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1

A replaceable reflective film for solar concentrators  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The 3M Company manufactures a silvered acrylic film called ECP-305 that is regarded as the preferred reflective film for use on stretched-membrane heliostats. However, ECP-305 will degrade in time, due to both corrosion of the silver layer and delamination at the film's silver-to-acrylic interface, and will eventually need to be replaced. 3M uses a very aggressive adhesive on this film, and once it is laminated, replacement is very difficult. The purpose of this investigation was the development of a replaceable reflector, a reflective film that can be easily removed and replaced. A replaceable reflector was successfully configured by laminating ECP-305 to the top surface of a smooth, dimensionally stable polymer film, with a removable adhesive applied to the underside of the polymer film. Several stages of screening and testing led to the selection of a 0.010-inch thick polycarbonate (GE 8030) as the best polymer film and a medium tack tape (3M Y-9425) was selected as the best removable adhesive. To demonstrate the feasibility of the replaceable reflector concept and to provide a real-time field test, the chosen construction was successfully applied to the 50-m{sup 2} SKI heliostat at the Central Receiver Test Facility at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque. 4 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs.

Not Available

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Glue Film Thickness Measurements by Spectral Reflectance  

SciTech Connect

Spectral reflectance was used to determine the thickness of thin glue layers in a study of the effect of the glue on radiance and reflectance measurements of shocked-tin substrates attached to lithium fluoride windows. Measurements based on profilometry of the components were found to be inaccurate due to flatness variations and deformation of the tin substrate under pressure during the gluing process. The accuracy of the spectral reflectance measurements were estimated to be ±0.5 ?m, which was sufficient to demonstrate a convincing correlation between glue thickness and shock-generated light.

B. R. Marshall

2010-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

3

Save Money with Your Very Own Drapes | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

with Your Very Own Drapes with Your Very Own Drapes Save Money with Your Very Own Drapes June 11, 2012 - 2:47pm Addthis Elizabeth Spencer Communicator, National Renewable Energy Laboratory So, last winter I decided that I was going to get crafty and make my own blankets as an incentive to keep the thermostat low. It was a fun project, and it actually worked. I needed more blankets, so I made them. They were warm, so I used them all the time. And hey, I was proud of them! It feels good to make something you love. Now that it's summer, the blankets are folded up-though they're still out. I like the colors I chose, so I just hung them up in the study. So my simple project ended up being a huge success: Easy home décor, super warm winter blankets, and an easy way to save money! And now that it's summer, I want to make drapes.

4

90-Degree Bragg Reflection from a Thin Crystalline Film  

SciTech Connect

Experimental observations of synchrotron radiation diffraction from a thin surface layer at a 90-degree Bragg reflection are reported and discussed. The synchrotron experiments were performed using a bending magnet source at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in France and undulator sources at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) in the U.S. and SPring-8 in Japan. Thin (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 micron) InGaAs films deposited on a GaAs (100) substrate were studied near the 90- degree using the GaAs (800) reflection. A slight, less than 0.1%, difference in the lattice spacing between the layer and the substrate is sufficient to allow a direct and exclusive observation of the diffraction profile from a thin layer as if it was a 'free-standing' thin crystal. This research opens new possibilities for x-ray optical schemes and the development of novel analytical techniques for surface/interface x-ray diffraction studies.

Nikulin, A.Y.; Davis, J.R.; Usher, B.F.; Freund, A.K.; Ishikawa, T.

2001-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

5

Molecular orientation in soft matter thin films studied by resonant soft X-ray reflectivity  

SciTech Connect

We present a technique to study depth profiles of molecular orientation in soft matter thin films with nanometer resolution. The method is based on dichroism in resonant soft X-ray reflectivity using linear s- and p-polarization. It combines the chemical sensitivity of Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy to specific molecular bonds and their orientation relative to the polarization of the incident beam with the precise depth profiling capability of X-ray reflectivity. We demonstrate these capabilities on side chain liquid crystalline polymer thin films with soft X-ray reflectivity data at the carbon K edge. Optical constants of the anisotropic refractive index ellipsoid were obtained from a quantitative analysis using the Berreman formalism. For films up to 50 nm thickness we find that the degree of orientation of the long axis exhibits no depth variation and isindependent of the film thickness.

Mezger, Markus; Jerome, Blandine; Kortright, Jeffrey B.; Valvidares, Manuel; Gullikson, Eric; Giglia, Angelo; Mahne, Nicola; Nannarone, Stefano

2011-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

6

Thin film transistors on plastic substrates with reflective coatings for radiation protection  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Fabrication of silicon thin film transistors (TFT) on low-temperature plastic substrates using a reflective coating so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The TFT can be used in large area low cost electronics, such as flat panel displays and portable electronics such as video cameras, personal digital assistants, and cell phones.

Wolfe, Jesse D. (Fairfield, CA); Theiss, Steven D. (Woodbury, MN); Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Smith, Patrick M. (San Ramon, CA); Wickbold, Paul (Walnut Creek, CA)

2006-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

7

Measuring the structure of thin soft matter films under confinement: A surface-force type apparatus for neutron reflection, based on a flexible membrane approach  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A unique surface force type apparatus that allows the investigation of a confined thin film using neutron reflection is described. The central feature of the setup consists of a solid substrate (silicon) and a flexible polymer membrane (Melinex{sup Registered-Sign }). We show that inflation of the membrane against the solid surface provides close and even contact between the interfaces over a large surface area. Both heavy water and air can be completely squeezed out from between the flexible film and the solid substrate, leaving them in molecular contact. The strength of confinement is controlled by the pressure used to inflate the membrane. Dust provides a small problem for this approach as it can get trapped between membrane and substrate to prevent a small part of the membrane from making good contact with the substrate. This results in the measured neutron reflectivity containing a small component of an unwanted reflection, between 10% and 20% at low confining pressures (1 bar) and between 1% and 5% at high confining pressures (5 bar). However, we show that this extra signal does not prevent good and clear information on the structure of thin films being extracted from the neutron reflectivity. The effects of confinement are illustrated with data from a poly(vinyl pyrollidone) gel layer in water, a polyelectrolyte multilayer in water, and with data from a stack of supported lipid-bilayers swollen with D{sub 2}O vapor. The data demonstrates the potential of this apparatus to provide information on the structure of thin films under confinement for a known confining pressure.

Vos, Wiebe M. de [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock's close, BS8 1TS Bristol (United Kingdom); School of Physics, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, BS8 1TL Bristol (United Kingdom); Mears, Laura L. E.; Richardson, Robert M. [School of Physics, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, BS8 1TL Bristol (United Kingdom); Cosgrove, Terence; Prescott, Stuart W. [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock's close, BS8 1TS Bristol (United Kingdom); Dalgliesh, Robert M. [ISIS Neutron Source, STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, OX11 0QX Didcot (United Kingdom)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

8

Resonant soft x-ray reflectivity of organic thin films Cheng Wang, Tohru Araki, and Benjamin Watts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

were acquired at Beam- line X10B of the National Synchrotron Light Source NSLS , Brookhaven National, and 14.2 keV recorded at X10B, NSLS and fits solid line for 270, 280, and 283.4 eV. FIG. 7. Reflectance at X10B, NSLS--circle and fit solid line . The inset shows a Fourier analysis of the data. Note

Beichner, Robert J.

9

Variable area light reflecting assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Device is described for tracking daylight and projecting it into a building. The device tracks the sun and automatically adjusts both the orientation and area of the reflecting surface. The device may be mounted in either a wall or roof of a building. Additionally, multiple devices may be employed in a light shaft in a building, providing daylight to several different floors. The preferred embodiment employs a thin reflective film as the reflecting device. One edge of the reflective film is fixed, and the opposite end is attached to a spring-loaded take-up roller. As the sun moves across the sky, the take-up roller automatically adjusts the angle and surface area of the film. Additionally, louvers may be mounted at the light entrance to the device to reflect incoming daylight in an angle perpendicular to the device to provide maximum reflective capability when daylight enters the device at non-perpendicular angles. 9 figs.

Howard, T.C.

1986-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

10

Variable area light reflecting assembly  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Device for tracking daylight and projecting it into a building. The device tracks the sun and automatically adjusts both the orientation and area of the reflecting surface. The device may be mounted in either a wall or roof of a building. Additionally, multiple devices may be employed in a light shaft in a building, providing daylight to several different floors. The preferred embodiment employs a thin reflective film as the reflecting device. One edge of the reflective film is fixed, and the opposite end is attached to a spring-loaded take-up roller. As the sun moves across the sky, the take-up roller automatically adjusts the angle and surface area of the film. Additionally, louvers may be mounted at the light entrance to the device to reflect incoming daylight in an angle perpendicular to the device to provide maximum reflective capability when daylight enters the device at non-perpendicular angles.

Howard, Thomas C. (Raleigh, NC)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Reflectance based optical fiber chemical sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thin film chemical sensor undergoes changes in reflective optical properties when exposed to a chemical species. A thin metal film is deposited at the end of an optical fiber, and exposure of the thin film to the chemical species causes changes in the effective thickness of the thin film, thereby changing its reflective properties. A chemical detection system based on the thin film sensor includes a light source and an optical divider for dividing light from the light source into a first and second light path. The first light path leads to circuitry for providing a reference signal. The thin film chemical sensor receives light from the second light path, and a photoelectric detector detects light reflected from the chemical sensor and provides an electrical signal representative of the reflected light. Circuitry is provided for comparing the reference signal with the reflected light signal, thereby providing a measurement signal indicative of the presence of the chemical species. 5 figs.

Butler, M.A.; Pfeifer, K.B.; Ricco, A.J.

1988-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

12

Simulated Space Environmental Testing on Thin Films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An exploratory program has been conducted, to irradiate some mature commercial and some experimental polymer films with radiation simulating certain Earth orbits, and to obtain data about the response of each test film''s reflective and tensile properties. ...

Russell Dennis A.; Fogdall Larry B.; Bohnhoff Gail

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

A study of surface film formation on LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathodes u sing attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The surface films formed on commercial LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 cathodes (ATD Gen2) charged from 3.75V to 4.2V vs. Li/Li+ in EC:DEC - 1M LiPF6 were analyzed using ex-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) with the attenuated total reflection (ATR) technique. A surface layer of Li2CO3 is present on the virgin cathode, probably from reaction of the active material with air during the cathode preparation procedure. The Li2CO3 layer disappeared even after soaking in the electrolyte, indicating that the layer dissolved into the electrolyte possibly even before potential cycling of the electrode. IR features only from the binder (PVdF) and a trace of polyamide from the Al current collector were observed on the surfaces of cathodes charged to below 4.2 V, i.e., no surface species from electrolyte oxidation. Some new IR features were, however, found on the cathode charged to 4.2 V and higher. An electrolyte oxidation product was observed that appeared to contain dicarbonyl anhydride and (poly)ester functionalities. The reaction appears to be an indirect electrochemical oxidation with overcharging (removal of > 0.6 Li ions) destabilizing oxygen in the oxide lattice resulting in oxygen transfer to the solvent molecules.

Song, S.-W.; Zhuang, G.V.; Ross Jr., P.N.

2004-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

14

Thin-film optical initiator - Energy Innovation Portal  

A thin-film optical initiator having an inert, transparent substrate, a reactive thin film, which can be either an explosive or a pyrotechnic, and a reflective thin film.

15

Thin-film optical initiator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thin-film optical initiator having an inert, transparent substrate, a reactive thin film, which can be either an explosive or a pyrotechnic, and a reflective thin film. The resultant thin-film optical initiator system also comprises a fiber-optic cable connected to a low-energy laser source, an output charge, and an initiator housing. The reactive thin film, which may contain very thin embedded layers or be a co-deposit of a light-absorbing material such as carbon, absorbs the incident laser light, is volumetrically heated, and explodes against the output charge, imparting about 5 to 20 times more energy than in the incident laser pulse.

Erickson, Kenneth L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Film informing design for contemplative gameplay  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Borrowing from film and filmmaking styles, techniques and devices that manipulate spectators' attention and experience, this paper proposes an approach to inform design of games and gameplay to manipulate player's focus of attention and encourage contemplation ... Keywords: Asian film, French New Wave, continuity style, engagement, experience, film theory, filmmaking, game design, interruption, machinima, mixed reality, reflection, serious games

Tim Marsh; Michael Nitsche; Wei Liu; Peichi Chung; Jay D. Bolter; Adrian D. Cheok

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Annealed CVD molybdenum thin film surface  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Molybdenum thin films deposited by pyrolytic decomposition of Mo(CO).sub.6 attain, after anneal in a reducing atmosphere at temperatures greater than 700.degree. C., infrared reflectance values greater than reflectance of supersmooth bulk molybdenum. Black molybdenum films deposited under oxidizing conditions and annealed, when covered with an anti-reflecting coating, approach the ideal solar collector characteristic of visible light absorber and infrared energy reflector.

Carver, Gary E. (Tucson, AZ); Seraphin, Bernhard O. (Tucson, AZ)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Method and apparatus for measuring film spectral properties  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Film spectral properties are measured by projecting chopped monochromatic light onto a luminescent film sample deposited on a substrate, and coupling through use of immersion oil the reflection of light therefrom to a light detector.

Forrest, Stephen R. (Princeton, NJ); Burrows, Paul E. (Princeton, NJ); Garbuzov, Dmitri Z. (Princeton, NJ); Bulovic, Vladimir (Metuchen, NJ)

1999-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

19

Neutron reflecting supermirror structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources.

Wood, James L. (Drayton Plains, MI)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Neutron reflecting supermirror structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. 2 figs.

Wood, J.L.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "drapes reflective film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Tandem resonator reflectance modulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors. 8 figs.

Fritz, I.J.; Wendt, J.R.

1994-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

22

Tandem resonator reflectance modulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A wide band optical modulator is grown on a substrate as tandem Fabry-Perot resonators including three mirrors spaced by two cavities. The absorption of one cavity is changed relative to the absorption of the other cavity by an applied electric field, to cause a change in total reflected light, as light reflecting from the outer mirrors is in phase and light reflecting from the inner mirror is out of phase with light from the outer mirrors.

Fritz, Ian J. (Albuquerque, NM); Wendt, Joel R. (Albuquerque, NM)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Reflective diffraction grating  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Reflective diffraction grating. A focused ion beam (FIB) micromilling apparatus is used to store color images in a durable medium by milling away portions of the surface of the medium to produce a reflective diffraction grating with blazed pits. The images are retrieved by exposing the surface of the grating to polychromatic light from a particular incident bearing and observing the light reflected by the surface from specified reception bearing.

Lamartine, Bruce C. (Los Alamos, NM)

2003-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

24

NIST Terahertz Reflection Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... b) Superimposed Fourier Transform amplitude and power reflection map ... laser for broadband (0.2-2.5) THz GaAs antenna generation and detection ...

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Neutron reflecting supermirror structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure comprising a plurality of stacked sets of bilayers of neutron reflecting materials. The improved neutron reflecting supermirror structure is adapted to provide extremely good performance at high incidence angles, i.e. up to four time the critical angle of standard neutron mirror structures. The reflection of neutrons striking the supermirror structure at a high critical angle provides enhanced neutron throughput, and hence more efficient and economical use of neutron sources. One layer of each set of bilayers consist of titanium, and the second layer of each set of bilayers consist of an alloy of nickel with carbon interstitially present in the nickel alloy.

Wood, James L. (Drayton Plains, MI)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Reflective Insulation Handbook.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When reflective-foil insulation manufacturers wanted the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to include their products in the Residential Weatherization Program, they lacked conclusive test data to prove that their products met program specifications. Reflective foils lacked widespread acceptance because of uncertainty about their insulation values. BPA discovered that the Department of Energy (DOE) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was preparing a study to test how well reflective foils reduced horizontal heat flow. Because the insulation value of reflective foils depends upon the direction of heat flow, BPA provided additional funding to test their effectiveness in reducing upward and downward heat flow and to produce this Handbook. The objectives of this study were to develop acceptable test and evaluation methods, produce an initial data base of idealized reflective-foil insulation systems, extend this data base to a limited number of commercially available products to develop and test analytical models to predict thermal performance and develop a Reflective Insulation Handbook for homeowners and insulation contractors. This handbook describes how heat is transferred; the function of an insulation; what reflective insulation is; types of reflective insulation; where it can be used; installation procedures; thermal performance; and useful sources of information. 10 figs., 2 tabs.

Desjarlais, Andre O.; Tye, Ronald P.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Nanocomposite films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thin-film composition of nanocrystal molybdenum in an amorphous metallic matrix may be formed by co-sputtering Mo with aluminum or nickel. NEMS cantilevers may be formed from the film. The films exhibit high nanoindentation hardness and a reduction in roughness and intrinsic stress, while maintaining resistivity in the metallic range.

Mitlin, David (Edmonton, CA); , Ophus, Colin (Edmonton, CA); Evoy, Stephane (Edmonton, CA); Radmilovic, Velimir (Piedmont, CA); Mohammadi, Reza (Edmonton, CA); Westra, Ken (Edmonton, CA); Nelson-Fitzpatrick, Nathaniel (Edmonton, CA); Lee, Zonghoon (Albany, CA)

2010-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

28

Shape optimization using reflection lines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many common objects have highly reflective metallic or painted finishes. Their appearance is primarily defined by the distortion the curved shape of the surface introduces in the reflections of surrounding objects. Reflection lines are commonly used ...

E. Tosun; Y. I. Gingold; J. Reisman; D. Zorin

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Electrochromic window with high reflectivity modulation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multi-layered, active, thin film, solid-state electrochromic device having a high reflectivity in the near infrared in a colored state, a high reflectivity and transmissivity modulation when switching between colored and bleached states, a low absorptivity in the near infrared, and fast switching times, and methods for its manufacture and switching are provided. In one embodiment, a multi-layered device comprising a first indium tin oxide transparent electronic conductor, a transparent ion blocking layer, a tungsten oxide electrochromic anode, a lithium ion conducting-electrically resistive electrolyte, a complimentary lithium mixed metal oxide electrochromic cathode, a transparent ohmic contact layer, a second indium oxide transparent electronic conductor, and a silicon nitride encapsulant is provided. Through elimination of optional intermediate layers, simplified device designs are provided as alternative embodiments. Typical colored-state reflectivity of the multi-layered device is greater than 50% in the near infrared, bleached-state reflectivity is less than 40% in the visible, bleached-state transmissivity is greater than 60% in the near infrared and greater than 40% in the visible, and spectral absorbance is less than 50% in the range from 0.65-2.5 .mu.m.

Goldner, Ronald B. (Lexington, MA); Gerouki, Alexandra (Medford, MA); Liu, Te-Yang (Arlington, MA); Goldner, Mark A. (Cambridge, MA); Haas, Terry E. (Southborough, MA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Solar Reflectance Index Calculator  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reflectance Index Calculator Reflectance Index Calculator ASTM Designation: E 1980-01 Enter A State: Select a state Alabama Alaska Arkansas Arizona California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Iowa Idaho Illinois Indiana Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana North Carolina North Dakota Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Pacific Islands Puerto Rico Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington Wisconsin West Virginia Wyoming Canadian Cities Enter A City: Select a city Wind Speed (mph) Wind Speed (m/s) Please input both the SR and the TE and the convection coeficient and surface temperature will be calculated

31

Polarizer reflectivity variations  

SciTech Connect

On Shiva the beam energy along the chain is monitored using available reflections and/or transmission through beam steering, splitting, and polarizing optics without the intrusion of any additional glass for diagnostics. On the preamp table the diagnostic signal is obtained from the signal transmitted through turning mirrors. At the input of each chain the signal is obtained from the transmission through one of the mirrors used for the chain input alignment sensor (CHIP). At the chain output the transmission through the final turning mirror is used. These diagnostics have proved stable and reliable. However, one of the prime diagnostic locations is at the output of the beta rod. The energy at this location is measured by collecting small reflections from the last polarizer surface of the beta Pockels cell polarizer package. Unfortunately, calibration of this diagnostic has varied randomly, seldom remaining stable for a week or more. The cause of this fluctuation has been investigated for the past year and'it has been discovered that polarizer reflectivity varies with humidity. This report will deal with the possible causes that were investigated, the evidence that humidity is causing the variation, and the associated mechanism.

Ozarski, R.G.; Prior, J.

1980-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

32

Anodic films  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Surface layers are formed on many metals by anodic reaction. Such layers include the products of charge and discharge in many storage batteries, dielectric films used in electronic and optical circuits and display devices, layers responsible for passivity and corrosion protection, and films generated in metal shaping and finishing operations such as anodization, coloring, electropolishing, electrochemical machining and deburring. Anodic films are formed by solid-solid transformations or by dissolution-precipitation processes. Film properties and mechanisms of formation can be determined in situ by a number of optical techniques which have recently become available.

Muller, R.H.

1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Carbonaceous film coating  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of making a carbonaceous film comprising heating tris(1,3,2-benzodiazaborolo)borazine or dodecahydro tris(1,3,2)diazaborine(1,2-a:1'2'-c:1''2''-e)borazine in an inert atmosphere in the presence of a substrate to a temperature at which the borazine compound decomposes, and the decomposition products deposit onto the substrate to form a thin, tenacious, highly reflective conductive coating having a narrow band gap which is susceptible of modification and a relatively low coefficient of friction.

Maya, L.

1988-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

34

Documentation : a reflective practice approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Center for Reflective Community Practice in MIT's Department of Urban studies is involved in projects helping community organizers working on social change. In order to foster reflection, they are currently utilizing ...

Ouko, Luke Odhiambo

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Generalization of Lambert's reflectance model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Lambert's model for body reflection is widely used in computer graphics. It is used extensively by rendering techniques such as radiosity and ray tracing. For several real-world objects, however, Lambert's model can prove to be a very inaccurate approximation ... Keywords: BRDF, Lambert's model, moon reflectance, reflection models, rough surfaces

Michael Oren; Shree K. Nayar

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

MISMATCHES CREATE REFLECTIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Unlike low-power, metal-gate CMOS, high-speed 54HC/74HC devices readily drive long cable runs and backplanes. While the family maintains CMOS’s traditional noise immunity, you must watch transmission-line effects in such applications. Because of 54HC/74HC high-speed CMOS’s short propagation delays and fast rise and fall times, you must understand its transmission-line behavior when driving lines as short as even a foot or two, whether those lines are coaxial cables, twisted pairs or backplanes. Moreover, the devices ’ fast edge rates increase the likelihood of crosstalk among interconnecting cables. Despite the need, however, to take design precautions that minimize adverse effects related to high-speed operation, 54HC/74HC logic—unlike slower metal-gate CMOS—includes many features that suit it to driving transmission lines. For example, its symmetrical push-pull outputs result in stiff logic levels, and its high output drive allows fast bit rates. Another advantage of high-speed-CMOS designs is that they don’t prove to be as difficult as those based on other high-speed logic families. In general, high-speed CMOS doesn’t require the detailed attention to pc-board layout and transmission-line characteristics that Schottky TTL or ECL designs do. Furthermore, controlling unwanted reflections is easier in the CMOS designs, because 54HC/74HC devices’ electrostatic-protection diodes tend to clamp the reflected voltages to the power-supply levels.

unknown authors

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Polymer films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A film contains a first polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond donating moieties, and a second polymer having a plurality of hydrogen bond accepting moieties. The second polymer is hydrogen bonded to the first polymer.

Granick, Steve (Champaign, IL); Sukhishvili, Svetlana A. (Maplewood, NJ)

2008-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

38

Characteristics of Gafchromic XRQA2 films for kV image dose measurement  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In this study, the relevant characteristics of the new Gafchromic XRQA2 film for its application in measuring kV cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) image doses were thoroughly investigated. Methods: The film was calibrated free in air to air kerma levels between 0 and 9 cGy using 120 kVp photon beams produced by the x-ray volume imager. Films were scanned using transmission and reflection scanning modes with the Epson Expression 10000 XL flat-bed document scanner. The impact of film size, region of interest for the analysis, scan uniformity, scan resolution, scan orientation and alternate scanning sides on the analysis process were investigated. Energy dependence, postirradiation growth of reflectance with time and irradiation angular dependence of the film were tested at different air kerma levels. Results: The net reflectance changed by {approx}3% when the size of the film piece changed from 1 cm x 2 cm to 10 cm x 11 cm and changed by {approx}1% when ROI changed from 0. 7 cm x 0. 7 cm to 8 cm x 8 cm, suggesting a good uniformity of the film. The film was successfully analyzed using the transmission scanning mode, calibration curves from both transmission and reflection scanning modes showed similar behavior. The calibration uncertainty was somewhat lower when the film was scanned using reflection mode (6% and 8% for reflection and transmission modes, respectively.) Higher scanning resolution came with increasing calibration uncertainty. The calibration uncertainty for reflection and transmission modes increased from {approx}3.5% to 7% and from {approx}3.5% to 9%, respectively when scanning resolution was changed from 50 to 400 dpi. Scanning the film on alternate sides using transmission mode led to variation of 16%-19% in the net optical density at doses commonly used for CBCT procedures. The film response changed by almost 10% when it was exposed to beams of two different energies (100 and 120 kVp.) Other features of the film such as film orientation, postexposure growth, and irradiation angular dependence were also investigated. Conclusions: The size of film piece and analysis ROI used for calibration slightly affected the film response. Both transmission and reflection scanning modes can be used to analyze the Gafchromic XRQA2, with the reflection mode having a somewhat lower calibration uncertainty. Scanning films on alternate sides using transmission mode significantly affects the optical density. The film response was shown to be energy dependent. The films reached stability in about 6 h after exposure. The film response was proven to be independent of irradiation angle except when the beam is parallel to the film surface.

Giaddui, Tawfik; Cui Yunfeng; Galvin, James; Chen Wenzhou; Yu Yan; Xiao Ying [Department Of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19107 (United States)

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

39

Optical Reflection Spectroscopy of Thick Corrosion Layers on 304 Stainless Steel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Corrosion resistant structural materials of both iron and nickel based alloys are used in the electric power industry for the construction of the coolant loops of both conventional and nuclear power generating stations. These materials, in the presence of high temperature (e.g. 287 C), high pH (e.g. 10.0 {at} 20 C) water with dissolved hydrogen will oxidize and form corrosion films that are double metal oxides (or spinels) of the form AB{sub 2}O{sub 4}. This work describes optical reflectivity techniques that have been developed to study the growth of these films in situ. The optical technique uses a dual-beam specular reflection spectrometer to measure the spectrum of reflected light in small angle (i.e. < 15{sup o}) scatter. The reflection spectra are then calibrated using a set of corrosion coupons with corrosion films that are well known. Results are compared with models based on multilayer reflection and Mie scattering from a particle size distribution. Surface roughness is found to be the dominant cause of reduced reflection as the films grow.

R Castelli; P Persans; W Strohmayer; V Parkinson

2006-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

40

Applications of Passive Thin Films  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The physical properties of thin films affect the performance and durability of nearly every solar energy conversion device. Familiar examples of thin films for solar applications are optical materials and protective coatings. Optimized optical properties are key to cost-effective photothermal conversion where individual components must have high absorptance, reflectance, or transmittance. The protection of sensitive substrates from corrosion and/or erosion is essential to ensure adequate component and system lifetime. Such substrates range from photovoltaic materials operating near room temperature to turbine blade structural alloys in hostile environments at very high temperatures (>1,000 degrees C). Although much has been written on particular categories of thin-film materials for solar energy (for example, absorbers for receiver surfaces), to date no one has provided an overview of the spectrum of applications for passive thin films in solar energy. This work is such an overview and also reviews the material state of the art as described in the current literature. Active thin film devices such as photovoltaics and thermoeleetrics are not discussed.

Call, P. J.

1979-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "drapes reflective film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Mixed metal films with switchable optical properties  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thin, Pd-capped metallic films containing magnesium and first row transition metals (Mn, Fe, Co) switch reversibly from their initial reflecting state to visually transparent states when exposed to gaseous hydrogen or following cathodic polarization in an alkaline electrolyte. Reversion to the reflecting state is achieved by exposure to air or by anodic polarization. The films were prepared by co-sputtering from one magnesium target and one manganese, iron, or cobalt target. Both the dynamic optical switching range and the speed of the transition depend on the magnesium-transition metal ratio. Infrared spectra of films in the transparent, hydrided (deuterided) states support the presence of the intermetallic hydride phases Mg3MnH7, Mg2FeH6, and Mg2CoH5.

Richardson, Thomas J.; Slack, Jonathan L.; Farangis, Baker; Rubin, Michael D.

2001-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

42

Large area ceramic thin films on plastics: A versatile route via solution processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new general route for large area, submicron thick ceramic thin films (crystalline metal oxide thin films) on plastic substrates is presented, where the crystallization of films is guaranteed by a firing process. Gel films are deposited on silicon substrates with a release layer and fired to be ceramic films, followed by transferring onto plastic substrates using adhesives. The ceramic films thus fabricated on plastics exhibit a certain degree of flexibility, implying the possibility of the technique to be applied to high-throughput roll-to-roll processes. Using this technique, we successfully realized transparent anatase thin films that provide high optical reflectance and transparent indium tin oxide thin films that exhibit electrical conductivity on polycarbonate and acrylic resin substrates, respectively. Crystallographically oriented zinc oxide films and patterned zinc oxide films are also demonstrated to be realized on acrylic resin substrates.

Kozuka, H.; Yamano, A.; Uchiyama, H.; Takahashi, M. [Faculty of Chemistry, Materials and Bioengineering, Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho, Suita, 564-8680 (Japan); Fukui, T.; Yoki, M.; Akase, T. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho, Suita, 564-8680 (Japan)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Mixed Metal Films with Switchable Optical Properties  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mixed Metal Films with Switchable Optical Properties Mixed Metal Films with Switchable Optical Properties Title Mixed Metal Films with Switchable Optical Properties Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-49043 Year of Publication 2001 Authors Richardson, Thomas J., Jonathan L. Slack, Baker Farangis, and Michael D. Rubin Journal Applied Physics Letters Volume 80 Pagination 1349-1351 Call Number LBNL-49043 Abstract Thin, Pd-capped metallic films containing magnesium and first row transition metals (Mn, Fe, Co) switch reversibly from their initial reflecting state to visually transparent states when exposed to gaseous hydrogen or following reduction cathodic polarization in an alkaline electrolyte. Reversion to the reflecting state is achieved by exposure to air or by anodic polarization. The films were prepared by co-sputtering from one magnesium target and one manganese, iron, or cobalt target. Both the dynamic optical switching range and the speed of the transition depend on the magnesium-transition metal ratio. Infrared spectra of films in the transparent, hydrided (deuterided) states support the presence of the intermetallic hydride phases Mg3MnH7, Mg2FeH6, and Mg2CoH5.

44

Reduction of Glass Surface Reflectance by Ion Beam Surface Modification  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This is the final report for DOE contract DE-EE0000590. The purpose of this work was to determine the feasibility of the reduction of the reflection from the front of solar photovoltaic modules. Reflection accounts for a power loss of approximately 4%. A solar module having an area of one square meter with an energy conversion efficiency of 18% generates approximately 180 watts. If reflection loss can be eliminated, the power output can be increased to 187 watts. Since conventional thin-film anti-reflection coatings do not have sufficient environmental stability, we investigated the feasibility of ion beam modification of the glass surface to obtain reduction of reflectance. Our findings are generally applicable to all solar modules that use glass encapsulation, as well as commercial float glass used in windows and other applications. Ion implantation of argon, fluorine, and xenon into commercial low-iron soda lime float glass, standard float glass, and borosilicate glass was studied by implantation, annealing, and measurement of reflectance. The three ions all affected reflectance. The most significant change was obtained by argon implantation into both low-iron and standard soda-lime glass. In this way samples were formed with reflectance lower than can be obtained with a single-layer coatings of magnesium fluoride. Integrated reflectance was reduced from 4% to 1% in low-iron soda lime glass typical of the glass used in solar modules. The reduction of reflectance of borosilicate glass was not as large; however borosilicate glass is not typically used in flat plate solar modules. Unlike conventional semiconductor ion implantation doping, glass reflectance reduction was found to be tolerant to large variations in implant dose, meaning that the process does not require high dopant uniformity. Additionally, glass implantation does not require mass analysis. Simple, high current ion implantation equipment can be developed for this process; however, before the process can be employed on full scale solar modules, equipment must be developed for ion implanting large sheets of glass. A cost analysis shows that the process can be economical. Our finding is that the reduction of reflectance by ion beam surface modification is technically and economically feasible. The public will benefit directly from this work by the improvement of photovoltaic module efficiency, and indirectly by the greater understanding of the modification of glass surfaces by ion beams.

Mark Spitzer

2011-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

45

Ultrasonic flowmetering with reflected pulses  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A transit time type ultrasonic flowmeter was tested with two different reflected pulse trajectories in flowing air at ambient conditions against an orifice meter. The flowmeter was designed to be highly accurate, to require ...

Hoyle, David C.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Radar Reflectivity of Cumulus Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The relationships between the radar reflectivity factor Z and significant physical cloud parameters are studied from a dataset collected with an instrumented aircraft in non- or very weakly precipitating warm clouds. The cloud droplet populations ...

Henri Sauvageot; Jilani Omar

1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Ground Reflections and Green Thunderstorms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It has been suggested that green light often observed in association with severe thunderstorms is caused by sunlight being reflected onto the cloud by green vegetation. Colorimetric observations were recorded of green-colored and blue-colored ...

Frank W. Gallagher III

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Magnetron sputtered boron films and Ti/B multilayer structures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for the production of thin boron and titanium/boron films by magnetron sputter deposition. The amorphous boron films contain no morphological growth features, unlike those found when thin films are prepared by various physical vapor 5 deposition processes. Magnetron sputter deposition method requires the use of a high density crystalline boron sputter target which is prepared by hot isostatic pressing. Thin boron films prepared by this method are useful for ultra-thin band pass filters as well as the low Z element in low Z/high Z mirrors which enhance reflectivity 10 from grazing to normal incidence.

Makowiecki, D.M.; Jankowski, A.F.

1991-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

49

Optimization of transparent and reflecting electrodes for amorphous silicon solar cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes work to improve the performance of solar cells by improving the electrical and optical properties of their transparent conducting oxides (TCO) layers. Boron-doped zinc-oxide films were deposited by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition in a laminar-flow reactor from diethyl zinc, tert-butanol, and diborane in the temperature range between 300[degrees]C and 420[degrees]C. When the deposition temperature was above 320[degrees]C, both doped and undoped films have highly oriented crystallites with their c-axes perpendicular to the substrate plane. Films deposited from 0.07% diethyl zinc and 2.4% tert-butanol have electron densities between 3.5 [times] 10[sup 20] cm[sup [minus]3] and 5.5 [times] 10[sup 20] cm[sup [minus]3], conductivities between 250 [Omega][sup [minus]1] and 2500 [Omega][sup [minus]1] and mobilities between 2.5 cm[sup 2]/V-s and 35.0 cm[sup 2]/V-s, depending on dopant concentration, film thickness, and deposition temperature. Optical measurements show that the maximum infrared reflectance of the doped films is close to 90%, compared to about 20% for undoped films. Film visible absorption and film conductivity were found to increase with film thickness. The ratio of conductivity to visible absorption coefficient for doped films was between 0.1 [Omega] and 1.1 [Omega][sup [minus]1]. The band gap of the film changes from 3.3 eV to 3.7 eV when the film is doped with 0.012% diborane.

Gordon, R.G. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

CARS of Thin Films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... as a thin film diagnostic. Surface enhanced Raman scattering, SERS, has been used to probe the interfacial region of thin polymer films on metal ...

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

51

Thin Films at Interfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... internal structure of these films was probed ... provided important information on film composition and ... The PEO polymers form thin adsorbed layers ...

52

Did 1998 Reflect Structural Change?  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Did 1998 Reflect Structural Change? Did 1998 Reflect Structural Change? 5/17/99 Click here to start Table of Contents PPT Slide Did 1998 Reflect Structural Change? Demand U.S. Propane Demand Sectors (1996) PPT Slide 1998 Propane Prices Fell with Crude Oil PPT Slide Warm Weather Behind Demand Decline 1998 Warm Weather Kept Demand Down Supply Propane Production Fell in 1998 1998 Propane Net Imports Increased Algeria Was Major Source of ‘98 Import Increase U.S. Chemical Use & Large Storage Attracts Excess Propane Petroleum & Propane Market Over Supply Average Stock Levels: Crude Market & Propane Futures Market Incentives to Build Petroleum Stocks New “Structure” or Cycle? Near-Term Future Large January Draw Did Not Remove Excess How Might Excess Stocks Decline? Near Term U.S. Propane Production

53

Thin film solar energy collector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A multi-layer solar energy collector of improved stability comprising: (1) a substrate of quartz, silicate glass, stainless steel or aluminum-containing ferritic alloy; (2) a solar absorptive layer comprising silver, copper oxide, rhodium/rhodium oxide and 0-15% by weight of platinum; (3) an interlayer comprising silver or silver/platinum; and (4) an optional external anti-reflective coating, plus a method for preparing a thermally stable multi-layered solar collector, in which the absorptive layer is undercoated with a thin film of silver or silver/platinum to obtain an improved conductor-dielectric tandem.

Aykan, Kamran (Monmouth Beach, NJ); Farrauto, Robert J. (Westfield, NJ); Jefferson, Clinton F. (Millburn, NJ); Lanam, Richard D. (Westfield, NJ)

1983-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

54

Growth study of ion assisted evaporated molybdenum thin films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We reported optimization of ion-to-atom ratios and ion energy for growth of molybdenum thin film on oxidized silicon substrate using ion assisted electron beam evaporation system. The ion-to-atom ratio is varied by independently adjusting the ion current density and deposition rate. The structural characterization of the films is carried out by hard X-ray reflectivity. We observed improvement in film density from 85.5% to 98.2% and film roughness from {approx}2 nm to 0.84nm on {approx}26 nm thick Mo film by optimizing ion parameters. The observed results are discussed considering the effect of kinetic of adatoms during growth of film.

Yadav, P. K.; Nayak, M.; Lodha, G. S.; Rai, S. [X-ray Optics Section, Indus Synchrotrons Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre For Advanced Technology, Indore-452013 (India)

2012-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

55

Reflection Survey | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Page Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Reflection Survey Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Technique: Reflection Survey Details Activities (35) Areas (22) Regions (2) NEPA(3) Exploration Technique Information Exploration Group: Geophysical Techniques Exploration Sub Group: Seismic Techniques Parent Exploration Technique: Active Seismic Techniques Information Provided by Technique Lithology: Rock unit density influences elastic wave velocities. Stratigraphic/Structural: Structural geology- faults, folds, grabens, horst blocks, sedimentary layering, discontinuities, etc. Hydrological: Combining compressional and shear wave results can indicate the presence of fluid saturation in the formation. Thermal: High temperatures and pressure impact the compressional and shear wave velocities.

56

Aging of reflective roofs: soot deposition  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Aging of reflective roofs: soot deposition Title Aging of reflective roofs: soot deposition Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2002 Authors Berdahl, Paul, Hashem...

57

Summary report of the Solar Reflective Materials Technology Workshop  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Solar Reflective Materials Technology Workshop sponsored by the Department of Energy and organized by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and the Solar Energy Research Institute was held on March 28--30, 1978, in Denver, Colorado. The two and one-half day seminar/workshop was attended by over 95 people representing some 60 private companies and government laboratories. The purpose of the workshop was to assess the ''state-of-the-art'' of solar reflector materials technology, define current mirror design requirements, and make recommendations to DOE for future research and development efforts. The reflector materials are defined for the purpose of this workshop as including all the materials which make up the reflector structure including the actual reflecting surface, the protective coatings, and the support substrate. The reflective surface includes metals, metallic films, metallic alloys, and dielectric or ceramic stacks. The protective coatings, which can be applied to both the front and back of the reflective surface, include such materials as polymer paints and films as well as inorganic coatings such as SiO, MgF/sub 2/ and thin glass. Mirror support structures which have been considered include polymer foams, cellular glass, aluminum honeycomb, wood and paper products, and fiberglass and epoxy composites. The authors of the invited papers were asked to emphasize one or more of four basic areas. These topics included: the requirements and properties for reflector materials, the testing procedures used to evaluate the materials, the results of environmental tests performed on some of the materials, and the actual field experience of solar concentrator structures. Acknowledging that the most severe applications for reflector materials result from high concentration ratio or central receiver concepts, the majority of the speakers addressed specific problems dealing with these concepts. (WHK)

Lind, M.A.; Ault, L.E.

1978-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Cumulus Clouds and Reflected Sunlight  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cumulus Clouds and Reflected Sunlight Cumulus Clouds and Reflected Sunlight from Landsat ETM+ G. Wen and L. Oreopoulos National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center University of Maryland Baltimore County Joint Center of Earth System Technology Greenbelt, Maryland R. F. Cahalan and S. C. Tsay National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center Greenbelt, Maryland Introduction Cumulus clouds attenuate solar radiation casting shows on the ground. Cumulus clouds can also enhance solar radiation in the clear region nearby. The enhancement of down-welling solar radiation has been observed at the ground level in the clear region near cumulus clouds (Mims and Frederick 1994). The additional diffuse radiation source from cumulus clouds makes the clear gaps appear to be

59

Equilibrium and nonequilibrium thermodynamics of particle-stabilized thin liquid films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Our recent quasi-two-dimensional thermodynamic description of thin-liquid films stabilized by colloidal particles is generalized to describe nonuniform equilibrium states of films in external potentials and nonequilibrium transport processes produced in the film by gradients of thermodynamic forces. Using a Monte--Carlo simulation method, we have determined equilibrium equations of state for a film stabilized by a suspension of hard spheres. Employing a multipolar-expansion method combined with a flow-reflection technique, we have also evaluated the short-time film-viscosity coefficients and collective particle mobility.

J. Blawzdziewicz; E. Wajnryb

2008-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

60

DEPENDENCE OF BAND GAP ON DEPOSITION PARAMETERS IN CdSe SINTERED FILMS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

II-VI semiconductors form an important class of opto-electronic materials. CdSe is a promising material for the fabrication of photovoltaic devices. Polycrystalline CdSe films have been deposited onto ultra clean glass substrates by sintering process. The optical band gap of these films was determined by reflectance measurements in wavelength range 400-850 nm. The band gap of these films was observed to increase with increase in sintering temperature and sintering time separately. The crystal structure and lattice parameter of these films were determined from x-ray diffractograms. The films were polycrystalline in nature having cubic zinc blende structure.

unknown authors

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "drapes reflective film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Solar Control Thin Films Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sputtering equipment Solar Control Thin Films Laboratory The Solar Control Thin Films lab develops novel thin film coatings, deposition technologies, and device systems for...

62

Technological assessment of light-trapping technology for thin-film Si solar cell  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The proposed light trapping technology of Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) with Diffraction Grating (DG) and Anti-Reflection Coating (ARC) for thin film Si solar cell was analyzed from the technology, market, and ...

Susantyoko, Rahmat Agung

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Mirror Film Company Has 'Concentrated' Plans for Expansion | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Mirror Film Company Has 'Concentrated' Plans for Expansion Mirror Film Company Has 'Concentrated' Plans for Expansion Mirror Film Company Has 'Concentrated' Plans for Expansion September 10, 2010 - 1:19pm Addthis Lorelei Laird Writer, Energy Empowers In concentrating solar power, glass is king-but it's fighting to hold on to its crown. The reflectivity of glass mirrors makes them a great choice for focusing sunlight onto a heat generator. However, the glass mirrors can be expensive and heavy -- reducing their ability to compete with conventional energy sources. ReflecTech Inc. has an option: a silvered polymer-based film that does the same job, but with half the weight and cost. Using that film, the company can make 100,000 square feet of mirror panels per year at its factory in Arvada, Colo. Through an Advanced Manufacturing 48C tax credit through the Recovery Act,

64

Nanostructure of Fluorocarbon Films Deposited on Polystyrene from Hyperthermal C3F5 + Ions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fluorocarbon films were grown on polystyrene in vacuum from 25- to 100-eV mass-selected C3F5 + ion beams. The films were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray reflectivity after exposure to the atmosphere for 4-8 weeks. The X-ray reflectivity indicates films that range from ?30 to 60-Å thick. The thinner films form at lower ion energies, where the ion penetration depth and efficiency of film formation are lowest. X-ray reflectivity estimates air-fluorocarbon film roughness values of ?6 Å for 25- and 50-eV films but ?20 Å for the 100-eV films. The fluorocarbon-polystyrene-buried interface displays similar roughness and trends with ion energy. The AFM roughness trends are similar, but the absolute AFM roughnesses are only ? 1 /4 of the X-ray reflectivity values. This discrepancy is attributed to tip effects and the method of determining roughness by AFM. The AFM images and power spectral densities of the 100-eV films displayed quasi-periodic cones spaced 300-700 Å apart. Such features are either absent or of much lower amplitude in the 25- and 50-eV films. Classical molecular dynamics simulations of C3F5 + deposition on polystyrene at energies of 50 and 100 eV/ion reveal that etching at the higher energy is largely responsible for the dissimilar film structures obtained experimentally. These results demonstrate that deposition of the fluorocarbon polyatomic ion C3F5 + allows control of film nanostructure at the surface and buried interface. I.

F. Ahu Akin; Inkook Jang; Mark L. Schlossman; Susan B. Sinnott; Gerry Zajac; Erick R. Fuoco; Muthu B. J. Wijesundara; O Ming Li; Aleksey Tikhonov; Sai Venkatesh Pingali; A T. Wroble; Luke Hanley

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Discharge lamp with reflective jacket  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A discharge lamp includes an envelope, a fill which emits light when excited disposed in the envelope, a source of excitation power coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed around the envelope and defining an opening, the reflector being configured to reflect some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit through the opening. The reflector may be made from a material having a similar thermal index of expansion as compared to the envelope and which is closely spaced to the envelope. The envelope material may be quartz and the reflector material may be either silica or alumina. The reflector may be formed as a jacket having a rigid structure which does not adhere to the envelope. The lamp may further include an optical clement spaced from the envelope and configured to reflect an unwanted component of light which exited the envelope back into the envelope through the opening in the reflector. Light which can be beneficially recaptured includes selected wavelength regions, a selected polarization, and selected angular components.

MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD); Kipling, Kent (Gaithersburg, MD)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Spatial Convergence of Bidirectional Reflectance Models  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analyses of bidirectional reflectance data are presented with implications regarding the spatial scales appropriate for inferring irradiances from radiances reflected by various surface–atmosphere scenes. Multiple-angle radiance data collected in ...

John M. Davis; Stephen K. Cox

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Semantic Models for Distributed Object Reflection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A generic formal model of distributed object reflection is proposed, that combines logical reflection with a structuring of distributed objects as nested configurations of metaobject that can control subobjects under them. The model provides mathematical ...

José Meseguer; Carolyn L. Talcott

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Reflective coatings for solar applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Many applications of solar energy require large mirrors to provide high levels of concentrated sunlight. The success of such conversion systems hinges on the optical durability and economic viability of the reflector materials. A major effort at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been to improve the existing reflector materials technology and to identify candidates that retain optical performance and durability criteria and offer potential for reduced cost. To attain the goals, it is desirable to maintain and increase the involvement of industrial organizations in reflective materials R&D related to the conversion of solar resources to useful energy. Toward this end, NREL has recently initiated several collaborative efforts with industry to develop advanced reflector materials.

Jorgensen, G.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Reflective coatings for solar applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Many applications of solar energy require large mirrors to provide high levels of concentrated sunlight. The success of such conversion systems hinges on the optical durability and economic viability of the reflector materials. A major effort at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been to improve the existing reflector materials technology and to identify candidates that retain optical performance and durability criteria and offer potential for reduced cost. To attain the goals, it is desirable to maintain and increase the involvement of industrial organizations in reflective materials R D related to the conversion of solar resources to useful energy. Toward this end, NREL has recently initiated several collaborative efforts with industry to develop advanced reflector materials.

Jorgensen, G.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Reflective ghost imaging through turbulence  

SciTech Connect

Recent work has indicated that ghost imaging may have applications in standoff sensing. However, most theoretical work has addressed transmission-based ghost imaging. To be a viable remote-sensing system, the ghost imager needs to image rough-surfaced targets in reflection through long, turbulent optical paths. We develop, within a Gaussian-state framework, expressions for the spatial resolution, image contrast, and signal-to-noise ratio of such a system. We consider rough-surfaced targets that create fully developed speckle in their returns and Kolmogorov-spectrum turbulence that is uniformly distributed along all propagation paths. We address both classical and nonclassical optical sources, as well as a computational ghost imager.

Hardy, Nicholas D.; Shapiro, Jeffrey H. [Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

71

The Advantages of Wearable Green Reflected Photoplethysmography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report evaluates the efficacy of reflected-type green light photoplethysmography (green light PPG). Transmitted infrared light was used for PPG and the arterial pulse was monitored transcutaneously. The reflected PPG signal contains AC components ... Keywords: Green light, Heat stress, Infrared light, Photoplethysmography, Reflection

Yuka Maeda; Masaki Sekine; Toshiyo Tamura

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Reflection Survey (Nannini, 1986) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Reflection Survey (Nannini, 1986) Reflection Survey (Nannini, 1986) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey (Nannini, 1986) Exploration Activity Details Location Unspecified Exploration Technique Reflection Survey Activity Date Usefulness could be useful with more improvements DOE-funding Unknown Notes "seismic analyses" - no indication of active/passive, reflection/refraction, etc. ---> "On the contrary, in areas with little or no volcanic activity, assumptions on the nature, size and characteristics of the source of the thermal anomaly are generally much more difficult and hypothetical. In these circumstances, some useful data can be obtained from accurate seismic analyses, together with a seismotectonic and geodynamic

73

Condenser optic with sacrificial reflective surface  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Employing collector optics that has a sacrificial reflective surface can significantly prolong the useful life of the collector optics and the overall performance of the condenser in which the collector optics are incorporated. The collector optics is normally subject to erosion by debris from laser plasma source of radiation. The presence of an upper sacrificial reflective surface over the underlying reflective surface effectively increases the life of the optics while relaxing the constraints on the radiation source. Spatial and temporally varying reflectivity that results from the use of the sacrificial reflective surface can be accommodated by proper condenser design.

Tichenor, Daniel A. (Castro Valley, CA); Kubiak, Glenn D. (Livermore, CA); Lee, Sung Hun (Sunnyvale, CA)

2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

74

Definition: Reflection Survey | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Reflection Survey Reflection Survey Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Reflection Survey Seismic reflection surveys image the structure of the subsurface through the measurement of the two way travel time of reflected artificially-generated elastic waves.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Also Known As Seismic Reflection References ↑ http://www.amazon.com/Introduction-Geophysical-Prospecting-Milton-Dobrin/dp/0071004041 Ret LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. rieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Reflection_Survey&oldid=598371" Category: Definitions What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link Browse properties 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load)

75

Thermonuclear Reflect AB-Reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The author offers a new kind of thermonuclear reflect reactor. The remarkable feature of this new reactor is a three net AB reflector, which confines the high temperature plasma. The plasma loses part of its energy when it contacts with the net but this loss can be compensated by an additional permanent plasma heating. When the plasma is rarefied (has a small density), the heat flow to the AB reflector is not large and the temperature in the triple reflector net is lower than 2000 - 3000 K. This offered AB-reactor has significantly less power then the currently contemplated power reactors with magnetic or inertial confinement (hundreds-thousands of kW, not millions of kW). But it is enough for many vehicles and ships and particularly valuable for tunnelers, subs and space apparatus, where air to burn chemical fuel is at a premium or simply not available. The author has made a number of innovations in this reactor, researched its theory, developed methods of computation, made a sample computation of typical pr...

Bolonkin, Alexander

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Thermonuclear Reflect AB-Reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The author offers a new kind of thermonuclear reflect reactor. The remarkable feature of this new reactor is a three net AB reflector, which confines the high temperature plasma. The plasma loses part of its energy when it contacts with the net but this loss can be compensated by an additional permanent plasma heating. When the plasma is rarefied (has a small density), the heat flow to the AB reflector is not large and the temperature in the triple reflector net is lower than 2000 - 3000 K. This offered AB-reactor has significantly less power then the currently contemplated power reactors with magnetic or inertial confinement (hundreds-thousands of kW, not millions of kW). But it is enough for many vehicles and ships and particularly valuable for tunnelers, subs and space apparatus, where air to burn chemical fuel is at a premium or simply not available. The author has made a number of innovations in this reactor, researched its theory, developed methods of computation, made a sample computation of typical project. The main point of preference for the offered reactor is its likely cheapness as a power source. Key words: Micro-thermonuclear reactor, Multi-reflex AB-thermonuclear reactor, Self-magnetic AB-thermonuclear reactor, aerospace thermonuclear engine.

Alexander Bolonkin

2008-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

77

REFLECTED LIGHT INTENSITY DISTRIBUTIONS FROM DEFECTS ON HIGHLY REFLECTIVE SPHERES PDO 6984778, Topical Report  

SciTech Connect

A light reflection technique suitable for development into an automated surface quality certification system was investigated to determine if reflected light intensity distributions could be corre]ated with surface defect depths. Reflected laser light intensity distributions from pit and scratch defects on highly reflective spheres were studied with a commercial multi-element photodetector. It was found that the intensity distributions --Goll'lf be correlated with depths of pits and scratches in a size range of concern on highly reflective' spheres.

Klingsport, P. E.

1977-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Structure of Protein Layers in Polyelectrolyte Matrices Studied by Neutron Reflectivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Polyelectrolyte multilayer films obtained by localized incorporation of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) within electrostatically assembled matrices of poly(styrene sulfonate)/poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PSS/PAH) via spin-assisted layer-by-layer growth were discovered to be highly structured, with closely packed monomolecular layers of the protein within the bio-hybrid films. The structure of the films was evaluated in both vertical and lateral directions with neutron reflectometry, using deuterated GFP as a marker for neutron scattering contrast. Importantly, the GFP preserves its structural stability upon assembly as confirmed by circular dichroism (CD) and in situ attenuated total reflection Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Atomic force microscopy was complimented with X-ray reflectometry to characterize the external roughness of the biohybrid films. Remarkably, films assembled with a single GFP layer confined at various distances from the substrate exhibit a strong localization of the GFP layer without intermixing into the LbL matrix. However, partial intermixing of the GFP layers with polymeric material is evidenced in multiple-GFP layer films with alternating protein-rich and protein-deficient regions. We hypothesize that the polymer-protein exchange observed in the multiple-GFP layer films suggests the existence of a critical protein concentration which can be accommodated by the multilayer matrix. Our results yield new insights into the mechanism of GFP interaction with a polyelectrolyte matrix and open opportunities for fabrication of bio-hybrid films with well-organized structure and controllable function, a crucial requirement for advanced sensing applications.

Kozlovskaya, Veronika [University of Alabama, Birmingham; Ankner, John Francis [ORNL; O'Neill, Hugh Michael [ORNL; Zhang, Qiu [ORNL; Kharlampieva, Eugenia [University of Alabama, Birmingham

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Doped, porous iron oxide films and their optical functions and anodic photocurrents for solar water splitting  

SciTech Connect

The fabrication and morphological, optical, and photoelectrochemical characterization of doped iron oxide films is presented. The complex index of refraction and absorption coefficient of polycrystalline films are determined through measurement and modeling of spectral transmission and reflection data using appropriate dispersion relations. Photoelectrochemical characterization for water photo-oxidation reveals that the conversion efficiencies of electrodes are strongly influenced by substrate temperature during their oblique-angle physical vapor deposition. These results are discussed in terms of the films' morphological features and the known optoelectronic limitations of iron oxide films for application in solar water splitting devices.

Kronawitter, Coleman X.; Mao, Samuel S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA and Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Antoun, Bonnie R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

2011-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

80

Photovoltaic module with light reflecting backskin  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A photovoltaic module comprises electrically interconnected and mutually spaced photovoltaic cells that are encapsulated by a light-transmitting encapsulant between a light-transparent front cover and a back cover, with the back cover sheet being an ionomer/nylon alloy embossed with V-shaped grooves running in at least two directions and coated with a light reflecting medium so as to provide light-reflecting facets that are aligned with the spaces between adjacent cells and oriented so as to reflect light falling in those spaces back toward said transparent front cover for further internal reflection onto the solar cells, whereby substantially all of the reflected light will be internally reflected from said cover sheet back to the photovoltaic cells, thereby increasing the current output of the module. The internal reflector improves power output by as much as 67%.

Gonsiorawski, Ronald C. (Danvers, MA)

2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "drapes reflective film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries for implantable devices  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Thin films of LiCoO{sub 2} have been synthesized in which the strongest x-ray reflection is either weak or missing, indicating a high degree of preferred orientation. Thin-film solid state batteries with these textured cathode films can deliver practical capacities at high current densities. For example, for one of the cells 70% of the maximum capacity between 4.2 V and 3 V ({approximately}0.2 mAh/cm{sup 2}) was delivered at a current of 2 mA/cm{sup 2}. When cycled at rates of 0.1 mA/cm{sup 2}, the capacity loss was 0.001 %/cycle or less. The reliability and performance of Li-LiCoO{sub 2} thin-film batteries make them attractive for application in implantable devices such as neural stimulators, pacemakers, and defibrillators.

Bates, J.b.; Dudney, N.J.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

On HVAC duct acoustical end reflection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Duct end reflection (ER) is the apparent loss of sound power resulting from an abrupt change in a cross?sectional area of the duct. In most references

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Natural gas consumption reflects shifting sectoral patterns ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. natural gas consumption since 1997 reflects shifting patterns. Total U.S. natural gas consumption rose 7% between 1997 and 2011, but this modest ...

84

5. Consumer Prices Reflect Benefits of Restructuring  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy Information Administration Natural Gas 1996: Issues and Trends 99 5. Consumer Prices Reflect Benefits of Restructuring The restructuring of the natural gas ...

85

Measuring Light Reflectance of BGO Crystal Surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Carlo program simulating light propagation in isotropic orTerms—Lambertian reflection, light collection, Monte Carloy-axis) and fraction specular light (right y- axis) for a

Janecek, Martin

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Reflective Coherent Spatial Light Modulator (RCSLM)  

Reflective Coherent Spatial Light Modulator (RCSLM) Note: The technology described above is an early stage opportunity. Licensing rights to this intellectual property may

87

Does Shareholder Voting Reflect Shareholder Preferences?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

=980422. Kamar, Ehud. 2006. “Does Shareholder Voting onDoes Shareholder Voting Reflect Shareholder Preferences?contests. The literature that does exist is methodologically

Listokin, Yair Jason

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Sandia National Laboratories Solar Reflection Panels  

Sandia National Laboratories Solar Reflection Panels HTTPS://IP.SANDIA.GOV Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia ...

89

Are Films Ferroelectric?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

as one unit cell. In these thin films, the ferroelectric phase forms in nanometerscale stripes of alternating polarity, which produce characteristic signals, satellite peaks, in...

90

ThinFilms  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thin Films Thin Films Manufacturing Technologies The Thin Film laboratory provides a variety of vapor deposition processes and facilities for cooperative research and development. Available capabilities include electron beam evaporation, sputter deposition, reactive deposi- tion processes, atomic layer deposition (ALD) and specialized techniques such as focused ion beam induced chemical vapor deposition. Equipment can be reconfigured for prototyping, or it can be dedicated to long-term research, development and manufacturing. Most sputter and evaporative deposition systems are capable of depositing multiple materials. Deposition capabilities and expertise * Deposition of a large variety of thin film mate- rials * Multiple sputter deposition systems - Capable of depositing four materials in a

91

Superhydrophobic Thin Film Coatings  

Exploiting its expertise with thin films and superhydrophobic materials, ORNL has developed a simple, inexpensive way to apply and reliably bond ...

92

Applications of Sputtered Films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...circuits Thin-film lasers Memory devices High-temperature superconductors A variety of sputtering techniques can be used in most applications,

93

26.3 / Y.-P. Huang 26.3: Multidirectional Asymmetrical Microlens-Array Light Control Films for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, leads to a ~5x gain in brightness over the MgO standard white and 12:1 contrast ratio for color STN advantages of the MAMA light control film. In this paper, we demonstrate the performances of MAMA light is poor. Adding a MAMA light control film not only shifts the peak reflectance of the STN panel from 300

Wu, Shin-Tson

94

Photothermal and thermo-refractive effects in high reflectivity mirrors at room and cryogenic temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Increasing requirements in the sensitivity of interferometric measurements is a common feature of several research fields, from gravitational wave detection to quantum optics. This motivates refined studies of high reflectivity mirrors and of noise sources that are tightly related to their structure. In this work we present an experimental characterization of photothermal and thermo-refractive effects in high reflectivity mirrors, i.e., of the variations in the position of their effective reflection plane due to weak residual power absorption. The measurements are performed by modulating the impinging power in the range 10 Hz $\\div$ 100 kHz. The experimental results are compared with an expressly derived theoretical model in order to fully understand the phenomena and exploit them to extract useful effective thermo-mechanical parameters of the coating. The measurements are extended at cryogenic temperature, where most high sensitivity experiments are performed (or planned in future versions) and where characterizations of dielectric film coatings are still poor.

Alessandro Farsi; Mario Siciliani de Cumis; Francesco Marino; Francesco Marin

2011-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

95

Identification coding schemes for modulated reflectance systems  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An identifying coding apparatus employing modulated reflectance technology involving a base station emitting a RF signal, with a tag, located remotely from the base station, and containing at least one antenna and predetermined other passive circuit components, receiving the RF signal and reflecting back to the base station a modulated signal indicative of characteristics related to the tag.

Coates, Don M. (Santa Fe, NM); Briles, Scott D. (Los Alamos, NM); Neagley, Daniel L. (Albuquerque, NM); Platts, David (Santa Fe, NM); Clark, David D. (Santa Fe, NM)

2006-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

96

Data Souvenirs: Environmental psychology and reflective design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The physical form of technology and its relationship to the surrounding environment is an important factor in design; we argue that this is especially true in the design of reflective technology. We suggest environmental psychology theory as a tool for ... Keywords: Design, Environmental psychology, Personal reflection, Tangible interfaces

Ryan Aipperspach; Ben Hooker; Allison Woodruff

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Free-Space Time-Domain Method for Measuring Thin Film Dielectric Properties  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A non-contact method for determining the index of refraction or dielectric constant of a thin film on a substrate at a desired frequency in the GHz to THz range having a corresponding wavelength larger than the thickness of the thin film (which may be only a few microns). The method comprises impinging the desired-frequency beam in free space upon the thin film on the substrate and measuring the measured phase change and the measured field reflectance from the reflected beam for a plurality of incident angles over a range of angles that includes the Brewster's angle for the thin film. The index of refraction for the thin film is determined by applying Fresnel equations to iteratively calculate a calculated phase change and a calculated field reflectance at each of the plurality of incident angles, and selecting the index of refraction that provides the best mathematical curve fit with both the dataset of measured phase changes and the dataset of measured field reflectances for each incident angle. The dielectric constant for the thin film can be calculated as the index of refraction squared.

Li, Ming; Zhang, Xi-Cheng; Cho, Gyu Cheon

2000-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

98

Aging of reflective roofs: soot deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solar-reflective roofs remain cooler than absorptive roofs and thus conserve electricity otherwise needed for air conditioning. A currently controversial aspect of solar-reflective cool roofing is the extent to which an initially high solar reflectance decreases with time. We present experimental data on the spectral absorption of deposits that accumulate on roofs, and we attribute most of the absorption to carbon soot originally produced by combustion. The deposits absorb more at short wavelengths (e.g., in the blue) than in the red and infrared, imparting a slightly yellow tinge to formerly white surfaces. The initial rate of reflectance reduction by soot accumulation is consistent with known emission rates that are due to combustion. The long-term reflectance change appears to be determined by the ability of the soot to adhere to the roof, resisting washout by rain.

Berdahl, Paul; Akbari, Hashem; Rose, Leanna S.

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

U-043: Attachmate Reflection Buffer Overflow in FTP Client Lets...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

for HP version 14.x Reflection for UNIX and OpenVMS version 14.x Reflection for ReGIS Graphics version 14.x Reflection for IBM version 14.x Reflection X version 14.x ABSTRACT: A...

100

Thick film hydrogen sensor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A thick film hydrogen sensor element includes an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having deposited thereon a thick film metallization forming at least two resistors. The metallization is a sintered composition of Pd and a sinterable binder such as glass frit. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors.

Hoffheins, Barbara S. (Knoxville, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "drapes reflective film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Stabilized chromium oxide film  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150.ANG. are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

Garwin, Edward L. (Los Altos, CA); Nyaiesh, Ali R. (Palo Alto, CA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Stabilized chromium oxide film  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Stabilized air-oxidized chromium films deposited on high-power klystron ceramic windows and sleeves having a thickness between 20 and 150A are useful in lowering secondary electron emission yield and in avoiding multipactoring and window failure due to overheating. The ceramic substrate for the film is chosen from alumina, sapphire or beryllium oxide.

Nyaiesh, A.R.; Garwin, E.L.

1986-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

103

Thin-film forces in pseudoemulsion films  

SciTech Connect

Use of foam for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) has shown recent success in steam-flooding field applications. Foam can also provide an effective barrier against gas coning in thin oil zones. Both of these applications stem from the unique mobility-control properties a stable foam possesses when it exists in porous media. Unfortunately, oil has a major destabilizing effect on foam. Therefore, it is important for EOR applications to understand how oil destroys foam. Studies all indicate that stabilization of the pseudoemulsion film is critical to maintain foam stability in the presence of oil. Hence, to aid in design of surfactant formulations for foam insensitivity to oil the authors pursue direct measurement of the thin-film or disjoining forces that stabilize pseudoemulsion films. Experimental procedures and preliminary results are described.

Bergeron, V.; Radke, C.J. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Photovoltaic concentrator with plastic-film reflector. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A 4m diameter reflective film, parabolic dish concentrator proposed for use with a photovoltaic array has been designed, fabricated, and tested. The concentrator is made from aluminized film gores (wedge shaped pieces) that are taped together along their edges to form a dish. The shape of the dish is maintained by a pressure difference between the front and back. The deep dish was designed to illuminate a cylindrical receiver populated by solar cells with a geometric concentration ratio of 145. Three full scale dishes were made in sequence, each using improvements suggested by the previous design. They were tested with a laser to determine surface errors and flux uniformity on the target.

Not Available

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Silicon-film{trademark} on ceramic solar cells. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Silicon-Film{trademark} design achieves high performance through the use of a thin silicon layer. Optimally designed thin crystalline solar cells (<50 microns thick) have performance advantages over conventional thick devices. The enhancement in performance requires the incorporation of back-surface passivation and light trapping. The high-performance Silicon-Film{trademark} design employs a metallurgical barrier between the low-cost substrate and the thin silicon layer. The properties of the metallurgical barrier must be engineered to implement specific device requirements, such as high back-surface reflectivity. Recent advances in process development are described here.

Hall, R.B.; Bacon, C.; DiReda, V.; Ford, D.H.; Ingram, A.E.; Lampo, S.M.; Rand, J.A.; Ruffins, T.R.; Barnett, A.M. [AstroPower, Inc., Newark, DE (United States)

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Proof Synthesis and Reflection for Linear Arithmetic  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article presents detailed implementations of quantifier elimination for both integer and real linear arithmetic for theorem provers. The underlying algorithms are those by Cooper (for Z) and by Ferrante and Rackoff ... Keywords: Linear arithmetic, Proof synthesis, Reflection

Amine Chaieb; Tobias Nipkow

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Diffuse reflectance imaging with astronomical applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Diffuse objects generally tell us little about the surrounding lighting, since the radiance they reflect blurs together incident lighting from many directions. In this paper we discuss how occlusion geometry can help invert ...

Hasinoff, Samuel W.

108

Solar Reflection Panels - Energy Innovation Portal  

Patent 7,077,532: Solar reflection panels A solar collector comprising a glass mirror, and a composite panel, wherein the back of the mirror is affixed to a front ...

109

Correlation between surface chemistry, density and band gap in nanocrystalline WO3 thin films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nanocrystalline WO3 thin films were produced by sputter-deposition by varying the ratio of argon to oxygen in the reactive gas mixture during deposition. The surface chemistry, physical characteristics, and optical properties of nanocrystalline WO3 films were evaluated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray reflectivity (XRR), and spectrophotometric measurements. The effect of ultra-microstructure was significant on the optical properties of WO3 films. The XPS analyses indicate the formation of stoichiometric WO3 with tungsten existing in fully oxidized valence state (W6+). However, WO3 films grown at high oxygen concentration (>60%) in the sputtering gas mixture were over stoichiometric with excess oxygen. XRR simulations, which are based on isotropic WO3 film - SiO2 interface - Si substrate model, indicate that the density of WO3 films is sensitive to the oxygen content in the sputtering gas. The spectral transmission of the films increased with the increasing oxygen. The band gap of these films increases from 2.78 eV to 3.25 eV with increasing oxygen. A direct correlation between the film-density and band gap in nanocrystalline WO3 films is established based on the observed results.

Vemuri, Venkata Rama Ses; Engelhard, Mark H.; Ramana, C.V.

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Thin film hydrogen sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thin film hydrogen sensor, includes: a substantially flat ceramic substrate with first and second planar sides and a first substrate end opposite a second substrate end; a thin film temperature responsive resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the first substrate end; a thin film hydrogen responsive metal resistor on the first planar side of the substrate proximate to the fist substrate end and proximate to the temperature responsive resistor; and a heater on the second planar side of the substrate proximate to the first end.

Cheng, Yang-Tse (Rochester Hills, MI); Poli, Andrea A. (Livonia, MI); Meltser, Mark Alexander (Pittsford, NY)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method wherein the light in a sulfur or selenium lamp is reflected through the fill a multiplicity of times to convert ultraviolet radiation to visible is disclosed. A light emitting device comprised of an electrodeless envelope which bears a light reflecting covering around a first portion which does not crack due to differential thermal expansion and which has a second portion which comprises a light transmissive aperture. 20 figs.

MacLennan, D.A.; Turner, B.; Kipling, K.

1999-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

112

Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method wherein the light in a sulfur or selenium lamp is reflected through the fill a multiplicity of times to convert ultraviolet radiation to visible. A light emitting device comprised of an electrodeless envelope which bears a light reflecting covering around a first portion which does not crack due to differential thermal expansion and which has a second portion which comprises a light transmissive aperture.

MacLennan, Donald A. (Butler, PA); Turner, Brian (Damascus, MD); Kipling, Kent (Gaithersburg, MD)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Reflective masks for extreme ultraviolet lithography  

SciTech Connect

Extreme ultraviolet lithographic masks are made by patterning multilayer reflective coatings with high normal incidence reflectivity. Masks can be patterned by depositing a patterned absorber layer above the coating or by etching the pattern directly into the coating itself. Electromagnetic simulations showed that absorber-overlayer masks have superior imaging characteristics over etched masks (less sensitive to incident angles and pattern profiles). In an EUVL absorber overlayer mask, defects can occur in the mask substrate, reflective coating, and absorber pattern. Electromagnetic simulations showed that substrate defects cause the most severe image degradation. A printability study of substrate defects for absorber overlayer masks showed that printability of 25 nm high substrate defects are comparable to defects in optical lithography. Simulations also indicated that the manner in which the defects are covered by multilayer reflective coatings can affect printability. Coverage profiles that result in large lateral spreading of defect geometries amplify the printability of the defects by increasing their effective sizes. Coverage profiles of Mo/Si coatings deposited above defects were studied by atomic force microscopy and TEM. Results showed that lateral spread of defect geometry is proportional to height. Undercut at defect also increases the lateral spread. Reductions in defect heights were observed for 0.15 {mu}m wide defect lines. A long-term study of Mo/Si coating reflectivity revealed that Mo/Si coatings with Mo as the top layer suffer significant reductions in reflectivity over time due to oxidation.

Nguyen, Khanh Bao

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Anti-reflection coatings applied by acid leaching process. Quarterly technical report No. 1, April 1-June 31, 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress during the first three months of a nine-month program to study the production of anti-reflective coatings for glass solar module covers by means of a silica-saturated fluosilicic acid etch is reported. The efforts of the program during this first quarterly period have been to set up the process and begin production of filmed sample glass plates. To this end, a temperature-controlled bath has been prepared, large quantities of the filming solution have been formulated, and production of samples has begun using empirically determined processes. (WHK)

Pastirik, E.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

TAMPERPROOF FILM BADGE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A persornel dosimeter film badge made of plastic, with provision for a picture of the wearer and an internal slide containing photographic film that is sensitive to various radiations, is described. Four windows made of differing material selectively attenuate alpha, beta, gamma rays, and neutrons so as to distinguish the particular type of radiation the wearer was subjected to. In addition, a lead shield has the identification number of the wearer perforated thereon so as to identify the film after processing. An internal magnetically actuated latch securely locks the slide within the body, and may be withdrawn only upon the external application of two strong magnetic forces in order to insure that the wearer or other curious persons will not accidentally expose the film to visual light.

Kocher, L.F.

1958-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Thin film tritium dosimetry  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a method for tritium dosimetry. A dosimeter comprising a thin film of a material having relatively sensitive RITAC-RITAP dosimetry properties is exposed to radiation from tritium, and after the dosimeter has been removed from the source of the radiation, the low energy electron dose deposited in the thin film is determined by radiation-induced, thermally-activated polarization dosimetry techniques.

Moran, Paul R. (Madison, WI)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Growth and Characterization of Epitaxial Oxide Thin Films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of these morphological changes was found to be dependent on a number of factors including deposition rates, flux and energy of bombarding ions, and the average angle of incidence of Glow Discharge Glow Discharge -V (DC) Cathode (Target) Insulation Substrates Anode Vacuum... techniques such as reflected high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and low energy electron diffraction (LEED) can give valuable information about the initial growth mechanisms and surface structure of the very thin films during growth in an in-situ manner...

Garg, Ashish

118

Thin films flowing down inverted substrates: two dimensional flow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider free surface instabilities of films flowing on inverted substrates within the framework of lubrication approximation. We allow for the presence of fronts and related contact lines, and explore the role which they play in instability development. It is found that a contact line, modeled by a commonly used precursor film model, leads to free surface instabilities of convective type without any additional natural or excited perturbations. A single parameter D=(3Ca)^{1/3}cot\\alpha, where Ca is the capillary number and \\alpha is the inclination angle, is identified as a governing parameter in the problem. This parameter may be interpreted to reflect the combined effect of inclination angle, film thickness, Reynolds number and the fluid flux. Variation of D leads to change of the wave-like properties of the instabilities, allowing to observe traveling wave behavior, mixed waves, and the waves resembling solitary ones.

Lin, Te-sheng

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Optimization of transparent and reflecting electrodes for amorphous silicon solar cells. Annual subcontract report, 1 May 1991--30 April 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes work to improve the performance of solar cells by improving the electrical and optical properties of their transparent conducting oxides (TCO) layers. Boron-doped zinc-oxide films were deposited by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition in a laminar-flow reactor from diethyl zinc, tert-butanol, and diborane in the temperature range between 300{degrees}C and 420{degrees}C. When the deposition temperature was above 320{degrees}C, both doped and undoped films have highly oriented crystallites with their c-axes perpendicular to the substrate plane. Films deposited from 0.07% diethyl zinc and 2.4% tert-butanol have electron densities between 3.5 {times} 10{sup 20} cm{sup {minus}3} and 5.5 {times} 10{sup 20} cm{sup {minus}3}, conductivities between 250 {Omega}{sup {minus}1} and 2500 {Omega}{sup {minus}1} and mobilities between 2.5 cm{sup 2}/V-s and 35.0 cm{sup 2}/V-s, depending on dopant concentration, film thickness, and deposition temperature. Optical measurements show that the maximum infrared reflectance of the doped films is close to 90%, compared to about 20% for undoped films. Film visible absorption and film conductivity were found to increase with film thickness. The ratio of conductivity to visible absorption coefficient for doped films was between 0.1 {Omega} and 1.1 {Omega}{sup {minus}1}. The band gap of the film changes from 3.3 eV to 3.7 eV when the film is doped with 0.012% diborane.

Gordon, R.G. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Reflection Survey (Majer, 2003) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Reflection Survey (Majer, 2003) Reflection Survey (Majer, 2003) Exploration Activity Details Location Unspecified Exploration Technique Reflection Survey Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes The goal of this work is to evaluate the most promising methods and approaches that may be used for improved geothermal exploration and reservoir assessment. It is not a comprehensive review of all seismic methods used to date in geothermal environments. This work was motivated by a need to assess current and developing seismic technology that if applied in geothermal cases may greatly improve the chances for locating new geothermal resources and/or improve assessment of current ones. References E. L. Majer (2003) 3-D Seismic Methods For Geothermal Reservoir Exploration And Assessment-Summary

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "drapes reflective film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Soil Moisture Monitorization Using GNSS Reflected Signals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The use of GNSS signals as a source of opportunity for remote sensing applications, GNSS-R, has been a research area of interest for more than a decade. One of the possible applications of this technique is soil moisture monitoring. The retrieval of soil moisture with GNSS-R systems is based on the variability of the ground dielectric properties associated to soil moisture. Higher concentrations of water in the soil yield a higher dielectric constant and reflectivity, which incurs in signals that reflect from the Earth surface with higher peak power. Previous investigations have demonstrated the capability of GPS bistatic scatterometers to obtain high enough signal to noise ratios in order to sense small changes in surface reflectivity. Furthermore, these systems present some advantages with respect to others currently used to retrieve soil moisture. Upcoming satellite navigation systems, such as the European Galileo, will represent an excellent source of opportunity for soil moisture remote sensing for vario...

Egido, Alejandro; Caparrini, Marco; Martin, Cristina; Farres, Esteve; Banque, Xavier

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Pigments which reflect infrared radiation from fire  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Conventional paints transmit or absorb most of the intense infrared (IR) radiation emitted by fire, causing them to contribute to the spread of fire. The present invention comprises a fire retardant paint additive that reflects the thermal IR radiation emitted by fire in the 1 to 20 micrometer ({micro}m) wavelength range. The important spectral ranges for fire control are typically about 1 to about 8 {micro}m or, for cool smoky fires, about 2 {micro}m to about 16 {micro}m. The improved inventive coatings reflect adverse electromagnetic energy and slow the spread of fire. Specific IR reflective pigments include titanium dioxide (rutile) and red iron oxide pigments with diameters of about 1 {micro}m to about 2 {micro}m and thin leafing aluminum flake pigments. 4 figs.

Berdahl, P.H.

1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

123

Parasitic oscillation suppression in solid state lasers using absorbing thin films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thin absorbing film is bonded onto at least certain surfaces of a solid state laser gain medium. An absorbing metal-dielectric multilayer film is optimized for a broad range of incidence angles, and is resistant to the corrosive/erosive effects of a coolant such as water, used in the forced convection cooling of the film. Parasitic oscillations hamper the operation of solid state lasers by causing the decay of stored energy to amplified rays trapped within the gain medium by total and partial internal reflections off the gain medium facets. Zigzag lasers intended for high average power operation require the ASE absorber. 16 figs.

Zapata, L.E.

1994-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

124

Electrochemical properties of sputter-deposited MoO{sub 3} films in lithium microbatteries  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Molybdenum oxide (MoO{sub 3}) films were prepared by magnetron sputtering using an Mo target. The films were sputtered in the reactive atmosphere of an argon-oxygen gas mixture under various substrate temperatures, T{sub s}, and oxygen partial pressures, p(O{sub 2}). The effects of the growth conditions on the microstructure were examined using reflection high-energy electron diffraction and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The analyses indicate that stoichiometric and polycrystalline MoO{sub 3} films were obtained at T{sub s} = 445 Degree-Sign C and p(O{sub 2}) = 61%. The applicability of the sputtered MoO{sub 3} films for lithium microbattery application has been demonstrated. The discharge-charge profiles, the kinetics of lithium intercalation process in the film, and the cycling behavior have been investigated in detail to understand the effect of microstructure on the electrochemical performance.

Ramana, C. V.; Atuchin, V. V.; Groult, H.; Julien, C. M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, Texas 79968 (United States); Institute of Semiconductor Physics, SB RAS, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Physicochimie des Electrolytes, Colloiedes et Systemes Analytiques (PECSA), Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6, UMR 7195, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

125

Reflection Survey (Laney, 2005) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Laney, 2005) Laney, 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey (Laney, 2005) Exploration Activity Details Location Unspecified Exploration Technique Reflection Survey Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes Seismic Imaging, Majer, Gritto and Daley. The project objective includes the development and application of active seismic methods for improved understanding of the subsurface structure, faults, fractures lithology, and fluid paths in geothermal reservoirs. While the objective of the work previous to FY2003 was concerned with the detection and location of faults and fractures based on an existing 3-D seismic data set collected at the Rye Patch geothermal reservoir, the current work was aimed at investigating

126

Effect of deposition temperature on the crystalline structure and surface morphology of ZnO films deposited on p-Si  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Zinc oxide (ZnO) films were deposited on p-Si substrates by sol-gel spin coating method. Zinc acetate dihydrate (ZnAc), 2-methoxyethanol and monoethanolamine (MEA) were used as a starting material, solvent and stabilizer, respectively. The films were ... Keywords: FESEM, ZnO, crystalline structure, deposition temperature, reflectance, sol-gel

Seval Aksoy; Yasemin Caglar; Saliha Ilican; Mujdat Caglar

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Prisms with total internal reflection as solar reflectors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved reflective wall for radiant energy collection and concentration devices is provided. The wall is comprised of a plurality of prisms whose frontal faces are adjacent and which reflect the desired radiation by total internal reflection.

Rabl, Arnulf (Downers Grove, IL); Rabl, Veronika (Downers Grove, IL)

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

A Robust Estimator of Rainfall Rate Using Differential Reflectivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Conventional estimator of rainfall rate using reflectivity factor and differential reflectivity ZDR becomes unstable when the measured values of ZDR are small due to measurement errors. An alternate estimator of rainfall rate using reflectivity ...

Eugenio Gorgucca; Gianfranco Scarchilli; V. Chandrasekar

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Thin Film Nanocomposites for Thermoelectric Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Thin Film Nanocomposites for Thermoelectric Applications ... Abstract Scope, Thin film nanocomposites comprised of refractory metals and ...

130

NREL: Technology Transfer - NREL and SkyFuel Partnership Reflects Bright  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NREL and SkyFuel Partnership Reflects Bright Future for Solar Energy NREL and SkyFuel Partnership Reflects Bright Future for Solar Energy In this video, NREL Principal Scientist Gary Jorgensen and SkyFuel Chief Technology Officer Randy Gee talk about their partnership to develop a thin film to substitute for bulkier glass mirrors on solar-collecting parabolic troughs. Get the Adobe Flash Player to see this video. Credit: Fireside Production More Information For more information about NREL's partnership with SkyFuel, read Award-Winning Reflector to Cut Solar Cost and New Solar Technology Concentrates on Cost, Efficiency. Learn more about NREL's Concentrating Solar Power Research. Printable Version Technology Transfer Home About Technology Transfer Technology Partnership Agreements Licensing Agreements Nondisclosure Agreements Research Facilities

131

Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding Title Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-5022E Year...

132

Potential benefits of solar reflective car shells: Cooler cabins...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of solar reflective car shells: Cooler cabins, fuel savings and emission reductions Title Potential benefits of solar reflective car shells: Cooler cabins, fuel savings and...

133

Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

properties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces,transfer at the siding surface. Direct solar radiation tosiding, reflected solar radiation from nearby surfaces,

Hart, Robert

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Seismic Reflection Data and Conceptual Models for Geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Reflection Data and Conceptual Models for Geothermal Development in Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Seismic Reflection...

135

Reflection Survey At Jemez Pueblo Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Reflection Survey At Jemez Pueblo Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At Jemez Pueblo Area (DOE GTP)...

136

Reflection Survey At Wister Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Reflection Survey At Wister Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At Wister Area (DOE GTP) Exploration...

137

Land Surface Reflectance: A Possible Earth Science  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are in magenta, water bodies are outlined in white. MODIS Surface Reflectance South Africa From: E. Vermote, UMD correction (low, medium, high) ­ cloud and cloud shadow ­ snow flag ­ land/water flag · Supplemental information ­ Viewing geometry (view and solar zenith and azimuth angles) ­ Geolocation (lat

138

Dynamic shading enhancement for reflectance transformation imaging  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose a set of dynamic shading enhancement techniques for improving the perception of details, features, and overall shape characteristics from images created with Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI) techniques. Selection of these perceptual ... Keywords: Visualization, cultural heritage shading enhancement, illumination, image processing

Gianpaolo Palma; Massimiliano Corsini; Paolo Cignoni; Roberto Scopigno; Mark Mudge

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Heat reflecting tape for thermoelectric converter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Threads are interlaced with thermoelectric wires to provide a woven cloth in tape form, there being an intermediate layer of heat radiation reflecting material (e.g., aluminum foil) insulated electrically from said wires, which are of opposite thermoelectric polarity and connected as a plurality of thermocouples.

Purdy, David L. (Indiana, PA)

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Reflected Solar Radiances from Regional Scale Scenes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A set of bi-directional reflectance models is presented for various atmospheric scene types. The models were composited from data collected from an aircraft platform in May-July 1979 during Summer MONEX. The space scale of the composited models ...

John M. Davis; Stephen K. Cox

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "drapes reflective film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Experimental investigation of size effect on thermal conductivity for ultra-thin amorphous poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An investigation was conducted to determine whether a “size effect” phenomenon for one particular thermophysical property, thermal conductivity, actually exists for amorphous poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) films with thicknesses ranging from 40 nm to 2 ?m. This was done by using a non-contact, non-invasive, in-situ Transient Thermo-Reflectance (TTR) laser based technique. The results demonstrated that the intrinsic thermal conductivity of a 40 nm PMMA film deposited on native oxide of silicon increases by a factor of three over bulk PMMA values, and a distinct increase in the thermal conductivity of PMMA film was observed in ultra-thin (sub 100 nm) films. This confirmed the importance of film thickness for the through-plane thermal conductivity value of PMMA film on native oxide of silicon.

Kim, Ick Chan

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Ceramic Films Using Cathodic Electrodeposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electrodeposition is evolving as an important method in ceramic processing. Two processes for forming ceramic films by cathodic electrodeposition are ...

143

NMR characterization of thin films  

SciTech Connect

A method, apparatus, and system for characterizing thin film materials. The method, apparatus, and system includes a container for receiving a starting material, applying a gravitational force, a magnetic force, and an electric force or combinations thereof to at least the starting material, forming a thin film material, sensing an NMR signal from the thin film material and analyzing the NMR signal to characterize the thin film of material.

Gerald, II, Rex E. (Brookfield, IL); Klingler, Robert J. (Glenview, IL); Rathke, Jerome W. (Homer Glen, IL); Diaz, Rocio (Chicago, IL); Vukovic, Lela (Westchester, IL)

2008-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

144

Automated Electron Microscopy Film Scanner  

Renewable Energy; Environmental Technologies. ... film meets high performance specifications at higher electron energies while digital cameras do not; ...

145

Reflectance of Surfactant-Templated Mesoporous Silica Thin Films: Simulations Versus Experiments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Annalen der Physik und Chemie, Leipzig (1895) 661–679. o [Annalen der Physik und Chemie 247 (9) [25] H. Lorentz, UeberAnnalen der Physik und Chemie 245 (4) (1880) 641–665. o [26

Hutchinson, Neal J.; Coquil, Thomas; Richman, Eric K.; Tolbert, Sarah H; Pilon, Laurent

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Memory and power : reflections on history, memory, and Auschwitz in contemporary art and film  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Christian, and Catherine Grenier. 2009. The Possible Life ofChristian, and Catherine Grenier. 2009. The Possible Life ofChristian, and Catherine Grenier. 2009: p. 22 Ibid: p. 23

Shevi, Orly

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Atomistic Film Growth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

...(AES) Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) Work function change as a function of mass deposited Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) ( Ref 16 ) Atomic force microscopy (AFM) Photon tunneling microscopy...

148

Thin film photovoltaic device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids. 5 figs.

Catalano, A.W.; Bhushan, M.

1982-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

149

Thin film photovoltaic device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thin film photovoltaic solar cell which utilizes a zinc phosphide semiconductor is of the homojunction type comprising an n-type conductivity region forming an electrical junction with a p-type region, both regions consisting essentially of the same semiconductor material. The n-type region is formed by treating zinc phosphide with an extrinsic dopant such as magnesium. The semiconductor is formed on a multilayer substrate which acts as an opaque contact. Various transparent contacts may be used, including a thin metal film of the same chemical composition as the n-type dopant or conductive oxides or metal grids.

Catalano, Anthony W. (Wilmington, DE); Bhushan, Manjul (Wilmington, DE)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Metal film deposition by laser breakdown chemical vapor deposition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dielectric breakdown of gas mixtures can be used to deposit homogeneous thin films by chemical vapor deposition with appropriate control of flow and pressure conditions to suppress gas phase nucleation and particle formation. Using a pulsed CO/sub 2/ laser operating at 10.6 microns where there is no significant resonant absorption in any of the source gases, we have succeeded in depositing homogeneous films from several gas phase precursors by gas phase laser pyrolysis. Nickel and molybdenum from the respective carbonyls and tungsten from the hexafluoride have been examined to date. In each case the gas precursor is buffered to reduce the partial pressure of the reactants and to induce breakdown. The films are spectrally reflective and uniform over a large area. Films have been characterized by Auger electron spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, pull tests, and resistivity measurements. The highest quality films have resulted from the nickel depositions. Detailed x-ray diffraction analysis of these films yields a very small domain size (approx. 50 A) consistent with rapid quenching from the gas phase reaction zone. This analysis also shows nickel carbide formation consistent with the temperature of the reaction zone and the Auger electron spectroscopy results which show some carbon and oxygen incorporation (8% and 1% respectively). Gas phase transport and condensation of the molybdenum carbonyl results in substantial carbon and oxygen contamination of the molybdenum films requiring heated substrates, a requirement not consistent with the goals of the program to maximize the quench rate of the deposition. Results from tungsten deposition experiments representing a reduction chemistry instead of the decomposition chemistry involved in the carbonyl experiments are also reported.

Jervis, T.R.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Characterization of background reflectivity for MEDUSA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The DARPA MEDUSA program goal is to detect, locate, and identify electro-optical threats in the vicinity of a moving platform. Laser sensing will be employed to find these threats by looking for anomalous reflections from threat sensors. However, the reflectivity variability (clutter) in both natural and manmade backgrounds will inherently limit target detection levels. In parallel with advanced component development by several aerospace contractors, a study of this clutter limitation was initiated in the long-wave (LW) and midwave (MW) infrared spectral regions to properly drive system design parameters. The analysis of clutter and associated limits on detection has been a major component of LANL efforts in laser remote sensing for non-proliferation. LANL is now analyzing existing data and conducting additional selected measurements in both the LWIR (9 and 10.6 pm) and MWIR (4.6 pm) in support of the DARPA program to increase our understanding of these clutter limitations and, thereby aid in the design and development of the MEDUSA system. The status of the LANL effort will be discussed. A variety of different natural and manmade target types have been investigated. Target scenes range from relatively low clutter sites typical of a southwestern desert to higher clutter downtown urban sites. Images are created by conducting raster scans across a scene interest. These images are then analyzed using data clustering techniques (e g K-means) to identify regions within the scene that contain similar reflectivity profiles. Data will be presented illustrating the reflectivity variability among different samples of the same target type, Le. within the same cluster, and among different data clusters. In general, it is found that the variability of reflectivities among similar targets is well represented by a log-normal distribution. Furthermore, manmade target tend to have higher reflectivities and more variability than natural targets. The implications of this observation for MEDUSA systems designed to locate and identify threat sensors will be discussed. The implications for chemical sensing applications will also be addressed.

Oldenborg, R. C. (Richard C.); Tiee, J. J. (Joe J.); Foy, B. R. (Bernard R.); Petrin, R. R. (Roger R.); Wilson, C. W. (Carl W.)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Conflicting Views of Homosexuality Among the Mainstream Films and Gay "Pink" Films of Japan.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis will examine the representation of homosexuality in Japanese films through analyzing gay "pink" films, which are soft-core porn films exhibited in specialized theaters,… (more)

Ogawa, Sho

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Milwaukee Installer Reflects on His Career In Solar  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Interested in joining America's solar workforce? One Milwaukee solar installer shares his career reflections and advice.

154

Thin film photovoltaic cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thin film photovoltaic cell having a transparent electrical contact and an opaque electrical contact with a pair of semiconductors therebetween includes utilizing one of the electrical contacts as a substrate and wherein the inner surface thereof is modified by microroughening while being macro-planar.

Meakin, John D. (Newark, DE); Bragagnolo, Julio (Newark, DE)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

U.S. Reflects World Market  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 4 Notes: U.S. crude oil inventories reflect the world situation. U.S. inventories were drawn down in 1999 as world demand exceeded world supply of crude oil as OPEC cut back on production. Low crude oil inventories go hand in hand with low product inventories. Product inventories were also drawn down to help meet demand, as was seen with gasoline this Spring. The rise in crude oil inventories earlier this year, while indicating an improvement in the market balance, appears to be short-lived, just as we had predicted a few months ago. Looking at U.S. crude stock levels in April and May can be misleading, since increases then were more reflective of the surge in WTI and U.S. product prices in the 1st quarter. With U.S. crude oil stocks drawn down by more than 20 million barrels from

156

Modeling the effects of reflective roofing  

SciTech Connect

Roofing materials which are highly reflective to sunlight are currently being developed. Reflective roofing is an effective summertime energy saver in warm and sunny climates. It has been demonstrated to save up to 40% of the energy needed to cool a building during the summer months. Buildings without air conditioning can reduce their indoor temperatures and improve occupant comfort during the summer if highly reflective roofing materials are used. But there are questions about the tradeoff between summer energy savings and extra wintertime energy use due to reduced heat collection by the roof. These questions are being answered by simulating buildings in various climates using the DOE-2 program (version 2.1E). Unfortunately, DOE-2 does not accurately model radiative, convective and conductive processes in the roof-attic. Radiative heat transfer from the underside of a reflective roof is much smaller than that of a roof which absorbs heat from sunlight, and must be accounted for in the building energy model. Convection correlations for the attic and the roof surface must be fine tuned. An equation to model the insulation`s conductivity dependence on temperature must also be added. A function was written to incorporate the attic heat transfer processes into the DOE-2 building energy simulation. This function adds radiative, convective and conductive equations to the energy balance of the roof. Results of the enhanced DOE-2 model were compared to measured data collected from a school bungalow in a Sacramento Municipal Utility District monitoring project, with particular attention paid to the year-round energy effects.

Gartland, L.M.; Konopacki, S.J.; Akbari, H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Compact reflective imaging spectrometer utilizing immersed gratings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact imaging spectrometer comprising an entrance slit for directing light, a first mirror that receives said light and reflects said light, an immersive diffraction grating that diffracts said light, a second mirror that focuses said light, and a detector array that receives said focused light. The compact imaging spectrometer can be utilized for remote sensing imaging spectrometers where size and weight are of primary importance.

Chrisp, Michael P. (Danville, CA)

2006-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

158

Light reflecting apparatus including a multi-aberration light reflecting surface  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A light reflecting apparatus including a multi-aberration bendable light reflecting surface is disclosed herein. This apparatus includes a structural assembly comprised of a rectangular plate which is resiliently bendable, to a limited extent, and which has a front side defining the multi-aberration light reflecting surface and an opposite back side, and a plurality of straight leg members rigidly connected with the back side of the plate and extending rearwardly therefrom. The apparatus also includes a number of different adjustment mechanisms, each of which is connected with specific ones of the leg members. These mechanisms are adjustably movable in different ways for applying corresponding forces to the leg members in order to bend the rectangular plate and light reflecting surface into different predetermined curvatures and which specifically include quadratic and cubic curvatures corresponding to different optical aberrations.

Sawicki, Richard H. (Pleasanton, CA); Sweatt, William (Livermore, CA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

[ital In] [ital situ] infrared measurements of film and gas properties during the plasma deposition of amorphous hydrogenated silicon  

SciTech Connect

This research has performed preliminary [ital in] [ital situ] Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) measurements during the plasma deposition of amorphous silicon ([ital a]-Si:H). Experiments demonstrate both gas phase and film measurements within a simple SiH[sub 4] plasma reactor using a specially modified FTIR spectrometer. Films are deposited on substrates of either gold (mirror finish) or stainless steel (matte finish). In particular, [ital in] [ital situ] emission/reflection FTIR of the film yields information about surface temperature, film thickness, and film composition. We have measured surface temperature to [plus minus]5 K and detected the onset of poor film growth at a thickness of 500--1000 A using the 2080 cm[sup [minus]1] absorption feature. A simple model for the reflectance of a film on a metal is employed to determine the thickness of the films. [ital In] [ital situ] emission/transmission FTIR of the plasma determines the gas composition and average gas temperature. Measurements show that the silane conversion is [similar to]11% within the plasma region for a typical deposition at 250 [degree]C and roughly doubles for a deposition at room temperature. The FTIR spectra show that most of this converted silane reappears as disilane (Si[sub 2]H[sub 6]). Before starting the plasma, the silane gas is [similar to]30 K cooler than the nominal substrate temperature of 250 [degree]C; starting the plasma raises the average temperature another 20 [degree]C.

Morrison, P.W. Jr.; Haigis, J.R. (Advanced Fuel Research, Inc., East Hartford, Connecticut 06108 (United States))

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

V-022: Attachmate Reflection Products Java Multiple Vulnerabilities |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2: Attachmate Reflection Products Java Multiple Vulnerabilities 2: Attachmate Reflection Products Java Multiple Vulnerabilities V-022: Attachmate Reflection Products Java Multiple Vulnerabilities November 13, 2012 - 1:00am Addthis PROBLEM: Attachmate Reflection Products Java Multiple Vulnerabilities PLATFORM: Reflection X 2011 Reflection Suite for X 2011 Reflection for Secure IT Server for Windows Reflection for Secure IT Client and Server for UNIX ABSTRACT: Security issues related to Reflection PKI Services Manager REFERENCE LINKS: PKI Services Manager Technical Note 2560 Secunia Advisory SA51256 CVE-2012-0551 CVE-2012-1711 CVE-2012-1713 CVE-2012-1716 CVE-2012-1717 CVE-2012-1718 CVE-2012-1719 CVE-2012-1720 CVE-2012-1721 CVE-2012-1722 CVE-2012-1723 CVE-2012-1724 CVE-2012-1725 CVE-2012-1726 IMPACT ASSESSMENT: High DISCUSSION: Attachmate has acknowledged multiple vulnerabilities in some Reflection

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "drapes reflective film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that are proving to be integral to single-shot, high-resolution imaging of both complex materials and biological samples. Existing techniques are typically designed for transmission geometry, however, and use isolated objects, requiring special sample fabrication and restricting the type of samples under investigation. Recently, researchers from the ALS and the University of Oregon have shown at ALS Beamline 12.0.2 that it is possible to form x-ray holograms in reflection geometry by using the light scattered from a sample, opening the door to lensless imaging of a wealth of new material samples.

162

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that are proving to be integral to single-shot, high-resolution imaging of both complex materials and biological samples. Existing techniques are typically designed for transmission geometry, however, and use isolated objects, requiring special sample fabrication and restricting the type of samples under investigation. Recently, researchers from the ALS and the University of Oregon have shown at ALS Beamline 12.0.2 that it is possible to form x-ray holograms in reflection geometry by using the light scattered from a sample, opening the door to lensless imaging of a wealth of new material samples.

163

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print Wednesday, 26 October 2011 00:00 The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that are proving to be integral to single-shot, high-resolution imaging of both complex materials and biological samples. Existing techniques are typically designed for transmission geometry, however, and use isolated objects, requiring special sample fabrication and restricting the type of samples under investigation. Recently, researchers from the ALS and the University of Oregon have shown at ALS Beamline 12.0.2 that it is possible to form x-ray holograms in reflection geometry by using the light scattered from a sample, opening the door to lensless imaging of a wealth of new material samples.

164

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that are proving to be integral to single-shot, high-resolution imaging of both complex materials and biological samples. Existing techniques are typically designed for transmission geometry, however, and use isolated objects, requiring special sample fabrication and restricting the type of samples under investigation. Recently, researchers from the ALS and the University of Oregon have shown at ALS Beamline 12.0.2 that it is possible to form x-ray holograms in reflection geometry by using the light scattered from a sample, opening the door to lensless imaging of a wealth of new material samples.

165

Lensless X-Ray Imaging in Reflection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print X-Ray Imaging in Reflection Print The advent of x-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) light sources has led to an outburst of research activities in the field of lensless imaging. XFELs combine the advantages of sychrotron light sources (high brightness and x-ray wavelengths relevant to atomic and molecular phenomena) with the advantages of visible-light lasers (highly coherent beams). All of these characteristics are important for coherent x-ray diffraction imaging-lensless imaging techniques that are proving to be integral to single-shot, high-resolution imaging of both complex materials and biological samples. Existing techniques are typically designed for transmission geometry, however, and use isolated objects, requiring special sample fabrication and restricting the type of samples under investigation. Recently, researchers from the ALS and the University of Oregon have shown at ALS Beamline 12.0.2 that it is possible to form x-ray holograms in reflection geometry by using the light scattered from a sample, opening the door to lensless imaging of a wealth of new material samples.

166

NFRC Procedures for Applied Films  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Applied Films Applied Films Last update: 12/10/2013 07:29 PM NFRC now has a procedure for adding applied films to substrates in Optics5 and importing those applied film constructions into WINDOW5 to be used in a whole product calculation. The information presented below is provided to help simulators with this process. Feel free to contact us at WINDOWHelp@lbl.gov with questions or comments. NFRC Applied Film Procedure Applied Film Procedures (approved by NFRC) (PDF file) Approved Applied Film List (IGDB 33.0) (PDF file) NFRC Laminate Procedure Training Powerpoint with Examples (This Powerpoint presentation was used in the NFRC web based training sessions in December 2006 and January 2007) PowerPoint Presentation (PPT file) PowerPoint Presentation (PDF file) Help and Troubleshooting

167

Method for making carbon films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area ([approx equal]1000 m[sup 2] /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160 C for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750 C in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750--850 C for between 1--6 hours. 2 figs.

Tan, M.X.

1999-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

168

Method for making carbon films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area (.apprxeq.1000 m.sup.2 /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160.degree. C. for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750-850.degree. C. for between 1-6 hours.

Tan, Ming X. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Thin film superconductor magnetic bearings  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A superconductor magnetic bearing includes a shaft (10) that is subject to a load (L) and rotatable around an axis of rotation, a magnet (12) mounted to the shaft, and a stator (14) in proximity to the shaft. The stator (14) has a superconductor thin film assembly (16) positioned to interact with the magnet (12) to produce a levitation force on the shaft (10) that supports the load (L). The thin film assembly (16) includes at least two superconductor thin films (18) and at least one substrate (20). Each thin film (18) is positioned on a substrate (20) and all the thin films are positioned such that an applied magnetic field from the magnet (12) passes through all the thin films. A similar bearing in which the thin film assembly (16) is mounted on the shaft (10) and the magnet (12) is part of the stator (14) also can be constructed.

Weinberger, Bernard R. (Avon, CT)

1995-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

170

Ellipsometry of anodic film growth  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An automated computer interpretation of ellisometer measurements of anodic film growth was developed. Continuous mass and charge balances were used to utilize more fully the time dependence of the ellipsometer data and the current and potential measurements. A multiple-film model was used to characterize the growth of films which proceeds via a dissolution--precipitation mechanism; the model also applies to film growth by adsorption and nucleation mechanisms. The characteristic parameters for film growth describe homogeneous and heterogeneous crystallization rates, film porosities and degree of hydration, and the supersaturation of ionic species in the electrolyte. Additional descriptions which may be chosen are patchwise film formation, nonstoichiometry of the anodic film, and statistical variations in the size and orientation of secondary crystals. Theories were developed to describe the optical effects of these processes. An automatic, self-compensating ellipsometer was used to study the growth in alkaline solution of anodic films on silver, cadmium, and zinc. Mass-transport conditions included stagnant electrolyte and forced convection in a flow channel. Multiple films were needed to characterize the optical properties of these films. Anodic films grew from an electrolyte supersatuated in the solution-phase dissolution product. The degree of supersaturation depended on transport conditions and had a major effect on the structure of the film. Anodic reaction rates were limited by the transport of charge carriers through a primary surface layer. The primary layers on silver, zinc, and cadmium all appeared to be nonstoichiometric, containing excess metal. Diffusion coefficients, transference numbers, and the free energy of adsorption of zinc oxide were derived from ellipsometer measurements. 97 figures, 13 tables, 198 references.

Smith, C.G.

1978-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Reflection and Transmission for Conformal Defects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider conformal defects joining two conformal field theories along a line. We define two new quantities associated to such defects in terms of expectation values of the stress tensors and we propose them as measures of the reflectivity and transmissivity of the defect. Their properties are investigated and they are computed in a number of examples. We obtain a complete answer for all defects in the Ising model and between certain pairs of minimal models. In the case of two conformal field theories with an enhanced symmetry we restrict ourselves to non-trivial defects that can be obtained by a coset construction.

Thomas Quella; Ingo Runkel; Gerard M. T. Watts

2006-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

172

Falling film evaporator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A falling film evaporator including a vertically oriented pipe heated exteriorly by a steam jacket and interiorly by a finned steam tube, all heating surfaces of the pipe and steam tube being formed of a material wet by water such as stainless steel, and packing within the pipe consisting of Raschig rings formed of a material that is not wet by water such as polyvinylidene fluoride.

Bruns, Lester E. (Kennewick, WA)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Vertically Aligned Nanocomposite Thin Films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Vertically aligned nanocomposite (VAN) thin films have recently stimulated significant research interest to achieve better material functionality or multifunctionalities. In VAN thin films, both phases grow epitaxially in parallel on given substrates and form a unique nano-checkerboard structure. Multiple strains, including the vertical strain which along the vertical interface and the substrate induced strain which along the film and substrate interface, exist in VAN thin films. The competition of these strains gives a promise to tune the material lattice structure and future more the nanocomposite film physical properties. Those two phases in the VAN thin films are selected based on their growth kinetics, thermodynamic stability and epitaxial growth ability on given substrates. In the present work, we investigated unique epitaxial two-phase VAN (BiFeO3)x:(Sm2O3)1-x and (La0.7Sr0.3MnO3)x:(Mn3O4)1-x thin film systems by pulsed laser deposition. These VAN thin films exhibit a highly ordered vertical columnar structure with good epitaxial quality. The strain of the two phases can be tuned by deposition parameters, e.g. deposition frequency and film composition. Their strain tunability is found to be related directly to the systematic variation of the column widths and domain structures. Their physical properties, such as dielectric loss and ferromagnetisms can be tuned systematically by this variation. The growth morphology, microstructure and material functionalities of VAN thin films can be varied by modifying the phase ratio, substrate orientation or deposition conditions. Systematic study has been done on growing (SrTiO3)0.5:(MgO)0.5 VAN thin films on SrTiO3 and MgO substrates, respectively. The variation of column width demonstrates the substrate induced strain plays another important role in the VAN thin film growth. The VAN thin films also hold promise in achieving porous thin films with ordered nanopores by thermal treatment. We selected (BiFeO3)0.5:(Sm2O3)0.5 VAN thin films as a template and get uniformly distributed bi-layered nanopores. Controllable porosity can be achieved by adjusting the microstructure of VAN (BiFeO3):(Sm2O3) thin films and the annealing parameters. In situ heating experiments within a transmission electron microscope column provide direct observations into the phases transformation, evaporation and structure reconstruction during the annealing. Systematic study in this dissertation demonstrate that the vertically aligned nanocomposite microstructure is a brand new architecture in thin films and an exciting approach that promises tunable material functionalities as well as novel nanostructures.

Bi, Zhenxing

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Lamp method and apparatus using multiple reflections  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrodeless microwave discharge lamp includes an envelope with a discharge forming fill disposed therein which emits light, the fill being capable of absorbing light at one wavelength and re-emitting the absorbed light at a different wavelength, the light emitted from the fill having a first spectral power distribution in the absence of reflection of light back into the fill, a source of microwave energy coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed within the microwave cavity and configured to reflect at least some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit, the exiting light having a second spectral power distribution with proportionately more light in the visible region as compared to the first spectral power distribution, wherein the light re-emitted by the fill is shifted in wavelength with respect to the absorbed light and the magnitude of the shift is in relation to an effective optical path length.

MacLennan, Donald A. (Gaithersburg, MD); Turner, Brian P. (Damascus, MD)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Reflection-Based Python-C++ Bindings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Python is a flexible, powerful, high-level language with excellent interactive and introspective capabilities and a very clean syntax. As such, it can be a very effective tool for driving physics analysis. Python is designed to be extensible in low-level C-like languages, and its use as a scientific steering language has become quite widespread. To this end, existing and custom-written C or C++ libraries are bound to the Python environment as so-called extension modules. A number of tools for easing the process of creating such bindings exist, such as SWIG and Boost. Python. Yet, the process still requires a considerable amount of effort and expertise. The C++ language has few built-in introspective capabilities, but tools such as LCGDict and CINT add this by providing so-called dictionaries: libraries that contain information about the names, entry points, argument types, etc. of other libraries. The reflection information from these dictionaries can be used for the creation of bindings and so the process can be fully automated, as dictionaries are already provided for many end-user libraries for other purposes, such as object persistency. PyLCGDict is a Python extension module that uses LCG dictionaries, as PyROOT uses CINT reflection information, to allow /cwPython users to access C++ libraries with essentially no preparation on the users' behalf. In addition, and in a similar way, PyROOT gives ROOT users access to Python libraries.

Generowicz, Jacek; Lavrijsen, Wim T.L.P.; Marino, Massimo; Mato, Pere

2004-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

176

Hall effect in superconducting films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Near the superconducting phase transition, fluctuations significantly modify the electronic transport properties. Here we study the fluctuation corrections to the Hall conductivity in disordered films, extending previous ...

Michaeli, Karen

177

Thin Films and Interfaces Committee  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Thin Films and Interfaces Committee is part of the Electronic, Magnetic, and Photonic Materials Division;. Our Mission: Promotes knowledge of the science ...

178

Reduced leakage in epitaxial BiFeO{sub 3} films following oxygen radio frequency plasma treatment  

SciTech Connect

Epitaxial BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) films were deposited using pulsed laser deposition method. The prepared films were characterized using x-ray diffraction, x-ray reflectivity, ferroelectric loop tracer, and leakage current measurements before and after oxygen plasma treatment. The leakage current of the films, a crucial parameter in device applications, is observed to be reduced by two orders of magnitude with oxygen plasma treatment at room temperature. P-E hysteresis loops were observed in oxygen plasma treated BFO films. The observed results indicate the usefulness of oxygen radio frequency plasma treatment (RF 13.56 MHz), which is an effective and low temperature processing technique, in such lossy ferroelectric thin films.

Kothari, Deepti [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India) [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452 017 (India); Upadhyay, Sanjay K.; Raghavendra Reddy, V. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452 017 (India)] [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore 452 017 (India); Jariwala, C.; Raole, P. M. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

2013-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

179

Satellite-Observed Reflectance of Snow and Clouds  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effects of snow and cloud cover on bidirectional reflectance were examined using visible radiation (0.5–0.7 ?m) data measured by NOAA polar orbiting satellites between June 1974 and February 1978. Reflectances resulting from different cloud/...

Alan Robock; Dale Kaiser

1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Narrowband to Broadband Conversion with Spatially Autocorrelated Reflectance Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new technique for estimating broadband reflectance from Advanced Very High-Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) narrowband reflectances in channel 1 and 2 is developed. The data used are simultaneous and coincident narrowband and broadband ...

Zhanqing Li; H. G. Leighton

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "drapes reflective film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

RefaFlex: safer refactorings for reflective Java programs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

If programs access types and members through reflection, refactoring tools cannot guarantee that refactorings on those programs are behavior preserving. Refactoring approaches for highly reflective languages like Smalltalk therefore check behavior preservation ...

Andreas Thies; Eric Bodden

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Reflected Fluxes for Broken Clouds over a Lambertian Surface  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reflected fluxes are calculated for broken cloudiness (i.e., nonplane parallel) as a function of cloud cover, cloud optical depth, solar zenith angle and surface albedo. These calculations extend previous results for broken cloud reflected fluxes ...

Ronald M. Welch; Bruce A. Wielicki

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Reconstruction of shape and reflectance properties based on visual hull  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method based on Visual Hull is proposed for simultaneously recovering an object's shape and its reflectance properties from multiple images. Here, the reflectance properties are described by the Ward BRDF model. Firstly, the shape represented by voxels ...

Zuoyong Zheng; Lizhuang Ma; Zhong Li; Zhihua Chen

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Low-Latitude Reflection of Rossby Wave Trains  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The nonlinear reflection of an isolated Rossby wave train at a low-latitude wave-breaking region is contrasted with the more familiar longitudinally periodic case. General theoretical arguments for nonlinear reflection based on absorptivity ...

G. Brunet; P. H. Haynes

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Post-growth surface smoothing of thin films of diindenoperylene  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We applied in situ x-ray reflectivity and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy to study the impact of annealing on low temperature (200 K) deposited organic thin films of diindenoperylene (DIP) on SiO{sub 2} and indium tin oxide (ITO). At 200 K, DIP is crystalline on SiO{sub 2} and amorphous on ITO. Upon heating to room temperature, the roughness of DIP is reduced on both substrates, from 1.5 nm to 0.75 nm (SiO{sub 2}) and from 0.90 nm to 0.45 nm (ITO). The smoothing is accompanied by crystallization of the surface molecules, whereas the bulk structure of the films does not strongly reorganize.

Hinderhofer, A. [Institute for Applied Physics, University of Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, Tuebingen 72076 (Germany); Graduate School of Advanced Integration Science, Chiba University,1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Hosokai, T. [Department of Materials and Science, Iwate University, Ueda 4-3-5, Morioka, Iwate 0208551 (Japan); Yonezawa, K.; Kato, K.; Kera, S.; Ueno, N. [Graduate School of Advanced Integration Science, Chiba University,1-33 Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Gerlach, A.; Broch, K.; Frank, C.; Schreiber, F. [Institute for Applied Physics, University of Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, Tuebingen 72076 (Germany); Novak, J. [Institute for Applied Physics, University of Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, Tuebingen 72076 (Germany); European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), BP 220, Grenoble 38043 (France)

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

186

EIA projections for carbon dioxide emissions reflect changes ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy Information Administration ... The lowered projections reflect both market and policy developments that have reduced recent and projected ...

187

Oxide Multilayer Thermal Radiation Energy Reflection EBCs: Effect ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Environmental barrier coatings (EBCs) with thermal radiation energy reflection have been developed recently. The EBCs utilize interaction between ...

188

Reflection and transmission at dimensional boundaries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An inhomogeneous Kaluza-Klein compactification of a higher dimensional spacetime may give rise to an effective 4d spacetime with distinct domains having different sizes of the extra dimensions. The domains are separated by domain walls generated by the extra dimensional scale factor. The scattering of electromagnetic and massive particle waves at such boundaries is examined here for models without warping or branes. We consider the limits corresponding to thin (thick) domain walls, i.e., limits where wavelengths are large (small) in comparison to wall thickness. We also obtain numerical solutions for a wall of arbitrary thickness and extract the reflection and transmission coefficients as functions of frequency. Results are obtained which qualitatively resemble those for electroweak domain walls and other "ordinary" domain walls for 4d theories.

Nelson De Leon; John Morris

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

189

Autonomous recovery from hostile code insertion using distributed reflection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a hostile environment, an autonomous cognitive system requires a reflective capability to detect problems in its own operation and recover from them without external intervention. We present an architecture in which reflection is distributed so that ... Keywords: Anomaly, Immune systems, Meta-level, Quality-monitoring, Reflection, Self-repair

Catriona M Kennedy; Aaron Sloman

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Morphology and water resistance of mixed silane films of bis[3-(triethoxysilyl) propyl]tetrasulfide and bis-[trimethoxysilylpropyl]amine  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Functional organosilanes are powerful interface-active agents that find applications as adhesion promoters as well as optical, dielectric and protective coatings. Bis-silanes are of particular interest because they are highly crosslinked leading to very robust films. In almost all applications, the water resistance of the films is a critical performance measure. Here we use neutron reflectivity to address the effect of bridging group on the hydrothermal response of bis-silane films prepared using bis[3-(triethoxysilyl) propyl]tetrasulfide and bis-[trimethoxysilylpropyl]amine. Neat and mixed films are examined as-prepared, after exposure to water vapor and then in the re-dried state. The bridging group is the key factor that controls the morphology and water resistance of silane films. Although bis-sulfur silane is not as condensed as bis-amino silane, bis-sulfur swells less in water because of the hydrophobic nature of bridging group. The reflectivity of bis-sulfur silane film is reversible after room-temperature water conditioning but not at 80 C, indicating chemical alternation of the film at 80 C. The water resistance of mixed silane is roughly that of both components weighted by their volume fraction. But based on the enhanced shrinkage that occurs following water-vapor conditioning of the mixed film, condensation is accelerated in the mixed silane. Regarding the precursor solution, bis-amino silane may act as a catalyst in the hydrolysis of bis-sulfur silane leading to more silanols in the solution and further condensation in the film. Variation in the structure normal to the substrate is also examined by swelling the film with d-nitrobenzene, a non-reacting swelling agent.

Pan, Guirong; Schaefer, Dale W.; van Ooij, Wim J.; Kent, Michael S.; Majewski, Jaroslaw; Yim, Hyun (UCIN); (Sandia); (LANL)

2010-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

191

Fabricating Dielecric Ceramic Films on Copper Foils  

Industries Electronics Fabricating Dielectric Ceramic Films on Copper Foils (IN-09-006) Ceramic film capacitors built on a copper foil being tested on ...

192

NIST Hydrogen Storage in Thin Films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Hydrogen Storage Optimization in Thin Film Combinatorial Alloys. ... Magnesium Thin Films," International Journal of Hydrogen Energy, doi:10.1016/j ...

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Thin Film and Nanostructure Processing Group Homepage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... The Thin Film and Nanostructure Processing Group is one of seven ... Deposition of thin films Electrodeposition of metals and alloys Evaporation of ...

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

194

Metals Thin-Films Information at NIST  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NIST Home > Metals Thin-Films Information at NIST. Metals Thin-Films Information at NIST. (the links below are a compilation ...

2010-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

195

Optical Characterization of Advanced Thin Films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Recently, thin films of spun-cast poly(2,5-bis(3-alkylthiophen ... been demonstrated to exhibit exceptional hole mobilities in thin film transistors (TFTs ...

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

196

Surface Sensitive Scattering from Thin Films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Thin films of few tenths of angstroms are becoming the staple of the electronic ... a powerful tool for the basic understanding of the film microstructure. ...

197

Thin Film Solar Technologies | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon Thin Film Solar Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Name Thin Film Solar Technologies...

198

Interfaces in Nanostructured Functional Oxide Thin Films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The thin film systems include high temperature superconductors (HTS), thin film solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), and other functional oxide systems. Detailed ...

199

Electrical initiation of an energetic nanolaminate film  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A heating apparatus comprising an energetic nanolaminate film that produces heat when initiated, a power source that provides an electric current, and a control that initiates the energetic nanolaminate film by directing the electric current to the energetic nanolaminate film and joule heating the energetic nanolaminate film to an initiation temperature. Also a method of heating comprising providing an energetic nanolaminate film that produces heat when initiated, and initiating the energetic nanolaminate film by directing an electric current to the energetic nanolaminate film and joule heating the energetic nanolaminate film to an initiation temperature.

Tringe, Joseph W. (Walnut Creek, CA); Gash, Alexander E. (Brentwood, CA); Barbee, Jr., Troy W. (Palo Alto, CA)

2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

200

Strictly Bollywood? : story, camera and movement in Hindi film dance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Film dances, or filmed dance sequences accompanying film songs, are an important part of popular Indian cinema. Over the years, Hindi film dance has evolved from a cinematically simplistic, filmed documentation of performance ...

Shresthova, Sangita.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "drapes reflective film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

The Effect of Mean and Differential Attenuation on the Precision and Accuracy of the Estimates of Reflectivity and Differential Reflectivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Error propagation analysis is applied to evaluate the effects of correcting horizontal and differential attenuation on the precision of the estimates of reflectivity and differential reflectivity. The analysis shows that the loss of precision on ...

Enrico Torlaschi; Isztar Zawadzki

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Thin film hydrogen sensor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A hydrogen sensor element comprises an essentially inert, electrically-insulating substrate having a thin-film metallization deposited thereon which forms at least two resistors on the substrate. The metallization comprises a layer of Pd or a Pd alloy for sensing hydrogen and an underlying intermediate metal layer for providing enhanced adhesion of the metallization to the substrate. An essentially inert, electrically insulating, hydrogen impermeable passivation layer covers at least one of the resistors, and at least one of the resistors is left uncovered. The difference in electrical resistances of the covered resistor and the uncovered resistor is related to hydrogen concentration in a gas to which the sensor element is exposed.

Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hoffheins, Barbara S. (Knoxville, TN); Fleming, Pamela H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

System for measuring film thickness  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for determining the thicknesses of thin films of materials exhibiting fluorescence in response to exposure to excitation energy from a suitable source of such energy. A section of film is illuminated with a fixed level of excitation energy from a source such as an argon ion laser emitting blue-green light. The amount of fluorescent light produced by the film over a limited area within the section so illuminated is then measured using a detector such as a photomultiplier tube. Since the amount of fluorescent light produced is a function of the thicknesses of thin films, the thickness of a specific film can be determined by comparing the intensity of fluorescent light produced by this film with the intensity of light produced by similar films of known thicknesses in response to the same amount of excitation energy. The preferred embodiment of the invention uses fiber optic probes in measuring the thicknesses of oil films on the operational components of machinery which are ordinarily obscured from view.

Batishko, Charles R. (West Richland, WA); Kirihara, Leslie J. (Richland, WA); Peters, Timothy J. (Richland, WA); Rasmussen, Donald E. (Richland, WA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Thin film ion conducting coating  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Durable thin film ion conducting coatings are formed on a transparent glass substrate by the controlled deposition of the mixed oxides of lithium:tantalum or lithium:niobium. The coatings provide durable ion transport sources for thin film solid state storage batteries and electrochromic energy conservation devices.

Goldner, Ronald B. (Lexington, MA); Haas, Terry (Sudbury, MA); Wong, Kwok-Keung (Watertown, MA); Seward, George (Arlington, MA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Thin films: Past, present, future  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the characteristics of the thin film photovoltaic modules necessary for an acceptable rate of return for rural areas and underdeveloped countries. The topics of the paper include a development of goals of cost and performance for an acceptable PV system, a review of current technologies for meeting these goals, issues and opportunities in thin film technologies.

Zweibel, K.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Anode film formation and control  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A protective film is created about the anode within a cryolite-based electrolyte during electrolytic production of aluminum from alumina. The film functions to minimize corrosion of the anode by the cryolitic electrolyte and thereby extend the life of the anode. Various operating parameters of the electrolytic process are controlled to maintain the protective film about the anode in a protective state throughout the electrolytic reduction of alumina. Such parameters include electrolyte temperature, electrolyte ratio, current density, and Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] concentration. An apparatus is also disclosed to enable identification of the onset of anode corrosion due to disruption of the film to provide real time information regarding the state of the film. 3 figs.

Koski, O.; Marschman, S.C.

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Solar energy system  

SciTech Connect

A solar energy system is described for selectively absorbing or reflecting radiant energy entering through a window of a structure, the system comprising a window drape having a decorative side and a back side, and a removable liner adjacent the backside of the window drape. At least one side of the liner or window drape backside is a radiant energy reflecting surface and another of said sides is a radiant energy absorbing surface. Thus, depending upon the season of the year, the system may be arranged to selectively provide the appropriate surface to optimize or minimize the radiant energy maintained within the structure.

Mole, R.A.

1977-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

208

OPEC 1991 results reflect hard times  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reports that low crude oil prices and economic tough times in industrial countries cause a lean 1991 for members of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. OPEC's 1991 annual report the member countries reported an overall loss of $12 billion in 1991 on oil revenues that fell 16.2%. Iraq and Kuwait were not included because of their unusual circumstances in the wake of the Persian Gulf war. Reduced oil revenues reflected a slide to $18.66/bbl in 1991 from $22.26/bbl in 1990 for the average price of OPEC basket crudes. As of last June 5 OPEC's basket crude price has averaged only $17.42/bbl this year, OPEC News Agency (Opecna) reported. First quarter 1992 prices averaged $16.77/bbl, compared wit $19.31/bbl in fourth quarter 1991. The average price jumped 52 cent/bbl the first week in June this year to $19.93/bbl, bouyed by Saudi Arabia's move at the end of May to shift its policy from price moderation to one in favor of higher prices, Opecna the. OPEC members increased production 1% in 1991 to an average 23.28 million b/d in spite of negligible production from Iraq and Kuwait and reduced production from Qatar.

Not Available

1992-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

209

Final project report - CRADA with United Solar Technologies and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL-021): Thin film materials for low-cost high performance solar concentrators  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of this project were as follows: To develop and evaluate promising low-cost dielectric and polymer-protected thin-film reflective metal coatings to be applied to preformed continuously-curved solar reflector panels to enhance their solar reflectance, and to demonstrate protected solar reflective coatings on preformed solar concentrator panels. The opportunity for this project arose from a search by United Solar Technologies (UST) for organizations and facilities capable of applying reflective coatings to large preformed panels. PNL was identified as being uniquely qualified to participate in this collaborative project.

Martin, P.M.; Affinito, J.D.; Gross, M.E.; Bennett, W.D.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Effect of current density on thermodynamic properties of nanocrystalline palladium capped samarium hydride thin film switchable mirrors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A 55 nm samarium film capped with a 10 nm palladium overlayer switched from a metallic reflecting to a semiconducting, transparent in visible state during ex-situ hydrogen loading via electrochemical means in 1 M KOH electrolytic aqueous solution at ...

Pushpendra Kumar; L. K. Malhotra

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Thin Film and nanostructure Processing Staff  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thin Film Nanostructure Staff Directory. John Bonevich, Group Leader. Shari Beauchamp, Office Assistant. STAFF & NRC POSTDOCS. ...

2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

212

CFN | Thin Films Group  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Materials Synthesis and Characterization Facility Materials Synthesis and Characterization Facility Thin-Film Processing Facility Online Manager (FOM) website FOM manual ESR for lab 1L32 (High-Resolution SEM and x-ray microanalysis) CFN Operations Safety Awareness (COSA) form for 1L32 (ESR #1) Technical article on LABE detector (Analytical SEM) Request form for off-hours access (.doc, First time only, renewals done via email) Lab Tool capabilities Primary contact Training schedule Backup contact Booking calendar Booking rules SOP 1L32 Analytical SEM Camino Thurs 10-12 PM Stein FOM yes yes Hitachi S-4800 SEM Stein Tues 1-3 PM Black FOM no yes booking calendar: yes = need to reserve tool time in calendar before using tool booking rules: yes = specific rules exist for reserving tool time SOP = standard operating procedure (basic instructions)

213

Optical and electronic properties of Ti{sub 1-x}Nb{sub x}N thin films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ti{sub 1-x}Nb{sub x}N thin films with x=0, 0.26, 0.41, 0.58 and 1 were deposited on silicon (311) substrate by RF magnetron sputtering. The dielectric functions of these films were calculated by fitting measured reflectance spectra to the Drude-Lorentz model. The measured reflectance spectra exhibits a minimum in the visible region and this feature shifts to higher energy (shorter wavelength) with increase in x. The observed behavior can be modeled as the response of four Lorentz oscillators. The real part of the dielectric function is characterized by a screened plasma energy of 2.26 eV for x=0 which increased to 2.80 eV for x=0.58 in the Ti{sub 1-x}Nb{sub x}N film.

Vasu, K.; Gopikrishnan, G. M.; Krishna, M. Ghanashyam; Padmanabhan, K. A. [School of Physics, Centre for Nanotechnology, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-500 046 (India); School of Physics, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-500 046 (India); School of Physics, Centre for Nanotechnology, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-500 046 (India); Centre for Nanotechnology, School of Engineering Sciences and Technology, University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad-500 046 (India)

2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

214

Liquid-film electron stripper  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thin freestanding oil film is produced in vacuum by directing an oil stream radially inward to the hollow-ground sharp outer edge of a rotating disc. The sides of the edge are roughened somewhat to aid in dispersing oil from the disc. Oil is removed from the surface of disc to prevent formation of oil droplets which might spin off the disc and disrupt the oil film. An ion beam is directed through the thin oil film so that electrons are stripped from the ions to increase their charge.

Leemann, B.T.; Yourd, R.B.

1982-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

215

Liquid-film electron stripper  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thin freestanding oil film is produced in vacuum by directing an oil stream radially inward to the hollow-ground sharp outer edge of a rotating disc. The sides of the edge are roughened somewhat to aid in dispersing oil from the disc. Oil is removed from the surface of disc to prevent formation of oil droplets which might spin off the disc and disrupt the oil film. An ion beam is directed through the thin oil film so that electrons are stripped from the ions to increase their charge.

Leemann, Beat T. (Walnut Creek, CA); Yourd, Roland B. (Kensington, CA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Ordering in asymmetric poly (ethylene--propylene)--poly (ethylethylene) diblock copolymer thin films  

SciTech Connect

We have used neutron reflection and phase contrast microscopy to investigate the morphology and surface topology of thin films of nearly symmetric ([ital f]=0.55) and asymmetric ([ital f]=0.77), poly (ethylene--propylene)--poly (ethylethylene) (PEP--PEE) diblock copolymers ([ital f] being the PEP volume fraction) and have identified three important differences in their ordering properties. First, annealed films of the asymmetric diblocks do not form the lamellar microstructure found in symmetric diblocks; their structure can instead be modeled in terms of the hexagonal packing of PEE cylinders observed in bulk small-angle neutron scattering measurements. However, the cylinders show in-plane distortions, which we interpret in the context of nonintegral layering. These distortions are amplified at the surfaces where the PEE assumes lamellarlike form. Second, as-cast films of the asymmetric diblock are characterized by a microstructure lacking long-range order, pinned between strongly segregated PEE at both surfaces. These films can be equilibrated through annealing, leading to the well-ordered structures described earlier. The changes with annealing are surprising given that both PEP and PEE are well above their glass transitions at room temperature. Finally, the block asymmetry and the associated cylindrical structure in the interior are also manifested in the surface topology. Thin films of asymmetric PEP--PEE are smooth on a macroscopic scale unlike their symmetric counterparts, which form islands on the surface to accommodate films of nonintegral lamellar thicknesses.

Karim, A.; Singh, N.; Sikka, M.; Bates, F.S. (Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455-0132 (United States)); Dozier, W.D.; Felcher, G.P. (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States))

1994-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

217

LBNL-5022E Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

022E Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding Authors: R. Hart*, C. Curcija, D. Arasteh, H. Goudey, C. Kohler, S. Selkowitz Environmental Energy Technologies...

218

Experimental Cell for Neutron Reflection on Lithium Manganese ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Experimental Cell for Neutron Reflection on Lithium Manganese Oxide to Study the Electrode/Electrolyte Interface. Author(s), Brian Kitchen.

219

Measuring solar reflectance-Part II: Review of practical methods  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

II: Review of practical methods Title Measuring solar reflectance-Part II: Review of practical methods Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2010 Authors Levinson,...

220

Reflection and transmission resonances and accuracy of the wkb method  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we calculate the transmission and reflection amplitudes of wave functions for different potentials such as the delta function, the rectangular barrier, the Eckart potential, and the Hulthen potential. We describe the relationship between these amplitudes and compute the reflection resonances between each potential. We describe the transmission and reflection probabilities using the WKB formula and compare the results with ones obtained from matching the boundary conditions. Furthermore, we use a two by two transfer matrix to calculate a rigorous bound on the transmission and reflection probabilities.

Tritos Ngampitipan; Petarpa Boonserm

2013-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "drapes reflective film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Improvement of retrieved reflectance in the presence of clouds.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Many algorithms exist to invert airborne imagery from units of either radiance or sensor specific digital counts to units of reflectance. These compensation algorithms remove… (more)

Bartlett, Brent

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Rail traffic reflects more oil production, less coal-fired ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The record increase in U.S. crude oil production during 2012 and the significant decline in coal use for domestic electricity generation were reflected in the ...

223

High-Temperature Reactor for Diffuse Reflectance Infrared ...  

High-Temperature Reactor for Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier-Transform Spectroscopy Note: The technology described above is an early stage ...

224

Reflection Survey At Dixie Valley Geothermal Field Area (Blackwell...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Reflection Survey At Dixie Valley Geothermal Field Area (Blackwell, Et Al., 2009) Exploration Activity Details Location Dixie Valley Geothermal Field Area Exploration Technique...

225

Reflection Survey At Dixie Valley Geothermal Field Area (Blackwell...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Reflection Survey At Dixie Valley Geothermal Field Area (Blackwell, Et Al., 2003) Exploration Activity Details Location Dixie Valley Geothermal Field Area Exploration Technique...

226

Reflection Survey At Hot Sulphur Springs Area (Goranson, 2005...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Springs Area (Goranson, 2005) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At Hot Sulphur Springs Area (Goranson, 2005)...

227

Process for forming planarized films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A planarization process and apparatus which employs plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) to form plarnarization films of dielectric or conductive carbonaceous material on step-like substrates.

Pang, Stella W. (Arlington, MA); Horn, Mark W. (North Chelmsford, MA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Optical properties of thin semiconductor device structures with reflective back-surface layers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ultrathin semiconductor device structures incorporating reflective internal or back surface layers have been investigated recently as a means of improving photon recuperation, eliminating losses associated with free carrier absorption in conductive substrates and increasing the above bandgap optical thickness of thermophotovoltaic device structures. However, optical losses in the form of resonance absorptions in these ultrathin devices have been observed. This behavior in cells incorporating epitaxially grown FeAl layers and in devices that lack a substrate but have a back-surface reflector (BSR) at the rear of the active layers has been studied experimentally and modeled effectively. For thermophotovoltaic devices, these resonances represent a significant loss mechanism since the wavelengths at which they occur are defined by the active TPV cell thickness of {approximately} 2--5 microns and are in a spectral range of significant energy content for thermal radiators. This study demonstrates that ultrathin semiconductor structures that are clad by such highly reflective layers or by films with largely different indices of refraction display resonance absorptions that can only be overcome through the implementation of some external spectral control strategy. Effective broadband, below-bandgap spectral control using a back-surface reflector is only achievable using a large separation between the TPV active layers and the back-surface reflector.

Clevenger, M.B.; Murray, C.S. [Westinghouse Electric Co., West Mifflin, PA (United States); Ringel, S.A.; Sachs, R.N.; Qin, L. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Charache, G.W.; Depoy, D.M. [Lockheed Martin, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States)

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Film holder for radiographing tubing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A film cassette is provided which may be easily placed about tubing or piping and readily held in place while radiographic inspection is performed. A pair of precurved light-impervious semi-rigid plastic sheets, hinged at one edge, enclose sheet film together with any metallic foils or screens. Other edges are made light-tight with removable caps, and the entire unit is held securely about the object to be radiographed with a releasable fastener such as a strip of Velcro.

Davis, Earl V. (Oak Ridge, TN); Foster, Billy E. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Variable temperature semiconductor film deposition  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of depositing a semiconductor material on a substrate is disclosed. The method sequentially comprises (a) providing the semiconductor material in a depositable state such as a vapor for deposition on the substrate; (b) depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while heating the substrate to a first temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a first film layer having a first grain size; (c) continually depositing the semiconductor material on the substrate while cooling the substrate to a second temperature sufficient to cause the semiconductor material to form a second film layer deposited on the first film layer and having a second grain size smaller than the first grain size; and (d) raising the substrate temperature, while either continuing or not continuing to deposit semiconductor material to form a third film layer, to thereby anneal the film layers into a single layer having favorable efficiency characteristics in photovoltaic applications. A preferred semiconductor material is cadmium telluride deposited on a glass/tin oxide substrate already having thereon a film layer of cadmium sulfide.

Li, X.; Sheldon, P.

1998-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

231

Fullerene Film as a Coating Material for Silicon Thick Film Anodes ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Fullerene Film as a Coating Material for Silicon Thick Film Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries. Author(s), Arenst Andreas Arie. On-Site Speaker

232

Enhanced Efficiency of Light-Trapping Nanoantenna Arrays for Thin Film Solar Cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We suggest a novel concept of efficient light-trapping structures for thin-film solar cells based on arrays of planar nanoantennas operating far from plasmonic resonances. The operation principle of our structures relies on the excitation of chessboard-like collective modes of the nanoantenna arrays with the field localized between the neighboring metal elements. We demonstrated theoretically substantial enhancement of solar-cell short-circuit current by the designed light-trapping structure in the whole spectrum range of the solar-cell operation compared to conventional structures employing anti-reflecting coating. Our approach provides a general background for a design of different types of efficient broadband light-trapping structures for thin-film solar-cell technologically compatible with large-area thin-film fabrication techniques.

Simovski, Constantin R; Voroshilov, Pavel M; Guzhva, Michael E; Belov, Pavel A; Kivshar, Yuri S

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Nanopattern-stimulated superconductor-insulator transition in thin TiN films.  

SciTech Connect

We present the results of the comparative study of transport properties of continuous and nanoperforated TiN films, enabling us to separate the disorder and the geometry effects. Nanopatterning transforms a thin TiN film into an array of superconducting weak links and eo ipso stimulates the disorder- and magnetic-field-driven superconductor-to-insulator transitions, shifting both transitions to a lower degree of microscopic disorder. We observe magnetoresistance oscillations reflecting collective phase-frustration behaviour of the multiconnected superconducting weak link network in a wide range of temperatures. We find that nanopatterning enhances the role of the two-dimensional Coulomb interaction and changes the characteristic energies of the film on length scales significantly larger than the mean free path or the superconducting coherence length.

Baturina, T. I.; Vinokur, V. M.; Mironov, A. Yu.; Chtchelkatchev, N. M.; Nasimov, D. A.; Latyshev, A. V. (Materials Science Division); (A. V. Rzhanov Inst. Semoconductor Physics); (Russian Academy of Sciences)

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

An automated spin-assisted approach for molecular layer-by-layer assembly of crosslinked polymer thin films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present the design of an automated spin-coater that facilitates fabrication of polymer films based on molecular layer-by-layer (mLbL) assembly. Specifically, we demonstrate the synthesis of ultrathin crosslinked fully-aromatic polyamide (PA) films that are chemically identical to polymer membranes used in water desalination applications as measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. X-ray reflectivity measurements indicate that the automated mLbL assembly creates films with a constant film growth rate and minimal roughness compared with the traditional interfacial polymerization of PA. This automated spin-coater improves the scalability and sample-to-sample consistency by reducing human involvement in the mLbL assembly.

Chan, Edwin P.; Chung, Jun Young; Stafford, Christopher M. [Polymers Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States); Lee, Jung-Hyun [Center for Materials Architecturing, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

235

Blogs, reflective practice and student-centered learning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Blogging can be used to enhance education by encouraging reflective practice. We present a study in which a final year HCI course was constructed around regular blogging activity. We discuss the role of blogs in providing a social mechanism for the student ... Keywords: blogging, cultural probe, education, reflective practice

Russell Beale

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Technical Section: Linear approximation of Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Various empirical and theoretical models of the surface reflectance have been introduced so far. Most of these models are based on functions with non-linear parameters and therefore faces some computational difficulties involved in non-linear optimization ... Keywords: BRDF representation, Linear models, Principal components, Reflection models, Rendering

Aydin Ozturk; Murat Kurt; Ahmet Bilgili; Cengiz Gungor

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Efficient virtual machine support of runtime structural reflection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Increasing trends towards adaptive, distributed, generative and pervasive software have made object-oriented dynamically typed languages become increasingly popular. These languages offer dynamic software evolution by means of reflection, facilitating ... Keywords: Dynamically typed languages, JIT compilation, Prototype-based object-oriented model, SSCLI, Structural reflection, Virtual machine

Francisco Ortin; Jose Manuel Redondo; J. Baltasar García Perez-Schofield

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Development and Testing of Abrasion Resistant Hard Coats For Polymer Film Reflectors: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Reflective polymer film technology can significantly reduce the cost of solar reflectors and installed Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants by both reduced material cost and lower weight. One challenge of polymer reflectors in the CSP environment pertains to contact cleaning methods typically used with glass mirrors. Such contact cleaning methods can scratch the surface of polymer reflectors and thereby reduce specular reflectance. ReflecTech, Inc. (a subsidiary of SkyFuel, Inc.) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) initiated a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA) to devise and develop an abrasion resistant coating (ARC) suitable for deposition onto polymer based mirror film. A number of candidate ARC products were identified as candidate formulations. Industrial collaborators prepared samples having their ARCs deposited onto ReflecTech Mirror Film pre-laminated to aluminum sheet substrates. Samples were provided for evaluation and subjected to baseline (unweathered) and accelerated exposure conditions and subsequently characterized for abrasion resistance and adhesion. An advanced ARC product has been identified that exhibits outstanding initial abrasion resistance and adhesion to ReflecTech Mirror Film. These properties were also retained after exposure to the various accelerated stress conditions. This material has been successfully manufactured as a 1.5 m wide roll-to-roll construction in a production environment.

Jorgensen, G.; Gee, R.; DiGrazia, M.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Reflection Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (1989) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Reflection Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (1989) Reflection Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (1989) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (1989) Exploration Activity Details Location Coso Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Reflection Survey Activity Date 1989 Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Determine the crustul structure of the Coso geothermal system Notes In mid-1989 the authors designed and collected four seismic reflection/refraction profiles that addressed the crustal structure of the Coso geothermal field. The two main east-west and north-south profiles crossed at the southeastern most base of Sugar Loaf Mountain. Both in-line and cross-line Vibroseis and explosion data were recorded on each of these

240

Reflection Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (2008) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

At Coso Geothermal Area (2008) At Coso Geothermal Area (2008) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (2008) Exploration Activity Details Location Coso Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Reflection Survey Activity Date 2008 Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis A reflection survey was done to analyze the brittle upper plate structure revealed by reflection seismic data Notes The relationships between upper crustal faults, the brittle-ductile transition zone, and underlying magmatic features imaged by multifold seismic reflection data are consistent with the hypothesis that the Coso geothermal field, which lies within an extensional step-over between dextral faults, is a young, actively developing metamorphic core complex.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "drapes reflective film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Seismic Reflection Data and Conceptual Models for Geothermal Development in  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Seismic Reflection Data and Conceptual Models for Geothermal Development in Seismic Reflection Data and Conceptual Models for Geothermal Development in Nevada Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Seismic Reflection Data and Conceptual Models for Geothermal Development in Nevada Abstract Seismic reflection data were collected in two geothermalareas in Nevada to support geologic structural models andgeothermal well targeting. The data were integrated withsurface mapping, well results, and other geophysical data inconceptual geologic models in both areas. Faults wereinterpreted from reflection data based on reflector offsetsand apparent fault surface reflectors dipping away from therange front. Interpreted faults at Blue Mt., where severalwells have been drilled, correlated with well entries.Subsequent well targeting based on the conceptualstructural model

242

“How Could She?”: The “Inappropriate” Woman in Contemporary Appropriation Films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Parrell took a number of porn films that she realized wereintended purposes. Within a porn film, people having sex into most people watching a porn film. Parrell’s film situates

Baron, Jaimie

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Correction of Radar Reflectivity and Differential Reflectivity for Rain Attenuation at X Band. Part I: Theoretical and Empirical Basis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this two-part paper, a correction for rain attenuation of radar reflectivity (ZH) and differential reflectivity (ZDR) at the X-band wavelength is presented. The correction algorithm that is used is based on the self-consistent method with ...

S-G. Park; V. N. Bringi; V. Chandrasekar; M. Maki; K. Iwanami

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Thin-film fiber optic hydrogen and temperature sensor system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention discloses a sensor probe device for monitoring of hydrogen gas concentrations and temperatures by the same sensor probe. The sensor probe is constructed using thin-film deposition methods for the placement of a multitude of layers of materials sensitive to hydrogen concentrations and temperature on the end of a light transparent lens located within the sensor probe. The end of the lens within the sensor probe contains a lens containing a layer of hydrogen permeable material which excludes other reactive gases, a layer of reflective metal material that forms a metal hydride upon absorbing hydrogen, and a layer of semi-conducting solid that is transparent above a temperature dependent minimum wavelength for temperature detection. The three layers of materials are located at the distal end of the lens located within the sensor probe. The lens focuses light generated by broad-band light generator and connected by fiber-optics to the sensor probe, onto a reflective metal material layer, which passes through the semi-conducting solid layer, onto two optical fibers located at the base of the sensor probe. The reflected light is transmitted over fiber optic cables to a spectrometer and system controller. The absence of electrical signals and electrical wires in the sensor probe provides for an elimination of the potential for spark sources when monitoring in hydrogen rich environments, and provides a sensor free from electrical interferences. 3 figs.

Nave, S.E.

1998-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

245

Solids Fraction Measurement with a Reflective Fiber Optic Probe  

SciTech Connect

A method has been developed to extract solids fraction information from a reflective fiber optic probe. The commercially available reflective fiber optic probe was designed to measure axial particle velocity (both up and down directions). However, the reflected light intensity measured is related to particle size and particle concentration. A light reflection model is used to relate the reflected light intensity to solids fraction. In this model we assume that the reflected light intensity is a fixed fraction, K1, of the total light intensity lost in penetration of a solid layer. Also, the solids fraction is related to particle concentration, N, in the light path, by N = K2 (1- ?), where (1-?) is the solids fraction. The parameters K1 and K2 are determined through a calibration and curve fitting procedure. This paper describes this procedure and the steps taken to derive the values of K1 and K2. It is proposed that the reflective fiber optic can be used for real time measurement of solids fraction in a circulating fluid bed.

Seachman, S.M.; Yue, P.C.; Ludlow, J.C.; Shadle, L.J.

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Whisper gallery mirrors reflectivities from 100 [angstrom] to 500 [angstrom  

SciTech Connect

We have examined optical constants and predicted reflectivities of candidate surface coatings for whisper gallery mirrors in the extreme ultraviolet (100 [Angstrom] to 500 [Angstrom]). Previous work of Vinogradov and coworkers have identified the spectral regime near 100-150 [Angstrom] as particularly promising due to the high whisper gallery mirror reflectivities of the noble metals in the vicinity of their Cooper minima in this regime. We confirm this basic result using newer optical data, and we have sought surface materials which would extend the range over which the whisper gallery mirrors may be used: between 100 to 500 [Angstrom]. We find that substantial whisper gallery mirror reflectivities (near or greater than 50%) are predicted for a variety of elements, and that the TE peak reflection is larger than TM peak reflection by on the order of 10%. However, most of the elements which do reflect well have surfaces that are vulnerable to oxygen contamination, which seriously degrades mirror performance. A cryogenic mirror design using a dynamic solid rare gas surface which has the potential to defeat such surface contaminations is described: it has peak reflectivity of more than 50% centered near 280 [Angstrom]. 8 figs, 18 refs.

Hung, Tsen-Yu; Hagelstein, P.L.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Whisper gallery mirrors reflectivities from 100 {angstrom} to 500 {angstrom}  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have examined optical constants and predicted reflectivities of candidate surface coatings for whisper gallery mirrors in the extreme ultraviolet (100 {Angstrom} to 500 {Angstrom}). Previous work of Vinogradov and coworkers have identified the spectral regime near 100-150 {Angstrom} as particularly promising due to the high whisper gallery mirror reflectivities of the noble metals in the vicinity of their Cooper minima in this regime. We confirm this basic result using newer optical data, and we have sought surface materials which would extend the range over which the whisper gallery mirrors may be used: between 100 to 500 {Angstrom}. We find that substantial whisper gallery mirror reflectivities (near or greater than 50%) are predicted for a variety of elements, and that the TE peak reflection is larger than TM peak reflection by on the order of 10%. However, most of the elements which do reflect well have surfaces that are vulnerable to oxygen contamination, which seriously degrades mirror performance. A cryogenic mirror design using a dynamic solid rare gas surface which has the potential to defeat such surface contaminations is described: it has peak reflectivity of more than 50% centered near 280 {Angstrom}. 8 figs, 18 refs.

Hung, Tsen-Yu; Hagelstein, P.L.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

248

Semiconductor-nanocrystal/conjugated polymer thin films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention described herein provides for thin films and methods of making comprising inorganic semiconductor-nanocrystals dispersed in semiconducting-polymers in high loading amounts. The invention also describes photovoltaic devices incorporating the thin films.

Alivisatos, A. Paul (Oakland, CA); Dittmer, Janke J. (Munich, DE); Huynh, Wendy U. (Munich, DE); Milliron, Delia (Berkeley, CA)

2010-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

249

Biaxially Oriented Film on Flexible Polymeric Substrate  

LANL’s Aligned-Crystalline Silicon (ACSi) technology provides highly crystalline silicon films on inexpensive substrates, such as metal sheets and glass plates.  ACSi films exhibit good electrical and optical properties and have the potential to make ...

250

Thin film-coated polymer webs  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to thin film-coated polymer webs, and more particularly to thin film electronic devices supported upon a polymer web, wherein the polymer web is treated with a purifying amount of electron beam radiation.

Wenz, Robert P. (Cottage Grove, MN); Weber, Michael F. (Shoreview, MN); Arudi, Ravindra L. (Woodbury, MN)

1992-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

251

Addressing PQ Issues at a Film Manufacturer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This case study contains the details of an on-site power quality audit of a film manufacturer which was experiencing voltage sags that led to the shutdown of film processing.

2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

252

Laser tracks in rainbow films on water  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is found that narrow non-diverging laser tracks, earlier studied in free soap films, can also arise in thin rainbow films, e.g., of petrol, on water. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

Startsev, Aleksandr V; Stoilov, Yurii Yu [P N Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2012-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

253

Thin Film Deposition Method for Sensor Manufacturing  

Scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) have developed an innovative method for gas sensor manufacturing using a thin film deposition. The thin film requires very little material and can be applied in high throughput applications.

254

Thin Film Photovoltaics - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thin Film Structures for Energy Efficient Systems: Thin Film Photovoltaics ... Full- inorganic Heterojunction Ink-printed Solar Cells: Seigo Ito1; 1University of Hyogo ... electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were used for ...

255

Electrostatic thin film chemical and biological sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical and biological agent sensor includes an electrostatic thin film supported by a substrate. The film includes an electrostatic charged surface to attract predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A charge collector associated with said electrostatic thin film collects charge associated with surface defects in the electrostatic film induced by the predetermined biological and chemical agents of interest. A preferred sensing system includes a charge based deep level transient spectroscopy system to read out charges from the film and match responses to data sets regarding the agents of interest. A method for sensing biological and chemical agents includes providing a thin sensing film having a predetermined electrostatic charge. The film is exposed to an environment suspected of containing the biological and chemical agents. Quantum surface effects on the film are measured. Biological and/or chemical agents can be detected, identified and quantified based on the measured quantum surface effects.

Prelas, Mark A. (Columbia, MO); Ghosh, Tushar K. (Columbia, MO); Tompson, Jr., Robert V. (Columbia, MO); Viswanath, Dabir (Columbia, MO); Loyalka, Sudarshan K. (Columbia, MO)

2010-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

256

Corner Flows in Free Liquid Films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A lubrication-flow model for a free film in a corner is presented. The model, written in the hyperbolic coordinate system ? = x² – y², η = 2xy, applies to films that are thin in the η direction. The lubrication approximation ...

Stocker, Roman

2004-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

257

Reflective optical imaging system for extreme ultraviolet wavelengths  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a projection reflection optical system having two mirrors in a coaxial, four reflection configuration to reproduce the image of an object. The mirrors have aspherical reflection surfaces to provide a very high resolution of object feature wavelengths less than 200 {mu}m, and preferably less than 100 {mu}m. An image resolution of features less than 0.05--0.1 {mu}m, is obtained over a large area field; i.e., 25.4 mm {times} 25.4 mm, with a distortion less than 0.1 of the resolution over the image field.

Viswanathan, V.K.; Newnam, B.E.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

258

Improved Spatial Resolution For Reflection Mode Infrared Spectromicroscopy  

SciTech Connect

Standard commercial infrared microscopes operating in reflection mode use a mirror to direct the reflected light from the sample to the detector. This mirror blocks about half of the incident light, however, and thus degrades the spatial resolution by reducing the numerical aperture of the objective. Here, we replace the mirror with a 50% beamsplitter to allow full illumination of the objective and retain a way to direct the reflected light to the detector. The improved spatial resolution is demonstrated using a microscope coupled to a synchrotron source.

Bechtel, Hans A; Martin, Michael C.; May, T. E.; Lerch, Philippe

2009-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

259

Thin-film Lithium Batteries  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thin-Film Battery with Lithium Anode Courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division Thin-Film Lithium Batteries Resources with Additional Information The Department of Energy's 'Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed high-performance thin-film lithium batteries for a variety of technological applications. These batteries have high energy densities, can be recharged thousands of times, and are only 10 microns thick. They can be made in essentially any size and shape. Recently, Teledyne licensed this technology from ORNL to make batteries for medical devices including electrocardiographs. In addition, new "textured" cathodes have been developed which have greatly increased the peak current capability of the batteries. This greatly expands the potential medical uses of the batteries, including transdermal applications for heart regulation.'

260

Magnetoelectric Multiferroic Thin Films and Multilayers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Scope, The symposium will cover thin films, single crystals, normal/relaxor ferroelectrics, piezoelectric ceramics, magnetoelectric composites, multiferroic ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "drapes reflective film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Magnetic behaviour of europium epitaxial thin films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Magnetic behaviour of europium epitaxial thin films. Philippe Mangin, University of Nancy and NCNR. We present the magnetic ...

262

MST: Organizations: Thin Film, Vacuum, and Packaging  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Processes & Services Electronic Fabrication Manufacturing Process Science & Technology Thin Film, Vacuum, & Packaging Organic Materials Ceramic & Glass Meso Manufacturing &...

263

Thin film buried anode battery  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reverse configuration, lithium thin film battery (300) having a buried lithium anode layer (305) and process for making the same. The present invention is formed from a precursor composite structure (200) made by depositing electrolyte layer (204) onto substrate (201), followed by sequential depositions of cathode layer (203) and current collector (202) on the electrolyte layer. The precursor is subjected to an activation step, wherein a buried lithium anode layer (305) is formed via electroplating a lithium anode layer at the interface of substrate (201) and electrolyte film (204). The electroplating is accomplished by applying a current between anode current collector (201) and cathode current collector (202).

Lee, Se-Hee (Lakewood, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); Liu, Ping (Denver, CO)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

264

Investigation of the kinetics of surface-limited thin film growth of SiGe alloys  

SciTech Connect

The kinetics of surface-limited thin film growth of SiGe alloys was investigated by time-resolved surface differential reflectometry. The source gas, mixtures of disilane and digermane in ratios from 1:1 to 6:1 in helium carrier gas, was delivered to a heated substrate by a fast-acting pulsed molecular jet valve. The adsorption and desorption kinetics were determined from the surface differential reflectance signal obtained using a polarized, high-stability HeNe probe laser. Thin film growth was studied in the temperature range of 400--600{degrees}C on Si(001) substrates. Preferential incorporation of digermane into the film produces an alloy composition that depends upon but does not mirror the gas composition. For all gas mixtures, there is a strong temperature dependence of the rate at which the adsorption layer decomposes into film plus by-product. The kinetic data and the alloy compositions provide a basis for deducing some of the characteristics of the reaction sequence that leads to SiGe alloy thin film growth.

Sharp, J.W. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Eres, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Investigation of the kinetics of surface-limited thin film growth of SiGe alloys  

SciTech Connect

The kinetics of surface-limited thin film growth of SiGe alloys was investigated by time-resolved surface differential reflectometry. The source gas, mixtures of disilane and digermane in ratios from 1:1 to 6:1 in helium carrier gas, was delivered to a heated substrate by a fast-acting pulsed molecular jet valve. The adsorption and desorption kinetics were determined from the surface differential reflectance signal obtained using a polarized, high-stability HeNe probe laser. Thin film growth was studied in the temperature range of 400--600[degrees]C on Si(001) substrates. Preferential incorporation of digermane into the film produces an alloy composition that depends upon but does not mirror the gas composition. For all gas mixtures, there is a strong temperature dependence of the rate at which the adsorption layer decomposes into film plus by-product. The kinetic data and the alloy compositions provide a basis for deducing some of the characteristics of the reaction sequence that leads to SiGe alloy thin film growth.

Sharp, J.W. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); Eres, G. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Method of producing thin cellulose nitrate film  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved method for forming a thin nitrocellulose film of reproducible thickness is described. The film is a cellulose nitrate film, 10 to 20 microns in thickness, cast from a solution of cellulose nitrate in tetrahydrofuran, said solution containing from 7 to 15 percent, by weight, of dioctyl phthalate, said cellulose nitrate having a nitrogen content of from 10 to 13 percent.

Lupica, S.B.

1975-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

267

Standardization of Solar Mirror Reflectance Measurements - Round Robin Test: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Within the SolarPaces Task III standardization activities, DLR, CIEMAT, and NREL have concentrated on optimizing the procedure to measure the reflectance of solar mirrors. From this work, the laboratories have developed a clear definition of the method and requirements needed of commercial instruments for reliable reflectance results. A round robin test was performed between the three laboratories with samples that represent all of the commercial solar mirrors currently available for concentrating solar power (CSP) applications. The results show surprisingly large differences in hemispherical reflectance (sh) of 0.007 and specular reflectance (ss) of 0.004 between the laboratories. These differences indicate the importance of minimum instrument requirements and standardized procedures. Based on these results, the optimal procedure will be formulated and validated with a new round robin test in which a better accuracy is expected. Improved instruments and reference standards are needed to reach the necessary accuracy for cost and efficiency calculations.

Meyen, S.; Lupfert, E.; Fernandez-Garcia, A.; Kennedy, C.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Retrieval of Reflectivity in a Networked Radar Environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A system for reflectivity and attenuation retrieval for rain medium in a networked radar environment is described. Electromagnetic waves backscattered from a common volume in networked radar systems are attenuated differently along the different ...

V. Chandrasekar; S. Lim

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Solar Radiative Fluxes for Broken Cloud Fields above Reflecting Surfaces  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A statistical bidirectional method for including the effects of underlying reflecting surfaces in Monte Carlo simulations of atmospheric photon transport is presented. It is illustrated for the idealized Lambertian surface and a general ...

Howard W. Barker; John A. Davies

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Progress Toward Roll Processing of Solar Reflective Material (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation discusses the goal of this project which was to demonstrate that it is possible to cost-effectively produce high performance solar reflective material using vacuum deposition techniques.

Smilgys, R.; Wallace, S.; Kennedy, C.

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Radar Reflectivity–Based Estimates of Mixed Layer Depth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This study investigates the potential for estimating mixed layer depth by taking advantage of the radial gradients in the radar reflectivity field produced by the large vertical gradients in water vapor mixing ratio that are characteristic of the ...

P. L. Heinselman; P. L. Spencer; K. L. Elmore; D. J. Stensrud; R. M. Hluchan; P. C. Burke

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Calibrating Differential Reflectivity on the WSR-88D  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A calibration procedure of differential reflectivity on the Weather Surveillance Radar-1988 Doppler (WSR-88D) is described. It has been tested on NOAA's modified WSR-88D research and development polarimetric radar and is directly applicable to ...

Dusan S. Zrnic; Valery M. Melnikov; John K. Carter

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Internal Wave Reflection and Scatter from Sloping Rough Topography  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Internal gravity waves propagating in a uniformly stratified ocean are scattered on reflection from a rough inclined boundary. The boundary is inclined at angle ? to the horizontal and the roughness is represented by superimposed sinusoidal ...

S. A. Thorpe

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

On the Interactions of Internal Waves Reflecting from Slopes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Incident internal waves and those reflected from a uniform slope interact at second order. These interactions are considered for incident waves traveling obliquely to the slope in a uniformly stratified rotating fluid. It is found that (i) ...

S. A. Thorpe

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

A Rapid Radiative Transfer Model for Reflection of Solar Radiation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A rapid analytical radiative transfer model for reflection of solar radiation in plane-parallel atmospheres is developed based on the Sobolev approach and the delta function transformation technique. A distinct advantage of this model over ...

X. Xiang; E. A. Smith; C. G. Justus

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Reflective Interfaces : assisting teens with stressful situations online  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis presents the concept of Reflective Interfaces, a novel approach to user experience design that promotes positive behavioral norms. Traditional interface design methodologies such as User Centered Design are ...

Jones, Birago (Birago Korayga)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

A Microphysical Interpretation of Radar Reflectivity–Rain Rate Relationships  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The microphysical aspects of the relationship between radar reflectivity Z and rainfall rate R are examined. Various concepts discussed in the literature are integrated into a coherent analytical framework and discussed with a focus on the ...

Matthias Steiner; James A. Smith; Remko Uijlenhoet

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

The Relationship of Highly Reflective Clouds to Tropical Climate Anomalies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The interannual variability of tropical convection related to the Southern Oscillation (SO) and regional climate anomalies is studied from satellite-derived estimates of highly reflective clouds (HRC) during 1971–87. The novel HRC data bank ...

Stefan Hastenrath

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Assessing Snowfall Rates from X-Band Radar Reflectivity Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Realistic aggregate snowflake models and experimental snowflake size distribution parameters are used to derive X-band power-law relations between the equivalent radar reflectivity factor Ze and the liquid equivalent snowfall precipitation rate S ...

Sergey Y. Matrosov; Carroll Campbell; David Kingsmill; Ellen Sukovich

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Sustainable Transport: from Bullock Carts to Bugatis: Reflections...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sustainable Transport: from Bullock Carts to Bugatis: Reflections on Major Transport Issues North and South Speaker(s): Lee Schipper Date: August 16, 2001 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg....

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "drapes reflective film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Kinematic, Thermodynamic, and Visual Structure of Low-Reflectivity Microbursts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On 9 July 1987, a series of low-reflectivity microbursts were studied over Colorado using dual-Doppler analyses, cloud photogrammetry, and in situ measurements collected by aircraft. These types of wind-shear events are particularly hazardous to ...

Roger M. Wakimoto; Cathy J. Kessinger; David E. Kingsmill

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

EM-ONE : an architecture for reflective commonsense thinking  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis describes EM-ONE, an architecture for commonsense thinking capable of reflective reasoning about situations involving physical, social, and mental dimensions. EM-ONE uses as its knowledge base a library of ...

Singh, Pushpinder, 1972-

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Beryllium based multilayers for normal incidence extreme ultraviolet reflectance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report the experimental results of beryllium based multilayer mirrors for use in the 11.4 nm region. Mirrors using molybdenum as the high-Z material have demonstrated 68.7% peak reflectance at 11.3 nm.

Skulina, K.; Alford, C.; Bionta, R.; Makowiecki, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Gullikson, E.; Soufli, R.; Kortright, J.; Underwood, J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Degradation of Radar Reflectivity by Cloud Attenuation at Microwave Frequency  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main object of this paper is to emphasize that clouds—the nonprecipitating component of condensed atmospheric water—can produce a strong attenuation at operational microwave frequencies, although they present a low reflectivity preventing ...

Olivier Pujol; Jean-François Georgis; Laurent Féral; Henri Sauvageot

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Using parametric {ital B} splines to fit specular reflectivities  

SciTech Connect

Parametric {ital B}-spline curves offer a flexible and appropriate mathematical description of scattering length density profiles in specular reflectivity analysis. Profiles combining smooth and sharp features can be defined in low dimensional representations using control points in the density-depth plane which provide graded local influence on profile shape. These profiles exist in vector spaces defined by {ital B}-spline order and parameter knot set, which can be systematically densified during analysis. Such profiles can easily be rendered as adaptive histograms for reflectivity computation. {ital B}-spline order can be chosen to accommodate the asymptotic (large-{ital Q}) behavior indicated by reflectivity data. We describe an interactive fitting strategy in which the Nelder and Mead simplex method is used in the {ital B}-spline control point space to guide the discovery of profiles that can produce given reflectivity data. Examples using actual and simulated spectra are discussed.

Berk, N.F.; Majkrzak, C.F. [Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory, National Insitute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-0001 (United States)] [Materials Science and Engineering Laboratory, National Insitute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-0001 (United States)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Image statistics and the perception of surface reflectance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Humans are surprisingly good at judging the reflectance of complex surfaces even when the surfaces are viewed in isolation, contrary to the Gelb effect. We argue that textural cues are important for this task. Traditional ...

Sharan, Lavanya

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

A New Relationship between Mean Doppler Velocity and Differential Reflectivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A new relationship has been established linking the vertical mean Doppler velocity of raindrop spectra and the accompanying differential reflectivities. It is based upon the specific radar combination of a vertically pointing Doppler and a ...

Matthias Steiner

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Can Reflected Extra-equatorial Rossby Waves Drive ENSO?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The possibility that the evolution of the ENSO phenomenon is determined by the reflection of extra-equatorial Rossby waves from the western boundary into the equatorial waveguide has been a subject of recent debate. Observations and some wind-...

William S. Kessler

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Operational Monitoring of Radar Differential Reflectivity Using the Sun  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method for the daily monitoring of the differential reflectivity bias for polarimetric weather radars is presented. Sun signals detected in polar volume data produced during operational scanning of the radar are used. This method is an ...

Iwan Holleman; Asko Huuskonen; Rashpal Gill; Pierre Tabary

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Stratocumulus Cloud Field Reflected Fluxes: The Effect of Cloud Shape  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Reflected fluxes are calculated for stratocumulus cloud fields as a function of sky cover, cloud aspect ratio, and cloud shape. Cloud liquid water volume is held invariant as cloud shape is varied so that the results can be utilized more ...

R. M. Welch; B. A. Wielicki

1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Single photon reflection and transmission in optomechanical system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cavity Optomechanical system is speedily approaching the regime where the radiation pressure of a single photon displaces the moving mirror. In this paper, we consider a cavity optomechanical system where the cavity field is driven by an external field. In the limit of weak mirror-cavity couplings, we calculate analytically the reflection and transmission rates for cavity field and discuss the effects of mirror-cavity coupling on the reflection and transmission.

M. A. Khan; S. C. Hou; K. Farooq; X. X. Yi

2013-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

292

Reflection-Transmission Quantum Yang-Baxter Equations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We explore the reflection-transmission quantum Yang-Baxter equations, arising in factorized scattering theory of integrable models with impurities. The physical origin of these equations is clarified and three general families of solutions are described in detail. Explicit representatives of each family are also displayed. These results allow to establish a direct relationship with the different previous works on the subject and make evident the advantages of the reflection-transmission algebra as an universal approach to integrable systems with impurities.

V. Caudrelier; M. Mintchev; E. Ragoucy; P. Sorba

2004-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

293

Thermoplastic film prevents proppant flowback  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermoplastic film added to proppants is effective and economical for preventing proppant flowback after an hydraulic fracturing treatment. Most other methods, such as resin-coated proppant and fiber, for controlling proppant flowback have drawbacks that added to treatment costs by requiring long downtime, costly additives, or frequent equipment replacement. Thermoplastic film does not react chemically with fracturing fluids. After the proppant is placed in the fracture, the film strips intertwine with the proppant grains or at higher temperatures, the strips become adhesive and shrink forming consolidated clusters that hold open the newly created fractures and prevent proppant from flowing back. The low cost of the film means that the strips can be used throughout the fracturing job or in selected stages. The strips are compatible with fracturing fluid chemistry, including breakers and crosslinkers, and can be used in wells with a wide range of bottom hole temperatures. The end result is a well that can be brought back on-line in a short time with little proppant flowback. This paper reviews the cost benefits and performance of these proppants.

Nguyen, P.D.; Weaver, J.D.; Parker, M.A.; King, D.G. [Halliburton Energy Services, Duncan, OK (United States)

1996-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

294

Methane production by attached film  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for purifying wastewater of biodegradable organics by converting the organics to methane and carbon dioxide gases is disclosed, characterized by the use of an anaerobic attached film expanded bed reactor for the reaction process. Dilute organic waste material is initially seeded with a heterogeneous anaerobic bacteria population including a methane-producing bacteria. The seeded organic waste material is introduced into the bottom of the expanded bed reactor which includes a particulate support media coated with a polysaccharide film. A low-velocity upward flow of the organic waste material is established through the bed during which the attached bacterial film reacts with the organic material to produce methane and carbon dioxide gases, purified water, and a small amount of residual effluent material. The residual effluent material is filtered by the film as it flows upwardly through the reactor bed. In a preferred embodiment, partially treated effluent material is recycled from the top of the bed to the bottom of the bed for further treatment. The methane and carbon dioxide gases are then separated from the residual effluent material and purified water.

Jewell, William J. (202 Eastwood Ave., Ithaca, NY 14850)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Causes of Paint Film Defects  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 9   Common causes of paint film defects...Dip, flow, roller, spray Improper applicator/metering roll speeds Roller Undesirable pattern Swelling of roll Roller Roll improperly ground Roller Foreign material on roll Roller Poor spray gun technique Spray Runs (curtains, sags) Too much solvent Dip, flow, spray Paint surface or drying atmosphere...

296

Carbon film electrodes for super capacitor applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A microporous carbon film for use as electrodes in energy strorage devices is disclosed, which is made by the process comprising the steps of: (1) heating a polymer film material consisting essentially of a copolymer of polyvinylidene chloride and polyvinyl chloride in an inert atmosphere to form a carbon film; and (2) activating said carbon film to form said microporous carbon film having a density between about 0.7 g/cm.sup.2 and 1 g/cm.sup.2 and a gravimetric capacitance of about between 120 F/g and 315 F/g.

Tan, Ming X. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Apparatus for and method of correcting for astigmatism in a light beam reflected off of a light reflecting surface  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A technique for adjustably correcting for astigmatism in a light beam is disclosed herein. This technique utilizes first means which defines a flat, rectangular light reflecting surface having opposite reinforced side edges and which is resiliently bendable, to a limited extent, into different concave and/or convex cylindrical curvatures about a particular axis and second means acting on the first means for adjustably bending the light reflecting surface into a particular selected one of the different curvatures depending upon the astigmatism to be corrected for and for fixedly maintaining the curvature selected. In the embodiment disclosed, the light reflecting surface is adjustably bendable into the selected cylindrical curvature by application of a particular bending moment to the reinforced side edges of the light reflecting surface.

Sawicki, Richard H. (Pleasanton, CA); Sweatt, William (Livermore, CA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Carbon Film Electrodes For Super Capacitor Applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area (.apprxeq.1000 m.sup.2 /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160.degree. C. for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750-850.degree. C. for between 1-6 hours.

Tan, Ming X. (Livermore, CA)

1999-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

299

Growth and characterization of LuAs films and nanostructures  

SciTech Connect

We report the growth and characterization of nearly lattice-matched LuAs/GaAs heterostructures. Electrical conductivity, optical transmission, and reflectivity measurements of epitaxial LuAs films indicate that LuAs is semimetallic, with a room-temperature resistivity of 90 {mu}{Omega} cm. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy confirms that LuAs nucleates as self-assembled nanoparticles, which can be overgrown with high-quality GaAs. The growth and material properties are very similar to those of the more established ErAs/GaAs system; however, we observe important differences in the magnitude and wavelength of the peak optical transparency, making LuAs superior for certain device applications, particularly for thick epitaxially embedded Ohmic contacts that are transparent in the near-IR telecommunications window around 1.3 {mu}m.

Krivoy, E. M.; Nair, H. P.; Crook, A. M.; Rahimi, S.; Maddox, S. J.; Salas, R.; Ferrer, D. A.; Dasika, V. D.; Akinwande, D.; Bank, S. R. [Microelectronics Research Center, University of Texas at Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Critical film thickness dependence on As flux in In{sub 0.27}Ga{sub 0.73}As/GaAs(001) films  

SciTech Connect

The transition between planar and nonplanar growth is examined for compressively strained In{sub 0.27}Ga{sub 0.73}As/GaAs(001) films using reflection high energy electron diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). For a narrow range of temperature and composition, the critical thickness (t{sub SK}) is strongly dependent on As flux. For high values of As flux, t{sub SK} increases by more than a factor of 2. The morphology of three-dimensional islands formed during the initial stages of nonplanar growth is also characterized by high resolution STM.

Riposan, A.; Mirecki Millunchick, J.; Pearson, Chris [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Department of Computer Science, Engineering Science, and Physics, University of Michigan-Flint, Flint, Michigan 48502 (United States)

2007-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "drapes reflective film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Reflection Survey At Blue Mountain Area (Fairbank Engineering, 2007) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Blue Mountain Area (Fairbank Engineering, 2007) Blue Mountain Area (Fairbank Engineering, 2007) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At Blue Mountain Area (Fairbank Engineering, 2007) Exploration Activity Details Location Blue Mountain Area Exploration Technique Reflection Survey Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes A high-resolution seismic reflection survey was conducted by Utah Geophysical, Inc. (1990) along four widely spaced survey lines normal to range front fault sets. The survey was designed primarily to detect silicified zones or zones of argillic alteration, and faulting, to depths of about 300 meters (1000 feet), as part of the precious metals exploration program. One interpretation of the data showed discrete, high-angle faults

302

Reflection Survey (Deangelo, Et Al., 1999) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Deangelo, Et Al., 1999) Deangelo, Et Al., 1999) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey (Deangelo, Et Al., 1999) Exploration Activity Details Location Unspecified Exploration Technique Reflection Survey Activity Date Usefulness useful DOE-funding Unknown Notes We believe we have demonstrated two sources that can generate S-waves that are appropriate for evaluating geothermal prospects. The first, a vector-explosive package, has never been available to the seismic industry, and the demonstration of its source pe References M. DeAngelo, B.A. Hardage, J. L. Simmons Jr. (1999) Development Of Active Seismic Vector-Wavefield Imaging Technology For Geothermal Applications Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Reflection_Survey_(Deangelo,_Et_Al.,_1999)&oldid=388218

303

Reflection Survey At Yellowstone Region (Morgan, Et Al., 2003) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Yellowstone Region (Morgan, Et Al., 2003) Yellowstone Region (Morgan, Et Al., 2003) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At Yellowstone Region (Morgan, Et Al., 2003) Exploration Activity Details Location Yellowstone Caldera Geothermal Region Exploration Technique Reflection Survey Activity Date Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Notes Simultan eously, we surveyed over 2500 linear km with high-resolution seismic reflection profling that penetrated the upper ~25 m of the lake bottom. References L. A. Morgan, W. C. Shanks, D. A. Lovalvo, S. Y. Johnson, W. J. Stephenson, K. L. Pierce, S. S. Harlan, C. A. Finn, G. Lee, M. Webring, B. Schulze, J. Duhn, R. Sweeney, L. Balistrieri (2003) Exploration And Discovery In Yellowstone Lake- Results From High-Resolution Sonar Imaging,

304

Fiber optic moisture sensor with moisture-absorbing reflective target  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for sensing moisture changes by utilizing optical fiber technology. One embodiment uses a reflective target at the end of an optical fiber. The reflectance of the target varies with its moisture content and can be detected by a remote unit at the opposite end of the fiber. A second embodiment utilizes changes in light loss along the fiber length. This can be attributed to changes in reflectance of cladding material as a function of its moisture content. It can also be affected by holes or inserts interposed in the cladding material and/or fiber. Changing light levels can also be coupled from one fiber to another in an assembly of fibers as a function of varying moisture content in their overlapping lengths of cladding material.

Kirkham, Randy R. (Richland, WA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Electron reflection from one-dimensional potential barriers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report summarizes the relevant experimental evidence for electron reflectivity effects in TEC and describes the analytical effort to better understand electron reflectivity as a function of the potential configuration of the surface layer. The analyses consider rectangular and triangular barrier models with, and without, image potentials. The calculated results are presented and discussed. Details of the solutions are given in Appendices A, B, and C. The computer programs to obtain these results are listed in Appendix D. These analyses demonstrate that cesium-oxygen composites with potential discontinuities around one volt and 20 A thick can be expected to be highly reflective to thermal electrons. Consequently, such composites would be expected to have significant effects on TEC performance.

Balestra, C.L.; Huffman, F.N.; Yang, C.C.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Reflective insulating blinds for windows and the like  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Energy-conserving window blinds are provided. The blinds are fabricated from coupled and adjustable slats, each slat having an insulation layer and a reflective surface to face outwardly when the blinds are closed. A range of desired light and air transmission may be selected with the reflective surfaces of the slats adapted to direct sunlight upward toward the ceiling when the blinds are open. When the blinds are closed, the insulation of the slats reduces the heat loss or gain produced by the windows. If desired, the reflective surfaces of the slats may be concave. The edges of the slats are designed to seal against adjacent slats when the blinds are closed to ensure minimum air flow between slats.

Barnes, P.R.; Shapira, H.B.

1979-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

307

Reflective insulating blinds for windows and the like  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Energy-conserving window blinds are provided. The blinds are fabricated from coupled and adjustable slats, each slat having an insulation layer and a reflective surface to face outwardly when the blinds are closed. A range of desired light and air transmission may be selected with the reflective surfaces of the slats adapted to direct sunlight upward toward the ceiling when the blinds are open. When the blinds are closed, the insulation of the slats reduces the heat loss or gain produced by the windows. If desired, the reflective surfaces of the slats may be concave. The edges of the slats are designed to seal against adjacent slats when the blinds are closed to ensure minimum air flow between slats.

Barnes, Paul R. (Lenoir City, TN); Shapira, Hanna B. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The subject of glass solar reflectance and its contribution to permanent vinyl siding distortion has not been extensively studied, and some phenomena are not yet well understood. This white paper presents what is known regarding the issue and identifies where more research is needed. Three primary topics are discussed: environmental factors that control the transfer of heat to and from the siding surface; vinyl siding properties that may affect heat build-up and permanent distortion; and factors that determine the properties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces, including insulating window glass. Further research is needed to fully characterize the conditions associated with siding distortion, the scope of the problem, physical properties of vinyl siding, insulating window glass reflection characteristics, and possible mitigation or prevention strategies.

Hart, Robert; Curcija, Charlie; Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Kohler, Christian; Selkowitz, Stephen

2011-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

309

Critical reflection in a digital media artwork - Playas: homeland mirage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The introduction of digital media into the working practice of artists has produced challenges previously unknown to the field of art. This inquiry follows an atypical model of artist-driven research derived from disciplines such as social science and education. Here, an artwork functions as a model that is self-reflective, integrating methodologies in a form that benefits art and science. Using Naturalistic Inquiry, including semi-structured interviews of fifteen participants, the work illustrates a process of creation, analysis and evaluation that places the values of the artist on equal footing with the needs of science. Recently, artists have begun using video game engines as a tool to produce 3D navigable spaces. Using the hybrid video game/installation Playas: Homeland Mirage as a case study, this research examines the impact of technology on the artwork and identifies a number of key issues related to the function of critical reflection in this environment. Rules-of-play were a fundamental pre-requisite to the stimulation of critically reflective experience. The human interface with software and hardware was also a primary factor in reflective experience. Based on participant evaluation and observation, the interface was altered in response to its effect on critical reflection, illustrating how choices in this area impact aesthetic experience. Those with experience in visual art were more likely to engage the work in a critically reflective manner than seasoned video game players who tended to be more interested in scoring and winning. These findings and others inform our understanding of the stimulation of critical reflection in immersive environments and show how we can sensitively integrate technology with meaningful evaluative methods. By repurposing a video game in this manner, we learn about the nature of the video game and the nature of art. This research enables artists to gain a better understanding of the medium to more fully integrate technology within a meaningful practice. Conversely, other fields will benefit from a better understanding of the stimulation of meaning in immersive spaces and gain a comprehensive view of a work that strives to contribute to our culture on a deeper level than as simple entertainment. Ultimately, more fully understanding critical reflection in virtual environments will enable us to create enriched experiences that transcend space to create “real” or “virtual” place.

Stenner, Jack Eric

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Effect of window reflections on photonic Doppler velocimetry measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV) has rapidly become a standard diagnostic for measuring velocities in dynamic compression research. While free surface velocity measurements are fairly straightforward, complications occur when PDV is used to measure a dynamically loaded sample through a window. Fresnel reflections can severely affect the velocity and time resolution of PDV measurements, especially for low-velocity transients. Shock experiments of quartz compressed between two sapphire plates demonstrate how optical window reflections cause ringing in the extracted PDV velocity profile. Velocity ringing is significantly reduced by using either a wedge window or an antireflective coating.

Ao, T.; Dolan, D. H. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

311

Total Resonant Transmission and Reflection by Periodic Structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Resonant scattering of plane waves by a periodic slab under conditions close to those that support a guided mode is accompanied by sharp transmission anomalies. For two-dimensional structures, we establish sufficient conditions, involving structural symmetry, under which these anomalies are characterized by total transmission and total reflection at frequencies separated by an arbitrarily small amount. The loci of total reflection and total transmission are real-analytic curves in frequency-wavenumber space that intersect quadratically at a single point corresponding to the guided mode. A single anomaly or multiple anomalies can be excited by the interaction with a single guided mode.

Stephen P. Shipman; Hairui Tu

2011-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

312

Determination of the Scaled Optical Thickness of Clouds from Reflected Solar Radiation Measurements  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method is presented for determining the scaled optical thickness of clouds from reflected solar radiation measurements. The procedure compares measurements of the reflection function with asymptotic expressions for the reflection function of ...

Michael D. King

1987-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Growth of SrTiO{sub 3}(110) film by oxide molecular beam epitaxy with feedback control  

SciTech Connect

By controlling the growth of complex oxide films with atomic precision, emergent phenomena and fascinating properties have been discovered, and even been manipulated. With oxide molecular beam epitaxy (OMBE) we grow high-quality SrTiO{sub 3}(110) films by evaporating Sr and Ti metals with separate controls of the open/close timing of the shutters. The incident electron beam angle of the reflective high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) is adjusted to make the (01) beam sensitive to surface chemical concentration. By monitoring such an intensity, we tune the shutter timing to synchronize the evaporation amount of Sr and Ti in real-time. The intensity is further used as a feedback control signal for automatic growth optimization to fully compensate the possible fluctuation of the source flux rates upon extended growth. A 22 nm-thick film is obtained with the precision of metal cation stoichiometry better than 0.5%.

Feng Jiagui; Yang Fang; Yang Yang; Gu Lin; Guo Jiandong [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed-Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Wang Zhiming [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed-Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Institute of Applied Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8-10/134, A-1040 Vienna (Austria); Zhang Jiandi [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70808 (United States)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

314

Giant magnetorefractive effect in La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} films  

SciTech Connect

Complex experimental investigations of the structural, optical, and magneto-optical properties (magnetotransmission, magnetoreflection, and transversal Kerr effect, as well as the magnetoresistance, of La{sub 0.7}Ca{sub 0.3}MnO{sub 3} epitaxial films indicate that magnetoreflection and magnetotransmission in manganite films can reach giant values and depend strongly on the magnetic and charge homogeneity of the films, their thickness, and spectral range under investigation. It has been shown that the optical enhancement of the magnetorefractive effect occurs in thin films as compared to manganite crystals. In the region of the minimum of the reflectance near the first phonon band, the resonance-like magnetorefractive effect has been observed, which is accompanied by change of the sign of the magnetoreflection. A model based on the theory of the magnetorefractive effect has been proposed to qualitatively explain this behavior.

Granovskii, A. B., E-mail: granov@magn.ru [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Sukhorukov, Yu. P., E-mail: suhorukov@imp.uran.ru; Telegin, A. V.; Bessonov, V. D. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch (Russian Federation); Gan'shina, E. A.; Kaul', A. R.; Korsakov, I. E.; Gorbenko, O. Yu. [Moscow State University (Russian Federation); Gonzalez, J. [Universidad del Pais Vasco, Departamento Fisica de Materiales, Facultad de Quimica (Spain)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

315

Biaxially Oriented Film on Flexible Polymeric Substrate  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biaxially Oriented Film on Flexible Polymeric Substrate Biaxially Oriented Film on Flexible Polymeric Substrate Biaxially Oriented Film on Flexible Polymeric Substrate A semiconducting structure having a glass substrate. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Biaxially Oriented Film on Flexible Polymeric Substrate LANL's Aligned-Crystalline Silicon (ACSi) technology provides highly crystalline silicon films on inexpensive substrates, such as metal sheets and glass plates. ACSi films exhibit good electrical and optical properties and have the potential to make an impact on the solar cell industry. The current ACSi prototype, designed under subpar tooling conditions in a non-optimal environment, already demonstrates 2% conversion efficiency. U.S. Patent No.: 7,601.430 (DOE S-104,959) Patent Application Filing Date: January 31, 2006

316

Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries  

SciTech Connect

Small thin-film rechargeable cells have been fabricated with a lithium phosphorus oxyniuide electrolyte, Li metal anode, and Li{sub 1-x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 4} as the cathode film. The cathode films were fabricated by several different techniques resulting in both crystalline and amorphous films. These were compared by observing the cell discharge behavior. Estimates have been made for the scale-up of such a thin-film battery to meet the specifications for the electric vehicle application. The specific energy, energy density, and cycle life are expected to meet the USABC mid-term criteria. However, the areas of the thin-films needed to fabricate such a cell are very large. The required areas could be greatly reduced by operating the battery at temperatures near 100{degrees}C or by enhancing the lithium ion transport rate in the cathode material.

Dudney, N.J.; Bates, J.B.; Lubben, D.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Ambient-pressure silica aerogel films  

SciTech Connect

Very highly porous (aerogel) silica films with refractive index in the range 1.006--1.05 (equivalent porosity 98.5--88%) were prepared by an ambient-pressure process. It was shown earlier using in situ ellipsometric imaging that the high porosity of these films was mainly attributable to the dilation or `springback` of the film during the final stage of drying. This finding was irrefutably reconfirmed by visually observing a `springback` of >500% using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Ellipsometry and ESEM also established the near cent per cent reversibility of aerogel film deformation during solvent intake and drying. Film thickness profile measurements (near the drying line) for the aerogel, xerogel and pure solvent cases are presented from imaging ellipsometry. The thickness of these films (crack-free) were controlled in the range 0.1-3.5 {mu}m independent of refractive index.

Prakash, S.S. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brinker, C.J. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hurd, A.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

318

Dry lubricant films for aluminum forming.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During metal forming process, lubricants are crucial to prevent direct contact, adhesion, transfer and scuffing of workpiece materials and tools. Boric acid films can be firmly adhered to the clean aluminum surfaces by spraying their methanol solutions and provide extremely low friction coefficient (about 0.04). The cohesion strengths of the bonded films vary with the types of aluminum alloys (6061, 6111 and 5754). The sheet metal forming tests indicate that boric acid films and the combined films of boric acid and mineral oil can create larger strains than the commercial liquid and solid lubricants, showing that they possess excellent lubricities for aluminum forming. SEM analyses indicate that boric acid dry films separate the workpiece and die materials, and prevent their direct contact and preserve their surface qualities. Since boric acid is non-toxic and easily removed by water, it can be expected that boric acid films are environmentally friendly, cost effective and very efficient lubricants for sheet aluminum cold forming.

Wei, J.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.

1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

319

Advances in Measuring Solar Reflectance-or, Why That Roof isn...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

reflectance is often used to estimate the solar heat gain and rate the "coolness" of roofs and pavements. A solar reflectance property measured by two popular ASTM standard...

320

Bragg Reflectivity of X-rays: At the Limit of the Possible |...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of reflectivity across the sample. Their results, which are published in Nature Photonics, represent a quantum leap to the largest reflectivity measured, at the limit of what...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "drapes reflective film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Reflection Survey At Hot Pot Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Reflection Survey At Hot Pot Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At Hot Pot Area (DOE GTP)...

322

Reflection Survey At New River Area (DOE GTP) | Open Energy Informatio...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Reflection Survey At New River Area (DOE GTP) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At New River Area (DOE GTP)...

323

Exploding conducting film laser pumping apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The 342-nm molecular iodine and the 1.315-..mu..m atomic iodine lasers have been optically pumped by intense light from exploding-metal-film discharges. Brightness temperatures for the exploding-film discharges were approximately 25,000 K. Although lower output energies were achieved for such discharges when compared to exploding-wire techniques, the larger surface area and smaller inductance inherent in the exploding-film should lead to improved efficiency for optically-pumped gas lasers.

Ware, K.D.; Jones, C.R.

1984-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

324

Process for fabrication of metal oxide films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is comprised of a method of fabricating metal oxide films from a plurality of reactants by inducing a reaction by plasma deposition among the reactants. The plasma reaction is effective for consolidating the reactants and producing thin films of metal oxides, e.g. electro-optically active transition metal oxides, at a high deposition rate. The presence of hydrogen during the plasma reaction enhances the deposition rate of the metal oxide. Various types of metal oxide films can be produced.

Tracy, C.E.; Benson, D.; Svensson, S.

1990-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

325

Electrochemical photovoltaic cell having ternary alloy film  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A thin film compound semiconductor electrode comprising CdSe.sub.1-x Te.sub.x (0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1) is deposited on a transparent conductive substrate. An electrolyte contacts the film to form a photoactive site. The semiconductor material has a narrow energy bandgap permitting high efficiency for light conversion. The film may be fabricated by: (1) co-evaporation of two II-VI group compounds with a common cation, or (2) evaporation of three elements, concurrenty.

Russak, Michael A. (Farmingdale, NY)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Method of producing amorphous thin films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method of producing thin films by sintering which comprises: a. coating a substrate with a thin film of an inorganic glass forming parulate material possessing the capability of being sintered, and b. irridiating said thin film of said particulate material with a laser beam of sufficient power to cause sintering of said material below the temperature of liquidus thereof. Also disclosed is the article produced by the method claimed.

Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Removing the veil: personal reflections on educating women in Dubai  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article is a personal reflection on the culture and the education of young women in the United Arab Emirates, a group of seven emirates along the Persian Gulf, which has only been a federated nation since 1971. The rapid pace of development in the ... Keywords: UAE, education, gender, social impact

C. Dianne Martin

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Does your distillation simulation reflect the real world?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The question ``Do you have a simulation?`` is asked during almost every troubleshooting investigation. A question equally important: ``Does your simulation reflect the real world?`` is raised far less frequently. To correctly answer the latter question, it is imperative that the simulation reflects the real world (i.e., plant data). Any mismatch provides a warning of a potential simulation deficiency. A previous paper described a case where a seemingly minor mismatch led to the discovery of a major simulation deficiency. Undiscovered, the deficiency would have led to a failed tower debottleneck. This paper expands on this previous theme, but focuses on column troubleshooting. A simulation that did not reflect the real world steered a troubleshooting investigation toward an incorrect diagnosis and into inadequate solutions. Once revised to reflect the real world, the same simulation proved invaluable for identifying the correct root cause and guiding the investigation toward the proper solution. An initial simulation of an aromatics fractionator revealed no cause for an operational instability apparent in the tower. Field testing of the tower, establishing correct energy balances, overcoming an analytical limitation, and finally, identifying a simulation trap, yielded information that led to revision of the initial simulation. The revised simulation readily identified the cause of the tower instability.

Kister, H.Z. [Brown and Root, Alhambra, CA (United States); Neves, S.B.; Siles, R.C.; Costa Lima, R. da [Copene Petroquimica do Nordeste S.A., Camacari, Bahia (Brazil)

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Designing optimal iBGP route-reflection topologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is used today by all Autonomous Systems (AS) in the Internet. Inside each AS, iBGP sessions distribute the external routes among the routers. In large ASs, relying on a full-mesh of iBGP sessions between routers is not ... Keywords: BGP, iBGP topology design, optimization, route-reflection

Marc-Olivier Buob; Steve Uhlig; Mickael Meulle

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Experiences surveying the crowd: reflections on methods, participation, and reliability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Crowdsourcing services such as Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) provide new venues for recruiting participants and conducting studies; hundreds of surveys may be offered to workers at any given time. We reflect on the results of six related studies we ... Keywords: crowdsourcing, demographics, reliability, surveys

Catherine C. Marshall; Frank M. Shipman

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

A 16-ELEMENT REFLECTION GRID AMPLIFIER Frederic Lecuyer1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, which can double as a large metal heat sink. Otherwise, the operation of reflection grid amplifiers to improve common- Mirror/Heat Sink Active GridInput Polarizer Active Grid Output Polarizer E Output Beam E Input Beam E Output Beam Differential Transistor Pair E Input Beam Mirror/Heat Sink Active Grid

332

Remote Sensing Of Photosynthetic Processes By Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) has been proposed as a tool for the estimation of leaf and canopy light?use efficiency and photosynthesis from remote?sensing data. The application of the index is based on more than fifteen years of spectroscopic studies at the leaf level

S. Raddi; S. Cortes; E. Vicinelli; F. Magnani

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Conductive layer for biaxially oriented semiconductor film ...  

... a photovoltaic cell, or a light emitting diode (LED) that includes a crystallographically oriented semiconducting film disposed on the conductive layer.

334

Characterization of Micro-, Nano-, and Thin Films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Feb 18, 2010... CdS:In Thin Films Prepared by the Spray-Pyrolysis Technique: Shadia Ikhmayies1; Riyad Ahmad-Bitar1; 1University of Jordan

335

Hierarchically Ordered Porous Carbon Films for Commercial ...  

Technology Marketing Summary Porous carbon films that can be optimized and assembled as electrodes in a device to desalinate water have been ...

336

Enhanced Thin Film Organic Photovoltaic Devices  

A novel structure design for thin film organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices provides a system for increasing the optical absorption in the active layer. ...

337

Method of producing amorphous thin films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention dicloses a method for sintering particulate material (such as silica) with a laser beam to produce amorphous optical thin films on substrates.

Brusasco, R.M.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

338

Infrared Analysis of Advanced Thin Film Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The goals of timely and cost effective integration of these new materials into ... most widely accepted method for production monitoring of transparent thin films.

339

Available Technologies: Indium Phosphide Polycrystalline Films on ...  

Hot Electron Photovoltaics Using Low Cost Materials and Simple Design, IB-2195. Thinner Film Silicon Solar Cells, IB-2564. REFERENCE NUMBER: IB-3173, IB-3238.

340

Quick, Efficient Film Deposition for Nanomaterials - Energy ...  

Electricity Transmission; Energy Analysis; ... • Films can be deposited uniformly in a one-step deposition of nanoparticles with optimized drop distri ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "drapes reflective film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Hierarchically Ordered Porous Carbon Films for Commercial ...  

for kinetic adsorption. The ORNL invention offers both a method for making new, hierarchically ordered porous carbon films and describes a capacitive deionization

342

SPUTTERED THIN FILM PHOTOVOLTAICS - Home - Energy ...  

for photovoltaic (PV) applications .These processes result in films with better unif ormity over ... ultimately resulting in a more efficient solar ce ...

343

Magnetoresistance of alloy films and multilayers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The anisotropic magnetoresistance effect of alloy films and so-called giant magnetoresistance of superlattice multilayer films are reviewed. The usefulness for phenomenological explanation of both the anisotropic magnetoresistance and giant magnetoresistance of the two-current model, suggested first by Motto and subsequently extended by several researchers, is stressed. The relationship between the magnetoresistance and the magnetic anisotropy field is demonstrated for films exhibiting either anisotropic magnetoresistance or giant magnetoresistance. The magnetoresistances of multilayer films both with and without magnetic interaction between adjacent layers are compared. The dependence of the magnetoresistance on temperature is briefly discussed.

Miyazaki, T. (Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan))

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Understanding Protective Film Formation by Magnesium Alloys  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Magnesium-based alloys are the lightest structural metals, and thus ... The present work aims to understand the mechanism(s) of protective film ...

345

and electrical properties of zinc oxide films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Undoped and indium-doped ZnO films have been deposited onto glass substrates by the spray pyrolysis method. The effect of indium incorporation on structural and electrical properties of ZnO films has been investigated. Zinc acetate dihydrate, indium chloride were used as a starting material and a dopant source, respectively. X-ray diffraction pattern of the films showed hexagonal wurtzite type polycrystalline structure. The results show that indium incorporation leads to substantial changes in the structural characteristics of ZnO films. The grain size was found to be in the range 15-50 nm, depending on indium content. In addition, the surface morphology features of the films, as a function of the indium content, are shown. For all the films, a linear dependence typical of ohmic behavior was observed. The electrical conductivity of ZnO films was improved by indium incorporation. The most important changes were observed for 1 at. % In-doped ZnO film which exhibit a resistivity of 3.2x10-1 ?cm. At certain constant voltage, from Arrhenius plots of In-doped ZnO films, activation energy values have been calculated from 17 meV to 89 meV.

unknown authors

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Polycrystalline Thin Film Solar Cell Technologies: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Rapid progress is being made by CdTe and CIGS-based thin-film PV technologies in entering commercial markets.

Ullal, H. S.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Metal Current Collector Protected by Oxide Film  

For Industry; For Researchers; Success Stories; About Us; ... metal felt made substantially of inexpensive ferritic steel coated with a thin oxide film, ...

348

NIST Scientists Address 'Wrinkles' in Transparent Film ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

NIST Scientists Address 'Wrinkles' in Transparent Film Development. ... High on the wish list of the solar power industry is a cheap, flexible ...

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

349

Mechanical Properties of Thin Film Metallic Glass  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Because of these and other properties, thin film metallic-glasses (TFMGs) are a promising structural material for fabricating the next generation of micro- and ...

350

Textured Ultrafine Grained Al Thin Films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Fatigue and Fracture of Thin Films and Nanomaterials. Presentation Title, In-Situ ACOM-TEM Nanomechanical Testing of Textured Ultrafine ...

351

Applied Films Corporation | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Corporation Place Longmont, Colorado Zip 80504 Sector Services, Solar Product Provider of thin film deposition equipment and services, particularly to the solar industry....

352

Available Technologies: Thinner Film Silicon Solar Cells  

Berkeley Lab scientists have designed a new approach to create highly efficient thin film silicon solar cells. This technology promises to lower solar cell material ...

353

Thin Film Structures for Energy Efficient Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thin film based energy generation and storage devices - Small scale ... Dye- sensitized Solar Cells with Anodized Aluminum Alloy-based Counter-electrodes.

354

Prediction of Reflection Cracking in Hot Mix Asphalt Overlays  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reflection cracking is one of the main distresses in hot-mix asphalt (HMA) overlays. It has been a serious concern since early in the 20th century. Since then, several models have been developed to predict the extent and severity of reflection cracking in HMA overlays. However, only limited research has been performed to evaluate and calibrate these models. In this dissertation, mechanistic-based models are calibrated to field data of over 400 overlay test sections to produce a design process for predicting reflection cracks. Three cracking mechanisms: bending, shearing traffic stresses, and thermal stress are taken into account to evaluate the rate of growth of the three increasing levels of distress severity: low, medium, and high. The cumulative damage done by all three cracking mechanisms is used to predict the number of days for the reflection crack to reach the surface of the overlay. The result of this calculation is calibrated to the observed field data (severity and extent) which has been fitted with an S-shaped curve. In the mechanistic computations, material properties and fracture-related stress intensity factors are generated using efficient Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithms. In the bending and shearing traffic stress models, the traffic was represented by axle load spectra. In the thermal stress model, a recently developed temperature model was used to predict the temperature at the crack tips. This process was developed to analyze various overlay structures. HMA overlays over either asphalt pavement or jointed concrete pavement in all four major climatic zones are discussed in this dissertation. The results of this calculated mechanistic approach showed its ability to efficiently reproduce field observations of the growth, extent, and severity of reflection cracking. The most important contribution to crack growth was found to be thermal stress. The computer running time for a twenty-year prediction of a typical overlay was between one and four minutes.

Tsai, Fang-Ling

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Implementation of solar-reflective surfaces: Materials and utility programs  

SciTech Connect

This report focuses on implementation issues for using solar-reflective surfaces to cool urban heat islands, with specific examples for Sacramento, California. Advantages of solar-reflective surfaces for reducing energy use are: (1) they are cost-effective if albedo is increased during routine maintenance; (2) the energy savings coincide with peak demand for power; (3) there are positive effects on environmental quality; and (4) the white materials have a long service life. Important considerations when choosing materials for mitigating heat islands are identified as albedo, emissivity, durability, cost, pollution and appearance. There is a potential for increasing urban albedo in Sacramento by an additional 18%. Of residential roofs, we estimate that asphalt shingle and modified bitumen cover the largest area, and that built-up roofing and modified bitumen cover the largest area of commercial buildings. For all of these roof types, albedo may be increased at the time of re-roofing without any additional cost. When a roof is repaired, a solar-reflective roof coating may be applied to significantly increase albedo and extend the life of the root Although a coating may be cost-effective if applied to a new roof following installation or to an older roof following repair, it is not cost-effective if the coating is applied only to save energy. Solar-reflective pavement may be cost-effective if the albedo change is included in the routine resurfacing schedule. Cost-effective options for producing light-colored pavement may include: (1) asphalt concrete, if white aggregate is locally available; (2) concrete overlays; and (3) newly developed white binders and aggregate. Another option may be hot-rolled asphalt, with white chippings. Utilities could promote solar-reflective surfaces through advertisement, educational programs and cost-sharing of road resurfacing.

Bretz, S.; Akbari, H.; Rosenfeld, A.; Taha, H.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Reflected Neutron Effects in Multiplicity Measurements of Bare HEU Assemblies  

SciTech Connect

In a passive multiplicity characterization of highly enriched uranium (HEU) assemblies, fission chains are initiated by the characteristically fast neutrons from spontaneous fission of {sup 238}U and {sup 235}U as well as cosmic-ray spallation neutrons. Active interrogation of HEU uses other physical mechanisms for starting chains by inducing fission from high-energy neutrons, high-energy gamma-rays, delayed neutrons, or thermal neutrons. In all cases a contribution to the initiation of fission chains is the reflection of neutrons that initially escape the assembly and re-enter it after undergoing some scattering. The reflected neutron flux is geometry dependent and a combination of fast and thermal energies. The reflected thermal neutron contribution occurs hundreds of microseconds after the beginning of the fission chain and can be distinguished from the cosmic-ray spallation neutrons unrelated to fission chains, resulting in an HEU detection signature with high signal-to-noise. However, the reflected thermal neutron flux can be eliminated with an efficient thermal neutron absorber to investigate reflected neutron effects. In this paper, active and passive multiplicity measurements with HEU oxide assemblies of up to 16 kg of fuel pins and HEU metal assemblies of up to five 18 kg storage castings are reported. Each case demonstrates the differences in HEU signature when a borated thermal neutron absorber is present and shows the various detectable signatures with 3He proportional counters, the standard detector for differential die-way and neutron multiplicity measurements, and liquid scintillators, a detector capable of operating on the timescale of fission chains.

McConchie, Seth M [ORNL; Hausladen, Paul [ORNL; Mihalczo, John T [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

21L.011 The Film Experience, Fall 2006  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An introduction to narrative film, emphasizing the unique properties of the movie house and the motion-picture camera, the historical evolution of the film medium, and the intrinsic artistic qualities of individual films. ...

Thorburn, David

358

X-RAY ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY OF TRANSITION METAL-MAGNESIUM HYDRIDE FILMS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Spectroscopy of Transition Metal-Magnesium Spectroscopy of Transition Metal-Magnesium Hydride Thin Films T. J. Richardson a, *, B. Farangis a , J. L. Slack a , P. Nachimuthu b , R. Pereira b , N. Tamura b , and M. Rubin a a Environmental Energy Technologies Division, b Advanced Light Source, Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Berkeley, California 94720, USA *Corresponding author, E-mail address: tjrichardson@lbl.gov Abstract Mixed metal thin films containing magnesium and a first-row transition element exhibit very large changes in both reflectance and transmittance on exposure to hydrogen gas. Changes in electronic structure and coordination of the magnesium and transition metal atoms during hydrogen absorption were studied using dynamic in situ transmission mode X-ray absorption

359

Optical properties of TiN thin films close to the superconductor-insulator transition.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present the intrinsic optical properties over a broad spectral range of TiN thin films deposited on an Si/SiO{sub 2} substrate. We analyze the measured reflectivity spectra of the film-substrate multilayer structure within a well-establish procedure based on the Fresnel equation and extract the real part of the optical conductivity of TiN. We identify the metallic contribution as well as the finite energy excitations and disentangle the spectral weight distribution among them. The absorption spectrum of TiN bears some similarities with the electrodynamic response observed in the normal state of the high-temperature superconductors. Particularly, a mid-infrared feature in the optical conductivity is quite reminiscent of a pseudogap-like excitation.

Pfuner, F.; Degiorgi, L.; Baturina, T. I.; Vinokur, V. M.; Baklanov, M. R.; Materials Science Division; ETH Zurich; Inst. Semiconductor Physics; IMEC Kapeldreef

2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

360

Surface roughness effects on the solar reflectance of cool asphalt shingles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We analyze the solar reflectance of asphalt roofing shingles that are covered with pigmented mineral roofing granules. The reflecting surface is rough, with a total area approximately twice the nominal area. We introduce a simple analytical model that relates the 'micro-reflectance' of a small surface region to the 'macro-reflectance' of the shingle. This model uses a mean field approximation to account for multiple scattering effects. The model is then used to compute the reflectance of shingles with a mixture of different colored granules, when the reflectances of the corresponding mono-color shingles are known. Simple linear averaging works well, with small corrections to linear averaging derived for highly reflective materials. Reflective base granules and reflective surface coatings aid achievement of high solar reflectance. Other factors that influence the solar reflectance are the size distribution of the granules, coverage of the asphalt substrate, and orientation of the granules as affected by rollers during fabrication.

Akbari, Hashem; Berdahl, Paul; Akbari, Hashem; Jacobs, Jeffry; Klink, Frank

2008-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "drapes reflective film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Carbon Films Produced from Ionic Liquid Carbon Precursors ...  

The invention is directed to a method for producing a film of porous carbon, the method comprising carbonizing a film of an ionic liquid, wherein the ...

362

Institute of Photo Electronic Thin Film Devices and Technology...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Place Tianjin Municipality, China Zip 300071 Sector Solar Product A thin-film solar cell research institute in China. References Institute of Photo-Electronic Thin Film Devices...

363

Filming the crew at a meal in Japan  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

At the end of the filming in Japan, the team of film-makers and others have a celebration meal in a Japanese restaurant....

Macfarlane, Alan

2004-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

364

NREL: Photovoltaics Research - Polycrystalline Thin-Film Materials...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in the area of polycrystalline thin-film materials and devices. Printable Version Photovoltaics Research Home Silicon Polycrystalline Thin Films Multijunctions New Materials,...

365

Tungsten-doped thin film materials - Energy Innovation Portal  

A dielectric thin film material for high frequency use, including use as a capacitor, and having a low dielectric loss factor is provided, the film comprising a ...

366

Free film screening at Bradbury Science Museum September 7  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Free Film Screening At Bradbury Science Museum Community Connections: Our link to Northern New Mexico Communities Latest Issue:Dec. 2013 - Jan. 2014 All Issues submit Free film...

367

Daylighting control performance of a thin-film ceramic electrochromic...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Daylighting control performance of a thin-film ceramic electrochromic window: Field study results Title Daylighting control performance of a thin-film ceramic electrochromic...

368

Breakthroughs in Thin-Film Magnetic Devices Earn NIST ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... thin films to control magnetism as a foundation for developing better sensors and memory devices. Computer hard drives that use magnetic thin-film ...

2012-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

369

Amorphous and nanocrystalline Mg2Si thin-film electrodes  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Contact Us Department Contacts Media Contacts Amorphous and nanocrystalline Mg2Si thin-film electrodes Title Amorphous and nanocrystalline Mg2Si thin-film electrodes...

370

Chemistry Chemical Analysis Thin-Films Information at NIST  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Method Can Affect the Use of Block Copolymer Thin Films (10/18 ... NIST Scientists Address 'Wrinkles' in Transparent Film Development (10/02/2012). ...

2010-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

371

Thin-Film/Low-K Dielectric Constant Measurement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... to pursue a very different approach to dielectric thin-film characterization at ... at NIST; DOW will simply deposit and pattern the thin films on pretested ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

372

NIST Testing Method Quickly Tells Whether Thin Films Are ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... and emerging technology areas that rely on thin-film advances for ... For films less than 1 micrometer thick, mechanical-property measurements made ...

2013-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

373

Thermoelectric effect in very thin film Pt/Au thermocouples  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

thin films, the electrical resistivity ratio ? F /? B is BStudies of the electrical resistivity of metallic films [23,calculate the electrical resistivity and the thermoelectric

Salvadori, M.C.; Vaz, A.R.; Teixeira, F.S.; Cattani, M.; Brown, I.G.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Improvement of Electrical Resistivity by Inserting the Graphene Film ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Improvement of Electrical Resistivity by Inserting the Graphene Film between Al doped ZnO Thin Films. Author(s), Jeong Do Yang, Dong-Hee ...

375

Active Reflection Absorption for a Three Dimensional Multidirectional Wave Generator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In order to implement an accurate system that allows for absorption of reflected waves impinging to a wave maker (Active Reflection Absorption), it was required to apply a method to estimate properly the direction of arrival of the waves that does it in the fastest way possible. Our wavemaker control system has been prepared to handle an algorithm provided by Bosch-Rexroth where the wave angle estimation is practically locked to a very narrow frequency band (spatial gain-mixer). The system was evaluated with physical tests in a 3D wave basin for different conditions of reflected waves arriving with an angle to the wavemaker front, and acceptable performance has been found for the 3D ARA mode. However, for certain conditions over-compensation or sub-compensation can develop resulting in a poor absorption. This is mainly related to not being able to determine accurately the direction from which the reflected waves travel towards the wavemaker. The present work employed concepts found in the areas of antenna array signal processing and signal propagation, which were applied to this problem. This approach coupled naturally with our wavemaker system since it was prepared with 48 gages that can be employed in an array antenna fashion. A program was codified from an algorithm found in literature to calculate the Direction of Arrival (DOA) of the reflected waves. The focus for the testing of this program was with regular waves. The tests were conducted to validate the program with different angles of incidence and show that for regular waves the program was able to detect accurately the DOA of these in as few as 5 snapshots, with a minimum of 7 gages used as the antenna input. With data obtained directly from the control system of our wavemaker using regular waves, the program was able to determine the DOA. The computational burden of the algorithm is not significant in the case of regular waves. A modification of the program is required to analyze the DOA of reflected irregular waves, which could increase the computational burden. Actual implementation of this program to our control system depends on cooperation with Bosch-Rexroth.

Cruz Castro, Oscar

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Thin-Film Photovoltaic Industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents an overview of the thin-film (TF) photovoltaic (PV) industry as of the third quarter of 2012, a time in the midst of very rapid changes.  The TFPV industry has seen significantly greater investment in the past 5 to 10 years than in any previous time and up until recently it seemed that this investment was on track to make TFPV a much larger player in the overall PV market.  However, market dynamics have conspired to dim TFPV’s near-term prospects and ...

2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

377

Meteorological Twin–Hot-Film Anemometry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A dual-sensor, twin–hot-film anemometer is applied to meteorological measurement of wind velocity in fair and rainy weather. Two sensors, each with a pair of hot-films mounted side by side, were operated in constant-temperature mode and ...

Brian E. Thompson; Robert C. Hassman Jr.

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Measuring droplet impact with piezoelectric film  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this research was to develop a measurement system for determining droplet impact in the field with piezoelectric film. The piezoelectric film generates an output signal when it is deformed. The signals are analyzed with a data acquisition system (a computer with two high speed boards). Eight piezoelectric films were calibrated in the laboratory. Each film was calibrated by releasing various water droplet sizes from different heights. The signal output of film was then related to the kinetic energy of the droplet. The maximum droplet diameter generated was 5.6 mm, and the maximum height used was 4.59 m. To simulate a kinetic energy for larger droplets and higher elevations, a solid particle with 9.9 mm diameter and 0.5 gram mass was used. The results show that, in general, the output of piezoelectfic film responds linearly to kinetic energy. However, due to the size of the film used and deformation of large droplets upon impact, the output become non-linear and may be represented by Y=ax1 +bx2 +cx1cx2+dx12x2+ex13x2 + where, y = sensor output a, b, c, d, e = constants which depend on the characteristics of the film X1 = the kinetic energy X2 = I for the solid particle X2= 0 for water drops The measurement system was tested in the field. The results showed that this system could be used to measure droplet impact force at different places on plants.

Basahi, Jalal M. Al-Badry M.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Thin films of mixed metal compounds  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compositionally uniform thin film of a mixed metal compound is formed by simultaneously evaporating a first metal compound and a second metal compound from independent sources. The mean free path between the vapor particles is reduced by a gas and the mixed vapors are deposited uniformly. The invention finds particular utility in forming thin film heterojunction solar cells.

Mickelsen, Reid A. (Bellevue, WA); Chen, Wen S. (Seattle, WA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Organic conductive films for semiconductor electrodes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

According to the present invention, improved electrodes overcoated with conductive polymer films and preselected catalysts are provided. The electrodes typically comprise an inorganic semiconductor overcoated with a charge conductive polymer film comprising a charge conductive polymer in or on which is a catalyst or charge-relaying agent.

Frank, Arthur J. (Lakewood, CO)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "drapes reflective film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Preparation of a semiconductor thin film  

SciTech Connect

A process for the preparation of a semiconductor film. The process comprises depositing nanoparticles of a semiconductor material onto a substrate whose surface temperature during nanoparticle deposition thereon is sufficient to cause substantially simultaneous fusion of the nanoparticles to thereby coalesce with each other and effectuate film growth.

Pehnt, Martin (TuBingen, DE); Schulz, Douglas L. (Denver, CO); Curtis, Calvin J. (Lakewood, CO); Ginley, David S. (Evergreen, CO)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Sustainable Transport: from Bullock Carts to Bugatis: Reflections on Major  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sustainable Transport: from Bullock Carts to Bugatis: Reflections on Major Sustainable Transport: from Bullock Carts to Bugatis: Reflections on Major Transport Issues North and South Speaker(s): Lee Schipper Date: August 16, 2001 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Marcia Beck This talk reviews quantitative and qualitative trends in urban transportation and environment, focusing on developing countries. Reviewing recent efforts to look at transportation, the talk adopts a definition of "sustainable transportation" that includes economic and environmental sustainability as well as equity as key criteria. It is argued that governance sustainability is also important if policies and technologies are to reduce the main externalities from urban transport. An important identity is introduced to relate emissions to traffic, modal share, fuel

383

Reflection Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (2001) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Exploration Activity: Reflection Survey At Coso Geothermal Area (2001) Exploration Activity Details Location Coso Geothermal Area Exploration Technique Reflection Survey Activity Date 2001 Usefulness not indicated DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis Look for features that are characteristic of the geothermal producing region not originally seen by imaging the Coso Field using seismic Notes During December of 1999, approximately 32 miles of seismic data were acquired as part of a detailed seismic investigation undertaken by the US Navy Geothermal Program Office. Data acquisition was designed to make effective use of advanced data processing methods, which include Optim's proprietary nonlinear velocity optimization technique and pre-stack Kirchhoff migration. The velocity models from the 2-D lines were combined

384

Time Correlations in Backscattering Radar Reflectivity Measurements from Cirrus Clouds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Time Correlations in Backscattering Radar Reflectivity Time Correlations in Backscattering Radar Reflectivity Measurements from Cirrus Clouds K. Ivanova, H. N. Shirer, and E. E. Clothiaux Pennsylvania State University University Park, Pennsylvania T. P. Ackerman Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction The state variables of the atmosphere exhibit correlations at various spatial and temporal scales. These correlations are crucial for understanding short- and long-term trends in climate. Cirrus clouds are important phenomena in the troposphere affecting climate. To improve future parameterization of cirrus clouds in climate models, we must understand the cloud properties and how they change within the cloud. We consider fluctuations of cloud radar signals obtained at isodepths within cirrus clouds

385

Method and apparatus for inspecting reflection masks for defects  

SciTech Connect

An at-wavelength system for extreme ultraviolet lithography mask blank defect detection is provided. When a focused beam of wavelength 13 nm is incident on a defective region of a mask blank, three possible phenomena can occur. The defect will induce an intensity reduction in the specularly reflected beam, scatter incoming photons into an off-specular direction, and change the amplitude and phase of the electric field at the surface which can be monitored through the change in the photoemission current. The magnitude of these changes will depend on the incident beam size, and the nature, extent and size of the defect. Inspection of the mask blank is performed by scanning the mask blank with 13 nm light focused to a spot a few .mu.m in diameter, while measuring the reflected beam intensity (bright field detection), the scattered beam intensity (dark-field detection) and/or the change in the photoemission current.

Bokor, Jeffrey (Oakland, CA); Lin, Yun (Berkeley, CA)

2003-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

386

On the Complexity of the "Reflections" game David Kempe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. A single player tries to hit a given set of light bulbs with a laser beam, by placing mirrors and other beam must be reflected and split with the help of the movable items, so as to hit a set of light bulbs of the bombs that are part of the board must be hit by a beam. In addition to the laser, light bulbs and bombs

Kempe, David

387

Bohmian transmission and reflection dwell times without trajectory sampling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Within the framework of Bohmian mechanics dwell times find a straightforward formulation. The computation of associated probabilities and distributions however needs the explicit knowledge of a relevant sample of trajectories and therefore implies formidable numerical effort. Here a trajectory free formulation for the average transmission and reflection dwell times within static spatial intervals [a,b] is given for one-dimensional scattering problems. This formulation reduces the computation time to less than 5% of the computation time by means of trajectory sampling.

Sabine Kreidl

2004-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

388

Human Radiation Experiments: Multimedia: Film Clips  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Film Clips Multimedia Film Clips Multimedia Home Roadmap What's New Multimedia Related Sites Feedback Sound Bytes Film Clips Historical Photographs Films require: Get Real Player 5.0 to view the films on this page. The Atom and You Second in the series The Atom and You, Paramount News, March 25, 1953, shows tests conducted at Hanford, Washington, on effects of exposure of sheep and salmon to radiation; testing of radioactive dust at UCLA laboratory; the use of radioisotopes and tracer materials for detecting cancer in patients at Oak Ridge, Tennessee; the use of rays from the cobalt source at N.Y. cityÂ’s Moncure Hospital, to treat cancer of the brain. (Time: 5 min 9 secs) Real Media Download Versions 28.8 kbps version (782k) 56.0 kbps version (1.3mb) T1 version (7.5mb) Iodine 131

389

U-043: Attachmate Reflection Buffer Overflow in FTP Client Lets Remote  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3: Attachmate Reflection Buffer Overflow in FTP Client Lets 3: Attachmate Reflection Buffer Overflow in FTP Client Lets Remote Servers Execute Arbitrary Code U-043: Attachmate Reflection Buffer Overflow in FTP Client Lets Remote Servers Execute Arbitrary Code November 22, 2011 - 8:00am Addthis PROBLEM: Attachmate Reflection Buffer Overflow in FTP Client Lets Remote Servers Execute Arbitrary Code. PLATFORM: 14.1.1173 and prior versions The following product versions are affected: Reflection for HP version 14.x Reflection for UNIX and OpenVMS version 14.x Reflection for ReGIS Graphics version 14.x Reflection for IBM version 14.x Reflection X version 14.x ABSTRACT: A remote server can execute arbitrary code on the connected target system. reference LINKS: Security Updates and Reflection Attachmate Support Lifecycle Attachmate Downloads

390

U-043: Attachmate Reflection Buffer Overflow in FTP Client Lets Remote  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3: Attachmate Reflection Buffer Overflow in FTP Client Lets 3: Attachmate Reflection Buffer Overflow in FTP Client Lets Remote Servers Execute Arbitrary Code U-043: Attachmate Reflection Buffer Overflow in FTP Client Lets Remote Servers Execute Arbitrary Code November 22, 2011 - 8:00am Addthis PROBLEM: Attachmate Reflection Buffer Overflow in FTP Client Lets Remote Servers Execute Arbitrary Code. PLATFORM: 14.1.1173 and prior versions The following product versions are affected: Reflection for HP version 14.x Reflection for UNIX and OpenVMS version 14.x Reflection for ReGIS Graphics version 14.x Reflection for IBM version 14.x Reflection X version 14.x ABSTRACT: A remote server can execute arbitrary code on the connected target system. reference LINKS: Security Updates and Reflection Attachmate Support Lifecycle Attachmate Downloads

391

Analytical study of residential building with reflecting roofs  

SciTech Connect

This report presents an analysis of the effect of roof solar reflectance on the annual heating (cooling) loads, peak heating (cooling) loads, and roof temperatures of the residential buildings. The annual heating (cooling) loads, peak heating (cooling) loads, and exterior roof temperatures for a small compact ranch house are computed using the Thermal Analysis Research Program (TARP). The residential models, with minor modifications in the thermal envelope for different locations, are subjected to hourly weather data for one year compiled in the Weather Year for Energy Calculation (WYEC) for in the following locations: Birmingham, Alabama; Bismarck, North Dakota; Miami, Florida; Phoenix, Arizona; Portland, Maine; and, Washington, D.C. Building loads have been determined for a full factorial experimental design that varies the following parameters of the residential model: solar reflectance of the roof, ceiling thermal resistance, attic ventilation, and attic mass framing area. The computed results for annual heating (cooling) loads and peak heating (cooling) loads are illustrated graphically, both globally for all cities and locally for each geographic location. The effect of peak parameter is ranked (highest to lowest) for effect on annual heating and cooling loads, and peak heating and cooling loads. A parametric study plots the building loads as a function of roof solar reflectance for different levels of ceiling thermal resistances and for each geographic location.

Zarr, R.R.

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Benchmarking of Graphite Reflected Critical Assemblies of UO2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of experiments were carried out in 1963 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) for use in space reactor research programs. A core containing 93.2% enriched UO2 fuel rods was used in these experiments. The first part of the experimental series consisted of 253 tightly-packed fuel rods (1.27 cm triangular pitch) with graphite reflectors [1], the second part used 253 graphite-reflected fuel rods organized in a 1.506 cm triangular pitch [2], and the final part of the experimental series consisted of 253 beryllium-reflected fuel rods with a 1.506 cm triangular pitch. [3] Fission rate distribution and cadmium ratio measurements were taken for all three parts of the experimental series. Reactivity coefficient measurements were taken for various materials placed in the beryllium reflected core. The first part of this experimental series has been evaluated for inclusion in the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) [4] and the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) Handbooks, [5] and is discussed below. These experiments are of interest as benchmarks because they support the validation of compact reactor designs with similar characteristics to the design parameters for a space nuclear fission surface power systems. [6

Margaret A. Marshall; John D. Bess

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Bayesian Conditioning, the Reflection Principle, and Quantum Decoherence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The probabilities a Bayesian agent assigns to a set of events typically change with time, for instance when the agent updates them in the light of new data. In this paper we address the question of how an agent's probabilities at different times are constrained by Dutch-book coherence. We review and attempt to clarify the argument that, although an agent is not forced by coherence to use the usual Bayesian conditioning rule to update his probabilities, coherence does require the agent's probabilities to satisfy van Fraassen's [1984] reflection principle (which entails a related constraint pointed out by Goldstein [1983]). We then exhibit the specialized assumption needed to recover Bayesian conditioning from an analogous reflection-style consideration. Bringing the argument to the context of quantum measurement theory, we show that "quantum decoherence" can be understood in purely personalist terms---quantum decoherence (as supposed in a von Neumann chain) is not a physical process at all, but an application of the reflection principle. From this point of view, the decoherence theory of Zeh, Zurek, and others as a story of quantum measurement has the plot turned exactly backward.

Christopher A. Fuchs; Ruediger Schack

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

394

Helios model for the optical behavior of reflecting solar concentrators  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Helios model simulates the optical behavior of reflecting concentrators. The model follows the incident solar radiation through the system (including the atmosphere) and includes all the factors that influence the optical performance of a collector. An important output is the flux-density pattern (W/cm/sup 2/) at a grid of points on a surface such as the absorbing surface of a receiver and its integral (power in watts) over the surface. The angular distribution of sunrays for the radiation incident on a concentrator is modified by convolution, using the fast Fourier transform, to incorporate the effects of other nondeterministic factors such as sun-tracking errors, surface slope errors, and reflectance properties. The analytical methods used for the statistics, the off-axis reflecting optics, the atmospheric effects, and the various coordinate systems are described and illustrated. This model forms a basis for the simulation code HELIOS as well as for other codes under development. Some of the HELIOS routines are described, a few of its capabilities are discussed and illustrated, and comparisons of data with calculations are presented. These capabilities have been used for performance predictions, safety studies, design trade-offs, data analysis problems, the specification and analysis of concentrator quality, and for the general understanding of solar-concentrator technology.

Biggs, F.; Vittitoe, C.N.

1979-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Composite polymeric film and method for its use in installing a very thin polymeric film in a device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composite polymeric film and a method for its use in forming and installing a very thin (<10 .mu.m) polymeric film are disclosed. The composite film consists of a thin film layer and a backing layer. The backing layer is soluble in a solvent in which the thin film layer is not soluble. In accordance with the method, the composite film is installed in a device in the same position in which it is sought to finally emplace the thin film. The backing layer is then selectively dissolved in the solvent to leave the insoluble thin film layer as an unbacked film. The method permits a very thin film to be successfully installed in devices where the fragility of the film would preclude handling and installation by conventional methods.

Duchane, David V. (Los Alamos, NM); Barthell, Barry L. (Tesuque, NM)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Composite polymeric film and method for its use in installing a very-thin polymeric film in a device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composite polymeric film and a method for its use in forming and installing a very thin (< 10 ..mu..m) polymeric film are disclosed. The composite film consists of a thin film layer and a backing layer. The backing layer is soluble in a solvent in which the thin film layer is not soluble. In accordance with the method, the composite film is installed in a device in the same position in which it is sought to finally emplace the thin film. The backing layer is then selectiely dissolved in the solvent to leave the insoluble thin film layer as an unbacked film. The method permits a very thin film to e successfully installed in devices where the fragility of the film would preclude handling and installation by conventional methods.

Duchane, D.V.; Barthell, B.L.

1982-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

397

NANO-INDENTATION OF COPPER THIN FILMS ON SILICON SUBSTRATES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NANO-INDENTATION OF COPPER THIN FILMS ON SILICON SUBSTRATES S. Suresh1 , T.-G. Nieh2 and B.W. Choi2: Mechanical properties; Nano-indentation; Thin films; Copper; Dislocations Introduction Indentation methods films on substrates (e.g., [2,3]) using instrumented indentation. Nano-indentation studies of thin films

Suresh, Subra

398

DETERMINING REFLECTANCE SPECTRA OF SURFACES AND CLOUDS ON EXOPLANETS  

SciTech Connect

Planned missions will spatially resolve temperate terrestrial planets from their host star. Although reflected light from such a planet encodes information about its surface, it has not been shown how to establish surface characteristics of a planet without assuming known surfaces to begin with. We present a reanalysis of disk-integrated, time-resolved, multiband photometry of Earth obtained by the Deep Impact spacecraft as part of the EPOXI Mission of Opportunity. We extract reflectance spectra of clouds, ocean, and land without a priori knowledge of the numbers or colors of these surfaces. We show that the inverse problem of extracting surface spectra from such data is a novel and extreme instance of spectral unmixing, a well-studied problem in remote sensing. Principal component analysis is used to determine an appropriate number of model surfaces with which to interpret the data. Shrink-wrapping a simplex to the color excursions of the planet yields a conservative estimate of the planet's endmember spectra. The resulting surface maps are unphysical, however, requiring negative or larger-than-unity surface coverage at certain locations. Our ''rotational unmixing'' supersedes the endmember analysis by simultaneously solving for the surface spectra and their geographical distributions on the planet, under the assumption of diffuse reflection and known viewing geometry. We use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo to determine best-fit parameters and their uncertainties. The resulting albedo spectra are similar to clouds, ocean, and land seen through a Rayleigh-scattering atmosphere. This study suggests that future direct-imaging efforts could identify and map unknown surfaces and clouds on exoplanets.

Cowan, Nicolas B.; Strait, Talia E., E-mail: n-cowan@northwestern.edu [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA), Northwestern University, 2131 Tech Dr., IL 60208 (United States)

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

SunShot Initiative: Thin Film Photovoltaics Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thin Film Photovoltaics Research Thin Film Photovoltaics Research to someone by E-mail Share SunShot Initiative: Thin Film Photovoltaics Research on Facebook Tweet about SunShot Initiative: Thin Film Photovoltaics Research on Twitter Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Thin Film Photovoltaics Research on Google Bookmark SunShot Initiative: Thin Film Photovoltaics Research on Delicious Rank SunShot Initiative: Thin Film Photovoltaics Research on Digg Find More places to share SunShot Initiative: Thin Film Photovoltaics Research on AddThis.com... Concentrating Solar Power Photovoltaics Research & Development Crystalline Silicon Thin Films Multijunctions Organic Photovoltaics Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Competitive Awards Systems Integration Balance of Systems Thin Film Photovoltaics Research The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) supports research and development of

400

Photovoltaic Polycrystalline Thin-Film Cell Basics | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Polycrystalline Thin-Film Cell Basics Polycrystalline Thin-Film Cell Basics Photovoltaic Polycrystalline Thin-Film Cell Basics August 20, 2013 - 2:36pm Addthis Polycrystalline thin-film cells are made of many tiny crystalline grains of semiconductor materials. The materials used in these cells have properties that are different from those of silicon. Thin-film cells have many advantages over their thick-film counterparts. For example, they use much less material. The cell's active area is usually only 1 to 10 micrometers thick, whereas thick films typically are 100 to 300 micrometers thick. Also, thin-film cells can usually be manufactured in a large-area process, which can be an automated, continuous production process. Finally, they can be deposited on flexible substrate materials. The term thin film comes from the method used to deposit the film, not from

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401

Aging phenomena in polystyrene thin films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The aging behavior is investigated for thin films of atactic polystyrene through measurements of complex electric capacitance. During isothermal aging process the real part of the electric capacitance increases with aging time, while the imaginary part decreases with aging time. This result suggests that the aging time dependence of the real and imaginary parts are mainly associated with change in thickness and dielectric permittivity, respectively. In thin films, the thickness depends on thermal history of aging even above the glass transition. Memory and `rejuvenation' effects are also observed in the thin films.

Koji Fukao; Hiroki Koizumi

2008-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

402

Thin-film Rechargeable Lithium Batteries  

DOE R&D Accomplishments (OSTI)

Thin film rechargeable lithium batteries using ceramic electrolyte and cathode materials have been fabricated by physical deposition techniques. The lithium phosphorous oxynitride electrolyte has exceptional electrochemical stability and a good lithium conductivity. The lithium insertion reaction of several different intercalation materials, amorphous V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, amorphous LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and crystalline LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} films, have been investigated using the completed cathode/electrolyte/lithium thin film battery.

Dudney, N. J.; Bates, J. B.; Lubben, D.

1995-06-00T23:59:59.000Z

403

Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries  

SciTech Connect

Thin-film rechargeable lithium batteries using ceramic electrolyte and cathode materials have been fabricated by physical deposition techniques. The lithium phosphorous oxynitride electrolyte has exceptional electrochemical stability and a good lithium conductivity. The lithium insertion reaction of several different intercalation materials, amorphous V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, amorphous LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, and crystalline LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} films, have been investigated using the completed cathode/electrolyte/lithium thin-film battery.

Dudney, N.J.; Bates, J.B.; Lubben, D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Solid State Div.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

SiO2 - polyethylene reflected critical assembly  

SciTech Connect

The Planet universal critical assembly machine was used to perform a series of three critical experiments. This experiment used HEU foils reflected by polyethylene and interleaved with plates of SiO{sub 2} glass and polyethylene. Only the experiment performed using the SiO{sub 2} matrix material is evaluated in this report. The assembly was delayed critical with 33 HEU foils or 17 units (sets of HEU foils). The critical assembly has an intermediate neutron spectrum, with 51.2% of the fissions occurring between 0.625 eV and 100 keV. The calculational results show good agreement with the experimental results.

Brewer, R. W. (Roger W.); Sanchez, R. G. (Rene G.)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Accurate hydrogen depth profiling by reflection elastic recoil detection analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A technique to convert reflection elastic recoil detection analysis spectra to depth profiles, the channel-depth conversion, was introduced by Verda, et al [1]. But the channel-depth conversion does not correct for energy spread, the unwanted broadening in the energy of the spectra, which can lead to errors in depth profiling. A work in progress introduces a technique that corrects for energy spread in elastic recoil detection analysis spectra, the energy spread correction [2]. Together, the energy spread correction and the channel-depth conversion comprise an accurate and convenient hydrogen depth profiling method.

Verda, R. D. (Raymond D.); Tesmer, Joseph R.; Nastasi, Michael Anthony,; Bower, R. W. (Robert W.)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Nanomechanics of hard films on compliant substrates.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Development of flexible thin film systems for biomedical, homeland security and environmental sensing applications has increased dramatically in recent years [1,2,3,4]. These systems typically combine traditional semiconductor technology with new flexible substrates, allowing for both the high electron mobility of semiconductors and the flexibility of polymers. The devices have the ability to be easily integrated into components and show promise for advanced design concepts, ranging from innovative microelectronics to MEMS and NEMS devices. These devices often contain layers of thin polymer, ceramic and metallic films where differing properties can lead to large residual stresses [5]. As long as the films remain substrate-bonded, they may deform far beyond their freestanding counterpart. Once debonded, substrate constraint disappears leading to film failure where compressive stresses can lead to wrinkling, delamination, and buckling [6,7,8] while tensile stresses can lead to film fracture and decohesion [9,10,11]. In all cases, performance depends on film adhesion. Experimentally it is difficult to measure adhesion. It is often studied using tape [12], pull off [13,14,15], and peel tests [16,17]. More recent techniques for measuring adhesion include scratch testing [18,19,20,21], four point bending [22,23,24], indentation [25,26,27], spontaneous blisters [28,29] and stressed overlayers [7,26,30,31,32,33]. Nevertheless, sample design and test techniques must be tailored for each system. There is a large body of elastic thin film fracture and elastic contact mechanics solutions for elastic films on rigid substrates in the published literature [5,7,34,35,36]. More recent work has extended these solutions to films on compliant substrates and show that increasing compliance markedly changes fracture energies compared with rigid elastic solution results [37,38]. However, the introduction of inelastic substrate response significantly complicates the problem [10,39,40]. As a result, our understanding of the critical relationship between adhesion, properties, and fracture for hard films on compliant substrates is limited. To address this issue, we integrated nanomechanical testing and mechanics-based modeling in a program to define the critical relationship between deformation and fracture of nanoscale films on compliant substrates. The approach involved designing model film systems and employing nano-scale experimental characterization techniques to isolate effects of compliance, viscoelasticity, and plasticity on deformation and fracture of thin hard films on substrates that spanned more than two orders of compliance magnitude exhibit different interface structures, have different adhesion strengths, and function differently under stress. The results of this work are described in six chapters. Chapter 1 provides the motivation for this work. Chapter 2 presents experimental results covering film system design, sample preparation, indentation response, and fracture including discussion on the effects of substrate compliance on fracture energies and buckle formation from existing models. Chapter 3 describes the use of analytical and finite element simulations to define the role of substrate compliance and film geometry on the indentation response of thin hard films on compliant substrates. Chapter 4 describes the development and application of cohesive zone model based finite element simulations to determine how substrate compliance affects debond growth. Chapter 5 describes the use of molecular dynamics simulations to define the effects of substrate compliance on interfacial fracture of thin hard tungsten films on silicon substrates. Chapter 6 describes the Workshops sponsored through this program to advance understanding of material and system behavior.

Reedy, Earl David, Jr. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Emerson, John Allen (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Bahr, David F. (Washington State University, Pullman, WA); Moody, Neville Reid; Zhou, Xiao Wang; Hales, Lucas (University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN); Adams, David Price (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Yeager,John (Washington State University, Pullman, WA); Nyugen, Thao D. (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD); Corona, Edmundo (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Kennedy, Marian S. (Clemson University, Clemson, SC); Cordill, Megan J. (Erich Schmid Institute, Leoben, Austria)

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Low temperature process for obtaining thin glass films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for coating a substrate with a glass-like film comprises, applying to the substrate an aqueous alcoholic solution containing a polymeric network of partially hydrolyzed metal alkoxide into which network there is incorporated finely powdered glass, whereby there is achieved on the substrate a coherent and adherent initial film; and heating said film to a temperature sufficient to melt said powdered glass component, thereby converting said initial film to a final densified film.

Brinker, C. Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM); Reed, Scott T. (Albuquerque, NM)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Electrical and optical properties of Ta-Si-N thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering  

SciTech Connect

The electrical and optical properties of Ta{sub x}Si{sub y}N{sub z} thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering from individual Ta and Si targets were studied in order to investigate the effects of nitrogen and silicon contents on both properties and their correlation to the film microstructure. Three sets of fcc-Ta{sub x}Si{sub y}N{sub z} thin films were prepared: sub-stoichiometric Ta{sub x}Si{sub y}N{sub 0.44}, nearly stoichiometric Ta{sub x}Si{sub y}N{sub 0.5}, and over-stoichiometric Ta{sub x}Si{sub y}N{sub 0.56}. The optical properties were investigated by near-normal-incidence reflectivity and ellipsometric measurements in the optical energy range from 0.375 eV to 6.8 eV, while the d.c. electrical resistivity was measured in the van der Pauw configuration from 20 K to 300 K. The optical and electrical measurements were interpreted using the standard Drude-Lorentz model and the so-called grain boundary scattering model, respectively. The electronic properties were closely correlated with the compositional and structural modifications of the Ta{sub x}Si{sub y}N{sub z} films due to variations in the stoichiometry of the fcc-TaN{sub z} system and the addition of Si atoms. According to the nitrogen and silicon contents, fcc-Ta{sub x}Si{sub y}N{sub z} films can exhibit room temperature resistivity values ranging from 10{sup 2} {mu}{Omega} cm to about 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} {mu}{Omega} cm. The interpretation of the experimental temperature-dependent resistivity data within the Grain Boundary Scattering model, combined with the results from optical investigations, showed that the mean electron transmission probability G and the free carriers concentration, N, are the main parameters that control the transport properties of these films. The results indicated that the correlation between electrical and optical measurements with the chemical composition and the nanostructure of the Ta{sub x}Si{sub y}N{sub z} thin films provides a pertinent and consistent description of the evolution of the Ta-Si-N system from a solid solution to a nanocomposite material due to the addition of Si atoms.

Oezer, D.; Sanjines, R. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Institute of Condensed Matter Physics (ICMP), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Ramirez, G.; Rodil, S. E. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Circuito Exterior s/n, CU, Mexico D.F. 04510 (Mexico)

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

ANODE, CATHODE AND THIN FILM STUDIES FOR LOW TEMPERATURE SOFC'S  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this research the microstructure {leftrightarrow} property relations in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC's) are being studied to better understand the mechanisms involved in cell performance. The overall aim is to fabricate SOFC's with controlled, stable, high performance microstructure. Most cathode studies were completed in the last DOE contract; studies during this year focused more on the influence of nonstoichiometry on the electrical performance. Studies indicate that nonstoichiometric La{sub x}Sr{sub 0.20}MnO{sub 3}(x = 0.70, 0.75, and 0.79) cathode compositions exhibit the best properties. A series of studies using these compositions fired on at temperatures of 1100, 1200, 1300 and 1400 C were performed. In all instances, 1200 C was the optimum, with the x = 0.70 composition being the best. It has an overpotential of only 0.04V at 1 A/cm{sup 2}. SEM analyses indicated no second phases or interdiffusion is detectable. Studies on optimization of anode compositions yielded the optimum volume fraction of Ni (45vol%), the best sintering temperature/time (1400 C/2 h), and the best starting materials (glycine-nitrate derived NiO and normal YSZ). In essence these results simply reflect the optimum microstructure. As such, they are being used to guide the development of optimized anodes for lower temperature operation based on Cu/CeO{sub 2} cermets. Marked success has been achieved on the placement of thin YSZ electrolytes on porous Ni/YSZ electrodes. The process being used is a transfer technique in which dense YSZ films are initially fabricated on NaCl or polymeric substrates, followed by partial dissolution of the substrate and placement of the film on the porous substrate. This technique has allowed us to produce structures with film thicknesses ranging from 70 to 3000 nm, and grain sizes ranging from 2 to 300 nm. Cells based on electrolytes this thick should operate in the 400--700 C range.

Dr. Wayne Huebner; Dr. Harlan U. Anderson

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Benchmark Evaluation of Plutonium Hemispheres Reflected by Steel and Oil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the period from June 1967 through September 1969 a series of critical experiments was performed at the Rocky Flats Critical Mass Laboratory with spherical and hemispherical plutonium assemblies as nested hemishells as part of a Nuclear Safety Facility Experimental Program to evaluate operational safety margins for the Rocky Flats Plant. These assemblies were both bare and fully or partially oil-reflected. Many of these experiments were subcritical with an extrapolation to critical configurations or critical at a particular oil height. Existing records reveal that 167 experiments were performed over the course of 28 months. Unfortunately, much of the data was not recorded. A reevaluation of the experiments had been summarized in a report for future experimental and computational analyses. This report examines only fifteen partially oil-reflected hemispherical assemblies. Fourteen of these assemblies also had close-fitting stainless-steel hemishell reflectors, used to determine the effective critical reflector height of oil with varying steel-reflector thickness. The experiments and their uncertainty in keff values were evaluated to determine their potential as valid criticality benchmark experiments of plutonium.

John Darrell Bess

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Progress toward achieving a commercially viable solar reflective material  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solar thermal technologies use large mirrors to concentrate sunlight for renewable power generation. The development of advanced reflector materials is important to the viability of electricity production by solar thermal energy systems. The reflector materials must be low in cost and maintain high specular reflectance for extended lifetimes under severe outdoor environments. Production processes associated with candidate materials must be scalable to mass production techniques. A promising low-cost construction uses a stainless steel foil substrate with a silver reflective layer protected by an optically transparent oxide topcoat. Thick (2 to 4 micron), dense alumina coatings provide durable protective layers. The excellent performance of alumina-coated reflector materials in outdoor and accelerated testing suggests that a larger field trial of the material is warranted. The key to producing a greater quantity of material for field deployment and testing without incurring substantial capital is the use of a chilled drum coater. An existing chamber is being modified, and the deposition rate will be increased prior to the installation of a drum coater to produce 1-ft wide by 10-ft long strips of solar reflector material. The production and performance of these materials are discussed.

Kennedy, C.E.; Smilgys, R.V. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)]|[Science Applications International Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Real time intelligent process control system for thin film solar cell manufacturing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

All solar cell manufacturing processes today suffer from manufacturing inefficiencies that currently lead to lower product quality and lower conversion efficiency, increased product cost and greater material and energy consumption. This results in slower solar energy adoption and extends the time solar cells will reach grid parity with traditional energy sources. The thin film solar panel manufacturers struggle on a daily basis with the problem of thin film thickness non-uniformity and other parameters variances over the deposited substrates, which significantly degrade their manufacturing yield and quality. Optical monitoring of the thin films during the process of the film deposition is widely perceived as a necessary step towards resolving the non-uniformity and non-homogeneity problem. In order to enable the development of an optical control system for solar cell manufacturing, a new type of low cost optical sensor is needed, able to acquire local information about the panel under deposition and measure its local characteristics, including the light scattering in very close proximity to the surface of the film. This information cannot be obtained by monitoring from outside the deposition chamber (as traditional monitoring systems do) due to the significant signal attenuation and loss of its scattering component before the reflected beam reaches the detector. In addition, it would be too costly to install traditional external in-situ monitoring systems to perform any real-time monitoring over large solar panels, since it would require significant equipment refurbishing needed for installation of multiple separate ellipsometric systems, and development of customized software to control all of them simultaneously. The proposed optical monitoring system comprises AccuStrata’s fiber optics sensors installed inside the thin film deposition equipment, a hardware module of different components (beyond the scope of this project) and our software program with iterative predicting capability able to control material bandgap and surface roughness as films are deposited. Our miniature fiber optics monitoring sensors are installed inside the vacuum chamber compartments in very close proximity where the independent layers are deposited (an option patented by us in 2003). The optical monitoring system measures two of the most important parameters of the photovoltaic thin films during deposition on a moving solar panel - material bandgap and surface roughness. In this program each sensor array consists of two fiber optics sensors monitoring two independent areas of the panel under deposition. Based on the monitored parameters and their change in time and from position to position on the panel, the system is able to provide to the equipment operator immediate information about the thin films as they are deposited. This DoE Supply Chain program is considered the first step towards the development of intelligent optical control system capable of dynamically adjusting the manufacturing process “on-the-fly” in order to achieve better performance. The proposed system will improve the thin film solar cell manufacturing by improving the quality of the individual solar cells and will allow for the manufacturing of more consistent and uniform products resulting in higher solar conversion efficiency and manufacturing yield. It will have a significant impact on the multibillion-dollar thin film solar market. We estimate that the financial impact of these improvements if adopted by only 10% of the industry ($7.7 Billion) would result in about $1.5 Billion in savings by 2015 (at the assumed 20% improvement). This can b

George Atanasoff

2010-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

413

Real time intelligent process control system for thin film solar cell manufacturing  

SciTech Connect

This project addresses the problem of lower solar conversion efficiency and waste in the typical solar cell manufacturing process. The work from the proposed development will lead toward developing a system which should be able to increase solar panel conversion efficiency by an additional 12-15% resulting in lower cost panels, increased solar technology adoption, reduced carbon emissions and reduced dependency on foreign oil. All solar cell manufacturing processes today suffer from manufacturing inefficiencies that currently lead to lower product quality and lower conversion efficiency, increased product cost and greater material and energy consumption. This results in slower solar energy adoption and extends the time solar cells will reach grid parity with traditional energy sources. The thin film solar panel manufacturers struggle on a daily basis with the problem of thin film thickness non-uniformity and other parameters variances over the deposited substrates, which significantly degrade their manufacturing yield and quality. Optical monitoring of the thin films during the process of the film deposition is widely perceived as a necessary step towards resolving the non-uniformity and non-homogeneity problem. In order to enable the development of an optical control system for solar cell manufacturing, a new type of low cost optical sensor is needed, able to acquire local information about the panel under deposition and measure its local characteristics, including the light scattering in very close proximity to the surface of the film. This information cannot be obtained by monitoring from outside the deposition chamber (as traditional monitoring systems do) due to the significant signal attenuation and loss of its scattering component before the reflected beam reaches the detector. In addition, it would be too costly to install traditional external in-situ monitoring systems to perform any real-time monitoring over large solar panels, since it would require significant equipment refurbishing needed for installation of multiple separate ellipsometric systems, and development of customized software to control all of them simultaneously. The proposed optical monitoring system comprises AccuStrata’s fiber optics sensors installed inside the thin film deposition equipment, a hardware module of different components (beyond the scope of this project) and our software program with iterative predicting capability able to control material bandgap and surface roughness as films are deposited. Our miniature fiber optics monitoring sensors are installed inside the vacuum chamber compartments in very close proximity where the independent layers are deposited (an option patented by us in 2003). The optical monitoring system measures two of the most important parameters of the photovoltaic thin films during deposition on a moving solar panel - material bandgap and surface roughness. In this program each sensor array consists of two fiber optics sensors monitoring two independent areas of the panel under deposition. Based on the monitored parameters and their change in time and from position to position on the panel, the system is able to provide to the equipment operator immediate information about the thin films as they are deposited. This DoE Supply Chain program is considered the first step towards the development of intelligent optical control system capable of dynamically adjusting the manufacturing process “on-the-fly” in order to achieve better performance. The proposed system will improve the thin film solar cell manufacturing by improving the quality of the individual solar cells and will allow for the manufacturing of more consistent and uniform products resulting in higher solar conversion efficiency and manufacturing yield. It will have a significant impact on the multibillion-dollar thin film solar market. We estimate that the financial impact of these improvements if adopted by only 10% of the industry ($7.7 Billion) would result in about $1.5 Billion in savings by 2015 (at the assumed 20% improvement). This can b

George Atanasoff

2010-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

414

Innovative Thin Films LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Thin Films LLC Thin Films LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name Innovative Thin Films LLC Place Toledo, Ohio Zip 43607 Product Provider of altnernative energy thin film deposition technology. Coordinates 46.440613°, -122.847838° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":46.440613,"lon":-122.847838,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

415

Solid State Thin Film Lithium Microbatteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solid state thin film lithium microbatteries fabricated by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) are suggested. During deposition the following process parameters must be considered, which are laser energy and fluence, laser pulse ...

Shi, Z.

416

Polycrystalline Thin Film Used in Photovoltaics  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Polycrystalline thin-film cells are made of many tiny crystalline grains of semiconductor materials. The materials used in these cells have properties that are different from those of silicon.

417

Calibrating Cylindrical Hot-Film Anemometer Sensors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report the results of 82 separate calibrations of cylindrical, platinum hot-film anemometer sensors in air. The calibrations for each sensor involved a determination of its temperature-resistance characteristics, a study of its heat transfer ...

Edgar L. Andreas; Brett Murphy

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Superhydrophobic Thin Film Symposium | ornl.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Connect with ORNL | For Industry | Partnerships | Events and Conferences Superhydrophobic Thin Film Symposium Sep 05 2012 12:00 AM - 05:00 PM Hosted by Oak Ridge Laboratory's...

419

Method for making thin polypropylene film  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An economical method is provided for making uniform thickness polypropylene film as thin as 100 Angstroms. A solution of polypropylene dissolved in xylene is formed by mixing granular polypropylene and xylene together in a flask at an elevated temperature. A substrate, such as a glass plate or microscope slide is immersed in the solution. When the glass plate is withdrawn from the solution at a uniform rate, a thin polypropylene film forms on a flat surface area of the glass plate as the result of xylene evaporation. The actual thickness of the polypropylene film is functional of the polypropylene in xylene solution concentration, and the particular withdrawal rate of the glass plate from the solution. After formation, the thin polypropylene film is floated from the glass plate onto the surface of water, from which it is picked up with a wire hoop.

Behymer, R.D.; Scholten, J.A.

1985-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

420

Ultrashort pulse laser deposition of thin films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Short pulse PLD is a viable technique of producing high quality films with properties very close to that of crystalline diamond. The plasma generated using femtosecond lasers is composed of single atom ions with no clusters producing films with high Sp.sup.3 /Sp.sup.2 ratios. Using a high average power femtosecond laser system, the present invention dramatically increases deposition rates to up to 25 .mu.m/hr (which exceeds many CVD processes) while growing particulate-free films. In the present invention, deposition rates is a function of laser wavelength, laser fluence, laser spot size, and target/substrate separation. The relevant laser parameters are shown to ensure particulate-free growth, and characterizations of the films grown are made using several diagnostic techniques including electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and Raman spectroscopy.

Perry, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Banks, Paul S. (Livermore, CA); Stuart, Brent C. (Fremont, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "drapes reflective film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Physicochemically functional ultrathin films by interfacial polymerization  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Interfacially-polymerized ultrathin films containing physicochemically functional groups are disclosed, both with and without supports. Various applications are disclosed, including membrane electrodes, selective membranes and sorbents, biocompatible materials, targeted drug delivery, and narrow band optical absorbers. 3 figs.

Lonsdale, H.K.; Babcock, W.C.; Friensen, D.T.; Smith, K.L.; Johnson, B.M.; Wamser, C.C.

1990-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

422

Polycrystalline Thin-Film Multijunction Solar Cells  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We present a digest of our research on the thin-film material components that comprise the top and bottom cells of three different material systems and the tandem devices constructed from them.

Noufi, R.; Wu, X.; Abu-Shama, J.; Ramanathan, K; Dhere, R.; Zhou, J.; Coutts, T.; Contreras, M.; Gessert, T.; Ward, J. S.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Thin films for geothermal sensing: Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The report discusses progress in three components of the geothermal measurement problem: (1) developing appropriate chemically sensitive thin films; (2) discovering suitably rugged and effective encapsulation schemes; and (3) conducting high temperature, in-situ electrochemical measurements. (ACR)

Not Available

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Superconducting thin films on potassium tantalate substrates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A superconductive system for the lossless transmission of electrical current comprising a thin film of superconducting material Y.sub.1 Ba.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x epitaxially deposited upon a KTaO.sub.3 substrate. The KTaO.sub.3 is an improved substrate over those of the prior art since the it exhibits small lattice constant mismatch and does not chemically react with the superconducting film.

Feenstra, Roeland (Oak Ridge, TN); Boatner, Lynn A. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Gamma irradiation effects in W films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Using the van Der Pauw methodology, the surface resistivity of irradiated tungsten films deposited on Silicon substrate was measured. The films were exposed to {gamma} radiation using a isotopic {sup 60}Co source in three irradiation stages attaining 40.35 kGy in total dose. The obtained results for superficial resistivity display a time annealing features and their values are proportional to the total dose.

Claro, Luiz H. [Instituto de Estudos Avancados - IEAv, Rod. dos Tamoios, km 5,5, CEP: 12228-840, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil) and Faculdade de Tecnologia Sao Francisco - FATESF, Av. Siqueira Campos, 1174, CEP: 12207-000, Jacarei (Brazil); Santos, Ingrid A. [Instituto de Estudos Avancados - IEAv, Rod. dos Tamoios, km 5,5, CEP: 12228-840, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Silva, Cassia F. [Faculdade de Tecnologia Sao Francisco - FATESF, Av. Siqueira Campos, 1174, CEP: 12207-000, Jacarei, SP (Brazil)

2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

426

Thin film absorber for a solar collector  

SciTech Connect

This invention pertains to energy absorbers for solar collectors, and more particularly to high performance thin film absorbers. The solar collectors comprising the absorber of this invention overcome several problems seen in current systems, such as excessive hardware, high cost and unreliability. In the preferred form, the apparatus features a substantially rigid planar frame with a thin film window bonded to one planar side of the frame. An absorber in accordance with the present invention is comprised of two thin film layers that are sealed perimetrically. In a preferred embodiment, thin film layers are formed from a metal/plastic laminate. The layers define a fluid-tight planar envelope of large surface area to volume through which a heat transfer fluid flows. The absorber is bonded to the other planar side of the frame. The thin film construction of the absorber assures substantially full envelope wetting and thus good efficiency. The window and absorber films stress the frame adding to the overall strength of the collector.

Wilhelm, William G. (Cutchogue, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Designing Piezoelectric Films for Micro Electromechanical Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Piezoelectric thin films are of increasing interest in low-voltage micro electromechanical systems for sensing, actuation, and energy harvesting. They also serve as model systems to study fundamental behavior in piezoelectrics. Next-generation technologies such as ultrasound pill cameras, flexible ultrasound arrays, and energy harvesting systems for unattended wireless sensors will all benefit from improvements in the piezoelectric properties of the films. This paper describes tailoring the composition, microstructure, orientation of thin films, and substrate choice to optimize the response. It is shown that increases in the grain size of lead-based perovskite films from 75 to 300 nm results in 40 and 20% increases in the permittivity and piezoelectric coefficients, respectively. This is accompanied by an increase in the nonlinearity in the response. Band excitation piezoresponse force microscopy was used to interrogate the nonlinearity locally. It was found that chemical solution-derived PbZr(0.52)Ti(0.48)O(3) thin films show clusters of larger nonlinear response embedded in a more weakly nonlinear matrix. The scale of the clusters significantly exceeds that of the grain size, suggesting that collective motion of many domain walls contributes to the observed Rayleigh behavior in these films. Finally, it is shown that it is possible to increase the energy-harvesting figure of merit through appropriate materials choice, strong imprint, and composite connectivity patterns.

Trolier-McKinstry, Susan [Pennsylvania State University; Griggio, Flavio [Pennsylvania State University; Yaeger, Charles [Pennsylvania State University; Jousse, Pierre [Pennsylvania State University; Zhao, Dalong [Pennsylvania State University; Bharadwaja, Srowthi [Pennsylvania State University; Jackson, Thomas N [Pennsylvania State University; Jesse, Stephen [ORNL; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL; Wasa, Kiyotaka [Kyoto University, Japan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Meteorological and Astronomical Influences on Radar Reflectivity in the Convective Boundary Layer  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations are presented of time-varying radar reflectivity during a partial solar eclipse in Oklahoma. The measurements from a radar of 10-cm wavelength, were obtained in the clear-air boundary layer. The reflectivity changes closely follow ...

Robert M. Rabin; Richard J. Doviak

1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

V-142: Oracle Java Reflection API Flaw Lets Remote Users Execute...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2: Oracle Java Reflection API Flaw Lets Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code V-142: Oracle Java Reflection API Flaw Lets Remote Users Execute Arbitrary Code April 25, 2013 - 12:14am...

430

The Effect of Cloud Sides on Reflected Solar Radiation as Deduced from Satellite Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report the observation of a feature that is characteristic of the reflection of solar radiation from absorbing, finite clouds. When absorption takes place, more radiation can be reflected by broken cloud fields than by extensive unbroken cloud ...

James A. Coakley Jr.; Roger Davies

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

A Differential Reflectivity Radar Hall Measurement Technique: Observations during the Denver Hailstorm of 13 June 1984  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A differential reflectivity radar technique for observing hailstorms is demonstrated using measurements obtained during the 13 June 1984 Denver hailstorm. The hail regions of the storm are identified with the differential reflectivity hail ...

K. Aydin; Y. Zhao; T. A. Seliga

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

General Probability-matched Relations between Radar Reflectivity and Rain Rate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A method of deriving the relation between radar-observed reflectivities Ze and gauge-measured rain intensity, R is presented. It is based on matching the probabilities of the two variables. The observed reflectivity is often very different from ...

Daniel Rosenfeld; David B. Wolff; David Atlas

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Experimental studies of a teleoperator system with projection-based force reflection algorithms  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Results of experimental studies of a teleoperator system with projection-based force reflection algorithms in the presence of communication constraints are presented. It is demonstrated that, using the projection-based force reflection algorithms, the ...

Ilia G. Polushin; Peter X. Liu; Chung-Horng Lung

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Centrifuging of Hydrometeors and Debris in Tornadoes: Radar-Reflectivity Patterns and Wind-Measurement Errors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

High-resolution Doppler radar observations of tornadoes reveal a distinctive tornado-scale signature with the following properties: a reflectivity minimum aloft inside the tornado core (described previously as an “eye”), a high-reflectivity tube ...

David C. Dowell; Curtis R. Alexander; Joshua M. Wurman; Louis J. Wicker

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Airborne Doppler Lidar Investigation of Sea Surface Reflectance at a 355-nm Ultraviolet Wavelength  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The analysis of the sea surface reflectance for different incidence angles based on observations of an airborne Doppler lidar at an ultraviolet wavelength of 355 nm is described. The results were compared to sea surface reflectance models, ...

Zhigang Li; Christian Lemmerz; Ulrike Paffrath; Oliver Reitebuch; Benjamin Witschas

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

An Experimental Study of Small-Scale Variability of Radar Reflectivity Using Disdrometer Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Analysis of data collected by four disdrometers deployed in a 1-km2 area is presented with the intent of quantifying the spatial variability of radar reflectivity at small spatial scales. Spatial variability of radar reflectivity within the radar ...

Benjamin J. Miriovsky; A. Allen Bradley; William E. Eichinger; Witold F. Krajewski; Anton Kruger; Brian R. Nelson; Jean-Dominique Creutin; Jean-Marc Lapetite; Gyu Won Lee; Isztar Zawadzki; Fred L. Ogden

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Using Sun Glint to Check the Relative Calibration of Reflected Spectral Radiances  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Observations of sunlight reflected from regions of sun glint are used to check the relative calibration of spectral radiances obtained with imaging radiometers. Reflectances at different wavelengths for sun-glint regions are linearly related. ...

Gunnar Luderer; James A. Coakley Jr.; William R. Tahnk

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Reflecting the Revised PM 2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Reflecting the Revised PM 2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard in NEPA Evaluations Reflecting the Revised PM 2.5 National Ambient Air Quality Standard in NEPA Evaluations This...

439

Disdrometer Measurements during an Intense Rainfall Event in Central Illinois: Implications for Differential Reflectivity Radar Observations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Empirical relationships for estimating rainfall rate, liquid water content and median volume diameter from radar measurements of reflectivity factor and differential reflectivity are derived from a disdrometer record of a highly variable, heavy ...

T. A. Seliga; K. Aydin; H. Direskeneli

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Direct Evidence for the Suppression of Charge Stripes in Epitaxial {La1.67Sr0.33NiO4} Films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We have successfully grown epitaxial La1.67Sr0.33NiO4 films with a small crystalline mosaic using pulsed laser deposition. With synchrotron radiation, the x-ray-diffraction peaks associated with charge stripes have been successfully observed for relatively thick films. Anomalies due to the charge-ordering transition have been examined using four-point probe resistivity measurements. X-ray scattering provides direct evidence for suppression of the stripe phase in thinner samples; the phase disappears for film thicknesses 2600 Angstroms. The suppression appears to be a result of shrinking the stripe phase domains. This may reflect the stripe phase progressing from nematic to isotropic.

Xie,C.; Budnick, J.; Hines, W.; Wells, B.; He, F.; Moodenbaugh, A.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "drapes reflective film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Properties of molecular beam epitaxy grown Eu{sub x}(transition metal){sub y} films (transition metals: Mn, Cr)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The electronic and crystallographic structures, as well as the magnetic properties, of Eu{sub x}(transition metal){sub y} (transition metals: Mn, Cr) thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy were studied. Relative changes of the Eu/Mn and Eu/Cr ratios derived from the XPS lines, as well as x-ray reflectivity, indicate mixing of the Eu/Mn and Eu/Cr layers. Valency transitions from Eu{sup 2+} to Eu{sup 3+} were observed in both systems for most studied stoichiometries. A transition to a magnetically ordered phase was observed at 15 K, 40 K, and 62 K for selected films in the Eu-Mn system, and at 50 K for the film with a Eu/Cr ratio of 0.5.

Balin, K. [A. Chelkowski Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Katowice, 40-007 (Poland); Center for Magnetism and Magnetic Nanostructures, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80918 (United States); Nowak, A. [A. Chelkowski Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Katowice, 40-007 (Poland); Laboratoire de Physique de l'Etat Condense, University du Maine, Le Mans Cedex, 72085 (France); Gibaud, A. [Laboratoire de Physique de l'Etat Condense, University du Maine, Le Mans Cedex, 72085 (France); Szade, J. [A. Chelkowski Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Katowice, 40-007 (Poland); Celinski, Z. [Center for Magnetism and Magnetic Nanostructures, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs, Colorado 80918 (United States)

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Aberration-free, all-reflective laser pulse stretcher  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An all-reflective pulse stretcher for laser systems employing chirped-pulse amplification enables on-axis use of the focusing mirror which results in ease of use, significantly decreased sensitivity to alignment and near aberration-free performance. By using a new type of diffraction grating which contains a mirror incorporated into the grating, the stretcher contains only three elements: 1) the grating, 2) a spherical or parabolic focusing mirror, and 3) a flat mirror. Addition of a fourth component, a retro-reflector, enables multiple passes of the same stretcher resulting in stretching ratios beyond the current state of the art in a simple and compact design. The pulse stretcher has been used to stretch pulses from 20 fsec to over 600 psec (a stretching ratio in excess of 30,000).

Perry, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Banks, Paul S. (Livermore, CA); Stuart, Brent C. (Fremont, CA); Fochs, Scott N. (Livermore, CA)

1999-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

443

Wavelength Dependent Reflectance Functions Jay S. Gondek, Gary W. Meyer, Jonathan G. Newman  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reflected from a paint or a plastic is not completely determined by the absorptive properties of the pigment, the spatial distribution of the light reflected from multilayer systems (such as an iridescent paint) is onlyWavelength Dependent Reflectance Functions Jay S. Gondek, Gary W. Meyer, Jonathan G. Newman

Meyer, Gary

444

Linearity and CNR Improvement Technologies against Optical Reflection inFiber-Oriented Wireless Access Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is important to consider optical reflection conditions when designing fiber-oriented wireless access systems around subcarrier optical transmission since the noise characteristic can be significantly degraded by optical reflection, especially ... Keywords: intensity noise, optical reflection, predistorter, subcarrier optical transmission, superimposed subcarrier modulation, superluminescent diode

Yuji Aburakawa; Hiroyuki Ohtsuka

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) Calculation Worksheet SRI-WS Computer Generated Form  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solar Reflectance Index (SRI) Calculation Worksheet SRI-WS Computer Generated Form Date: Climate Roof) Roofing products with high solar reflectance and thermal emittance are referred to as "Cool Roof hot, light-colored surfaces reflect solar energy and stay cooler. However, high emittance is also

446

Evaluation of crystallinity and film stress in yttria-stabilized zirconia thin films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Yttria (3 mol %)-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thin films were deposited using radio frequency (rf) magnetron sputtering. The YSZ thin films were deposited over a range of temperatures (22-300 deg. C), pressures (5-25 mTorr), and gas compositions (Ar/O ratio). Initial studies characterized a select set of properties in relation to deposition parameters including: refractive index, structure, and film stress. X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed that the films are comprised of mainly monoclinic and tetragonal crystal phases. The film refractive index determined by prism coupling, depends strongly on deposition conditions and ranged from 1.959 to 2.223. Wafer bow measurements indicate that the sputtered YSZ films can have initial stress ranging from 86 MPa tensile to 192 MPa compressive, depending on the deposition parameters. Exposure to ambient conditions (25 deg. C, 75% relative humidity) led to large increase ({approx}100 MPa) in the compressive stress of the films. Environmental aging suggests the change in compressive stress was related to water vapor absorption. These effects were then evaluated for films formed under different deposition parameters with varying density (calculated packing density) and crystal structure (XRD)

Piascik, Jeffrey R.; Thompson, Jeffrey Y.; Bower, Christopher A.; Stoner, Brian R. [Curriculum of Applied and Material Science, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 and RTI International, Center for Materials and Electronic Technologies, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709 (United States); Curriculum of Applied and Material Science, and School of Dentistry, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); RTI International, Center for Materials and Electronic Technologies, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709 (United States); RTI International, Center for Materials and Electronic Technologies, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, 27709 and Curriculum of Applied and Material Science, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States)

2005-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

447

Ambient pressure process for preparing aerogel thin films reliquified sols useful in preparing aerogel thin films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for preparing aerogel thin films by an ambient-pressure, continuous process. The method of this invention obviates the use of an autoclave and is amenable to the formation of thin films by operations such as dip coating. The method is less energy intensive and less dangerous than conventional supercritical aerogel processing techniques.

Brinker, Charles Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM); Prakash, Sai Sivasankaran (Minneapolis, MN)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Method of improving field emission characteristics of diamond thin films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of preparing diamond thin films with improved field emission properties. The method includes preparing a diamond thin film on a substrate, such as Mo, W, Si and Ni. An atmosphere of hydrogen (molecular or atomic) can be provided above the already deposited film to form absorbed hydrogen to reduce the work function and enhance field emission properties of the diamond film. In addition, hydrogen can be absorbed on intergranular surfaces to enhance electrical conductivity of the diamond film. The treated diamond film can be part of a microtip array in a flat panel display.

Krauss, Alan R. (Naperville, IL); Gruen, Dieter M. (Downer Grove, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Solution of thin film magnetization problems in type-II superconductivity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Keywords: critical current, numerical solution, superconductivity, thin film, variational inequality

Leonid Prigozhin

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Modeling Electromagnetic Reflectivity of Agbabu Oil Sand from Hyperspectral Infrared Reflectance Spectra and Dielectric Properties at L-, C- and X-Band Frequencies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper remote identification of oil sand reservoirs from synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is enhanced by accurate modeling of the electromagnetic (EM) reflectivity of Agbabu oil sands. This is demonstrated using a novel combination of hyperspectral ... Keywords: EM Reflectivity, Computer Simulation, Agbabu Oil Sand, Dielectric property, Petroleum Exploration

Maurice Ezeoke, Kenneth Tong

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Dimethyl methylphosphonate Decomposition on fully Oxidized and Partially Reduced ceria Thin Films  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The thermal decomposition of dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) on crystalline ceria thin films grown on Ru(0 0 0 1) was studied by temperature programmed desorption (TPD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and infrared absorption reflection spectroscopy (IRAS). TPD experiments show that methanol and formaldehyde desorb as the two main products at 575 K, while water, formaldehyde and CO are produced above 800 K. IRAS studies demonstrate that DMMP adsorbs via the phosphoryl oxygen at 200 K, but the P{double_bond}O bond converts to a bridging O{single_bond}P{single_bond}O species at 300 K. DMMP decomposition initially occurs via P{_}OCH{sub 3} bond scission to form methyl methylphosphonate (MMP) and methyl phosphonate (MP) between 300 and 500 K; XPS and IRAS data are consistent with a methoxy intermediate on the surface at these temperatures. The more stable P{_}CH{sub 3} bonds remain intact up to 700 K, and the only surface intermediate at higher temperatures is believed to be PO{sub x}. Although the presence of PO{sub x} decreases activity for DMMP decomposition, some activity on the ceria surface remains even after 7 cycles of adsorption and reaction. The ceria films become reduced by multiple DMMP adsorption-reaction cycles, with the Ce{sup +4} content dropping to 30% after seven cycles. Investigations of DMMP reaction on reduced ceria surfaces show that CO and H{sub 2} are produced in addition to methanol and formaldehyde. Furthermore, DMMP decomposition activity on the reduced ceria films is almost completely inhibited after only 3 adsorption-reaction cycles. Similarities between DMMP and methanol chemistry on the ceria films suggest that methoxy is a key surface intermediate in both reactions.

Chen, D.; Ratliff, J; Hu, X; Gordon, W; Senanayake, S; Mullins, D

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Structural Properties Studies of Zinc Oxide Thin Film Grown on Silicon Carbide by Means of X-ray Diffraction Technique  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, the structural properties of the zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film on silicon carbide (6H-SiC) grown by radio frequency sputtering technique are investigated thoroughly by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. Both conventional XRD phase analysis and rocking curve measurements are carried out in order to determine the crystalline structure and the crystalline quality of the ZnO sample. From the phase analysis, intense peaks correspond to ZnO(002), iC(006) and their multiple reflections, i.e. ZnO(004) and SiC(0012) are observed. This result suggests that the ZnO thin film is in wurzite structure. Through the simulation of XRD rocking curve of the ZnO(002) peak, the lattice mismatch of 5.49% is obtained.

Ching, C. G.; Ng, S. S.; Hassan, Z.; Hassan, H. Abu; Al-Hardan, N. H.; Abdullah, M. J. [Nano-optoelectronics Research and Technology Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Penang (Malaysia)

2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

453

Coherent optical phonon spectroscopy studies of femtosecond-laser modified Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We performed time-resolved reflectivity measurements to monitor changes in optical phonon modes in Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} thin films under femtosecond laser irradiation. We found that a phonon mode at 3.64 THz appears after high-fluence laser irradiation, in addition to the phonon modes of Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}. We determined that the additional mode is due to Te segregation as a result of laser-induced decomposition of the Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} film. This experiment clearly illustrates the irreversible effects of femtosecond laser irradiation during the measurement of coherent optical phonon dynamics in Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3}.

Li Yuwei; Wang Guoyu [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion, University of Michigan, Michigan 48109 (United States); Stoica, Vladimir A. [Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion, University of Michigan, Michigan 48109 (United States); Applied Physics Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Endicott, Lynn [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Uher, Ctirad; Clarke, Roy [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Center for Solar and Thermal Energy Conversion, University of Michigan, Michigan 48109 (United States); Applied Physics Program, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

2010-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

454

Calibration Accuracy Of Aerial Multispectral Reflectance Images And Estimation Of Error Sources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: We have performed a systematic study of the calibration accuracy of multispectral aerial reflectance images. The study is part of the improvement of change detection for aerial and satellite multispectral images. It is based on (a) a multitemporal image data set from the multispectral airborne scanner Daedalus AADS 1268 and (b) simultaneously made ground based hyperspectral reflectance measurements. Reflectance images were obtained from the raw images by processing with the program package SENSAT-5, using standard urban atmospheres in the MODTRAN code. The systematic uncertainty of the resulting reflectance spectra is mainly due to the uncertainty in the atmospheric parameters. It can be reduced by fitting the Daedalus spectra to ground truth hyperspectral reflectance measurements of selected surfaces. The resulting uncertainty oe ae =ae of the reflectance ae is estimated to be 11.0 % on average. KEY WORDS: Remote sensing, Reflectance, Error sources 1 INTRODUCTION Remotely sensed ...

Andre Rothkirch; Martin Kollewe; Hartwig Spitzer

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Ultrathin Silver Films on Ni(111)  

SciTech Connect

The growth and atomic structure of ultrathin silver films on Ni(111) was investigated by low-energy electron microscopy and diffraction (LEEM/LEED) as well as intensity-voltage [I(V)]-LEEM in the growth temperature range between 470 and 850 K. We find that silver grows in a Stranski-Krastanov mode with a two monolayer thin wetting layer which takes on a p(7 x 7) reconstruction at temperatures lower than 700 K and a ({radical}52 x {radical}52)R13.9{sup o} reconstruction at higher temperatures. The occurrence of the two distinct reconstructions is shown to have profound implications for the growth characteristics of films exhibiting thicknesses of one and two monolayers. The nanoscale I(V) characteristics of the films were analyzed by means of multiple-scattering calculations based on dynamical LEED theory. Furthermore, the vertical interatomic spacing at the interface between the Ag film and the Ni substrate was determined to (2.8 {+-} 0.1) {angstrom} for all film thicknesses (<13 ML) while the uppermost silver layer relaxes by about (4 {+-} 1)% toward the crystal.

Meyer, A.; Flege, J; Rettew, R; Senanayake, S; Schmidt, T; Alamgir, F; Falta, J

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Ultrathin Silver Films on Ni(111)  

SciTech Connect

The growth and atomic structure of ultrathin silver films on Ni(111) was investigated by low-energy electron microscopy and diffraction (LEEM/LEED) as well as intensity-voltage [I(V)]-LEEM in the growth temperature range between 470 and 850 K. We find that silver grows in a Stranski-Krastanov mode with a two monolayer thin wetting layer which takes on a p(7 x 7) reconstruction at temperatures lower than 700 K and a ({radical}52 x {radical}52)R13.9{sup o} reconstruction at higher temperatures. The occurrence of the two distinct reconstructions is shown to have profound implications for the growth characteristics of films exhibiting thicknesses of one and two monolayers. The nanoscale I(V) characteristics of the films were analyzed by means of multiple-scattering calculations based on dynamical LEED theory. Furthermore, the vertical interatomic spacing at the interface between the Ag film and the Ni substrate was determined to (2.8 {+-} 0.1) {angstrom} for all film thicknesses (<13 ML) while the uppermost silver layer relaxes by about (4 {+-} 1)% toward the crystal.

Flege, J.I.; Senanayake, S.; Meyer, A.; Rettew, R.E.; Schmidt, T.; Alamgir, F.M.; Falta, J.

2010-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

457

DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A FORCE-REFLECTING TELEOPERATION SYSTEM  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For certain applications, such as space servicing, undersea operations, and hazardous material handling tasks in nuclear reactors, the environments can be uncertain, complex, and hazardous. Lives may be in danger if humans were to work under these conditions. As a result, a man-machine system--a teleoperator system--has been developed to work in these types of environments. In a typical teleoperator system, the actual system operates at a remote site; the operator located away from this system usually receives visual information from a video image and/or graphical animation on the computer screen. Additional feedback, such as aural and force information, can significantly enhance performance of the system. Force reflection is a type of feedback in which forces experienced by the remote manipulator are fed back to the manual controller. Various control methods have been proposed for implementation on a teleoperator system. In order to examine different control schemes, a one Degree-Of-Freedom (DOF) Force-Reflecting Manual Controller (FRMC) is constructed and integrated into a PC. The system parameters are identified and constructed as a mathematical model. The Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) and fuzzy logic controllers are developed and tested experimentally. Numerical simulation results obtained from the mathematical model are compared with those of experimental data for both types of controllers. In addition, the concept of a telesensation system is introduced. A telesensation system is an advanced teleoperator system that attempts to provide the operator with sensory feedback. In this context, a telesensation system integrates the use of a Virtual Reality (VR) unit, FRMC, and Graphical User Interface (GUI). The VR unit is used to provide the operator with a 3-D visual effect. Various commercial VR units are reviewed and features compared for use in a telesensation system. As for the FRMC, the conceptual design of a 3-DOF FRMC is developed in an effort to make the system portable, compact, and lightweight. A variety of design alternatives are presented and evaluated. Finally, a GUI software package is developed to interface with several teleoperation unit components. These components include an industrial robot, electric motor, encoder, force/torque sensor, and CCD camera. The software includes features such as position scaling, force scaling, and rereferencing and is intended to provide a sound basis for the development of a multi-DOF FRMC system in the future.

M.A. Ebadian, Ph.D.

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

New and Underutilized Technology: Window Films | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Window Films Window Films New and Underutilized Technology: Window Films October 8, 2013 - 2:50pm Addthis The following information outlines key deployment considerations for window films within the Federal sector. Benefits Window films are a spectrally-selective film used to decrease heat gain through a window. Application Window films are appropriate for deployment within most building categories and should be considered in building design, renovation, or during window replacement projects. Key Factors for Deployment Window orientation is a factor that must be considered prior to window film implementation. Ranking Criteria Federal energy savings, cost-effectiveness, and probability of success are ranked 0-5 with 0 representing the lowest ranking and 5 representing the highest ranking. The weighted score is ranked 0-100 with 0 representing the

459

Growth and characterization of ultrathin nitrided silicon oxide films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper reviews recent progress in understanding microstructural and growth-mechanistic aspects of ultrathin (<4 nm) oxynitride films for gate dielectric applications. Different techniques for characterizing these films are summarized. We discuss ...

E. P. Gusev; H.-C. Lu; E. L. Garfunkel; T. Gustafsson; M. L. Green

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Research on Polycrystalline Films for Micro- and Nano-Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Polycrystalline films are used in a wide array of micro- and nano-scale devices, for electronic, mechanical, magnetic, photonic and chemical functions. Increasingly, the properties, performance, and reliability of films ...

Thompson, Carl V.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "drapes reflective film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Fluorination of amorphous thin-film materials with xenon fluoride  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed for producing fluorine-containing amorphous semiconductor material, preferably comprising amorphous silicon. The method includes depositing amorphous thin-film material onto a substrate while introducing xenon fluoride during the film deposition process.

Weil, Raoul B. (Haifa, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of nanocrystalline film deposition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A full diffusion kinetic Monte Carlo algorithm is used to model nanocrystalline film deposition, and study the mechanisms of grain nucleation and microstructure formation in such films. The major finding of this work is ...

Ruan, Shiyun

463

21L.011 The Film Experience, Fall 2007  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This course is an introduction to narrative film, emphasizing the unique properties of the movie house and the motion picture camera, the historical evolution of the film medium, and the intrinsic artistic qualities of ...

Thorburn, David

464

Nanostructured Inorganic Thin Film Enabled Fiber Optic Sensors for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Thin Film Enabled Fiber Optic Sensors for Gas Sensing in Energy and Environmental Systems ... Co-Doped TiO2 Nanoparticles and Thin Films for Enhanced Solar Energy Utilization ... Synthesis of Magnetic Core-TS-1 Zeolite Shell Catalyst.

465

Chemical vapor deposition of organosilicon and sacrificial polymer thin films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) produced films for a wide array of applications from a variety of organosilicon and organic precursors. The structure and properties of thin films were controlled by varying processing ...

Casserly, Thomas Bryan

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Engineering electroresponsive layer-by-layer thin films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electroresponsive layer-by-layer (LbL) polymer films and polymer nanocomposite films were investigated as model systems for electrically triggered drug delivery applications and "mechanomutable" surface coating applications. ...

Schmidt, Daniel J., Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Architecture as film : animation and the phenomenological experience  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In his film L'Awentura, Michelangelo Antonioni develops startling relationships between his characters and their surroundings. This thesis proposes to use a portion of his film as a precedent for both the architecture's ...

Duck, Stephen R. (Stephen Randall), 1968-

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

SAW determination of surface area of thin films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

N.sub.2 adsorption isotherms are measured from thin films on SAW devices. The isotherms may be used to determine the surface area and pore size distribution of thin films.

Frye, Gregory C. (Albuquerque, NM); Martin, Stephen J. (Albuquerque, NM); Ricco, Antonio J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Kinetics of hydrogen desorption in surface-limited thin-film growth of SiGe alloys  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The kinetics of hydrogen desorption in surface-limited thin-film growth of SiGe alloys from binary mixtures of disilane and digermane was investigated by surface differential reflectance. The hydrogen desorption process from the alloy surface was found to consist of two components. Both components are thermally activated, but the activation energies appear to equal neither the hydrogen desorption energy from pure silicon nor that from pure germanium surfaces. We suggest that the two components represent Ge- and Si-mediated hydrogen desorption, with the former being more rapid than the latter.

Sharp, J.W. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996 (United States)); Eres, G. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P. O. Box 2008, Solid State Division, Bldg. 2000 MS 6056, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6056 (United States))

1993-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

470

Effects of Reflection by Natural Surfaces on the Radiation Emerging from the Top of the Earth's Atmosphere  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The radiation emerging from the top of the earth's atmosphere is affected by the reflection characteristics of the underlying surface. Laboratory-gathered bidirectional reflectance data were used to characterize the reflection matrix for three ...

Bruce W. Fitch

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Simulation studies for the detection of changes in broadband albedo and shortwave nadir reflectance spectra under a climate change scenario  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the Earth’s reflected solar radiation. While Pallé et al. [of the reflected solar radiation [Wielicki et al. , 1995].the nadir reflectance of solar radiation from Earth to space

Feldman, D.R.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Superhydrophobic Thin Film Symposium | ornl.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Superhydrophobic Thin Film Symposium Superhydrophobic Thin Film Symposium Sep 05 2012 12:00 AM - 05:00 PM Hosted by Oak Ridge Laboratory's Partnerships Directorate and focusing on the recent LDRD Launch project work completed by Dr. Tolga Aytug and Dr. John T. Simpson (ORNL research PI's). Oak Ridge, TN Oak Ridge National Laboratory CONTACT : Email: Cassie Lopez Phone:(865) 576-9294 Add to Calendar SHARE Hosted by Oak Ridge Laboratory's Partnerships Directorate and focusing on the recent LDRD Launch project work completed by Dr. Tolga Aytug and Dr. John T. Simpson (ORNL research PI's). Purpose To share the ORNL Superhydrophonbic Thin Film technology to prospective commercial partners. Date and Time The conference will be held on the morning of Wednesday September 5th at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) by Partnerships and Technology

473

Method for synthesizing thin film electrodes  

SciTech Connect

A method for making a thin-film electrode, either an anode or a cathode, by preparing a precursor solution using an alkoxide reactant, depositing multiple thin film layers with each layer approximately 500 1000 .ANG. in thickness, and heating the layers to above 600.degree. C. to achieve a material with electrochemical properties suitable for use in a thin film battery. The preparation of the anode precursor solution uses Sn(OCH.sub.2C(CH.sub.3).sub.3).sub.2 dissolved in a solvent in the presence of HO.sub.2CCH.sub.3 and the cathode precursor solution is formed by dissolving a mixture of (Li(OCH.sub.2C(CH.sub.3).sub.3)).sub.8 and Co(O.sub.2CCH.sub.3).H.sub.2O in at least one polar solvent.

Boyle, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

474

Spray forming polymer membranes, coatings and films  

SciTech Connect

A method of forming a polymer film having controlled physical and chemical characteristics, wherein a plume of nebulized droplets of a polymer or polymer precursor is directed toward a substrate from a converging/diverging nozzle having a throat at which the polymer or a precursor thereof is introduced and an exit from which the nebulized droplets of the polymer or precursor thereof leave entrained in a carrier gas. Relative movement between the nozzle and the substrate is provided to form a polymer film. Physical and chemical characteristics can be controlled by varying the deposition parameters and the gas and liquid chemistries. Semipermeable membranes of polyphosphazene films are disclosed, as are a variety of other polymer systems, both porous and non-porous.

McHugh, Kevin M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Watson, Lloyd D. (Rigby, ID); McAtee, Richard E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ploger, Scott A. (Rigby, ID)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Synthesis and evaluation of thermoelectric multilayer films  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The deposition of compositionally modulated (Bi{sub 1-x}Sb{sub x}){sub 2}(Te{sub 1-y}Se{sub y}){sub 3} thermoelectric multilayer films by magnetron sputtering has been demonstrated. Structures with a period of 140{Angstrom} are shown to be stable to interdiffusion at the high deposition temperatures necessary for growth of single layer crystalline films with ZT {gt} 0.5. These multilayers are of the correct dimension to exhibit the electronic properties of quantum well structures. Furthermore it is shown that the Seebeck coefficient of the films is not degraded by the presence of this multilayer structure. It may be possible to synthesize a multilayer thermoelectric material with enhanced ZT by maximizing the barrier height through optimization of the composition of the barrier.

Wagner, A.V.; Foreman, R.J.; Summers, L.J.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Farmer, J.C.

1996-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

476

Mesoscale morphologies in polymer thin films.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the midst of an exciting era of polymer nanoscience, where the development of materials and understanding of properties at the nanoscale remain a major R&D endeavor, there are several exciting phenomena that have been reported at the mesoscale (approximately an order of magnitude larger than the nanoscale). In this review article, we focus on mesoscale morphologies in polymer thin films from the viewpoint of origination of structure formation, structure development and the interaction forces that govern these morphologies. Mesoscale morphologies, including dendrites, holes, spherulites, fractals and honeycomb structures have been observed in thin films of homopolymer, copolymer, blends and composites. Following a largely phenomenological level of description, we review the kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of mesostructure formation outlining some of the key mechanisms at play. We also discuss various strategies to direct, limit, or inhibit the appearance of mesostructures in polymer thin films as well as an outlook toward potential areas of growth in this field of research.

Ramanathan, M.; Darling, S. B. (Center for Nanoscale Materials)

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Water-Moderated and -Reflected Slabs of Uranium Oxyfluoride  

SciTech Connect

A series of ten experiments were conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiment Facility in December 1955, and January 1956, in an attempt to determine critical conditions for a slab of aqueous uranium oxyfluoride (UO2F2). These experiments were recorded in an Oak Ridge Critical Experiments Logbook and results were published in a journal of the American Nuclear Society, Nuclear Science and Engineering, by J. K. Fox, L. W. Gilley, and J. H. Marable (Reference 1). The purpose of these experiments was to obtain the minimum critical thickness of an effectively infinite slab of UO2F2 solution by extrapolation of experimental data. To do this the slab thickness was varied and critical solution and water-reflector heights were measured using two different fuel solutions. Of the ten conducted experiments eight of the experiments reached critical conditions but the results of only six of the experiments were published in Reference 1. All ten experiments were evaluated from which five critical configurations were judged as acceptable criticality safety benchmarks. The total uncertainty in the acceptable benchmarks is between 0.25 and 0.33 % ?k/keff. UO2F2 fuel is also evaluated in HEU-SOL-THERM-043, HEU-SOL-THERM-011, and HEU-SOL-THERM-012, but these those evaluation reports are for large reflected and unreflected spheres. Aluminum cylinders of UO2F2 are evaluated in HEU-SOL-THERM-050.

Margaret A. Marshall; John D. Bess; J. Blair Briggs; Clinton Gross

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Solar reflector soiling pattern distributions and reflectance measurement requirements  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Short-term specular reflectance losses from optical surfaces used in the collection or concentration of solar energy results in significant reduction of these systems' output. Losses range from 0.1% to 1.0% per day, approaching asymptotes of 25% to 60% for periods greater than one year, depending onsite and season. To appropriately assess the value of a particular location for the production of power, consideration of the rates of soiling and strategies to minimize losses resulting from soiling must be considered. Strategies for measuring the optical performance of reflector materials to a specified degree of accuracy have been developed, according to the types of soiling patterns observed. It was found most soiling occurs with the accumulation of particulates in spots of different sizes, and the spot sizes follow a lognormal distribution. For most practical situations, it was determined that 10 measurements with a 1-cm-diameter beam are enough to place the average value within 3% of the true value, with a confidence level of 95%.

Kidney, K. (Colorado Univ., Denver, CO (USA))

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Criticality Benchmark Analysis of Water-Reflected Uranium Oxyfluoride Slabs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A series of twelve experiments were conducted in the mid 1950's at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiments Facility to determine the critical conditions of a semi-infinite water-reflected slab of aqueous uranium oxyfluoride (UO2F2). A different slab thickness was used for each experiment. Results from the twelve experiment recorded in the laboratory notebook were published in Reference 1. Seven of the twelve experiments were determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments for the inclusion in the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. This evaluation will not only be available to handbook users for the validation of computer codes and integral cross-section data, but also for the reevaluation of experimental data used in the ANSI/ANS-8.1 standard. This evaluation is important as part of the technical basis of the subcritical slab limits in ANSI/ANS-8.1. The original publication of the experimental results was used for the determination of bias and bias uncertainties for subcritical slab limits, as documented by Hugh Clark's paper 'Subcritical Limits for Uranium-235 Systems'.

Margaret A. Marshall; John D. Bess

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Albedo and Reflection Spectra of Extrasolar Giant Planets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We generate theoretical albedo and reflection spectra for a full range of extrasolar giant planet (EGP) models, from Jovian to 51-Pegasi class objects. Our albedo modeling utilizes the latest atomic and molecular cross sections, a Mie theory treatment of extinction by condensates, a variety of particle size distributions, and an extension of the Feautrier radiative transfer method which allows for a general treatment of the scattering phase function. We find that due to qualitative similarities in the compositions and spectra of objects within each of four broad effective temperature ranges, it is natural to establish four representative EGP albedo classes: a ``Jovian'' class (T$_{\\rm eff} \\lesssim 150$ K; Class I) with tropospheric ammonia clouds, a ``water cloud'' class (T$_{\\rm eff} \\sim 250$ K; Class II) primarily affected by condensed H$_2$O, a ``clear'' class (T$_{\\rm eff} \\gtrsim 350$ K; Class III) which lacks clouds, and a high-temperature class (T$_{\\rm{eff}}$ $\\gtrsim$ 900 K; Class IV) for which alk...

Sudarsky, D; Pinto, P A; Sudarsky, David; Burrows, Adam; Pinto, Philip

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "drapes reflective film" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Reflection and Transmission at the Apparent Horizon during Gravitational Collapse  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We examine the wave-functionals describing the collapse of a self-gravitating dust ball in an exact quantization of the gravity-dust system. We show that ingoing (collapsing) dust shell modes outside the apparent horizon must necessarily be accompanied by outgoing modes inside the apparent horizon, whose amplitude is suppressed by the square root of the Boltzmann factor at the Hawking temperature. Likewise, ingoing modes in the interior must be accompanied by outgoing modes in the exterior, again with an amplitude suppressed by the same factor. A suitable superposition of the two solutions is necessary to conserve the dust probability flux across the apparent horizon, thus each region contains both ingoing and outgoing dust modes. If one restricts oneself to considering only the modes outside the apparent horizon then one should think of the apparent horizon as a partial reflector, the probability for a shell to reflect being given by the Boltzmann factor at the Hawking temperature determined by the mass contained within it. However, if one considers the entire wave function, the outgoing wave in the exterior is seen to be the transmission through the horizon of the interior outgoing wave that accompanies the collapsing shells. This transmission could allow information from the interior to be transferred to the exterior.

Cenalo Vaz; L. C. R. Wijewardhana

2010-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

482

Process for leveling film surfaces and products thereof  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Semiconductor films and photovoltaic devices prepared therefrom are provided wherein the semiconductor films have a specular surface with a texture less than about 0.25 micron greater than the average planar film surface and wherein the semiconductor films are surface modified by exposing the surface to an aqueous solution of bromine containing an acid or salt and continuing such exposure for a time sufficient to etch the surface. 8 figs.

Birkmire, R.W.; McCandless, B.E.

1990-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

483

Using in Situ Thin Film Stress Measurements to Understand ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Nanostructured Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries and for Supercapacitors. Presentation Title, Using in Situ Thin Film Stress Measurements to ...

484

Carbon Films Produced from Ionic Liquid Precursors - Energy ...  

Energy Storage Carbon Films Produced from Ionic Liquid Precursors Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing ...

485

Optical and Thermal Characterization of Carbon Nanotube Film for ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Nanotechnology for Energy, Healthcare and Industry. Presentation Title, Optical and Thermal Characterization of Carbon Nanotube Film for Energy ...

486

Profile Optimization for Wet-Printed Polymer Films  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of a spin-coated film. In the next chapter, a dry printing method will be introduced, which has superior

487

Synthesis and Characterization of Plasma Polymerized Thin Films ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Synthesis and Characterization of Plasma Polymerized Thin Films Deposited from Benzene and Hexamethyldisiloxane Using (PECVD) ...

488

Fracture and Delamination in Thin Film Si Electrodes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Nanostructured Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries and for Supercapacitors. Presentation Title, Fracture and Delamination in Thin Film Si Electrodes.

489

Magnetic properties of TM/RE bilayer thin films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... Magnetic properties of TM/RE bilayer thin films. I. Zoto University of Alabama. The magnetic recording technology badly ...

490

Piezoelectric Thick-Film Structures for High-Frequency Transducer ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The dielectric, mechanical and piezoelectric parameters of selected thick films will be ... and Their Electrochemical Performance for Energy Storage Applications

491

Oriented niobate ferroelectric thin films for electrical and optical devices and method of making such films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Sr{sub x}Ba{sub 1{minus}x}Nb{sub 2}O{sub 6}, where x is greater than 0.25 and less than 0.75, and KNbO{sub 3} ferroelectric thin films metalorganic chemical vapor deposited on amorphous or crystalline substrate surfaces to provide a crystal axis of the film exhibiting a high dielectric susceptibility, electro-optic coefficient, and/or nonlinear optic coefficient oriented preferentially in a direction relative to a crystalline or amorphous substrate surface are disclosed. Such films can be used in electronic, electro-optic, and frequency doubling components. 8 figs.

Wessels, B.W.; Nystrom, M.J.

1998-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

492

Morphology in electrochemically grown conducting polymer films  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A conducting polymer film with an improved space filling is formed on a metal electrode surface. A self-assembling monolayer is formed directly on the metal surface where the monolayer has a first functional group that binds to the metal surface and a second chemical group that forms a chemical bonding site for molecules forming the conducting polymer. The conducting polymer is then conventionally deposited by electrochemical deposition. In one example, a conducting film of polyaniline is formed on a gold electrode surface with an intermediate monolayer of p-aminothiophenol. 2 figs.

Rubinstein, I.; Gottesfeld, S.; Sabatani, E.

1992-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

493

p-type conduction in sputtered indium oxide films  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report p-type conductivity in intrinsic indium oxide (IO) films deposited by magnetron sputtering on fused quartz substrates under oxygen-rich ambient. Highly oriented (111) films were studied by x-ray diffraction, optical absorption, and Hall effect measurements. We fabricated p-n homojunctions on these films.

Stankiewicz, Jolanta; Alcala, Rafael [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon and Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Villuendas, Francisco [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Zaragoza, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

2010-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

494

ITO Thin Films by RF Sputtering for Ethanol Sensing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The sensor for detection of ethanol vapours using RF sputter deposited ITO thin film on glass and Si substrates is reported. The principle of operation i