and goniochromatic color are applied to computer graphic reflection modelsApplying Appearance Standards to Light Reflection Models Harold B. Westlund Gary W. Meyer. Correspondences are derived between both the gloss and haze standards and the specular exponent of the Phong model

  10. Phase matching using Bragg reflection waveguides for monolithic nonlinear optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , (2005). 9. P. Yeh, A. Yariv, " Bragg reflection waveguides," Opt. Commun. 19, 427-430 (1976). 10. P. Yeh, A. Yariv, C Hong "Electromagnetic propagation in periodic stratified media: I. General Theory," JPhase matching using Bragg reflection waveguides for monolithic nonlinear optics applications A. S

  11. Fabricating Microgeometry for Custom Surface Reflectance Tim Weyrich

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a variety of sur- faces, ranging from reproductions of measured BRDFs to materials with unconventional reflectance mod- els continue to be used in rendering applications, more complex and realistic material models material (metal, dielectric, translucent / scattering, etc.). Many analytic reflectance models used

  12. Reflection of focused beams from opal photonic crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jonsson, Fredrik

    . Chutinan, "Full Three-Dimensional Photonic Bandgap Crystals at Near-Infrared Wavelengths," Science 289, 604Reflection of focused beams from opal photonic crystals Karri Varis, Marco Mattila Optoelectronics 10-14, D-55099 Mainz, Germany Abstract: We present a robust method for computing the reflection

  13. Reflection soft X-ray microscope and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Suckewer, S.; Skinner, C.H.; Rosser, R.

    1993-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A reflection soft X-ray microscope is provided by generating soft X-ray beams, condensing the X-ray beams to strike a surface of an object at a predetermined angle, and focusing the X-ray beams reflected from the surface onto a detector, for recording an image of the surface or near surface features of the object under observation.

  14. Interaction of acetonitrile with thin films of solid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahr, S.; Kempter, V. [Institut fuer Physik und Physikalische Technologien, Technische Universitaet Clausthal, Leibnizstr. 4, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    2009-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin films of water were prepared on Ag at 124 K. Their properties were studied with metastable impact electron spectroscopy, reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy, and temperature programmed desorption. The interaction of acetonitrile (ACN) with these films was studied with the abovementioned techniques. From the absence of any infrared activity in the initial adsorption stage, it is concluded that ACN adsorbs linearly and that the C{identical_to}N axis is aligned parallel to the water surface (as also found on neat Ag). Initially, the interaction with water surface species involves their dangling OD groups. During the completion of the first adlayer the ACN-ACN lateral interaction becomes of importance as well, and the ACN molecules become tilted with respect to the water surface. ACN shows propensity to stay at the surface after surface adsorption even during annealing up to the onset of desorption. The present results for the ACN-water interaction are compared with available classical molecular dynamics calculations providing the orientation profile for ACN on water as well as the ACN bonding properties.

  15. Determination of the melting threshold of TiO{sub 2} thin films processed by excimer laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Overschelde, O. [Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface, Universite de Mons, 23, Place du Parc, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Delsate, T. [Service de Physique Theorique et Mathematique, Universite de Mons, 6 Avenue du champ de Mars, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Snyders, R. [Chimie des Interactions Plasma-Surface, Universite de Mons, 23, Place du Parc, 7000 Mons (Belgium); Materia Nova Research Center, 1 Avenue Copernic, 7000 Mons (Belgium)

    2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Processing surfaces by laser needs an understanding of the mechanisms generated by irradiation. In this work, to gain understanding of the mechanisms occurring during irradiation of TiO{sub 2} thin films by means of KrF excimer laser, we have performed infrared time resolved reflectivity measurements. This experimental investigation revealed modifications of the heating/cooling cycle as a function of the fluence (F). These modifications start appearing for a fluence value of about {approx}0.25 J/cm{sup 2} which is associated with the melting threshold of the film. Additionally, we have solved numerically the heat equation of the system with specific boundary conditions. From these calculations, we have established the thermal history of the film during the 25 ns irradiation pulse. The data reveal that a part of the medium liquefies around a fluence of 0.23 J/cm{sup 2} in good agreement with the experimental data.

  16. Properties of TiO{sub 2}-based transparent conducting oxide thin films on GaN(0001) surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kasai, J.; Nakao, S.; Yamada, N. [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan); Hitosugi, T. [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan); Advanced Institute for Materials Research (WPI-AIMR), Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Moriyama, M.; Goshonoo, K. [Toyoda Gosei Co., Ltd., Nishikasugai, Aichi 452-8564 (Japan); Hoang, N. L. H. [Department of Chemistry, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Hasegawa, T. [Kanagawa Academy of Science and Technology (KAST), Kawasaki 213-0012 (Japan); Department of Chemistry, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Anatase Nb-doped TiO{sub 2} transparent conducting oxide has been formed on GaN(0001) surfaces using a sputtering method. Amorphous films deposited at room temperature were annealed at a substrate temperature of 500 deg. C in vacuum to form single-phase anatase films. Films with a thickness of 170 nm exhibited a resistivity of 8x10{sup -4} {Omega} cm with absorptance less than 5% at a wavelength of 460 nm. Furthermore, the refractive index of the Nb-doped TiO{sub 2} was well matched to that of GaN. These findings indicate that Nb-doped TiO{sub 2} is a promising material for use as transparent electrodes in GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs), particularly since reflection at the electrode/GaN boundary can be suppressed, enhancing the external quantum efficiency of blue LEDs.

  17. An improved thin film approximation to accurately determine the optical conductivity of graphene from infrared transmittance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, J. W.; Bol, A. A. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, Den Dolech 2, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Sanden, M. C. M. van de [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, Den Dolech 2, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research (DIFFER), Nieuwegein (Netherlands)

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This work presents an improved thin film approximation to extract the optical conductivity from infrared transmittance in a simple yet accurate way. This approximation takes into account the incoherent reflections from the backside of the substrate. These reflections are shown to have a significant effect on the extracted optical conductivity and hence on derived parameters as carrier mobility and density. By excluding the backside reflections, the error for these parameters for typical chemical vapor deposited (CVD) graphene on a silicon substrate can be as high as 17% and 45% for the carrier mobility and density, respectively. For the mid- and near-infrared, the approximation can be simplified such that the real part of the optical conductivity is extracted without the need for a parameterization of the optical conductivity. This direct extraction is shown for Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) transmittance measurements of CVD graphene on silicon in the photon energy range of 370–7000?cm{sup ?1}. From the real part of the optical conductivity, the carrier density, mobility, and number of graphene layers are determined but also residue, originating from the graphene transfer, is detected. FTIR transmittance analyzed with the improved thin film approximation is shown to be a non-invasive, easy, and accurate measurement and analysis method for assessing the quality of graphene and can be used for other 2-D materials.

  18. Topological size effect in tin-dioxide cluster films produced by reactive sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maksimenko, L. S.; Matyash, I. E.; Mishchuk, O. N.; Rudenko, S. P.; Serdega, B. K., E-mail: bserdega@gmail.com [National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lashkarev Institute of Semiconductor Physics (Ukraine)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The optical properties of tin-dioxide nanofilms produced by reactive sputtering are studied by the internal reflection technique and modulation polarimetry. The angular and spectral characteristics of the reflection coefficients R{sub s}{sup 2} and R{sub p}{sup 2}are studied for linear-polarized radiations, for which the wave electric field is, correspondingly, orthogonal and parallel to the plane of incidence. The characteristics of the physical difference between the reflection coefficients, {rho} = R{sub s}{sup 2}-R{sub p}{sup 2}, are studied as well. From the experimental results, it follows that (i) the doping-induced finite conductivity of the film brings about the appearance of surface plasmon resonance; (ii) the shape of the spectral and angular characteristics of the parameter {rho} is indicative of the cluster structure of the film, which is in agreement with the phase topology data obtained by atomic force microscopy; and (iii) the nonspherical shape of the clusters is responsible for the splitting of resonances and for the dependence of their parameters on the angle of incidence, which defines the topological size effect.

  19. Modeling and control of thin film surface morphology: application to thin film solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianqiao

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 86:207–216, 2005. [silicon thin films and solar cells. Journal of Appliedof a p-i-n thin-film solar cell with front transparent con-

  20. Ambient-pressure silica aerogel films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prakash, S.S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brinker, C.J. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hurd, A.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Very highly porous (aerogel) silica films with refractive index in the range 1.006--1.05 (equivalent porosity 98.5--88%) were prepared by an ambient-pressure process. It was shown earlier using in situ ellipsometric imaging that the high porosity of these films was mainly attributable to the dilation or `springback` of the film during the final stage of drying. This finding was irrefutably reconfirmed by visually observing a `springback` of >500% using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Ellipsometry and ESEM also established the near cent per cent reversibility of aerogel film deformation during solvent intake and drying. Film thickness profile measurements (near the drying line) for the aerogel, xerogel and pure solvent cases are presented from imaging ellipsometry. The thickness of these films (crack-free) were controlled in the range 0.1-3.5 {mu}m independent of refractive index.

  1. Dry lubricant films for aluminum forming.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, J.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.

    1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    During metal forming process, lubricants are crucial to prevent direct contact, adhesion, transfer and scuffing of workpiece materials and tools. Boric acid films can be firmly adhered to the clean aluminum surfaces by spraying their methanol solutions and provide extremely low friction coefficient (about 0.04). The cohesion strengths of the bonded films vary with the types of aluminum alloys (6061, 6111 and 5754). The sheet metal forming tests indicate that boric acid films and the combined films of boric acid and mineral oil can create larger strains than the commercial liquid and solid lubricants, showing that they possess excellent lubricities for aluminum forming. SEM analyses indicate that boric acid dry films separate the workpiece and die materials, and prevent their direct contact and preserve their surface qualities. Since boric acid is non-toxic and easily removed by water, it can be expected that boric acid films are environmentally friendly, cost effective and very efficient lubricants for sheet aluminum cold forming.

  2. Tuneable dielectric films having low electrical losses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dimos, Duane Brian (Albuquerque, NM); Schwartz, Robert William (Albuquerque, NM); Raymond, Mark Victor (Albuquerque, NM); Al-Shareef, Husam Niman (Boise, ID); Mueller, Carl (Lakewood, CO); Galt, David (Denver, CO)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a method for forming dielectric thin films having substantially reduced electrical losses at microwave and millimeter wave frequencies relative to conventional dielectric thin films. The reduction in losses is realized by dramatically increasing the grain sizes of the dielectric films, thereby minimizing intergranular scattering of the microwave signal due to grain boundaries and point defects. The increase in grain size is realized by heating the film to a temperature at which the grains experience regrowth. The grain size of the films can be further increased by first depositing the films with an excess of one of the compoents, such that a highly mobile grain boundary phase is formed.

  3. Solids Fraction Measurement with a Reflective Fiber Optic Probe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seachman, S.M.; Yue, P.C.; Ludlow, J.C.; Shadle, L.J.

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method has been developed to extract solids fraction information from a reflective fiber optic probe. The commercially available reflective fiber optic probe was designed to measure axial particle velocity (both up and down directions). However, the reflected light intensity measured is related to particle size and particle concentration. A light reflection model is used to relate the reflected light intensity to solids fraction. In this model we assume that the reflected light intensity is a fixed fraction, K1, of the total light intensity lost in penetration of a solid layer. Also, the solids fraction is related to particle concentration, N, in the light path, by N = K2 (1- ?), where (1-?) is the solids fraction. The parameters K1 and K2 are determined through a calibration and curve fitting procedure. This paper describes this procedure and the steps taken to derive the values of K1 and K2. It is proposed that the reflective fiber optic can be used for real time measurement of solids fraction in a circulating fluid bed.

  4. Yale Summer Film Institute Summer 2013 SU 5A Session Film S204 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    10 Critique of Class Films 9-12 Reading for Wednesday: Maya Deren, "Cinematography: The Creative Use

  5. Infrared Spectroscopic, X-ray and Nanoscale Characterization of Strontium Titanate Thin Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, J. D.; Moutinho, H. R.; Kazmerski, L. L.; Mueller, C. H.; Rivkin, T. V.; Treece, R. E.; Dalberth, M.; Rogers, C. T.

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Attenuated total reflectance (ATR) measurements were performed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in the ATR mode with a thallium iodobromide (KRS-5) crystal to measure the frequencies of the v{sub 3} and v{sub 4} phonon absorption bands in thin strontium titanate films deposited on single-crystal yttrium-barium copper oxide (YBCO), lanthanum aluminate, magnesium oxide, and strontium titanate substrates. The KRS-5 crystal enabled FTIR-ATR measurements to be made at frequencies above 400 cm-1. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were also made to further characterize the films. The measurements were repeated on single-crystal specimens of strontium titanate and the substrates for comparison. Softening in the frequency of the v{sub 4} transverse optical phonon in the lattice-mismatched films below the established value of 544 cm-1 is indicative of the highly textured, polycrystalline ceramic nature of the films and is consistent with the XRD and AFM results.

  6. The Influence of Particle Size on Infrared Reflectance Spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, Tanya L.; Brauer, Carolyn S.; Su, Yin-Fong; Blake, Thomas A.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Richardson, Robert L.

    2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Reflectance spectra of solids are influenced by the absorption coefficient as well as the particle size and morphology. In the infrared, spectral features may be observed as either maxima or minima: in general, the upward-going peaks in the reflectance spectrum result from surface scattering, which are rays that have reflected from the surface without penetration, whereas downward-going peaks result from either absorption or volume scattering, i.e. rays that have penetrated into the sample or refracted into the sample interior and are not reflected. The light signal reflected from solids usually encompasses all these effects which include dependencies on particle size, morphology and sample density. This paper measures the reflectance spectra in the 1.3 – 16 micron range for various bulk materials that have a combination of strong and weak absorption bands in order to understand the effects on the spectral features as a function of the mean grain size of the sample. The bulk materials were ground with a mortar and pestle and then sieved to separate the samples into various size fractions: 0-45, 45-90, 90-180, 180-250, 250-500, and >500 microns. The directional-hemispherical spectra were recorded using a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere to measure the reflectance for all of the particle-size fractions. We have studied both organic and inorganic materials, but this paper focuses on inorganic salts, NaNO3 in particular. Our studies clearly show that particle size has an enormous influence on the measured reflectance spectra for bulk materials and that successful identification requires sufficient representative reflectance data so as to include the particle size(s) of interest. Origins of the effects are discussed.

  7. A thin film transistor driven microchannel device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Hyun Ho

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    .1. Principle of Electrophoresis?????????????? 1.2. Capillary and Microchip Electrophoresis????????... 1.3. Electrophoresis of DNA???????????????.. 2. Plasma Thin Film Deposition Process???????????... 2.1. Fundamentals of Plasma?????????????.?? 2.2. Plasma... Phase Chemical Reactions???????????.. 2.3. Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition??????.. 2.4. PECVD Thin Film?????????????????.. 3. Thin Film Transistor??????????????????.. 7 7 12 17 20 20 23 24 25 29 III...

  8. Polymer-assisted deposition of films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCleskey, Thomas M. (Los Alamos, NM); Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Lin, Yuan (Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A polymer assisted deposition process for deposition of metal oxide films is presented. The process includes solutions of one or more metal precursor and soluble polymers having binding properties for the one or more metal precursor. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is heated at high temperatures to yield metal oxide films. Such films can be epitaxial in structure and can be of optical quality. The process can be organic solvent-free.

  9. Polymer-assisted deposition of films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCleskey, Thomas M. (Los Alamos, NM); Burrell; Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Jia; Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Lin; Yuan (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A polymer assisted deposition process for deposition of metal oxide films and the like is presented. The process includes solutions of one or more metal precursor and soluble polymers having binding properties for the one or more metal precursor. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is heated at high temperatures to yield metal oxide films and the like. Such films can be epitaxial in structure and can be of optical quality. The process can be organic solvent-free.

  10. Electrochemical photovoltaic cell having ternary alloy film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Russak, Michael A. (Farmingdale, NY)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin film compound semiconductor electrode comprising CdSe.sub.1-x Te.sub.x (0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1) is deposited on a transparent conductive substrate. An electrolyte contacts the film to form a photoactive site. The semiconductor material has a narrow energy bandgap permitting high efficiency for light conversion. The film may be fabricated by: (1) co-evaporation of two II-VI group compounds with a common cation, or (2) evaporation of three elements, concurrenty.

  11. Characterization of coplanar poled electro optic polymer films for Si-photonic devices with multiphoton microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Himmelhuber, R., E-mail: rolandh@optics.arizona.edu; Mehravar, S. S.; Herrera, O. D.; Demir, V.; Kieu, K.; Norwood, R. A.; Peyghambarian, N. [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Luo, J. [Soluxra LLC, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Jen, A. K.-Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We imaged coplanar poled electro optic (EO) polymer films on transparent substrates with a multiple-photon microscope in reflection and correlated the second-harmonic light intensity with the results of Pockels coefficient (r{sub 33}) measurements. This allowed us to make quantitative measurements of poled polymer films on non-transparent substrates like silicon, which are not accessible with traditional Pockels coefficient measurement techniques. Phase modulators consisting of silicon waveguide devices with EO polymer claddings with a known Pockels coefficient (from V{sub ?} measurements) were used to validate the correlation between the second-harmonic signal and r{sub 33}. This also allowed us to locally map the r{sub 33} coefficient in the poled area.

  12. Electrochromism in copper oxide thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, Thomas J.; Slack, Jonathan L.; Rubin, Michael D.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by a variety of routes, and electrochromic behavior has beenof Cu x O films, electrochromic devices based onbeen investigated. Unlike electrochromic devices based on

  13. Polymer-assisted deposition of films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCleskey,Thomas M. (Los Alamos, NM); Burrell,Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Jia,Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Lin,Yuan (Chandler, AZ)

    2012-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A polymer assisted deposition process for deposition of metal nitride films and the like is presented. The process includes solutions of one or more metal precursor and soluble polymers having binding properties for the one or more metal precursor. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is heated at high temperatures under a suitable atmosphere to yield metal nitride films and the like. Such films can be conformal on a variety of substrates including non-planar substrates. In some instances, the films can be epitaxial in structure and can be of optical quality. The process can be organic solvent-free.

  14. Exploding conducting film laser pumping apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ware, Kenneth D. (San Diego, CA); Jones, Claude R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Exploding conducting film laser optical pumping apparatus. The 342-nm molecular iodine and the 1.315-.mu.m atomic iodine lasers have been optically pumped by intense light from exploding-metal-film discharges. Brightness temperatures for the exploding-film discharges were approximately 25,000 K. Although lower output energies were achieved for such discharges when compared to exploding-wire techniques, the larger surface area and smaller inductance inherent in the exploding-film should lead to improved efficiency for optically-pumped gas lasers.

  15. Creating CZTS Thin Films Via Stacked Metallic CVD and Sulfurization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bielecki, Anthony

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    film solar cells. CIGS solar cell efficiencies have beenCIGS, making it a favorable choice for thin-film solar cells.thin film solar cell [3]. However, use of CIGS has a number

  16. Growth of Ordered Ultrathin Tungsten Oxide Films on Pt(111)....

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Growth of Ordered Ultrathin Tungsten Oxide Films on Pt(111). Growth of Ordered Ultrathin Tungsten Oxide Films on Pt(111). Abstract: Ordered tungsten oxide ultra-thin films were...

  17. Thin Film Encapsulation Methods for Large Area MEMS Packaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahajerin, Armon

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    P. J. French, “Robust Wafer-Level Thin-Film Encapsulation ofThe Elastic Properties of Thin- Film Silicon Nitride,” IEEELPCVD Silicon Nitride Thin Films at Cryogenic Temperatures,”

  18. 3D-2D ASYMPTOTIC ANALYSIS FOR INHOMOGENEOUS THIN FILMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    3D-2D ASYMPTOTIC ANALYSIS FOR INHOMOGENEOUS THIN FILMS plate models, periodic pr* *o- files, and within the context of optimal design for thin films 5. Third application - Optimal design of a thin film 19 6. Final Remarks

  19. Mechanisms for fatigue and wear of polysilicon structural thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alsem, Daniel Henricus

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of single-crystal silicon thin films from 1991 to 2006. Thefor polycrystalline silicon thin films After the initialThis mechanism is specific to thin-film silicon where cracks

  20. 21L.011 The Film Experience, Fall 2006

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thorburn, David

    An introduction to narrative film, emphasizing the unique properties of the movie house and the motion-picture camera, the historical evolution of the film medium, and the intrinsic artistic qualities of individual films. ...

  1. LIQUID PHASE DEPOSITION OF ELECTROCHROMIC THIN FILMS T. J. Richardson and M. D. Rubin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and readily scalable to larger substrates. Keywords: liquid phase deposition; electrochromic films; thin film

  2. Quantitative laboratory observations of internal wave reflection on ascending slopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dauxois, Thierry

    a stratified fluid with an angle that is fixed with respect to gravity. Upon reflection on a sloping bed that for a fixed frequency, the direction in which energy propagates with respect to the horizontal, , is fixed

  3. Seismic reflection analysis of the Manson Impact Structure, Iowa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keiswetter, Dean; Black, Ross A.; Steeples, Don W.

    1996-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Our combined interpretation of new, high-resolution seismic reflection data and reprocessed, but previously published, industrial Vibroseis data indicates that the Manson Impact Structure, Iowa, has an apparent crater ...

  4. Image statistics and the perception of surface reflectance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharan, Lavanya

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Humans are surprisingly good at judging the reflectance of complex surfaces even when the surfaces are viewed in isolation, contrary to the Gelb effect. We argue that textural cues are important for this task. Traditional ...

  5. Seismic Reflection Studies in Long Valley Caldera, Califomia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Black, Ross A.; Deemer, Sharon J.; Smithson, Scott B.

    1991-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Seismic reflection studies in Long Valley caldera, California, indicate that seismic methods may be successfully employed to image certain types of features in young silicic caldera environments. However, near-surface ...

  6. Reflective Interfaces : assisting teens with stressful situations online

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Birago (Birago Korayga)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents the concept of Reflective Interfaces, a novel approach to user experience design that promotes positive behavioral norms. Traditional interface design methodologies such as User Centered Design are ...

  7. Quantum field theoretical description for the reflectivity of graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bordag, M; Mostepanenko, V M; Petrov, V M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive the polarization tensor of graphene at nonzero temperature in (2+1)-dimensional space-time. The obtained tensor coincides with the previously known one at all Matsubara frequencies, but, in contrast to it, admits analytic continuation to the real frequency axis satisfying all physical requirements. Using the obtained representation for the polarization tensor, we develope quantum field theoretical description for the reflectivity of graphene. The analytic asymptotic expressions for the reflection coefficients and reflectivities at low and high frequencies are derived for both independent polarizations of the electromagnetic field. The dependencies of reflectivities on the frequency and angle of incidence are investigated. Numerical computations using the exact expressions for the polarization tensor are performed and application regions for the analytic asymptotic results are determined.

  8. Reflective Cracking Study: HVS Test Section Forensic Investigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, David; Steven, B.; Harvey, John T

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the asphalt concrete. Summary of Testing on the Underlyingtesting performed to validate Caltrans overlay strategies for the rehabilitation of cracked asphalt concrete.concrete. It describes the forensic investigation of the HVS rutting and reflective cracking testing

  9. GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS, II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoj, Toshiaki

    GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS, II University of Tokyo Noda, Chiba 278-8510, Japan Abstract. Green functions and Hall-Littlewoo* *d functions associated to W are introduced, and Green functions are described

  10. Standardization of Solar Mirror Reflectance Measurements - Round Robin Test: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyen, S.; Lupfert, E.; Fernandez-Garcia, A.; Kennedy, C.

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Within the SolarPaces Task III standardization activities, DLR, CIEMAT, and NREL have concentrated on optimizing the procedure to measure the reflectance of solar mirrors. From this work, the laboratories have developed a clear definition of the method and requirements needed of commercial instruments for reliable reflectance results. A round robin test was performed between the three laboratories with samples that represent all of the commercial solar mirrors currently available for concentrating solar power (CSP) applications. The results show surprisingly large differences in hemispherical reflectance (sh) of 0.007 and specular reflectance (ss) of 0.004 between the laboratories. These differences indicate the importance of minimum instrument requirements and standardized procedures. Based on these results, the optimal procedure will be formulated and validated with a new round robin test in which a better accuracy is expected. Improved instruments and reference standards are needed to reach the necessary accuracy for cost and efficiency calculations.

  11. alfven wave reflection: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    viscosity and the magnetic diffusivity of the fluid, also known as the magnetic Prandtl number Pm. In the special case Pm1, there is no reflection on an insulating, no-slip...

  12. Reflective Middleware Solutions for Context-Aware Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emmerich, Wolfgang

    Reflective Middleware Solutions for Context-Aware Applications Licia Capra, Wolfgang Emmerich and Cecilia Mascolo Dept. of Computer Science University College London Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, UK {L.Capra|W.Emmerich

  13. aqua modis reflectance: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Standards Process Breakout Session June 15, 2005 Robert Wolfe NASA GSFC Code 614.5 & Raytheon ITSS 12;June 15, 2005 - Wolfe - San Diego 2 MODIS Land Surface Reflectance products:...

  14. Reflection and Transmission of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields through Multilayered

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oughstun, Kurt

    Reflection and Transmission of Pulsed Electromagnetic Fields through Multilayered Biological Media- cally rigorous, physically correct description of the propagation of pulsed electromagnetic fields pulses through multilayered biological media consisting of three biological tissue layers rep- resenting

  15. andreev reflection spectroscopy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Probing Exotic Superconducting Order Parameters Using Point-contact Andreev Reflection Spectroscopy. Open Access...

  16. andreev reflection measurements: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Probing Exotic Superconducting Order Parameters Using Point-contact Andreev Reflection Spectroscopy. Open Access...

  17. Accessibility of Computer Science: A Reflection for Faculty Members

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Leary, Dianne P.

    Accessibility of Computer Science: A Reflection for Faculty Members Dianne P. O'Leary http O'Leary. Copyright Dianne P. O'Leary, 1999 Version 1: June 1999 1 Picture Yourself: You are male

  18. Anti-reflective nanoporous silicon for efficient hydrogen production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oh, Jihun; Branz, Howard M

    2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Exemplary embodiments are disclosed of anti-reflective nanoporous silicon for efficient hydrogen production by photoelectrolysis of water. A nanoporous black Si is disclosed as an efficient photocathode for H.sub.2 production from water splitting half-reaction.

  19. Universal signal processing method for multimode reflective sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larson, Robert Eugene

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sensitivity, but the sensor configuration is complicated and requires the use of expensive lasers and single mode fibers. Amplitude modulation trades sensitivity for low cost and ease of configuration by using light emitting diodes and multimode fibers. A... method for reflective sensors using optical fibers as the data transmission media. The proposed transmitter - receiver unit was based on the amplitude modulation of reflected optical signals. This involves the use of an light emitting diode (LED...

  20. Multilayer Thin-Film Thermoelectric Materials for Vehicle Applications...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Multilayer Thin-Film Thermoelectric Materials for Vehicle Applications Multilayer Thin-Film Thermoelectric Materials for Vehicle Applications 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction...

  1. NO Adsorption on Ultrathin O Films: Formation of Nitrite and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Adsorption on Ultrathin O Films: Formation of Nitrite and Nitrate Species. NO Adsorption on Ultrathin O Films: Formation of Nitrite and Nitrate Species. Abstract: Interaction of...

  2. UV photoemission efficiency of polycrystalline CVD diamond films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tremsin, A S; Siegmund, OHW

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    efficiency of a polycrystalline diamond planar reflectivequantum efficiency of polycrystalline diamond films grown onallowed the growth of polycrystalline diamond thin films on

  3. adsorbed organic films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    nanoporous films H. J. Peng, Y the light extraction efficiency for organic light emitting diode OLED . Nanoporous alumina film was used by Bragg scattering. The corrugated...

  4. Global POF Shrink Film Industry 2015 Market Research Report ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global POF Shrink Film Industry 2015 Market Research Report Home Gosreports's picture Submitted by Gosreports(70) Contributor 2 July, 2015 - 21:12 Global POF Shrink Film Industry...

  5. Templating Mesoporous Hierarchies in Silica Thin Films Using...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Templating Mesoporous Hierarchies in Silica Thin Films Using the Thermal Degradation of Cellulose Nitrate. Templating Mesoporous Hierarchies in Silica Thin Films Using the Thermal...

  6. Development of a Low Cost Ultra Specular Advanced Polymer Film...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development of a Low Cost Ultra Specular Advanced Polymer Film Solar Reflector Development of a Low Cost Ultra Specular Advanced Polymer Film Solar Reflector This presentation was...

  7. Multilayered YSZ/GZO films with greatly enhanced ionic conduction...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    YSZGZO films with greatly enhanced ionic conduction for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells. Multilayered YSZGZO films with greatly enhanced ionic conduction for low...

  8. Thermoelectric effect in very thin film Pt/Au thermocouples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salvadori, M.C.; Vaz, A.R.; Teixeira, F.S.; Cattani, M.; Brown, I.G.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TABLE I. Measured thermoelectric power S for samples ofThermoelectric effect in very thin film Pt/Au thermocouplesthickness dependence of the thermoelectric power of Pt films

  9. Direct Measurement of Oxygen Incorporation into Thin Film Oxides...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurement of Oxygen Incorporation into Thin Film Oxides at Room Temperature Upon Ultraviolet Phton Irradiation. Direct Measurement of Oxygen Incorporation into Thin Film Oxides...

  10. Oxygen Transport Studies in Nanocrystalline Ceria Films. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transport Studies in Nanocrystalline Ceria Films. Oxygen Transport Studies in Nanocrystalline Ceria Films. Abstract: Oxygen uptake and conductivity were measured by nuclear...

  11. Improved Stability Of Amorphous Zinc Tin Oxide Thin Film Transistors...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stability Of Amorphous Zinc Tin Oxide Thin Film Transistors Using Molecular Passivation. Improved Stability Of Amorphous Zinc Tin Oxide Thin Film Transistors Using Molecular...

  12. Temperature-Induced Phase Separation in Chromium Films. | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Temperature-Induced Phase Separation in Chromium Films. Temperature-Induced Phase Separation in Chromium Films. Abstract: Study of phase seperton at CrSi interface. Vacuum...

  13. High Temperature Thin Film Polymer Dielectric Based Capacitors...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Thin Film Polymer Dielectric Based Capacitors for HEV Power Electronic Systems High Temperature Thin Film Polymer Dielectric Based Capacitors for HEV Power...

  14. alumina thin films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    films Engineering Websites Summary: of domain switching and controllability, preventing thin-film and polycrystalline ferroelectrics from the switching mechanisms of...

  15. acid thin films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    films Engineering Websites Summary: of domain switching and controllability, preventing thin-film and polycrystalline ferroelectrics from the switching mechanisms of...

  16. ablation thin films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    films Engineering Websites Summary: of domain switching and controllability, preventing thin-film and polycrystalline ferroelectrics from the switching mechanisms of...

  17. anatase thin film: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    films Engineering Websites Summary: of domain switching and controllability, preventing thin-film and polycrystalline ferroelectrics from the switching mechanisms of...

  18. alloy films deposited: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    memory alloy Elastic modulus Wrinkling Thermoelastic strain in a polycrystalline Fe-Pd thin film 50 High-resolution photometric optical monitoring for thin-film deposition...

  19. arsenide thin films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    films Engineering Websites Summary: of domain switching and controllability, preventing thin-film and polycrystalline ferroelectrics from the switching mechanisms of...

  20. Simultaneous detection of surface coverage and structure of krypton films on gold by helium atom diffraction and quartz crystal microbalance techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danisman, M. Fatih; Oezkan, Berrin [Department of Chemistry, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe a quartz crystal microbalance setup that can be operated at low temperatures in ultra high vacuum with gold electrode surfaces acting as substrate surface for helium diffraction measurements. By simultaneous measurement of helium specular reflection intensity from the electrode surface and resonance frequency shift of the crystal during film adsorption, helium diffraction data can be correlated to film thickness. In addition, effects of interfacial viscosity on the helium diffraction pattern could be observed. To this end, first, flat gold films on AT cut quartz crystals were prepared which yield high enough helium specular reflection intensity. Then the crystals were mounted in the helium diffractometer sample holder and driven by means of a frequency modulation driving setup. Different crystal geometries were tested to obtain the best quality factor and preliminary measurements were performed on Kr films on gold surfaces. While the crystal structure and coverage of krypton films as a function of substrate temperature could successfully be determined, no depinning effects could be observed.

  1. Photobiomolecular metallic particles and films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hu, Zhong-Cheng

    2003-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The method of the invention is based on the unique electron-carrying function of a photocatalytic unit such as the photosynthesis system I (PSI) reaction center of the protein-chlorophyll complex isolated from chloroplasts. The method employs a photo-biomolecular metal deposition technique for precisely controlled nucleation and growth of metallic clusters/particles, e.g., platinum, palladium, and their alloys, etc., as well as for thin-film formation above the surface of a solid substrate. The photochemically mediated technique offers numerous advantages over traditional deposition methods including quantitative atom deposition control, high energy efficiency, and mild operating condition requirements.

  2. Introduction to BPA Film Collection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn OtherEnergyBPA-Film-Collection Sign In About | Careers |

  3. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction evaluation of thermal deoxidation of chemically cleaned Si, SiGe, and Ge layers for solid-source molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, Dyan; Richardson, Christopher J. K. [Laboratory for Physical Sciences, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20740 (United States)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors present a study on the thermal evolution of the reflection high-energy electron diffraction pattern of chemically cleaned (001)-oriented Si, Ge, and SiGe surfaces, associating observed changes in the reconstructions with the desorption of known residual contaminants for Si and Ge surfaces. The implications of residual oxides prior to epitaxy on stacking fault densities in the grown films are presented. Further evidence for the two-phase nature of oxides on SiGe surfaces is provided, demonstrating that it is necessary to heat a SiGe surface up to the thermal deoxidation temperature of a Si surface to obtain stacking fault-free growth.

  4. Preparation of a semiconductor thin film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pehnt, M.; Schulz, D.L.; Curtis, C.J.; Ginley, D.S.

    1998-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for the preparation of a semiconductor film. The process comprises depositing nanoparticles of a semiconductor material onto a substrate whose surface temperature during nanoparticle deposition thereon is sufficient to cause substantially simultaneous fusion of the nanoparticles to thereby coalesce with each other and effectuate film growth.

  5. Organic conductive films for semiconductor electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frank, A.J.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    According to the present invention, improved electrodes overcoated with conductive polymer films and preselected catalysts are provided. The electrodes typically comprise an inorganic semiconductor over-coated with a charge conductive polymer film comprising a charge conductive polymer in or on which is a catalyst or charge-relaying agent.

  6. Improved liquid-film electron stripper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gavin, B.F.

    1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved liquid-film electron stripper particularly for high intensity heavy ion beams which produces constant regenerated, stable, free-standing liquid films having an adjustable thickness between 0.3 to 0.05 microns. The improved electron stripper is basically composed of at least one high speed, rotating disc with a very sharp, precision-like, ground edge on one side of the disc's periphery and with highly polished, flat, radial surface adjacent the sharp edge. A fine stream of liquid, such as oil, impinges at a 90/sup 0/ angle adjacent the disc's sharp outer edge. Film terminators, located at a selected distance from the disc perimeter are positioned approximately perpendicular to the film. The terminators support, shape, and stretch the film and are arranged to assist in the prevention of liquid droplet formation by directing the collected film to a reservoir below without breaking or interfering with the film. One embodiment utilizes two rotating discs and associated terminators, with the discs rotating so as to form films in opposite directions, and with the second disc being located down beam-line relative to the first disc.

  7. ELLIPSOMETRY OF SULFATE FILMS ON LEAD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muller, R. H.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Of SUlfATE fILMS ON LEAD R. H. Muller R. D. Peters May 1979be due to changes on the lead surface (instead of in theELLIPSOMETRY OF SULFATE FILMS ON LEAD R. H. Muller and R. D.

  8. Preparation of a semiconductor thin film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pehnt, Martin (TuBingen, DE); Schulz, Douglas L. (Denver, CO); Curtis, Calvin J. (Lakewood, CO); Ginley, David S. (Evergreen, CO)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the preparation of a semiconductor film. The process comprises depositing nanoparticles of a semiconductor material onto a substrate whose surface temperature during nanoparticle deposition thereon is sufficient to cause substantially simultaneous fusion of the nanoparticles to thereby coalesce with each other and effectuate film growth.

  9. Wetting and lubricating film instabilities in microchannels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cubaud, Thomas

    , and silicone oils . Dynamic wetting transitions: a pearl flow thick lubricating film , b spider flow thinWetting and lubricating film instabilities in microchannels Thomas Cubaud Department of Mechanical of partially wetting threads in planar microchannels of height h=100 or 250 m fluids: ethanol, mineral oils

  10. Drama and Communication, Media and Film

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of contemporary communication technologies. If you wish to take courses in digital media production, please meet in more specialized areas in theatre production, performance, media studies and digital media productionDrama and Communication, Media and Film Drama and Communication, Media and Film is a dynamic

  11. Infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy studies of CO adsorption on titania thin films and gold clusters supported on titania

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Kevin Rodney

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for these experiments was designed and constructed by Goodman group members. The QMS used is a UTI model 100C quadrupole mass spectrometer. This QMS has a sensitivity of 2. 7 x 10 amp/Torr and can scan from 1-300arnu. The gain is measured to be 1. 477 x 10... Science (1998). M. Valden, S. Pak, X. Lai, and D. W. Goodman, Catal. Let. 56, 7 (1998). ' M. Valden and D. W. Goodman, Israel. J. Chem. submitted. "T. Hoshio, K. Tanaka and M. Haruta, J. Catal. 178, 566 (1998). ' F. M. Hoffman, Surf. Sci. Rep. 3...

  12. The study of in situ scanning tunnelling microscope characterization on GaN thin film grown by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, R.; Krzyzewski, T.; Jones, T. [Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2013-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The epitaxial growth of GaN by Plasma Assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy was investigated by Scanning Tunnelling Microscope (STM). The GaN film was grown on initial GaN (0001) and monitored by in situ Reflection High Energy Electron Diffraction and STM during the growth. The STM characterization was carried out on different sub-films with increased thickness. The growth of GaN was achieved in 3D mode, and the hexagonal edge of GaN layers and growth gradient were observed. The final GaN was of Ga polarity and kept as (0001) orientation, without excess Ga adlayers or droplets formed on the surface.

  13. Wear of diamond and diamondlike carbon films.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erdemir, A.; Energy Technology

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Detailed tribological studies on diamond and diamond-like carbon (DLC) films have confirmed that these films are inherently self-lubricating and resistant to abrasive, adhesive and corrosive wear. Because of their high chemical inertness, they are also resistant to corrosion and oxidation (even at elevated temperatures). The combination of such exceptional qualities in these films makes them ideal for a wide range of demanding tribological applications (such as microelectromechanical systems, cutting tools, mechanical seals, magnetic hard disks, etc.). These films, available for more than three decades, have been used extensively for tooling and magnetic hard disk applications. Their potential in other application areas is currently being explored around the world. With the development of new and more robust deposition methods in recent years, it is envisioned that the production of high quality diamond and DLC films will become very cost effective and highly reliable for large-scale applications in the transportation and manufacturing sectors. In this paper, sliding wear mechanisms of diamond and DLC films will be presented. Specifically, it will be shown that, in general the wear of these films is extremely low (mainly because of their exceptional hardness and low friction characteristics). Specific test conditions established during each sliding test, however, may dramatically affect the wear performance of certain diamond and DLC films. One of the dominant wear mechanismsrelates to a phase transformation that is primarily the result of very high mechanical and thermal loadings of sliding contact interfaces. The transformation products (such as disordered graphite) trapped at the sliding interface may transfer to themating surface and significantly affect friction and wear. This paper describes, in terms of structural and fundamental tribological knowledge, the ideal film microstructures and chemistry, as well as operational conditions under which diamond and DLC films perform the best and provide superlow friction and wear properties in sliding tribological applications.

  14. Nitrogen doped zinc oxide thin film

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Sonny X.

    2003-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    To summarize, polycrystalline ZnO thin films were grown by reactive sputtering. Nitrogen was introduced into the films by reactive sputtering in an NO{sub 2} plasma or by N{sup +} implantation. All ZnO films grown show n-type conductivity. In unintentionally doped ZnO films, the n-type conductivities are attributed to Zn{sub i}, a native shallow donor. In NO{sub 2}-grown ZnO films, the n-type conductivity is attributed to (N{sub 2}){sub O}, a shallow double donor. In NO{sub 2}-grown ZnO films, 0.3 atomic % nitrogen was found to exist in the form of N{sub 2}O and N{sub 2}. Upon annealing, N{sub 2}O decomposes into N{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. In furnace-annealed samples N{sub 2} redistributes diffusively and forms gaseous N{sub 2} bubbles in the films. Unintentionally doped ZnO films were grown at different oxygen partial pressures. Zni was found to form even at oxygen-rich condition and led to n-type conductivity. N{sup +} implantation into unintentionally doped ZnO film deteriorates the crystallinity and optical properties and leads to higher electron concentration. The free electrons in the implanted films are attributed to the defects introduced by implantation and formation of (N{sub 2}){sub O} and Zni. Although today there is still no reliable means to produce good quality, stable p-type ZnO material, ZnO remains an attractive material with potential for high performance short wavelength optoelectronic devices. One may argue that gallium nitride was in a similar situation a decade ago. Although we did not obtain any p-type conductivity, we hope our research will provide a valuable reference to the literature.

  15. Composite polymeric film and method for its use in installing a very-thin polymeric film in a device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duchane, D.V.; Barthell, B.L.

    1982-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A composite polymeric film and a method for its use in forming and installing a very thin (< 10 ..mu..m) polymeric film are disclosed. The composite film consists of a thin film layer and a backing layer. The backing layer is soluble in a solvent in which the thin film layer is not soluble. In accordance with the method, the composite film is installed in a device in the same position in which it is sought to finally emplace the thin film. The backing layer is then selectiely dissolved in the solvent to leave the insoluble thin film layer as an unbacked film. The method permits a very thin film to e successfully installed in devices where the fragility of the film would preclude handling and installation by conventional methods.

  16. Low temperature hydrogen plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition of copper studied using in situ infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaukulkar, Rohan P.; Rai, Vikrant R.; Agarwal, Sumit, E-mail: sagarwal@mines.edu [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Thissen, Nick F. W. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is an ideal technique to deposit ultrathin, conformal, and continuous metal thin films. However, compared to the ALD of binary materials such as metal oxides and metal nitrides, the surface reaction mechanisms during metal ALD are not well understood. In this study, the authors have designed and implemented an in situ reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (IRAS) setup to study the surface reactions during the ALD of Cu on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} using Cu hexafluoroacetylacetonate [Cu(hfac){sub 2}] and a remote H{sub 2} plasma. Our infrared data show that complete ligand-exchange reactions occur at a substrate temperature of 80?°C in the absence of surface hydroxyl groups. Based on infrared data and previous studies, the authors propose that Cu(hfac){sub 2} dissociatively chemisorbs on the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} surface, where the Al-O-Al bridge acts as the surface reactive site, leading to surface O-Cu-hfac and O-Al-hfac species. Surface saturation during the Cu(hfac){sub 2} half-cycle occurs through blocking of the available chemisorption sites. In the next half-reaction cycle, H radicals from an H{sub 2} plasma completely remove these surface hfac ligands. Through this study, the authors have demonstrated the capability of in situ IRAS as a tool to study surface reactions during ALD of metals. While transmission and internal reflection infrared spectroscopy are limited to the first few ALD cycles, IRAS can be used to probe all stages of metal ALD starting from initial nucleation to the formation of a continuous film.

  17. Multiple-band reflective polarization converter using U-shaped metamaterial

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xiaojun [College of Physical Science and Technology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Department of Physics, Kashgar Teachers College, Kashgar 844000 (China); Yang, Dong [College of Physics and Electronics Science, Hubei Normal University, Huangshi 435002 (China); Yang, Helin, E-mail: emyang@mail.ccnu.edu.cn [College of Physical Science and Technology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China)

    2014-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiple-band metamaterial reflective polarization converter (RPC) is proposed, which is composed of the dielectric substrate sandwiched with U-shaped metallic patterns and continuous metal film. The proposed U-shaped metamaterial RPC (UMM-RPC) can convert a linearly polarized wave to its cross polarized wave at the three resonant frequencies, which also can convert the linearly polarized wave to circularly polarized wave at other three resonant frequencies. Furthermore, the proposed UMM-RPC can maintain the same conversional direction at the three resonant frequencies when incident on a circularly polarized wave. The simulated and measured results are in agreement in the entire frequency range, and the polarization conversion ratio is over 90% for both linear and circular polarizations. The surface current distributions of the UMM-RPC are discussed to look into the physical mechanism. The proposed UMM-RPC has simple geometry but more operating frequency bands compared to the previous designs and can be used in applications such as antenna radome, remote sensors, and radiometer.

  18. Calibrating page sized Gafchromic EBT3 films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crijns, W.; Maes, F.; Heide, U. A. van der; Van den Heuvel, F. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Department ESAT/PSI-Medical Image Computing, Medical Imaging Research Center, KU Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); Department of Radiation Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospitals Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium)

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The purpose is the development of a novel calibration method for dosimetry with Gafchromic EBT3 films. The method should be applicable for pretreatment verification of volumetric modulated arc, and intensity modulated radiotherapy. Because the exposed area on film can be large for such treatments, lateral scan errors must be taken into account. The correction for the lateral scan effect is obtained from the calibration data itself. Methods: In this work, the film measurements were modeled using their relative scan values (Transmittance, T). Inside the transmittance domain a linear combination and a parabolic lateral scan correction described the observed transmittance values. The linear combination model, combined a monomer transmittance state (T{sub 0}) and a polymer transmittance state (T{sub {infinity}}) of the film. The dose domain was associated with the observed effects in the transmittance domain through a rational calibration function. On the calibration film only simple static fields were applied and page sized films were used for calibration and measurements (treatment verification). Four different calibration setups were considered and compared with respect to dose estimation accuracy. The first (I) used a calibration table from 32 regions of interest (ROIs) spread on 4 calibration films, the second (II) used 16 ROIs spread on 2 calibration films, the third (III), and fourth (IV) used 8 ROIs spread on a single calibration film. The calibration tables of the setups I, II, and IV contained eight dose levels delivered to different positions on the films, while for setup III only four dose levels were applied. Validation was performed by irradiating film strips with known doses at two different time points over the course of a week. Accuracy of the dose response and the lateral effect correction was estimated using the dose difference and the root mean squared error (RMSE), respectively. Results: A calibration based on two films was the optimal balance between cost effectiveness and dosimetric accuracy. The validation resulted in dose errors of 1%-2% for the two different time points, with a maximal absolute dose error around 0.05 Gy. The lateral correction reduced the RMSE values on the sides of the film to the RMSE values at the center of the film. Conclusions: EBT3 Gafchromic films were calibrated for large field dosimetry with a limited number of page sized films and simple static calibration fields. The transmittance was modeled as a linear combination of two transmittance states, and associated with dose using a rational calibration function. Additionally, the lateral scan effect was resolved in the calibration function itself. This allows the use of page sized films. Only two calibration films were required to estimate both the dose and the lateral response. The calibration films were used over the course of a week, with residual dose errors Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 2% or Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 0.05 Gy.

  19. Effect of growth conditions on microstructure of BiFeO{sub 3}-0.33BaTiO{sub 3} films and performance of bulk acoustic wave resonators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vorobiev, A., E-mail: andrei.vorobiev@chalmers.se; Gevorgian, S. [Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Löffler, M.; Olsson, E. [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-41296 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of growth conditions on the microstructure of BiFeO{sub 3}-0.33BaTiO{sub 3} (BF-BT) films and the performance of bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonators is analyzed using test structures with the BF-BT films grown at different positions relative to the plume axis in the pulsed laser deposition system. The BF-BT film grain size and surface roughness reveal a strong asymmetric surface distribution and decrease significantly in the film region facing the laser beam-plume interaction area. The (100) BF-BT texturing is enhanced in this film region. The variations in the BF-BT film microstructure result in corresponding variations of the BAW resonator performance. Their correlations are established using the model of the roughness induced attenuation of the reflected acoustic waves and theory of the dc field induced piezoelectric effect. The BAW resonators with the highest parameters are obtained in the BF-BT film region facing the laser beam-plume interaction area. The BAW resonators located in this film region reveal a mechanical Q-factor of 200 at 4.2?GHz, an effective electromechanical coupling coefficient of 10% and a tunability of the series resonance frequency of 4.5%.

  20. Permanent laser conditioning of thin film optical materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, C.R.; Kozlowski, M.R.; Campbell, J.H.; Staggs, M.; Rainer, F.

    1995-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention comprises a method for producing optical thin films with a high laser damage threshold and the resulting thin films. The laser damage threshold of the thin films is permanently increased by irradiating the thin films with a fluence below an unconditioned laser damage threshold. 9 figs.

  1. Multi-length Scale Modeling of CVD of Diamond Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    ) of single-- crystalline and polycrystalline diamond films in acrystalline and polycrystalline diamond filmsMulti-length Scale Modeling of CVD of Diamond Films M. Grujicic and S. G. LaiM. Grujicic and S. G-scale Modeling of CVD Deposition of Diamond Films RotatingRotating--disk Hotdisk Hot--filament CVD

  2. High-Frequency Resistivity of Soft Magnetic Granular Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    permeability was measured and used to predict the power loss expected when granular films are used as high-frequency core materials for film inductors. The power loss is predicted to be lower than that of commercial Ni permeability, power loss, soft magnetic film. I. INTRODUCTION SOFT magnetic granular films are considered ideal

  3. SAND2003-8146C Symposium on Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    SAND2003-8146C Symposium on Thin Films ICM-9 9th International Conference on the Mechanical FRACTURE OF THIN GOLD FILMS N. R. Moody, D. P. Adams*, M. J. Cordill**, D. F. Bahr**, A. A. Volinsky of interfacial fracture energies of thin gold films as a function of film thickness is presented in this paper

  4. Permanent laser conditioning of thin film optical materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, C. Robert (Palo Alto, CA); Kozlowski, Mark R. (Pleasanton, CA); Campbell, John H. (Livermore, CA); Staggs, Michael (Tracy, CA); Rainer, Frank (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention comprises a method for producing optical thin films with a high laser damage threshold and the resulting thin films. The laser damage threshold of the thin films is permanently increased by irradiating the thin films with a fluence below an unconditioned laser damage threshold.

  5. Electrochromism in copper oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richardson, T.J.; Slack, J.L.; Rubin, M.D.

    2000-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Transparent thin films of copper(I) oxide prepared on conductive SnO2:F glass substrates by anodic oxidation of sputtered copper films or by direct electrodeposition of Cu2O transformed reversibly to opaque metallic copper films when reduced in alkaline electrolyte. In addition, the same Cu2O films transform reversibly to black copper(II) oxide when cycled at more anodic potentials. Copper oxide-to-copper switching covered a large dynamic range, from 85% and 10% photopic transmittance, with a coloration efficiency of about 32 cm2/C. Gradual deterioration of the switching range occurred over 20 to 100 cycles. This is tentatively ascribed to coarsening of the film and contact degradation caused by the 65% volume change on conversion of Cu to Cu2O. Switching between the two copper oxides (which have similar volumes) was more stable and more efficient (CE = 60 cm2/C), but covered a smaller transmittance range (60% to 44% T). Due to their large electrochemical storage capacity and tolerance for alkaline electrolytes, these cathodically coloring films may be useful as counter electrodes for anodically coloring electrode films such as nickel oxide or metal hydrides.

  6. Reflection and Exclusion of Shear Zones in Inhomogeneous Granular Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tamas Borzsonyi; Tamas Unger; Balazs Szabo; Sandra Wegner; Frank Angenstein; Ralf Stannarius

    2011-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Shear localization in granular materials is studied experimentally and numerically. The system consists of two material layers with different effective frictions. The presence of the material interface leads to a special type of "total internal reflection" of the shear zone. In a wide range of configurations the reflection is characterized by a fixed angle which is analogous to the critical angle of refraction in optics. The zone leaves and reenters the high friction region at this critical angle and in between it stays near the interface in the low friction region. The formalism describing the geometry of the shear zones and that of refracted and reflected light beams is very similar. For the internal visualization of shear localization two independent experimental techniques were used (i) excavation and (ii) Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

  7. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hart, Robert; Curcija, Charlie; Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Kohler, Christian; Selkowitz, Stephen

    2011-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The subject of glass solar reflectance and its contribution to permanent vinyl siding distortion has not been extensively studied, and some phenomena are not yet well understood. This white paper presents what is known regarding the issue and identifies where more research is needed. Three primary topics are discussed: environmental factors that control the transfer of heat to and from the siding surface; vinyl siding properties that may affect heat build-up and permanent distortion; and factors that determine the properties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces, including insulating window glass. Further research is needed to fully characterize the conditions associated with siding distortion, the scope of the problem, physical properties of vinyl siding, insulating window glass reflection characteristics, and possible mitigation or prevention strategies.

  8. Simulation of the Reflected Blast Wave froma C-4 Charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howard, W M; Kuhl, A L; Tringe, J W

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reflection of a blast wave from a C4 charge detonated above a planar surface is simulated with our ALE3D code. We used a finely-resolved, fixed Eulerian 2-D mesh (167 {micro}m per cell) to capture the detonation of the charge, the blast wave propagation in nitrogen, and its reflection from the surface. The thermodynamic properties of the detonation products and nitrogen were specified by the Cheetah code. A programmed-burn model was used to detonate the charge at a rate based on measured detonation velocities. Computed pressure histories are compared with pressures measured by Kistler 603B piezoelectric gauges at 8 ranges (GR = 0, 2, 4, 8, 10, and 12 inches) along the reflecting surface. Computed and measured waveforms and positive-phase impulses were similar, except at close-in ranges (GR < 2 inches), which were dominated by jetting effects.

  9. Relativistic Effects on Reflection X-ray Spectra of AGN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Khee-Gan; /University Coll. London; Fuerst, Steven V.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; Brandwardi-Raymond, Graziella; Wu, Kinwah; Crowley, Oliver; /University Coll. London

    2007-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We have calculated the reflection component of the X-ray spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGN) and shown that they can be significantly modified by the relativistic motion of the accretion flow and various gravitational effects of the central black hole. The absorption edges in the reflection spectra suffer severe energy shifts and smearing. The degree of distortion depends on the system parameters, and the dependence is stronger for some parameters such as the inner radius of the accretion disk and the disk viewing inclination angles. The relativistic effects are significant and are observable. Improper treatment of the reflection component of the X-ray continuum in spectral fittings will give rise to spurious line-like features, which will mimic the fluorescent emission lines and mask the relativistic signatures of the lines.

  10. Millisecond time resolution neutron reflection from a nematic liquid crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dalgliesh, R.M.; Lau, Y.G.J.; Richardson, R.M.; Riley, D.J. [ISIS Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantocks Close, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom)

    2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The director reorientation of the liquid crystal 4,4' octyl cyanobiphenyl in the nematic phase under application of bursts of ac field have been observed using time-resolved neutron scattering in reflection geometry. The relaxation of the director has been shown to agree with existing theory, as determined by material and cell parameters. This result shows that it is possible to use neutron reflection measurements from buried interfaces to follow kinetic processes on a time scale comparable with the pulse length of the ISIS neutron source (20 ms)

  11. Effect of window reflections on photonic Doppler velocimetry measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ao, T.; Dolan, D. H. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV) has rapidly become a standard diagnostic for measuring velocities in dynamic compression research. While free surface velocity measurements are fairly straightforward, complications occur when PDV is used to measure a dynamically loaded sample through a window. Fresnel reflections can severely affect the velocity and time resolution of PDV measurements, especially for low-velocity transients. Shock experiments of quartz compressed between two sapphire plates demonstrate how optical window reflections cause ringing in the extracted PDV velocity profile. Velocity ringing is significantly reduced by using either a wedge window or an antireflective coating.

  12. High-accuracy measurements of the normal specular reflectance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voarino, Philippe; Piombini, Herve; Sabary, Frederic; Marteau, Daniel; Dubard, Jimmy; Hameury, Jacques; Filtz, Jean Remy

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The French Laser Megajoule (LMJ) is designed and constructed by the French Commissariata l'Energie Atomique (CEA). Its amplifying section needs highly reflective multilayer mirrors for the flash lamps. To monitor and improve the coating process, the reflectors have to be characterized to high accuracy. The described spectrophotometer is designed to measure normal specular reflectance with high repeatability by using a small spot size of 100 {mu}m. Results are compared with ellipsometric measurements. The instrument can also perform spatial characterization to detect coating nonuniformity.

  13. Thermal conductivity of sputtered amorphous Ge films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhan, Tianzhuo; Xu, Yibin; Goto, Masahiro; Tanaka, Yoshihisa; Kato, Ryozo; Sasaki, Michiko; Kagawa, Yutaka [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan)] [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba 305-0047 (Japan)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We measured the thermal conductivity of amorphous Ge films prepared by magnetron sputtering. The thermal conductivity was significantly higher than the value predicted by the minimum thermal conductivity model and increased with deposition temperature. We found that variations in sound velocity and Ge film density were not the main factors in the high thermal conductivity. Fast Fourier transform patterns of transmission electron micrographs revealed that short-range order in the Ge films was responsible for their high thermal conductivity. The results provide experimental evidences to understand the underlying nature of the variation of phonon mean free path in amorphous solids.

  14. Aging phenomena in polystyrene thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koji Fukao; Hiroki Koizumi

    2008-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The aging behavior is investigated for thin films of atactic polystyrene through measurements of complex electric capacitance. During isothermal aging process the real part of the electric capacitance increases with aging time, while the imaginary part decreases with aging time. This result suggests that the aging time dependence of the real and imaginary parts are mainly associated with change in thickness and dielectric permittivity, respectively. In thin films, the thickness depends on thermal history of aging even above the glass transition. Memory and `rejuvenation' effects are also observed in the thin films.

  15. Slow crack growth in polycarbonate films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cortet, Pierre-Philippe; Vanel, Loic; Ciliberto, Sergio

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study experimentally the slow growth of a single crack in polycarbonate films submitted to uniaxial and constant imposed stress. The specificity of fracture in polycarbonate films is the appearance of flame shaped macroscopic process zones at the tips of the crack. Supported by an experimental study of the mechanical properties of polycarbonate films, an analysis of the stress dependence of the mean ratio between the process zone and crack lengths, during the crack growth, show a quantitative agreement with the Dugdale-Barenblatt model of the plastic process zone. We find that the fracture growth curves obey strong scaling properties that lead to a well defined growth master curve.

  16. Effect of discharge current and deposition temperature on roughness and density of NbC films fabricated by ion beam sputtering technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dhawan, Rajnish, E-mail: rajnish@rrcat.gov.in; Rai, Sanjay, E-mail: rajnish@rrcat.gov.in; Lodha, G. S., E-mail: rajnish@rrcat.gov.in [X-ray optics Section, Indus Synchrotron Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Center for Advanced Technology, Indore-452013 (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    NbC films were prepared using Ion beam sputtering system at various discharges current from 0.4 amps to 1.2 amps at room temperature. Effect of temperature on NbC films were also studied by depositing NbC films at various temperatures from room temperature to 200,300,400 and 600°C. X-ray reflectivity (XRR) study shows that surface roughness of the film decreases with decrease in discharge current. The optimum lowest roughness 3.2Å having density 92% of bulk was achieved at discharge current 0.6 amps at 3.0 cm{sup 3}/min Ar gas flow. X-ray study also shows that film roughness decreases with increase in temperature of the film and after a certain temperature it increases with increase in temperature. The lowest surface roughness 2.1Å was achieved at 300°C with density 83% of bulk NbC at constant discharge current 0.6 amps.

  17. Nanomechanics of hard films on compliant substrates.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reedy, Earl David, Jr. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Emerson, John Allen (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Bahr, David F. (Washington State University, Pullman, WA); Moody, Neville Reid; Zhou, Xiao Wang; Hales, Lucas (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Adams, David Price (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Yeager,John (Washington State University, Pullman, WA); Nyugen, Thao D. (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD); Corona, Edmundo (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Kennedy, Marian S. (Clemson University, Clemson, SC); Cordill, Megan J. (Erich Schmid Institute, Leoben, Austria)

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Development of flexible thin film systems for biomedical, homeland security and environmental sensing applications has increased dramatically in recent years [1,2,3,4]. These systems typically combine traditional semiconductor technology with new flexible substrates, allowing for both the high electron mobility of semiconductors and the flexibility of polymers. The devices have the ability to be easily integrated into components and show promise for advanced design concepts, ranging from innovative microelectronics to MEMS and NEMS devices. These devices often contain layers of thin polymer, ceramic and metallic films where differing properties can lead to large residual stresses [5]. As long as the films remain substrate-bonded, they may deform far beyond their freestanding counterpart. Once debonded, substrate constraint disappears leading to film failure where compressive stresses can lead to wrinkling, delamination, and buckling [6,7,8] while tensile stresses can lead to film fracture and decohesion [9,10,11]. In all cases, performance depends on film adhesion. Experimentally it is difficult to measure adhesion. It is often studied using tape [12], pull off [13,14,15], and peel tests [16,17]. More recent techniques for measuring adhesion include scratch testing [18,19,20,21], four point bending [22,23,24], indentation [25,26,27], spontaneous blisters [28,29] and stressed overlayers [7,26,30,31,32,33]. Nevertheless, sample design and test techniques must be tailored for each system. There is a large body of elastic thin film fracture and elastic contact mechanics solutions for elastic films on rigid substrates in the published literature [5,7,34,35,36]. More recent work has extended these solutions to films on compliant substrates and show that increasing compliance markedly changes fracture energies compared with rigid elastic solution results [37,38]. However, the introduction of inelastic substrate response significantly complicates the problem [10,39,40]. As a result, our understanding of the critical relationship between adhesion, properties, and fracture for hard films on compliant substrates is limited. To address this issue, we integrated nanomechanical testing and mechanics-based modeling in a program to define the critical relationship between deformation and fracture of nanoscale films on compliant substrates. The approach involved designing model film systems and employing nano-scale experimental characterization techniques to isolate effects of compliance, viscoelasticity, and plasticity on deformation and fracture of thin hard films on substrates that spanned more than two orders of compliance magnitude exhibit different interface structures, have different adhesion strengths, and function differently under stress. The results of this work are described in six chapters. Chapter 1 provides the motivation for this work. Chapter 2 presents experimental results covering film system design, sample preparation, indentation response, and fracture including discussion on the effects of substrate compliance on fracture energies and buckle formation from existing models. Chapter 3 describes the use of analytical and finite element simulations to define the role of substrate compliance and film geometry on the indentation response of thin hard films on compliant substrates. Chapter 4 describes the development and application of cohesive zone model based finite element simulations to determine how substrate compliance affects debond growth. Chapter 5 describes the use of molecular dynamics simulations to define the effects of substrate compliance on interfacial fracture of thin hard tungsten films on silicon substrates. Chapter 6 describes the Workshops sponsored through this program to advance understanding of material and system behavior.

  18. Reflections on Cambridge: Cambridge University from the roof of King's College Chapel - 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Macfarlane, Alan

    Film taken from the roof of the famous chapel, with Alan Macfarlane a Fellow of the College explaining a few of the sights. Filmed in summer 2009 by Xu Bei....

  19. Anomalous optical switching and thermal hysteresis during semiconductor-metal phase transition of VO{sub 2} films on Si substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leahu, G.; Li Voti, R., E-mail: roberto.livoti@uniroma1.it; Sibilia, C.; Bertolotti, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze di Base ed Applicate per l'Ingegneria, Sapienza Università di Roma, via A. Scarpa 16, 00161 Roma (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Scienze di Base ed Applicate per l'Ingegneria, Sapienza Università di Roma, via A. Scarpa 16, 00161 Roma (Italy)

    2013-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a detailed infrared study of the semiconductor-to-metal transition (SMT) in a vanadium dioxide (VO{sub 2}) film deposited on silicon wafer. The VO{sub 2} phase transition is studied in the mid-infrared region by analyzing the transmittance and the reflectance measurements, and the calculated emissivity. The reflectance has been measured in two configurations: from the side of the VO{sub 2} film and from that of Si wafer. The results show a strong asymmetry between the emissivity in the two configurations, and the fact that the emissivity dynamic range from the silicon side is twice as large than that from the VO{sub 2} side. The temperature behaviour of the emissivity during the SMT put into evidence the phenomenon of the anomalous absorption in VO{sub 2}, which has been explained by applying the Maxwell Garnett effective medium approximation theory.

  20. Real time intelligent process control system for thin film solar cell manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Atanasoff

    2010-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This project addresses the problem of lower solar conversion efficiency and waste in the typical solar cell manufacturing process. The work from the proposed development will lead toward developing a system which should be able to increase solar panel conversion efficiency by an additional 12-15% resulting in lower cost panels, increased solar technology adoption, reduced carbon emissions and reduced dependency on foreign oil. All solar cell manufacturing processes today suffer from manufacturing inefficiencies that currently lead to lower product quality and lower conversion efficiency, increased product cost and greater material and energy consumption. This results in slower solar energy adoption and extends the time solar cells will reach grid parity with traditional energy sources. The thin film solar panel manufacturers struggle on a daily basis with the problem of thin film thickness non-uniformity and other parameters variances over the deposited substrates, which significantly degrade their manufacturing yield and quality. Optical monitoring of the thin films during the process of the film deposition is widely perceived as a necessary step towards resolving the non-uniformity and non-homogeneity problem. In order to enable the development of an optical control system for solar cell manufacturing, a new type of low cost optical sensor is needed, able to acquire local information about the panel under deposition and measure its local characteristics, including the light scattering in very close proximity to the surface of the film. This information cannot be obtained by monitoring from outside the deposition chamber (as traditional monitoring systems do) due to the significant signal attenuation and loss of its scattering component before the reflected beam reaches the detector. In addition, it would be too costly to install traditional external in-situ monitoring systems to perform any real-time monitoring over large solar panels, since it would require significant equipment refurbishing needed for installation of multiple separate ellipsometric systems, and development of customized software to control all of them simultaneously. The proposed optical monitoring system comprises AccuStrata’s fiber optics sensors installed inside the thin film deposition equipment, a hardware module of different components (beyond the scope of this project) and our software program with iterative predicting capability able to control material bandgap and surface roughness as films are deposited. Our miniature fiber optics monitoring sensors are installed inside the vacuum chamber compartments in very close proximity where the independent layers are deposited (an option patented by us in 2003). The optical monitoring system measures two of the most important parameters of the photovoltaic thin films during deposition on a moving solar panel - material bandgap and surface roughness. In this program each sensor array consists of two fiber optics sensors monitoring two independent areas of the panel under deposition. Based on the monitored parameters and their change in time and from position to position on the panel, the system is able to provide to the equipment operator immediate information about the thin films as they are deposited. This DoE Supply Chain program is considered the first step towards the development of intelligent optical control system capable of dynamically adjusting the manufacturing process “on-the-fly” in order to achieve better performance. The proposed system will improve the thin film solar cell manufacturing by improving the quality of the individual solar cells and will allow for the manufacturing of more consistent and uniform products resulting in higher solar conversion efficiency and manufacturing yield. It will have a significant impact on the multibillion-dollar thin film solar market. We estimate that the financial impact of these improvements if adopted by only 10% of the industry ($7.7 Billion) would result in about $1.5 Billion in savings by 2015 (at the assumed 20% improvement). This can b

  1. Physical properties of erbium implanted tungsten oxide films deposited by reactive dual magnetron sputtering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohamed, Sodky H.; Anders, Andre

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of erbium implanted tungsten oxide films deposited byDual magnetron sputtering; tungsten oxide films; Er ionoptical waveguides [3,5]. Tungsten oxide (WO 3 ) thin films

  2. Quantification of thin film crystallographic orientation using X-ray diffraction with an area detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baker, Jessica L

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    elastic  properties of Au thin films by X?ray diffraction interface in  polythiophene thin?film transistors.  Nat copper  phthalocyanine thin films evaporated on amorphous 

  3. Solid State Thin Film Lithium Microbatteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Z.

    Solid state thin film lithium microbatteries fabricated by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) are suggested. During deposition the following process parameters must be considered, which are laser energy and fluence, laser pulse ...

  4. Microstructural evolution during film growth I. Petrova)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petrov, Ivan

    , to diffusion and thermal barriers. Progress in thin film science and technology accel- erated following , energetic particle bombardment which can be used to manipulate adatom mobilities and nucleation rates

  5. Thermal Characterizationof Thin Film Superlattice Micro Refrigerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on a microscopic scale. Semiconductor lasers or other high power devices could also benefit from monolithic. Low contact resistance is essential for thin film coolers [3]. A 100 nm titanium metal layer was first

  6. Radiation Damage in Nanostructured Metallic Films 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Kaiyuan

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    with favorable microstructures and to investigate their response to radiation. The goals of this thesis are to study the radiation responses of several nanostructured metallic thin film systems, including Ag/Ni multilayers, nanotwinned Ag and nanocrystalline Fe...

  7. Radiation Damage in Nanostructured Metallic Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Kaiyuan

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    with favorable microstructures and to investigate their response to radiation. The goals of this thesis are to study the radiation responses of several nanostructured metallic thin film systems, including Ag/Ni multilayers, nanotwinned Ag and nanocrystalline Fe...

  8. Tungsten-doped thin film materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Xiang, Xiao-Dong; Chang, Hauyee; Gao, Chen; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Schultz, Peter G.

    2003-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A dielectric thin film material for high frequency use, including use as a capacitor, and having a low dielectric loss factor is provided, the film comprising a composition of tungsten-doped barium strontium titanate of the general formula (Ba.sub.x Sr.sub.1-x)TiO.sub.3, where X is between about 0.5 and about 1.0. Also provided is a method for making a dielectric thin film of the general formula (Ba.sub.x Sr.sub.1-x)TiO.sub.3 and doped with W, where X is between about 0.5 and about 1.0, a substrate is provided, TiO.sub.2, the W dopant, Ba, and optionally Sr are deposited on the substrate, and the substrate containing TiO.sub.2, the W dopant, Ba, and optionally Sr is heated to form a low loss dielectric thin film.

  9. Visible spectrometer utilizing organic thin film absorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tiefenbruck, Laura C. (Laura Christine)

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, I modeled and developed a spectrometer for the visible wavelength spectrum, based on absorption characteristics of organic thin films. The device uses fundamental principles of linear algebra to reconstruct ...

  10. Ultrashort pulse laser deposition of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perry, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Banks, Paul S. (Livermore, CA); Stuart, Brent C. (Fremont, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Short pulse PLD is a viable technique of producing high quality films with properties very close to that of crystalline diamond. The plasma generated using femtosecond lasers is composed of single atom ions with no clusters producing films with high Sp.sup.3 /Sp.sup.2 ratios. Using a high average power femtosecond laser system, the present invention dramatically increases deposition rates to up to 25 .mu.m/hr (which exceeds many CVD processes) while growing particulate-free films. In the present invention, deposition rates is a function of laser wavelength, laser fluence, laser spot size, and target/substrate separation. The relevant laser parameters are shown to ensure particulate-free growth, and characterizations of the films grown are made using several diagnostic techniques including electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and Raman spectroscopy.

  11. Physicochemically functional ultrathin films by interfacial polymerization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lonsdale, Harold K. (Bend, OR); Babcock, Walter C. (Bend, OR); Friensen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Smith, Kelly L. (Bend, OR); Johnson, Bruce M. (Bend, OR); Wamser, Carl C. (West Linn, OR)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interfacially-polymerized ultrathin films containing physicochemically functional groups are disclosed, both with and without supports. Various applications are disclsoed, including membrane electrodes, selective membranes and sorbents, biocompatible materials, targeted drug delivery, and narrow band optical absorbers.

  12. Physicochemically functional ultrathin films by interfacial polymerization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lonsdale, H.K.; Babcock, W.C.; Friensen, D.T.; Smith, K.L.; Johnson, B.M.; Wamser, C.C.

    1990-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Interfacially-polymerized ultrathin films containing physicochemically functional groups are disclosed, both with and without supports. Various applications are disclosed, including membrane electrodes, selective membranes and sorbents, biocompatible materials, targeted drug delivery, and narrow band optical absorbers. 3 figs.

  13. Films on the Gurungs of Nepal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Films taken by Alan Macfarlane and Sarah Harrison between 1969 and 2001 in Nepal. Mainly of the Gurungs (tamu-mai) living in Pokhara and in villages north of that town....

  14. Films of the Gurungs of Nepal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Macfarlane, Alan

    2006-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Films taken by Alan Macfarlane and Sarah Harrison in Nepal between 1968 and 2001, especially in the area to the north of Pokhara among the Gurung peoples (Tamu-mai)...

  15. Biomedical applications of nanostructured polymer films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilbert, Jonathan Brian

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Functional polymeric thin films are often stratified with nanometer level structure and distinct purposes for each layer. These nanostructured polymeric materials are useful in a wide variety of applications including drug ...

  16. Freie Universitt Berlin Transient reflectivity and coherent phonon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wolf, Martin

    Freie Universität Berlin Transient reflectivity and coherent phonon excitation: An ultrafast probe-Hubbard? . . . . . . 35 1.3.3 The photoinduced phase transition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 I #12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 2.1.1 Generation of ultrashort laser pulses: the mode-locked Ti:Sapphire oscillator

  17. Visible and near infrared reflectances measured from laboratory ice clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liou, K. N.

    ,aswellasuncertaintiesin data, validation by means of the independent in situ airborne and ground-based measurements that are co. Liou Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles the measured ice particle morphology. We demonstrate that laboratory scat- tering and reflectance data for thin

  18. Propagation and reflection of internal waves B. R. Sutherlanda)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sutherland, Bruce

    Propagation and reflection of internal waves B. R. Sutherlanda) Department of Mathematical Sciences 01205-2 I. INTRODUCTION An internal wave is a disturbance propagating under the effects of buoyancy gravity waves incident upon a level where the Doppler-shifted frequency of the waves is comparable

  19. Vitrinite reflectance anisotropy as a tectonic fabric element

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.C. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington); Davis, A.

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The anisotropy of the coal maceral vitrinite was analyzed in relation to the tectonic setting of a coal from the Southern Anthracite Field in Pennsylvania. For the coal studied, the maximum-intermediate reflectance plane essentially paralleled the axial plane of the synclinorium (N66/sup 0/E strike, 64/sup 0/SE dip).

  20. Toward Infusing Modular and Reflective Design Learning throughout the Curriculum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Georgas, John

    Toward Infusing Modular and Reflective Design Learning throughout the Curriculum John C. Georgas intervention that cen- ters on the widespread infusion of design learning throughout the curriculum using: An emphasis on broadly infusing design learning through the curriculum using modular design challenges

  1. architecture reflects pluripotency: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    architecture reflects pluripotency First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 A Preliminary...

  2. Recent supermarket prices may reflect strong consumer demand

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    's population should help to sustain relatively high prices that are needed to pay for the labor- and management) efficient horticultural practices; 5) effective management of weeds, pests and diseases; 6) timely crop management plan" should be derived to reflect the specific philosophy (eg., organic vs. conven

  3. Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .S. for residential buildings. To meet IECC's U-factor and solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) requirements insulatingLBNL-5022E Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding Authors: R. Hart*, C. Curcija of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would

  4. Green functions and Macdonald functions associated to complex reflection groups

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoj, Toshiaki

    Green functions and Macdonald functions associated to complex reflection groups Toshiaki Shoji Department of Mathematics Science University of Tokyo Noda, Chiba 278­8510, Japan 1. Introduction 1.1. Green functions are introduced by J.A. Green [G] in 1955, in connection with the representation theory of general

  5. GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS, II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoj, Toshiaki

    GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS, II TOSHIAKI SHOJI Department of Mathematics Science University of Tokyo Noda, Chiba 278­8510, Japan Abstract. Green functions associated­Littlewood functions associated to W are introduced, and Green functions are described as the transition matrix between

  6. ON GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoj, Toshiaki

    ON GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS TOSHIAKI SHOJI Department of Mathematics Science University of Tokyo Noda, Chiba 278­8510, Japan §1. What are the Green functions Green functions are introduced by J.A. Green[G] in 1955, in connection with the representation theory of general linear groups GL

  7. ON GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoj, Toshiaki

    ON GREEN FUNCTIONS ASSOCIATED TO COMPLEX REFLECTION GROUPS University of Tokyo Noda, Chiba 278-8510, Japan x1. What are the Green functions Green functions are introduced by J.A. Green[G] in 1955, in connection with * *the

  8. Stochastic Systems Group MR Bias Correction and Reflectance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Willsky, Alan S.

    . Fisher, M. Cetin, S. Haker, A. Willsky #12;Stochastic Systems Group Outline 1. Introduction 2. MR) · Both maps will have edges #12;Stochastic Systems Group Outline 1. Introduction 2. MR measurement modelStochastic Systems Group MR Bias Correction and Reflectance and Illumination Separation Ayres Fan

  9. AOP and Reflection for Dynamic Hyperslices R. Chitchyan, I. Sommerville

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sommerville, Ian

    ­ for decomposition and reflection as a means for composition of software modules. This model allows for structured Hyperslices model [8, 9] is intended to support the dynamic evolution of non-stop systems, i.e. systems. The model uses the Hyperspaces approach [10-12] to decompose the software system into "single

  10. Reflections on Fusion's History and Implications for Fusion's Future*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reflections on Fusion's History and Implications for Fusion's Future* Robert Conn Fusion Energy, "Opportunities and Directions in Fusion Energy Science for the Next Decade", held July 11-23, 1999 in Snowmass, Colorado. #12;2 Abstract History shows that all the major opportunities to advance fusion research were

  11. Skin cancer detection by oblique-incidence diffuse reflectance spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Elizabeth Brooks

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer and it is on the rise. If skin cancer is diagnosed early enough, the survival rate is close to 90%. Oblique-incidence diffuse reflectance (OIR) spectroscopy offers a technology that may be used...

  12. Some reflections on mathematics and its relation to computer science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Some reflections on mathematics and its relation to computer science Liesbeth De Mol "No paradigm, it is worthless Knuth used this story to explain how he considered mathematics and computer science to be distinct, for developing my thoughts on experimental mathematics and computer science. Of equal importance is the fact

  13. Light Source Interpolation for Sparsely Sampled Reflectance Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    Light Source Interpolation for Sparsely Sampled Reflectance Fields Billy Chen, Hendrik P. A. Lensch present a technique that approximates the correct result of relighting from intermediate light source resolution in the light source positions is rather lim- ited. As a consequence, smoothly moving high- lights

  14. REFLECTIONS: PERSONAL ESSAYS ON EVOLUTION Use the Word Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, John N.

    REFLECTIONS: PERSONAL ESSAYS ON EVOLUTION Use the Word Evolution John N. Thompson Published online: 20 November 2007 # Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2007 Examples of rapid evolution abound that evolution is a glacially slow process that is almost impossible for humans to observe. This disconnection

  15. Some Reflections on the Periodization of Tibetan History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cuevas, Bryan

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Some Reflections on the Periodization of Tibetan History* Bryan J. Cuevas(Florida State University, USA) istory is always expressed as a narrative, a story about the past. Towrite a story out of the events of the past, historians must give...

  16. Accessibility of Computer Science: A Reflection for Faculty Members

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Leary, Dianne P.

    Accessibility of Computer Science: A Reflection for Faculty Members Dianne P. O'Leary \\Lambda June. This document benefitted from helpful advice and references from Nora Sleumer and Timothy O'Leary. Copyright Dianne P. O'Leary, 1999 Version 1: June 1999 1 Picture Yourself: You are male, almost 20 years old, naive

  17. Optimal design of one-dimensional photonic crystal back reflectors for thin-film silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Peizhuan; Hou, Guofu, E-mail: gfhou@nankai.edu.cn; Zhang, Jianjun, E-mail: jjzhang@nankai.edu.cn; Zhang, Xiaodan; Zhao, Ying [Institute of Photoelectronics and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Photoelectronic Thin-film Devices and Technique, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    For thin-film silicon solar cells (TFSC), a one-dimensional photonic crystal (1D PC) is a good back reflector (BR) because it increases the total internal reflection at the back surface. We used the plane-wave expansion method and the finite difference time domain (FDTD) algorithm to simulate and analyze the photonic bandgap (PBG), the reflection and the absorption properties of a 1D PC and to further explore the optimal 1D PC design for use in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells. With identified refractive index contrast and period thickness, we found that the PBG and the reflection of a 1D PC are strongly influenced by the contrast in bilayer thickness. Additionally, light coupled to the top three periods of the 1D PC and was absorbed if one of the bilayers was absorptive. By decreasing the thickness contrast of the absorptive layer relative to the non-absorptive layer, an average reflectivity of 96.7% was achieved for a 1D PC alternatively stacked with a-Si:H and SiO{sub 2} in five periods. This reflectivity was superior to a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) structure with 93.5% and an Ag film with 93.4%. n-i-p a-Si:H solar cells with an optimal 1D PC-based BR offer a higher short-circuit current density than those with a DBR-based BR or an AZO/Ag-based BR. These results provide new design rules for photonic structures in TFSC.

  18. Blowing Ratio Effects on Film Cooling Effectiveness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Kuo-Chun

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    cooling Rib turbulators Shaped internal cooling passage Trailing edge ejection Cooling air 3 Among the variety of film cooling hole designs, compound angle and shaped holes are generally considered in modern high pressure and high temperature gas turbine... ratio of 1.85. As compared to cylindrical hole, both shaped holes showed significant improved thermal protection of the surface downstream of the ejection location. Yu et al. [7] studied film cooling effectiveness and heat transfer distributions on a...

  19. Viscous fingering in volatile thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oded Agam

    2009-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin water film on a cleaved mica substrate undergoes a first order phase transition between two values of film thickness. By inducing a finite evaporation rate of the water, the interface between the two phases develops a fingering instability similar to that observed in the Saffman-Taylor problem. We draw the connection between the two problems, and construct solutions describing the dynamics of evaporation in this system.

  20. Toroidal plasma enhanced CVD of diamond films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zvanya, John, E-mail: zvanya03@students.rowan.edu; Cullen, Christopher, E-mail: cullen38@students.rowan.edu; Morris, Thomas, E-mail: morris1j@students.rowan.edu; Krchnavek, Robert R., E-mail: krchnavek@rowan.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Rowan University, Glassboro, New Jersey 08028 (United States); Holber, William, E-mail: b.holber@plasmability.com; Basnett, Andrew, E-mail: abasnett54@yahoo.com; Basnett, Robert, E-mail: b.basnett@plasmability.com [Plasmability LLC, Austin, Texas 78732 (United States); Hettinger, Jeffrey, E-mail: hettinger@rowan.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rowan University, Glassboro, New Jersey 08028 (United States)

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An inductively coupled toroidal plasma source is used as an alternative to microwave plasmas for chemical vapor deposition of diamond films. The source, operating at a frequency of 400 kHz, synthesizes diamond films from a mixture of argon, methane, and hydrogen. The toroidal design has been adapted to create a highly efficient environment for diamond film deposition: high gas temperature and a short distance from the sample to the plasma core. Using a toroidal plasma geometry operating in the medium frequency band allows for efficient (?90%) coupling of AC line power to the plasma and a scalable path to high-power and large-area operation. In test runs, the source generates a high flux of atomic hydrogen over a large area, which is favorable for diamond film growth. Using a deposition temperature of 900–1050?°C and a source to sample distance of 0.1–2.0?cm, diamond films are deposited onto silicon substrates. The results showed that the deposition rate of the diamond films could be controlled using the sample temperature and source to sample spacing. The results also show the films exhibit good-quality polycrystalline diamond as verified by Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction results show that the samples exhibit diamond (111) and diamond (022) crystallites. The Raman results show that the sp{sup 3} peak has a narrow spectral width (FWHM 12?±?0.5?cm{sup ?1}) and that negligible amounts of the sp{sup 2} band are present, indicating good-quality diamond films.

  1. Thin-film interference Aditya Joshi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Packard, Richard E.

    , y, z, t) = Eo sin(kx - t)^y (1) It is worth noting what all the symbols stand for. · Eo is the peak of two important effects that will be explained presently. Figure 1: A thin film of oil floating on water that is incident upon the interface between air (na = 1) and a thin film of oil of thickness `t'(for this oil

  2. Diamond film growth from fullerene precursors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruen, D.M.; Liu, S.; Krauss, A.R.; Pan, X.

    1997-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and system are disclosed for manufacturing diamond film. The method involves forming a fullerene vapor, providing a noble gas stream and combining the gas with the fullerene vapor, passing the combined fullerene vapor and noble gas carrier stream into a chamber, forming a plasma in the chamber causing fragmentation of the fullerene and deposition of a diamond film on a substrate. 10 figs.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of inorganic silicon oxycarbide glass thin films by reactive rf-magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, Joseph V.; Pantano, C. G.

    2007-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Silicon oxycarbide glasses have been of interest because of the potential range of properties they might exhibit through a change in carbon-to-oxygen ratio. They are metastable materials and, as such, their structures and properties are very dependent upon the synthesis method. Silicon oxycarbide bonding has been seen in materials made by melting, oxidation, polycarbosilane or sol/gel pyrolysis, and chemical vapor deposition. In this work, the radio-frequency reactive sputtering of silicon carbide targets was explored for synthesis of amorphous silicon oxycarbide thin films. SiO (2?2x) Cx films, with a continuous range of compositions where 0film compositions, structures, and properties were performed using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, profilometry, electron microscopy, grazing incidence x-ray reflectivity, and UV-visible transmission and reflection. The compositional range obtainable by this rf sputtering method is much wider than that of other synthesis methods. It is shown here that for oxygen-to-carbon ratios between *0.10 and 10.0, silicon oxycarbide bonding comprises 55%-95% of the material structure. These sputter-deposited materials were also found to have significantly less free carbon as compared to those produced by other methods. Thus, the unique properties for these novel oxycarbide materials can now be established.

  4. Thin film absorber for a solar collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilhelm, William G. (Cutchogue, NY)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

  5. Thermoelectric properties of ZnSb films grown by MOCVD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkatasubramanian, R.; Watko, E.; Colpitts, T.

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The thermoelectric properties of ZnSb films grown by metallorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) are reported. The growth conditions necessary to obtain stoichiometric ZnSb films and the effects of various growth parameters on the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficients of the films are described. The as-grown ZnSb films are p-type. It was observed that the thicker ZnSb films offer improved carrier mobilities and lower free-carrier concentration levels. The Seebeck coefficient of ZnSb films was found to rise rapidly at approximately 160 C. The thicker films, due to the lower doping levels, indicate higher Seebeck coefficients between 25 to 200 C. A short annealing of the ZnSb film at temperatures of {approximately}200 C results in reduced free-carrier level. Thermal conductivity measurements of ZnSb films using the 3-{omega} method are also presented.

  6. Method to adjust multilayer film stress induced deformation of optics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mirkarimi, Paul B. (Sunol, CA); Montcalm, Claude (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A buffer-layer located between a substrate and a multilayer for counteracting stress in the multilayer. Depositing a buffer-layer having a stress of sufficient magnitude and opposite in sign reduces or cancels out deformation in the substrate due to the stress in the multilayer. By providing a buffer-layer between the substrate and the multilayer, a tunable, near-zero net stress results, and hence results in little or no deformation of the substrate, such as an optic for an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography tool. Buffer-layers have been deposited, for example, between Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer films and their associated substrate reducing significantly the stress, wherein the magnitude of the stress is less than 100 MPa and respectively near-normal incidence (5.degree.) reflectance of over 60% is obtained at 13.4 nm and 11.4 nm. The present invention is applicable to crystalline and non-crystalline materials, and can be used at ambient temperatures.

  7. Optical Constants ofOptical Constants of Uranium Nitride Thin FilmsUranium Nitride Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    Optical Constants ofOptical Constants of Uranium Nitride Thin FilmsUranium Nitride Thin FilmsDelta--Beta Scatter Plot at 220 eVBeta Scatter Plot at 220 eV #12;Why Uranium Nitride?Why Uranium Nitride? UraniumUranium, uranium,Bombard target, uranium, with argon ionswith argon ions Uranium atoms leaveUranium atoms leave

  8. Ambient pressure process for preparing aerogel thin films reliquified sols useful in preparing aerogel thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brinker, Charles Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM); Prakash, Sai Sivasankaran (Minneapolis, MN)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for preparing aerogel thin films by an ambient-pressure, continuous process. The method of this invention obviates the use of an autoclave and is amenable to the formation of thin films by operations such as dip coating. The method is less energy intensive and less dangerous than conventional supercritical aerogel processing techniques.

  9. Method of improving field emission characteristics of diamond thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauss, A.R.; Gruen, D.M.

    1999-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of preparing diamond thin films with improved field emission properties is disclosed. The method includes preparing a diamond thin film on a substrate, such as Mo, W, Si and Ni. An atmosphere of hydrogen (molecular or atomic) can be provided above the already deposited film to form absorbed hydrogen to reduce the work function and enhance field emission properties of the diamond film. In addition, hydrogen can be absorbed on intergranular surfaces to enhance electrical conductivity of the diamond film. The treated diamond film can be part of a microtip array in a flat panel display. 3 figs.

  10. Method of improving field emission characteristics of diamond thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krauss, Alan R. (Naperville, IL); Gruen, Dieter M. (Downer Grove, IL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of preparing diamond thin films with improved field emission properties. The method includes preparing a diamond thin film on a substrate, such as Mo, W, Si and Ni. An atmosphere of hydrogen (molecular or atomic) can be provided above the already deposited film to form absorbed hydrogen to reduce the work function and enhance field emission properties of the diamond film. In addition, hydrogen can be absorbed on intergranular surfaces to enhance electrical conductivity of the diamond film. The treated diamond film can be part of a microtip array in a flat panel display.

  11. Effects of Counterions on Nano-confined DNA Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nupur Biswas; Sreeja Chakraborty; Alokmay Datta; Munna Sarkar; Mrinmay K. Mukhopadhyay; Mrinal K. Bera; Hideki Seto

    2014-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    DNA molecules spin-coated on amorphous quartz substrates are shown to form stable films. Electron density profiles (EDPs) along the film depth show that film prepared from aqueous solution of DNA exhibits layering of the molecules in three stacks parallel to the substrate whereas film prepared from counterion added solution does not have layering but have smaller thickness and enhanced surface roughness, although both films have 'liquid-like' height-height correlations. We explain these results by a model of film of a 'liquid' comprising of rod-like molecules where the counterion concentration in the liquid determines the rod length.

  12. Electrodeposited doped II-VI semiconductor films and devices incorporating such films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ondris, M.; Picher, M.A.; Brownfield, R.E.

    1990-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a photovoltaic device. It comprises: a first thin film of a compound semiconductor of a first conductivity type including tellurium and a metal selected from Group IIB of the Periodic Table of Elements and containing as a dopant impurity in a concentration not exceeding 10{sup 20} atoms per cubic centimeter a metal selected from Group IB, a second semiconductor thin film in contact with the first semiconductor thin film and having a second conductivity type opposite that of the first conductivity type and electrical contacts to each of the first and second semiconductor thin films. Also described is the device wherein the first thin film is p-type cadmium telluride.

  13. Measuring large optical reflection matrices of turbid media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Hyeonseung; Park, YongKeun

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the measurement of a large optical reflection matrix (RM) of a highly disordered medium. Incident optical fields onto a turbid sample are controlled by a spatial light modulator, and the corresponding fields reflected from the sample are measured using full-field Michelson interferometry. The number of modes in the measured RM is set to exceed the number of resolvable modes in the scattering media. We successfully study the subtle intrinsic correlations in the RM which agrees with the theoretical prediction by random-matrix theory when the effect of the limited numerical aperture on the eigenvalue distribution of the RM is taken into account. The possibility of the enhanced delivery of incident energy into scattering media is also examined from the eigenvalue distribution which promises efficient light therapeutic applications.

  14. Multipath Reflections Analysis on Indoor Visible Light Positioning System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gu, Wenjun; Kavehrad, Mohsen

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Visible light communication (VLC) has become a promising research topic in recent years, and finds its wide applications in indoor environments. Particularly, for location based services (LBS), visible light also provides a practical solution for indoor positioning. Multipath-induced dispersion is one of the major concerns for complex indoor environments. It affects not only the communication performance but also the positioning accuracy. In this paper, we investigate the impact of multipath reflections on the positioning accuracy of indoor VLC positioning systems. Combined Deterministic and Modified Monte Carlo (CDMMC) approach is applied to estimate the channel impulse response considering multipath reflections. Since the received signal strength (RSS) information is used for the positioning algorithm, the power distribution from one transmitter in a typical room configuration is first calculated. Then, the positioning accuracy in terms of root mean square error is obtained and analyzed.

  15. Method and apparatus for inspecting reflection masks for defects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bokor, Jeffrey (Oakland, CA); Lin, Yun (Berkeley, CA)

    2003-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    An at-wavelength system for extreme ultraviolet lithography mask blank defect detection is provided. When a focused beam of wavelength 13 nm is incident on a defective region of a mask blank, three possible phenomena can occur. The defect will induce an intensity reduction in the specularly reflected beam, scatter incoming photons into an off-specular direction, and change the amplitude and phase of the electric field at the surface which can be monitored through the change in the photoemission current. The magnitude of these changes will depend on the incident beam size, and the nature, extent and size of the defect. Inspection of the mask blank is performed by scanning the mask blank with 13 nm light focused to a spot a few .mu.m in diameter, while measuring the reflected beam intensity (bright field detection), the scattered beam intensity (dark-field detection) and/or the change in the photoemission current.

  16. Quantum Brownian motion near a point-like reflecting boundary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. A. De Lorenci; E. S. Moreira Jr.; M. M. Silva

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Brownian motion of a test particle interacting with a quantum scalar field in the presence of a perfectly reflecting boundary is studied in (1 + 1)-dimensional flat spacetime. Particularly, the expressions for dispersions in velocity and position of the particle are explicitly derived and their behaviors examined. The results are similar to those corresponding to an electric charge interacting with a quantum electromagnetic field near a reflecting plane boundary, mainly regarding the divergent behavior of the dispersions at the origin (where the boundary is placed), and at the time interval corresponding to a round trip of a light pulse between the particle and the boundary. We close by addressing some effects of allowing the position of the particle to fluctuate.

  17. A fractal set from the binary reflected Gray code

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. A. Oteo; J. Ros

    2005-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The permutation associated with the decimal expression of the binary reflected Gray code with $N$ bits is considered. Its cycle structure is studied. Considered as a set of points, its self-similarity is pointed out. As a fractal, it is shown to be the attractor of a IFS. For large values of $N$ the set is examined from the point of view of time series analysis

  18. Multiple-channel, total-reflection optic with controllable divergence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gibson, David M. (Voorheesville, NY); Downing, Robert G. (Albany, NY)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for providing focused x-ray, gamma-ray, charged particle and neutral particle, including neutron, radiation beams with a controllable amount of divergence are disclosed. The apparatus features a novel use of a radiation blocking structure, which, when combined with multiple-channel total reflection optics, increases the versatility of the optics by providing user-controlled output-beam divergence.

  19. Multiple-channel, total-reflection optic with controllable divergence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gibson, D.M.; Downing, R.G.

    1997-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for providing focused x-ray, gamma-ray, charged particle and neutral particle, including neutron, radiation beams with a controllable amount of divergence are disclosed. The apparatus features a novel use of a radiation blocking structure, which, when combined with multiple-channel total reflection optics, increases the versatility of the optics by providing user-controlled output-beam divergence. 11 figs.

  20. A statistical study of bright spot reflection parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Godwin, David Lee

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cal Study of Bright Spot Reflection Parameters. (December 1981) David Lee Godwin, B. S. , Pepperdine University Chairman of Adv1sory Committee: Dr. T. W. Spencer A data set consisting of two seismic lines served as the basis of study... obtained from each of the seismic lines were compared to deter- mine if the presence of commercial quantities of gas could be identified. The measurement process revealed that the interval travel time measurements between the marker horizons...

  1. Reflection beamshifts of visible light due to graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hermosa, N

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    I present theoretical calculations of reflection beamshifts, Goos-H\\"anchen and Imbert-Fedorov shifts, due to the presence of a monolayer graphene on a dielectric media when using a beam with wavelength in the visible range. Specifically, I look at beamshifts for different polarization states (p, s, $45^0$, $\\sigma^+$). The Goos-H\\"anchen shifts I calculated are in good agreement with results of a recent experiment. I will discuss other possible experimental routes to determine beamshifts in graphene.

  2. Comment Hollywood figure l'intriorit dans les films hollywoodiens de David Lynch,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    film dans le film dont le tournage est perturbé par une lutte entre plusieurs factions (175). Todd Mc

  3. Benchmarking of Graphite Reflected Critical Assemblies of UO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Margaret A. Marshall; John D. Bess

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of experiments were carried out in 1963 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) for use in space reactor research programs. A core containing 93.2% enriched UO2 fuel rods was used in these experiments. The first part of the experimental series consisted of 253 tightly-packed fuel rods (1.27 cm triangular pitch) with graphite reflectors [1], the second part used 253 graphite-reflected fuel rods organized in a 1.506 cm triangular pitch [2], and the final part of the experimental series consisted of 253 beryllium-reflected fuel rods with a 1.506 cm triangular pitch. [3] Fission rate distribution and cadmium ratio measurements were taken for all three parts of the experimental series. Reactivity coefficient measurements were taken for various materials placed in the beryllium reflected core. The first part of this experimental series has been evaluated for inclusion in the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) [4] and the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) Handbooks, [5] and is discussed below. These experiments are of interest as benchmarks because they support the validation of compact reactor designs with similar characteristics to the design parameters for a space nuclear fission surface power systems. [6

  4. An asymptotic model of seismic reflection from a permeable layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silin, D.; Goloshubin, G.

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Analysis of compression wave propagation in a poroelastic medium predicts a peak of reflection from a high-permeability layer in the low-frequency end of the spectrum. An explicit formula expresses the resonant frequency through the elastic moduli of the solid skeleton, the permeability of the reservoir rock, the fluid viscosity and compressibility, and the reservoir thickness. This result is obtained through a low-frequency asymptotic analysis of Biot's model of poroelasticity. A review of the derivation of the main equations from the Hooke's law, momentum and mass balance equations, and Darcy's law suggests an alternative new physical interpretation of some coefficients of the classical poroelasticity. The velocity of wave propagation, the attenuation factor, and the wave number, are expressed in the form of power series with respect to a small dimensionless parameter. The absolute value of this parameter is equal to the product of the kinematic reservoir fluid mobility and the wave frequency. Retaining only the leading terms of the series leads to explicit and relatively simple expressions for the reflection and transmission coefficients for a planar wave crossing an interface between two permeable media, as well as wave reflection from a thin highly-permeable layer (a lens). Practical applications of the obtained asymptotic formulae are seismic modeling, inversion, and at-tribute analysis.

  5. Partially Reflected Brownian Motion: A Stochastic Approach to Transport Phenomena

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denis S. Grebenkov

    2006-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Transport phenomena are ubiquitous in nature and known to be important for various scientific domains. Examples can be found in physics, electrochemistry, heterogeneous catalysis, physiology, etc. To obtain new information about diffusive or Laplacian transport towards a semi-permeable or resistive interface, one can study the random trajectories of diffusing particles modeled, in a first approximation, by the partially reflected Brownian motion. This stochastic process turns out to be a convenient mathematical foundation for discrete, semi-continuous and continuous theoretical descriptions of diffusive transport. This paper presents an overview of these topics with a special emphasis on the close relation between stochastic processes with partial reflections and Laplacian transport phenomena. We give selected examples of these phenomena followed by a brief introduction to the partially reflected Brownian motion and related probabilistic topics (e.g., local time process and spread harmonic measure). A particular attention is paid to the use of the Dirichlet-to-Neumann operator. Some practical consequences and further perspectives are discussed.

  6. Electrohydrodynamic instabilities in thin liquid trilayer films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Roberts, Scott A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kumar, Satish [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2010-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments by Dickey et al. [Langmuir, 22, 4315 (2006)] and Leach et al. [Chaos, 15, 047506 (2005)] show that novel pillar shapes can be generated from electrohydrodynamic instabilities at the interfaces of thin polymer/polymer/air trilayer films. In this paper, we use linear stability analysis to investigate the effect of free charge and ac electric fields on the stability of trilayer systems. Our work is also motivated by our recent theoretical study [J. Fluid Mech., 631, 255 (2009)] which demonstrates how ac electric fields can be used to increase control over the pillar formation process in thin liquid bilayer films. For perfect dielectric films, the effect of an AC electric field can be understood by considering an equivalent DC field. Leaky dielectric films yield pillar configurations that are drastically different from perfect dielectric films, and AC fields can be used to control the location of free charge within the trilayer system. This can alter the pillar instability modes and generate smaller diameter pillars when conductivities are mismatched. The results presented here may be of interest for the creation of complex topographical patterns on polymer coatings and in microelectronics.

  7. Hot filament CVD of boron nitride films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rye, Robert R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a hot filament (.apprxeq.1400.degree. C.) to activate borazine (B.sub.3 N.sub.3 H.sub.6) molecules for subsequent reaction with a direct line-of-sight substrate, transparent boron ntiride films as thick as 25,000 angstroms are grown for a substrate temperature as low as 100.degree. C. The minimum temperature is determined by radiative heating from the adjacent hot filament. The low temperature BN films show no indication of crystallinity with X-ray diffraction (XRD). X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS) show the films to have a B:N ratio of 0.97:1 with no other XPS detectable impurities above the 0.5% level. Both Raman and infrared (IR) spectroscopy are characteristic of h-BN with small amounts of hydrogen detected as N-H and B-H bands in the IR spectrum. An important feature of this method is the separation and localization of the thermal activation step at the hot filament from the surface reaction and film growth steps at the substrate surface. This allows both higher temperature thermal activation and lower temperature film growth.

  8. Energetic condensation growth of Nb thin films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Krishnan, M.; Valderrama, E.; James, C.; Zhao, X.; Spradlin, J.; Feliciano, A-M Valente; Phillips, L.; Reece, C. E.; Seo, K.; Sung, Z. H.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes energetic condensation growth of Nb films using a cathodic arc plasma, whose 60–120 eV ions penetrate a few monolayers into the substrate and enable sufficient surface mobility to ensure that the lowest energy state (crystalline structure with minimal defects) is accessible to the film. Heteroepitaxial films of Nb were grown on ?-plane sapphire and MgO crystals with good superconducting properties and crystal size (10??mm × 20??mm ) limited only by substrate size. The substrates were heated to temperatures of up to 700°C and coated at 125°C, 300°C, 500°C, and 700°C . Film thickness was varied from ?0.25???m to >3???m . Residual resistivity ratio (RRR) values (up to a record (RRR)=587 on MgO and (RRR)=328 on ?-sapphire) depend strongly on substrate annealing and deposition temperatures. X-ray diffraction spectra and pole figures reveal that RRR increases as the crystal structure of the Nb film becomes more ordered, consistent with fewer defects and, hence, longer electron mean-free path. A transition from Nb(110) to Nb(100) orientation on the MgO(100) lattice occurs at higher temperatures. This transition is discussed in light of substrate heating and energetic condensation physics. Electron backscattered diffraction and scanning electron microscope images complement the XRD data.

  9. Nuclear cask testing films misleading and misused

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Audin, L. [Audin (Lindsay), Ossining, NY (United States)

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1977 and 1978, Sandia National Laboratories, located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, and operated for the US Department of Energy (DOE), filmed a series of crash and fire tests performed on three casks designed to transport irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies. While the tests were performed to assess the applicability of scale and computer modeling techniques to actual accidents, films of them were quickly pressed into service by the DOE and nuclear utilities as ``proof`` to the public of the safety of the casks. In the public debate over the safety of irradiated nuclear fuel transportation, the films have served as the mainstay for the nuclear industry. Although the scripts of all the films were reviewed by USDOE officials before production, they contain numerous misleading concepts and images, and omit significant facts. The shorter versions eliminated qualifying statements contained in the longer version, and created false impressions. This paper discusses factors which cast doubt on the veracity of the films and the results of the tests.

  10. Nuclear cask testing films misleading and misused

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Audin, L. (Audin (Lindsay), Ossining, NY (United States))

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1977 and 1978, Sandia National Laboratories, located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, and operated for the US Department of Energy (DOE), filmed a series of crash and fire tests performed on three casks designed to transport irradiated nuclear fuel assemblies. While the tests were performed to assess the applicability of scale and computer modeling techniques to actual accidents, films of them were quickly pressed into service by the DOE and nuclear utilities as proof'' to the public of the safety of the casks. In the public debate over the safety of irradiated nuclear fuel transportation, the films have served as the mainstay for the nuclear industry. Although the scripts of all the films were reviewed by USDOE officials before production, they contain numerous misleading concepts and images, and omit significant facts. The shorter versions eliminated qualifying statements contained in the longer version, and created false impressions. This paper discusses factors which cast doubt on the veracity of the films and the results of the tests.

  11. Electrohydrodynamic instabilities in thin liquid trilayer films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Roberts, Scott A.; Kumar, Satish

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments by Dickey and Leach show that novel pillar shapes can be generated from electrohydrodynamic instabilities at the interfaces of thin polymer/polymer/air trilayer films. In this paper, we use linear stability analysis to investigate the effect of free charge and ac electric fields on the stability of trilayer systems. Our work is also motivated by our recent theoretical study which demonstrates how ac electric fields can be used to increase control over the pillar formation process in thin liquid bilayer films. For perfect dielectric films, the effect of an AC electric field can be understood by considering an equivalent DCmore »field. Leaky dielectric films yield pillar configurations that are drastically different from perfect dielectric films, and AC fields can be used to control the location of free charge within the trilayer system. This can alter the pillar instability modes and generate smaller diameter pillars when conductivities are mismatched. The results presented here may be of interest for the creation of complex topographical patterns on polymer coatings and in microelectronics.« less

  12. Microtensile Testing of Free-standing and Supported Metallic Thin Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Microtensile Testing of Free-standing and Supported Metallic Thin Films A thesis presented by Denis Films Abstract Mechanical properties of free-standing and supported Cu thin films were investi- gated observed experimentally on thin films. As-deposited Cu films with different film thicknesses on compliant

  13. Enhanced Superconducting Properties of Iron Chalcogenide Thin Films 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Li

    2013-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    . In this thesis, we first optimized pure FeSe thin films by different growth conditions using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and post-annealing procedures. The microstructure properties of the films including the epitaxial quality, interface structure and secondary...

  14. SAW determination of surface area of thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frye, Gregory C. (Albuquerque, NM); Martin, Stephen J. (Albuquerque, NM); Ricco, Antonio J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    N.sub.2 adsorption isotherms are measured from thin films on SAW devices. The isotherms may be used to determine the surface area and pore size distribution of thin films.

  15. Characterisation and screening of novel aromatic thin-film materials 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henry, John B.

    The electropolymerisation of a range of indole derivatives results in the formation of redox active films. These redox films have been observed to be highly luminescent. Earlier studies have investigated electrochemical ...

  16. Experimental investigation of film cooling effectiveness on gas turbine blades

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Zhihong

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    . Results showed that the compound angle shaped holes offer better film effectiveness than the axial shaped holes. The upstream stationary wakes have detrimental effect on film effectiveness in certain wake rod phase positions. For platform purge flow...

  17. Chemical vapor deposition of organosilicon and sacrificial polymer thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casserly, Thomas Bryan

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) produced films for a wide array of applications from a variety of organosilicon and organic precursors. The structure and properties of thin films were controlled by varying processing ...

  18. Systematic Evaluation of Jc Decrease in Thick Film Coated Conductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alex Ignatiev; Dr. Amit Goyal

    2006-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Address both thickness dependence of Jc, in thick film YBCO coated conductors through an application of a suite of new measurement techniques to thick film wire samples produced by commercially viable coated conductor technologies.

  19. Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films Guided Self-Assembly of Gold Thin Films Print Wednesday, 21 November 2012 12:18 Nanoparticles-man-made atoms with unique optical,...

  20. Piezoreslstive graphite/polyimide thin films for micromachining applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piezoreslstive graphite/polyimide thin films for micromachining applications A. Bruno Frazier) In this work, graphite/polyimide composite thin films are introduced and characterized for micromachining tetracarboxylic dianhydride+xydianiline/metaphenylene diamine polyimide matrix. The resultant material represents

  1. The interplay between spatially separated ferromagnetic and superconducting thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Isaac John

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Ferromagnetic thin films have been grown via physical vapor deposition utilizing the technique of flash evaporation and characterized by measuring magnetization as a function of magnetic field. An Al thin film was evaporated atop the ferromagnetic...

  2. azo copolymer films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    spans the whole film. Yoav Tsori; David Andelman 2002-06-14 22 Microphase separation in thin block copolymer films: a weak segregation mean-field approach Condensed Matter (arXiv)...

  3. au thin films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    micro-machine (see S. S. Irudayaraj and A. Emadi 15). In general, magnetic thin-film elements are used in many applications Hadiji, Rejeb 29 Thin Films of Chiral Motors...

  4. Characterization of peanut-soybean films for food packaging applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tellez Garay, Angela Maria

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    investigated. Rheological properties of selected commercial films were evaluated for the purpose of comparison. Stress relaxation technique (tension) allowed characterization of the rheological behavior of the experimental and evaluated films. Experimental data...

  5. Conductivity of Oriented Samaria-Doped Ceria Thin Films Grown...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Conductivity of Oriented Samaria-Doped Ceria Thin Films Grown by Oxygen-plasma-assisted Molecular Beam Epitaxy. Conductivity of Oriented Samaria-Doped Ceria Thin Films Grown by...

  6. Engineering electroresponsive layer-by-layer thin films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Daniel J., Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electroresponsive layer-by-layer (LbL) polymer films and polymer nanocomposite films were investigated as model systems for electrically triggered drug delivery applications and "mechanomutable" surface coating applications. ...

  7. Electronic properties of phenylated ligand-capped nanoparticle films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schilling, Thomas C

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An investigation was carried out of the electronic characteristics of drop-cast films comprised of phenylated ligand-capped gold nanoparticles. In homoligand-type films, the dominant mechanism of charge transfer was expected ...

  8. 21L.011 The Film Experience, Fall 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thorburn, David

    This course is an introduction to narrative film, emphasizing the unique properties of the movie house and the motion picture camera, the historical evolution of the film medium, and the intrinsic artistic qualities of ...

  9. Diamond film optical, x-ray and particle detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beetz, C.P.; Lincoln, B. (ATM, Inc., New Milford, CT (US)); Winn, D.R.; Segall, K.; Vasas, M.; Wall, D. (Fairfield Univ., CT (United States). Dept. of Physics)

    1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthetic diamond film diodes have been fabricated and tested with electromagnetic and particle radiation (above and below bandgap). In this paper, a brief discussion of potential diamond film applications in high energy and nuclear physics is presented.

  10. aluminium oxide films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    through the copper oxide film towards in a high vacuum condition on a polycrystalline Cu thin film that was air-exposed and had a layer of copper substrate was cleaned by the RCA...

  11. anisotropic conductive film: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and CdIn2O4. Thin films of amorphous Cd2SnO4 were prepared by Nozik with conductivities thin films of polycrystalline spinel Cd2SnO4 with conductivities exceeding 6700 Scm.7...

  12. anodic oxide films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    through the copper oxide film towards in a high vacuum condition on a polycrystalline Cu thin film that was air-exposed and had a layer of copper substrate was cleaned by the RCA...

  13. absorbing film assisted: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    He as the processing gas. The film surfaces were observed by scanning Rocca, Jorge J. 6 Thin-film, wide-angle, design-tunable, selective absorber from near UV to far infrared...

  14. aluminum oxide films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    through the copper oxide film towards in a high vacuum condition on a polycrystalline Cu thin film that was air-exposed and had a layer of copper substrate was cleaned by the RCA...

  15. ag films grown: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    conduction-band states of NiO 100 thin films grown onto Ag 100 have charac- terized NiO monocrystalline thin films has shown up both onto insulating i.e., MgO, Ref. 21 Marcon,...

  16. aluminum oxide film: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    through the copper oxide film towards in a high vacuum condition on a polycrystalline Cu thin film that was air-exposed and had a layer of copper substrate was cleaned by the RCA...

  17. anodic oxide film: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    through the copper oxide film towards in a high vacuum condition on a polycrystalline Cu thin film that was air-exposed and had a layer of copper substrate was cleaned by the RCA...

  18. aln films grown: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    conduction-band states of NiO 100 thin films grown onto Ag 100 have charac- terized NiO monocrystalline thin films has shown up both onto insulating i.e., MgO, Ref. 21 Marcon,...

  19. aluminium thin films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 21 Thin-Film Metamaterials called Sculptured Thin Films CERN Preprints Summary: Morphology...

  20. al oxide films: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    through the copper oxide film towards in a high vacuum condition on a polycrystalline Cu thin film that was air-exposed and had a layer of copper substrate was cleaned by the RCA...