National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for drag reduction variable

  1. Drag reduction in coal log pipelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marrero, T.R.; Liu, H.

    1996-12-31

    It is well-known that solutions of dissolved long-chain macromolecules produce lower friction or drag losses than with the solvent alone. In coal log pipeline (CLP), water is the conveying medium. Synthetic polymers such as poly(ethylene oxide) have been dissolved in water and tested for their extent of drag reduction as a function of concentration and other variables. Lab-scale experimental results for CLP indicate substantial drag reduction at low concentration levels of polymer. But, the macromolecules exhibit degradation under mechanical shear stresses. The large molecules break into smaller units. This degradation effect causes a loss of drag reduction. However, high levels of drag reduction can be maintained as follows: (1) by injecting polymer into the CLP at several locations along the pipeline, (2) by injecting polymer of different particle sizes, (3) by using more robust types of polymers, or (4) by using polymer-fiber mixtures. This report presents the value of drag-reducing agents in terms of pumping power net cost savings. In addition, this report outlines the environmental impact of drag reduction polymers, and end-of-pipeline water treatment processes. For an operating CLP, hundreds of miles in length, the use of poly(ethylene oxide) as a drag reducing agent provides significant pumping power cost savings at a minimal materials cost.

  2. DRAG REDUCTION WITH SUPERHYDROPHOBIC RIBLETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbier, Charlotte N [ORNL; D'Urso, Brian R [ORNL; Jenner, Elliot [University of Pittsburgh

    2012-01-01

    Samples combining riblets and superhydrophobic surfaces are fabricated at University of Pittsburgh and their drag reduction properties are studied at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) in Oak Ridge National Laboratory with a commercial cone-and-plate rheometer. In parallel to the experiments, numerical simulations are performed in order to estimate the slip length at high rotational speed. For each sample, a drag reduction of at least 5% is observed in both laminar and turbulent regime. At low rotational speed, drag reduction up to 30% is observed with a 1 mm deep grooved sample. As the rotational speed increases, a secondary flow develops causing a slight decrease in drag reductions. However, drag reduction above 15% is still observed for the large grooved samples. In the turbulent regime, the 100 microns grooved sample becomes more efficient than the other samples in drag reduction and manages to sustain a drag reduction above 15%. Using the simulations, the slip length of the 100 micron grooved sample is estimated to be slightly above 100 micron in the turbulent regime.

  3. Active skin for turbulent drag reduction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mani, Raghavendran

    2002-01-01

    capitalizes on recent advances in active turbulent drag reduction and active material based actuation to develop an active or "smart" skin for turbulent drag reduction in realistic flight conditions. The skin operation principle is based on computational...

  4. Turbulent drag reduction through oscillating discs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wise, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    The changes of a turbulent channel flow subjected to oscillations of wall flush-mounted rigid discs are studied by means of direct numerical simulations. The Reynolds number is $R_\\tau$=$180$, based on the friction velocity of the stationary-wall case and the half channel height. The primary effect of the wall forcing is the sustained reduction of wall-shear stress, which reaches a maximum of 20%. A parametric study on the disc diameter, maximum tip velocity, and oscillation period is presented, with the aim to identify the optimal parameters which guarantee maximum drag reduction and maximum net energy saving, computed by taking into account the power spent to actuate the discs. This may be positive and reaches 6%. The Rosenblat viscous pump flow is used to predict the power spent for disc motion in the turbulent channel flow and to estimate localized and transient regions over the disc surface subjected to the turbulent regenerative braking effect, for which the wall turbulence exerts work on the discs. The...

  5. Microbubble drag reduction phenomenon study in a channel flow 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jimenez Bernal, Jose Alfredo

    2005-11-01

    An experimental study on drag reduction by injection of microbubbles was performed in the upper wall of a rectangular channel at Re = 5128. Particle Image Velocimetry measurement technique (PIV) was used to obtain instantaneous ...

  6. Reynolds number dependence of drag reduction by rod-like polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yacine Amarouchene; Daniel Bonn; Hamid Kellay; Ting-Shek Lo; Victor S. L'vov; Itamar Procaccia

    2006-07-06

    We present experimental and theoretical results addressing the Reynolds number (Re) dependence of drag reduction by sufficiently large concentrations of rod-like polymers in turbulent wall-bounded flows. It is shown that when Re is small the drag is {\\em enhanced}. On the other hand when Re increases the drag is reduced and eventually the Maximal Drag Reduction (MDR) asymptote is attained. The theory is shown to be in excellent agreement with experiments, rationalizing and explaining all the universal and the non-universal aspects of drag reduction by rod-like polymers.

  7. Comparison of Global Optimization Methods for Drag Reduction in the Automotive Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dumas, Laurent

    Comparison of Global Optimization Methods for Drag Reduction in the Automotive Industry Laurent reduction problems in the automotive industry. All the methods consist in improving classical genetic of a GA is reduced by a factor up to 7. 1 Introduction The topic of drag reduction in the automotive

  8. Wall-pressure and PIV analysis for microbubble drag reduction investigation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dominguez Ontiveros, Elvis Efren

    2005-11-01

    friction reductions were observed when the microbubbles were injected. Several measurements of wall-pressure were taken at various Reynolds numbers that ranged from 300 up to 6154. No significant drag reduction was observed for flows in the laminar range...

  9. Effect of pressure gradient on the drag reduction performance of two and three dimensional riblets 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Aaron Chenault

    1991-01-01

    EFFECT OF PRESSURE GRADIENT ON THE DRAG REDUCTION PERFORMANCE OF TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONAL RIBLETS A Thesis by AARON CHENAULT HALL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Aerospace Engineering EFFECT OF PRESSURE GRADIENT ON THE DRAG REDUCTION PERFORMANCE OF TWO AND THREE DIMENSIONAL RIBLETS A Thesis by AARON CHENAULT HALL Approved as to style and content by...

  10. Aerodynamic Drag Reduction Apparatus For Wheeled Vehicles In Ground Effect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortega, Jason M. (Pacifica, CA); Salari, Kambiz (Livermore, CA)

    2005-12-13

    An apparatus for reducing the aerodynamic drag of a wheeled vehicle in a flowstream, the vehicle having a vehicle body and a wheel assembly supporting the vehicle body. The apparatus includes a baffle assembly adapted to be positioned upstream of the wheel assembly for deflecting airflow away from the wheel assembly so as to reduce the incident pressure on the wheel assembly.

  11. Laminar drag reduction in microchannels using ultrahydrophobic surfaces Jia Ou, Blair Perot, and Jonathan P. Rothstein

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rothstein, Jonathan

    Laminar drag reduction in microchannels using ultrahydrophobic surfaces Jia Ou, Blair Perot for the laminar flow of water through microchannels using hydrophobic surfaces with well-defined micron flow is laminar and not turbulent, there are currently few demon- strated methods for significantly

  12. Drag Reduction Control for Flow over a Hump with Surface-Mounted Thermoacoustic Actuator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drag Reduction Control for Flow over a Hump with Surface-Mounted Thermoacoustic Actuator Chi-An Yeh of thermoacoustic actuators that locally introduce high-intensity acoustic waves for active flow control is examined-based thermoacoustic actuators, high-frequency actuation around Helmholtz number of 3.0 is considered. We observe

  13. A Fresh Approach to Flow Turbulence Towards Reduction of Skin-friction Drag

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    energy expenditure sector, accounting for 30% of global consumption. Consequently, this sector is also energy expenditure sector, accounting for 30% of global consumption. A mere 1% reduction in drag Office of Scientific Research #12;Global Significance Transport by land, sea and air is the biggest

  14. Drag Reduction by Leidenfrost Vapor Layers Ivan U. Vakarelski,1,2,* Jeremy O. Marston,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Derek Y C

    of Technology, Hawthorn VIC 3122, Australia 5 Clean Combustion Research Center, King Abdullah University a continuous and robust lubricating layer on the surface of fast moving solid sphere in fluids. The resulting and then immersed in a fluid, we can investigate the drag reduction effect of the associated Leidenfrost vapor layer

  15. Rotational relaxation time as unifying time scale for polymer and fiber drag reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boelens, A M P

    2015-01-01

    Using hybrid Direct Numerical Simulation with Langevin dynamics, a comparison is performed between polymer and fiber stress tensors in turbulent flow. The stress tensors are found to be similar, suggesting a common drag reducing mechanism in the onset regime for both flexible polymers and rigid fibers. Since fibers do not have an elastic backbone this must be a viscous effect. Analysis of the viscosity tensor reveals that all terms are negligible, except the off-diagonal shear viscosity associated with rotation. Based on this analysis, we identify the rotational orientation time as the unifying time scale setting a new time criterion for drag reduction by both flexible polymers and rigid fibers.

  16. Investigation of Tractor Base Bleeding for Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortega, J; Salari, K; Storms, B

    2007-10-25

    One of the main contributors to the aerodynamic drag of a heavy vehicle is tractor-trailer gap drag, which arises when the vehicle operates within a crosswind. Under this operating condition, freestream flow is entrained into the tractor-trailer gap, imparting a momentum exchange to the vehicle and subsequently increasing the aerodynamic drag. While a number of add-on devices, including side extenders, splitter plates, vortex stabilizers, and gap sealers, have been previously tested to alleviate this source of drag, side extenders remain the primary add-on device of choice for reducing tractor-trailer gap drag. However, side extenders are not without maintenance and operational issues. When a heavy vehicle pivots sharply with respect to the trailer, as can occur during loading or unloading operations, the side extenders can become crushed against the trailer. Consequently, fleet operators are forced to incur additional costs to cover the repair or replacement of the damaged side extenders. This issue can be overcome by either shortening the side extenders or by devising an alternative drag reduction concept that can perform just as effectively as side extenders. To explore such a concept, we investigate tractor base bleeding as a means of reducing gap drag. Wind tunnel measurements are made on a 1:20 scale heavy vehicle model at a vehicle width-based Reynolds number of 420,000. The tractor bleeding flow, which is delivered through a porous material embedded within the tractor base, is introduced into the tractor-trailer gap at bleeding coefficients ranging from 0.0-0.018. To determine the performance of tractor base bleeding under more realistic operating conditions, computational fluid dynamics simulations are performed on a full-scale heavy vehicle within a crosswind for bleeding coefficients ranging from 0.0-0.13.

  17. Journal of Fluids and Structures 22 (2006) 973978 Bluff-body drag reduction by extremum-seeking control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wesfreid, José Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    -seeking control J.F. Beaudoina,Ã, O. Cadotb , J.L. Aiderc , J.E. Wesfreidc a Department of Research and Innovation the lower the drag. The goal of the control is for the system to find itself an optimal set point, defined as the lowest cost of global energy consumption of the system (drag reduction versus energy used by the actuator

  18. Drag reduction of a bluff body using adaptive control methods Jean-Franois Beaudoina

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wesfreid, José Eduardo

    of Research and Innovation, PSA Peugeot-Citroën, 2 route de Gisy, 78943 Vélizy-Villacoublay, France Olivier Palaiseau Cedex, France Jean-Luc Aider Department of Research and Innovation, PSA Peugeot-Citroën, 2 route of the cylinder, the lower the drag. In a first study, the goal of the control is for the system to reach a drag

  19. Hydrophobic coatings for film boiling based drag reduction on a torpedo model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campbell, Ian J. (Ian James Kenneth)

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that porous, hydrophobic surfaces exhibit a dramatic reduction in critical heat flux (CHF), the amount of heat over a surface area required to initiate film boiling. Film boiling is characterized ...

  20. Experimental Evaluation of Latent Variable Models for Dimensionality Reduction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carreira-Perpinan, Miguel A; Renals, Steve

    1998-01-01

    We use electropalatographic (EPG) data as a test bed for dimensionality reduction methods based in latent variable modelling, in which an underlying lower dimension representation is inferred directly from the data. Several ...

  1. A perturbative model for predicting the high-Reynolds-number behaviour of the streamwise travelling waves technique in turbulent drag reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belan, Marco

    2013-01-01

    The background of this work is the problem of reducing the aerodynamic turbulent friction drag, which is an important source of energy waste in innumerable technological fields. We develop a theoretical framework aimed at predicting the behaviour of existing drag reduction techniques when used at the large values of Re which are typical of applications. We focus on one recently proposed and very promising technique, which consists in creating at the wall streamwise-travelling waves of spanwise velocity. A perturbation analysis of the Navier-Stokes equations that govern the fluid motion is carried out, for the simplest wall-bounded flow geometry, i.e. the plane channel flow. The streamwise base flow is perturbed by the spanwise time-varying base flow induced by the travelling waves. An asymptotic expansion is then carried out with respect to the velocity amplitude of the travelling wave. The analysis, although based on several assumptions, leads to predictions of drag reduction that agree well with the measure...

  2. Reduction of tropical land region precipitation variability via transpiration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gentine, Pierre

    plants through open stomata: this process (transpiration) cools the plant and facilitates transportReduction of tropical land region precipitation variability via transpiration Jung-Eun Lee,1 in observations and models. In the present study, the potential role of transpiration for this difference

  3. Reduction in Energy Consumption & Variability in Steel Foundry Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank Peters

    2005-05-04

    This project worked to improve the efficiency of the steel casting industry by reducing the variability that occurs because of process and product variation. The project focused on the post shakeout operations since roughly half of the production costs are in this area. These improvements will reduce the amount of variability, making it easier to manage the operation and improve the competitiveness. The reduction in variability will also reduce the need for many rework operations, which will result in a direct reduction of energy usage, particularly by the reduction of repeated heat treatment operations. Further energy savings will be realized from the reduction of scrap and reduced handling. Field studies were conducted at ten steel foundries that represented the U.S. steel casting industry, for a total of over 100 weeks of production observation. These studies quantified the amount of variability, and looked toward determining the source. A focus of the data collected was the grinding operations since this is a major effort in the cleaning room, and it represents the overall casting quality. The grinding was divided into two categories, expected and unexpected. Expected grinding is that in which the location of the effort is known prior to making the casting, such as smoothing parting lines, gates, and riser contacts. Unexpected grinding, which was approximately 80% of the effort, was done to improve the surfaces at weld repair locations, to rectify burnt on sand, and other surface anomalies at random locations. Unexpected grinding represents about 80% of the grinding effort. By quantifying this effort, the project raised awareness within the industry and the industry is continuing to make improvements. The field studies showed that the amount of variation of grinding operations (normalized because of the diverse set of parts studied) was very consistent across the industry. The field studies identified several specific sources that individually contributed to large process variation. This indicates the need for ongoing monitoring of the process and system to quantify the effort being expended. A system to measure the grinding effort was investigated but did not prove to be successful. A weld wire counting system was shown to be very successful in tracking casting quality by monitoring the quantity of weld wire being expended on a per casting basis. Further use of such systems is highly recommended. The field studies showed that the visual inspection process for the casting surface was a potentially large source of process variation. Measurement system analysis studies were conducted at three steel casting producers. The tests measured the consistency of the inspectors in identifying the same surface anomalies. The repeatability (variation of the same operator inspecting the same casting) was found to be relatively consistent across the companies at about 60-70%. However, this is still are very large amount of variation. Reproducibility (variation of different operators inspecting the same casting) was worse, ranging between 20 to 80% at the three locations. This large amount of variation shows that there is a great opportunity for improvement. Falsely identifying anomalies for reworking will cause increased expense and energy consumption. This is particularly true if a weld repair and repeated heat treatment is required. However, not identifying an anomaly could also result in future rework processing, a customer return, or scrap. To help alleviate this problem, casting surface comparator plates were developed and distributed to the industry. These plates are very inexpensive which enables them to be provided to all those involved with casting surface quality, such as operators, inspectors, sales, and management.

  4. Reduction operators and exact solutions of variable coefficient nonlinear wave equations with power nonlinearities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ding-jiang Huang; Qin-min Yang; Shui-geng Zhou

    2013-12-18

    Reduction operators, i.e. the operators of nonclassical (or conditional) symmetry of a class of variable coefficient nonlinear wave equations with power nonlinearities is investigated within the framework of singular reduction operator. A classification of regular reduction operators is performedwith respect to generalized extended equivalence groups. Exact solutions of some nonlinear wave model which are invariant under certain reduction operators are also constructed.

  5. Kinematic Reduction and Planning using Symmetry for a Variable Inertia Mechanical System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mason, Matthew T.

    Kinematic Reduction and Planning using Symmetry for a Variable Inertia Mechanical System Ravi present controllability results and kinematic reduction for a variable inertia mechanical system. We show conservation to develop a kinematic representation of the mechanical system. We also show through simulation

  6. DOE Project on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCallen, R; Salari, K; Ortega, J; Castellucci, P; Pointer, D; Browand, F; Ross, J; Storms, B

    2007-01-04

    Class 8 tractor-trailers consume 11-12% of the total US petroleum use. At highway speeds, 65% of the energy expenditure for a Class 8 truck is in overcoming aerodynamic drag. The project objective is to improve fuel economy of Class 8 tractor-trailers by providing guidance on methods of reducing drag by at least 25%. A 25% reduction in drag would present a 12% improvement in fuel economy at highway speeds, equivalent to about 130 midsize tanker ships per year. Specific goals include: (1) Provide guidance to industry in the reduction of aerodynamic drag of heavy truck vehicles; (2) Develop innovative drag reducing concepts that are operationally and economically sound; and (3) Establish a database of experimental, computational, and conceptual design information, and demonstrate the potential of new drag-reduction devices. The studies described herein provide a demonstration of the applicability of the experience developed in the analysis of the standard configuration of the Generic Conventional Model. The modeling practices and procedures developed in prior efforts have been applied directly to the assessment of new configurations including a variety of geometric modifications and add-on devices. Application to the low-drag 'GTS' configuration of the GCM has confirmed that the error in predicted drag coefficients increases as the relative contribution of the base drag resulting from the vehicle wake to the total drag increases and it is recommended that more advanced turbulence modeling strategies be applied under those circumstances. Application to a commercially-developed boat tail device has confirmed that this restriction does not apply to geometries where the relative contribution of the base drag to the total drag is reduced by modifying the geometry in that region. Application to a modified GCM geometry with an open grille and radiator has confirmed that the underbody flow, while important for underhood cooling, has little impact on the drag coefficient of the vehicle. Furthermore, the evaluation of the impact of small changes in radiator or grille dimensions has revealed that the total drag is not particularly sensitive to those changes. This observation leads to two significant conclusions. First, a small increase in radiator size to accommodate heat rejection needs related to new emissions restrictions may be tolerated without significant increases in drag losses. Second, efforts to reduce drag on the tractor requires that the design of the entire tractor be treated in an integrated fashion. Simply reducing the size of the grille will not provide the desired result, but the additional contouring of the vehicle as a whole which may be enabled by the smaller radiator could have a more significant effect.

  7. Reduction of tropical land region precipitation variability via transpiration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jung-Eun

    Tropical rainforests are known to exhibit low intraseasonal precipitation variability compared with oceanic areas with similar mean precipitation in observations and models. In the present study, the potential role of ...

  8. FY2003 Annual Report: DOE Project on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCallen, R C; Salari, K; Ortega, J; DeChant, L J; Roy, C J; Payne, J J; Hassan, B; Pointer, W D; Browand, F; Hammache, M; Hsu, T; Ross, J; Satran, D; Heineck, J; Walker, S; Yaste, D; Englar, R; Leonard, A; Rubel, M; Chatelain, P

    2003-10-24

    Objective: {sm_bullet} Provide guidance to industry in the reduction of aerodynamic drag of heavy truck vehicles. {sm_bullet} Establish a database of experimental, computational, and conceptual design information, and demonstrate potential of new drag-reduction devices.

  9. Drag bit construction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hood, M.

    1986-02-11

    A mounting movable with respect to an adjacent hard face has a projecting drag bit adapted to engage the hard face. The drag bit is disposed for movement relative to the mounting by encounter of the drag bit with the hard face. That relative movement regulates a valve in a water passageway, preferably extending through the drag bit, to play a stream of water in the area of contact of the drag bit and the hard face and to prevent such water play when the drag bit is out of contact with the hard face. 4 figs.

  10. Methods of reducing vehicle aerodynamic drag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sirenko V.; Rohatgi U.

    2012-07-08

    A small scale model (length 1710 mm) of General Motor SUV was built and tested in the wind tunnel for expected wind conditions and road clearance. Two passive devices, rear screen which is plate behind the car and rear fairing where the end of the car is aerodynamically extended, were incorporated in the model and tested in the wind tunnel for different wind conditions. The conclusion is that rear screen could reduce drag up to 6.5% and rear fairing can reduce the drag by 26%. There were additional tests for front edging and rear vortex generators. The results for drag reduction were mixed. It should be noted that there are aesthetic and practical considerations that may allow only partial implementation of these or any drag reduction options.

  11. tidal form drag Sally Warner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W lunar hours potential flow power = 0 Velocity Form drag Power Cumulative power flood slack residual power = total power ­ potential flow drag = residual drag total form drag . . Dynamicallyactive potential flow drag estimate wave drag ratio L Y d Isohalines above a ridge Pressure anomaly ~U0w #12;When

  12. A limpet shell shape that reduces drag: laboratory demonstration of a hydrodynamic mechanism and an exploration of its effectiveness in nature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denny, Mark

    , Hopkins Marine Station, Pacific Grove, CA 93950, U.S.A. Received October 3, 1988 DENNY,M. 1989. A limpet is lift, so any reduction in drag is unlikely to enhance survivorship. The likelihood that drag reduction

  13. Coulomb Drag Mechanisms in Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abanin, D. A.

    Recent measurements revealed an anomalous Coulomb drag in graphene, hinting at new physics at charge neutrality. The anomalous drag is explained by a new mechanism based on energy transport, which involves interlayer energy ...

  14. FINAL REPORT: Reduction in Energy Consumption and Variability in Steel Foundry Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F. Peters

    2005-05-24

    This project worked to improve the efficiency of the steel casting industry by reducing the variability that occurs because of process and product variation. The project focused on the post shakeout operations since roughly half of the production costs are in this area. These improvements will reduce the amount of variability, making it easier to manage the operation and improve the competitiveness. The reduction in variability will also reduce the need for many rework operations, which will result in a direct reduction of energy usage, particularly by the reduction of repeated heat treatment operations. Further energy savings will be realized from the reduction of scrap and reduced handling. Field studies were conducted at ten steel foundries that represented the U.S. steel casting industry, for a total of over 100 weeks of production observation. These studies quantified the amount of variability, and looked toward determining the source. A focus of the data collected was the grinding operations since this is a major effort in the cleaning room, and it represents the overall casting quality. The grinding was divided into two categories, expected and unexpected. Expected grinding is that in which the location of the effort is known prior to making the casting, such as smoothing parting lines, gates, and riser contacts. Unexpected grinding, which was approximately 80% of the effort, was done to improve the surfaces at weld repair locations, to rectify burnt on sand, and other surface anomalies at random locations. Unexpected grinding represents about 80% of the grinding effort. By quantifying this effort, the project raised awareness within the industry and the industry is continuing to make improvements. The field studies showed that the amount of variation of grinding operations (normalized because of the diverse set of parts studied) was very consistent across the industry. The field studies identified several specific sources that individually contributed to large process variation. This indicates the need for ongoing monitoring of the process and system to quantify the effort being expended. A system to measure the grinding effort was investigated but did not prove to be successful. A weld wire counting system was shown to be very successful in tracking casting quality by monitoring the quantity of weld wire being expended on a per casting basis. Further use of such systems is highly recommended. The field studies showed that the visual inspection process for the casting surface was a potentially large source of process variation. Measurement system analysis studies were conducted at three steel casting producers. The tests measured the consistency of the inspectors in identifying the same surface anomalies. The repeatability (variation of the same operator inspecting the same casting) was found to be relatively consistent across the companies at about 60-70%. However, this is still are very large amount of variation. Reproducibility (variation of different operators inspecting the same casting) was worse, ranging between 20 to 80% at the three locations. This large amount of variation shows that there is a great opportunity for improvement. Falsely identifying anomalies for reworking will cause increased expense and energy consumption. This is particularly true if a weld repair and repeated heat treatment is required. However, not identifying an anomaly could also result in future rework processing, a customer return, or scrap. To help alleviate this problem, casting surface comparator plates were developed and distributed to the industry. These plates are very inexpensive which enables them to be provided to all those involved with casting surface quality, such as operators, inspectors, sales, and management.

  15. Rotating flexible drag mill

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pepper, W.B.

    1984-05-09

    A rotating parachute for decelerating objects travelling through atmosphere at subsonic or supersonic deployment speeds includes a circular canopy having a plurality of circumferentially arranged flexible panels projecting radially from a solid central disk. A slot extends radially between adjacent panels to the outer periphery of the canopy. Upon deployment, the solid disk diverts air radially to rapidly inflate the panels into a position of maximum diameter. Air impinging on the panels adjacent the panel slots rotates the parachute during its descent. Centrifugal force flattens the canopy into a constant maximum diameter during terminal descent for maximum drag and deceleration.

  16. Towards an understanding of form drag

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    form drag and wave drag } W/m N/m x 104 } } 1 cm of SSH N S Tidal conversion rate per unit width -250 body #12;Form drag and mixing U0 Form drag pressure Tidal energy conversion Form drag causes and understand the physical processes that play a role in energy conversion at Three Tree Point. Conclusions

  17. Potential Reductions in Variability with Alternative Approaches to Balancing Area Cooperation with High Penetrations of Variable Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; Beuning, S.

    2010-08-01

    The work described in this report was performed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and funded by the Office of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, U.S. Department of Energy (EERE DOE). This project is a joint project with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This report evaluates the physical characteristics that improve the ability of the power system to absorb variable generation. It then uses evidence from electricity markets in the Eastern Interconnection of the United States to show how large, fast energy markets can help with integration. The concept of Virtual Balancing Area is introduced, a concept that covers a broad range of cooperative measures that can be undertaken by balancing areas to help manage variability.

  18. DOE Project on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag FY 2005 Annual Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCallen, R C; Salari, K; Ortega, J; Castellucci, P; Eastwood, C; Paschkewitz, J; Pointer, W D; DeChant, L J; Hassan, B; Browand, F; Radovich, C; Merzel, T; Plocher, D; Ross, J; Storms, B; Heineck, J T; Walker, S; Roy, C J

    2005-11-14

    Class 8 tractor-trailers consume 11-12% of the total US petroleum use. At high way speeds, 65% of the energy expenditure for a Class 8 truck is in overcoming aerodynamic drag. The project objective is to improve fuel economy of Class 8 tractor-trailers by providing guidance on methods of reducing drag by at least 25%. A 25% reduction in drag would present a 12% improvement in fuel economy at highway speeds, equivalent to about 130 midsize tanker ships per year. Specific goals include: (1) Provide guidance to industry in the reduction of aerodynamic drag of heavy truck vehicles; and (2) Establish a database of experimental, computational, and conceptual design information, and demonstrate the potential of new drag-reduction devices.

  19. Variable length pattern coding for power reduction in off-chip data buses 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkitasubramanian Iyer, Jayakrishnan

    2009-05-15

    indicating the index of the match is sent. If a variable length pattern match occurs then the code and unmatched portion of data is sent. We implemented our scheme, Variable Length Pattern Coding (VLPC) for various integer and floating point benchmarks...

  20. Strategies for Mitigating the Reduction in Economic Value of Variable Generation with Increasing Penetration Levels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan

    2014-03-03

    In this report, we evaluate individual options that have the potential to stem the decline in the marginal value of variable generation (VG) with increasing penetration levels. We focus only on the effectiveness of mitigation measures for wind and PV.

  1. Reductions in ozone concentrations due to controls on variability in industrial flare emissions in Houston, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nam, Junsang

    2007-01-01

    High concentrations of ozone in the Houston/Galveston area are associated with industrial plumes of highly reactive hydrocarbons, mixed with NOx. The emissions leading to these plumes can have significant temporal variability, ...

  2. DOE's effort to reduce truck aerodynamic drag through joint experiments and computations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salari, Kambiz (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory); Browand, Fred (University of Southern California); Sreenivas, Kidambi (University of Tennessee, Chattanooga); Pointer, W. David (Argonne National Laboratory); Taylor, Lafayette (University of Tennessee, Chattanooga); Pankajakshan, Ramesh (University of Tennessee, Chattanooga); Whitfield, David (University of Tennessee, Chattanooga); Plocher, Dennis (University of Southern California); Ortega, Jason M. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory); Merzel, Tai (University of Southern California); McCallen, Rose (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory); Walker, Stephen M (NASA Ames Research Center); Heineck, James T (NASA Ames Research Center); Hassan, Basil; Roy, Christopher John (Auburn University); Storms, B. (NASA Ames Research Center); Ross, James (NASA Ames Research Center); Englar, Robert (Georgia Tech Research Institute); Rubel, Mike (Caltech); Leonard, Anthony (Caltech); Radovich, Charles (University of Southern California); Eastwood, Craig (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory); Paschkewitz, John (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory); Castellucci, Paul (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory); DeChant, Lawrence Justin.

    2005-08-01

    Class 8 tractor-trailers are responsible for 11-12% of the total US consumption of petroleum. Overcoming aero drag represents 65% of energy expenditure at highway speeds. Most of the drag results from pressure differences and reducing highway speeds is very effective. The goal is to reduce aerodynamic drag by 25% which would translate to 12% improved fuel economy or 4,200 million gal/year. Objectives are: (1) In support of DOE's mission, provide guidance to industry in the reduction of aerodynamic drag; (2) To shorten and improve design process, establish a database of experimental, computational, and conceptual design information; (3) Demonstrate new drag-reduction techniques; and (4) Get devices on the road. Some accomplishments are: (1) Concepts developed/tested that exceeded 25% drag reduction goal; (2) Insight and guidelines for drag reduction provided to industry through computations and experiments; (3) Joined with industry in getting devices on the road and providing design concepts through virtual modeling and testing; and (4) International recognition achieved through open documentation and database.

  3. Analytical calculation of the drag force near drag crisis of a falling sphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Assis, Armando V D B; Branco, N S

    2010-01-01

    We obtain analitically the $v^2$ dependence of the drag force on a falling sphere close to the drag crisis, as well as the drag coefficient at the drag crisis, with excellent agreement with experiment. We take into account the effects of viscosity in creating a turbulent boundary layer and perform the calculations using the Navier-Stokes equation.

  4. Form drag at Three Tree Point

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for this study Seattle Tacoma Edwards et al., 2004 Puget Sound, WA Point Three Tree Previous work McCabe et al 24 ­ drag due to tilt = residual drag total form drag #12;Cruise at TTP in Dec. 2009 Seattle Tacoma

  5. Drag Measurements On A Platoon Of Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zabat, Michael; Farascaroli, Stefano; Browand, Frederick; Nestlerode, Michael; Baez, John

    1994-01-01

    yaw is meant to simulate a crosswind. The evenly distributedgoals v. ) Measurements of platoon drag in a crosswind.The presence of a crosswind is another important platoon

  6. Drag coefficient for the air-sea exchange in hurricane conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golbraikh, E

    2013-01-01

    The physical model is proposed for prediction of the non-monotonic drag coefficient variation with the neutral stability 10-m wind speed, U10. The model is based upon measurements of the foam coverage fraction and characteristic size of foam bubbles with U10, and on the drag coefficient approximation by the linearly weighted averaging over alternating foam-free and foam-covered portions of the ocean surface. The obtained drag coefficient is in fair agreement with that obtained by field measurements of the vertical variation of mean wind speed in Powell et al. (Nature, 2003) which discover reduction of the sea-surface drag with U10 rising to hurricane conditions.

  7. An Adhesion Model for the Drag Force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dan Comanescu

    2008-01-28

    The paper present a model for the drag force between a resistive medium and a solid body using the hypothesis that the drag force is created by the adhesion of some particles of the resistive medium on the solid body's surface. The study focus on the mass evolution of the solid body.

  8. FY 2004 Annual Report: DOE Project on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCallen, R C; Salari, K; Ortega, J; Castellucci, P; Eastwood, C; Whittaker, K; DeChant, L J; Roy, C J; Payne, J L; Hassan, B; Pointer, W D; Browand, F; Hammache, M; Hsu, T; Ross, J; Satran, D; Heineck, J T; Walker, S; Yaste, D; Englar, R; Leonard, A; Rubel, M; Chatelain, P

    2004-11-18

    The objective of this report is: (1) Provide guidance to industry in the reduction of aerodynamic drag of heavy truck vehicles; and (2) Establish a database of experimental, computational, and conceptual design information, and demonstrate potential of new drag-reduction devices. The approaches used were: (1) Develop and demonstrate the ability to simulate and analyze aerodynamic flow around heavy truck vehicles using existing and advanced computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools; (2) Through an extensive experimental effort, generate an experimental data base for code validation; (3) Using experimental data base, validate computations; (4) Provide industry with design guidance and insight into flow phenomena from experiments and computations; and (5) Investigate aero devices (e.g., base flaps, tractor-trailer gap stabilizer, underbody skirts and wedges, blowing and acoustic devices), provide industry with conceptual designs of drag reducing devices, and demonstrate the full-scale fuel economy potential of these devices.

  9. Alleviation of fuselage form drag using vortex flows: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wortman, A.

    1987-09-15

    The concept of using vortex generators to reduce the fuselage form drag of transport aircraft combines the outflow from the plane of symmetry which is induced by the rotational component of the vortex flow with the energization of the boundary layer to reduce the momentum thickness and to delay or eliminate flow separation. This idea was first advanced by the author in 1981. Under a DOE grant, the concept was validated in wind tunnel tests of approximately 1:17 scale models of fuselages of Boeing 747 and Lockheed C-5 aircraft. The search for the minimum drag involved three vortex generator configurations with three sizes of each in six locations clustered in the aft regions of the fuselages at the beginning of the tail upsweep. The local Reynolds number, which is referred to the length of boundary layer run from the nose, was approximately 10{sup 7} so that a fully developed turbulent boundary layer was present. Vortex generator planforms ranged from swept tapered, through swept straight, to swept reverse tapered wings whose semi-spans ranged from 50% to 125% of the local boundary layer thickness. Pitch angles of the vortex generators were varied by inboard actuators under the control of an external proportional digital radio controller. It was found that certain combinations of vortex generator parameters increased drag. However, with certain configurations, locations, and pitch angles of vortex generators, the highest drag reductions were 3% for the 747 and about 6% for the C-5, thus confirming the arguments that effectiveness increases with the rate of upsweep of the tail. Greatest gains in performance are therefore expected on aft loading military transports. 10 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  10. 1 Introduction The question of whether unsteady flow control could lead to overall drag

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    was that a massive drag reduction must occur in the live dolphin. Since then, a wide scientific exploration on fish and fish-like motion has occurred. Gray's results, largely contested over the years because of the difficulty in obtaining force measurements on live fish, have since been verified by the development

  11. An Investigation into Satellite Drag Modeling Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mance, Stephen

    2010-03-23

    The errors in current atmospheric drag modeling are the primary source of error for orbit determination for objects in low Earth orbit (LEO) at lower altitudes in periods of high solar activity. This is a direct result of significant advancements...

  12. Towards an understanding of form drag

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for this study Seattle Tacoma Edwards et al., 2004 Puget Sound, WA Point Three Tree Previous work McCabe et al form drag with bottom pressure sensors #12;Cruise at TTP in Dec. 2009 Seattle Tacoma Puget Sound, WA

  13. Towards an understanding of form drag

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    sides Form Drag #12;Motivation Seattle Tacoma Edwards et al., 2004 Puget Sound, WA Point Three TreeHigh pressure #12;Cruise at TTP in Dec. 2009 Seattle Tacoma Puget Sound, WA Point Three Tree Pressure sensors

  14. Drag reduction and solvation in polymer solutions Witold Brostow*1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North Texas, University of

    with low MDF for: oil well operations; crude oil trans- port; fire fighting; high sewer throughput; irrigation; hydrotransport of solids; marine applications; and bio- medical applications including in a variety of applications1, 2) : oil well operations,crude oil transport, fire fighting,increasing sewer

  15. Micro-textured surfaces for omniphobicity and drag-reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Choi, Wonjae

    2009-01-01

    When a liquid droplet contacts a surface possessing the appropriate combination of surface texture and solid surface energy, the liquid may not penetrate into the surface texture. Instead, the droplet sits partially on ...

  16. Active Skin for Turbulent Drag Reduction Othon K. Rediniotisa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -mail: rediniotis@aero.tamu.edu D.C.L.: e-mail: dlagoudas@aero.tamu.edu R. Mani: e-mail: raghav@tamu.edu G.E.K.: e

  17. Turbulent drag reduction by constant near-wall forcing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    JIN XU, SUCHUAN DONG, MARTIN R. MAXEY and GEORGE E. KARNIADAKIS

    2007-06-07

    This transition of the shear layer is correlated with a Reynolds number ... The quest for 'taming' turbulence with the objective of reducing the skin friction on ...... in principle, extracts kinetic energy from the flow and the positive forcing further.

  18. Aerodynamic Drag Reduction Apparatus For Wheeled Vehicles In Ground Effect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnicalInformation4563Abuse Tolerance(Conference)Geothermal Reservoirs:Adventures on

  19. Aerodynamic Drag Reduction Apparatus For Wheeled Vehicles In Ground Effect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnicalInformation4563Abuse Tolerance(Conference)Geothermal Reservoirs:Adventures

  20. Fundamental and experimental studies of ion-drag pumping 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Castaneda, Javier Augusto

    1992-01-01

    investigated the pumping of transformer oil by an ion-drag pump. They achieved velocities close to 14 cm/s using screen type electrodes. General Electric Company (1983) used Sharbaugh and Walker's ion-drag pump design and built it into a 167-kVA distribufion... experimentally the ion-drag pumping of Refrigerant 11, to develop a general one-dimensional theoretical model for ion-drag pumping, and to investigate the ionization and emission modes of ion-drag pumping using dodecylbenzene as a working fluid. Experimentally...

  1. Modelling LARES temperature distribution and thermal drag

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phuc H. Nguyen; Richard Matzner

    2015-07-25

    The LARES satellite, a laser-ranged space experiment to contribute to geophysics observation, and to measure the general relativistic Lense-Thirring effect, has been observed to undergo an anomalous along-track orbital acceleration of -0.4 pm/s$^2$ (pm := picometer). This "drag" is not surprising; along track drag has previously been observed with the related LAGEOS satellites (-3.4 pm/s$^2$). It is hypothesized that the drag is principally due to anisotropic thermal radiation from the satellite's exterior. We report the results of numerical computations of the along-track orbital decay of the LARES satellite during the first 126 days after launch. The results depend to a significant degree on the visual and IR absorbance $\\alpha$ and emissivity $\\epsilon$ of the fused silica Cube Corner Reflectors. We present results for two values of $\\alpha_{IR}$ = $\\epsilon_{IR}$: 0.82, a standard number for "clean" fused silica; and 0.60, a possible value for silica with slight surface contamination subjected to the space environment. The heating and the resultant along-track acceleration depend on the plane of the orbit, the sun position, and in particular on the occurrence of eclipses, all of which are functions of time. Thus we compute the drag for specific days. We compare our model to observational data, available for a 120-day period starting with the 7th day after launch, which shows the average acceleration of -0.4 pm/s$^2$. With our model the average along-track drag over this 120-day period for CCR $\\alpha_{IR}$ = $\\epsilon_{IR}$ = 0.82 was computed to be -0.59 pm/s$^2$. For CCR $\\alpha_{IR}$ = $\\epsilon_{IR}$ = 0.60 we compute -0.36 pm/s$^2$. Thus, our model demonstrates that most of the anomalous along-track acceleration can be explained by thermal thrust, but there could be smaller contributions from unmodelled effects.

  2. Modelling LARES temperature distribution and thermal drag

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phuc H. Nguyen; Richard Matzner

    2015-10-13

    The LARES satellite, a laser-ranged space experiment to contribute to geophysics observation, and to measure the general relativistic Lense-Thirring effect, has been observed to undergo an anomalous along-track orbital acceleration of -0.4 pm/s$^2$ (pm := picometer). This "drag" is not surprising; along track drag has previously been observed with the related LAGEOS satellites (-3.4 pm/s$^2$). It is hypothesized that the drag is principally due to anisotropic thermal radiation from the satellite's exterior. We report the results of numerical computations of the along-track orbital decay of the LARES satellite during the first 126 days after launch. The results depend to a significant degree on the visual and IR absorbance $\\alpha$ and emissivity $\\epsilon$ of the fused silica Cube Corner Reflectors. We present results for two values of $\\alpha_{IR}$ = $\\epsilon_{IR}$: 0.82, a standard number for "clean" fused silica; and 0.60, a possible value for silica with slight surface contamination subjected to the space environment. The heating and the resultant along-track acceleration depend on the plane of the orbit, the sun position, and in particular on the occurrence of eclipses, all of which are functions of time. Thus we compute the drag for specific days. We compare our model to observational data, available for a 120-day period starting with the 7th day after launch, which shows the average acceleration of -0.4 pm/s$^2$. With our model the average along-track drag over this 120-day period for CCR $\\alpha_{IR}$ = $\\epsilon_{IR}$ = 0.82 was computed to be -0.59 pm/s$^2$. For CCR $\\alpha_{IR}$ = $\\epsilon_{IR}$ = 0.60 we compute -0.36 pm/s$^2$. Thus, our model demonstrates that most of the anomalous along-track acceleration can be explained by thermal thrust, but there could be smaller contributions from unmodelled effects.

  3. The drag force during the transient regime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Souza, P V S; de Oliveira, P M C

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the drag force acting on a cylinder in a wind tunnel. The inspiration comes from an experimental result: a small, light ball falls on air; its speed increases, reaches a maximum, decreases and finally stabilizes. This surprising breaking behavior is due to the gradual formation of the so-called von K\\'arm\\'an street of air vortices behind the ball: while it is not completely formed, the transient drag force is smaller than the known steady state value and the ball can reach speeds higher than its final value. To show it, we treat the similar problem of a cylinder inside a wind tunnel suddenly switched on, by solving the Navier-Stokes dynamic equation. We use a finite difference method with successive relaxations on a grid. We also treat the case of a rotating cylinder, leading to the Magnus force. The novelty is the method we use to calculate these forces, which avoids the traditional surface integration of velocity gradients; the latter demands a very precise determination of the ve...

  4. The messy truth about drag Richard Feynman once noted that

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    the drag on a sphere moving at fixed speed through a viscous fluid. Many texts give the impression, viscous forces dominate near the sphere, but inertial forces do so in regions far away. This makes it hardTHESIS The messy truth about drag Richard Feynman once noted that scientific literature tends

  5. Upper bound analysis for drag anchors in soft clay 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Byoung Min

    2007-04-25

    This study presents an upper bound plastic limit analysis for predicting drag anchor trajectory and load capacity. The shank and fluke of the anchor are idealized as simple plates. The failure mechanism involves the motion ...

  6. Drag, turbulence, and diffusion in flow through emergent vegetation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nepf, Heidi

    Aquatic plants convert mean kinetic energy into turbulent kinetic energy at the scale of the plant stems and branches. This energy transfer, linked to wake generation, affects vegetative drag and turbulence intensity. ...

  7. Collisional effects on nonlinear ion drag force for small grains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutchinson, Ian H.

    The ion drag force arising from plasma flow past an embedded spherical grain is calculated self-consistently and non-linearly using particle in cell codes, accounting for ion-neutral collisions. Using ion velocity distribution ...

  8. Reducing Drag and Oscillation of Spheres Used for Buoyancy in Oceanographic Moorings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    deYoung, Brad

    components of drag and lift are presented. The drag force for an underwater sphere can be reduced by moreReducing Drag and Oscillation of Spheres Used for Buoyancy in Oceanographic Moorings JANE HURLEY: 10.1175/2006JTECHO472.1 © 2007 American Meteorological Society #12;b. Background The drag force

  9. CME propagation: Where does the solar wind drag take over?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sachdeva, Nishtha; Colaninno, Robin; Vourlidas, Angelos

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the Sun-Earth dynamics of a set of eight well observed solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs) using data from the STEREO spacecraft. We seek to quantify the extent to which momentum coupling between these CMEs and the ambient solar wind (i.e., the aerodynamic drag) influences their dynamics. To this end, we use results from a 3D flux rope model fit to the CME data. We find that solar wind aerodynamic drag adequately accounts for the dynamics of the fastest CME in our sample. For the relatively slower CMEs, we find that drag-based models initiated below heliocentric distances ranging from 15 to 50 $R_{\\odot}$ cannot account for the observed CME trajectories. This is at variance with the general perception that the dynamics of slow CMEs are influenced primarily by solar wind drag from a few $R_{\\odot}$ onwards. Several slow CMEs propagate at roughly constant speeds above 15--50 $R_{\\odot}$. Drag-based models initiated above these heights therefore require negligible aerodynamic drag to explain their...

  10. Development of a Two-fluid Drag Law for Clustered Particles using Direct Numerical Simulation and Validation through Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gokaltun, Seckin; Munroe, Norman; Subramaniam, Shankar

    2014-12-31

    This study presents a new drag model, based on the cohesive inter-particle forces, implemented in the MFIX code. This new drag model combines an existing standard model in MFIX with a particle-based drag model based on a switching principle. Switches between the models in the computational domain occur where strong particle-to-particle cohesion potential is detected. Three versions of the new model were obtained by using one standard drag model in each version. Later, performance of each version was compared against available experimental data for a fluidized bed, published in the literature and used extensively by other researchers for validation purposes. In our analysis of the results, we first observed that standard models used in this research were incapable of producing closely matching results. Then, we showed for a simple case that a threshold is needed to be set on the solid volume fraction. This modification was applied to avoid non-physical results for the clustering predictions, when governing equation of the solid granular temperate was solved. Later, we used our hybrid technique and observed the capability of our approach in improving the numerical results significantly; however, improvement of the results depended on the threshold of the cohesive index, which was used in the switching procedure. Our results showed that small values of the threshold for the cohesive index could result in significant reduction of the computational error for all the versions of the proposed drag model. In addition, we redesigned an existing circulating fluidized bed (CFB) test facility in order to create validation cases for clustering regime of Geldart A type particles.

  11. SEC: Accounting Board Is Dragging Feet -WSJ http://www.wsj.com/articles/sec-accounting-board-is-dragging-feet-1418605107?KEYWORDS=sec+accounting+board+is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grissino-Mayer, Henri D.

    #12;SEC: Accounting Board Is Dragging Feet - WSJ http://www.wsj.com/articles/sec-accounting-board-is-dragging-feet-1418605107?KEYWORDS=sec+accounting+board+is SEC: Accounting Board Is Dragging Feet Commission Officials officials publicly took issue with the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board at a conference last week

  12. September 2002 Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag: Presentations and Summary of Comments and Conclusions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCallen, R

    2002-09-01

    A Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held at NASA Ames Research Center on September 23, 2002. The purpose of the meeting was to present and discuss technical details on the experimental and computational work in progress and future project plans. Representatives from the Department of Energy (DOE)/Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy/Office of FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), NASA Ames Research Center (NASA), University of Southern California (USC), California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Freightliner, and Portland State University participated in the meeting. This report contains the technical presentations (viewgraphs) delivered at the Meeting, briefly summarizes the comments and conclusions, and outlines the future action items. The meeting began with an introduction by the Project Lead Rose McCallen of LLNL, where she emphasized that the world energy consumption is predicted to relatively soon exceed the available resources (i.e., fossil, hydro, non-breeder fission). This short fall is predicted to begin around the year 2050. Minimizing vehicle aerodynamic drag will significantly reduce our Nation's dependence on foreign oil resources and help with our world-wide fuel shortage. Rose also mentioned that educating the populace and researchers as to our world energy issues is important and that our upcoming United Engineering Foundation (UEF) Conference on ''The Aerodynamics of Heavy Vehicles: Trucks, Busses, and Trains'' was one way our DOE Consortium was doing this. Mentioned were the efforts of Fred Browand from USC in organizing and attracting internationally recognized speakers to the Conference. Rose followed with an overview of the DOE project goals, deliverables, and FY03 activities. The viewgraphs are attached at the end of this report. Sid Diamond of DOE discussed the reorganization of the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and that the Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology is now part of the Office of FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies. Sid reviewed the FY03 budget and provided information on some plans for FY04. The soon to be posted DOE request for proposals from industry for projects related to parasitic energy losses was discussed. A minimum of 50% cost share by industry will be required and the proposal must be submitted by industry. Collaborative efforts in aerodynamic drag with members of the DOE consortium are encouraged. Sid also mentioned interest in aerodynamic drag contribution due to wheel wells and underbody flow. Sid also mentioned his continued interest in the application of our computational and experimental expertise to the area of locomotive and railcar aerodynamics for the reduction of drag effects and thus, the reduction of fuel consumption by trains. In summary, the technical presentations at the meeting included a review of experimental results and plans by GTRI, USC, and NASA Ames, the computational results from LLNL and SNL for the integrated tractor-trailer benchmark geometry called the Ground Transportation System (GTS) model, and by LLNL for the tractor-trailer gap and trailer wake flow, and turbulence model development and benchmark simulations being investigated by Caltech. USC is also investigating an acoustic drag reduction device that has been named ''Mozart'', GTRI continues their investigation of a blowing device, and LLNL presented their ideas for 2 new base drag reduction devices. ANL presented their plans for a DOE supported Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with Paccar Truck Company utilizing commercial software tools to simulate the flow and drag for an actual tractor and showed the results of some preliminary griding attempts. The attendees also had the opportunity to tour the 12-ft pressure wind tunnel the machine shop were the Generic Conventional Model (GCM, a.k.a. SLRT) was being readied for the scheduled November experiments. Much of

  13. The no-drag frame for anomalous chiral fluid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stephanov, Mikhail A

    2015-01-01

    We show that for an anomalous fluid carrying dissipationless chiral magnetic and/or vortical currents there is a frame in which a stationary obstacle experiences no drag, but energy and charge currents do not vanish, resembling superfluidity. However, unlike ordinary superfluid flow, the anomalous chiral currents do transport entropy in this frame. We show that the second law of thermodynamics completely determines the amounts of these anomalous non-dissipative currents in the "no-drag frame" as polynomials in temperature and chemical potential with known anomaly coefficients. These general results are illustrated and confirmed by a calculation in the chiral kinetic theory and quark-gluon plasma at high temperature.

  14. Enchancement of heat pipes with ion-drag pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babin, Bruce Russell

    1991-01-01

    ENHANCEMENT OF HEAT PIPES WITH ION-DRAG PUMPS A Thesis by BRUCE RUSSELL BABIN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas AE'M I. niversity in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIEiVCE August 1991... Malor Subject: Mechanical Engineering ENHANCEMENT OF HEAT PIPES WITH ION-DRAG PUMPS A Thesis by BRUCE RUSSELL BABIN Approved as to style and content by G. P. Peterson (Charr of Committee) L. S. Fletcher (Member) . Hassan ( Member) W. L...

  15. Lattice-Boltzmann simulations of the drag force on a sphere approaching a superhydrophobic striped plane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander L. Dubov; Sebastian Schmieschek; Evgeny S. Asmolov; Jens Harting; Olga I. Vinogradova

    2014-01-03

    By means of lattice-Boltzmann simulations the drag force on a sphere of radius R approaching a superhydrophobic striped wall has been investigated as a function of arbitrary separation h. Superhydrophobic (perfect-slip vs. no-slip) stripes are characterized by a texture period L and a fraction of the gas area $\\phi$. For very large values of h/R we recover the macroscopic formulae for a sphere moving towards a hydrophilic no-slip plane. For h/R=O(1) and smaller the drag force is smaller than predicted by classical theories for hydrophilic no-slip surfaces, but larger than expected for a sphere interacting with a uniform perfectly slipping wall. At a thinner gap, $h\\ll R$ the force reduction compared to a classical result becomes more pronounced, and is maximized by increasing $\\phi$. In the limit of very small separations our simulation data are in quantitative agreement with an asymptotic equation, which relates a correction to a force for superhydrophobic slip to texture parameters. In addition, we examine the flow and pressure field and observe their oscillatory character in the transverse direction in the vicinity of the wall, which reflects the influence of the heterogeneity and anisotropy of the striped texture. Finally, we investigate the lateral force on the sphere, which is detectable in case of very small separations and is maximized by stripes with $\\phi=0.5$.

  16. Lattice-Boltzmann simulations of the drag force on a sphere approaching a superhydrophobic striped plane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dubov, Alexander L; Asmolov, Evgeny S; Harting, Jens; Vinogradova, Olga I

    2014-01-01

    By means of lattice-Boltzmann simulations the drag force on a sphere of radius R approaching a superhydrophobic striped wall has been investigated as a function of arbitrary separation h. Superhydrophobic (perfect-slip vs. no-slip) stripes are characterized by a texture period L and a fraction of the gas area $\\phi$. For very large values of h/R we recover the macroscopic formulae for a sphere moving towards a hydrophilic no-slip plane. For h/R=O(1) and smaller the drag force is smaller than predicted by classical theories for hydrophilic no-slip surfaces, but larger than expected for a sphere interacting with a uniform perfectly slipping wall. At a thinner gap, $h\\ll R$ the force reduction compared to a classical result becomes more pronounced, and is maximized by increasing $\\phi$. In the limit of very small separations our simulation data are in quantitative agreement with an asymptotic equation, which relates a correction to a force for superhydrophobic slip to texture parameters. In addition, we examine ...

  17. Radiation pressure and gas drag forces on a melamine-formaldehyde microsphere in a dusty plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goree, John

    Radiation pressure and gas drag forces on a melamine-formaldehyde microsphere in a dusty plasma Bin and gas drag forces acting on a single melamine-formaldehyde microsphere. The radiation pressure force

  18. Bottom Drag, eddy diffusivity, wind work and the power integrals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, William R.

    Bottom Drag, eddy diffusivity, wind work and the power integrals Bill Young, Andrew Thompson field i.e., the meridional heat flux is pro Moreover, the mechanical energy balance in a statistical Moreover, the mechanical energy balance in a statistically st Appendix A) is U-2 x = | - 2 |2 + hyp

  19. TORQUE AND DRAG CALCULATIONS IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL WELLBORES 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prurapark, Ruktai A.

    2010-07-14

    Torque and drag (T&D) modeling is regarded as extremely helpful in well planning because it helps to predict and prevent drilling problems that might occur during the drilling process. Although T&D software has existed since the 1990s, some...

  20. Stochastic modeling of lift and drag dynamics under turbulent conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peinke, Joachim

    Matthias Wächter Joachim Peinke ForWind - Center for Wind Energy Research University of Oldenburg, Germany measurement. The model is being developed with the aim to integrate it into a general wind energy converter dynamics, drag dynamics. 1 Introduction Wind energy converters (WECs) are permanently exposed to turbulent

  1. Variation in the aerodynamic drag coefficient due to changes in the shape of an automobile 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, John Gilbert

    1968-01-01

    . in Gage Bridge Calibration Results 22 Total Strain Gage Bridge Calibration Results 23 13 14 Exterior of' Com'bination Box. Combination Box, Strain Indicator, and Connecting Cables 25 26 15 16 17 Aerodynamic Drag ? Top and. Windows Up... Aerodynamic Drag ? Top and Windows Down Aerodynamic Drag ? Top Down, Windows Up Aerodynamic Drag - Top Up, Windows Down 31 19 Bas"'c Circuit - Combination of Wheat. tone Bridge Outputs 'v Figure Page 20 Equivalent Circui. t - Combination of Vneatstone...

  2. Impact of non-hydrostatic effects and trapped lee waves on mountain wave drag

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wirosoetisno, Djoko

    Impact of non-hydrostatic effects and trapped lee waves on mountain wave drag in directionally effects and trapped lee waves on mountain wave drag in directionally sheared flow. Quarterly Journal;AcceptedArticle Impact of non-hydrostatic effects and trapped lee waves on mountain wave drag

  3. Measurement of Tidal Form Drag Using Seafloor Pressure Sensors SALLY J. WARNER AND PARKER MACCREADY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacCready, Parker

    tides. The tidally averaged power removed from the tidal currents by form drag was 0.2 W m22 , whichMeasurement of Tidal Form Drag Using Seafloor Pressure Sensors SALLY J. WARNER AND PARKER MACCREADY the tidal form drag on a sloping ridge in 200 m of water that forms a 1-km headland at the surface in Puget

  4. Test, Evaluation, and Demonstration of Practical Devices/Systems to Reduce Aerodynamic Drag of Tractor/Semitrailer Combination Unit Trucks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Smith; Karla Younessi; Matt Markstaller; Dan Schlesinger; Bhaskar Bhatnagar; Donald Smith; Bruno Banceu; Ron Schoon; V.K. Sharma; Mark Kachmarsky; Srikant Ghantae; Michael Sorrels; Conal Deedy; Justin Clark; Skip Yeakel; Michael D. Laughlin; Charlotte Seigler; Sidney Diamond

    2007-04-30

    Class 8 heavy-duty trucks account for over three-quarters of the total diesel fuel used by commercial trucks (trucks with GVWRs more than 10,000 pounds) in the United States each year. At the highway speeds at which these trucks travel (i.e., 60 mph or greater), aerodynamic drag is a major part of total horsepower needed to move the truck down the highway, Reductions in aerodynamic drag can yield measurable benefits in fuel economy through the use of relatively inexpensive and simple devices. The goal of this project was to examine a number of aerodynamic drag reduction devices and systems and determine their effectiveness in reducing aerodynamic drag of Class 8 tractor/semitrailer combination-units, thus contributing to DOE's goal of reducing transportation petroleum use. The project team included major heavy truck manufacturers in the United States, along with the management and industry expertise of the Truck Manufacturers Association as the lead investigative organization. The Truck Manufacturers Association (TMA) is the national trade association representing the major North American manufacturers of Class 6-8 trucks (GVWRs over 19,500 lbs). Four major truck manufacturers participated in this project with TMA: Freightliner LLC; International Truck and Engine Corporation; Mack Trucks Inc.; and Volvo Trucks North America, Inc. Together, these manufacturers represent over three-quarters of total Class 8 truck sales in the United States. These four manufacturers pursued complementary research efforts as part of this project. The project work was separated into two phases conducted over a two-year period. In Phase I, candidate aerodynamic devices and systems were screened to focus research and development attention on devices that offered the most potential. This was accomplished using full-size vehicle tests, scale model tests, and computational fluid dynamics analyses. In Phase II, the most promising devices were installed on full-size trucks and their effect on fuel economy was determined, either through on-road testing or full-size wind tunnel testing. All of the manufacturers worked with devices and systems that offer practical solutions to reduce aerodynamic drag, accounting for functionality, durability, cost effectiveness, reliability, and maintainability. The project team members and their roles and responsibilities are shown in Figure 2-1. Figure 2-2 shows the Phase I and II project schedules for all four projects and associated management activities.

  5. Experimental Investigation of the Fresnel Drag Effect in RF Coaxial Cables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reginald T Cahill; David Brotherton

    2010-09-29

    An experiment that confirms the Fresnel drag formalism in RF coaxial cables is reported. The Fresnel `drag' in bulk dielectrics and in optical fibers has previously been well established. An explanation for this formalism is given, and it is shown that there is no actual drag phenomenon, rather that the Fresnel drag effect is merely the consequence of a simplified description of EM scattering within a dielectric in motion wrt the dynamical 3-space. The Fresnel drag effect plays a critical role in the design of various light-speed anisotropy detectors.

  6. Assessment of Drag Models for Geldart A Particles in Bubbling Fluidized Beds

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Estejab, Bahareh; Battaglia, Francine

    2015-10-08

    In order to accurately predict the hydrodynamic behavior of gas and solid phases using an Eulerian–Eulerian approach, it is crucial to use appropriate drag models to capture the correct physics. In this study, the performance of seven drag models for fluidization of Geldart A particles of coal, poplar wood, and their mixtures was assessed. In spite of the previous findings that bode badly for using predominately Geldart B drag models for fine particles, the results of our study revealed that if static regions of mass in the fluidized beds are considered, these drag models work well with Geldart A particles.more »It was found that drag models derived from empirical relationships adopt better with Geldart A particles compared to drag models that were numerically developed. Overall, the Huilin–Gidaspow drag model showed the best performance for both single solid phases and binary mixtures, however, for binary mixtures, Wen–Yu model predictions were also accurate.« less

  7. DragNDrop Directions v7 Windows Users: How do I access DragNDrop web documents to place or update them?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    DragNDrop Directions v7 2/25/10 Windows Users: How do I access DragNDrop web documents to place or update them? If you are on the PPPL Domain: Open My Computer. Then the P drive. Find: P:\\web\

  8. Turbulent drag reduction by streamwise traveling waves Armin Zare, Binh K. Lieu, and Mihailo R. Jovanovic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jovanovic, Mihailo

    of Minnesota Initiative for Renewable Energy and the Environment under Early Career Award RC- 0014 simulations have provided motivation for the development of a model-based framework for designing traveling

  9. Dynamics on the Laminar-Turbulent Boundary and the Origin of the Maximum Drag Reduction Asymptote

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graham, Michael D.

    Dynamical trajectories on the boundary in state space between laminar and turbulent plane channel flow—edge states—are computed for Newtonian and viscoelastic fluids. Viscoelasticity has a negligible effect on the properties ...

  10. RESEARCH ARTICLE Drag and lift reduction of a 3D bluff-body using active vortex

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wesfreid, José Eduardo

    apparatus (chemical industry, energy production). From the academic point of view, it is an exciting-up with motorized vortex generators is proposed. Thanks to this active device. The optimal configurations depending academic and industrial research. From the indus- trial point of view, flow control is a way to increase

  11. Razor clam to RoboClam: burrowing drag reduction mechanisms and their robotic adaptation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winter, Amos

    Estimates based on the strength, size, and shape of the Atlantic razor clam (Ensis directus) indicate that the animal's burrow depth should be physically limited to a few centimeters; yet razor clams can dig as deep as 70 ...

  12. Aerodynamics overview of the ground transportation systems (GTS) project for heavy vehicle drag reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gutierrez, W.T.; Hassan, B.; Croll, R.H.; Rutledge, W.H.

    1995-12-31

    The focus of the research was to investigate the fundamental aerodynamics of the base flow of a tractor trailer that would prove useful in fluid flow management. Initially, industry design needs and constraints were defined. This was followed by an evaluation of state-of-the-art Navier-Stokes based computational fluid dynamics tools. Analytical methods were then used in combination with computational tools in a design process. Several geometries were tested at 1:8 scale in a low speed wind tunnel. In addition to the baseline geometry, base add-on devices of the class of ogival boattails and slants were analyzed.

  13. Superhydrophobic turbulent drag reduction as a function of surface grating parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, H; Park, H; Sun, G; Sun, G; Kim, CJ

    2014-01-01

    increasing width of the water-air interface. Since the lossno air loss and flat air-water interface, numerical effortsKim 2009), was a stable air-water interface guaranteed and a

  14. Wavelet analysis study of microbubble drag reduction in a boundary channel flow 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhen, Ling

    2006-04-12

    components in streamwise-near-wall normal plane of a turbulent channel flow at Reynolds number of 5128 based on the half height of the channel were measured. The influence of the presence of microbubbles in the boundary layer was assessed and compared...

  15. Fuel Burn and Emissions Reduction Potential of Low Power/Low Drag Approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dumont, Jean-Marie

    Changing aircraft operational procedures is one strategy that can be used to reduce fuel burn and mitigate environmental impacts of aviation in relatively short timeframes with existing aircraft types. This study quantifies ...

  16. Aerodynamic drag reduction apparatus for gap-divided bluff bodies such as

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnicalInformation4563Abuse Tolerance(Conference)Geothermal

  17. Aerodynamic drag reduction apparatus for gap-divided bluff bodies such as

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefield MunicipalTechnicalInformation4563Abuse Tolerance(Conference)Geothermaltractor-trailers (Patent) |

  18. An Inertial Cell Model for the Drag Force in Multi-phase Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tupper, Gary; Mainza, Aubrey

    2015-01-01

    A new model for the drag coefficient of a sphere in a concentrated system is described. It is based upon a cell-averaged model for the Stokes regime combined with a physically motivated extrapolation to arbitrary Reynolds number. It can be used as an alternative to the isolated particle drag coefficient in Euler-Lagrange modelling of solid-liquid multi-phase flow.The corresponding drag force also provides a dynamic bed equation for use in Euler-Euler modelling.

  19. DOE's effort to reduce truck aerodynamic drag : joint experiments and computations lead to smart design.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaste, David M (NASA Ames Research Center, Moffet Field, CA); Salari, Kambiz (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA); Hammache, Mustapha (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA); Browand, Fred (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA); Pointer, W. David (Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL); Ortega, Jason M. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA); McCallen, Rose (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA); Walker, Stephen M (NASA Ames Research Center, Moffet Field, CA); Heineck, James T (NASA Ames Research Center, Moffet Field, CA); Hassan, Basil; Roy, Christopher John (Auburn University, Auburn, AL); Storms, B. (NASA Ames Research Center, Moffet Field, CA); Satran, D. (NASA Ames Research Center, Moffet Field, CA); Ross, James (NASA Ames Research Center, Moffet Field, CA); Englar, Robert (Georgia Tech Research Institute, Atlanta, GA); Chatalain, Philippe (Caltech, Pasadena, CA); Rubel, Mike (Caltech, Pasadena, CA); Leonard, Anthony (Caltech, Pasadena, CA); Hsu, Tsu-Ya (University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA); DeChant, Lawrence Justin.

    2004-06-01

    At 70 miles per hour, overcoming aerodynamic drag represents about 65% of the total energy expenditure for a typical heavy truck vehicle. The goal of this US Department of Energy supported consortium is to establish a clear understanding of the drag producing flow phenomena. This is being accomplished through joint experiments and computations, leading to the smart design of drag reducing devices. This paper will describe our objective and approach, provide an overview of our efforts and accomplishments, and discuss our future direction.

  20. DOE's Effort to Reduce Truck Aerodynamic Drag-Joint Experiments and Computations Lead to Smart Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCallen, R; Salari, K; Ortega, J; DeChant, L; Hassan, B; Roy, C; Pointer, W; Browand, F; Hammache, M; Hsu, T; Leonard, A; Rubel, M; Chatalain, P; Englar, R; Ross, J; Satran, D; Heineck, J; Walker, S; Yaste, D; Storms, B

    2004-06-17

    At 70 miles per hour, overcoming aerodynamic drag represents about 65% of the total energy expenditure for a typical heavy truck vehicle. The goal of this US Department of Energy supported consortium is to establish a clear understanding of the drag producing flow phenomena. This is being accomplished through joint experiments and computations, leading to the 'smart' design of drag reducing devices. This paper will describe our objective and approach, provide an overview of our efforts and accomplishments, and discuss our future direction.

  1. DOEs Effort to Reduce Truck Aerodynamic Drag through Joint...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Drag through Joint Experiments and Computations 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 --...

  2. Different regimes of the uniaxial elongation of electrically charged viscoelastic jets due to dissipative air drag

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lauricella, Marco; Coluzza, Ivan; Pisignano, Dario; Succi, Sauro

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the effects of dissipative air drag on the dynamics of electrified jets in the early stage of the electrospinning process. The main idea is to use a Brownian noise to model air drag effects on the uniaxial elongation of the jets. The numerical model is used to probe the dynamics of electrified polymer jets at different conditions of air drag force. Numerical simulations show that the elongation of the charged jet filament is significantly affected by the presence of air drag force, providing prospective beneficial implications for the optimal design of future electrospinning experiments.

  3. DOEs Effort to Reduce Truck Aerodynamic Drag through Joint...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Washington D.C. vss14salari.pdf More Documents & Publications DOEs Effort to Reduce Truck Aerodynamic Drag through Joint Experiments and Computations Vehicle Technologies...

  4. DOEs Effort to Reduce Truck Aerodynamic Drag through Joint...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Meeting vss006salari2012o.pdf More Documents & Publications DOEs Effort to Reduce Truck Aerodynamic Drag through Joint Experiments and Computations Vehicle Technologies...

  5. Different regimes of the uniaxial elongation of electrically charged viscoelastic jets due to dissipative air drag

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marco Lauricella; Giuseppe Pontrelli; Ivan Coluzza; Dario Pisignano; Sauro Succi

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the effects of dissipative air drag on the dynamics of electrified jets in the initial stage of the electrospinning process. The main idea is to use a Brownian noise to model air drag effects on the uniaxial elongation of the jets. The developed numerical model is used to probe the dynamics of electrified polymer jets at different conditions of air drag force, showing that the dynamics of the charged jet is strongly biased by the presence of air drag forces. This study provides prospective beneficial implications for improving forthcoming electrospinning experiments.

  6. DOEs Effort to Reduce Truck Aerodynamic Drag through Joint...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Truck Aerodynamic Drag through Joint Experiments and Computations 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer...

  7. Demand Reduction

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Grantees may use funds to coordinate with electricity supply companies and utilities to reduce energy demands on their power systems. These demand reduction programs are usually coordinated through...

  8. DragNDrop Directions v6 Windows Users: How do I access DragNDrop web documents to place or update them?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    DragNDrop Directions v6 12/12/05 Windows Users: How do I access DragNDrop web documents to place or update them? If you are on the PPPL Domain: Open My Computer. Then the P drive. Find the web folder. Find to your web files contact Lena Scimeca OS/X Users: How do I access the web documents to place or update

  9. November 16, 1999 1. Drag force on non spherical particles. (25 points)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCready, Mark J.

    ChEg 355 Fall 1999 Test #2 November 16, 1999 1. Drag force on non spherical particles. (25 points) Recall that the Stokes' law drag relation for a sphere in creeping flow is: FD = 6 µ R U, where µ is the fluid viscosity, R is the radius of the sphere, and U is the terminal velocity. It was mentioned

  10. Interparticle Potential and Drag Coefficient in Nematic Colloids Jurij Kotar,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osterman, Natan

    large bead separations (x > 4 m, at a sphere diameter of 3 m), the force decays proportional to xÿ6 un- distorted measurements of forces as well as effective drag coefficient of an immersed beadInterparticle Potential and Drag Coefficient in Nematic Colloids Jurij Kotar,1 Mojca Vilfan,2 Natan

  11. A ash-drag effect in random motion reveals involvement of preattentive motion processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitney, David

    A ash-drag effect in random motion reveals involvement of preattentive motion processing Department-ku, Tokyo, JapanIkuya Murakami The ash-drag (FDE) effect refers to the phenomenon in which the position of a stationary ashed object in one location appears shifted in the direction of nearby motion. Over the past

  12. A sea drag relation for hurricane wind speeds N. C. Zweers,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vries, Hans de

    A sea drag relation for hurricane wind speeds N. C. Zweers,1 V. K. Makin,1 J. W. de Vries,1 and G, the surface drag is overestimated in NWP models for hurricane wind speeds and the intensity of hurricane winds is tested in an NWP model. Two hurricanes in the Caribbean are modeled: Ivan (2004) and Katrina (2005

  13. Method and apparatus for planar drag strip casting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Powell, John C. (Pittsburgh, PA); Campbell, Steven L. (Middletown, OH)

    1991-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improved process and apparatus for strip casting. The combination of a planar flow casting nozzle positioned back from the top dead center position with an attached nozzle extension, provides an increased level of casting control and quality. The nozzle extension provides a means of containing the molten pool above the rotating substrate to increase the control of molten metal at the edges of the strip and increase the range of coating thicknesses which may be produced. The level of molten metal in the containment means is regulated to be above the level of melt supplying the casting nozzle which produces a condition of planar drag flow with the casting substrate prior to solidification.

  14. Method and apparatus for planar drag strip casting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Powell, J.C.; Campbell, S.L.

    1991-11-12

    The present invention is directed to an improved process and apparatus for strip casting. The combination of a planar flow casting nozzle positioned back from the top dead center position with an attached nozzle extension, provides an increased level of casting control and quality. The nozzle extension provides a means of containing the molten pool above the rotating substrate to increase the control of molten metal at the edges of the strip and increase the range of coating thicknesses which may be produced. The level of molten metal in the containment means is regulated to be above the level of melt supplying the casting nozzle which produces a condition of planar drag flow with the casting substrate prior to solidification. 5 figures.

  15. General-relativistic versus Newtonian: geometric dragging and dynamic anti-dragging in stationary disks in the first post-Newtonian approximation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piotr Jaranowski; Patryk Mach; Edward Malec; Michal Pirog

    2014-12-27

    We evaluate general-relativistic effects in motion of stationary accretion disks around a Schwarzschild black hole, assuming the first post-Newtonian (1PN) approximation. There arises an integrability condition, that leads to the emergence of two types of general-relativistic corrections to a Newtonian rotation curve. The well known geometric dragging of frames accelerates rotation but the hitherto unknown dynamic term, that reflects the disk structure, deccelerates rotation. The net result can diminish the Newtonian angular velocity of rotation in a central disk zone but the geometric dragging of frames dominates in the disk boundary zone. Both effects are nonlinear in nature and they disappear in the limit of test fluids. Dust disks can be only geometrically dragged while uniformly rotating gaseous disk are untouched at the 1PN order. General-relativistic contributions can strongly affect rotation periods in Keplerian motion for compact systems.

  16. Experimental aero-acoustic assessment of swirling flows for drag applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mobed, Darius Darayes

    2007-01-01

    The need for quiet drag technologies stems from stricter requirements for and growing demand of low-noise aircraft. The research presented in this thesis regards the use of swirling exhaust flows capable of generating ...

  17. The gravitational drag force on an extended object moving in a gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernal, C G

    2013-01-01

    Using axisymmetrical numerical simulations, we revisit the gravitational drag felt by a gravitational Plummer sphere with mass M and core radius Rs, moving at constant velocity V0 through a background homogeneous medium of adiabatic gas. Since the potential is non-diverging, there is no gas removal due to accretion. When Rs is larger than the Bondi radius RB, the perturbation is linear at every point and the drag force is well fitted by the time-dependent Ostriker's formula with r_{min}= 2.25Rs, where r_{min} is the minimum impact parameter in the Coulomb logarithm. In the deep nonlinear supersonic regime (Rs2. As a consequence, the drag force does not depend sensitively on the nonlinearity parameter RB/Rs, for RB/Rs-values larger than a certain critical value. We show that our generalized Ostriker's formula for the drag force is more accurate than the formula suggested by Kim & Kim (2009).

  18. Drag reducing polymers as simple indicators of hemolytic potential in biomechanical devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shieh, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to determine if drag reducing polymers can be simple indicators of hemolytic potential in biomechanical devices. Specifically, three different blood pumps, known as a left ventricle ...

  19. Lift and drag in intruders moving through hydrostatic granular media at high speeds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potiguar, Fabricio Q

    2013-01-01

    Recently, experiments showed that forces on intruders dragged horizontally through dense, hydrostatic granular packings mainly depend on the local surface orientation and can be seen as the sum of the forces exerted on small surface elements. In order to understand such forces more deeply, we perform 2D soft-sphere molecular dynamics simulation, on similar set up, of an intruder dragged through a 50-50 bi-disperse granular packing, with diameters 0.30 and 0.34 cm. We measure, for both circular and half-circle shapes, the forces parallel (drag) and perpendicular (lift) to the drag direction as functions of the drag speed, with V=10.3-309 cm/s, and intruder depths, with D=3.75-37.5 cm. The drag forces on an intruder monotonically increase with V and D, and are larger for the circle. However, the lift force does not depend monotonically on V and D, and this relationship is affected by the shape of the intruder. The vertical force was negative for the half-circle, but for a small range of V and D, we measure posi...

  20. Analyzing and simulating the variability of solar irradiance and solar PV powerplants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of Distributed PV, American Solar Energy Society,Simulating the Reduction in PV Powerplant Variability due to8] T. Hoff, R. Perez, Modeling PV Fleet Output Variability,

  1. On the horseshoe drag of a low-mass planet. I - Migration in isothermal disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casoli, J

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the unsaturated horseshoe drag exerted on a low-mass planet by an isothermal gaseous disk. In the globally isothermal case, we use a formal- ism, based on the use of a Bernoulli invariant, that takes into account pressure effects, and that extends the torque estimate to a region wider than the horse- shoe region. We find a result that is strictly identical to the standard horseshoe drag. This shows that the horseshoe drag accounts for the torque of the whole corotation region, and not only of the horseshoe region, thereby deserving to be called corotation torque. We find that evanescent waves launched downstream of the horseshoe U-turns by the perturbations of vortensity exert a feed-back on the upstream region, that render the horseshoe region asymmetric. This asymmetry scales with the vortensity gradient and with the disk's aspect ratio. It does not depend on the planetary mass, and it does not have any impact on the horseshoe drag. Since the horseshoe drag has a steep dependence on the width...

  2. Integrability Singular reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patrick, George

    Motivation Integrability Singular reduction Integration of Singular quotients Summary References Singular reduction of Poisson manifolds and integrability Rui L. Fernandes1 Joint work with J.P. Ortega Fernandes Singular reduction and integrability #12;Motivation Integrability Singular reduction Integration

  3. Drag force of Anisotropic plasma at finite $U(1)$ chemical potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long Cheng; Xian-Hui Ge; Shang-Yu Wu

    2015-04-16

    We perform the calculation of drag force acting on a massive quark moving through an anisotropic ${\\cal N}=4$ SU(N) Super Yang-Mills plasma in the presence of a $U(1)$ chemical potential. We present the numerical results for any real (prolate solution) or imaginary (oblate solution) value of anisotropy and arbitrary direction of the quark velocity with respect to the direction of anisotropy. We find the effect of chemical potential or charge density will enhance the drag force for the prolate solution, and opposite to the oblate solution. On the other hand, as the anisotropy increases, the drag force is enhanced, and the effect of chemical potential strengthens the enhancement.

  4. Drag force of Anisotropic plasma at finite $U(1)$ chemical potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long Cheng; Xian-Hui Ge; Shang-Yu Wu

    2015-08-25

    We perform the calculation of drag force acting on a massive quark moving through an anisotropic ${\\cal N}=4$ SU(N) Super Yang-Mills plasma in the presence of a $U(1)$ chemical potential. We present the numerical results for any real (prolate solution) or imaginary (oblate solution) value of anisotropy and arbitrary direction of the quark velocity with respect to the direction of anisotropy. We find the effect of chemical potential or charge density will enhance the drag force for the prolate solution, and opposite to the oblate solution. On the other hand, as the anisotropy increases, the drag force is enhanced, and the effect of chemical potential strengthens the enhancement.

  5. Lift and drag in intruders moving through hydrostatic granular media at high speeds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabricio Q. Potiguar; Yang Ding

    2013-07-18

    Recently, experiments showed that forces on intruders dragged horizontally through dense, hydrostatic granular packings mainly depend on the local surface orientation and can be seen as the sum of the forces exerted on small surface elements. In order to understand such forces more deeply, we perform 2D soft-sphere molecular dynamics simulation, on similar set up, of an intruder dragged through a 50-50 bi-disperse granular packing, with diameters 0.30 and 0.34 cm. We measure, for both circular and half-circle shapes, the forces parallel (drag) and perpendicular (lift) to the drag direction as functions of the drag speed, with V=10.3-309 cm/s, and intruder depths, with D=3.75-37.5 cm. The drag forces on an intruder monotonically increase with V and D, and are larger for the circle. However, the lift force does not depend monotonically on V and D, and this relationship is affected by the shape of the intruder. The vertical force was negative for the half-circle, but for a small range of V and D, we measure positive lift. We find no sign change for the lift on the circle, which is always positive. The explanation for the nonmonotonic dependence is related to the decrease in contacts on the intruder as V increases. This is qualitatively similar to supersonic flow detachment from an obstacle. The detachment picture is supported by simulation measurements of the velocity field around the intruder and force profiles measured on its surface.

  6. Observed drag coefficients in high winds in the near offshore of the South China Sea

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bi, Xueyan; Liu, Yangan; Gao, Zhiqiu; Liu, Feng; Song, Qingtao; Huang, Jian; Huang, Huijun; Mao, Weikang; Liu, Chunxia

    2015-07-14

    This paper investigates the relationships between friction velocity, 10 m drag coefficient, and 10 m wind speed using data collected at two offshore observation towers (one over the sea and the other on an island) from seven typhoon episodes in the South China Sea from 2008 to 2014. The two towers were placed in areas with different water depths along a shore-normal line. The depth of water at the tower over the sea averages about 15 m, and the depth of water near the island is about 10 m. The observed maximum 10 min average wind speed at a heightmore »of 10 m is about 32 m s?¹. Momentum fluxes derived from three methods (eddy covariance, inertial dissipation, and flux profile) are compared. The momentum fluxes derived from the flux profile method are larger (smaller) over the sea (on the island) than those from the other two methods. The relationship between the 10 m drag coefficient and the 10 m wind speed is examined by use of the data obtained by the eddy covariance method. The drag coefficient first decreases with increasing 10 m wind speed when the wind speeds are 5–10 m s?¹, then increases and reaches a peak value of 0.002 around a wind speed of 18 m s?¹. The drag coefficient decreases with increasing 10 m wind speed when 10 m wind speeds are 18–27 m s?¹. A comparison of the measurements from the two towers shows that the 10 m drag coefficient from the tower in 10 m water depth is about 40% larger than that from the tower in 15 m water depth when the 10 m wind speed is less than 10 m s?¹. Above this, the difference in the 10 m drag coefficients of the two towers disappears.« less

  7. Relativistic Drag and Emission Radiation Pressures in an Isotropic Photonic Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeff S. Lee; Gerald B. Cleaver

    2015-07-30

    By invoking the relativistic spectral radiance, as derived by Lee and Cleaver [1], the drag radiation pressure of a relativistic planar surface moving through an isotropic radiation field, with which it is in thermal equilibrium, is determined in inertial and non-inertial frames. The forward- and rearward-directed emission radiation pressures are also derived and compared. A fleeting (inertial frames) or ongoing (some non-inertial frames) Carnot cycle is shown to exist as a result of an intra-surfaces temperature gradient. The drag radiation pressure on an object with an arbitrary frontal geometry is also described.

  8. Relativistic Drag and Emission Radiation Pressures in an Isotropic Photonic Gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Jeff S

    2015-01-01

    By invoking the relativistic spectral radiance, as derived by Lee and Cleaver [1], the drag radiation pressure of a relativistic planar surface moving through an isotropic radiation field, with which it is in thermal equilibrium, is determined in inertial and non-inertial frames. The forward- and rearward-directed emission radiation pressures are also derived and compared. A fleeting (inertial frames) or ongoing (some non-inertial frames) Carnot cycle is shown to exist as a result of an intra-surfaces temperature gradient. The drag radiation pressure on an object with an arbitrary frontal geometry is also described.

  9. Buoyancy eects on heat transfer and temperature proles in horizontal pipe ow of drag-reducing uids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguilar, Guillermo

    Buoyancy eects on heat transfer and temperature pro®les in horizontal pipe ¯ow of drag 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction In heated ¯ows in horizontal pipes February 2000 Abstract We have studied the extent to which buoyancy eects in horizontal pipe ¯ows of drag

  10. Analysis of Surface Drag of StromaxTM in Water Alec Ye || Alecye123@yahoo.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Chongwu

    the pressure drag and medium drag the same by having the same air foil design and only changing the experiment learned is data analysis. There is a lot of uncertainty and standard deviation calculated with practical the temperature of the water, temperature of the air, the amount of water in the tank, and the tightness

  11. Computation of the drag force on a rough sphere close to a wall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gérard-Varet, David

    2011-01-01

    We consider the effect of surface roughness on solid-solid contact in a Stokes flow. Various models for the roughness are considered, and a unified methodology is given to derive the corresponding asymptotics of the drag force. In this way, we recover and clarify the various expressions that can be found in the litterature.

  12. Sensitivity of the wind stress and storm surges to surface drag

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vries, Hans de

    into the water spray generation (water droplets) #12;Background Air-Sea Interaction High and/or extreme windSensitivity of the wind stress and storm surges to surface drag changes Niels Zweers KNMI - Weather concept · Methodology ­ HIRLAM ­ WAQUA · Results · Conclusion Sensitivity of the wind stress and storm

  13. Cataclysmic Variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert Connon Smith

    2007-01-23

    Cataclysmic variables are binary stars in which a relatively normal star is transferring mass to its compact companion. This interaction gives rise to a rich range of behaviour, of which the most noticeable are the outbursts that give the class its name. Novae belong to the class, as do the less well known dwarf novae and magnetic systems. Novae draw their energy from nuclear reactions, while dwarf novae rely on gravity to power their smaller eruptions. All the different classes of cataclysmic variable can be accommodated within a single framework and this article will describe the framework, review the properties of the main types of system and discuss models of the outbursts and of the long-term evolution.

  14. Search for Frame-Dragging-Like Signals Close to Spinning Superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Tajmar; F. Plesescu; B. Seifert; R. Schnitzer; I. Vasiljevich

    2008-04-22

    High-resolution accelerometer and laser gyroscope measurements were performed in the vicinity of spinning rings at cryogenic temperatures. After passing a critical temperature, which does not coincide with the material's superconducting temperature, the angular acceleration and angular velocity applied to the rotating ring could be seen on the sensors although they are mechanically de-coupled. A parity violation was observed for the laser gyroscope measurements such that the effect was greatly pronounced in the clockwise-direction only. The experiments seem to compare well with recent independent tests obtained by the Canterbury Ring Laser Group and the Gravity-Probe B satellite. All systematic effects analyzed so far are at least 3 orders of magnitude below the observed phenomenon. The available experimental data indicates that the fields scale similar to classical frame-dragging fields. A number of theories that predicted large frame-dragging fields around spinning superconductors can be ruled out by up to 4 orders of magnitude.

  15. July 2004 Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag: Presentation, Summary of Comments, and Conclusions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCallen, R; Salari, K; Ortega, J; Castellucci, P; Eastwood, C; DeChant, L; Hassan, B; Browand, F; Arcas, D; Ross, J; Heineck, J; Storms, B; Walker, S; Leonard, A; Roy, C; Whitfield, D; Pointer, D; Sofu, T; Englar, R; Funk, R

    2004-08-17

    A Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held in Portland, Oregon on July 1, 2004. The purpose of the meeting was to provide a summary of achievements, discuss pressing issues, present a general overview of future plans, and to provide a forum for dialogue with the Department of Energy (DOE) and industry representatives. The meeting was held in Portland, because the DOE Aero Team participated in an exclusive session on Heavy Truck Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag at the 34th AIAA Fluid Dynamics Conference and Exhibit in Portland on the morning of July 1st, just preceding our Working Group meeting. Even though the paper session was on the last day of the Conference, the Team presented to a full room of interested attendees.

  16. THE GRAVITATIONAL DRAG FORCE ON AN EXTENDED OBJECT MOVING IN A GAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernal, Cristian G.; Sánchez-Salcedo, F. J. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, P.O. Box 70-264, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico City (Mexico)

    2013-09-20

    Using axisymmetrical numerical simulations, we revisit the gravitational drag felt by a gravitational Plummer sphere with mass M and core radius R{sub s} moving at constant velocity V{sub 0} through a background homogeneous medium of adiabatic gas. Since the potential is non-diverging, there is no gas removal due to accretion. When R{sub s} is larger than the Bondi radius R{sub B} , the perturbation is linear at every point and the drag force is well fitted by the time-dependent Ostriker's formula with r{sub min} = 2.25R{sub s} , where r{sub min} is the minimum impact parameter in the Coulomb logarithm. In the deep nonlinear supersonic regime (R{sub s} << R{sub B} ), the minimum radius is no longer related to R{sub s} but to R{sub B} . We find r{sub min}=3.3M{sup -2.5}R{sub B} for Mach numbers of the perturber between 1.5 and 4, although r{sub min}= 2M{sup -2}R{sub B}=2GM/V{sup 2}{sub 0} also provides a good fit at M>2. As a consequence, the drag force does not depend sensitively on the nonlinearity parameter A, defined as R{sub B} /R{sub s} , for A values larger than a certain critical value A{sub cr}. We show that our generalized Ostriker's formula for the drag force is more accurate than the formula suggested by Kim and Kim.

  17. PUBLISHED VERSION Phonon drag force acting on a mobile crystal defect: Full treatment of discreteness and nonlinearity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the author scattering calculations predict the drag force acting on defects and dislocations rises linearly

  18. Optical Clock and Drag-Free Requirements for a Shapiro Time-Delay Mission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neil Ashby; Peter L. Bender

    2011-06-10

    In the next decade or two, extremely accurate tests of general relativity under extreme conditions are expected from gravitational wave observations of binary black hole mergers with a wide range of mass ratios. In addition, major improvements are planned in both strong and weak equivalence principle tests; clock measurements based on the ACES program on the ISS; more accurate light-bending measurements; and other new types of tests. However, whether these tests are all consistent with general relativity or not, it still appears desirable to proceed with a much improved measurement of the Shapiro time delay. A suggested approach is based on using a high-quality optical clock in a drag-free spacecraft near the sun-earth L1 point and a smaller drag-free transponder spacecraft in a two-year period solar orbit. Laser phase travel-time measurements would be made between the two spacecraft over a period of 10 or 20 days around the time when the line of sight passes through the Sun. The requirements on the optical clock stability and on the drag-free systems will be discussed. The accuracy achievable for the time-delay appears to be better than 1 part in 100 million.

  19. The Insignificance of P-R Drag in Detectable Extrasolar Planetesimal Belts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. C. Wyatt

    2005-01-04

    This paper considers a simple model in which dust produced in a planetesimal belt migrates in toward the star due to P-R drag suffering destructive collisions with other dust grains on the way. Assuming the dust is all of the same size, the resulting surface density distribution can be derived analytically and depends only on the parameter eta0=5000tau*sqrt(Mstar/r)/beta; this parameter can be determined observationally with the hypothesis that beta=0.5. For massive belts in which eta0>>1 dust is confined to the planetesimal belt, while the surface density of more tenuous belts, in which eta0belts at different distances from different mass stars shows that the dust belts which have been detected to date should have eta0>>1; dust belts with eta010. This means that these disks are so massive that mutual collisions prevent dust from reaching the inner regions of these systems and P-R drag can be ignored when studying their dynamics. Models for the formation of structure in debris disks by the trapping of particles into planetary resonances by P-R drag should be reconsidered. However, since collisions do not halt 100% of the dust, this means that in the absence of planetary companions debris disk systems should be populated by small quantities of hot dust which may be detectable in the mid-IR. Even in disks with eta0<<1 the temperature of dust emission is shown to be a reliable tracer of the planetesimal distribution meaning that inner holes in the dust distribution imply a lack of colliding planetesimals in the inner regions.

  20. Drag force in strongly coupled, anisotropic plasma at finite chemical potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Somdeb Chakraborty; Najmul Haque

    2014-10-26

    We employ methods of gauge/string duality to analyze the drag force on a heavy quark moving through a strongly coupled, anisotropic \\mathcal{N}=4, SU(N) super Yang- Mills plasma in the presence of a finite U(1) chemical potential. We present numerical results valid for any value of the anisotropy parameter and the U(1) charge density and arbitrary direction of the quark velocity with respect to the direction of anisotropy. In the small anisotropy limit we are also able to furnish analytical results.

  1. Aerodynamic Drag of Heavy Vehicles (Class 7-8): Simulation and Benchmarking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose McCallen, Dan Flowers, Tim Dunn; Jerry Owens; Fred Browand; Mustapha Hammache; Anthony Leonard; Mark Brady; Kambiz Salari; Walter Rutledge; James Ross; Bruce Storms; J. T. Heineck, David Driver; James Bell; Steve Walker; Gregory Zilliac

    2000-06-19

    This paper describes research and development for reducing the aerodynamic drag of heavy vehicles by demonstrating new approaches for the numerical simulation and analysis of aerodynamic flow. Experimental validation of new computational fluid dynamics methods are also an important part of this approach. Experiments on a model of an integrated tractor-trailer are underway at NASA Ames Research Center and the University of Southern California (USC). Companion computer simulations are being performed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and California Institute of Technology (Caltech) using state-of-the-art techniques.

  2. Systematic approach to analyzing and reducing aerodynamic drag of heavy vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCallen, R.; Browand, F.; Leonard, A.; Rutledge, W.

    1997-09-16

    This paper presents an approach for reducing aerodynamic drag of heavy vehicles by systematically analyzing trailer components using existing computational tools and moving on to the analyses of integrated tractor-trailers using advanced computational tools. Experimental verification and validation are also an important part of this approach. The project is currently in the development phase while we are in the process of constructing a Multi-Year Program Plan. Projects I and 2 as described in this paper are the anticipated project direction. Also included are results from past and current related activities by the project participants which demonstrate the analysis approach.

  3. Reply to Lliboutry's letter 'Why calculated basal drags of ice streams can be fallacious'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Veen, Cornelis J.; Whillans, Ian

    1995-01-01

    with this extrusion flow are very small, too small to affect our analysis in an important way. Extrusion flow may be an attractive idea but it cannot account for the unusual result of calculated reverse basal drag. In Whillans and Van der Veen (1993), we combined... suggests that deep ice can squeeze ahead, between the main body of ice above and the bed below, to the extent that the gross dynamics of the glacier is affected. Extrusion flow on a very large scale was discredited by Nye (1952) but the possibility...

  4. Scaling Distributed Energy Storage for Grid Peak Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Scaling Distributed Energy Storage for Grid Peak Reduction Aditya Mishra, David Irwin, Prashant efforts have shown how variable rate pricing can incentivize consumers to use energy storage to cut to describe the issues with incentivizing energy storage us- ing variable rates. We then propose a simple way

  5. Dragging of inertial frames in the composed black-hole-ring system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hod, Shahar

    2015-01-01

    A well-established phenomenon in general relativity is the dragging of inertial frames by a spinning object. In particular, due to the dragging of inertial frames by a ring orbiting a central black hole, the angular-velocity of the black-hole horizon in the composed black-hole-ring system is no longer related to the black-hole angular-momentum by the simple Kerr-like (vacuum) relation $\\Omega^{\\text{Kerr}}_{\\text{H}}(J_{\\text{H}})=J_{\\text{H}}/2M^2R_{\\text{H}}$. Will has performed a perturbative treatment of the composed black-hole-ring system in the regime of slowly rotating black holes and found the explicit relation $\\Omega^{\\text{BH-ring}}_{\\text{H}}(J_{\\text{H}}=0,J_{\\text{R}},R)=2J_{\\text{R}}/R^3$ for the angular-velocity of a central black hole with zero angular-momentum. Analyzing a sequence of black-hole-ring configurations with adiabatically varying (decreasing) circumferential radii, we show that the expression found by Will implies a smooth transition of the central black-hole angular-velocity fro...

  6. EXPERIMENTAL CONTROL OF VARIABLE CAM TIMING ACTUATORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . This dilution of the mixture in the cylinder re- duces HC and NOx feedgas emissions. Neverthe- less, retarding al., 1998). Table 1 illus- trates the sought after NOx emission reduction when the Variable Cam conditions (1500rpm, 30Nm). NOx pollutant emissions are lowered by retarding the cam timing. ically

  7. Dimensional Reduction in Quantum Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. 't Hooft

    2009-03-20

    The requirement that physical phenomena associated with gravitational collapse should be duly reconciled with the postulates of quantum mechanics implies that at a Planckian scale our world is not 3+1 dimensional. Rather, the observable degrees of freedom can best be described as if they were Boolean variables defined on a two-dimensional lattice, evolving with time. This observation, deduced from not much more than unitarity, entropy and counting arguments, implies severe restrictions on possible models of quantum gravity. Using cellular automata as an example it is argued that this dimensional reduction implies more constraints than the freedom we have in constructing models. This is the main reason why so-far no completely consistent mathematical models of quantum black holes have been found. Essay dedicated to Abdus Salam.

  8. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 140: 792804, April 2014 Sensitivity of tropical-cyclone models to the surface drag

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Roger K.

    , University of Munich, Germany b Department of Meteorology, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA cHurricane in this direction. Key Words: hurricanes; tropical cyclones; typhoons; surface drag coefficient; frictional drag in deep rotating clouds. A fraction of the angular momentum drawn inwards is lost because

  9. Reduction of dimension for nonlinear dynamical systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heather A. Harrington; Robert A. Van Gorder

    2015-08-24

    We consider reduction of dimension for nonlinear dynamical systems. We demonstrate that in some cases, one can reduce a nonlinear system of equations into a single equation for one of the state variables, and this can be useful for computing the solution when using a variety of analytical approaches. In the case where this reduction is possible, we employ differential elimination to obtain the reduced system. While analytical, the approach is algorithmic, and is implemented in symbolic software such as {\\sc MAPLE} or {\\sc SageMath}. In other cases, the reduction cannot be performed strictly in terms of differential operators, and one obtains integro-differential operators, which may still be useful. In either case, one can use the reduced equation to both approximate solutions for the state variables and perform chaos diagnostics more efficiently than could be done for the original higher-dimensional system, as well as to construct Lyapunov functions which help in the large-time study of the state variables. A number of chaotic and hyperchaotic dynamical systems are used as examples in order to motivate the approach.

  10. Development of EHD Ion-Drag Micropump for Microscale Electronics Cooling Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. K. Lee; A. J. Robinson; C. Y. Ching

    2008-01-07

    In this investigation, the numerical simulation of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) ion-drag micropumps with micropillar electrode geometries have been performed. The effect of micropillar height and electrode spacing on the performance of the micropumps was investigated. The performance of the EHD micropump improved with increased applied voltage and decreased electrode spacing. The optimum micropillar height for the micropump with electrode spacing of 40$\\mu$m and channel height of 100$\\mu$m at 200V was 40$\\mu$m, where a maximum mass flow rate of 0.18g/min was predicted. Compared to that of planar electrodes, the 3D micropillar electrode geometry enhanced the overall performance of the EHD micropumps.

  11. Drag coefficient for the air-sea exchange: foam impact in hurricane conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golbraikh, Ephim

    2014-01-01

    A physical model is proposed for the estimation of the foam impact on the variation of the effective drag coefficient, C_d, with reference to the wind speed U10 in stormy and hurricane conditions. In the present model C_d is approximated by partitioning the sea surface into foam-covered and foam-free areas. Based on the available optical and radiometric measurements of the fractional foam coverage and the characteristic roughness of the sea-surface in the saturation limit of the foam coverage, the model yields the resulting dependence of C_d vs U10. This dependence is in fair agreement with that evaluated from field measurements of the vertical variation of the mean wind speed.

  12. Progress in Reducing Aerodynamic Drag for Higher Efficiency of Heavy Duty Trucks (Class 7-8)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose McCallen; Richard Couch; Juliana Hsu; Fred Browand; Mustapha Hammache; Anthony Leonard; Mark Brady; Kambiz Salari; Walter Rutledge; James Ross; Bruce Storms; J.T. Heineck; David Driver; James Bell; Gregory Zilliac

    1999-12-31

    This paper describes research and development for reducing the aerodynamic drag of heavy vehicles by demonstrating new approaches for the numerical simulation and analysis of aerodynamic flow. In addition, greater use of newly developed computational tools holds promise for reducing the number of prototype tests, for cutting manufacturing costs, and for reducing overall time to market. Experimental verification and validation of new computational fluid dynamics methods are also an important part of this approach. Experiments on a model of an integrated tractor-trailer are underway at NASA Ames Research Center and the University of Southern California. Companion computer simulations are being performed by Sandia National Laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and California Institute of Technology using state-of-the-art techniques, with the intention of implementing more complex methods in the future.

  13. Published in the Proceedings of ASES-2001, the American Solar Energy Society A DRAG-AND-DROP ENERGY DESIGN TOOL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    this data, Solar-5's built-in expert system designs two different reference homes called "Scheme 1 MeetsPublished in the Proceedings of ASES-2001, the American Solar Energy Society A DRAG-AND-DROP ENERGY the program to more precisely predict the building's performance and the energy cost savings of the ratepayer

  14. Turbulent flow and drag over fixed two-and three-dimensional dunes Jeremy G. Venditti1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venditti, Jeremy G.

    Turbulent flow and drag over fixed two- and three-dimensional dunes Jeremy G. Venditti1,2 Received measurements of turbulent flow were obtained over a fixed flat bed, two- dimensional (2-D) dunes and four types of three-dimensional (3-D) dune morphologies including (1) full width saddles, (2) full width lobes, (3

  15. Inclusion of a Drag Approach in the Town Energy Balance (TEB) Scheme: Offline 1D Evaluation in a Street Canyon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -scale urban surface energy balance for use in mesoscale meteorological models. Previous offline evaluations show that this urban module is able to simulate in good behavior road, wall, and roof temperatures urban canopy by introducing a drag force approach to account for the vertical effects of buildings

  16. Photoreversible Micellar Solution as a Smart Drag-Reducing Fluid for Use in District Heating/Cooling Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raghavan, Srinivasa

    Photoreversible Micellar Solution as a Smart Drag-Reducing Fluid for Use in District Heating solution is developed as a promising working fluid for district heating/cooling systems (DHCs). It can systems. A promising application of DR fluids is in district heating/ cooling systems (DHCs)9

  17. Variable Frequency Pump Drives 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karassik, I. J.; Petraccaro, L. L.; McGuire, J. T.

    1986-01-01

    variable flow operation, Fig. 2 variable system head, the objective of the latter being to maintain pump flow within an optimum range while accommodating a wide variation in system head. VARYING OPERATING CAPACITY OPERATING CAPACITY? N, RANGE HEAD...-rotor motors and variable speed devices have slip losses that significantly reduce the savings that accrue by operating pumps at variable speed. Steam turbine drives may not always be the most practical or economic solution. The variable frequency...

  18. CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delaware, University of

    ........................................................................................ 21 2.3.5 Pulp and paper industry Technologies and Measures in Pulp and Paper IndustryCARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION TECHNOLOGIES AND MEASURES IN US INDUSTRIAL SECTOR FINAL REPORT

  19. Paperwork Reduction Act

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Paperwork Reduction Act requires that all federal websites request permission from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) before collecting information from 10 or more members of the public....

  20. Turbulence structure of drag-reducing surfactant solution in two-dimensional channel with additional heat transfer enhancement method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, P.W.; Daisaka, H.; Kawaguchi, Y.; Yabe, A.; Hishida, K.; Maeda, M.

    1999-07-01

    The turbulent characteristics of a surfactant water solution in changing from drag-reducing flow to turbulent flow inside a two-dimensional smooth channel and in changing from turbulent flow to drag-reducing flow in the same channel with a mesh plug were investigated through LDV measurement in this study. The mesh plug was used to exert high shear stress to destroy micelle structures in the surfactant solution so that turbulence could be produced for better heat transfer. The two-component LDV system was installed on a movable platform, which could be moved streamwise of the flow to measure the two-dimensional velocity at different stations downstream from the mesh plug. The surfactant tested was Cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (C{sub 16}H{sub 33}N(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}Cl, abbreviated as CTAC). Local tap water was used as solvent and same weight concentration of sodium salicylate was used as the counter-ion material. The investigation of turbulent parameters for the drag-reducing flow with increasing Reynolds number showed that when the Reynolds number exceeded the drag-reducing region, the turbulent character was the same as that of water. The turbulent parameters of surfactant flow downstream the mesh plug showed that the high heat transfer region had the same turbulent intensity as that of water flow. As the critical Reynolds number was approached, it became easier to obtain such a turbulent region by mesh plug. In such cases, the mesh helped to create high wall shear stress and therefore to destroy the super-ordered structures of rod-like micelles for introducing turbulence. However, it was found that the turbulent intensities of the velocity gradually decreased to the same as those of drag-reducing flow downstream from the mesh because the mesh plug only produced a local high shear stress.

  1. The Earth's Frame Dragging via Laser Ranged Satellites: a Response to 'Some considerations on the present-day results for the detection of frame-dragging after the final outcome of GP-B' by L. Iorio [arXiv:1105.4145

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. C. Ries; I. Ciufolini; E. C. Pavlis; A. Paolozzi; R. Koenig; R. A. Matzner; G. Sindoniand H. Neumayer

    2013-05-13

    In this note, we reply to the preceding paper by Iorio: "Some considerations on the present-day results for the detection of frame-dragging after the final outcome of GP-B, Europhysics Letters", we address criticisms regarding the Lense-Thirring frame-dragging experiment results obtained from the laser ranging to the two LAGEOS satellites.

  2. Dragging of inertial frames in the composed black-hole-ring system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shahar Hod

    2015-11-10

    A well-established phenomenon in general relativity is the dragging of inertial frames by a spinning object. In particular, due to the dragging of inertial frames by a ring orbiting a central black hole, the angular-velocity of the black-hole horizon in the composed black-hole-ring system is no longer related to the black-hole angular-momentum by the simple Kerr-like (vacuum) relation $\\Omega^{\\text{Kerr}}_{\\text{H}}(J_{\\text{H}})=J_{\\text{H}}/2M^2R_{\\text{H}}$. Will has performed a perturbative treatment of the composed black-hole-ring system in the regime of slowly rotating black holes and found the explicit relation $\\Omega^{\\text{BH-ring}}_{\\text{H}}(J_{\\text{H}}=0,J_{\\text{R}},R)=2J_{\\text{R}}/R^3$ for the angular-velocity of a central black hole with zero angular-momentum. Analyzing a sequence of black-hole-ring configurations with adiabatically varying (decreasing) circumferential radii, we show that the expression found by Will implies a smooth transition of the central black-hole angular-velocity from its asymptotic near-horizon value $\\Omega^{\\text{BH-ring}}_{\\text{H}}(J_{\\text{H}}=0,J_{\\text{R}},R\\to R^{+}_{\\text{H}})$ to its final Kerr (vacuum) value $\\Omega^{\\text{Kerr}}_{\\text{H}}(J^{\\text{new}}_{\\text{H}})$. We use this important observation in order to generalize the result of Will to the regime of black-hole-ring configurations in which the central black holes possess non-zero angular momenta. Remarkably, we find the simple universal relation $\\Delta\\Omega_{\\text{H}}\\equiv\\Omega^{\\text{BH-ring}}_{\\text{H}}(J_{\\text{H}},J_{\\text{R}},R\\to R^{+}_{\\text{H}})-\\Omega^{\\text{Kerr}}_{\\text{H}}(J_{\\text{H}})={{J_{\\text{R}}}/{4M^3}}$ for the asymptotic deviation of the black-hole angular-velocity in the composed black-hole-ring system from the corresponding angular-velocity of the unperturbed (vacuum) Kerr black hole with the same angular-momentum.

  3. REDUCTIONS WITHOUT REGRET: SUMMARY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swegle, J.; Tincher, D.

    2013-09-16

    This paper briefly summarizes the series in which we consider the possibilities for losing, or compromising, key capabilities of the U.S. nuclear force in the face of modernization and reductions. The first of the three papers takes an historical perspective, considering capabilities that were eliminated in past force reductions. The second paper is our attempt to define the needed capabilities looking forward in the context of the current framework for force modernization and the current picture of the evolving challenges of deterrence and assurance. The third paper then provides an example for each of our undesirable outcomes: the creation of roach motels, box canyons, and wrong turns.

  4. Water Use Reduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Facilities Water Use Reduction Water Use Reduction Water Use Reduction Water Use Reduction The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides agencies with guidance and...

  5. Picturing wavepacket reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arthur Jabs

    2015-03-18

    A coherent picture of the wavepacket-reduction process is proposed which is formulated in the framework of a deterministic and realist interpretation where the concepts of knowledge or information and of point particles do not appear. It is shown how the picture accounts for the experiments on interaction-free and delayed-choice measurements and those on interference with partial absorption.

  6. Energy-Enstrophy Stability of beta-plane Kolmogorov Flow with Drag

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yue-Kin Tsang; William R. Young

    2008-03-04

    We develop a new nonlinear stability method, the Energy-Enstrophy (EZ) method, that is specialized to two-dimensional hydrodynamics; the method is applied to a beta-plane flow driven by a sinusoidal body force, and retarded by drag with damping time-scale mu^{-1}. The standard energy method (Fukuta and Murakami, J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 64, 1995, pp 3725) shows that the laminar solution is monotonically and globally stable in a certain portion of the (mu,beta)-parameter space. The EZ method proves nonlinear stability in a larger portion of the (mu,beta)-parameter space. And by penalizing high wavenumbers, the EZ method identifies a most strongly amplifying disturbance that is more physically realistic than that delivered by the energy method. Linear instability calculations are used to determine the region of the (mu,beta)-parameter space where the flow is unstable to infinitesimal perturbations. There is only a small gap between the linearly unstable region and the nonlinearly stable region, and full numerical solutions show only small transient amplification in that gap.

  7. Granular mixtures modeled as elastic hard spheres subject to a drag force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francisco Vega Reyes; Vicente Garzo; Andres Santos

    2007-04-24

    Granular gaseous mixtures under rapid flow conditions are usually modeled by a multicomponent system of smooth inelastic hard spheres with constant coefficients of normal restitution. In the low density regime an adequate framework is provided by the set of coupled inelastic Boltzmann equations. Due to the intricacy of the inelastic Boltzmann collision operator, in this paper we propose a simpler model of elastic hard spheres subject to the action of an effective drag force, which mimics the effect of dissipation present in the original granular gas. The Navier--Stokes transport coefficients for a binary mixture are obtained from the model by application of the Chapman--Enskog method. The three coefficients associated with the mass flux are the same as those obtained from the inelastic Boltzmann equation, while the remaining four transport coefficients show a general good agreement, especially in the case of the thermal conductivity. Finally, the approximate decomposition of the inelastic Boltzmann collision operator is exploited to construct a model kinetic equation for granular mixtures as a direct extension of a known kinetic model for elastic collisions.

  8. GENERATION OF ELECTRIC CURRENTS IN THE CHROMOSPHERE VIA NEUTRAL-ION DRAG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krasnoselskikh, V. [LPC2E, CNRS-University of Orleans, 3A Avenue de la Recherche Scientifique, 45071 Orleans Cedex 2 (France); Vekstein, G. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Alan Turing Building, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Hudson, H. S.; Bale, S. D.; Abbett, W. P. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2010-12-01

    We consider the generation of electric currents in the solar chromosphere where the ionization level is typically low. We show that ambient electrons become magnetized even for weak magnetic fields (30 G); that is, their gyrofrequency becomes larger than the collision frequency while ion motions continue to be dominated by ion-neutral collisions. Under such conditions, ions are dragged by neutrals, and the magnetic field acts as if it is frozen-in to the dynamics of the neutral gas. However, magnetized electrons drift under the action of the electric and magnetic fields induced in the reference frame of ions moving with the neutral gas. We find that this relative motion of electrons and ions results in the generation of quite intense electric currents. The dissipation of these currents leads to resistive electron heating and efficient gas ionization. Ionization by electron-neutral impact does not alter the dynamics of the heavy particles; thus, the gas turbulent motions continue even when the plasma becomes fully ionized, and resistive dissipation continues to heat electrons and ions. This heating process is so efficient that it can result in typical temperature increases with altitude as large as 0.1-0.3 eV km{sup -1}. We conclude that this process can play a major role in the heating of the chromosphere and corona.

  9. The effect of Poynting-Robertson drag on the triangular Lagrangian points

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christoph Lhotka; Alessandra Celletti

    2014-12-04

    We investigate the stability of motion close to the Lagrangian equilibrium points L4 and L5 in the framework of the spatial, elliptic, restricted three- body problem, subject to the radial component of Poynting-Robertson drag. For this reason we develop a simplified resonant model, that is based on averaging theory, i.e. averaged over the mean anomaly of the perturbing planet. We find temporary stability of particles displaying a tadpole motion in the 1:1 resonance. From the linear stability study of the averaged simplified resonant model, we find that the time of temporary stability is proportional to beta a1 n1 , where beta is the ratio of the solar radiation over the gravitational force, and a1, n1 are the semi-major axis and the mean motion of the perturbing planet, respectively. We extend previous results (Murray (1994)) on the asymmetry of the stability indices of L4 and L5 to a more realistic force model. Our analytical results are supported by means of numerical simulations. We implement our study to Jupiter-like perturbing planets, that are also found in extra-solar planetary systems.

  10. Working group meeting on heavy vehicle aerodynamic drag: presentations and summary of comments and conclusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Browand, F; Gutierrez, W; Leonard, A; McBride, D; McCallen, R; Ross, J; Roth, K; Rutledge, W; Salari, K

    1998-09-28

    The first Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, New Mexico on August 28, 1998. The purpose of the meeting was to review the proposed Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) and provide an update on the Group"s progress. In addition, the technical details of each organization"s activities were presented and discussed. Presentations were given by representatives from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Transportation Technology Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology (OHVT), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), SNL, University of Southern California (USC), California Institute of Technology (Caltech), and NASA Ames Research Center. These presenters are part of a DOE appointed Technical Team assigned to developing the MYPP. The goal of the MYPP is to develop and demonstrate the ability to simulate and analyze aerodynamic flow around heavy truck vehicles using existing and advanced computational tools (A Multi-Year Program Plan for the Aerodynamic Design of Heavy Vehicles, R. McCallen, D. McBride, W. Rutledge, F. Browand, A. Leonard, .I. Ross, UCRL-PROP- 127753 Dr. Rev 2, May 1998). This report contains the technical presentations (viewgraphs) delivered at the Meeting, briefly summarizes the comments and conclusions from the Meeting participants, and outlines the future actions.

  11. Working group meeting on heavy vehicle aerodynamic drag: presentations and summary of comments and

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Browand, F; Gutierrez, W; Leonard, A; McBride, D; McCallen, R; Ross, J; Roth, K; Rutledge, W; Salari, K.

    1998-09-28

    The first Working Group Meeting on Heavy Vehicle Aerodynamic Drag was held at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) in Albuquerque, New Mexico on August 28, 1998. The purpose of the meeting was to review the proposed Multi-Year Program Plan (MYPP) and provide an update on the Group s progress. In addition, the technical details of each organization s activities were presented and discussed. Presentations were given by representatives from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Transportation Technology Office of Heavy Vehicle Technology (OHVT), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), SNL, University of Southern California (USC), California Institute of Technology (Caltech), and NASA Ames Research Center. These presenters are part of a DOE appointed Technical Team assigned to developing the MYPP. The goal of the MYPP is to develop and demonstrate the ability to simulate and analyze aerodynamic flow around heavy truck vehicles using existing and advanced computational tools (A Multi-Year Program Plan for the Aerodynamic Design of Heavy Vehicles, R. McCallen, D. McBride, W. Rutledge, F. Browand, A. Leonard, .I. Ross, UCRL-PROP- 127753 Dr. Rev 2, May 1998). This report contains the technical presentations (viewgraphs) delivered at the Meeting, briefly summarizes the comments and conclusions from the Meeting participants, and outlines the future actions.

  12. Ashtekar's variables without spin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Schucker

    2009-06-26

    Ashtekar's variables are shown to arise naturally from a 3+1 split of general relativity in the Einstein-Cartan formulation. Thereby spinors are exorcised.

  13. Progress Update: Creating Mobile Emission Reduction Credits

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Emission Reduction Specialists

  14. Aluminum reduction cell electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodnow, W.H.; Payne, J.R.

    1982-09-14

    The invention is directed to cathode modules comprised of refractory hard metal materials, such as TiB[sub 2], for an electrolytic cell for the reduction of alumina wherein the modules may be installed and replaced during operation of the cell and wherein the structure of the cathode modules is such that the refractory hard metal materials are not subjected to externally applied forces or rigid constraints. 9 figs.

  15. NOISE REDUCTION TECHNIQUE FOR A SIMULATION OPTIMISATION STUDY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aickelin, Uwe

    1 NOISE REDUCTION TECHNIQUE FOR A SIMULATION OPTIMISATION STUDY Adrian Adewunmi*, Uwe Aickelin 11 to reducing the noise associated with such a procedure. We are applying this proposed solution approach to our and the variability of manual order picker skill. It is known that there is noise in the output of discrete event

  16. Time varying, multivariate volume data reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahrens, James P; Fout, Nathaniel; Ma, Kwan - Liu

    2010-01-01

    Large-scale supercomputing is revolutionizing the way science is conducted. A growing challenge, however, is understanding the massive quantities of data produced by large-scale simulations. The data, typically time-varying, multivariate, and volumetric, can occupy from hundreds of gigabytes to several terabytes of storage space. Transferring and processing volume data of such sizes is prohibitively expensive and resource intensive. Although it may not be possible to entirely alleviate these problems, data compression should be considered as part of a viable solution, especially when the primary means of data analysis is volume rendering. In this paper we present our study of multivariate compression, which exploits correlations among related variables, for volume rendering. Two configurations for multidimensional compression based on vector quantization are examined. We emphasize quality reconstruction and interactive rendering, which leads us to a solution using graphics hardware to perform on-the-fly decompression during rendering. In this paper we present a solution which addresses the need for data reduction in large supercomputing environments where data resulting from simulations occupies tremendous amounts of storage. Our solution employs a lossy encoding scheme to acrueve data reduction with several options in terms of rate-distortion behavior. We focus on encoding of multiple variables together, with optional compression in space and time. The compressed volumes can be rendered directly with commodity graphics cards at interactive frame rates and rendering quality similar to that of static volume renderers. Compression results using a multivariate time-varying data set indicate that encoding multiple variables results in acceptable performance in the case of spatial and temporal encoding as compared to independent compression of variables. The relative performance of spatial vs. temporal compression is data dependent, although temporal compression has the advantage of offering smooth animations, while spatial compression can handle volumes of larger dimensions.

  17. Forest Fuels ReductionForest Fuels Reduction Department of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolding, M. Chad

    are the soil management and watershed implications from alternative fuels reduction approaches? 3. How do are the productivity and cost rates for alternative choices of equipment for mechanical fuels reduction; what of mechanical fuel reduction alternatives? What are the economic differences related to stand type

  18. A Numerical Study of the Effects of Superhydrophobic Surfaces on Skin-Friction Drag Reduction in Wall-Bounded Shear Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Hyunwook

    2015-01-01

    American Physics Society / Division of Fluid Dynamics (APS/American Physics Society / Division of Fluid Dynamics (APS/American Physics Society / Division of Fluid Dynamics (APS/

  19. A Numerical Study of the Effects of Superhydrophobic Surfaces on Skin-Friction Drag Reduction in Wall-Bounded Shear Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Hyunwook

    2015-01-01

    between no-slip surfaces and air-water interfaces due tolower the free energy of an air-water interface such that athe deflection of the air-water interface [1, 2, 51]. It is

  20. A Numerical Study of the Effects of Superhydrophobic Surfaces on Skin-Friction Drag Reduction in Wall-Bounded Shear Flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Hyunwook

    2015-01-01

    in water, thereby achieving significant energy savings andscales, lower the free energy of an air-water interface such

  1. Onset of Wave Drag due to Generation of Capillary-Gravity Waves by a Moving Object as a Critical Phenomenon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teodor Burghelea; Victor Steinberg

    2001-04-21

    The onset of the {\\em wave resistance}, via generation of capillary gravity waves, of a small object moving with velocity $V$, is investigated experimentally. Due to the existence of a minimum phase velocity $V_c$ for surface waves, the problem is similar to the generation of rotons in superfluid helium near their minimum. In both cases waves or rotons are produced at $V>V_c$ due to {\\em Cherenkov radiation}. We find that the transition to the wave drag state is continuous: in the vicinity of the bifurcation the wave resistance force is proportional to $\\sqrt{V-V_c}$ for various fluids.

  2. Understanding Biomass Feedstock Variability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin L. Kenney; William A. Smith; Garold L. Gresham; Tyler L. Westover

    2013-01-01

    If the singular goal of biomass logistics and the design of biomass feedstock supply systems is to reduce the per ton supply cost of biomass, these systems may very well develop with ultimate unintended consequences of highly variable and reduced quality biomass feedstocks. This paper demonstrates that due to inherent species variabilities, production conditions, and differing harvest, collection, and storage practices, this is a very real scenario that biomass producers and suppliers as well as conversion developers should be aware of. Biomass feedstock attributes of ash, carbohydrates, moisture, and particle morphology will be discussed. We will also discuss specifications for these attributes, inherent variability of these attributes in biomass feedstocks, and approaches and solutions for reducing variability for improving feedstock quality.

  3. Understanding Biomass Feedstock Variability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin L. Kenney; Garold L. Gresham; William A. Smith; Tyler L. Westover

    2013-01-01

    If the singular goal of biomass logistics and the design of biomass feedstock supply systems is to reduce the per-ton supply cost of biomass, these systems may very well develop with ultimate unintended consequences of highly variable and reduced quality biomass feedstocks. This paper demonstrates that, due to inherent species variabilities, production conditions and differing harvest, collection and storage practices, this is a very real scenario that biomass producers and suppliers as well as conversion developers should be aware of. Biomass feedstock attributes of ash, carbohydrates, moisture and particle morphology will be discussed. We will also discuss specifications for these attributes, inherent variability of these attributes in biomass feedstocks, and approaches and solutions for reducing variability for improving feedstock quality.

  4. Variable frequency photonic crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Xiang-Yao; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Yang, Jing-Hai; Li, Hong; Chen, Wan-Jin

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we have firstly proposed a new one-dimensional variable frequency photonic crystals (VFPCs), and calculated the transmissivity and the electronic field distribution of VFPCs with and without defect layer, and considered the effect of defect layer and variable frequency function on the transmissivity and the electronic field distribution. We have obtained some new characteristics for the VFPCs, which should be help to design a new type optical devices.

  5. Aluminum reduction cell electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Payne, J.R.

    1983-09-20

    The invention is directed to an anode-cathode structure for an electrolytic cell for the reduction of alumina wherein the structure is comprised of a carbon anode assembly which straddles a wedge-shaped refractory hard metal cathode assembly having steeply sloped cathodic surfaces, each cathodic surface being paired in essentially parallel planar relationship with an anode surface. The anode-cathode structure not only takes into account the structural weakness of refractory hard metal materials but also permits the changing of the RHM assembly during operation of the cell. Further, the anode-cathode structure enhances the removal of anode gas from the interpolar gap between the anode and cathode surfaces. 10 figs.

  6. Dose Reduction Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2000-05-16

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program.

  7. Formulae of Partial Reduction for Linear Systems of First Order Operator Equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Branko Malesevic; Dragana Todoric; Ivana Jovovic; Sonja Telebakovic

    2010-04-21

    This paper deals with reduction of non-homogeneous linear systems of first order operator equations with constant coefficients. An equivalent reduced system, consisting of higher order linear operator equations having only one variable and first order linear operator equations in two variables, is obtained by using the rational canonical form.

  8. Variable Refrigerant Flow HVAC 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, S.

    2013-01-01

    Variable refrigerant flow technology HVAC CATEE 2013 San Antonio, TX ESL-KT-13-12-33 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency Conference, San Antonio, Texas Dec. 16-18 What is the acronym VRF? ? Variable Refrigerant Flow Operates like a... heat pump utilizing VFD Inverter Compressors and LEV’s Unlike conventional commercial and residential HVAC systems in the USA The predominate method of cooling and heating in the world ESL-KT-13-12-33 CATEE 2013: Clean Air Through Energy Efficiency...

  9. Binary-Fluid Turbulence: Signatures of Multifractal Droplet Dynamics and Dissipation Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pal, Nairita; Gupta, Anupam; Pandit, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    We present an extensive direct numerical simulation of statistically steady, homogeneous, isotropic turbulence in two-dimensional, binary-fluid mixtures with air-drag-induced friction by using the Cahn-Hilliard-Navier-Stokes equations. We choose parameters, e.g., the surface tension, such that we have a droplet of the minority phase moving inside a turbulent background of the majority phase. We characterize the deformation of the droplet and show that it displays multifractal dynamics. The probability distribution functions of the components of the acceleration of the center of mass of the droplet exhibit wide, non-Gaussian tails. Our study reveals that the droplet enhances the energy spectrum $E(k)$ when the wavenumber $k$ is large; this enhancement leads to dissipation reduction.

  10. 5, 755794, 2005 Reduction methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 5, 755­794, 2005 Reduction methods for chemical schemes S. Szopa et al. Title Page Abstract Assessment of the reduction methods used to develop chemical schemes: building of a new chemical scheme for VOC oxidation suited to three-dimensional multiscale HOx-NOx-VOC chemistry simulations S. Szopa 1

  11. Environmental Sustainability Paper Usage / Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;carbon footprint and develop carbon reduction projects around IT and staff/student behaviour change is supported by the Environmental Sustainability Manager and is seen as a key link to the University's Carbon Management Programme (e.g. to produce a forecast of carbon reductions as required by the Carbon Trust

  12. Variable thrust cartridge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taleyarkhan, Rusi P. (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-11-07

    The present invention is a variable thrust cartridge comprising a water-molten aluminum reaction chamber from which a slug is propelled. The cartridge comprises a firing system that initiates a controlled explosion from the reaction chamber. The explosive force provides a thrust to a slug, preferably contained within the cartridge.

  13. Drag force on a sphere moving towards an anisotropic super-hydrophobic plane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evgeny S. Asmolov; Aleksey V. Belyaev; Olga I. Vinogradova

    2011-06-01

    We analyze theoretically a high-speed drainage of liquid films squeezed between a hydrophilic sphere and a textured super-hydrophobic plane, that contains trapped gas bubbles. A super-hydrophobic wall is characterized by parameters $L$ (texture characteristic length), $b_1$ and $b_2$ (local slip lengths at solid and gas areas), and $\\phi_1$ and $\\phi_2$ (fractions of solid and gas areas). Hydrodynamic properties of the plane are fully expressed in terms of the effective slip-length tensor with eigenvalues that depend on texture parameters and $H$ (local separation). The effect of effective slip is predicted to decrease the force as compared with expected for two hydrophilic surfaces and described by the Taylor equation. The presence of additional length scales, $L$, $b_1$ and $b_2$, implies that a film drainage can be much richer than in case of a sphere moving towards a hydrophilic plane. For a large (compared to $L$) gap the reduction of the force is small, and for all textures the force is similar to expected when a sphere is moving towards a smooth hydrophilic plane that is shifted down from the super-hydrophobic wall. The value of this shift is equal to the average of the eigenvalues of the slip-length tensor. By analyzing striped super-hydrophobic surfaces, we then compute the correction to the Taylor equation for an arbitrary gap. We show that at thinner gap the force reduction becomes more pronounced, and that it depends strongly on the fraction of the gas area and local slip lengths. For small separations we derive an exact equation, which relates a correction for effective slip to texture parameters. Our analysis provides a framework for interpreting recent force measurements in the presence of super-hydrophobic surface.

  14. HELIOSPHERIC PROPAGATION OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS: COMPARISON OF NUMERICAL WSA-ENLIL+CONE MODEL AND ANALYTICAL DRAG-BASED MODEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vršnak, B.; Žic, T.; Dumbovi?, M.; Temmer, M.; Möstl, C.; Veronig, A. M.; Taktakishvili, A.; Mays, M. L.; Odstr?il, D. E-mail: tzic@geof.hr E-mail: manuela.temmer@uni-graz.at E-mail: astrid.veronig@uni-graz.at E-mail: m.leila.mays@nasa.gov

    2014-08-01

    Real-time forecasting of the arrival of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) at Earth, based on remote solar observations, is one of the central issues of space-weather research. In this paper, we compare arrival-time predictions calculated applying the numerical ''WSA-ENLIL+Cone model'' and the analytical ''drag-based model'' (DBM). Both models use coronagraphic observations of CMEs as input data, thus providing an early space-weather forecast two to four days before the arrival of the disturbance at the Earth, depending on the CME speed. It is shown that both methods give very similar results if the drag parameter ? = 0.1 is used in DBM in combination with a background solar-wind speed of w = 400 km s{sup –1}. For this combination, the mean value of the difference between arrival times calculated by ENLIL and DBM is ?-bar =0.09±9.0 hr with an average of the absolute-value differences of |?|-bar =7.1 hr. Comparing the observed arrivals (O) with the calculated ones (C) for ENLIL gives O – C = –0.3 ± 16.9 hr and, analogously, O – C = +1.1 ± 19.1 hr for DBM. Applying ? = 0.2 with w = 450 km s{sup –1} in DBM, one finds O – C = –1.7 ± 18.3 hr, with an average of the absolute-value differences of 14.8 hr, which is similar to that for ENLIL, 14.1 hr. Finally, we demonstrate that the prediction accuracy significantly degrades with increasing solar activity.

  15. Variable depth core sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourgeois, P.M.; Reger, R.J.

    1996-02-20

    A variable depth core sampler apparatus is described comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member. 7 figs.

  16. Variable laser attenuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foltyn, S.R.

    1987-05-29

    The disclosure relates to low loss, high power variable attenuators comprising one or more transmissive and/or reflective multilayer dielectric filters. The attenuator is particularly suitable to use with unpolarized lasers such as excimer lasers. Beam attenuation is a function of beam polarization and the angle of incidence between the beam and the filter and is controlled by adjusting the angle of incidence the beam makes to the filter or filters. Filters are selected in accordance with beam wavelength. 9 figs.

  17. Variable depth core sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourgeois, Peter M. (Hamburg, NY); Reger, Robert J. (Grand Island, NY)

    1996-01-01

    A variable depth core sampler apparatus comprising a first circular hole saw member, having longitudinal sections that collapses to form a point and capture a sample, and a second circular hole saw member residing inside said first hole saw member to support the longitudinal sections of said first hole saw member and prevent them from collapsing to form a point. The second hole saw member may be raised and lowered inside said first hole saw member.

  18. Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sylva, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    Economics of Steam Pressure Reduction is a technical paper that addresses the operating and economic advantages associated with the program to lower the steam operating pressure. Evaluation of a testing program will be discussed. The paper...

  19. Drag force on a sphere moving towards an anisotropic super-hydrophobic plane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asmolov, Evgeny S; Vinogradova, Olga I

    2011-01-01

    We analyze theoretically a high-speed drainage of liquid films squeezed between a hydrophilic sphere and a textured super-hydrophobic plane, that contains trapped gas bubbles. A super-hydrophobic wall is characterized by parameters $L$ (texture characteristic length), $b_1$ and $b_2$ (local slip lengths at solid and gas areas), and $\\phi_1$ and $\\phi_2$ (fractions of solid and gas areas). Hydrodynamic properties of the plane are fully expressed in terms of the effective slip-length tensor with eigenvalues that depend on texture parameters and $H$ (local separation). The effect of effective slip is predicted to decrease the force as compared with expected for two hydrophilic surfaces and described by the Taylor equation. The presence of additional length scales, $L$, $b_1$ and $b_2$, implies that a film drainage can be much richer than in case of a sphere moving towards a hydrophilic plane. For a large (compared to $L$) gap the reduction of the force is small, and for all textures the force is similar to expec...

  20. Variable Valve Actuation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Gutterman; A. J. Lasley

    2008-08-31

    Many approaches exist to enable advanced mode, low temperature combustion systems for diesel engines - such as premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI), Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) or other HCCI-like combustion modes. The fuel properties and the quantity, distribution and temperature profile of air, fuel and residual fraction in the cylinder can have a marked effect on the heat release rate and combustion phasing. Figure 1 shows that a systems approach is required for HCCI-like combustion. While the exact requirements remain unclear (and will vary depending on fuel, engine size and application), some form of substantially variable valve actuation is a likely element in such a system. Variable valve actuation, for both intake and exhaust valve events, is a potent tool for controlling the parameters that are critical to HCCI-like combustion and expanding its operational range. Additionally, VVA can be used to optimize the combustion process as well as exhaust temperatures and impact the after treatment system requirements and its associated cost. Delphi Corporation has major manufacturing and product development and applied R&D expertise in the valve train area. Historical R&D experience includes the development of fully variable electro-hydraulic valve train on research engines as well as several generations of mechanical VVA for gasoline systems. This experience has enabled us to evaluate various implementations and determine the strengths and weaknesses of each. While a fully variable electro-hydraulic valve train system might be the 'ideal' solution technically for maximum flexibility in the timing and control of the valve events, its complexity, associated costs, and high power consumption make its implementation on low cost high volume applications unlikely. Conversely, a simple mechanical system might be a low cost solution but not deliver the flexibility required for HCCI operation. After modeling more than 200 variations of the mechanism it was determined that the single cam design did not have enough flexibility to satisfy three critical OEM requirements simultaneously, (maximum valve lift variation, intake valve opening timing and valve closing duration), and a new approach would be necessary. After numerous internal design reviews including several with the OEM a dual cam design was developed that had the flexibility to meet all motion requirements. The second cam added complexity to the mechanism however the cost was offset by the deletion of the electric motor required in the previous design. New patent applications including detailed drawings and potential valve motion profiles were generated and alternate two cam designs were proposed and evaluated for function, cost, reliability and durability. Hardware was designed and built and testing of sample hardware was successfully completed on an engine test stand. The mechanism developed during the course of this investigation can be applied by Original Equipment Manufacturers, (OEM), to their advanced diesel engines with the ultimate goal of reducing emissions and improving fuel economy. The objectives are: (1) Develop an optimal, cost effective, variable valve actuation (VVA) system for advanced low temperature diesel combustion processes. (2) Design and model alternative mechanical approaches and down-select for optimum design. (3) Build and demonstrate a mechanism capable of application on running engines.

  1. Characterizing Test Methods and Emissions Reduction Performance...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Test Methods and Emissions Reduction Performance of In-Use Diesel Retrofit Technologies from the National Clean Diesel Campaign Characterizing Test Methods and Emissions Reduction...

  2. Pollution Prevention - Environmental Impact Reduction Checklists...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pollution Prevention - Environmental Impact Reduction Checklists for NEPA309 Reviewers Pollution Prevention - Environmental Impact Reduction Checklists for NEPA309 Reviewers The...

  3. Plasma-assisted catalytic reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogtlin, G.E.; Merritt, B.T.; Hsiao, M.C.; Wallman, P.H.; Penetrante, B.M.

    1998-01-27

    Non-thermal plasma gas treatment is combined with selective catalytic reduction to enhance NO{sub x} reduction in oxygen-rich vehicle engine exhausts. 8 figs.

  4. Engineering MulticomponentNanocatalystsfor Oxygen Reduction ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Engineering MulticomponentNanocatalystsfor Oxygen Reduction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Engineering MulticomponentNanocatalystsfor Oxygen Reduction Authors: Guo,...

  5. Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues Steam Pressure Reduction: Opportunities and Issues This brief details industrial steam generation systems best practices and...

  6. Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    as Reductants Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by Hydrocarbons Development of Optimal Catalyst Designs and Operating Strategies for Lean NOx...

  7. Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Publications Bifunctional Catalysts for the Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO by Hydrocarbons Selectlive Catalytic Reducution of NOx wilth Diesel-Based Fuels as Reductants...

  8. Microbial reduction of iron ore

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffmann, Michael R. (Pasadena, CA); Arnold, Robert G. (Pasadena, CA); Stephanopoulos, Gregory (Pasadena, CA)

    1989-01-01

    A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry.

  9. Microbial reduction of iron ore

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoffmann, M.R.; Arnold, R.G.; Stephanopoulos, G.

    1989-11-14

    A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry. 11 figs.

  10. Cepheid Variables and their Application to the Cosmological Distance Scale 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffmann, Samantha L

    2013-05-02

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 3. DIFFERENCE IMAGING ANALYSIS OF TYPE IA SUPERNOVA HOST NGC 5584 FOR CEPHEID VARIABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 3.1 Motivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 3.2 Observations and Data Reduction... and type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). This cosmological distance scale started with a geometric distance measurement of Cepheids, such as parallaxes by [5]. The Cepheid Period-Luminosity relation was characterized by [79] for use as a primary distance...

  11. Uranium isotopes fingerprint biotic reduction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stylo, Malgorzata; Neubert, Nadja; Wang, Yuheng; Monga, Nikhil; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Weyer, Stefan; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2015-04-20

    Knowledge of paleo-redox conditions in the Earth’s history provides a window into events that shaped the evolution of life on our planet. The role of microbial activity in paleo-redox processes remains unexplored due to the inability to discriminate biotic from abiotic redox transformations in the rock record. The ability to deconvolute these two processes would provide a means to identify environmental niches in which microbial activity was prevalent at a specific time in paleo-history and to correlate specific biogeochemical events with the corresponding microbial metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that the isotopic signature associated with microbial reduction of hexavalent uranium (U),more »i.e., the accumulation of the heavy isotope in the U(IV) phase, is readily distinguishable from that generated by abiotic uranium reduction in laboratory experiments. Thus, isotope signatures preserved in the geologic record through the reductive precipitation of uranium may provide the sought-after tool to probe for biotic processes. Because uranium is a common element in the Earth’s crust and a wide variety of metabolic groups of microorganisms catalyze the biological reduction of U(VI), this tool is applicable to a multiplicity of geological epochs and terrestrial environments. The findings of this study indicate that biological activity contributed to the formation of many authigenic U deposits, including sandstone U deposits of various ages, as well as modern, Cretaceous, and Archean black shales. In addition, engineered bioremediation activities also exhibit a biotic signature, suggesting that, although multiple pathways may be involved in the reduction, direct enzymatic reduction contributes substantially to the immobilization of uranium.« less

  12. Emissions Reduction Impact of Renewables 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haberl, J. S.; Yazdani, B.; Culp, C.

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory ? 2012 p. 25 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012 NOx REDUCTIONS FROM WIND POWER New 2010 Annual eGrid for NOx Emissions West Zone North Zone Houston Zone South Zone Unit: lbs of NOx/MWh Unit: lbs of NOx/MWh Unit: lbs of NOx/MWh Unit: lbs... of NOx/MWh Unit: lbs of NOx/MWh p. 26 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012 NOx REDUCTIONS FROM WIND POWER New 2010 OSD eGrid for NOx Emissions Unit: Tons of NOx/OSD p. 27 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012 p. 28 Energy Systems Laboratory ? 2012 p...

  13. 2008 world direct reduction statistics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This supplement discusses total direct reduced iron (DRI) production for 2007 and 2008 by process. Total 2008 production by MIDREX(reg sign) direct reduction process plants was over 39.8 million tons. The total of all coal-based processes was 17.6 million tons. Statistics for world DRI production are also given by region for 2007 and 2008 and by year (1970-2009). Capacity utilization for 2008 by process is given. World DRI production by region and by process is given for 1998-2008 and world DRI shipments are given from the 1970s to 2008. A list of world direct reduction plants is included.

  14. Water Use Reduction Case Studies | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Facilities Water Use Reduction Water Use Reduction Case Studies Water Use Reduction Case Studies These case studies offer examples of water use reduction projects implemented...

  15. Solutions and reductions for radiative energy transport in laser-heated plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Broadbridge; N. M. Ivanova

    2014-01-08

    A full symmetry classification is given for models of energy transport in radiant plasma when the mass density is spatially variable and the diffusivity is nonlinear. A systematic search for conservation laws also leads to some potential symmetries, and to an integrable nonlinear model. Classical point symmetries, potential symmetries and nonclassical symmetries are used to effect variable reductions and exact solutions. The simplest time-dependent solution is shown to be stable, and relevant to a closed system.

  16. Carbon Dioxide Reduction Through Urban Forestry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    accounting process; evaluate the cost-effectiveness of urban forestry programs with CO2 reduction measures carbon dioxide (CO2 ) reduction. The calculation of CO2 reduction that can be made with the use climate. With these Guidelines, they can: report current and future CO2 reductions through a standardized

  17. Boattail Plates With Non-Rectangular Geometries For Reducing Aerodynamic Base Drag Of A Bluff Body In Ground Effect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ortega, Jason M. (Pacifica, CA); Sabari, Kambiz (Livermore, CA)

    2006-03-07

    An apparatus for reducing the aerodynamic base drag of a bluff body having a leading end, a trailing end, a top surface, opposing left and right side surfaces, and a base surface at the trailing end substantially normal to a longitudinal centerline of the bluff body, with the base surface joined (1) to the left side surface at a left trailing edge, (2) to the right side surface at a right trailing edge, and (3) to the top surface at a top trailing edge. The apparatus includes left and right vertical boattail plates which are orthogonally attached to the base surface of the bluff body and inwardly offset from the left and right trailing edges, respectively. This produces left and right vertical channels which generate, in a flowstream substantially parallel to the longitudinal centerline, respective left and right vertically-aligned vortical structures, with the left and right vertical boattail plates each having a plate width defined by a rear edge of the plate spaced from the base surface. Each plate also has a peak plate width at a location between top and bottom ends of the plate corresponding to a peak vortex of the respective vertically-aligned vortical structures.

  18. The effect of light truck design variables on top speed, performance, and fuel economy, 1981. Final report Oct 80-Sep 81

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zub, R.W.; Meisner, R.P.

    1981-11-01

    The effect of vehicle weight, rolling resistance, aerodynamic drag, and drive-line configuration on fuel economy and performance for light duty trucks is examined. The effect of lockup and extended gear ratio range is also investigated. The assessment of these vehicle variables on fuel economy and performance is determined by using the Transportation Systems Center's vehicle simulation program, VEHSIM, which predicts fuel economy and performance for vehicle parameter changes. The results indicate fuel economy and performance trends which can be used to project future improvements.

  19. Algorithm FIRE -- Feynman Integral REduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. V. Smirnov

    2008-08-02

    The recently developed algorithm FIRE performs the reduction of Feynman integrals to master integrals. It is based on a number of strategies, such as applying the Laporta algorithm, the s-bases algorithm, region-bases and integrating explicitly over loop momenta when possible. Currently it is being used in complicated three-loop calculations.

  20. Background reduction in cryogenic detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, Daniel A.; /Fermilab

    2005-04-01

    This paper discusses the background reduction and rejection strategy of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment. Recent measurements of background levels from CDMS II at Soudan are presented, along with estimates for future improvements in sensitivity expected for a proposed SuperCDMS experiment at SNOLAB.

  1. tion Program on SIDS Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rau, Don C.

    Continu R ing Ed i u s ca k tion Program on SIDS Reduction CURRICULUM FOR NURSES U.S. DEPARTMENT of Pediatrics, First Candle/SIDS Alliance, and the Association of SIDS and Infant Mortality Programs. FIRST and is conducting live training sessions for this program at nursing conferences across the country. The mission

  2. Warm exo-Zodi from cool exo-Kuiper belts: the significance of P-R drag and the inference of intervening planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kennedy, Grant M

    2015-01-01

    Poynting-Robertson drag has been considered an ineffective mechanism for delivering dust to regions interior to the cool Kuiper belt analogues seen around other Sun-like stars. This conclusion is however based on the very large contrast in dust optical depth between the parent belt and the interior regions that results from the dominance of collisions over drag in systems with detectable cool belts. Here, we show that the levels of habitable zone dust arising from detectable Kuiper belt analogues can be tens to a few hundreds of times greater than the optical depth in the Solar Zodiacal cloud. Dust enhancements of more than a few tens of `zodi' are expected to hinder future Earth-imaging missions, but relatively few undetectable Kuiper belts result in such levels, particularly around stars older than a few Gyr. Thus, current mid to far-IR photometric surveys have already identified most of the 20-25% of nearby stars where P-R drag from outer belts could seriously impact Earth-imaging. The LBTI should easily d...

  3. Reduction

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners * Impactsand engineersAcquisition Office of

  4. A simple hidden variable experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arnold Neumaier

    2007-06-22

    An experiment is described which proves, using single photons only, that the standard hidden variables assumptions (commonly used to derive Bell inequalities) are inconsistent with quantum mechanics. The analysis is very simple and transparent. In particular, it demonstrates that a classical wave model for quantum mechanics is not ruled out by experiments demonstrating the violation of the traditional hidden variable assumptions.

  5. EPA Source Reduction Assistance Grant Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is accepting applications for the Source Reduction Assistance Grant Program to support pollution prevention/source reduction and/or resource conservation projects that reduce or eliminate pollution at the source.

  6. Electricity Generation and Emissions Reduction Decisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electricity Generation and Emissions Reduction Decisions under Policy Uncertainty: A General;1 Electricity Generation and Emissions Reduction Decisions under Policy Uncertainty: A General Equilibrium Analysis Jennifer Morris* , Mort Webster* and John Reilly* Abstract The electric power sector, which

  7. Variable rate CELP speech coding using widely variable parameter updates 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moodie, Myron L.

    1995-01-01

    Code-excited, linear prediction (CELP) has become an accepted method for low bit rate, high quality coding of digital speech. The success of fixed rate CELP schemes has led to increased interest in variable rate techniques ...

  8. SALARY REDUCTION AGREEMENT ______ Original Agreement ______ Amended Agreement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernandez, Eduardo

    SALARY REDUCTION AGREEMENT ______ Original Agreement ______ Amended Agreement By this agreement that it will not apply to salary subsequently earned by giving at least thirty days written notice of the date(ies), by completing an amended Salary Reduction Agreement. The total of the salary reduction

  9. Variable-Width Datapath for On-Chip Network Static Power Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michelogiannakis, George; Shalf, John

    2013-11-13

    With the tight power budgets in modern large-scale chips and the unpredictability of application traffic, on-chip network designers are faced with the dilemma of designing for worst- case bandwidth demands and incurring high static power overheads, or designing for an average traffic pattern and risk degrading performance. This paper proposes adaptive bandwidth networks (ABNs) which divide channels and switches into lanes such that the network provides just the bandwidth necessary in each hop. ABNs also activate input virtual channels (VCs) individually and take advantage of drowsy SRAM cells to eliminate false VC activations. In addition, ABNs readily apply to silicon defect tolerance with just the extra cost for detecting faults. For application traffic, ABNs reduce total power consumption by an average of 45percent with comparable performance compared to single-lane power-gated networks, and 33percent compared to multi-network designs.

  10. Strategies for Mitigating the Reduction in Economic Value of Variable Generation with Increasing Penetration Levels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    and maintenance Pumped hydro storage Photovoltaic Real time Real-time pricing Western Renewable Energy Zone Initiative Western Wind and

  11. Strategies for Mitigating the Reduction in Economic Value of Variable Generation with Increasing Penetration Levels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Renewable Energy (Wind and Hydropower Technologies OfficeRenewable Energy Wind and Water Power Technologies OfficeRenewable Energy (Wind and Water Power Technologies Office

  12. Analysis and optimization of VLSI Clock Distribution Networks for skew variability reduction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajaram, Anand K.

    2004-11-15

    synthesis.The second part of the thesis deals with optimizing a given clock tree to minimize the unwanted skew variations. Non-tree CDNs have been recognized as a promising approach to overcome the variation problem. We propose a novel non-tree CDN obtained...

  13. Strategies for Mitigating the Reduction in Economic Value of Variable Generation with Increasing Penetration Levels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    role mass market demand response could play in contributingmix with short-term demand response and wind penetration.design of traditional demand-response programs and even some

  14. Anyonic statistics with continuous variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jing Zhang; Changde Xie; Kunchi Peng; Peter van Loock

    2008-10-30

    We describe a continuous-variable scheme for simulating the Kitaev lattice model and for detecting statistics of abelian anyons. The corresponding quantum optical implementation is solely based upon Gaussian resource states and Gaussian operations, hence allowing for a highly efficient creation, manipulation, and detection of anyons. This approach extends our understanding of the control and application of anyons and it leads to the possibility for experimental proof-of-principle demonstrations of anyonic statistics using continuous-variable systems.

  15. Reduction of Metal Oxide to Metal using Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Ramana Reddy

    2012-04-12

    A novel pathway for the high efficiency production of metal from metal oxide means of electrolysis in ionic liquids at low temperature was investigated. The main emphasis was to eliminate the use of carbon and high temperature application in the reduction of metal oxides to metals. The emphasis of this research was to produce metals such as Zn, and Pb that are normally produced by the application of very high temperatures. The reduction of zinc oxide to zinc and lead oxide to lead were investigated. This study involved three steps in accomplishing the final goal of reduction of metal oxide to metal using ionic liquids: 1) Dissolution of metal oxide in an ionic liquid, 2) Determination of reduction potential using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and 3) Reduction of the dissolved metal oxide. Ionic liquids provide additional advantage by offering a wide potential range for the deposition. In each and every step of the process, more than one process variable has been examined. Experimental results for electrochemical extraction of Zn from ZnO and Pb from PbO using eutectic mixtures of Urea ((NH2)2CO) and Choline chloride (HOC2H4N(CH3)3+Cl-) or (ChCl) in a molar ratio 2:1, varying voltage and temperatures were carried out. Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy studies of ionic liquids with and without metal oxide additions were conducted. FTIR and induction coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICPS) was used in the characterization of the metal oxide dissolved ionic liquid. Electrochemical experiments were conducted using EG&G potentiostat/galvanostat with three electrode cell systems. Cyclic voltammetry was used in the determination of reduction potentials for the deposition of metals. Chronoamperometric experiments were carried out in the potential range of -0.6V to -1.9V for lead and -1.4V to -1.9V for zinc. The deposits were characterized using XRD and SEM-EDS for phase, morphological and elemental analysis. The results showed that pure metal was deposited on the cathode. Successful extraction of metal from metal oxide dissolved in Urea/ChCl (2:1) was accomplished. The current efficiencies were relatively high in both the metal deposition processes with current efficiency greater than 86% for lead and 95% for zinc. This technology will advance the metal oxide reduction process by increasing the process efficiency and also eliminate the production of CO2 which makes this an environmentally benign technology for metal extraction.

  16. A Comparison Between Model Reduction and Controller Reduction: Application to a PWR Nuclear Planty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gevers, Michel

    A Comparison Between Model Reduction and Controller Reduction: Application to a PWR Nuclear Planty model reduction with controller reduction for the same PWR system. We show that closed-loop techniques to the design of a low-order con- troller for a realistic model of order 42 of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR

  17. Advances in potassium catalyzed NOx reduction by carbon materials: An overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bueno-Lopez, A.; Garcia-Garcia, A.; Illan-Gomez, M.J.; Linares-Solano, A.; de Lecea, C.S.M. [University of Alicante, Alicante (Spain). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry

    2007-06-15

    The research work conducted in our group concerning the study of the potassium-catalyzed NOx reduction by carbon materials is presented. The importance of the different variables affecting the NOx-carbon reactions is discussed, e.g. carbon porosity, coal rank, potassium loading, influence of the binder used, and effect of the gas composition. The catalyst loading is the main feature affecting the selectivity for NOx reduction against O{sub 2} combustion. The NOx reduction without important combustion in O{sub 2} occurs between 350 and 475{sup o}C in the presence of the catalyst. The presence of H{sub 2}O in the gas mixture enhances NOx reduction at low carbon conversions, but as the reaction proceeds, it decreases as the selectivity does. The presence of CO{sub 2} diminishes the activity and selectivity of the catalyst. SO{sub 2} completely inhibits the catalytic activity of potassium due to sulfate formation.

  18. Wave-induced pore pressure and effective stresses in a porous seabed with variable permeability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeng, D.S.; Seymour, B.R.

    1996-12-31

    An evaluation of wave-induced soil response is particularly useful for geotechnical and coastal engineers involved in the design of foundations for offshore structures. To simplify the mathematical procedure, most theories available for the wave/seabed interaction problem have assumed a porous seabed with uniform permeability, despite strong evidence of variable permeability. This paper proposes an analytical solution for the wave induced soil response in a porous seabed with variable permeability. Verification is available through reduction to the simple case of uniform permeability. The numerical results indicate that the effect of variable soil permeability on pore pressure and effective stresses is significant.

  19. Experimental Modeling and Laboratory Measurements of Drag Embedment Anchors Subjected to In-Plane and Out-Of-Plane Loading 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drake, Aaron C.

    2011-10-21

    -eye. The variables modeled were fluke angle settings of 22°, 36° and 50°. The initial towline angle was varied from a minimum of 5° to upwards of 20°. Surface out-of-plane angles of 45° and 90° and embedment loading of 15°, 30° and 45° were examined. Curves...

  20. Which Idling Reduction Technologeis are the Best? | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Idling Reduction Technologeis are the Best? Which Idling Reduction Technologeis are the Best? Benefits due to idling reduction depend on fuel and capital cost of equipment, idling...

  1. Engine Friction Reduction Through Surface Finish and Coatings...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Friction Reduction Through Surface Finish and Coatings Engine Friction Reduction Through Surface Finish and Coatings Opportunities exist for friction reduction in piston rings and...

  2. SCR Technologies for NOx Reduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies for NOx Reduction SCR Technologies for NOx Reduction 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters 2005deerhesser.pdf More...

  3. Greenhouse Gas Reductions: SF6

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Anderson, Diana

    2013-04-19

    Argonne National Laboratory is leading the way in greenhouse gas reductions, particularly with the recapture and recycling of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). SF6 is a gas used in industry as an anti-arcing agent. It is an extremely potent greenhouse gas ? one pound of SF6 is equivalent to 12 tons of carbon dioxide. While the U.S. does not currently regulate SF6 emissions, Argonne is proactively and voluntarily recovering and recycling to reduce SF6 emissions. Argonne saves over 16,000 tons of SF6 from being emitted into the atmosphere each year, and by recycling the gas rather than purchasing it new, we save taxpayers over $208,000 each year.

  4. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O'Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

    2005-01-01

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  5. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O'Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

    2004-10-01

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  6. Continuous reduction of uranium tetrafluoride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeMint, A.L.; Maxey, A.W.

    1993-10-21

    Operation of a pilot-scale system for continuous metallothermic reduction of uranium tetrafluoride (UF{sub 4} or green salt) has been initiated. This activity is in support of the development of a cost- effective process to produce uranium-iron (U-Fe) alloy feed for the Uranium-Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) program. To date, five runs have been made to reduce green salt (UF{sub 4}) with magnesium. During this quarter, three runs were made to perfect the feeding system, examine feed rates, and determine the need for a crust breaker/stirrer. No material was drawn off in any of the runs; both product metal and by-product salt were allowed to accumulate in the reactor.

  7. REDUCTION CAPACITY OF SALTSTONE AND SALTSTONE COMPONENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, K.; Kaplan, D.

    2009-11-30

    The duration that saltstone retains its ability to immobilize some key radionuclides, such as technetium (Tc), plutonium (Pu), and neptunium (Np), depends on its capacity to maintain a low redox status (or low oxidation state). The reduction capacity is a measure of the mass of reductants present in the saltstone; the reductants are the active ingredients that immobilize Tc, Pu, and Np. Once reductants are exhausted, the saltstone loses its ability to immobilize these radionuclides. The reduction capacity values reported here are based on the Ce(IV)/Fe(II) system. The Portland cement (198 {micro}eq/g) and especially the fly ash (299 {micro}eq/g) had a measurable amount of reduction capacity, but the blast furnace slag (820 {micro}eq/g) not surprisingly accounted for most of the reduction capacity. The blast furnace slag contains ferrous iron and sulfides which are strong reducing and precipitating species for a large number of solids. Three saltstone samples containing 45% slag or one sample containing 90% slag had essentially the same reduction capacity as pure slag. There appears to be some critical concentration between 10% and 45% slag in the Saltstone formulation that is needed to create the maximum reduction capacity. Values from this work supported those previously reported, namely that the reduction capacity of SRS saltstone is about 820 {micro}eq/g; this value is recommended for estimating the longevity that the Saltstone Disposal Facility will retain its ability to immobilize radionuclides.

  8. Variable focal length deformable mirror

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Headley, Daniel (Albuquerque, NM); Ramsey, Marc (Albuquerque, NM); Schwarz, Jens (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-06-12

    A variable focal length deformable mirror has an inner ring and an outer ring that simply support and push axially on opposite sides of a mirror plate. The resulting variable clamping force deforms the mirror plate to provide a parabolic mirror shape. The rings are parallel planar sections of a single paraboloid and can provide an on-axis focus, if the rings are circular, or an off-axis focus, if the rings are elliptical. The focal length of the deformable mirror can be varied by changing the variable clamping force. The deformable mirror can generally be used in any application requiring the focusing or defocusing of light, including with both coherent and incoherent light sources.

  9. NOx reduction in gas turbine combustors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sung, Nak Won

    1976-01-01

    NOx REDUCTION IN GAS TURBINE COMBUSTORS A Thesis by Nak Won Sung Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fullfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1976 Major Subject: Mechanical... Engineering NOx REDUCTION IN GAS TURBINE COMBUSTORS A Thesis by Nak Won Sung Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committe (Head of Department) (Member) August 1976 "40308 (Member) 1 1. 1 ABSTRACT NOx Reduction in Gas Turbine...

  10. A Power Reduction Technique Through Dynamic Runtime Algorithm For CMOS VLSI Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kadry, Syed Md. Jaffrey Al-

    2012-01-01

    Standby power reductionPower Reduction in 32 bit FullAdder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power Reduction

  11. Metal Artifact Reduction in Computed Tomography /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karimi, Seemeen

    2014-01-01

    Monoenergetic imaging of dual-energy CT reduces artifactsartifact reduction by dual energy computed tomography usingimage re- construction for dual energy X-ray transmission

  12. Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Publications 2013 Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Final Report Storage - Challenges and Opportunities Hydro-Pac Inc., A High Pressure Company...

  13. Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility ...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Operations Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility (WCRRF) Waste Characterization Glovebox Operations This document was used to determine facts and conditions...

  14. Dimension Reduction of Chemical Process Simulation Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truemper, Klaus

    transportation systems and the majority of electric power plants rely directly or indirectly on the combustion: dimension reduction, subgroup discovery, lazy learner, modeling combustion 1 Introduction Virtually all

  15. National Idling Reduction Network News - December 2009

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ssprogramssblilp.htm Environmental Finance Center, University of Maryland Port of Baltimore Clean Diesel Program (including Locomotive Engine Idle Reduction Grant Sub- Program)...

  16. National Idling Reduction Network News - January 2010

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ogramssblilp.htm Environmental Finance Center, University of Maryland Port of Baltimore Clean Diesel Program (including Locomotive Engine Idle Reduction Grant Sub- Program)...

  17. National Idling Reduction Network News - November 2009

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    essprogramssblilp.htm Environmental Finance Center, University of Maryland Port of Baltimore Clean Diesel Program (including Locomotive Engine Idle Reduction Grant Sub-Program)...

  18. Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility ...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Operations, EP-WCRR-WO-DOP-0233 Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility (WCRRF) Waste Characterization Glovebox Operations, EP-WCRR-WO-DOP-0233 The documents...

  19. National Idling Reduction Network News - April 2011

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    go to http:www.transportation.anl.govenginesidlingtools.html. The idling reduction Web pages of DOE's Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center website have also...

  20. National Idling Reduction Network News - June 2011

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3, 2011 http:www07.grants.govsearchsearch.do? &modeVIEW&oppId101073 San Diego Air Pollution Control District (California) Goods Movement Emission Reduction Program:...

  1. National Idling Reduction Network News - July 2011

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3, 2011 http:www07.grants.govsearchsearch.do ?&modeVIEW&oppId101073 San Diego Air Pollution Control District (California) Goods Movement Emission Reduction Program:...

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office: National Idling Reduction Network...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Past Newsletters The National Idling Reduction Network News is currently sent as an HTML newsletter and issues starting with the May 2014 newsletter can be searched via the...

  3. Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    and References report. The documents were examined and used to develop the final report. Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility (WCRRF)Technical...

  4. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O'Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

    2005-04-01

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) and provided information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 2 efforts also included preparation of a draft topical report entitled ''Deployment Issues Related to Geologic CO{sub 2} Sequestration in the PCOR Partnership Region'', which is nearing completion. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. The video will be completed and aired on Prairie Public Television in the next quarter. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. The addition of the Canadian province of Alberta to the PCOR Partnership region expanded the decision support system (DSS) geographic information system database. Task 5 screened and qualitatively assessed sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  5. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O'Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Lisa S. Botnen

    2005-07-01

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership characterization work is nearing completion, and most remaining efforts are related to finalizing work products. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) has developed a Topical Report entitled ''Deployment Issues Related to Geologic CO{sub 2} Sequestration in the PCOR Partnership Region''. Task 3 (Public Outreach) has developed an informational Public Television program entitled ''Nature in the Balance'', about CO{sub 2} sequestration. The program was completed and aired on Prairie Public Television in this quarter. Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) efforts are nearing completion, and data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation are being incorporated into a series of topical reports. The expansion of the Decision Support System Geographic Information System database has continued with the development of a ''save bookmark'' feature that allows users to save a map from the system easily. A feature that allows users to develop a report that summarizes CO{sub 2} sequestration parameters was also developed. Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options and developing economic estimates for important regional CO{sub 2} sequestration strategies.

  6. NOx reduction methods and apparatuses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkyn, Russell G.; Barlow, Stephan E.; Balmer, M. Lou; Maupin, Gary D.

    2004-10-26

    A NO.sub.x reduction method includes treating a first gas containing NO.sub.x, producing a second gas containing NO.sub.2, reducing a portion of the NO.sub.2 in the second gas to N.sub.2, and producing a third gas containing less NO.sub.x than the first gas, substantially all of the third gas NO.sub.x being NO. The method also includes treating the third gas, producing a fourth gas containing NO.sub.2, reducing a portion of the NO.sub.2 in the fourth gas to N.sub.2, and producing a fifth gas containing less NO.sub.x than the third gas, substantially all of the fifth gas NO.sub.x being NO. Treating the first and/or third gas can include treatment with a plasma. Reducing a portion of the NO.sub.2 in the second and/or fourth gas can include reducing with a catalyst. The method can further include controlling energy consumption of the plasmas independent of each other.

  7. A review of Hurricane Variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nadiga, Balasubramanya T. "Balu"

    A review of Hurricane Variability Balu Nadiga, COSIM, LANL, Jun 2006 #12;#12;Key Sources · Kerry Emanuel · Webster 2005 · Elsner 1996 · NASA, NOAA, NCAR · Others #12;Hurricanes, Typhoons, Tropical (because rotation important) #12;Hurricanes: A few Comments · Acts as a heat engine, but with crucial fluid

  8. Phenotypic variability: underlying mechanisms and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mencuccini, Maurizio

    constraints on growth allocation between tree parts, which affects both primary production (through allocation to transpiring foliage) and net ecosystem production (through allocation to short- lived, easily decomposed fine is reflected in the huge variability in tree form and function across scales. It has been suggested

  9. Operating Reserves and Variable Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.

    2011-08-01

    This report tries to first generalize the requirements of the power system as it relates to the needs of operating reserves. It also includes a survey of operating reserves and how they are managed internationally in system operations today and then how new studies and research are proposing they may be managed in the future with higher penetrations of variable generation.

  10. Regression Models for Demand Reduction based on Cluster Analysis of Load Profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Han, Junqiao; Ghatikar, Girish; Piette, Mary Ann; Asano, Hiroshi; Kiliccote, Sila

    2009-06-28

    This paper provides new regression models for demand reduction of Demand Response programs for the purpose of ex ante evaluation of the programs and screening for recruiting customer enrollment into the programs. The proposed regression models employ load sensitivity to outside air temperature and representative load pattern derived from cluster analysis of customer baseline load as explanatory variables. The proposed models examined their performances from the viewpoint of validity of explanatory variables and fitness of regressions, using actual load profile data of Pacific Gas and Electric Company's commercial and industrial customers who participated in the 2008 Critical Peak Pricing program including Manual and Automated Demand Response.

  11. Blackbox Stencil Interpolation Method For Model Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peraire, Jaime

    Reservoir Simulation Computational intensive Large geological uncertainty Legacy or commercial code-space-parameter principal component analysis [8] K. Willcox et al., Balanced model reduction via the proper orthogonalBlackbox Stencil Interpolation Method For Model Reduction Han Chen Advisors: Qiqi Wang, Karen

  12. Coarse graining and control theory model reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlson, Jean

    Coarse graining and control theory model reduction David E. Reynolds 1 ABSTRACT: We explain a method, inspired by control the- ory model reduction and interpolation theory, that rigorously applicable to nonequilibrium systems. KEY WORDS: coarse graining; control theory; model reduc- tion; Hankel

  13. Coarse graining and control theory model reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlson, Jean

    Coarse graining and control theory model reduction David E. Reynolds 1 ABSTRACT: We explain a method, inspired by control the­ ory model reduction and interpolation theory, that rigorously applicable to nonequilibrium systems. KEY WORDS: coarse graining; control theory; model reduc­ tion; Hankel

  14. NOx Aftertreatment Using Ethanol as Reductant

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The hydrocarbon-SCR that was developed using ethanol and E85 as the reductant showed high NOx reduction, no need for thawing, use of existing infrastructure, and reduced system cost making it a viable alternative to urea-based SCR

  15. Variability Aware Network Utility Maximization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, Vinay

    2011-01-01

    Network Utility Maximization (NUM) provides the key conceptual framework to study resource allocation amongst a collection of users/entities across disciplines as diverse as economics, law and engineering. In network engineering, this framework has been particularly insightful towards understanding how Internet protocols allocate bandwidth, and motivated diverse research on distributed mechanisms to maximize network utility while incorporating new relevant constraints, on energy/power, storage, stability, etc., for systems ranging from communication networks to the smart-grid. However when the available resources and/or users' utilities vary over time, a user's allocations will tend to vary, which in turn may have a detrimental impact on the users' utility or quality of experience. This paper introduces a generalized NUM framework which explicitly incorporates the detrimental impact of temporal variability in a user's allocated rewards. It explicitly incorporates tradeoffs amongst the mean and variability in ...

  16. Variable frequency microwave heating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Johnson, Arvid C. (Lake in the Hills, IL); Thigpen, Larry T. (Angier, NC)

    1999-01-01

    A variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a multi-mode microwave cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave heating apparatus (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) and a high-power microwave amplifier (20) or a high-power microwave oscillator (14). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the high-power microwave oscillator (14) or microwave amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction and amplitude of signals incident upon and reflected from the microwave cavity (34). A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  17. Massive Variability Surveys from Venezuela

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cesar Briceno

    2003-04-03

    At the Venezuela National Astronomical Observatory we are carrying out variability surveys spanning many hundreds of square degrees near the celestial equator, using an 8k x 8k CCD Mosaic Camera optimized for drift-scanning on a 1m Schmidt telescope. Among the initial efforts was a project to obtain the first moderately deep, homogeneous sample of young stars over an area of ~180sqr.deg. encompassing the entire Orion OB1 association, one of the nearest and most active regions of star formation. The results show that variability is a powerful technique to identify pre-main sequence populations, specially in sparse areas devoid of gas and dust. We are currently developing a massive database, equipped with web-based data mining tools, that will make our data and results available to the astronomical community.

  18. Study the kinemages in this file, following along on this worksheet and answering its questions. Use chapter 1 of the Branden & Tooze textbook for background. Practice dragging back & forth slowly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, David

    . Use chapter 1 of the Branden & Tooze textbook for background. Practice dragging back & forth slowly a partial "ball&stick" representation. For a skeletal model, one aspect of the basic physical nature in this representation? ________ Now turn off the spheres and go back to View1. Selected atom labels can be turned on

  19. Study the kinemages in this file, following along on this worksheet and answering its questions. Use chapter 1 of the Branden & Tooze textbook for background. Practice dragging back & forth slowly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, David

    . Use chapter 1 of the Branden & Tooze textbook for background. Practice dragging back & forth slowly model, one aspect of the basic physical nature of the molecule - namely the chemical bonding arrangement you turn the H atoms on & off in this representation? ________ Now turn off the spheres and go back

  20. The thickening effect of interfacial surfactant in the drag-out coating problem This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daripa, Prabir

    The thickening effect of interfacial surfactant in the drag-out coating problem This article has-out coating problem Prabir Daripa1 and G Pa¸sa2 1 Department of Mathematics, Texas A&M University, College.1088/1742-5468/2009/07/L07002 Abstract. In experiments involving dip coating flows on an infinite flat substrate which

  1. REDUCTIONS WITHOUT REGRET: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swegle, J.; Tincher, D.

    2013-09-09

    This is the first of three papers (in addition to an introductory summary) aimed at providing a framework for evaluating future reductions or modifications of the U.S. nuclear force, first by considering previous instances in which nuclear-force capabilities were eliminated; second by looking forward into at least the foreseeable future at the features of global and regional deterrence (recognizing that new weapon systems currently projected will have expected lifetimes stretching beyond our ability to predict the future); and third by providing examples of past or possible undesirable outcomes in the shaping of the future nuclear force, as well as some closing thoughts for the future. This paper examines the circumstances and consequences of the elimination of ? The INF-range Pershing II ballistic missile and Gryphon Ground-Launched Cruise Missile (GLCM), deployed by NATO under a dual-track strategy to counter Soviet intermediate-range missiles while pursuing negotiations to limit or eliminate all of these missiles. ? The Short-Range Attack Missile (SRAM), which was actually a family of missiles including SRAM A, SRAM B (never deployed), and SRAM II and SRAM T, these last two cancelled during an over-budget/behind-schedule development phase as part of the Presidential Nuclear Initiatives of 1991 and 1992. ? The nuclear-armed version of the Tomahawk Land-Attack Cruise Missile (TLAM/N), first limited to shore-based storage by the PNIs, and finally eliminated in deliberations surrounding the 2010 Nuclear Posture Review Report. ? The Missile-X (MX), or Peacekeeper, a heavy MIRVed ICBM, deployed in fixed silos, rather than in an originally proposed mobile mode. Peacekeeper was likely intended as a bargaining chip to facilitate elimination of Russian heavy missiles. The plan failed when START II did not enter into force, and the missiles were eliminated at the end of their intended service life. ? The Small ICBM (SICBM), or Midgetman, a road-mobile, single-warhead missile for which per-unit costs were climbing when it was eliminated under the PNIs. Although there were liabilities associated with each of these systems, there were also unique capabilities; this paper lays out the pros and cons for each. Further, we articulate the capabilities that were eliminated with these systems.

  2. Suspension Hydrogen Reduction of Iron Oxide Concentrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H.Y. Sohn

    2008-03-31

    The objective of the project is to develop a new ironmaking technology based on hydrogen and fine iron oxide concentrates in a suspension reduction process. The ultimate objective of the new technology is to replace the blast furnace and to drastically reduce CO2 emissions in the steel industry. The goals of this phase of development are; the performance of detailed material and energy balances, thermochemical and equilibrium calculations for sulfur and phosphorus impurities, the determination of the complete kinetics of hydrogen reduction and bench-scale testing of the suspension reduction process using a large laboratory flash reactor.

  3. Nox reduction system utilizing pulsed hydrocarbon injection

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA); Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Hydrocarbon co-reductants, such as diesel fuel, are added by pulsed injection to internal combustion engine exhaust to reduce exhaust NO.sub.x to N.sub.2 in the presence of a catalyst. Exhaust NO.sub.x reduction of at least 50% in the emissions is achieved with the addition of less than 5% fuel as a source of the hydrocarbon co-reductants. By means of pulsing the hydrocarbon flow, the amount of pulsed hydrocarbon vapor (itself a pollutant) can be minimized relative to the amount of NO.sub.x species removed.

  4. Variability of modal parameters measured on the Alamosa Canyon Bridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrar, C.R.; Doebling, S.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Cornwell, P.J.; Straser, E.G. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). J.A. Blume Earthquake Engineering Center

    1996-12-31

    A significant amount of work has been reported in technical literature regarding the use of changes in modal parameters to identify the location and extent of damage in structures. Curiously absent, and critically important to the practical implementation of this work, is an accurate characterization of the natural variability of these modal parameters caused by effects other than damage. To examine this issue, a two-lane, seven-span, composite slab-on-girder bridge near the town of Truth or Consequences in southern New Mexico was tested several times over a period of nine months. Environmental effects common to this location that could potentially produce changes in the measured modal properties include changes in temperature, high winds, and changes to the supporting soil medium. In addition to environmental effects, variabilities in modal testing procedures and data reduction can also cause changes in the identified dynamic properties of the structure. In this paper the natural variability of the frequencies and mode shapes of the Alamosa Canyon bridge that result from changes in time of day when the test was performed, amount of traffic, and environmental conditions will be discussed. Because this bridge has not been in active use throughout the testing period, it is assumed that any change in the observed modal properties are the result of the factors listed above rather than deterioration of the structure itself.

  5. Definition of a Random Variable Distribution Functions Properties of Distribution Functions Random Variables and Distribution Functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watkins, Joseph C.

    Definition of a Random Variable Distribution Functions Properties of Distribution Functions Topic 7 Random Variables and Distribution Functions Distribution Functions 1 / 11 #12;Definition of a Random Variable Distribution Functions Properties of Distribution Functions Outline Definition of a Random

  6. Beta Reduction Constraints Manuel Bodirsky Katrin Erk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Beta Reduction Constraints Manuel Bodirsky Katrin Erk Alexander Koller Joachim Niehren Programming Systems Lab Dept. of Computational Linguistics Universit¨at des Saarlandes, Saarbr¨ucken, Germany www.ps.uni-sb.de/~{bodirsky,erk

  7. Energy Efficiency Interest Rate Reduction Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For new and existing home purchases that are rated 6 Star or 5 Star Plus, applicants are eligible for an interest rate reduction for the first $200,000 of the loan amount, with a blended interest...

  8. Sharing the Burden of GHG Reductions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacoby, Henry D.

    The G8 countries propose a goal of a 50% reduction in global emissions by 2050, in an effort that needs to take account of other agreements specifying that developing countries are to be provided with incentives to action ...

  9. Extreme Balance of System Hardware Cost Reduction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On September 1, 2011, DOE announced $42.4 million in funding over three years for the Extreme Balance of System Hardware Cost Reduction (BOS-X) funding opportunity. Part of the SunShot Systems...

  10. National Idling Reduction Network News - April 2013

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EBINAR&utmcampaignCH+Robinson+follo wup+2&utmmediumemail DieselProgress Nickel Supercapacitors as Part of an Idle-Reduction Strategy http:www.dpna- digital.comdpna...

  11. Reduction of metal oxides through mechanochemical processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Froes, Francis H. (Moscow, ID); Eranezhuth, Baburaj G. (Moscow, ID); Senkov, Oleg N. (Moscow, ID)

    2000-01-01

    The low temperature reduction of a metal oxide using mechanochemical processing techniques. The reduction reactions are induced mechanically by milling the reactants. In one embodiment of the invention, titanium oxide TiO.sub.2 is milled with CaH.sub.2 to produce TiH.sub.2. Low temperature heat treating, in the range of 400.degree. C. to 700.degree. C., can be used to remove the hydrogen in the titanium hydride.

  12. The Cloud Computing and Other Variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borjon-Kubota, Martha Estela

    2011-01-01

    12. Fragments in Six 13. Cloud Computing 14. Phase 15.Note 48. Devoured vi Cloud Computing and other Variables I.CALIFORNIA RIVERSIDE Cloud Computing and Other Variables A

  13. Model reduction for slow–fast stochastic systems with metastable behaviour

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruna, Maria, E-mail: bruna@maths.ox.ac.uk [Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom) [Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); Computational Science Laboratory, Microsoft Research, Cambridge CB1 2FB (United Kingdom); Chapman, S. Jonathan [Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom)] [Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom); Smith, Matthew J. [Computational Science Laboratory, Microsoft Research, Cambridge CB1 2FB (United Kingdom)] [Computational Science Laboratory, Microsoft Research, Cambridge CB1 2FB (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-07

    The quasi-steady-state approximation (or stochastic averaging principle) is a useful tool in the study of multiscale stochastic systems, giving a practical method by which to reduce the number of degrees of freedom in a model. The method is extended here to slow–fast systems in which the fast variables exhibit metastable behaviour. The key parameter that determines the form of the reduced model is the ratio of the timescale for the switching of the fast variables between metastable states to the timescale for the evolution of the slow variables. The method is illustrated with two examples: one from biochemistry (a fast-species-mediated chemical switch coupled to a slower varying species), and one from ecology (a predator–prey system). Numerical simulations of each model reduction are compared with those of the full system.

  14. Ota City : characterizing output variability from 553 homes with residential PV systems on a distribution feeder.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Miyamoto, Yusuke; Nakashima, Eichi; Lave, Matthew

    2011-11-01

    This report describes in-depth analysis of photovoltaic (PV) output variability in a high-penetration residential PV installation in the Pal Town neighborhood of Ota City, Japan. Pal Town is a unique test bed of high-penetration PV deployment. A total of 553 homes (approximately 80% of the neighborhood) have grid-connected PV totaling over 2 MW, and all are on a common distribution line. Power output at each house and irradiance at several locations were measured once per second in 2006 and 2007. Analysis of the Ota City data allowed for detailed characterization of distributed PV output variability and a better understanding of how variability scales spatially and temporally. For a highly variable test day, extreme power ramp rates (defined as the 99th percentile) were found to initially decrease with an increase in the number of houses at all timescales, but the reduction became negligible after a certain number of houses. Wavelet analysis resolved the variability reduction due to geographic diversity at various timescales, and the effect of geographic smoothing was found to be much more significant at shorter timescales.

  15. Thermoacoustic and Photoacoustic Tomography with a variable ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plamen Stefanov

    2010-11-09

    ... a joint work with. Jianliang Qian, Gunther Uhlmann and Hongkai Zhao. Plamen Stefanov (Purdue University ). Thermoacoustic Tomography, Variable Speed.

  16. Variable frequency microwave furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.

    1994-06-14

    A variable frequency microwave furnace system designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system includes a microwave signal generator or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator. A second amplifier is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier. The second amplifier outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity. In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply is provided for operation of the second amplifier. A directional coupler is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace. A second power meter detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load. 5 figs.

  17. Variable frequency microwave furnace system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) designed to allow modulation of the frequency of the microwaves introduced into a furnace cavity (34) for testing or other selected applications. The variable frequency microwave furnace system (10) includes a microwave signal generator (12) or microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14) for generating a low-power microwave signal for input to the microwave furnace. A first amplifier (18) may be provided to amplify the magnitude of the signal output from the microwave signal generator (12) or the microwave voltage-controlled oscillator (14). A second amplifier (20) is provided for processing the signal output by the first amplifier (18). The second amplifier (20) outputs the microwave signal input to the furnace cavity (34). In the preferred embodiment, the second amplifier (20) is a traveling-wave tube (TWT). A power supply (22) is provided for operation of the second amplifier (20). A directional coupler (24) is provided for detecting the direction of a signal and further directing the signal depending on the detected direction. A first power meter (30) is provided for measuring the power delivered to the microwave furnace (32). A second power meter (26) detects the magnitude of reflected power. Reflected power is dissipated in the reflected power load (28).

  18. An Improvement of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Development on simultaneous reduction system of NOx and PM from a diesel engine An Improvement of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System New Diesel Emissions...

  19. Functionality of Commercial NOx Storage-Reduction Catalysts and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Functionality of Commercial NOx Storage-Reduction Catalysts and the Development of a Representative Model Functionality of Commercial NOx Storage-Reduction Catalysts and the...

  20. Dynamometer Evaluation of Plasma-Catalyst for Diesel NOx Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Evaluation of Plasma-Catalyst for Diesel NOx Reduction Dynamometer Evaluation of Plasma-Catalyst for Diesel NOx Reduction 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: Ford Motor Company...

  1. Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments with plasma-assisted catalysis: Catalyst development and mechanistic studies Selective reduction of NOx in oxygen rich environments...

  2. Development on simultaneous reduction system of NOx and PM from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on simultaneous reduction system of NOx and PM from a diesel engine Development on simultaneous reduction system of NOx and PM from a diesel engine 2003 DEER Converence...

  3. Enhanced High and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction Materials Enhanced High and Low Temperature Performance of NOx Reduction Materials 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and...

  4. Plasma Assisted Catalysis System for NOx Reduction | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plasma Assisted Catalysis System for NOx Reduction Plasma Assisted Catalysis System for NOx Reduction 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Noxtech, Inc. 2002deerslone.pdf More...

  5. Unique Catalyst System for NOx Reduction in Diesel Exhaust |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Catalyst System for NOx Reduction in Diesel Exhaust Unique Catalyst System for NOx Reduction in Diesel Exhaust Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions...

  6. Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Jump to: navigation, search Name Mexico - Greenhouse Gas Emissions Baselines and Reduction...

  7. Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic Deforestation Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Methodology for Estimating Reductions of...

  8. Idling Emissions Reduction Technology with Low Temperature Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Idling Emissions Reduction Technology with Low Temperature Combustion of DI Biodiesel and PFI n-Butanol Idling Emissions Reduction Technology with Low Temperature Combustion of DI...

  9. National Idling Reduction Network News - April 2011 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    regulations, idling reduction grants, idling reduction general news, summary of state ani-idling regulations, and upcoming meetings and events. apr11networknews.pdf More...

  10. National Idling Reduction Network News - April 2010 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    regulations, idling reduction grants, idling reduction general news, summary of state ani-idling regulations, and upcoming meetings and events. apr10networknews.pdf More...

  11. National Idling Reduction Network News - October 2009 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    regulations, idling reduction grants, idling reduction general news, summary of state ani-idling regulations, and upcoming meetings and events. oct09networknews.pdf More...

  12. National Idling Reduction Network News - December 2009 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    regulations, idling reduction grants, idling reduction general news, summary of state ani-idling regulations, and upcoming meetings and events. dec09networknews.pdf More...

  13. Catalytic reduction system for oxygen-rich exhaust

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vogtlin, G.E.; Merritt, B.T.; Hsiao, M.C.; Wallman, P.H.; Penetrante, B.M.

    1999-04-13

    Non-thermal plasma gas treatment is combined with selective catalytic reduction to enhance NO{sub x} reduction in oxygen-rich vehicle engine exhausts. 8 figs.

  14. Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US Chemicals and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US Chemicals and Pulp and Paper Industries by Applying CHP Technologies, June 1999 Carbon Emissions Reduction Potential in the US...

  15. Creating Mobile Emission Reduction Credits | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Creating Mobile Emission Reduction Credits Creating Mobile Emission Reduction Credits 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: Emission Credit Brokers 2002deersloan.pdf More Documents...

  16. Fuel economy and emissions reduction of HD hybrid truck over...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    economy and emissions reduction of HD hybrid truck over transient driving cycles and interstate roads Fuel economy and emissions reduction of HD hybrid truck over transient driving...

  17. Effects of dissimilatory sulfate reduction on iron (hydr)oxide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Effects of dissimilatory sulfate reduction on iron (hydr)oxide reduction and microbial community development May 14, 2014 Tweet EmailPrint Aquatic and terrestrial environments are...

  18. 2014 Annual Planning Summary for the NNSA Global Threat Reduction...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Global Threat Reduction Initiative Office 2014 Annual Planning Summary for the NNSA Global Threat Reduction Initiative Office The ongoing and projected Environmental Assessments...

  19. An Improvement of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Diesel PM and NOx Reduction System Development on simultaneous reduction system of NOx and PM from a diesel engine Simplification of Diesel Emission Control System Packaging...

  20. CRADA with Cummins on Characterization and Reduction of Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cummins on Characterization and Reduction of Combustion Variations CRADA with Cummins on Characterization and Reduction of Combustion Variations 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells...

  1. 2013 Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Final Report 2013 Hydrogen Compression, Storage, and Dispensing Cost Reduction Workshop Final Report...

  2. Demonstrated Petroleum Reduction Using Oil Bypass Filter Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demonstrated Petroleum Reduction Using Oil Bypass Filter Technology on Heavy and Light Vehicles Demonstrated Petroleum Reduction Using Oil Bypass Filter Technology on Heavy and...

  3. MOLECULAR MECHANISM OF MICROBIAL TECHNETIUM REDUCTION FINAL REPORT...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    TECHNETIUM REDUCTION FINAL REPORT Microbial Tc(VII) reduction is an attractive alternative strategy for bioremediation of technetium-contaminated subsurface environments....

  4. Selective Catalytic Reduction and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reduction and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems Optimization Selective Catalytic Reduction and Exhaust Gas Recirculation Systems Optimization A patented EGR-SCR approach was shown...

  5. EV Everywhere Grand Challenge - Battery Status and Cost Reduction...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Status and Cost Reduction Prospects EV Everywhere Grand Challenge - Battery Status and Cost Reduction Prospects Presentation given by technology manager David Howell at the EV...

  6. Continuous Variable Quantum Information Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulrik L. Andersen; Gerd Leuchs; Christine Silberhorn

    2010-08-20

    Observables of quantum systems can posses either a discrete or a continuous spectrum. For example, upon measurements of the photon number of a light state, discrete outcomes will result whereas measurements of the light's quadrature amplitudes result in continuous outcomes. If one uses the continuous degree of freedom of a quantum system either for encoding, processing or detecting information, one enters the field of continuous variable (CV) quantum information processing. In this paper we review the basic principles of CV quantum information processing with main focus on recent developments in the field. We will be addressing the three main stages of a quantum informational system; the preparation stage where quantum information is encoded into CVs of coherent states and single photon states, the processing stage where CV information is manipulated to carry out a specified protocol and a detection stage where CV information is measured using homodyne detection or photon counting.

  7. Variable delivery, fixed displacement pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommars, Mark F. (Sparland, IL)

    2001-01-01

    A variable delivery, fixed displacement pump comprises a plurality of pistons reciprocated within corresponding cylinders in a cylinder block. The pistons are reciprocated by rotation of a fixed angle swash plate connected to the pistons. The pistons and cylinders cooperate to define a plurality of fluid compression chambers each have a delivery outlet. A vent port is provided from each fluid compression chamber to vent fluid therefrom during at least a portion of the reciprocal stroke of the piston. Each piston and cylinder combination cooperates to close the associated vent port during another portion of the reciprocal stroke so that fluid is then pumped through the associated delivery outlet. The delivery rate of the pump is varied by adjusting the axial position of the swash plate relative to the cylinder block, which varies the duration of the piston stroke during which the vent port is closed.

  8. Continuously variable focal length lens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adams, Bernhard W; Chollet, Matthieu C

    2013-12-17

    A material preferably in crystal form having a low atomic number such as beryllium (Z=4) provides for the focusing of x-rays in a continuously variable manner. The material is provided with plural spaced curvilinear, optically matched slots and/or recesses through which an x-ray beam is directed. The focal length of the material may be decreased or increased by increasing or decreasing, respectively, the number of slots (or recesses) through which the x-ray beam is directed, while fine tuning of the focal length is accomplished by rotation of the material so as to change the path length of the x-ray beam through the aligned cylindrical slows. X-ray analysis of a fixed point in a solid material may be performed by scanning the energy of the x-ray beam while rotating the material to maintain the beam's focal point at a fixed point in the specimen undergoing analysis.

  9. Microlensing induced absorption line variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geraint F. Lewis; Rodrigo A. Ibata

    2002-12-02

    Gravitational microlensing has proven to be a powerful probe of both the structure at the heart of quasars and the mass function of compact objects in foreground lenses. This paper examines the potential of gravitational microlensing in probing the scale of structure in absorbing material within the lensing galaxy. We find that, in this high optical depth regime, significant variations in the equivalent width of absorption features can be induced, although the details of these are dependent upon the scale of structure of the absorbing material. The paper concludes with an examination of the absorption line variability observed in the gravitationally lensed quasar PKS1830-211, demonstrating how this may indicate the presence of small scale structure in the cold molecular gas present within the lensing galaxy.

  10. Variable ratio regenerative braking device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoppie, Lyle O. (Birmingham, MI)

    1981-12-15

    Disclosed is a regenerative braking device (10) for an automotive vehicle. The device includes an energy storage assembly (12) having a plurality of rubber rollers (26, 28) mounted for rotation between an input shaft (36) and an output shaft (42), clutches (38, 46) and brakes (40, 48) associated with each shaft, and a continuously variable transmission (22) connectable to a vehicle drivetrain and to the input and output shafts by the respective clutches. The rubber rollers are torsionally stressed to accumulate energy from the vehicle when the input shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the output shaft is applied, and are torsionally relaxed to deliver energy to the vehicle when the output shaft is clutched to the transmission while the brake on the input shaft is applied. The transmission ratio is varied to control the rate of energy accumulation and delivery for a given rotational speed of the vehicle drivetrain.

  11. Porosity reduction in Monterey Formation, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Compton, J.S.

    1987-05-01

    Porosity and grain density were determined for different lithologies from throughout a 1.2-km thick section of the Monterey and Sisquoc formations in the Santa Maria basin area, California. Porosity reduction by physical and chemical compaction in the predominantly siliceous sediment is controlled largely by the bulk sediment composition and silica phase transformations. Physical compaction of sediment grains from increasing overburden pressure is responsible for most of the gradual porosity reduction with increasing burial depth in opal-A siliceous ooze and diatomite. The porous, incompressible diatom frustule maintains a high porosity relative to clayey and calcareous sediment. Therefore, a positive correlation exists between porosity and biogenic silica (diatom) content of the sediment. During the opal-A to opal-CT silica phase transformation, solution of the porous diatom frustule and precipitation of cryptocrystalline opal-CT results in a porosity reduction that roughly correlates with the biogenic silica content of the sediment. Local porosity reduction occurs in pore-filling dolomite and chert nodules. Dry bulk density as well as porosity reduction tend to increase with sediment depth. Dolomite and organic matter have the most significant influence on the bulk density because of their respective high and low density. The maximum burial depth of the uplifted and eroded section is estimated by overlapping the porosity-depth relation of average deep-sea siliceous ooze.

  12. Direct electrochemical reduction of metal-oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo I. (Downers Grove, IL); Gourishankar, Karthick (Downers Grove, IL)

    2003-01-01

    A method of controlling the direct electrolytic reduction of a metal oxide or mixtures of metal oxides to the corresponding metal or metals. A non-consumable anode and a cathode and a salt electrolyte with a first reference electrode near the non-consumable anode and a second reference electrode near the cathode are used. Oxygen gas is produced and removed from the cell. The anode potential is compared to the first reference electrode to prevent anode dissolution and gas evolution other than oxygen, and the cathode potential is compared to the second reference electrode to prevent production of reductant metal from ions in the electrolyte.

  13. Shedding of Vortex Rings from an Oscillating Sphere in Superfluid He-4 below 0.5 K - The Origin of the Turbulent Drag Force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schoepe, W

    2013-01-01

    The onset of turbulent flow around an oscillating sphere is known to occur at a critical velocity vc ~ sqrt(kappa omega) where kappa is the circulation quantum and omega is the oscillation frequency. However, in a small interval of driving force amplitudes F (or corresponding velocity amplitudes of few percent above vc) the turbulent flow is found to be unstable. The flow pattern switches intermittently between potential flow and turbulence. The lifetimes of the turbulent phases have an exponential distribution and the mean lifetimes tau grow very rapidly with increasing driving force, namely as tau(F) ~ exp [(F/F1)^2]. In this work this experimental result is analyzed in more detail than before, in particular the force F1 is identified. As a result, the turbulent drag force F(v) ~ (v^2 - vc^2) can be ascribed quantitatively to the shedding of vortex rings having the size of the sphere. Moreover, we can infer the average number of vortex rings that are shed per half-period at any given velocity v on the turbu...

  14. Variable path length spectrophotometric probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Rourke, Patrick E. (157 Greenwood Dr., Martiney, GA 30907); McCarty, Jerry E. (104 Recreation Dr., Aiken, SC 29803); Haggard, Ricky A. (1144 Thornwood Drive, North Augusta, SC 29891)

    1992-01-01

    A compact, variable pathlength, fiber optic probe for spectrophotometric measurements of fluids in situ. The probe comprises a probe body with a shaft having a polished end penetrating one side of the probe, a pair of optic fibers, parallel and coterminous, entering the probe opposite the reflecting shaft, and a collimating lens to direct light from one of the fibers to the reflecting surface of the shaft and to direct the reflected light to the second optic fiber. The probe body has an inlet and an outlet port to allow the liquid to enter the probe body and pass between the lens and the reflecting surface of the shaft. A linear stepper motor is connected to the shaft to cause the shaft to advance toward or away from the lens in increments so that absorption measurements can be made at each of the incremental steps. The shaft is sealed to the probe body by a bellows seal to allow freedom of movement of the shaft and yet avoid leakage from the interior of the probe.

  15. Perspectives Regarding Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction in the Northeast

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Presentation: North East States for Coordinated Air Use Management

  16. Eccentric crank variable compression ratio mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Keith Edward (Kobe, JP); Moser, William Elliott (Peoria, IL); Roozenboom, Stephan Donald (Washington, IL); Knox, Kevin Jay (Peoria, IL)

    2008-05-13

    A variable compression ratio mechanism for an internal combustion engine that has an engine block and a crankshaft is disclosed. The variable compression ratio mechanism has a plurality of eccentric disks configured to support the crankshaft. Each of the plurality of eccentric disks has at least one cylindrical portion annularly surrounded by the engine block. The variable compression ratio mechanism also has at least one actuator configured to rotate the plurality of eccentric disks.

  17. On the spatial decorrelation of stochastic solar resource variability at long timescales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez, Marc J. R.; Fthenakis, Vasilis M.

    2015-05-16

    Understanding the spatial and temporal characteristics of solar resource variability is important because it helps inform the discussion surrounding the merits of geographic dispersion and subsequent electrical interconnection of photovoltaics as part of a portfolio of future solutions for coping with this variability. The unpredictable resource variability arising from the stochastic nature of meteorological phenomena (from the passage of clouds to the movement of weather systems) is of most concern for achieving high PV penetration because unlike the passage of seasons or the shift from day to night, the uncertainty makes planning a challenge. A suitable proxy for unpredictable solar resource variability at any given location is the series of variations in the clearness index from one time period to the next because the clearness index is largely independent of the predictable influence of solar geometry. At timescales shorter than one day, the correlation between these variations in clearness index at pairs of distinct geographic locations decreases with spatial extent and with timescale. As the aggregate variability across N decorrelated locations decreases as 1/?N, identifying the distance required to achieve this decorrelation is critical to quantifying the expected reduction in variability from geographic dispersion.

  18. On the spatial decorrelation of stochastic solar resource variability at long timescales

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Perez, Marc J. R.; Fthenakis, Vasilis M.

    2015-05-16

    Understanding the spatial and temporal characteristics of solar resource variability is important because it helps inform the discussion surrounding the merits of geographic dispersion and subsequent electrical interconnection of photovoltaics as part of a portfolio of future solutions for coping with this variability. The unpredictable resource variability arising from the stochastic nature of meteorological phenomena (from the passage of clouds to the movement of weather systems) is of most concern for achieving high PV penetration because unlike the passage of seasons or the shift from day to night, the uncertainty makes planning a challenge. A suitable proxy for unpredictable solarmore »resource variability at any given location is the series of variations in the clearness index from one time period to the next because the clearness index is largely independent of the predictable influence of solar geometry. At timescales shorter than one day, the correlation between these variations in clearness index at pairs of distinct geographic locations decreases with spatial extent and with timescale. As the aggregate variability across N decorrelated locations decreases as 1/?N, identifying the distance required to achieve this decorrelation is critical to quantifying the expected reduction in variability from geographic dispersion.« less

  19. "Ecosystem Services, Biodiversity and Poverty Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of plant, animal and micro-organism communities and the nonliving environment interacting as a functional and the nonliving environment interacting as a functional unit." "Ecosystem services are the benefits people capture for the foreseeable future. #12;John Beddington's "Perfect Storm" Population Increase Poverty Reduction Food Security

  20. Cost reduction ideas for LNG terminals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habibullah, A.; Weldin, F.

    1999-07-01

    LNG projects are highly capital intensive and this has long been regarded as being inevitable. However, recent developments are forcing the LNG industry to aggressively seek cost reductions. For example, the gas-to-liquids (GTL) process is increasingly seen as a potential rival technology and is often being touted as an economically superior alternative fuel source. Another strong driving force behind needed cost reductions is the low crude oil price which seems to have settled in the $10--13/bb. range. LNG is well positioned as the fuel of choice for environmentally friendly new power projects. As a result of the projected demand for power especially in the Pacific Rim countries several LNG terminal projects are under consideration. Such projects will require a new generation of LNG terminal designs emphasizing low cost, small scale and safe and fully integrated designs from LNG supply to power generation. The integration of the LNG terminal with the combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power plant offers substantial cost savings opportunities for both plants. Various cost reduction strategies and their impact on the terminal design are discussed including cost reduction due to integration.

  1. Can fermions save large N dimensional reduction?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulo F. Bedaque; Michael I. Buchoff; Aleksey Cherman; Roxanne P. Springer

    2009-08-21

    This paper explores whether Eguchi-Kawai reduction for gauge theories with adjoint fermions is valid. The Eguchi-Kawai reduction relates gauge theories in different numbers of dimensions in the large $N$ limit provided that certain conditions are met. In principle, this relation opens up the possibility of learning about the dynamics of 4D gauge theories through techniques only available in lower dimensions. Dimensional reduction can be understood as a special case of large $N$ equivalence between theories related by an orbifold projection. In this work, we focus on the simplest case of dimensional reduction, relating a 4D gauge theory to a 3D gauge theory via an orbifold projection. A necessary condition for the large N equivalence between the 4D and 3D theories to hold is that certain discrete symmetries in the two theories must not be broken spontaneously. In pure 4D Yang-Mills theory, these symmetries break spontaneously as the size of one of the spacetime dimensions shrinks. An analysis of the effect of adjoint fermions on the relevant symmetries of the 4D theory shows that the fermions help stabilize the symmetries. We consider the same problem from the point of view of the lower dimensional 3D theory and find that, surprisingly, adjoint fermions are not generally enough to stabilize the necessary symmetries of the 3D theory. In fact, a rich phase diagram arises, with a complicated pattern of symmetry breaking. We discuss the possible causes and consequences of this finding.

  2. Harm reduction: lessons learned from tobacco control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , such as the psychoactive effects of the sub- stance. How do harm reduction efforts fare when exposed to the harsh realities, it is possible (often unconsciously) to modify subsequent smoking behaviour to titrate the amount of nicotine be modified, both consciously and unconsciously, to achieve this. Therefore, offer- ing lower strength drugs

  3. Water Reduction Methods for Strawberry Irrigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    Water Reduction Methods for Strawberry Irrigation Thomas Moore Raya Nedelcheva Joseph Vu Tony Mai #12;Abstract We took a look at the irrigation methods of strawberry farmers in the Pajaro Valley and ways that they could reduce the amount of water that it takes to produce their strawberries. In many

  4. Ozone Reductions using Residential Building Envelopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program, of the U.S. Department of Energy Residential Building Envelopes Prepared For: California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy ResearchOzone Reductions using Residential Building Envelopes I.S. Walker, M.H. Sherman and W.W. Nazaroff

  5. University of Alberta MULTISPECTRAL REDUCTION OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowman,John C.

    University of Alberta MULTISPECTRAL REDUCTION OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL TURBULENCE by Malcolm Roberts Sciences c Malcolm Roberts Fall 2011 Edmonton, Alberta Permission is hereby granted to the University of Alberta Libraries to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private

  6. Timelike reduction and T-duality 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scuro, Sante Rodolfo

    1999-01-01

    expressions for the Killing sailors in Anti-de Sitter spacetime of odd dimension with respect to the field reparametrization in the bosonic sector. In addition, we perform Kaluza-Klein reduction along the time direction of D = 10 type IIB theory to D = 9. Then...

  7. BARNARD COLLEGE SALARY REDUCTION AGREEMENT TWU & 2110

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BARNARD COLLEGE SALARY REDUCTION AGREEMENT ­ TWU & 2110 By THIS AGREEMENT made between of this Agreement), the employee's basic monthly salary will be reduced by the amount indicated below, allocated so that it will not apply to salary subsequently earned. Standard SRA Deduction for 2015: The Amount

  8. BARNARD COLLEGE SALARY REDUCTION AGREEMENT Faculty & Administrators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BARNARD COLLEGE SALARY REDUCTION AGREEMENT ­ Faculty & Administrators By THIS AGREEMENT made is subsequent to the execution of this Agreement), the employee's basic monthly salary will be reduced party may terminate this Agreement as of the end of the month so that it will not apply to salary

  9. Generalized Elitzur's Theorem and Dimensional Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cristian D. Batista; Zohar Nussinov

    2005-03-10

    We extend Elitzur's theorem to systems with symmetries intermediate between global and local. In general, our theorem formalizes the idea of {\\it dimensional reduction}. We apply the results of this generalization to many systems that are of current interest. These include liquid crystalline phases of Quantum Hall systems, orbital systems, geometrically frustrated spin lattices, Bose metals, and models of superconducting arrays.

  10. Waste reduction through consumer education. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, E.Z.

    1996-05-01

    The Waste Reduction through Consumer Education research project was conducted to determine how environmental educational strategies influence purchasing behavior in the supermarket. The objectives were to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate consumer education strategies for waste reduction. The amount of waste generated by packaging size and form, with an adjustment for local recyclability of waste, was determined for 14 product categories identified as having more waste generating and less waste generating product choices (a total of 484 products). Using supermarket scan data and shopper identification numbers, the research tracked the purchases of shoppers in groups receiving different education treatments for 9 months. Statistical tests applied to the purchase data assessed patterns of change between the groups by treatment period. Analysis of the data revealed few meaningful statistical differences between study groups or changes in behavior over time. Findings suggest that broad brush consumer education about waste reduction is not effective in changing purchasing behaviors in the short term. However, it may help create a general awareness of the issues surrounding excess packaging and consumer responsibility. The study concludes that the answer to waste reduction in the future may be a combination of voluntary initiatives by manufacturers and retailers, governmental intervention, and better-informed consumers.

  11. Reduction of Economic Inequality in Combinatorial Domains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koolen, Marijn

    for assessing the fairness of a mechanism is the level of economic equality it can ensure. If it producesReduction of Economic Inequality in Combinatorial Domains Ulle Endriss Institute for Logic economic inequality, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini index, are widely used in the social sciences

  12. Variable-Period Undulators For Synchrotron Radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shenoy, Gopal (Naperville, IL); Lewellen, John (Plainfield, IL); Shu, Deming (Darien, IL); Vinokurov, Nikolai (Novosibirsk, RU)

    2005-02-22

    A new and improved undulator design is provided that enables a variable period length for the production of synchrotron radiation from both medium-energy and high-energy storage rings. The variable period length is achieved using a staggered array of pole pieces made up of high permeability material, permanent magnet material, or an electromagnetic structure. The pole pieces are separated by a variable width space. The sum of the variable width space and the pole width would therefore define the period of the undulator. Features and advantages of the invention include broad photon energy tunability, constant power operation and constant brilliance operation.

  13. Plasma-assisted catalytic storage reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A two-stage method for NO.sub.x reduction in an oxygen-rich engine exhaust comprises a plasma oxidative stage and a storage reduction stage. The first stage employs a non-thermal plasma treatment of NO.sub.x gases in an oxygen-rich exhaust and is intended to convert NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons. The second stage employs a lean NO.sub.x trap to convert such NO.sub.2 to environmentally benign gases that include N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O. By preconverting NO to NO.sub.2 in the first stage with a plasma, the efficiency of the second stage for NO.sub.x reduction is enhanced. For example, an internal combustion engine exhaust is connected by a pipe to a first chamber in which a non-thermal plasma converts NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons, such as propene. A flow of such hydrocarbons (C.sub.x H.sub.y) is input from usually a second pipe into at least a portion of the first chamber. The NO.sub.2 from the plasma treatment proceeds to a storage reduction catalyst (lean NO.sub.x trap) that converts NO.sub.2 to N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O, and includes a nitrate-forming catalytic site. The hydrocarbons and NO.sub.x are simultaneously reduced while passing through the lean-NO.sub.x trap catalyst. The method allows for enhanced NO.sub.x reduction in vehicular engine exhausts, particularly those having relatively high sulfur contents.

  14. Plasma-assisted catalytic storage reduction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Penetrante, Bernardino M. (San Ramon, CA); Vogtlin, George E. (Fremont, CA); Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Brusasco, Raymond M. (Livermore, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A two-stage method for NO.sub.x reduction in an oxygen-rich engine exhaust comprises a plasma oxidative stage and a storage reduction stage. The first stage employs a non-thermal plasma treatment of NO.sub.x gases in an oxygen-rich exhaust and is intended to convert NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons. The second stage employs a lean NO.sub.x trap to convert such NO.sub.2 to environmentally benign gases that include N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O. By preconverting NO to NO.sub.2 in the first stage with a plasma, the efficiency of the second stage for NO.sub.x reduction is enhanced. For example, an internal combustion engine exhaust is connected by a pipe to a first chamber in which a non-thermal plasma converts NO to NO.sub.2 in the presence of O.sub.2 and hydrocarbons, such as propene. A flow of such hydrocarbons (C.sub.x H.sub.y) is input from usually a second pipe into at least a portion of the first chamber. The NO.sub.2 from the plasma treatment proceeds to a storage reduction catalyst (lean NO.sub.x trap) that converts NO.sub.2 to N.sub.2, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 O, and includes a nitrate-forming catalytic site. The hydrocarbons and NO.sub.x are simultaneously reduced while passing through the lean-NO.sub.x trap catalyst. The method allows for enhanced NO.sub.x reduction in vehicular engine exhausts, particularly those having relatively high sulfur contents.

  15. Plasma assisted NO{sub x} reduction in existing coal combustors. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yao, S.C.; Russell, T.

    1991-12-31

    The feasibility of NO{sub x} reduction using plasma injection has been investigated. Both numerical and experimental methods were used in the development of this new NO{sub x}reduction technique. The numerical analysis was used to investigate various flow mechanisms in order to provide fundamental support in the development of this new NO{sub x} control technique. The calculations using this approach can give the information of the particle trajectories and distributions which are important for the design of the in-flame plasma injection configuration. The group model also established the necessary ground for further complete modeling of the whole process including the chemical kinetics. Numerical calculations were also performed for a turbulent gas flow field with variable properties. The results provided fundamental understanding of mixing effects encountered in the experiments at Pittsburgh Energy and Technology Center. A small scale experiment facility was designed and constructed at the heterogeneous combustion laboratory at Carnegie Mellon University. A series of tests were conducted in this setup to investigate the potential of the ammonia plasma injection for NO{sub x} reduction and parametric effects of this process. The experimental results are very promising. About 86% NO{sub x} reduction was achieved using ammonia radicals produced by argon plasma within the present test range. The total percentage of NO{sub x} reduction increases when ammonia flowrate, argon flow rate and initial NO concentration increase and when plasma power and the amount of excess air in the combustor decrease. A combined transport and reaction model was postulated for understanding the mechanism of NO{sub x} reduction using the plasma injection.

  16. Envera Variable Compression Ratio Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Mendler

    2011-03-15

    Aggressive engine downsizing, variable compression ratio and use of the Atkinson cycle are being combined to improve fuel economy by up to 40 percent relative to port fuel injected gasoline engines, while maintaining full engine power. Approach Engine downsizing is viewed by US and foreign automobile manufacturers as one of the best options for improving fuel economy. While this strategy has already demonstrated a degree of success, downsizing and fuel economy gains are currently limited. With new variable compression ratio technology however, the degree of engine downsizing and fuel economy improvement can be greatly increased. A small variable compression ratio (VCR) engine has the potential to return significantly higher vehicle fuel economy while also providing high power. Affordability and potential for near term commercialization are key attributes of the Envera VCR engine. VCR Technology To meet torque and power requirements, a smaller engine needs to do more work per stroke. This is typically accomplished by boosting the incoming charge with either a turbo or supercharger so that more energy is present in the cylinder per stroke to do the work. With current production engines the degree of engine boosting (which correlates to downsizing) is limited by detonation (combustion knock) at high boost levels. Additionally, the turbo or supercharger needs to be responsive and efficient while providing the needed boost. VCR technology eliminates the limitation of engine knock at high load levels by reducing compression ratio to {approx}9:1 (or whatever level is appropriate) when high boost pressures are needed. By reducing the compression ratio during high load demand periods there is increased volume in the cylinder at top dead center (TDC) which allows more charge (or energy) to be present in the cylinder without increasing the peak pressure. Cylinder pressure is thus kept below the level at which the engine would begin to knock. When loads on the engine are low the compression ratio can be raised (to as much as 18:1) providing high engine efficiency. It is important to recognize that for a well designed VCR engine cylinder pressure does not need to be higher than found in current production turbocharged engines. As such, there is no need for a stronger crankcase, bearings and other load bearing parts within the VCR engine. The Envera VCR mechanism uses an eccentric carrier approach to adjust engine compression ratio. The crankshaft main bearings are mounted in this eccentric carrier or 'crankshaft cradle' and pivoting the eccentric carrier 30 degrees adjusts compression ratio from 9:1 to 18:1. The eccentric carrier is made up of a casting that provides rigid support for the main bearings, and removable upper bearing caps. Oil feed to the main bearings transits through the bearing cap fastener sockets. The eccentric carrier design was chosen for its low cost and rigid support of the main bearings. A control shaft and connecting links are used to pivot the eccentric carrier. The control shaft mechanism features compression ratio lock-up at minimum and maximum compression ratio settings. The control shaft method of pivoting the eccentric carrier was selected due to its lock-up capability. The control shaft can be rotated by a hydraulic actuator or an electric motor. The engine shown in Figures 3 and 4 has a hydraulic actuator that was developed under the current program. In-line 4-cylinder engines are significantly less expensive than V engines because an entire cylinder head can be eliminated. The cost savings from eliminating cylinders and an entire cylinder head will notably offset the added cost of the VCR and supercharging. Replacing V6 and V8 engines with in-line VCR 4-cylinder engines will provide high fuel economy at low cost. Numerous enabling technologies exist which have the potential to increase engine efficiency. The greatest efficiency gains are realized when the right combination of advanced and new technologies are packaged together to provide the greatest gains at the least cost. Aggressive engine downsiz

  17. The Taiwanese-American occultation survey project stellar variability. III. Detection of 58 new variable stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishioka, R.; Wang, S.-Y.; Zhang, Z.-W.; Lehner, M. J.; Cook, K. H.; King, S.-K.; Lee, T.; Marshall, S. L.; Schwamb, M. E.; Wang, J.-H.; Wen, C.-Y.; Alcock, C.; Protopapas, P.; Axelrod, T.; Bianco, F. B.; Byun, Y.-I.; Chen, W. P.; Ngeow, C.-C.; Kim, D.-W.; Rice, J. A.

    2014-04-01

    The Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey project is designed for the detection of stellar occultations by small-size Kuiper Belt Objects, and it has monitored selected fields along the ecliptic plane by using four telescopes with a 3 deg{sup 2} field of view on the sky since 2005. We have analyzed data accumulated during 2005-2012 to detect variable stars. Sixteen fields with observations of more than 100 epochs were examined. We recovered 85 variables among a total of 158 known variable stars in these 16 fields. Most of the unrecovered variables are located in the fields observed less frequently. We also detected 58 variable stars which are not listed in the International Variable Star Index of the American Association of Variable Star Observers. These variable stars are classified as 3 RR Lyrae, 4 Cepheid, 1 ? Scuti, 5 Mira, 15 semi-regular, and 27 eclipsing binaries based on the periodicity and the profile of the light curves.

  18. Search for Variable Stars in the WTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pinfield, David J.

    Search for Variable Stars in the WTS Database Hristo Stoev Laboratory of Stellar Astrophysics of January 2010 at LAEX in Madrid, Spain #12;WTS Survey Release 0.1 Search for variable stars in the FOV Narrow down my selection only to one of the detectors ­ 15000 light curves #12;WTS Survey Release 0

  19. Variable orifice using an iris shutter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beeman, Raymond (El Cerrito, CA); Brajkovich, Steven J. (Fremont, CA)

    1978-01-01

    A variable orifice forming mechanism utilizing an iris shutter arrangement adapted to control gas flow, conductance in vacuum systems, as a heat shield for furnace windows, as a beam shutter in sputtering operations, and in any other application requiring periodic or continuously-variable control of material, gas, or fluid flow.

  20. Boosting Search with Variable Elimination. ? Javier Larrosa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dechter, Rina

    Boosting Search with Variable Elimination. ? Javier Larrosa Dep. Llenguatges i Sistemes Inform#12ElimSearchS;k, a hybrid meta- algorithm that combines search and variable elimination. The param- eter S names from the constraint graph. We also provide experimental evidence that the hybrid algorithm can

  1. Boosting Search with Variable Elimination. ? Javier Larrosa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dechter, Rina

    Boosting Search with Variable Elimination. ? Javier Larrosa Dep. Llenguatges i Sistemes Inform of variables, reduces the search tree size. In this paper we introduce VarElimSearch(S;k), a hybrid meta the constraint graph. We also provide experimental evidence that the hybrid algorithm can outperform state

  2. Solar Dynamics Observatory/ Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Solar Dynamics Observatory/ EVE Extreme Ultraviolet Variability Experiment Frequently Asked and model solar extreme ultraviolet irradiance variations due to solar flares, solar rotation, and solar and structure of the Sun. What is solar variability? Solar radiation varies on all time scales ranging from

  3. Property Variability Stochastic Multiscale Analysis and Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zabaras, Nicholas J.

    Property Variability Stochastic Multiscale Analysis and Design of Engine Disks N. Zabaras, B. Wen in nickel-based superalloy turbine disks. Issues: Property variability of turbine disk due to high-dimensional multiscale sources Rolls-Royce RB211- 535 turbofan Nickel-base superalloy turbine disk Superalloy

  4. Novel reactions of a neutral organic reductant : reductive coupling and nanoparticle synthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mork, Anna Jolene

    2012-01-01

    A recently developed bis-pyridinylidene neutral organic electron donor captured our interest as a potential source of new chemistries for reductive coupling and the synthesis of group IV nanoparticles. This super electron ...

  5. WIND VARIABILITY IN BZ CAMELOPARDALIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honeycutt, R. K.; Kafka, S.; Robertson, J. W. E-mail: skafka@dtm.ciw.edu

    2013-02-01

    Sequences of spectra of the nova-like cataclysmic variable (CV) BZ Cam were acquired on nine nights in 2005-2006 in order to study the time development of episodes of wind activity known to occur frequently in this star. We confirm the results of Ringwald and Naylor that the P-Cygni absorption components of the lines mostly evolve from higher expansion velocity to lower velocity as an episode progresses. We also commonly find blueshifted emission components in the H{alpha} line profile, whose velocities and durations strongly suggest that they are also due to the wind. Curiously, Ringwald and Naylor reported common occurrences of redshifted H{alpha} emission components in their BZ Cam spectra. We have attributed these emission components in H{alpha} to occasions when gas concentrations in the bipolar wind (both front side and back side) become manifested as emission lines as they move beyond the disk's outer edge. We also suggest, based on changes in the P-Cygni profiles during an episode, that the progression from larger to smaller expansion velocities is due to the higher velocity portions of a wind concentration moving beyond the edge of the continuum light of the disk first, leaving a net redward shift of the remaining absorption profile. We derive a new orbital ephemeris for BZ Cam, using the radial velocity of the core of the He I {lambda}5876 line, finding P = 0.15353(4). Using this period, the wind episodes in BZ Cam are found to be concentrated near the inferior conjunction of the emission line source. This result helps confirm that the winds in nova-like CVs are often phase dependent, in spite of the puzzling implication that such winds lack axisymmetry. We argue that the radiation-driven wind in BZ Cam receives an initial boost by acting on gas that has been lifted above the disk by the interaction of the accretion stream with the disk, thereby imposing flickering timescales onto the wind events, as well as leading to an orbital modulation of the wind due to the non-axisymmetric nature of the stream/disk interaction. Simultaneous photometry and spectroscopy were acquired on three nights in order to test the possible connection between flickering continuum light and the strength of the front-side wind. We found strong agreement on one night, some agreement on another, and no agreement on the third. We suggest that some flickering events lead to only back-side winds which will not have associated P-Cygni profiles.

  6. GAS KINEMATICS AND THE DRAGGED MAGNETIC FIELD IN THE HIGH-MASS MOLECULAR OUTFLOW SOURCE G192.16-3.84: AN SMA VIEW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Hauyu Baobab; Ho, Paul T. P. [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Qiu Keping [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Zhang Qizhou [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Girart, Josep M. [Institut de Ciencies de l'Espai, (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, C5p 2, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain)

    2013-07-01

    We report Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations of polarized 0.88 mm thermal dust emission and various molecular line transitions toward the early B-type (L{sub *} {approx} 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} L{sub Sun }) star-forming region G192.16-3.84 (IRAS 05553+1631). The peak of the continuum Stokes-I emission coincides with a hot rotating disk/envelope (SO{sub 2} rotational temperature T{sub rot}{sup SO{sub 2}}{approx}84{sup +18}{sub -13} K), with a north-south velocity gradient. Joint analysis of the rotation curve traced by HCO{sup +} 4-3 and SO{sub 2} 19{sub 1,19}-18{sub 0,18} suggests that the dense molecular gas is undergoing a spinning-up rotation, marginally bound by the gravitational force of an enclosed mass M{sub *+gas+dust} {approx} 11.2-25.2 M{sub Sun }. Perpendicular to the rotational plane, a {approx}>100/cos (i) km s{sup -1} (i {approx} 63 Degree-Sign ) high velocity molecular jet and a {approx}15-20 km s{sup -1} expanding biconical cavity were revealed in the CO 3-2 emission. The polarization percentage of the 0.88 mm continuum emission decreases toward the central rotating disk/envelope. The polarization angle in the inner {approx}2'' (0.015 pc) disk/envelope is perpendicular to the plane of the rotation. The magnetic field lines, which are predominantly in the toroidal direction along the disk plane, are likely to be dragged by the gravitationally accelerated rotation.

  7. Definitive design report: Design report project W-025, Radioactive Mixed Waste (RMW) Land Disposal Facility NON-DRAG-OFF. Revision 1, Volume 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roscha, V.

    1994-11-29

    The purpose of this report is to describe the definitive design of the Radioactive Mixed Waste (RMW) Non-Drag-Off disposal facility, Project W-025. This report presents a n of the major landfill design features and a discussion of how each of the criteria is addressed in the design. The appendices include laboratory test results, design drawings, and individual analyses that were conducted in support of the design. Revision 1 of this document incorporates design changes resulting from an increase in the required operating life of the W-025 landfill from 2 to 20 years. The rationale for these design changes is described in Golder Associates Inc. 1991a. These changes include (1) adding a 1.5-foot-thick layer of compacted admix directory-under the primary FML on the floor of the landfill to mitigate the effects of possible stress cracking in the primary flexible membrane liner (FML), and (2) increasing the operations layer thickness from two to three feet over the entire landfill area, to provide additional protection for the secondary admix layer against mechanical damage and the effects of freezing and desiccation. The design of the W-025 Landfill has also been modified in response to the results of the EPA Method 9090 chemical compatibility testing program (Golder Associates Inc. 1991b and 1991c), which was completed after the original design was prepared. This program consisted of testing geosynthetic materials and soil/bentonite admix with synthetic leachate having the composition expected during the life of the W-025 Landfill., The results of this program indicated that the polyester geotextile originally specified for the landfill might be susceptible to deterioration. On this basis, polypropylene geotextiles were substituted as a more chemically-resistant alternative. In addition, the percentage of bentonite in the admix was increased to provide sufficiently low permeability to the expected leachate.

  8. NSIDC Data Center: Energy Reduction Strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-05-01

    The Green Data Center Project was a successful effort to significantly reduce the energy use of the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Through a full retrofit of a traditional air conditioning system, the cooling energy required to meet the data center’s constant load has been reduced by over 70% for summer months and over 90% for cooler winter months. This significant reduction is achievable through the use of airside economization and a new indirect evaporative cooling cycle. One of the goals of this project was to create awareness of simple and effective energy reduction strategies for data centers. Although this particular project was able to maximize the positive effects of airside economization and indirect evaporative cooling because of its geographic location, similar strategies may also be relevant for many other sites and data centers in the United States.

  9. Modelling Hydrogen Reduction and Hydrodeoxygenation of Oxygenates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Y.; Xu, Q.; Cheah, S.

    2013-01-01

    Based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) simulations, we have studied the reduction of nickel oxide and biomass derived oxygenates (catechol, guaiacol, etc.) in hydrogen. Both the kinetic barrier and thermodynamic favorability are calculated with respect to the modeled reaction pathways. In early-stage reduction of the NiO(100) surface by hydrogen, the pull-off of the surface oxygen atom and simultaneous activation of the nearby Ni atoms coordinately dissociate the hydrogen molecules so that a water molecule can be formed, leaving an oxygen vacancy on the surface. In hydrogen reaction with oxygenates catalyzed by transition metals, hydrogenation of the aromatic carbon ring normally dominates. However, selective deoxygenation is of particular interest for practical application such as biofuel conversion. Our modeling shows that doping of the transition metal catalysts can change the orientation of oxygenates adsorbed on metal surfaces. The correlation between the selectivity of reaction and the orientation of adsorption are discussed.

  10. Plant-Wide NOx Reduction Strategies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baukal, C.; Waibel, D.; Webster, T.

    2006-01-01

    flue gases into the flame is a proven technique for reducing NOx emissions (see Figure 6). There are two common ways to recirculate combustion exhaust products through a flame – flue gas recirculation (FGR) and internal flue gas recirculation... reduces NOx. Garg (1992) estimated NOx reductions of up to 50% using flue gas recirculation [7]. combustor burner fuel recirculated combustion products air ID fan to atmosphere Figure 7. Schematic of flue gas recirculation [8]. Internal flue gas...

  11. Bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tompkins, M.M.; Mintz, M.M.

    1995-03-01

    A bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies has been compiled to assist the Climate change Action Plan Task Force in their consideration of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions from personal motor vehicles. The document contains a summary of the literature, including it major directions and implications; and annotated listing of 32 recent pertinent documents; and a listing of a larger group of related reports.

  12. Denksport: Oxidations, oxidations and reductions too

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -(+)-tartrate as a ligand Sharpless asymmetric epoxidation Shi epoxidation #12;HSO5 -O OO O O O O O O O O OH O O SO3 - + OH- - OH- O O O O O O O O SO3 - O O O O O O O SO4 2- R3R1 R2 R3R1 R2 O #12;Reductions O OH B Me H O 8 F OH

  13. Incomplete Dirac reduction of constrained Hamiltonian systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Chandre

    2014-12-16

    First-class constraints constitute a potential obstacle to the computation of a Poisson bracket in Dirac's theory of constrained Hamiltonian systems. Using the pseudoinverse instead of the inverse of the matrix defined by the Poisson brackets between the constraints, we show that a Dirac-Poisson bracket can be constructed, even if it corresponds to an incomplete reduction of the original Hamiltonian system. The uniqueness of Dirac brackets is discussed.

  14. MFV Reductions of MSSM Parameter Space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. S. AbdusSalam; C. P. Burgess; F. Quevedo

    2015-02-09

    The 100+ free parameters of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) make it computationally difficult to compare systematically with data, motivating the study of specific parameter reductions such as the cMSSM and pMSSM. Here we instead study the reductions of parameter space implied by using minimal flavour violation (MFV) to organise the R-parity conserving MSSM, with a view towards systematically building in constraints on flavour-violating physics. Within this framework the space of parameters is reduced by expanding soft supersymmetry-breaking terms in powers of the Cabibbo angle, leading to a 24-, 30- or 42-parameter framework (which we call MSSM-24, MSSM-30, and MSSM-42 respectively), depending on the order kept in the expansion. We provide a Bayesian global fit to data of the MSSM-30 parameter set to show that this is manageable with current tools. We compare the MFV reductions to the 19-parameter pMSSM choice and show that the pMSSM is not contained as a subset. The MSSM-30 analysis favours a relatively lighter TeV-scale pseudoscalar Higgs boson and $\\tan \\beta \\sim 10$ with multi-TeV sparticles.

  15. The "mean king's problem" with continuous variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alonso Botero; Yakir Aharonov

    2007-10-16

    We present the solution to the "mean king's problem" in the continuous variable setting. We show that in this setting, the outcome of a randomly-selected projective measurement of any linear combination of the canonical variables x and p can be ascertained with arbitrary precision. Moreover, we show that the solution is in turn a solution to an associated "conjunctive" version of the problem, unique to continuous variables, where the inference task is to ascertain all the joint outcomes of a simultaneous measurement of any number of linear combinations of x and p.

  16. Numerical study of variable lung ventilation strategies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yadav, Reena; Hiremath, Kirankumar; Bagler, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation is used for patients with a variety of lung diseases. Traditionally, ventilators have been designed to monotonously deliver equal sized breaths. While it may seem intuitive that lungs may benefit from unvarying and stable ventilation pressure strategy, recently it has been reported that variable lung ventilation is advantageous. In this study, we analyze the mean tidal volume in response to different `variable ventilation pressure' strategies. We found that uniformly distributed variability in pressure gives the best tidal volume as compared to that of normal, scale- free, log normal and linear distributions.

  17. Analysis of two basic variables of timeout 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zella, William Francis

    1974-01-01

    ANALYSIS OF TWO BASIC VARIABLES OF TIMEOUT A Thesis WILLIAM FRANCIS ZELLA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AaM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August l974 Major Subjects... Psychology ANALYSI QF TWQ BASIC VARIABLES CF TINEQU '. A Thesis V/ILLIAM FRANCIS ZELLA Approved as to s+yle and content bye Chairman of Commi, ee Head of De artment) (Membe Member) Member ABSTRACT Analysis of Two Basic Variables of Timeout. (August...

  18. Greenhouse Gas Reductions Under Low Carbon Fuel Standards?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Stephen P.; Knittel, Christopher R; Hughes, Jonathan E.

    2007-01-01

    CSEM WP 167 Greenhouse Gas Reductions under Low Carbon Fuel94720-5180 www.ucei.org Greenhouse Gas Reductions under LowLCFS) seeks to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by capping an

  19. Friction and Wear Reduction in Diesel Engine Valve Trains | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reduction in Diesel Engine Valve Trains Friction and Wear Reduction in Diesel Engine Valve Trains Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of Vehicle Technologies "Mega" Merit Review...

  20. Investigation on continuous soot oxidation and NOx reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on continuous soot oxidation and NOx reduction by SCR coated DPF Investigation on continuous soot oxidation and NOx reduction by SCR coated DPF Evaluation of CSI catalyst for NOx...

  1. Non-Hardware ("Soft") Cost-Reduction Roadmap for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Non-Hardware ("Soft") Cost- Reduction Roadmap for Residential and Small Commercial Solar Golden, CO 80401 303-275-3000 · www.nrel.gov Non-Hardware ("Soft") Cost- Reduction Roadmap

  2. Optimal Deployment of Emissions Reduction Technologies for Construction Equipment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quadrifoglio, Luca

    Optimal Deployment of Emissions Reduction Technologies for Construction Equipment Muhammad Ehsanul The objective of this research was to develop a multiob- jective optimization model to deploy emissions reduction technologies for nonroad construction equipment to re- duce emissions in a cost

  3. Identify Petroleum Reduction Strategies for Vehicles and Mobile Equipment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As defined by the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction strategies for Federal vehicles and equipment are based on the three driving principles of petroleum reduction: Reduce vehicle miles traveled Improve fuel efficiency Use alternative fuels.

  4. Does Dimensionality Reduction improve the Quality of Motion Interpolation? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bitzer, Sebastian; Klanke, Stefan; Vijayakumar, Sethu

    2009-01-01

    In recent years nonlinear dimensionality reduction has frequently been suggested for the modelling of high-dimensional motion data. While it is intuitively plausible to use dimensionality reduction to recover low ...

  5. Delaware Greenhouse Gas Reduction Projects Grant Program (Delaware)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Delaware Greenhouse Gas Reduction Projects Grant Program is funded by the Greenhouse Gas Reduction Projects Fund, established by the Act to Amend Title 7 of the Delaware Code Relating to a...

  6. Economic evaluation of volume reduction for Defense transuranic waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, C.M.

    1981-07-01

    This study evaluates the economics of volume reduction of retrievably stored and newly generated DOE transuranic waste by comparing the costs of reduction of the waste with the savings possible in transportation and disposal of the waste. The report develops a general approach to the comparison of TRU waste volume reduction costs and cost savings, establishes an initial set of cost data, and develops conclusions to support selecting technologies and facilities for the disposal of DOE transuranic waste. Section I outlines the analysis which considers seven types of volume reduction from incineration and compaction of combustibles to compaction, size reduction, shredding, melting, and decontamination of metals. The study considers the volume reduction of contact-handled newly generated, and retrievably stored DOE transuranic waste. Section II of this report describes the analytical approach, assumptions, and flow of waste material through sites. Section III presents the waste inventories, disposal, and transportation savings with volume reduction and the volume reduction techniques and savings.

  7. S-Preconditioner for Multi-fold Data Reduction with Guaranteed User-Controlled Accuracy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Ye; Lakshminarasimhan, Sriram; Shah, Neil; Gong, Zhenhuan; Chang, C. S.; Chen, Jacqueline H.; Ethier, Stephane; Kolla, Hemanth; Ku, Seung-Hoe; Klasky, S.; Latham, Robert J.; Ross, Rob; Schuchardt, Karen L.; Samatova, Nagiza F.

    2011-12-14

    The growing gap between the massive amounts of data generated by petascale scientific simulation codes and the capability of system hardware and software to effectively analyze this data necessitates data reduction. Yet, the increasing data complexity challenges most, if not all, of the existing data compression methods. In fact, lossless compression techniques offer no more than 10% reduction on scientific data that we have experience with, which is widely regarded as effectively incompressible. To bridge this gap, in this paper, we advocate a transformative strategy that enables fast, accurate, and multi-fold reduction of double-precision floating-point scientific data. The intuition behind our method is inspired by an effective use of preconditioners for linear algebra solvers optimized for a particular class of computational dwarfs (e.g., dense or sparse matrices). Focusing on a commonly used multi-resolution wavelet compression technique as the underlying solver for data reduction we propose the S-preconditioner, which transforms scientific data into a form with high global regularity to ensure a significant decrease in the number of wavelet coefficients stored for a segment of data. Combined with the subsequent EQ-calibrator, our resultant method (called S-Preconditioned EQ-Calibrated Wavelets (SPEQC-WAVELETS)), robustly achieved a 4- to 5- fold data reduction while guaranteeing user-defined accuracy of reconstructed data to be within 1% point-by-point relative error, lower than 0:01 Normalized RMSE, and higher than 0:99 Pearson Correlation. In this paper, we show the results we obtained by testing our method on six petascale simulation codes including fusion, combustion, climate, astrophysics, and subsurface groundwater in addition to 13 publicly available scientific datasets. We also demonstrate that application-driven data mining tasks performed on decompressed variables or their derived quantities produce results of comparable quality with the ones for the original data.

  8. Reduction of iron-oxide-carbon composites: part III. Shrinkage of composite pellets during reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halder, S.; Fruehan, R.J. [Praxair Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States). Praxair Technological Center

    2008-12-15

    This article involves the evaluation of the volume change of iron-oxide-carbon composite pellets and its implications on reduction kinetics under conditions prevalent in a rotary hearth furnace (RHF) that were simulated in the laboratory. The pellets, in general, were found to shrink considerably during the reduction due to the loss of carbon and oxygen from the system, sintering of the iron-oxide, and formation of a molten slag phase at localized regions inside the pellets due to the presence of binder and coal/wood-charcoal ash at the reduction temperatures. One of the shortcomings of the RHF ironmaking process has been the inability to use multiple layers of composite pellets because of the impediment in heat transport to the lower layers of a multilayer bed. However, pellet shrinkage was found to have a strong effect on the reduction kinetics by virtue of enhancing the external heat transport to the lower layers. The volume change of the different kinds of composite pellets was studied as a function of reduction temperature and time. The estimation of the change in the amount of external heat transport with varying pellet sizes for a particular layer of a multilayer bed was obtained by conducting heat-transfer tests using inert low-carbon steel spheres. It was found that if the pellets of the top layer of the bed shrink by 30 pct, the external heat transfer to the second layer increases by nearly 6 times.

  9. Grid Expansion Planning for Carbon Emissions Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bent, Russell W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Toole, Gasper L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-18

    There is a need to upgrade and expand electric power transmission and generation to meet specified renewable energy targets and simultaneously minimize construction cost and carbon emissions. Some challenges are: (1) Renewable energy sources have variable production capacity; (2) Deficiency of transmission capacity at desirable renewable generation locations; (3) Need to incorporate models of operations into planning studies; and (4) Prevent undesirable operational outcomes such as negative dispatch prices or curtailment of carbon neutral generation.

  10. Genotypic variability in ponderosa pine responses to combined ozone and drought stresses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Temple, P.J.

    1995-06-01

    Five-year-old ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) seedlings from 18 half-sib and one full-sib families obtained from the California Tree Improvement Program were harvested after 1, 2, and 3 growing seasons of exposure to three levels of ozone (O{sub 3}) and two levels of available soil water (ASW) in open-top chambers in the California Sierras. Seedlings were evaluated for O{sub 3} injury symptoms, biomass, and radial growth in response to these stresses. Ozone injury responses were highly variable across families, but family rankings for O{sub 3} injury were consistent across years. Family rankings for O{sub 3} injury were highly correlated with those for reductions in biomass and radial growth for trees in the high ASW treatment, but drought-stressed trees showed no consistent relation between foliar 03 injury and reductions in growth. After three seasons of exposure to 88 ppb O{sub 3}, foliar biomass of the three most susceptible families averaged 60% less than trees in the low-O{sub 3} control, while O{sub 3} had no effect on growth of the three most resistant families. Variability across families of growth responses to drought was significantly less than the variability in seedling responses to O{sub 3}.

  11. Variable reality : interacting with the virtual book

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Hye Soo

    2015-01-01

    This thesis presents Variable Reality, a wearable augmented reality-based system focused on creating a unique on-the-go reading experience that combines the readily accessible nature of digital books with the favorable ...

  12. Variable Speed Pumping for Level Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasel, M.

    1982-01-01

    analysis, and a brief discussion of variable frequency drive design considerations. Energy savings figures are based upon actual electricity costs at the plant involved. Process duty cycle and energy requirement levels were verified by a wattmeter...

  13. Variable-Rate State Gasoline Taxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ang-Olson, Jeffrey; Wachs, Martin; Taylor, Brian D.

    2000-01-01

    J Bradshaw, "SLate ’F~es’ Gasoline Tax So ~t Wdl Rise," TheVarlable-Rate State Gasoline Taxers Jeffrey Ang-Olson MartinVariable-Rate State Gasoline Taxes Jeffrey Ang-Olson

  14. Inserting Group Variables into Fluid Mechanics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Jackiw

    2004-10-28

    A fluid, like a quark-gluon plasma, may possess degrees of freedom indexed by a group variable, which retains its identity even in the fluid/continuum description. Conventional Eulerian fluid mechanics is extended to encompass this possibility.

  15. Continuously-Variable Series-Elastic Actuator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mooney, Luke M.

    Actuator efficiency is an important factor in the design of powered leg prostheses, orthoses, exoskeletons, and legged robots. A continuously-variable series-elastic actuator (CV-SEA) is presented as an efficient actuator ...

  16. PV output variability modeling using satellite imagery.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Ellis, Abraham; Reno, Matthew J.

    2010-11-01

    High frequency irradiance variability measured on the ground is caused by the formation, dissipation, and passage of clouds in the sky. If we can identify and associate different cloud types/patterns from satellite imagery, we may be able to predict irradiance variability in areas lacking sensors. With satellite imagery covering the entire U.S., this allows for more accurate integration planning and power flow modeling over wide areas. Satellite imagery from southern Nevada was analyzed at 15 minute intervals over a year. Methods for image stabilization, cloud detection, and textural classification of clouds were developed and tested. High Performance Computing parallel processing algorithms were also investigated and tested. Artificial Neural Networks using imagery as inputs were trained on ground-based measurements of irradiance to model the variability and were tested to show some promise as a means for predicting irradiance variability.

  17. Investigation of Variables Associated with Vaccine Acceptance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Black, Lora L.

    2011-12-31

    Abstract The current study investigated the relationship between the Health Belief Model (HBM) framework, social variables, personality factors, and H1N1 flu vaccine acceptance. Four hundred thirty two undergraduate students completed online...

  18. Exploiting Variable Stiffness in Explosive Movement Tasks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vijayakumar, Sethu

    with variable physical compliance, our methodology is able to exploit the energy storage capabilities of existing actuators (e.g., by exploiting the energy storage capabilities of such devices) [5]. Due

  19. Variable volume architecture : expanding the boundary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saheba, Asheshh (Asheshh Mohit), 1972-

    2001-01-01

    Research into the creation of a Variable Volume Architecture is explored through a series of proposals and projects. An argument is established to develop the means and methods of achieving an architecture of transformation. ...

  20. Surface Organometallic-Catalyzed Oxidation and Reductions | The...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface Organometallic-Catalyzed Oxidation and Reductions Surface-immobilized heterogeneous organometallic compounds have varying activity compared to homogeneous analogues -...

  1. Utah Clean Cities Transportation Sector Petroleum Reduction Technologi...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Utah Clean Cities Transportation Sector Petroleum Reduction Technologies Program Utah Clean Cities Transportation Sector Petroleum...

  2. Bit Commitment with Quantum Continuous Variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallette, Bruno

    protocol -Basic Unit 9 A B 1,0 1,0 B Unveil Phase 1,0 A 1,0 B 1,0 A 0 0 22' 1,0 22' 1,0 CommitBit Commitment with Quantum Continuous Variables Aikaterini Mandilara* 1 Paris 11 Paris 7 #12;Bit Commitment with Quantum Continuous Variables (a) with entanglement (b) or without 2 (a) A. Mandilara and N

  3. Reduction of pumping energy losses in district heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zakin, J.L.

    1991-12-01

    This project was designed to explore the effects of different structures of cationic surfactant drag reducing additives on their efficiency and on their effective temperature ranges. The goal was to develop surfactant systems that would be useful in the appropriate temperature ranges for district heating systems (50--110{degree}C) and for district cooling systems (2--20{degree}C). To this end the chemical compositions of quaternary annonium salts and of counter-ions were varied. More than twenty different commercial or semi commercial quarterly ammonium salts from US suppliers and two from a German supplier (Hoechst) were tested along with thirty five different counter-ions. In addition, blends of several of each were also tested. A further object of this project was to check the compatibility of surfactant drag reducers with commercial or semi-commercial corrosion inhibitors in regard to maintaining their drag reducing ability and corrosion inhibiting capability.

  4. Reduction of pumping energy losses in district heating and cooling systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zakin, J.L.

    1991-12-01

    This project was designed to explore the effects of different structures of cationic surfactant drag reducing additives on their efficiency and on their effective temperature ranges. The goal was to develop surfactant systems that would be useful in the appropriate temperature ranges for district heating systems (50--110{degree}C) and for district cooling systems (2--20{degree}C). To this end the chemical compositions of quaternary annonium salts and of counter-ions were varied. More than twenty different commercial or semi commercial quarterly ammonium salts from US suppliers and two from a German supplier (Hoechst) were tested along with thirty five different counter-ions. In addition, blends of several of each were also tested. A further object of this project was to check the compatibility of surfactant drag reducers with commercial or semi-commercial corrosion inhibitors in regard to maintaining their drag reducing ability and corrosion inhibiting capability.

  5. Empirical Dynamical System Reduction I: Global Nonlinear Transformations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miranda, Rick

    Empirical Dynamical System Reduction I: Global Nonlinear Transformations Michael Kirby and Rick (CNLKL) for the data reduction and semi­analytical remodeling of dynamical systems. The unconstrained­Lo`eve (CNLKL) 12 5. Reduction and Semi­analytic Remodeling of Dynamical Systems 17 6. Summary and Directions

  6. Termination and Reduction Checking for Higher-Order Logic Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pientka, Brigitte

    Termination and Reduction Checking for Higher-Order Logic Programs Brigitte Pientka Department, we present a syntax-directed termination and reduction checker for higher-order logic programs and output of well-moded predicates. These reduction con- straints are exploited during termination checking

  7. Termination and Reduction Checking for HigherOrder Logic Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pientka, Brigitte

    Termination and Reduction Checking for Higher­Order Logic Programs Brigitte Pientka Department, we present a syntax­directed termination and reduction checker for higher­order logic programs and output of well­moded predicates. These reduction con­ straints are exploited during termination checking

  8. Automatic Fracture Reduction Thomas Albrecht and Thomas Vetter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vetter, Thomas

    Automatic Fracture Reduction Thomas Albrecht and Thomas Vetter University of Basel Abstract. We segmented from CT scans. The result of this virtual fracture reduction is intended to be used an operation plan. We propose to achieve automatic fracture reduction by fitting the bone fragments

  9. Flagler County, Florida Hurricane and Storm Damage Reduction Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Flagler County, Florida Hurricane and Storm Damage Reduction Project 26 August 2014 ABSTRACT: The proposed Flagler County hurricane and storm damage reduction project is located on the northeast coast miles of shoreline to assess the feasibility of providing Federal Hurricane and Storm Damage Reduction

  10. Differential geometry, Palatini gravity and reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Capriotti, S.

    2014-01-15

    The present article deals with a formulation of the so called (vacuum) Palatini gravity as a general variational principle. In order to accomplish this goal, some geometrical tools related to the geometry of the bundle of connections of the frame bundle LM are used. A generalization of Lagrange-Poincaré reduction scheme to these types of variational problems allows us to relate it with the Einstein-Hilbert variational problem. Relations with some other variational problems for gravity found in the literature are discussed.

  11. Selective catalyst reduction light-off strategy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V [Pinckney, MI

    2011-10-18

    An emissions control system includes a temperature determination module and an emissions control module. The temperature determination module determines a first temperature of a heater element of a diesel particulate filter (DPF) assembly in an exhaust system and determines a second temperature of a catalyst of the DPF assembly. The emissions control module selectively activates the heater element, selectively initiates a predefined combustion process in an engine based upon the first temperature, and selectively starts a reductant injection process based upon the second temperature.

  12. Electrical Cost Reduction Via Steam Turbine Cogeneration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ewing, T. S.; Di Tullio, L. B.

    1991-01-01

    REDUCTION VIA STEAM TURBINE COGENERATION LYNN B. DI TULLIO, P.E. Project Engineer Ewing Power Systems, Inc. South Deerfield, Mass. ABSTRACT Steam turbine cogeneration is a well established technology which is widely used in industry. However... reducing valves with turbine generator sets in applications with flows as low as 4000 pounds of steam per hour. These systems produce electricity for $0.01 to $.02 per kWh (based on current costs of gas and oil); system cost is between $200 and $800 per...

  13. Carbothermic reduction with parallel heat sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Troup, Robert L. (Murrysville, PA); Stevenson, David T. (Washington Township, Washington County, PA)

    1984-12-04

    Disclosed are apparatus and method of carbothermic direct reduction for producing an aluminum alloy from a raw material mix including aluminum oxide, silicon oxide, and carbon wherein parallel heat sources are provided by a combustion heat source and by an electrical heat source at essentially the same position in the reactor, e.g., such as at the same horizontal level in the path of a gravity-fed moving bed in a vertical reactor. The present invention includes providing at least 79% of the heat energy required in the process by the electrical heat source.

  14. Frame dragging with optical vortices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strohaber, James

    2011-12-22

    General Relativistic calculations in the linear regime have been made for electromagnetic beams of radiation known as optical vortices. These exotic beams of light carry a physical quantity known as optical orbital angular momentum (OAM...

  15. Climate dynamics and fluid mechanics: Natural variability and related uncertainties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Ghil; Mickaël D. Chekroun; Eric Simonnet

    2010-06-15

    The purpose of this review-and-research paper is twofold: (i) to review the role played in climate dynamics by fluid-dynamical models; and (ii) to contribute to the understanding and reduction of the uncertainties in future climate-change projections. To illustrate the first point, we focus on the large-scale, wind-driven flow of the mid-latitude oceans which contribute in a crucial way to Earth's climate, and to changes therein. We study the low-frequency variability (LFV) of the wind-driven, double-gyre circulation in mid-latitude ocean basins, via the bifurcation sequence that leads from steady states through periodic solutions and on to the chaotic, irregular flows documented in the observations. This sequence involves local, pitchfork and Hopf bifurcations, as well as global, homoclinic ones. The natural climate variability induced by the LFV of the ocean circulation is but one of the causes of uncertainties in climate projections. Another major cause of such uncertainties could reside in the structural instability in the topological sense, of the equations governing climate dynamics, including but not restricted to those of atmospheric and ocean dynamics. We propose a novel approach to understand, and possibly reduce, these uncertainties, based on the concepts and methods of random dynamical systems theory. As a very first step, we study the effect of noise on the topological classes of the Arnol'd family of circle maps, a paradigmatic model of frequency locking as occurring in the nonlinear interactions between the El Nino-Southern Oscillations (ENSO) and the seasonal cycle. It is shown that the maps' fine-grained resonant landscape is smoothed by the noise, thus permitting their coarse-grained classification. This result is consistent with stabilizing effects of stochastic parametrization obtained in modeling of ENSO phenomenon via some general circulation models.

  16. Steam Pressure Reduction, Opportunities, and Issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry, Jan [ORNL; Griffin, Mr. Bob [Enbridge Gas Distribution, Inc.; Wright, Anthony L [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    Steam pressure reduction has the potential to reduce fuel consumption for a minimum capital investment. When the pressure at the boiler is reduced, fuel and steam are saved as a result of changes in the high-pressure side of the steam system from the boiler through the condensate return system. In the boiler plant, losses from combustion, boiler blowdown, radiation, and steam venting from condensate receivers would be reduced by reducing steam pressure. Similarly, in the steam distribution system, losses from radiation, flash steam vented from condensate receivers, and component and steam trap leakage would also be reduced. There are potential problems associated with steam pressure reduction, however. These may include increased boiler carryover, boiler water circulation problems in watertube boilers, increased steam velocity in piping, loss of power in steam turbines, and issues with pressure reducing valves. This paper is based a Steam Technical Brief sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy and Enbridge Gas Distribution, Inc. (5). An example illustrates the use of DOE BestPractices Steam System Assessment Tool to model changes in steam, fuel, electricity generation, and makeup water and to estimate resulting economic benefits.

  17. Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coops, Melvin S. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A method is described for the chemical reduction of plutonium oxides to plutonium metal by the use of pure lithium metal. Lithium metal is used to reduce plutonium oxide to alpha plutonium metal (alpha-Pu). The lithium oxide by-product is reclaimed by sublimation and converted to the chloride salt, and after electrolysis, is removed as lithium metal. Zinc may be used as a solvent metal to improve thermodynamics of the reduction reaction at lower temperatures. Lithium metal reduction enables plutonium oxide reduction without the production of huge quantities of CaO--CaCl.sub.2 residues normally produced in conventional direct oxide reduction processes.

  18. Cloud speed impact on solar variability scaling â?? Application to the wavelet variability model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

    2013-01-01

    index: Analysis and statistics. Solar Energy. 81, 195-206.Proc. of International Solar Energy World Congress, Kassel,irradiance variability. Solar Energy. 85, 1343-1353. Perez,

  19. Cloud speed impact on solar variability scaling â?? Application to the wavelet variability model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lave, Matthew; Kleissl, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Kleissl, J. , 2013. Deriving cloud velocity from an array ofCloud Speed Impact on Solar Variability Scaling -this work, we determine from cloud speeds. Cloud simulator

  20. Software Enabled Virtually Variable Displacement Pumps -Theoretical and Experimental Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Perry Y.

    Software Enabled Virtually Variable Displacement Pumps - Theoretical and Experimental Studies the functional equivalent of a variable displacement pump. This approach combines a fixed displacement pump valve control, without many of the shortcomings of commercially available variable displacement pumps

  1. Arc Reversals in Hybrid Bayesian Networks with Deterministic Variables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cinicioglu, Esma N.; Shenoy, Prakash P.

    2009-05-01

    This article discusses arc reversals in hybrid Bayesian networks with deterministic variables. Hybrid Bayesian networks contain a mix of discrete and continuous chance variables. In a Bayesian network representation, a continuous chance variable...

  2. The use of 'race' as a variable in biomedical research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Efstathiou, Sophia

    2009-01-01

    be used as a variable in biomedical research but mainly toRace’ as a Variable in Biomedical Research A dissertationRace’ as a Variable in Biomedical Research…………. Manifest,

  3. Production-Intent Lost-Motion Variable Valve Actuation Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production-Intent Lost-Motion Variable Valve Actuation Systems Production-Intent Lost-Motion Variable Valve Actuation Systems Variable valve actuation with onoff IEGR pre-bump is...

  4. Predicting Reduction Rates of Energetic Nitroaromatic Compounds Using Calculated One-Electron Reduction Potentials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Salter-Blanc, Alexandra; Bylaska, Eric J.; Johnston, Hayley; Tratnyek, Paul G.

    2015-02-11

    The evaluation of new energetic nitroaromatic compounds (NACs) for use in green munitions formulations requires models that can predict their environmental fate. The susceptibility of energetic NACs to nitro reduction might be predicted from correlations between rate constants (k) for this reaction and one-electron reduction potentials (E1NAC) / 0.059 V, but the mechanistic implications of such correlations are inconsistent with evidence from other methods. To address this inconsistency, we have reevaluated existing kinetic data using a (non-linear) free-energy relationship (FER) based on the Marcus theory of outer-sphere electron transfer. For most reductants, the results are inconsistent with rate limitation bymore »an initial, outer-sphere electron transfer, suggesting that the strong correlation between k and E1NAC is justified only as an empirical model. This empirical correlation was used to calibrate a new quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) using previously reported values of k for non-energetic NAC reduction by Fe(II) porphyrin and newly reported values of E1NAC determined using density functional theory at the B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,2p) level with the COSMO solvation model. The QSAR was then validated for energetic NACs using newly measured kinetic data for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), and 2,4-dinitroanisole (DNAN). The data show close agreement with the QSAR, supporting its applicability to energetic NACs.« less

  5. Strategy for the Operation of Cooling Towers with variable Speed Fans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iñigo-Golfín, J

    2001-01-01

    Within the SPS Cooling Water Project at CERN aimed at the reduction of water consumption, this primary open cooling loop will be closed and all the primary cooling circuit components will be upgraded to the new required duty and brought to the necessary safety and operability standards. In particular the tower fans will be fitted with variable frequency drives to replace the existing two speed motors. This paper presents a study to optimize the operation of SPS cooling towers taking into account outdoor conditions (wet and dry bulb temperatures) and the entirety of the primary circuit in which they will operate.

  6. Kepler and the long-period variables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartig, Erich; Lebzelter, Thomas [University of Vienna, Department of Astrophysics, Türkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Vienna (Austria); Cash, Jennifer [Department of Biological and Physical Sciences, South Carolina State University, P.O. Box 7024, Orangeburg, SC 29117 (United States); Hinkle, Kenneth H.; Mighell, Kenneth J. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Walter, Donald K., E-mail: erich.hartig@univie.ac.at, E-mail: thomas.lebzelter@univie.ac.at, E-mail: jcash@physics.scsu.edu, E-mail: hinkle@noao.edu, E-mail: mighell@noao.edu, E-mail: dkw@physics.scsu.edu [Department of Biological and Physical Sciences, South Carolina State University, P.O. Box 7296, Orangeburg, SC 29117 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    High-precision Kepler photometry is used to explore the details of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) light curves. Since AGB variability has a typical timescale on the order of a year, we discuss at length the removal of long-term trends and quarterly changes in Kepler data. Photometry for a small sample of nine semi-regular (SR) AGB stars is examined using a 30 minute cadence over a period of 45 months. While undergoing long-period variations of many magnitudes, the light curves are shown to be smooth at the millimagnitude level over much shorter time intervals. No flares or other rapid events were detected on a sub-day timescale. The shortest AGB period detected is on the order of 100 days. All the SR variables in our sample are shown to have multiple modes. This is always the first overtone, typically combined with the fundamental. A second common characteristic of SR variables is shown to be the simultaneous excitation of multiple closely separated periods for the same overtone mode. Approximately half the sample had a much longer variation in the light curve, likely a long secondary period (LSP). The light curves were all well represented by a combination of sinusoids. However, the properties of the sinusoids are time variable, with irregular variations present at low levels. No non-radial pulsations were detected. It is argued that the LSP variation seen in many SR variables is intrinsic to the star and linked to multiple mode pulsation.

  7. High-Throughput Program for the Discovery of NOx Reduction Catalysts...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Throughput Program for the Discovery of NOx Reduction Catalysts High-Throughput Program for the Discovery of NOx Reduction Catalysts 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction...

  8. Performance Analysis of Air-Source Variable Speed Heat Pumps...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance Analysis of Air-Source Variable Speed Heat Pumps and Various Electric Water Heating Options Performance Analysis of Air-Source Variable Speed Heat Pumps and Various...

  9. Control Strategies for Centrifugal Pumps with Variable Flow Rate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Control Strategies for Centrifugal Pumps with Variable Flow Rate Requirements Control Strategies for Centrifugal Pumps with Variable Flow Rate Requirements This tip sheet discusses...

  10. Radiograph and passive data analysis using mixed variable optimization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Radiograph and passive data analysis using mixed variable optimization Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Radiograph and passive data analysis using mixed variable...

  11. Demonstration of a Variable Phase Turbine Power System for Low...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Demonstration of a Variable Phase Turbine Power System for Low Temperature Geothermal Resources Demonstration of a Variable Phase Turbine Power System for Low Temperature...

  12. Ocean color and atmospheric dimethyl sulfide: On their mesoscale variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matrai, Patricia A; Balch, William M; Cooper, David J; Saltzman, Eric S

    1993-01-01

    periods of' time, covering mesoscale Campbell, J. W. and W.Dimethyl Sulfide' On Their Mesoscale Variability PATRICIA A.Miami, Miami, Florida The mesoscale variability of dimethyl

  13. Compact, electro-hydraulic, variable valve actuation system providing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Compact, electro-hydraulic, variable valve actuation system providing variable lift, timing and duration to enable high efficiency engine combustion control Compact,...

  14. Hydrogen-Assisted Fracture: Materials Testing and Variables Governing...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Hydrogen-Assisted Fracture: Materials Testing and Variables Governing Fracture Hydrogen-Assisted Fracture: Materials Testing and Variables Governing Fracture SNL has 40+ years...

  15. Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump 2013...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump 2013 Peer Review Advanced Variable Speed Air-Source Integrated Heat Pump 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies Project for...

  16. Residential Cold Climate Heat Pump with Variable-Speed Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Cold Climate Heat Pump with Variable-Speed Technology Residential Cold Climate Heat Pump with Variable-Speed Technology Purdue prototype system Purdue prototype system...

  17. Simulation of the intraseasonal variability over the Eastern...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Simulation of the intraseasonal variability over the Eastern Pacific ITCZ in climate models Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Simulation of the intraseasonal variability...

  18. AUTOMATIC VARIABLE VENTILATION CONTROL SYSTEMS BASED ON AIR QUALITY DETECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turiel, Isaac

    2011-01-01

    U"'"'''"'" - e "'~saon Automatic Variable Ventilation1979) LBL~8893 EEB Vent 79-3 Automatic variable ventilationmeasurement capabilities o Automatic operation o Low

  19. Methods for reduction of charging emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuecker, F.J.; Schulte, H. [Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    One of the most critical subjects in coking plants are charging emissions. The paper reviews the systems that have been used over the years to reduce charging emissions. The advantages and disadvantages are summarized for the following systems: Double collecting main with aspiration on both oven sides; Single collecting main with/without aspiration via standpipe, and extraction and cleaning of charging gas on charging car; Single collecting main with aspiration via standpipe and pretreatment of charging gas on the charging car as well as additional stationary exhaust and cleaning of charging gas; Single collecting main with aspiration via single standpipe; and Single collecting main with simultaneous aspiration via two standpipes and a U-tube connecting the oven chamber with the neighboring oven. The paper then briefly discusses prerequisites for reduction of charging emissions.

  20. Methods and systems for combustion dynamics reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kraemer, Gilbert Otto (Greer, SC); Varatharajan, Balachandar (Cincinnati, OH); Srinivasan, Shiva (Greer, SC); Lynch, John Joseph (Wilmington, NC); Yilmaz, Ertan (Albany, NY); Kim, Kwanwoo (Greer, SC); Lacy, Benjamin (Greer, SC); Crothers, Sarah (Greenville, SC); Singh, Kapil Kumar (Rexford, NY)

    2009-08-25

    Methods and systems for combustion dynamics reduction are provided. A combustion chamber may include a first premixer and a second premixer. Each premixer may include at least one fuel injector, at least one air inlet duct, and at least one vane pack for at least partially mixing the air from the air inlet duct or ducts and fuel from the fuel injector or injectors. Each vane pack may include a plurality of fuel orifices through which at least a portion of the fuel and at least a portion of the air may pass. The vane pack or packs of the first premixer may be positioned at a first axial position and the vane pack or packs of the second premixer may be positioned at a second axial position axially staggered with respect to the first axial position.

  1. The e-MERLIN Data Reduction Pipeline

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Argo, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Written in Python and utilising ParselTongue to interface with the Astronomical Image Processing System (AIPS), the e-MERLIN data reduction pipeline is intended to automate the procedures required in processing and calibrating radio astronomy data from the e-MERLIN correlator. Driven by a plain text file of input parameters, the pipeline is modular and can be run in stages by the user, depending on requirements. The software includes options to load raw data, average in time and/or frequency, flag known sources of interference, flag more comprehensively with SERPent, carry out some or all of the calibration procedures including self-calibration), and image in either normal or wide-field mode. It also optionally produces a number of useful diagnostic plots at various stages so that the quality of the data can be assessed. The software is available for download from the e-MERLIN website or via Github.

  2. How We Achieved a 41% Energy Reduction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maze, M. E.

    1985-01-01

    ~ ENERGY REDUCTION Malcom E. Maze Abbott Labo~ato~ies No~th Chicago, IL ABSTRACT Abbott Labo~ato~ies is a wo~ldwide company devoted to the discove~, development, manufactu~e and sale of a b~oad and dive~sified line of human health ca~e p...~ato~ies is a wo~ldwide health ca~e company with 1984 sales in excess of $3.1 billion. Abbott employs some 34,000 people in 28 domestic and 44 inte~ational locations. ou~ ene~gy conse~vation p~og~am was sta~ted in 1973 du~ing the A~ab oil emba...

  3. High reduction transaxle for electric vehicle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalns, Ilmars

    1987-01-01

    A drivetrain (12) includes a transaxle assembly (16) for driving ground engaging wheels of a land vehicle powered by an AC motor. The transaxle includes a ratio change section having planetary gear sets (24, 26) and brake assemblies (28, 30). Sun gears (60, 62) of the gear sets are directly and continuously connected to an input drive shaft (38) driven by the motor. A first drive (78a) directly and continuously connects a planetary gear carrier (78) of gear sets (24) with a ring gear (68) of gear set (26). A second drive (80a) directly and continuously connects a planetary gear carrier (80) of gear set (26) with a sun gear (64) of a final speed reduction gear set (34) having a planetary gear carrier directly and continuously connected to a differential (22). Brakes (28, 30) are selectively engageable to respectively ground a ring gear 66 of gear set 24 and ring gear 68 of gear set 26.

  4. Variable energy constant current accelerator structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, O.A.

    1988-07-13

    A variable energy, constant current ion beam accelerator structure is disclosed comprising an ion source capable of providing the desired ions, a pre-accelerator for establishing an initial energy level, a matching/pumping module having means for focusing means for maintaining the beam current, and at least one main accelerator module for continuing beam focus, with means capable of variably imparting acceleration to the beam so that a constant beam output current is maintained independent of the variable output energy. In a preferred embodiment, quadrupole electrodes are provided in both the matching/pumping module and the one or more accelerator modules, and are formed using four opposing cylinder electrodes which extend parallel to the beam axis and are spaced around the beam at 90/degree/ intervals with opposing electrodes maintained at the same potential. 12 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Pearle's Hidden-Variable Model Revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richard D. Gill

    2015-05-19

    Pearle (1970) gave an example of a local hidden variables model which exactly reproduced the singlet correlations of quantum theory, through the device of data-rejection: particles can fail to be detected in a way which depends on the hidden variables carried by the particles and on the measurement settings. If the experimenter computes correlations between measurement outcomes of particle pairs for which both particles are detected, he is actually looking at a subsample of particle pairs, determined by interaction involving both measurement settings and the hidden variables carried in the particles. We correct a mistake in Pearle's formulas (a normalization error) and more importantly show that the model is more simple than first appears. We illustrate with visualisations of the model and with a small simulation experiment, with code in the statistical programming language R included in the paper. Open problems are discussed.

  6. Measuring spatial variability in soil characteristics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoskinson, Reed L. (Rigby, ID); Svoboda, John M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Sawyer, J. Wayne (Hampton, VA); Hess, John R. (Ashton, ID); Hess, J. Richard (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides systems and methods for measuring a load force associated with pulling a farm implement through soil that is used to generate a spatially variable map that represents the spatial variability of the physical characteristics of the soil. An instrumented hitch pin configured to measure a load force is provided that measures the load force generated by a farm implement when the farm implement is connected with a tractor and pulled through or across soil. Each time a load force is measured, a global positioning system identifies the location of the measurement. This data is stored and analyzed to generate a spatially variable map of the soil. This map is representative of the physical characteristics of the soil, which are inferred from the magnitude of the load force.

  7. Variable pressure power cycle and control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldsberry, Fred L. (Spring, TX)

    1984-11-27

    A variable pressure power cycle and control system that is adjustable to a variable heat source is disclosed. The power cycle adjusts itself to the heat source so that a minimal temperature difference is maintained between the heat source fluid and the power cycle working fluid, thereby substantially matching the thermodynamic envelope of the power cycle to the thermodynamic envelope of the heat source. Adjustments are made by sensing the inlet temperature of the heat source fluid and then setting a superheated vapor temperature and pressure to achieve a minimum temperature difference between the heat source fluid and the working fluid.

  8. Integrating Variable Renewable Energy: Challenges and Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, L.; Milligan, M.; Lew, D.

    2013-09-01

    In the U.S., a number of utilities are adopting higher penetrations of renewables, driven in part by state policies. While power systems have been designed to handle the variable nature of loads, the additional supply-side variability and uncertainty can pose new challenges for utilities and system operators. However, a variety of operational and technical solutions exist to help integrate higher penetrations of wind and solar generation. This paper explores renewable energy integration challenges and mitigation strategies that have been implemented in the U.S. and internationally, including forecasting, demand response, flexible generation, larger balancing areas or balancing area cooperation, and operational practices such as fast scheduling and dispatch.

  9. Fermentation and Hydrogen Metabolism Affect Uranium Reduction by Clostridia

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gao, Weimin; Francis, Arokiasamy J.

    2013-01-01

    Previously, it has been shown that not only is uranium reduction under fermentation condition common among clostridia species, but also the strains differed in the extent of their capability and the pH of the culture significantly affected uranium(VI) reduction. In this study, using HPLC and GC techniques, metabolic properties of those clostridial strains active in uranium reduction under fermentation conditions have been characterized and their effects on capability variance of uranium reduction discussed. Then, the relationship between hydrogen metabolism and uranium reduction has been further explored and the important role played by hydrogenase in uranium(VI) and iron(III) reduction bymore »clostridia demonstrated. When hydrogen was provided as the headspace gas, uranium(VI) reduction occurred in the presence of whole cells of clostridia. This is in contrast to that of nitrogen as the headspace gas. Without clostridia cells, hydrogen alone could not result in uranium(VI) reduction. In alignment with this observation, it was also found that either copper(II) addition or iron depletion in the medium could compromise uranium reduction by clostridia. In the end, a comprehensive model was proposed to explain uranium reduction by clostridia and its relationship to the overall metabolism especially hydrogen (H 2 ) production. « less

  10. Kinetics of Fe(III)*EDTA reduction by ascorbic acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, W.; Harkness, J.B.L.; Mendelsohn, M.H.

    1992-12-01

    The kinetics of the reduction of ferric chelate by ascorbic acid have been determined at a typical flue-gas scrubber-system operating temperature ({approximately}55{degrees}C). The ascorbic acid reaction has the same reduction rate expression as the reduction by bisulfite ions, namely, first order with respect to the concentrations of both Fe(III)*EDTA and monoionic species of ascorbic acid. The reaction rate isnegative first order with respect to Fe(II)*EDTA concentration. In the pH range of 6--8, reduction of the hydrolyzed form of the metal chelate compound was negligible. The rate constant for the ascorbic acid reduction reaction is almost 400 times larger than that for the bisulfite reduction reaction under the same reaction conditions. There was no contribution associated with the nonionized form of ascorbic acid.

  11. Kinetics of Fe(III)*EDTA reduction by ascorbic acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, W.; Harkness, J.B.L.; Mendelsohn, M.H.

    1992-01-01

    The kinetics of the reduction of ferric chelate by ascorbic acid have been determined at a typical flue-gas scrubber-system operating temperature ([approximately]55[degrees]C). The ascorbic acid reaction has the same reduction rate expression as the reduction by bisulfite ions, namely, first order with respect to the concentrations of both Fe(III)*EDTA and monoionic species of ascorbic acid. The reaction rate isnegative first order with respect to Fe(II)*EDTA concentration. In the pH range of 6--8, reduction of the hydrolyzed form of the metal chelate compound was negligible. The rate constant for the ascorbic acid reduction reaction is almost 400 times larger than that for the bisulfite reduction reaction under the same reaction conditions. There was no contribution associated with the nonionized form of ascorbic acid.

  12. Group Work: Global warming & natural variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allan, Richard P.

    Group Work: Global warming & natural variability Left: Global annual temperature departure from://skepticalscience.com/foster-and-rahmstorf-measure-global-warming-signal.html 2013 2012 2011 #12;: 1963-1964, 1982-83, 1991-93 1. How do these events affect the global annual temperature and can you

  13. Variable Light-Cone Theory of Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    I. T. Drummond

    1999-08-20

    We show how to reformulate Variable Speed of Light Theories (VSLT) in a covariant fashion as Variable Light-Cone Theories (VLCT) by introducing two vierbein bundles each associated with a distinct metric. The basic gravitational action relates to one bundle while matter propagates relative to the other in a conventional way. The variability of the speed of light is represented by the variability of the matter light-cone relative to the gravitational light-cone. The two bundles are related locally by an element M, of SL(4,R). The dynamics of the field M is that of a SL(4,R)-sigma model gauged with respect to local (orthochronous) Lorentz transformations on each of the bundles. Only the ``massless'' version of the model with a single new coupling, F, that has the same dimensions as Newton's constant $G_N$, is considered in this paper. When F vanishes the theory reduces to standard General Relativity. We verify that the modified Bianchi identities of the model are consistent with the standard conservation law for the matter energy-momentum tensor in its own background metric. The implications of the model for some simple applications are examined, the Newtonian limit, the flat FRW universe and the spherically symmetric static solution.

  14. Chapter 18: Variable Frequency Drive Evaluation Protocol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romberger, J.

    2014-11-01

    An adjustable-speed drive (ASD) includes all devices that vary the speed of a rotating load, including those that vary the motor speed and linkage devices that allow constant motor speed while varying the load speed. The Variable Frequency Drive Evaluation Protocol presented here addresses evaluation issues for variable-frequency drives (VFDs) installed on commercial and industrial motor-driven centrifugal fans and pumps for which torque varies with speed. Constant torque load applications, such as those for positive displacement pumps, are not covered by this protocol. Other ASD devices, such as magnetic drive, eddy current drives, variable belt sheave drives, or direct current motor variable voltage drives, are also not addressed. The VFD is by far the most common type of ASD hardware. With VFD speed control on a centrifugal fan or pump motor, energy use follows the affinity laws, which state that the motor electricity demand is a cubic relationship to speed under ideal conditions. Therefore, if the motor runs at 75% speed, the motor demand will ideally be reduced to 42% of full load power; however, with other losses it is about 49% of full load power.

  15. TimeVariable Photo-Evaporation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Throop, Henry

    TimeVariable Photo-Evaporation of Protoplanetary Disks Henry Throop (SwRI) John Bally (U. Colorado) #12;Takeaway: Photo-evaporation alters the disk structure in essentially unpredictable ways, because for disks formed at the same time in the same cluster. #12;30 Doradus: 100+ O/B stars Photo

  16. TimeVariable Photo-Evaporation of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Throop, Henry

    TimeVariable Photo-Evaporation of Protoplanetary Disks Henry Throop (PSI) DDA Meeting Mt. Hood clusters. #12;Work we have done involves ... ­ UV photo-evaporation from massive stars ­ Interaction; Moeckel & Throop 2009; Throop & Bally 2010; Pichardo et al 2010; Throop 2011. #12;Photo

  17. The variable sky of deep synoptic surveys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ridgway, Stephen T.; Matheson, Thomas; Mighell, Kenneth J.; Olsen, Knut A. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85725 (United States); Howell, Steve B., E-mail: ridgway@noao.edu [NASA Ames Research Center, P.O. Box 1, M/S 244-30, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)

    2014-11-20

    The discovery of variable and transient sources is an essential product of synoptic surveys. The alert stream will require filtering for personalized criteria—a process managed by a functionality commonly described as a Broker. In order to understand quantitatively the magnitude of the alert generation and Broker tasks, we have undertaken an analysis of the most numerous types of variable targets in the sky—Galactic stars, quasi-stellar objects (QSOs), active galactic nuclei (AGNs), and asteroids. It is found that the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will be capable of discovering ?10{sup 5} high latitude (|b| > 20°) variable stars per night at the beginning of the survey. (The corresponding number for |b| < 20° is orders of magnitude larger, but subject to caveats concerning extinction and crowding.) However, the number of new discoveries may well drop below 100 per night within less than one year. The same analysis applied to GAIA clarifies the complementarity of the GAIA and LSST surveys. Discovery of AGNs and QSOs are each predicted to begin at ?3000 per night and decrease by 50 times over four years. Supernovae are expected at ?1100 per night, and after several survey years will dominate the new variable discovery rate. LSST asteroid discoveries will start at >10{sup 5} per night, and if orbital determination has a 50% success rate per epoch, they will drop below 1000 per night within two years.

  18. Model solution State variable model: differential equation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limburg, Karin E.

    2/26/2014 1 Model solution State variable model: differential equation Models a rate of change equation General solution: the antiderivative Particular solution: require initial and boundary conditions up the general solution to a differential equation in a book Solve for initial and boundary

  19. CLIMATE VARIABILITY, CLIMATE CHANGE, AND WESTERN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keeton, William S.

    CHAPTER 13 CLIMATE VARIABILITY, CLIMATE CHANGE, AND WESTERN WILDFIRE WITH IMPLICATIONS FOR THE URBAN­WILDLAND INTERFACE William S. Keeton, Philip W. Mote and Jerry F. Franklin ABSTRACT Climate change hazards by the warmer, drier summers projected for much of the western U.S. by climate models would

  20. Galactic Variable Sky with EGRET and GLAST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Digel, S.W.; /SLAC

    2006-11-28

    The characteristics of the largely-unidentified Galactic sources of gamma rays that were detected by EGRET are reviewed. Proposed source populations that may have the correct spatial, spectral, luminosity, and variability properties to be the origins of the EGRET sources are also presented. Finally, the prospects for studying Galactic gamma-ray sources with the GLAST LAT are reviewed.

  1. Low Emissions Aftertreatment and Diesel Emissions Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2005-05-27

    Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) has successfully completed a five-year Low Emissions Aftertreatment and Diesel Emissions Reduction (LEADER) program under a DOE project entitled: ''Research and Development for Compression-Ignition Direct-Injection Engines (CIDI) and Aftertreatment Sub-Systems''. The objectives of the LEADER Program were to: Demonstrate technologies that will achieve future federal Tier 2 emissions targets; and Demonstrate production-viable technical targets for engine out emissions, efficiency, power density, noise, durability, production cost, aftertreatment volume and weight. These objectives were successfully met during the course of the LEADER program The most noteworthy achievements in this program are listed below: (1) Demonstrated Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions target over the FTP75 cycle on a PNGV-mule Neon passenger car, utilizing a CSF + SCR system These aggressive emissions were obtained with no ammonia (NH{sub 3}) slip and a combined fuel economy of 63 miles per gallon, integrating FTP75 and highway fuel economy transient cycle test results. Demonstrated feasibility to achieve Tier 2 Bin 8 emissions levels without active NOx aftertreatment. (2) Demonstrated Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions target over the FTP75 cycle on a light-duty truck utilizing a CSF + SCR system, synergizing efforts with the DOE-DDC DELTA program. This aggressive reduction in tailpipe out emissions was achieved with no ammonia slip and a 41% fuel economy improvement, compared to the equivalent gasoline engine-equipped vehicle. (3) Demonstrated Tier 2 near-Bin 9 emissions compliance on a light-duty truck, without active NOx aftertreatment devices, in synergy with the DOE-DDC DELTA program. (4) Developed and applied advanced combustion technologies such as ''CLEAN Combustion{copyright}'', which yields simultaneous reduction in engine out NOx and PM emissions while also improving engine and aftertreatment integration by providing favorable exhaust species and temperature characteristics. These favorable emissions characteristics were obtained while maintaining performance and fuel economy. These aggressive emissions and performance results were achieved by applying a robust systems technology development methodology. This systems approach benefits substantially from an integrated experimental and analytical approach to technology development, which is one of DDCs core competencies Also, DDC is uniquely positioned to undertake such a systems technology development approach, given its vertically integrated commercial structure within the DaimlerChrysler organization. State-of-the-art analytical tools were developed targeting specific LEADER program objectives and were applied to guide system enhancements and to provide testing directions, resulting in a shortened and efficient development cycle. Application examples include ammonia/NO{sub x} distribution improvement and urea injection controls development, and were key contributors to significantly reduce engine out as well as tailpipe out emissions. Successful cooperation between DDC and Engelhard Corporation, the major subcontractor for the LEADER program and provider of state-of-the-art technologies on various catalysts, was another contributing factor to ensure that both passenger car and LD truck applications achieved Tier 2 Bin 3 emissions levels. Significant technical challenges, which highlight barriers of commercialization of diesel technology for passenger cars and LD truck applications, are presented at the end of this report.

  2. Photometric Stellar Variability in the Galactic Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Rafelski; A. M. Ghez; S. D. Hornstein; J. R. Lu; M. Morris

    2007-01-04

    We report the results of a diffraction-limited, photometric variability study of the central 5"x5" of the Galaxy conducted over the past 10 years using speckle imaging techniques on the W. M. Keck I 10 m telescope. Within our limiting magnitude of mK < 16 mag for images made from a single night of data, we find a minimum of 15 K[2.2 micron]-band variable stars out of 131 monitored stars. The only periodic source in our sample is the previously identified variable IRS 16SW, for which we measure an orbital period of 19.448 +- 0.002 days. In contrast to recent results, our data on IRS 16SW show an asymmetric phased light curve with a much steeper fall-time than rise-time, which may be due to tidal deformations caused by the proximity of the stars in their orbits. We also identify a possible wind colliding binary (IRS 29N) based on its photometric variation over a few year time-scale which is likely due to episodic dust production. None of the 4 LBV candidates in our sample show the characteristic large increase or decrease in luminosity, however, our time baseline is too short to rule them out as LBVs. Among the remaining variable stars, the majority are early-type stars and three are possibly variable due to line of sight extinction variations. For the 7 OB stars at the center of our field of view that have well-determined 3-dimensional orbits, we see no evidence of flares or dimming of their light, which limits the possibility of a cold, geometrically-thin inactive accretion disk around the supermassive black hole, Sgr A*.

  3. Rate of reduction of ore-carbon composites: Part II. Modeling of reduction in extended composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fortini, O.M.; Fruehan, R.J. [US Steel Research & Technological Center, Monroeville, PA (United States)

    2005-12-01

    A new process for ironmaking was proposed using a rotary hearth furnace and an iron bath smelter to produce iron employing wood charcoal as an energy source and reductant. This paper examines reactions in composite pellet samples with sizes close to sizes used in industrial practice (10 to 16 min in diameter). A model was constructed using the combined kinetic mechanism developed in Part I of this series of articles along with equations for the computation of pellet temperature and shrinkage during the reaction. The analysis of reaction rates measured for pellets with wood charcoal showed that heat transfer plays a significant role in their overall rate of reaction at elevated temperatures. The slower rates measured in pellets containing coal char show that the intrinsic kinetics of carbon oxidation is more significant than heat transfer. Model calculations suggest that the rates are highly sensitive to the thermal conductivity of pellets containing wood charcoal and are less sensitive to the external conditions of heat transfer. It was seen that the changes in pellet surface area and diameter due to shrinkage introduce little change on reaction rates. The model developed provides an adequate description of pellets of wood charcoal up to circa 90% of reduction. Experimentally determined rates of reduction of iron oxide by wood charcoal were approximately 5 to 10 times faster than rates measured in pellets with coal char.

  4. Fixed bed reduction of hematite under alternating reduction and oxidation cycles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Breault, Ronald W.; Monazam, Esmail R.

    2015-02-28

    The rate of the reduction reaction of a low cost natural hematite oxygen carrier for chemical looping combustion was investigated in a fixed bed reactor where hematite samples of about 1 kg were exposed to a flowing stream of methane and argon. The investigation aims to develop understanding of the factors that govern the rate of reduction with in larger reactors as compared to mostly TGA investigations in the literature. Comparison of the experimental data with a model indicated that reaction between the methane and the iron oxide shows multi-step reactions. The analysis also shows that the conversion occurs withmore »a process that likely consumes all the oxygen close to the surface of the hematite particles and another process that is likely controlled by the diffusion of oxygen to the surface of the particles. Additional analysis shows that the thickness of the fast layer is on the order of 8 unit crystals. This is about 0.4% of the hematite; however, it comprises about 20 to 25% of the conversion for the 10 min reduction cycle.« less

  5. Impact of Variable Valve Timing on Low Temperature Combustion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Documents effects of variable valve actuation in implementing low temperature combustion in production engine platform.

  6. Greenhouse Gas Reductions under Low Carbon Fuel Standards?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Stephen P.; Knittel, Christopher R; Hughes, Jonathan E.

    2008-01-01

    Admin- istration. Wang, M. The Greenhouse Gases, RegulatedGreenhouse Gas Reductions under Low Carbon Fuel Standards?LCFS) seeks to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by capping an

  7. Segmentation of artifacts and anatomy in CT metal artifact reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karimi, Seemeen; Cosman, Pamela; Wald, Christoph; Martz, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Maximum- likelihood dual-energy tomographic imageartifact reduction by dual energy CT using monoenergetictive reconstruction of dual energy data 21 has the potential

  8. Large Fleets Lead in Petroleum Reduction (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Proc, H.

    2011-03-01

    Fact sheet describes Clean Cities' National Petroleum Reduction Partnership, an initiative through which large private fleets can receive support from Clean Cities to reduce petroleum consumption.

  9. Reduction of Transient Particulate Matter Spikes with Decision...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transient Particulate Matter Spikes with Decision Tree Based Control Reduction of Transient Particulate Matter Spikes with Decision Tree Based Control Using a non-parametric...

  10. Benefits and Drawbacks of Compression Ratio Reduction in PCCI...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Application in an Advanced LD Diesel Engine Benefits and Drawbacks of Compression Ratio Reduction in PCCI Combustion Application in an Advanced LD Diesel Engine Study of the...

  11. Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ace026peden2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx StorageReduction (NSR) Materials...

  12. Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx Storage/Reduction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CLEERS Aftertreatment Modeling and Analysis Enhanced High Temperature Performance of NOx StorageReduction (NSR) Materials Enhanced High and Low Temperature Performance of NOx...

  13. Alternating current loss reduction for rectangular busbars by...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Alternating current loss reduction for rectangular busbars by covering their edges with low permeable magnetic caps Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Alternating current...

  14. DOE Program Resources and Tools for Petroleum Reduction in the...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DOE Program Resources and Tools for Petroleum Reduction in the Transportation Sector Webinar Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: DOE Program Resources and Tools for...

  15. Reduction of Emissions from a High Speed Ferry | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emissions from a High Speed Ferry Reduction of Emissions from a High Speed Ferry 2003 DEER Conference Presentation: West Virginia University 2003deerthompson.pdf More Documents &...

  16. Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Waste Heat Reduction and Recovery for Improving Furnace Efficiency, Productivity and Emissions Performance: A BestPractices Process Heating Technical Brief (November 2004) More...

  17. Teaching Variation Reduction Using a Virtual Manufacturing Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Mu

    short courses. KEY WORDS: Simulation; Six Sigma; Variation reduction; Virtual environment. 1 by adopting a systematic frame- work like DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve, control) in Six Sigma

  18. Preparations of rare earth-iron alloys by thermite reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Frederick A. (Ames, IA); Peterson, David T. (Ames, IA); Wheelock, John T. (Nevada, IA)

    1986-09-16

    An improved method for the preparation of high-purity rare earth-iron alloys by the aluminothermic reduction of a mixture of rare earth and iron fluorides.

  19. Integral twist actuation of helicolpter rotor blades for vibration reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shin, SangJoon, 1967-

    2001-01-01

    Active integral twist control for vibration reduction of helicopter rotors during forward flight is investigated. The twist deformation is obtained using embedded anisotropic piezocomposite actuators. An analytical framework ...

  20. Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Buildings OIRA Comparison Document Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major Renovations of Federal Buildings OIRA Comparison Document...

  1. Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Buildings Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy Consumption Reduction for New Federal Buildings and Major Renovations of Federal Buildings Document details Fossil Fuel-Generated Energy...

  2. Emissions Reduction Experience with Johnson Matthey EGRT on Off...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Performance of Johnson Matthey EGRT Emission Control System for NOx and PM Emission Reduction in Retrofit Applications Part 1 Performance of Johnson...

  3. Energy for Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Development: UNDP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy for Poverty Reduction and Sustainable Development: UNDP Energy Documents and Publications Catalogue Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Energy for...

  4. Bridging the Divide Between Poverty Reduction and Climate Change...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Bridging the Divide Between Poverty Reduction and Climate Change Through Sustainable and Innovative Energy Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name:...

  5. Automating the CAD/CAE Dimensional Reduction Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suresh, Krishnan

    Automating the CAD/CAE Dimensional Reduction Process Dr. Krishnan Suresh Department of Mechanical - CAD General Terms Algorithms, Design, Theory. Keywords CAD, CAE, medial axis transforms, dimensional

  6. South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and Reduction Potentials from Buildings Jump to: navigation, search Name South Africa - Greenhouse Gas Emission Baselines and...

  7. NNSA's Global Threat Reduction Initiative Removes More Than One...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Global Threat Reduction Initiative Removes More Than One Ton of Food | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the...

  8. Analysis of Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy, Environmental and Life Cycle Cost Reduction Potential of Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) in Hot and Humid Climate Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last...

  9. Ris-R-1545(EN) Emission reduction by means

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and Plasma Research Department, Risø), Helge Egsgaard (Biosystems Department, Risø), Per G. Kristensen reduction by means of low temperature plasma. Summary Department: Optics and Plasma Research Department Risø

  10. Structure and Function of Microbial Metal-Reduction Proteins...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Function of Microbial Metal-Reduction Proteins Xu, Ying; Crawford, Oakly H.; Xu, Dong; Larimer, Frank W.; Uberbacher, Edward C.; Zhou, Jizhong 97 MATHEMATICS AND COMPUTING; 59...

  11. Reductant Chemistry during LNT Regeneration for a Lean Gasoline...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Chemistry during LNT Regeneration for a Lean Gasoline Engine Reductant Chemistry during LNT Regeneration for a Lean Gasoline Engine Poster presented at the 16th Directions in...

  12. California Customer Load Reductions during the Electricity Crisis...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    California Customer Load Reductions during the Electricity Crisis: Did They Help to Keep the Lights On? Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: California...

  13. Petroleum Reduction Strategies to Improve Vehicle Fuel Efficiency

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the table below describes petroleum reduction strategies to improve vehicle fuel efficiency, as well as guidance and best practices for each strategy.

  14. Petroleum Reduction Strategies to Reduce Vehicle Miles Traveled

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the table below describes petroleum reduction strategies to reduce vehicle miles traveled, as well as guidance and best practices for each strategy.

  15. Engine Friction Reduction Through Surface Finish and Coatings

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Opportunities exist for friction reduction in piston rings and valve trains using durable, advanced material technologies, such as diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings, and new lubricants.

  16. Regeneration of anion exchange resins by catalyzed electrochemical reduction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gu, Baohua (Oak Ridge, TN); Brown, Gilbert M. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01

    Anion exchange resins sorbed with perchlorate may be regenerated by a combination of chemical reduction of perchlorate to chloride using a reducing agent and an electrochemical reduction of the oxidized reducing agent. Transitional metals including Ti, Re, and V are preferred chemical reagents for the reduction of perchlorate to chloride. Complexing agents such as oxalate are used to prevent the precipitation of the oxidized Ti(IV) species, and ethyl alcohol may be added to accelerate the reduction kinetics of perchlorate. The regeneration may be performed by continuously recycling the regenerating solution through the resin bed and an electrochemical cell so that the secondary waste generation is minimized.

  17. ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, Klaas Jan; Homan, Greg; Brown, Rich; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2009-04-15

    The term ?household carbon footprint? refers to the total annual carbon emissions associated with household consumption of energy, goods, and services. In this project, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed a carbon footprint modeling framework that characterizes the key underlying technologies and processes that contribute to household carbon footprints in California and the United States. The approach breaks down the carbon footprint by 35 different household fuel end uses and 32 different supply chain fuel end uses. This level of end use detail allows energy and policy analysts to better understand the underlying technologies and processes contributing to the carbon footprint of California households. The modeling framework was applied to estimate the annual home energy and supply chain carbon footprints of a prototypical California household. A preliminary assessment of parameter uncertainty associated with key model input data was also conducted. To illustrate the policy-relevance of this modeling framework, a case study was conducted that analyzed the achievable carbon footprint reductions associated with the adoption of energy efficient household and supply chain technologies.

  18. Ozone Reductions Using Residential Building Envelopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max; Nazaroff, William W.

    2009-02-01

    Ozone is an air pollutant with that can have significant health effects and a significant source of ozone in some regions of California is outdoor air. Because people spend the vast majority of their time indoors, reduction in indoor levels of ozone could lead to improved health for many California residents. Ozone is removed from indoor air by surface reactions and can also be filtered by building envelopes. The magnitude of the envelope impact depends on the specific building materials that the air flows over and the geometry of the air flow paths through the envelope that can be changes by mechanical ventilation operation. The 2008 Residential Building Standards in California include minimum requirements for mechanical ventilation by referencing ASHRAE Standard 62.2. This study examines the changes in indoor ozone depending on the mechanical ventilation system selected to meet these requirements. This study used detailed simulations of ventilation in a house to examine the impacts of different ventilation systems on indoor ozone concentrations. The simulation results showed that staying indoors reduces exposure to ozone by 80percent to 90percent, that exhaust ventilation systems lead to lower indoor ozone concentrations, that opening of windows should be avoided at times of high outdoor ozone, and that changing the time at which mechanical ventilation occurs has the ability to halve exposure to ozone. Future work should focus on the products of ozone reactions in the building envelope and the fate of these products with respect to indoor exposures.

  19. Dynamical Reduction Models with General Gaussian Noises

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angelo Bassi; GianCarlo Ghirardi

    2002-01-27

    We consider the effect of replacing in stochastic differential equations leading to the dynamical collapse of the statevector, white noise stochastic processes with non white ones. We prove that such a modification can be consistently performed without altering the most interesting features of the previous models. One of the reasons to discuss this matter derives from the desire of being allowed to deal with physical stochastic fields, such as the gravitational one, which cannot give rise to white noises. From our point of view the most relevant motivation for the approach we propose here derives from the fact that in relativistic models the occurrence of white noises is the main responsible for the appearance of untractable divergences. Therefore, one can hope that resorting to non white noises one can overcome such a difficulty. We investigate stochastic equations with non white noises, we discuss their reduction properties and their physical implications. Our analysis has a precise interest not only for the above mentioned subject but also for the general study of dissipative systems and decoherence.

  20. Cost reduction in deep water production systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beltrao, R.L.C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes a cost reduction program that Petrobras has conceived for its deep water field. Beginning with the Floating Production Unit, a new concept of FPSO was established where a simple system, designed to long term testing, can be upgraded, on the location, to be the definitive production unit. Regarding to the subsea system, the following projects will be considered. (1) Subsea Manifold: There are two 8-well-diverless manifolds designed for 1,000 meters presently under construction and after a value analysis, a new design was achieved for the next generation. Both projects will be discussed and a cost evaluation will also be provided. (2) Subsea Pipelines: Petrobras has just started a large program aiming to reduce cost on this important item. There are several projects such as hybrid (flexible and rigid) pipes for large diameter in deep water, alternatives laying methods, rigid riser on FPS, new material...etc. The authors intend to provide an overview of each project.