National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for dpe dual-phase extraction

  1. dual-phase-ceramic-asu | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Pre-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture by a New Dual-Phase Ceramic Carbonate Membrane Reactor Project No.: DE-FE0000470 Arizona State University is developing a dual-phase,...

  2. Tubular ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membranes and methods of manufacture thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Jerry Y. S.; Ortiz-Landeros, Jose; Dong, Xue-Liang

    2016-05-03

    Embodiments for a tubular ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membrane and methods for manufacturing the tubular ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membrane are disclosed.

  3. Dual-phase Cr-Ta alloys for structural applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Chain T.; Brady, Michael P.; Zhu, Jiahong; Tortorelli, Peter F.

    2001-01-01

    Dual phase alloys of chromium containing 2 to 11 atomic percent tantalum with minor amounts of Mo, Cr, Ti, Y, La, Cr, Si and Ge are disclosed. These alloys contain two phases including Laves phase and Cr-rich solid solution in either eutectic structures or dispersed Laves phase particles in the Cr-rich solid solution matrix. The alloys have superior mechanical properties at high temperature and good oxidation resistance when heated to above 1000.degree. C. in air.

  4. A dual phased approach for bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil and ground water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennel, N.D.; Maher, A.; Buckallew, B.

    1994-12-31

    A case study will be presented to demonstrate an effective and timely method of site remediation which yields complete contaminant destruction rather than the contaminant transfer that traditional ground water extraction and treatment techniques result in. By utilizing bioremediation at this site, the client was able to completely degrade the contamination beneath the property, and in the process avoid future liability from transfer of the contamination to another party (i.e. landfill) or phase (i.e. liquid to vapor through air stripping). The provisions of a real estate transaction involving a former service station site in Central Iowa stipulated that the site be remediated prior to title transfer. Previous Environmental Investigative activities revealed significant soil and ground water contamination resulting from over 50 years of diesel and gasoline fuel storage and dispensing operations at the site. Microbial Environmental Services, Inc. (MES) utilized a dual phased bioremediation approach to meet regulatory clean-up guidelines in order for a timely property transfer to occur. To facilitate and expedite ground water remediation, contaminated soil was excavated and remediated via Advanced Biological Surface Treatment (ABST) techniques. ABST techniques are utilized by MES to treat excavated soil in closed cell to control emissions and treatment conditions. Following contaminant source removal, ground water was extracted and treated in a submerged, fixed film, flow through 1,000 gallon fixed film bioreactor at a rate of 2.5 gallons per minute.

  5. Pre-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture by a New Dual Phase Ceramic-Carbonate Membrane Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Jerry

    2014-09-30

    This report documents synthesis, characterization and carbon dioxide permeation and separation properties of a new group of ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membranes and results of a laboratory study on their application for water gas shift reaction with carbon dioxide separation. A series of ceramic-carbonate dual phase membranes with various oxygen ionic or mixed ionic and electronic conducting metal oxide materials in disk, tube, symmetric, and asymmetric geometric configurations was developed. These membranes, with the thickness of 10 ?m to 1.5 mm, show CO2 permeance in the range of 0.5-510-7 molm-2s-1Pa-1 in 500-900oC and measured CO2/N2 selectivity of up to 3000. CO2 permeation mechanism and factors that affect CO2 permeation through the dual-phase membranes have been identified. A reliable CO2 permeation model was developed. A robust method was established for the optimization of the microstructures of ceramic-carbonate membranes. The ceramic-carbonate membranes exhibit high stability for high temperature CO2 separations and water gas shift reaction. Water gas shift reaction in the dual-phase membrane reactors was studied by both modeling and experiments. It is found that high temperature syngas water gas shift reaction in tubular ceramic-carbonate dual phase membrane reactor is feasible even without catalyst. The membrane reactor exhibits good CO2 permeation flux, high thermal and chemical stability and high thermal shock resistance. Reaction and separation conditions in the membrane reactor to produce hydrogen of 93% purity and CO2 stream of >95% purity, with 90% CO2 capture have been identified. Integration of the ceramic-carbonate dual-phase membrane reactor with IGCC process for carbon dioxide capture was analyzed. A methodology was developed to identify optimum operation conditions for a membrane tube of given dimensions that would treat coal syngas with targeted performance. The calculation results show that the dual-phase membrane reactor could improve IGCC process efficiency but the cost of the membrane reactor with membranes having current CO2 permeance is high. Further research should be directed towards improving the performance of the membranes and developing cost-effective, scalable methods for fabrication of dual-phase membranes and membrane reactors.

  6. High strength, low carbon, dual phase steel rods and wires and process for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thomas, Gareth; Nakagawa, Alvin H.

    1986-01-01

    A high strength, high ductility, low carbon, dual phase steel wire, bar or rod and process for making the same is provided. The steel wire, bar or rod is produced by cold drawing to the desired diameter in a single multipass operation a low carbon steel composition characterized by a duplex microstructure consisting essentially of a strong second phase dispersed in a soft ferrite matrix with a microstructure and morphology having sufficient cold formability to allow reductions in cross-sectional area of up to about 99.9%. Tensile strengths of at least 120 ksi to over 400 ksi may be obtained.

  7. Nitrogen-sensitized dual phase titanate/titania for visible-light driven phenol degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Yu Hua; Subramaniam, Vishnu P.; Gong, Dangguo; Tang, Yuxin; Highfield, James; Pehkonen, Simo O.; Pichat, Pierre; Chen, Zhong

    2012-12-15

    A dual-phase material (DP-160) comprising hydrated titanate (H{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 7}{center_dot}xH{sub 2}O) and anatase (TiO{sub 2}) was synthesized in a low-temperature one-pot process in the presence of triethylamine (TEA) as the N-source. The unique structure exhibits strong visible light absorption. The chromophore is linked to Ti-N bonds derived from both surface sensitization and sub-surface (bulk) doping. From transmission electron microscope (TEM) and textural studies by N{sub 2} physisorption, the composite exists as mesoporous particles with a grain size of {approx}20 nm and mean pore diameter of 3.5 nm, responsible for the high surface area ({approx}180 m{sup 2}/g). DP-160 demonstrated photocatalytic activity in the degradation of phenol under visible light ({lambda}>420 nm). The activity of the composite was further enhanced by a small addition (0.001 M) of H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, which also gave rise to some visible light activity in the control samples. This effect is believed to be associated with the surface peroxo-titanate complex. GC-MS analyses showed that the intermediate products of phenol degradation induced by visible light irradiation of DP-160 did not differ from those obtained by UV (band-gap) irradiation of TiO{sub 2}. The overall performance of the composite is attributed to efficient excitation via inter-band states (due to N-doping), surface sensitization, improved adsorptive properties of aromatic compounds due to the N-carbonaceous overlayer, and the presence of heterojunctions that are known to promote directional charge transfer in other mixed-phase titanias like Degussa P25. - graphical abstract: Nitrogen-sensitized dual phase titanate/titania photocatalyst showing extended visible light absorption and efficient photocatalytic degradation of phenol. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low temperature one-pot synthesis of visible light active dual phase photocatalyst. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The dual phase consists of nanoscale titanate and anatase titania phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The photocatalyst displays high activity in degrading phenol under visible light. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mechanisms for the sensitization to visible light are considered.

  8. Controlled rolling process for dual phase steels and application to rod, wire, sheet and other shapes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thomas, Gareth; Ahn, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Nack-Joon

    1986-01-01

    An improved, energy efficient, hot rolling method for direct production of cold formable dual-phase steel is provided. The steel is heated to completely austenitize it and then continuously hot rolled and cooled down into the ferrite-austenite two phase region to a temperature which is just below the effective Ar.sub.3 temperature. The hot rolled steel is then rapidly quenched to provide an alloy containing strong, tough lath martensite (fibers) in a ductile soft ferrite matrix. The method is particularly useful for providing rods in which form the alloy is capable of being drawn into high strength wire or the like in a cold drawing operation without any intermediate annealing or patenting, and has excellent strength, ductility and fatigue characteristics.

  9. Controlled rolling process for dual phase steels and application to rod, wire, sheet and other shapes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thomas, G.; Ahn, J.H.; Kim, N.J.

    1986-10-28

    An improved, energy efficient, hot rolling method for direct production of cold formable dual-phase steel is provided. The steel is heated to completely austenitize it and then continuously hot rolled and cooled down into the ferrite-austenite two phase region to a temperature which is just below the effective Ar[sub 3] temperature. The hot rolled steel is then rapidly quenched to provide an alloy containing strong, tough lath martensite (fibers) in a ductile soft ferrite matrix. The method is particularly useful for providing rods in which form the alloy is capable of being drawn into high strength wire or the like in a cold drawing operation without any intermediate annealing or patenting, and has excellent strength, ductility and fatigue characteristics. 3 figs.

  10. Microstructure and properties of pipeline steel with a ferrite/martensite dual-phase microstructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Rutao Zuo Xiurong Hu Yueyue Wang Zhenwei Hu, Dingxu

    2011-08-15

    In order to satisfy the transportation of the crude oil and gas in severe environmental conditions, a ferrite/martensite dual-phase pipeline steel has been developed. After a forming process and double submerged arc welding, the microstructure of the base metal, heat affected zone and weld metal was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The pipe showed good deformability and an excellent combination of high strength and toughness, which is suitable for a pipeline subjected to the progressive and abrupt ground movement. The base metal having a ferrite/martensite dual-phase microstructure exhibited excellent mechanical properties in terms of uniform elongation of 7.5%, yield ratio of 0.78, strain hardening exponent of 0.145, an impact energy of 286 J at - 10 deg. C and a shear area of 98% at 0 deg. C in the drop weight tear test. The tensile strength and impact energy of the weld metal didn't significantly reduce, because of the intragranularly nucleated acicular ferrites microstructure, leading to high strength and toughness in weld metal. The heat affected zone contained complete quenching zone and incomplete quenching zone, which exhibited excellent low temperature toughness of 239 J at - 10 deg. C. - Research Highlights: {yields}The pipe with ferrite/martensite microstructure shows high deformability. {yields}The base metal of the pipe consists of ferrite and martensite. {yields}Heat affected zone shows excellent low temperature toughness. {yields}Weld metal mainly consists of intragranularly nucleated acicular ferrites. {yields}Weld metal shows excellent low temperature toughness and high strength.

  11. Dual Phase Li4 Ti5O12TiO2 Nanowire Arrays As Integrated Anodes For High-rate Lithium-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao, Jin; Chabot, Victor; Gu, Meng; Wang, Chong M.; Xiao, Xingcheng; Chen, Zhongwei

    2014-08-19

    Lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12) is well known as a zero strain material inherently, which provides excellent long cycle stability as a negative electrode for lithium ion batteries. However, the low specific capacity (175 mA h g?1) limits it to power batteries although the low electrical conductivity is another intrinsic issue need to be solved. In this work, we developed a facile hydrothermal and ion-exchange route to synthesize the self-supported dual-phase Li4Ti5O12TiO2 nanowire arrays to further improve its capacity as well as rate capability. The ratio of Li4Ti5O12 to TiO2 in the dual phase Li4Ti5O12TiO2 nanowire is around 2:1. The introduction of TiO2 into Li4Ti5O12 increases the specific capacity. More importantly, by interface design, it creates a dual-phase nanostructure with high grain boundary density that facilitates both electron and Li ion transport. Compared with phase-pure nanowire Li4Ti5O12 and TiO2 nanaowire arrays, the dual-phase nanowire electrode yielded superior rate capability (135.5 at 5 C, 129.4 at 10 C, 120.2 at 20 C and 115.5 mA h g?1 at 30 C). In-situ transmission electron microscope clearly shows the near zero deformation of the dual phase structure, which explains its excellent cycle stability.

  12. Dual phase multiplex polymerase chain reaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pemov, Alexander; Bavykin, Sergei

    2008-10-07

    Highly specific and sensitive methods were developed for multiplex amplification of nucleic acids on supports such as microarrays. Based on a specific primer design, methods include five types of amplification that proceed in a reaction chamber simultaneously. These relate to four types of multiplex amplification of a target DNA on a solid support, directed by forward and reverse complex primers immobilized to the support and a fifth type--pseudo-monoplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of multiple targets in solution, directed by a single pair of unbound universal primers. The addition of the universal primers in the reaction mixture increases the yield over the traditional "bridge" amplification on a solid support by approximately ten times. Methods that provide multitarget amplification and detection of as little as 0.45-4.5.times.10.sup.-12 g (equivalent to 10.sup.2-10.sup.3 genomes) of a bacterial genomic DNA are disclosed.

  13. Fluid extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth E.

    1999-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated .beta.-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  14. Extractant composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Barbara F.; Jarvinen, Gordon D.; Ryan, Robert R.

    1990-01-01

    An organic extracting solution useful for separating elements of the actinide series of the periodic table from elements of the lanthanide series, where both are in trivalent form. The extracting solution consists of a primary ligand and a secondary ligand, preferably in an organic solvent. The primary ligand is a substituted monothio-1,3-dicarbonyl, which includes a substituted 4-acyl-2-pyrazolin-5-thione, such as 4-benzoyl-2,4-dihydro-5-methyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-thione (BMPPT). The secondary ligand is a substituted phosphine oxide, such as trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO).

  15. URANIUM EXTRACTION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrington, C.D.; Opie, J.V.

    1958-07-01

    The recovery of uranium values from uranium ore such as pitchblende is described. The ore is first dissolved in nitric acid, and a water soluble nitrate is added as a salting out agent. The resulting feed solution is then contacted with diethyl ether, whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate and a portion of the impurities are taken up by the ether. This acid ether extract is then separated from the aqueous raffinate, and contacted with water causing back extractioa of the uranyl nitrate and impurities into the water to form a crude liquor. After separation from the ether extract, this crude liquor is heated to about 118 deg C to obtain molten uranyl nitrate hexahydratc. After being slightly cooled the uranyl nitrate hexahydrate is contacted with acid free diethyl ether whereby the bulk of the uranyl nitrate is dissolved into the ethcr to form a neutral ether solution while most of the impurities remain in the aqueous waste. After separation from the aqueous waste, the resultant ether solution is washed with about l0% of its volume of water to free it of any dissolved impurities and is then contacted with at least one half its volume of water whereby the uranyl nitrate is extracted into the water to form an aqueous product solution.

  16. Protection of Li Anodes Using Dual Phase Electrolytes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

  17. Protection of Li Anodes Using Dual Phase Electrolytes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

  18. Dual-phase reactor plant with partitioned isolation condenser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hui, Marvin M. (Cupertino, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A nuclear energy plant housing a boiling-water reactor utilizes an isolation condenser in which a single chamber is partitioned into a distributor plenum and a collector plenum. Steam accumulates in the distributor plenum and is conveyed to the collector plenum through an annular manifold that includes tubes extending through a condenser pool. The tubes provide for a transfer of heat from the steam, forming a condensate. The chamber has a disk-shaped base, a cylindrical sidewall, and a semispherical top. This geometry results in a compact design that exhibits significant performance and cost advantages over prior designs.

  19. Apparatus for hydrocarbon extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2013-03-19

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  20. Extracting the Eliashberg Function

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Extracting the Eliashberg Function Extracting the Eliashberg Function Print Wednesday, 23 February 2005 00:00 A multitude of important chemical, physical, and biological phenomena...

  1. Information extraction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lemmond, Tracy D; Hanley, William G; Guensche, Joseph Wendell; Perry, Nathan C; Nitao, John J; Kidwell, Paul Brandon; Boakye, Kofi Agyeman; Glaser, Ron E; Prenger, Ryan James

    2014-05-13

    An information extraction system and methods of operating the system are provided. In particular, an information extraction system for performing meta-extraction of named entities of people, organizations, and locations as well as relationships and events from text documents are described herein.

  2. METAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, G.W. Jr.; Rhodes, D.E.

    1957-11-01

    An improved method for extracting uranium from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction is presented. A difficulty encountered in solvent extraction operations using an organic extractant (e.g., tributyl phosphate dissolved in kerosene or carbon tetrachloride) is that emulsions sometimes form, and phase separation is difficult or impossible. This difficulty is overcome by dissolving the organic extractant in a molten wax which is a solid at operating temperatures. After cooling, the wax which now contains the extractant, is broken into small particles (preferably flakes) and this wax complex'' is used to contact the uranium bearing solutions and extract the metal therefrom. Microcrystalline petroleum wax and certain ethylene polymers have been found suitable for this purpose.

  3. Fission Product Extraction Process

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-28

    A new INL technology can simultaneously extract cesium and strontium for reuse. For more information about INL research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  4. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF NEPTUNIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Butler, J.P.

    1958-08-12

    A process is described for the recovery of neptuniunn from dissolver solutions by solvent extraction. The neptunium containing solution should be about 5N, in nitric acid.and about 0.1 M in ferrous ion. The organic extracting agent is tributyl phosphate, and the neptuniunn is recovered from the organic solvent phase by washing with water.

  5. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  6. Liquid chromatographic extraction medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-13

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water. 1 fig.

  7. Extracting the Eliashberg Function

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Extracting the Eliashberg Function Extracting the Eliashberg Function Print Wednesday, 23 February 2005 00:00 A multitude of important chemical, physical, and biological phenomena are driven by violations of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation (BOA), which decouples electronic from nuclear motion in quantum calculations of solids. Recent advances in experimental techniques combined with ever-growing theoretical capabilities now hold the promise of presenting an unprecedented picture of these

  8. EXTRACTION OF URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmieding, E.G.; Ruehle, A.E.

    1961-04-11

    A method is given for extracting metal values from an aqueous feed wherein the aqueous feed is passed countercurrent to an organic extractant through a plurality of decanting zones and a portion of the mixture contained in each decanting zone is recycled through a mixing zone associated therewith. The improvement consists of passing more solvent from the top of one decanting zone to the bottom of the preceding decanting zone than can rise to the top thereof and recycling that portion of the solvent that does not rise to the top back to the first named decanting zone through its associated mixing zone.

  9. Supercritical fluid extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated or lipophilic crown ether or fluorinated dithiocarbamate. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  10. Microsoft Word - n0045000.doc

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... 1-9 Figure 4. Building 100 Chemical Drain System......2) Dual phase extraction 2) Chemical oxidation 2) Permeable reactive barrier ...

  11. Solid phase extraction membrane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Kurt C [Nashville, TN; Langer, Roger L [Hudson, WI

    2002-11-05

    A wet-laid, porous solid phase extraction sheet material that contains both active particles and binder and that possesses excellent wet strength is described. The binder is present in a relatively small amount while the particles are present in a relatively large amount. The sheet material is sufficiently strong and flexible so as to be pleatable so that, for example, it can be used in a cartridge device.

  12. URANIUM EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baldwin, W.H.; Higgins, C.E.

    1958-12-16

    A process is described for recovering uranium values from acidic aqueous solutions containing hexavalent uranium by contacting the solution with an organic solution comprised of a substantially water-immiscible organlc diluent and an organic phosphate to extract the uranlum values into the organic phase. Carbon tetrachloride and a petroleum hydrocarbon fraction, such as kerosene, are sultable diluents to be used in combination with organlc phosphates such as dibutyl butylphosphonate, trlbutyl phosphine oxide, and tributyl phosphate.

  13. Extracting the Eliashberg Function

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Extracting the Eliashberg Function Print A multitude of important chemical, physical, and biological phenomena are driven by violations of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation (BOA), which decouples electronic from nuclear motion in quantum calculations of solids. Recent advances in experimental techniques combined with ever-growing theoretical capabilities now hold the promise of presenting an unprecedented picture of these violations. By means of high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission at

  14. Extracting the Eliashberg Function

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Extracting the Eliashberg Function Print A multitude of important chemical, physical, and biological phenomena are driven by violations of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation (BOA), which decouples electronic from nuclear motion in quantum calculations of solids. Recent advances in experimental techniques combined with ever-growing theoretical capabilities now hold the promise of presenting an unprecedented picture of these violations. By means of high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission at

  15. Extracting the Eliashberg Function

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Extracting the Eliashberg Function Print A multitude of important chemical, physical, and biological phenomena are driven by violations of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation (BOA), which decouples electronic from nuclear motion in quantum calculations of solids. Recent advances in experimental techniques combined with ever-growing theoretical capabilities now hold the promise of presenting an unprecedented picture of these violations. By means of high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission at

  16. Extracting the Eliashberg Function

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Extracting the Eliashberg Function Print A multitude of important chemical, physical, and biological phenomena are driven by violations of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation (BOA), which decouples electronic from nuclear motion in quantum calculations of solids. Recent advances in experimental techniques combined with ever-growing theoretical capabilities now hold the promise of presenting an unprecedented picture of these violations. By means of high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission at

  17. Extracting the Eliashberg Function

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Extracting the Eliashberg Function Print A multitude of important chemical, physical, and biological phenomena are driven by violations of the Born-Oppenheimer approximation (BOA), which decouples electronic from nuclear motion in quantum calculations of solids. Recent advances in experimental techniques combined with ever-growing theoretical capabilities now hold the promise of presenting an unprecedented picture of these violations. By means of high-resolution angle-resolved photoemission at

  18. SOLVENT FOR EXTRACTING ACTINIDE SALTS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kaplan, L.

    1959-10-27

    BS>A mixture of hexone and 2-hexylpyridine can be used for the selective extraction of actinide values.

  19. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF URANIUM VALUES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feder, H.M.; Ader, M.; Ross, L.E.

    1959-02-01

    A process is presented for extracting uranium salt from aqueous acidic solutions by organic solvent extraction. It consists in contacting the uranium bearing solution with a water immiscible dialkylacetamide having at least 8 carbon atoms in the molecule. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dibutylacetamide. The organic solvent is usually used with a diluent such as kerosene or CCl/sub 4/.

  20. Actinide extraction methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterman, Dean R. [Idaho Falls, ID; Klaehn, John R. [Idaho Falls, ID; Harrup, Mason K. [Idaho Falls, ID; Tillotson, Richard D. [Moore, ID; Law, Jack D. [Pocatello, ID

    2010-09-21

    Methods of separating actinides from lanthanides are disclosed. A regio-specific/stereo-specific dithiophosphinic acid having organic moieties is provided in an organic solvent that is then contacted with an acidic medium containing an actinide and a lanthanide. The method can extend to separating actinides from one another. Actinides are extracted as a complex with the dithiophosphinic acid. Separation compositions include an aqueous phase, an organic phase, dithiophosphinic acid, and at least one actinide. The compositions may include additional actinides and/or lanthanides. A method of producing a dithiophosphinic acid comprising at least two organic moieties selected from aromatics and alkyls, each moiety having at least one functional group is also disclosed. A source of sulfur is reacted with a halophosphine. An ammonium salt of the dithiophosphinic acid product is precipitated out of the reaction mixture. The precipitated salt is dissolved in ether. The ether is removed to yield the dithiophosphinic acid.

  1. Crystal extraction at the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carrigan, Richard A., Jr.; /Fermilab

    2005-06-01

    Luminosity-driven channeling extraction was observed for the first time in a 900 GeV study at the Fermilab Tevatron carried out in the 1995-1996 period. This experiment, Fermilab E853, demonstrated that useful TeV level beams can be extracted from a superconducting accelerator during high luminosity collider operations without unduly affecting the background at the collider detectors. Multipass extraction was found to increase the efficiency of the process significantly. The beam extraction efficiency was in the range of 25%. The history of the experiment is reviewed. Special attention is paid to results related to collimation.

  2. Extracting alcohols from aqueous solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compere, Alicia L.; Googin, John M.; Griffith, William L.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrocarbon and surfactants are contacted with a solution of alcohol and water to extract the alcohol into the hydrocarbon-surfactant mixture.

  3. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, H.H.; Asprey, L.B.

    1960-02-01

    A process of separating plutonium in at least the tetravalent state from fission products contained in an aqueous acidic solution by extraction with alkyl phosphate is reported. The plutonium can then be back-extracted from the organic phase by contact with an aqueous solution of sulfuric, phosphoric, or oxalic acid as a complexing agent.

  4. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PLUTONIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1959-04-14

    The separation of plutonium from aqueous inorganic acid solutions by the use of a water immiscible organic extractant liquid is described. The plutonium must be in the oxidized state, and the solvents covered by the patent include nitromethane, nitroethane, nitropropane, and nitrobenzene. The use of a salting out agents such as ammonium nitrate in the case of an aqueous nitric acid solution is advantageous. After contacting the aqueous solution with the organic extractant, the resulting extract and raffinate phases are separated. The plutonium may be recovered by any suitable method.

  5. Apparatus and methods for hydrocarbon extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohnert, George W.; Verhulst, Galen G.

    2016-04-26

    Systems and methods for hydrocarbon extraction from hydrocarbon-containing material. Such systems and methods relate to extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material employing a non-aqueous extractant. Additionally, such systems and methods relate to recovering and reusing non-aqueous extractant employed for extracting hydrocarbon from hydrocarbon-containing material.

  6. Method of purifying neutral organophosphorus extractants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Gatrone, Ralph C.; Chiarizia, Renato

    1988-01-01

    A method for removing acidic contaminants from neutral mono and bifunctional organophosphorous extractants by contacting the extractant with a macroporous cation exchange resin in the H.sup.+ state followed by contact with a macroporous anion exchange resin in the OH.sup.- state, whereupon the resins take up the acidic contaminants from the extractant, purifying the extractant and improving its extraction capability.

  7. Extractant composition including crown ether and calixarene extractants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meikrantz, David H.; Todd, Terry A.; Riddle, Catherine L.; Law, Jack D.; Peterman, Dean R.; Mincher, Bruce J.; McGrath, Christopher A.; Baker, John D.

    2009-04-28

    An extractant composition comprising a mixed extractant solvent consisting of calix[4] arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The DtBu18C6 may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.4M, such as at from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present at from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The extractant composition further comprises an aqueous phase. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from the aqueous phase.

  8. Batch extracting process using magneticparticle held solvents...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Batch extracting process using magneticparticle held solvents Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Batch extracting process using magneticparticle held solvents A process for ...

  9. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report Report about the Ocean Thermal ...

  10. Molecular design of extractants | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    However, these metals can be extremely difficult to separate from one another in the extraction processes and, therefore, new extractants that selectively bind one metal over...

  11. Cesium and strontium extraction using a mixed extractant solvent including crown ether and calixarene extractants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meikrantz, David H.; Todd, Terry A.; Riddle, Catherine L.; Law, Jack D.; Peterman, Dean R.; Mincher, Bruce J.; McGrath, Christopher A.; Baker, John D.

    2007-11-06

    A mixed extractant solvent including calix[4]arene-bis-(tert-octylbenzo)-crown-6 ("BOBCalixC6"), 4',4',(5')-di-(t-butyldicyclo-hexano)-18-crown-6 ("DtBu18C6"), and at least one modifier dissolved in a diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may be used to remove cesium and strontium from an acidic solution. The DtBu18C6 may be present from approximately 0.01 M to approximately 0.4M, such as from approximately 0.086 M to approximately 0.108 M. The modifier may be 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol ("Cs-7SB") and may be present from approximately 0.01M to approximately 0.8M. In one embodiment, the mixed extractant solvent includes approximately 0.15M DtBu18C6, approximately 0.007M BOBCalixC6, and approximately 0.75M Cs-7SB modifier dissolved in an isoparaffinic hydrocarbon diluent. The mixed extractant solvent may form an organic phase in an extraction system that also includes an aqueous phase. Methods of extracting cesium and strontium as well as strontium alone are also disclosed.

  12. PREPARATION OF ALKYL PYROPHOSPHATE EXTRACTANTS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levine, C.A.; Skiens, W.E.; Moore, G.R.

    1960-08-01

    A process for providing superior solvent extractants for metal recovery processes is given wherein the extractant comprises an alkyl pyrophosphoric acid ester dissolved in an organic solvent diluent. Finely divided solid P/sub 2/O/ sub 5/ is slurried in an organic solvent-diluent selected from organic solvents such as kerosene, benzene, chlorobenzene, toluene, etc. An alcohol selected from the higher alcohols having 4 to 17 carbon atoms. e.g.. hexanol-1. heptanol-3, octanol-1. 2.6-dimethyl-heptanol-4, and decanol-1, is rapidly added to the P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ slurry in the amount of about 2 moles of alcohol to 1 mole of P/sub 2/ O/sub 5/. The temperature is maintained below about 110 deg C during the course of the P/sub 2/O/sub 5/-alcohol reaction. An alkyl pyrophosphate extractant compound is formed as a consequence of the reaction process. The alkyl pyrophosphate solvent-diluent extractant phase is useful in solvent extraction metal recovery processes.

  13. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ascari, Matthew

    2012-10-28

    The Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization (OTEEV) project focuses on assessing the Maximum Practicably Extractable Energy (MPEE) from the world’s ocean thermal resources. MPEE is defined as being sustainable and technically feasible, given today’s state-of-the-art ocean energy technology. Under this project the OTEEV team developed a comprehensive Geospatial Information System (GIS) dataset and software tool, and used the tool to provide a meaningful assessment of MPEE from the global and domestic U.S. ocean thermal resources.

  14. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PROTACTINIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hyde, E.K.; Katzin, L.I.; Wolf, M.J.

    1961-04-01

    A process is described for separating protactinium from thorium present together as the nitrates in a 0.1 to 10 N nitric acid solution. The separation is carried out by extraction with an aliphatic alcohol, ketone, and/or ester having at least six carbon atoms, such as n-amyl acetate, 2-ethyl hexanol, and diisopropyl ketone.

  15. Recursive Feature Extraction in Graphs

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-08-14

    ReFeX extracts recursive topological features from graph data. The input is a graph as a csv file and the output is a csv file containing feature values for each node in the graph. The features are based on topological counts in the neighborhoods of each nodes, as well as recursive summaries of neighbors' features.

  16. Materials for geopressure energy extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raman, A.

    1982-01-01

    The status of efforts in methane and energy extraction from the geopressured aquifer sources of the North Gulf of Mexico region is outlined. Three different schemes for energy extraction are considered, and the anticipated materials and corrosion problems are defined. Suitable materials are suggested for use in the production well and surface equipment. J-55 steel can be used for production well casing. Monel clad carbon steel or high chromium ferritic stainless steels, such as E-Brite or AL 29-4 can be used in the cyclone gas separator. Polymer-concrete coated steel pipings are suitable for brine piping. The hydraulic turbine as well as the power turbine in the thermal energy converter can be made of a titanium alloy such as Ticode-12. Monel or Hastelloy-C276 clad steel is recommended for steam processing areas and monel piping is recommended for the heat exchangers. 20 references.

  17. Titanium metal: extraction to application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gambogi, Joseph; Gerdemann, Stephen J.

    2002-09-01

    In 1998, approximately 57,000 tons of titanium metal was consumed in the form of mill products (1). Only about 5% of the 4 million tons of titanium minerals consumed each year is used to produce titanium metal, with the remainder primarily used to produce titanium dioxide pigment. Titanium metal production is primarily based on the direct chlorination of rutile to produce titanium tetrachloride, which is then reduced to metal using the Kroll magnesium reduction process. The use of titanium is tied to its high strength-to-weight ratio and corrosion resistance. Aerospace is the largest application for titanium. In this paper, we discuss all aspects of the titanium industry from ore deposits through extraction to present and future applications. The methods of both primary (mining of ore, extraction, and purification) and secondary (forming and machining) operations will be analyzed. The chemical and physical properties of titanium metal will be briefly examined. Present and future applications for titanium will be discussed. Finally, the economics of titanium metal production also are analyzed as well as the advantages and disadvantages of various alternative extraction methods.

  18. Extractive reserves in Brazilian Amazonia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fearnside, P.M )

    1989-06-01

    In 1985 an opportunity arose for maintaining tracts of Amazonian forest under sustainable use. Brazil's National Council of Rubber Tappers and the Rural Worker's Union proposed the creation of a set of reserves of a new type, called extractive reserves. The first six are being established in one of the Brazilian states most threatened by deforestatation. The creation of extractive reserves grants legal protection to forest land traditionally used by rubber tappers, Brazil-nut gatherers, and other extractivists. The term extrativismo (extractivism) in Brazil refers to removing nontimber forest products, such as latex, resins, and nuts, without felling the trees. Approximately 30 products are collected for commercial sale. Many more types of forest materials are gathered, for example as food and medicines, for the extractivists' own use. The reserve proposal is attractive for several reasons related to social problems. It allows the rubber tappers to continue their livelihood rather than be expelled by deforestation. However, it is unlikely that sufficient land will be set aside as extractive reserves to employ all the tappers. Displaced rubber tappers already swell the ranks of urban slum dwellers in Brazil's Amazonian cities, and they have become refugees to continue their profession in the forests of neighboring countries, such as Bolivia.

  19. ALKYL PYROPHOSPHATE METAL SOLVENT EXTRACTANTS AND PROCESS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Long, R.L.

    1958-09-30

    A process is presented for the recovery of uranium from aqueous mineral acidic solutions by solvent extraction. The extractant is a synmmetrical dialkyl pyrophosphate in which the alkyl substituents have a chain length of from 4 to 17 carbon atoms. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dioctyl pyrophosphate. The uranium is precipitated irom the organic extractant phase with an agent such as HF, fluoride salts. alcohol, or ammonia.

  20. Beam transfer and extraction at LAMPF II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colton, E.P.

    1983-01-01

    Protons will be single-turn extracted from the LAMPF II synchrotron at 30 Hz. On alternate pulses they will be single-turn injected into a storage ring. Both processes utilize fast kickers and Lambertson septum magnets. Half-integer resonant extraction will be used to slow-extract the beam from the storage ring over a time spread of 1/15 s. The slow extraction occurs using electrostatic wire and iron septa.

  1. AutoPIPE Extract Program

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1993-07-02

    The AutoPIPE Extract Program (APEX) provides an interface between CADAM (Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing) Release 21 drafting software and the AutoPIPE, Version 4.4, piping analysis program. APEX produces the AutoPIPE batch input file that corresponds to the piping shown in a CADAM model. The card image file contains header cards, material cards, and pipe cross section cards as well as tee, bend, valve, and flange cards. Node numbers are automatically generated. APEX processes straightmore » pipe, branch lines and ring geometries.« less

  2. Kerogen extraction from subterranean oil shale resources (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Kerogen extraction from subterranean oil shale resources Title: Kerogen extraction from subterranean oil shale resources The present invention is directed to methods for extracting ...

  3. Liquid-Liquid Extraction Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jack D. Law; Terry A. Todd

    2008-12-01

    Solvent extraction processing has demonstrated the ability to achieve high decontamination factors for uranium and plutonium while operating at high throughputs. Historical application of solvent extraction contacting equipment implies that for the HA cycle (primary separation of uranium and plutonium from fission products) the equipment of choice is pulse columns. This is likely due to relatively short residence times (as compared to mixer-settlers) and the ability of the columns to tolerate solids in the feed. Savannah River successfully operated the F-Canyon with centrifugal contactors in the HA cycle (which have shorter residence times than columns). All three contactors have been successfully deployed in uranium and plutonium purification cycles. Over the past 20 years, there has been significant development of centrifugal contactor designs and they have become very common for research and development applications. New reprocessing plants are being planned in Russia and China and the United States has done preliminary design studies on future reprocessing plants. The choice of contactors for all of these facilities is yet to be determined.

  4. Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1992-12-08

    The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and americium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU's together with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU's and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal. 3 figs.

  5. Combined transuranic-strontium extraction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1992-01-01

    The transuranic (TRU) elements neptunium, plutonium and americium can be separated together with strontium from nitric acid waste solutions in a single process. An extractant solution of a crown ether and an alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbanylmethylphosphine oxide in an appropriate diluent will extract the TRU's together with strontium, uranium and technetium. The TRU's and the strontium can then be selectively stripped from the extractant for disposal.

  6. Light extraction block with curved surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levermore, Peter; Krall, Emory; Silvernail, Jeffrey; Rajan, Kamala; Brown, Julia J.

    2016-03-22

    Light extraction blocks, and OLED lighting panels using light extraction blocks, are described, in which the light extraction blocks include various curved shapes that provide improved light extraction properties compared to parallel emissive surface, and a thinner form factor and better light extraction than a hemisphere. Lighting systems described herein may include a light source with an OLED panel. A light extraction block with a three-dimensional light emitting surface may be optically coupled to the light source. The three-dimensional light emitting surface of the block may includes a substantially curved surface, with further characteristics related to the curvature of the surface at given points. A first radius of curvature corresponding to a maximum principal curvature k.sub.1 at a point p on the substantially curved surface may be greater than a maximum height of the light extraction block. A maximum height of the light extraction block may be less than 50% of a maximum width of the light extraction block. Surfaces with cross sections made up of line segments and inflection points may also be fit to approximated curves for calculating the radius of curvature.

  7. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR URANIUM RECOVERY

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clark, H.M.; Duffey, D.

    1958-06-17

    A process is described for extracting uranium from uranium ore, wherein the uranium is substantially free from molybdenum contamination. In a solvent extraction process for recovering uranium, uranium and molybdenum ions are extracted from the ore with ether under high acidity conditions. The ether phase is then stripped with water at a lower controiled acidity, resaturated with salting materials such as sodium nitrate, and reextracted with the separation of the molybdenum from the uranium without interference from other metals that have been previously extracted.

  8. LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMNS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornton, J.D.

    1957-12-31

    This patent relates to liquid-liquid extraction columns having a means for pulsing the liquid in the column to give it an oscillatory up and down movement, and consists of a packed column, an inlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase located in the direct communication with the liquid in the lower part of said column, an inlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase located in direct communication with the liquid in the upper part of said column, a tube having one end communicating with liquid in the lower part of said column and having its upper end located above the level of said outlet pipe for the dispersed phase, and a piston and cylinder connected to the upper end of said tube for applying a pulsating pneumatic pressure to the surface of the liquid in said tube so that said surface rises and falls in said tube.

  9. URANIUM EXTRACTION PROCESS USING SYNERGISTIC REAGENTS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmitt, J.M.; Blake, C.A. Jr.; Brown, K.B.; Coleman, C.F.

    1958-11-01

    Improved methods are presented for recovering uranium values from aqueous solutions by organic solvent extraction. The improvement lies in the use, in combination, of two classes of organic compounds so that their extracting properties are enhanced synergistically. The two classes of organic compounds are dialkylphosphoric acid and certain neutral organophosphorus compounds such as trialkylphosphates, trialkylphosphonates, trlalkylphosphinates and trialkylphosphine oxides.

  10. Design of the ILC RTML Extraction Lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seletskiy, S.; Tenenbaum, P.; Walz, D.; Solyak, N.; /Fermilab

    2011-10-17

    The ILC [1] Damping Ring to the Main Linac beamline (RTML) contains three extraction lines (EL). Each EL can be used both for an emergency abort dumping of the beam and tune-up continual train-by-train extraction. Two of the extraction lines are located downstream of the first and second stages of the RTML bunch compressor, and must accept both compressed and uncompressed beam with energy spreads of 2.5% and 0.15%, respectively. In this paper we report on an optics design that allowed minimizing the length of the extraction lines while offsetting the beam dumps from the main line by the distance required for acceptable radiation levels in the service tunnel. The proposed extraction lines can accommodate beams with different energy spreads while at the same time providing the beam size acceptable for the aluminum dump window. The RTML incorporates three extraction lines, which can be used for either an emergency beam abort or for a train-by-train extraction. The first EL is located downstream of the Damping Ring extraction arc. The other two extraction lines are located downstream of each stage of the two-stage bunch compressor. The first extraction line (EL1) receives 5GeV beam with an 0.15% energy spread. The extraction line located downstream of the first stage of bunch compressor (ELBC1) receives both compressed and uncompressed beam, and therefore must accept beam with both 5 and 4.88GeV energy, and 0.15% and 2.5% energy spread, respectively. The extraction line located after the second stage of the bunch compressor (ELBC2) receives 15GeV beam with either 0.15 or 1.8% energy spread. Each of the three extraction lines is equipped with the 220kW aluminum ball dump, which corresponds to the power of the continuously dumped beam with 5GeV energy, i.e., the beam trains must be delivered to the ELBC2 dump at reduced repetition rate.

  11. SEPARATION OF THORIUM FROM URANIUM BY EXTRACTION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohlmann, E.G.

    1959-07-28

    A method is presented for the recovery and separation of uranium and thorium values contained in an aqueous nitric acid solution which is more than 3 M in nitric acid. The uranium and thorium containing solution preferable about 7 M in nitric acid is contacted with tributyl phosphatekerosene mixture. Both U and Th are extracted by the immiscible organic. After phase separation the Th is selectively back extracted by contacting with an aqueous nitric acid solution preferably between 0.1 to 1.5 M in nitric acid. The uranium which is still in the organic extractant phase may be recovered by contacting with water.

  12. Extraction Utility Design Specification - Version 1.9 | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Extraction Utility Design Specification - Version 1.9 Extraction Utility Design Specification - Version 1.9 PDF icon DEC1387487110111_Design_Spec_Dekker_PMIS_Extraction_Utility_v8_0_20101217.pdf More Documents & Publications Dekker PMIS Extraction Utility Dekker PMIS Extraction Utility Release_Notes_V8.0.20110608

  13. Advanced Water Removal via Membrane Solvent Extraction

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Removal via Membrane Solvent Extraction Reduction in energy and water use for the ethanol industry Ethanol is the leading biofuel in the U.S. with 13 Billion gallons produced ...

  14. Determination of Extractives in Biomass: Laboratory Analytical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... This procedure uses a two-step extraction process to remove water soluble and ethanol ... No attempt is made to distinguish the source of the inorganic material. Ethanol soluble ...

  15. Polymers for metal extractions in carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeSimone, Joseph M.; Tumas, William; Powell, Kimberly R.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Romack, Timothy J.; McClain, James B.; Birnbaum, Eva R.

    2001-01-01

    A composition useful for the extraction of metals and metalloids comprises (a) carbon dioxide fluid (preferably liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide); and (b) a polymer in the carbon dioxide, the polymer having bound thereto a ligand that binds the metal or metalloid; with the ligand bound to the polymer at a plurality of locations along the chain length thereof (i.e., a plurality of ligands are bound at a plurality of locations along the chain length of the polymer). The polymer is preferably a copolymer, and the polymer is preferably a fluoropolymer such as a fluoroacrylate polymer. The extraction method comprises the steps of contacting a first composition containing a metal or metalloid to be extracted with a second composition, the second composition being as described above; and then extracting the metal or metalloid from the first composition into the second composition.

  16. Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aquino, D.C.; DaPrato, P.L.; Gouker, T.R.; Knoer, P.

    1984-07-06

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65/sup 0/C and 110/sup 0/C for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution, and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m/sup 3/. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aquino, Dolores C.; DaPrato, Philip L.; Gouker, Toby R.; Knoer, Peter

    1986-01-01

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone (12) with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65.degree. C. and 110.degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m.sup.3. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step.

  18. PROCESS FOR PRODUCING ALKYL ORTHOPHOSPHORIC ACID EXTRACTANTS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grinstead, R.R.

    1962-01-23

    A process is given for producing superior alkyl orthophosphoric acid extractants for use in solvent extraction methods to recover and purify various metals such as uranium and vanadium. The process comprises slurrying P/sub 2/O/ sub 5/ in a solvent diluent such as kerosene, benzene, isopropyl ether, and the like. An alipbatic alcohol having from nine to seventeen carbon atoms, and w- hcrein ihc OH group is situated inward of the terminal carbon atoms, is added to the slurry while the reaction temperature is mainiained below 60 deg C. The alcohol is added in the mole ratio of about 2 to l, alcohol to P/sub 2/O/sub 5/. A pyrophosphate reaotion product is formed in the slurry-alcohol mixture. Subsequently, the pyrophosphate reaction product is hydrolyzed with dilute mineral acid to produce the desired alkyl orthophosphoric aeid extractant. The extraetant may then be separated and utilized in metal-recovery, solvent- extraction processes. (AEC)

  19. SEPARATION OF RARE EARTHS BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peppard, D.F.; Mason, G.W.

    1960-10-11

    A process is given for separating lanthanide rare earths from each other from an aqueous mineral acid solution, e.g., hydrochloric or nitric acid of a concentration of above 3 M, preferably 12 to 16 M, by extraction with a water- immiscible alkyl phosphate, such as tributyl phosphate or a mixture of mono-, di- and tributyl phosphate, and fractional back-extraction with mineral acid whereby the lanthanides are taken up by the acid in the order of increasing atomic number.

  20. Alkaline earth cation extraction from acid solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dietz, Mark; Horwitz, E. Philip

    2003-01-01

    An extractant medium for extracting alkaline earth cations from an aqueous acidic sample solution is described as are a method and apparatus for using the same. The separation medium is free of diluent, free-flowing and particulate, and comprises a Crown ether that is a 4,4'(5')[C.sub.4 -C.sub.8 -alkylcyclohexano]18-Crown-6 dispersed on an inert substrate material.

  1. Extraction of furfural with carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gamse, T.; Marr, R.; Froeschl, F.; Siebenhofer, M.

    1997-01-01

    A new approach to separate furfural from aqueous waste has been investigated. Recovery of furfural and acetic acid from aqueous effluents of a paper mill has successfully been applied on an industrial scale since 1981. The process is based on the extraction of furfural and acetic acid by the solvent trooctylphosphineoxide (TOPO). Common extraction of both substances may cause the formation of resin residues. Improvement was expected by selective extraction of furfural with chlorinated hydrocarbons, but ecological reasons stopped further development of this project. The current investigation is centered in the evaluation of extraction of furfural by supercritical carbon dioxide. The influence of temperature and pressure on the extraction properties has been worked out. The investigation has considered the multi-component system furfural-acetic acid-water-carbon dioxide. Solubility of furfural in liquid and supercritical carbon dioxide has been measured, and equilibrium data for the ternary system furfural-water-CO{sub 2} as well as for the quaternary system furfural-acetic acid-water-CO{sub 2} have been determined. A high-pressure extraction column has been used for evaluation of mass transfer rates.

  2. Potentiometric determination of uranium in organic extracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodnar, L.Z.

    1980-05-01

    The potentimetric determination of uranium in organic extracts was studied. A mixture of 30% TBP, (tributylphosphate), in carbon tetrachloride was used, with the NBL (New Brunswick Laboratory) titrimetric procedure. Results include a comparative analysis performed on organic extracts of fissium alloys vs those performed on aqueous samples of the same alloys which had been treated to remove interfering elements. Also comparative analyses were performed on sample solutions from a typical scrap recovery operation common in the uranium processing industry. A limited number of residue type materials, calciner products, and presscakes were subjected to analysis by organic extraction. The uranium extraction was not hindered by 30% TBP/CCl/sub 4/. To fully demonstrate the capabilities of the extraction technique and its compatibility with the NBL potentiometric uranium determination, a series of uranium standards was subjected to uranium extraction with 30% TBP/CCl/sub 4/. The uranium was then stripped out of the organic phase with 40 mL of H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/, 15 mL of H/sub 2/0, and 1 mL of 1M FeSO/sub 4/ solution. The uranium was then determined in the aqueous phosphoric phase by the regular NBL potentiometric method, omitting only the addition of another 40 mL of H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/. Uranium determinations ranging from approximately 20 to 150 mg of U were successfully made with the same accuracy and precision normally achieved. 8 tables. (DP)

  3. Alabama Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Alabama (Million Cubic Feet) Alabama Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Alabama (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0...

  4. Louisiana Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Louisiana (Million Cubic Feet) Louisiana Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Louisiana (Million Cubic Feet) Decade...

  5. White LED with High Package Extraction Efficiency (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: White LED with High Package Extraction Efficiency Citation Details In-Document Search Title: White LED with High Package Extraction Efficiency The goal of this ...

  6. COLLOQUIUM: "The Environmental Footprint of Shale Gas Extraction...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Footprint of Shale Gas Extraction and Hydraulic Fracturing" Professor Robert Jackson Duke University Presentation: PDF icon WC09JAN2013RBJackson.pdf Shale gas extraction is ...

  7. Enhanced Geothermal in Nevada: Extracting Heat From the Earth...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enhanced Geothermal in Nevada: Extracting Heat From the Earth to Generate Sustainable Power Enhanced Geothermal in Nevada: Extracting Heat From the Earth to Generate Sustainable ...

  8. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology ...

  9. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Report about the Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization project, which focuses on assessing the Maximum Practicably Extractable Energy from the world’s ocean thermal resources.

  10. After More Than 20 Years Operating, Hanford's Soil Vapor Extraction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wise, Juan Aguilar, Doug Rybarski, and Christina Agular. The soil vapor extraction trailer is shown near Hanfords Plutonium Finishing Plant. The soil vapor extraction...

  11. Advanced Water Removal via Membrane Solvent Extraction | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Removal via Membrane Solvent Extraction Advanced Water Removal via Membrane Solvent Extraction PDF icon advwaterremovalmse.pdf More Documents & Publications ITP Energy ...

  12. California Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Plant Liquids Production Extracted in California (Million Cubic Feet) California Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in California (Million Cubic Feet) Decade ...

  13. California Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Plant Liquids Production Extracted in California (Million Cubic Feet) California Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in California (Million Cubic Feet) Decade ...

  14. Ethanol Extraction Technologies Inc EETI | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Extraction Technologies Inc EETI Jump to: navigation, search Name: Ethanol Extraction Technologies Inc (EETI) Place: New York, New York Zip: 10036-2601 Product: New York-based...

  15. Extracting and Using Data From Tracking Systems | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Extracting and Using Data From Tracking Systems Extracting and Using Data From Tracking Systems Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Data and Evaluation Peer Exchange Call: ...

  16. Selective extraction of metal ions with polymeric extractants by ion exchange/redox

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alexandratos, Spiro D.

    1987-01-01

    The specification discloses a method for the extraction of metal ions having a reduction potential of above about +0.3 from an aqueous solution. The method includes contacting the aqueous solution with a polymeric extractant having primary phosphinic acid groups, secondary phosphine oxide groups, or both phosphinic acid and phosphine oxide groups.

  17. Method for contour extraction for object representation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skourikhine, Alexei N.; Prasad, Lakshman

    2005-08-30

    Contours are extracted for representing a pixelated object in a background pixel field. An object pixel is located that is the start of a new contour for the object and identifying that pixel as the first pixel of the new contour. A first contour point is then located on the mid-point of a transition edge of the first pixel. A tracing direction from the first contour point is determined for tracing the new contour. Contour points on mid-points of pixel transition edges are sequentially located along the tracing direction until the first contour point is again encountered to complete tracing the new contour. The new contour is then added to a list of extracted contours that represent the object. The contour extraction process associates regions and contours by labeling all the contours belonging to the same object with the same label.

  18. Ethanol extraction of phytosterols from corn fiber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Binder, Thomas P.; Rammelsberg, Anne M.

    2010-11-16

    The present invention provides a process for extracting sterols from a high solids, thermochemically hydrolyzed corn fiber using ethanol as the extractant. The process includes obtaining a corn fiber slurry having a moisture content from about 20 weight percent to about 50 weight percent solids (high solids content), thermochemically processing the corn fiber slurry having high solids content of 20 to 50% to produce a hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry, dewatering the hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, washing the residual corn fiber, dewatering the washed, hydrolyzed corn fiber slurry to achieve a residual corn fiber having a moisture content from about 30 to 80 weight percent solids, and extracting the residual corn fiber with ethanol and separating at least one sterol.

  19. Equilibrium of molybdenum in selected extraction systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tkac, Peter; Paulenova, Alena

    2007-07-01

    The concentration of molybdenum(VI) in dissolved irradiated nuclear fuel is comparable with the concentrations of Tc, Am and Np. Therefore it is of big interest to understand its behavior under conditions related to the UREX/TRUEX process. The effect of the poly-speciation of molybdenum in aqueous solution on its extraction by neutral solvents TBP and CMPO/TBP was studied. Extraction yields of molybdenum decreased significantly when AHA was added to aqueous phase. Our investigation confirmed a strong ability of the aceto-hydroxamic acid to form complexes with Mo in high acidic solutions. Spectroscopic data (UV-Vis) confirmed that a fraction of the Mo(VI)-AHA complex is present in the organic phase after extraction. (authors)

  20. Catalog solvent extraction: anticipate process adjustments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, S.G.; Brass, E.A.; Brown, S.J.; Geeting, M.W.

    2008-07-01

    The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) utilizes commercially available centrifugal contactors to facilitate removal of radioactive cesium from highly alkaline salt solutions. During the fabrication of the contactor assembly, demonstrations revealed a higher propensity for foaming than was initially expected. A task team performed a series of single-phase experiments that revealed that the shape of the bottom vanes and the outer diameter of those vanes are key to the successful deployment of commercial contactors in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Process. (authors)

  1. Process for extracting technetium from alkaline solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moyer, Bruce A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sachleben, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN); Bonnesen, Peter V. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A process for extracting technetium values from an aqueous alkaline solution containing at least one alkali metal hydroxide and at least one alkali metal nitrate, the at least one alkali metal nitrate having a concentration of from about 0.1 to 6 molar. The solution is contacted with a solvent consisting of a crown ether in a diluent for a period of time sufficient to selectively extract the technetium values from the aqueous alkaline solution. The solvent containing the technetium values is separated from the aqueous alkaline solution and the technetium values are stripped from the solvent.

  2. Membrane contactor assisted extraction/reaction process employing ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Yupo J.; Snyder, Seth W.

    2012-02-07

    The present invention relates to a functionalized membrane contactor extraction/reaction system and method for extracting target species from multi-phase solutions utilizing ionic liquids. One preferred embodiment of the invented method and system relates to an extraction/reaction system wherein the ionic liquid extraction solutions act as both extraction solutions and reaction mediums, and allow simultaneous separation/reactions not possible with prior art technology.

  3. Vapor Extraction Well Performance and Recommendations for Future Soil Vapor

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Extraction Activities at the A-014 Outfall (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Vapor Extraction Well Performance and Recommendations for Future Soil Vapor Extraction Activities at the A-014 Outfall Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Vapor Extraction Well Performance and Recommendations for Future Soil Vapor Extraction Activities at the A-014 Outfall No abstract provided. Authors: Jackson, D. [1] ; Hyde, W. [1] ; Walker, R. [1] ; Riha, B. [1] ; Ross, J. [1] ;

  4. Analytical theory of multipass crystal extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biryukov, V.; Murphy, C.T.

    1997-10-01

    An analytical theory for the efficiency of particle extraction from an accelerator by means of a bent crystal is proposed. The theory agrees with all the measurements performed in the broad energy range of 14 to 900 GeV, where the efficiency range also spans over two decades, from {approximately}0.3% to {approximately}30%.

  5. Selective solvent extraction of cellulosic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, D.I.C.; Avgerinos, G.C.

    1983-07-26

    Cellulosic products having a high hemicellulose to lignin weight ratio are obtained by extracting a cellulosic composition with basic ethanol-water solution having a pH between about 12 and about 14 at a temperature between about 15 and about 70 C and for a time period between about 2 and about 80 hours. 6 figs.

  6. Organic electroluminescent devices having improved light extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shiang, Joseph John

    2007-07-17

    Organic electroluminescent devices having improved light extraction include a light-scattering medium disposed adjacent thereto. The light-scattering medium has a light scattering anisotropy parameter g in the range from greater than zero to about 0.99, and a scatterance parameter S less than about 0.22 or greater than about 3.

  7. Selective solvent extraction of cellulosic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wang, Daniel I. C.; Avgerinos, George C.

    1983-01-01

    Cellulosic products having a high hemicellulose to lignin weight ratio are obtained by extracting a cellulosic composition with basic ethanol-water solution having a pH between about 12 and about 14 at a temperature between about 15.degree. and about 70.degree. C. and for a time period between about 2 and about 80 hours.

  8. Vapor Extraction Well Performance and Recommendations for Transitioning to Passive Extraction at the Former DUS-II Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Dennis G.; Noonkester, Jay V.; Looney, Brian B.

    2013-04-03

    This investigation evaluated mass extraction rate from individual wells associated with the Western Sector Treatment System (formerly known as the DUS-II project). This was critical since each individual well can have a radius of influence in excess of 100-ft when operating using an active extraction system. Future soil vapor extraction should use the existing active extraction system, supplemented with deployment of passive extraction where appropriate.

  9. EXTRACT: Interactive extraction of environment metadata and term suggestion for metagenomic sample annotation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra; Pereira, Emiliano; Schnetzer, Julia; Arvanitidis, Christos; Jensen, Lars Juhl

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have therefore developed an interactive annotation tool, EXTRACT, which helps curators identify and extract standard-compliant terms for annotation of metagenomic records and other samples. Behind its web-based user interface, the system combines published methods for named entity recognition of environment, organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, well documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Here the comparison of fully manual and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15–25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.

  10. Geochemical Modeling of ILAW Lysimeter Water Extracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cantrell, Kirk J.

    2014-12-22

    Geochemical modeling results of water extracts from simulated immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) glasses, placed in lysimeters for eight years suggest that the secondary phase reaction network developed using product consistency test (PCT) results at 90°C may need to be modified for field conditions. For sediment samples that had been collected from near the glass samples, the impact of glass corrosion could be readily observed based upon the pH of their water extracts. For unimpacted sediments the pH ranged from 7.88 to 8.11 with an average of 8.04. Sediments that had observable impacts from glass corrosion exhibited elevated pH values (as high as 9.97). For lysimeter sediment samples that appear to have been impacted by glass corrosion to the greatest extent, saturation indices determined for analcime, calcite, and chalcedony in the 1:1 water extracts were near equilibrium and were consistent with the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C. Fe(OH)3(s) also appears to be essentially at equilibrium in extracts impacted by glass corrosion, but with a solubility product (log Ksp) that is approximately 2.13 units lower than that used in the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C. The solubilities of TiO2(am) and ZrO2(am) also appear to be much lower than that assumed in the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C. The extent that the solubility of TiO2(am) and ZrO2(am) were reduced relative to that assumed in the secondary phase reaction network developed using PCT results at 90°C could not be quantified because the concentrations of Ti and Zr in the extracts were below the estimated quantification limit. Gibbsite was consistently highly oversaturated in the extract while dawsonite was at or near equilibrium. This suggests that dawsonite might be a more suitable phase for the secondary phase reaction network than gibbsite under field conditions. This may be due to the availability of carbonate that exists in the Hanford sediments as calcite. A significant source of carbonate was not available in the PCTs and this may account for why this phase did not appear in the PCTs. Sepiolite was consistently highly undersaturated, suggesting that another phase controls the solubility of magnesium. For samples that were most impacted by the effects of glass corrosion, magnesite appears to control glass corrosion. For samples that show less impacts from glass corrosion, clinochlore-7A or saponite-Mg appears to control the magnesium concentrations. For zinc, it appears that zincite is a better candidate than Zn(OH)2-γ for controlling zinc concentrations in the extracts; however, in some samples all zinc phases considered were highly oversaturated. As a result the phase that controls zinc concentrations in the lysimeter extracts remains uncertain.

  11. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M.; Smart, Neil G.; Phelps, Cindy

    1997-01-01

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of .beta.-diketones, halogenated .beta.-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  12. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Phelps, C.

    1997-02-25

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of {beta}-diketones, halogenated {beta}-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 4 figs.

  13. Extraction of Plutonium From Spiked INEEL Soil Samples Using the Ligand-Assisted Supercritical Fluid Extraction (LA-SFE) Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, R.V.; Mincher, B.J.; Holmes, R.G.G.

    1999-08-01

    In order to investigate the effectiveness of ligand-assisted supercritical fluid extraction for the removal of transuranic contaminations from soils an Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) silty-clay soil sample was obtained from near the Radioactive Waste Management Complex area and subjected to three different chemical preparations before being spiked with plutonium. The spiked INEEL soil samples were subjected to a sequential aqueous extraction procedure to determine radionuclide portioning in each sample. Results from those extractions demonstrate that plutonium consistently partitioned into the residual fraction across all three INEEL soil preparations whereas americium partitioned 73% into the iron/manganese fraction for soil preparation A, with the balance partitioning into the residual fraction. Plutonium and americium were extracted from the INEEL soil samples using a ligand-assisted supercritical fluid extraction technique. Initial supercritical fluid extraction runs produced plutonium extraction technique. Initial supercritical fluid extraction runs produced plutonium extraction efficiencies ranging from 14% to 19%. After a second round wherein the initial extraction parameters were changed, the plutonium extraction efficiencies increased to 60% and as high as 80% with the americium level in the post-extracted soil samples dropping near to the detection limits. The third round of experiments are currently underway. These results demonstrate that the ligand-assisted supercritical fluid extraction technique can effectively extract plutonium from the spiked INEEL soil preparations.

  14. Asphaltene reaction via supercritical fluid extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.

    1993-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of bitumen was carried out in a continuous extractor using propane as the solvent at several temperatures and pressures. The asphaltene contents of the residual fractions in the extractor were compared to the asphaltene content of the original bitumen. Asphaltenes were defined as pentane insolubles in this study. It was found that the absolute asphaltene content of the residual fractions exceeded the asphaltene content of the original bitumen. Even when the asphaltene content was prorated by the weight percent of the residual material, it was found to be higher than the original asphaltene content. The data established that the types of compounds separating as asphaltenes changed as the nature of the mixture was altered by SFE. The data also indicated that it may be inappropriate to perform asphaltene material balances to assess the amount of precipitate. The original asphaltene content of a bitumen that is undergoing compositional changes in a sequence of operations may not be an accurate measure of the precipitating tendency of the bitumen in production and processing operations. The asphaltene content of the residual material varied depending on the extraction conditions and was as much as 3--5 times the original asphaltene content. The asphaltene content of the residual material was a maximum at the most efficient extraction condition which was in the vicinity of the critical temperature of propane. The H/C atomic ratio of the residual fractions was lower compared to the original bitumen, indicating that the ratio of polar to nonpolar compounds may also be important from precipitation considerations. Saturate and aromatic compounds were preferentially extracted and the ratio of asphaltenes to resins increased in the residual fractions relative to the original bitumen.

  15. Asphaltene reaction via supercritical fluid extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.

    1993-03-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) of bitumen was carried out in a continuous extractor using propane as the solvent at several temperatures and pressures. The asphaltene contents of the residual fractions in the extractor were compared to the asphaltene content of the original bitumen. Asphaltenes were defined as pentane insolubles in this study. It was found that the absolute asphaltene content of the residual fractions exceeded the asphaltene content of the original bitumen. Even when the asphaltene content was prorated by the weight percent of the residual material, it was found to be higher than the original asphaltene content. The data established that the types of compounds separating as asphaltenes changed as the nature of the mixture was altered by SFE. The data also indicated that it may be inappropriate to perform asphaltene material balances to assess the amount of precipitate. The original asphaltene content of a bitumen that is undergoing compositional changes in a sequence of operations may not be an accurate measure of the precipitating tendency of the bitumen in production and processing operations. The asphaltene content of the residual material varied depending on the extraction conditions and was as much as 3--5 times the original asphaltene content. The asphaltene content of the residual material was a maximum at the most efficient extraction condition which was in the vicinity of the critical temperature of propane. The H/C atomic ratio of the residual fractions was lower compared to the original bitumen, indicating that the ratio of polar to nonpolar compounds may also be important from precipitation considerations. Saturate and aromatic compounds were preferentially extracted and the ratio of asphaltenes to resins increased in the residual fractions relative to the original bitumen.

  16. Catalytic extraction processing of contaminated scrap metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, T.P.; Johnston, J.E.; Payea, B.M.; Zeitoon, B.M.

    1995-12-01

    Molten Metal Technology was awarded a contract to demonstrate the applicability of the Catalytic Extraction Process, a proprietary process that could be applied to US DOE`s inventory of low level mixed waste. This paper is a description of that technology, and included within this document are discussions of: (1) Program objectives, (2) Overall technology review, (3) Organic feed conversion to synthetic gas, (4) Metal, halogen, and transuranic recovery, (5) Demonstrations, (6) Design of the prototype facility, and (7) Results.

  17. Extraction of Transversity and Collins Functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anselmino, Mauro; Boglione, Mariaelena; D'Alesio, Umberto; Melis, Stefano; Murgia, Francesco; Prokudin, Alexei

    2014-01-01

    We present a global re-analysis of recent experimental data on azimuthal asymmetries in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering, from the HERMES and COMPASS Collaborations, and in e{sup +}e{sup -} --> h_1h_2X processes, from the Belle Collaboration. The transversity distribution and the Collins functions are extracted simultaneously, in a revised analysis which also takes into account a new parameterization of the unknown functions.

  18. Extraction electrode geometry for a calutron

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veach, A.M.; Bell, W.A. Jr.

    1975-09-23

    This patent relates to an improved geometry for the extraction electrode and the ground electrode utilized in the operation of a calutron. The improved electrodes are constructed in a partial-picture-frame fashion with the slits of both electrodes formed by two tungsten elongated rods. Additional parallel spaced-apart rods in each electrode are used to establish equipotential surfaces over the rest of the front of the ion source. (auth)

  19. REDISTRIBUTOR FOR LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMNS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradley, J.G.

    1957-10-29

    An improved baffle plate construction to intimately mix immiscible liquid solvents for solvent extraction processes in a liquid-liquid pulse column is described. To prevent the light and heavy liquids from forming separate continuous homogeneous vertical channels through sections of the column, a baffle having radially placed rectangular louvers with deflection plates opening upon alternate sides of the baffle is placed in the column, normal to the axis. This improvement substantially completely reduces strippiig losses due to poor mixing.

  20. STRIPPING OF URANIUM FROM ORGANIC EXTRACTANTS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crouse, D.J. Jr.

    1962-09-01

    A liquid-liquid extraction method is given for recovering uranium values from uranium-containing solutions. Uranium is removed from a uranium-containing organic solution by contacting said organic solution with an aqueous ammonium carbonate solution substantially saturated in uranium values. A uranium- containing precipitate is thereby formed which is separated from the organic and aqueous phases. Uranium values are recovered from this separated precipitate. (AE C)

  1. Recent progress in magma energy extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ortega, A.; Dunn, J.C.; Chu, T.Y.; Wemple, R.P.; Hickox, C.E.

    1987-01-01

    Ongoing research in the area of Magma Energy Extraction is directed at developing a fundamental understanding of the establishment and long term operation of an open, direct-contact heat exchanger in a crustal magma body. The energy extraction rate has a direct influence on the economic viability of the concept. An open heat exchanger, in which fluid is circulated through the interconnecting fissures and fractures in the solidified region around drilling tubing, offers the promise of very high rates of heat transfer. This paper discusses recent research in five areas: (1) fundamental mechanisms of solidifying and thermally fracturing magma; (2) convective heat transfer in the internally fractured solidified magma; (3) convective flow in the molten magma and heat transfer from the magma to the cooled heat exchanger protruding into it; (4) numerical simulation of the overall energy extraction process; and (5) the thermodynamics of energy conversion in a magma power plant at the surface. The studies show that an open heat exchanger can be formed by solidifying magma around a cooled borehole and that the resulting mass will be extensively fractured by thermally-induced stresses. Numerical models indicate that high quality thermal energy can be delivered at the wellhead at nominal rates from 25 to 30 MW electric. It is shown that optimum well circulation rates can be found that depend on the heat transfer characteristics of the magma heat exchanger and the thermodynamic power conversion efficiencies of the surface plant.

  2. Sodium Hydroxide Extraction From Caustic Leaching Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Garza, Priscilla A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Brown, Gilbert M.

    2002-09-18

    This report describes experiments conducted to demonstrate the proof-of-principle of a method to recover NaOH from Hanford tank sludge leaching solutions. Aqueous solutions generated from leaching actual Hanford tank waste solids were used. The process involves neutralization of a lipophilic weak acid (t-octylphenol was used in these experiments) by reaction with NaOH in the aqueous phase. This results in the transfer of Na into the organic phase. Contacting with water reverses this process, reprotonating the lipophilic weak acid and transferring Na back into the aqueous phase as NaOH. The work described here confirms the potential application of solvent extraction to recover and recycle NaOH from solutions generated by leaching Hanford tank sludges. Solutions obtained by leaching sludges from tanks S-110 and T-110 were used in this work. It was demonstrated that Na+ is transferred from caustic leaching solution to the organic phase when contacted with t-octylphenol solutions. This was accompanied by a concomitant decrease in the aqueous-phase hydroxide ion concentration. Seventy to 80 % of the extracted Na was recovered by 3 to 4 sequential contacts of the organic phase with water. Cesium was co-extracted by the procedure, but Al and Cr remained in the feed stream.

  3. CONVERSION EXTRACTION DESULFURIZATION (CED) PHASE III

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Boltz

    2005-03-01

    This project was undertaken to refine the Conversion Extraction Desulfurization (CED) technology to efficiently and economically remove sulfur from diesel fuel to levels below 15-ppm. CED is considered a generic term covering all desulfurization processes that involve oxidation and extraction. The CED process first extracts a fraction of the sulfur from the diesel, then selectively oxidizes the remaining sulfur compounds, and finally extracts these oxidized materials. The Department of Energy (DOE) awarded Petro Star Inc. a contract to fund Phase III of the CED process development. Phase III consisted of testing a continuous-flow process, optimization of the process steps, design of a pilot plant, and completion of a market study for licensing the process. Petro Star and the Degussa Corporation in coordination with Koch Modular Process Systems (KMPS) tested six key process steps in a 7.6-centimeter (cm) (3.0-inch) inside diameter (ID) column at gas oil feed rates of 7.8 to 93.3 liters per hour (l/h) (2.1 to 24.6 gallons per hour). The team verified the technical feasibility with respect to hydraulics for each unit operation tested and successfully demonstrated pre-extraction and solvent recovery distillation. Test operations conducted at KMPS demonstrated that the oxidation reaction converted a maximum of 97% of the thiophenes. The CED Process Development Team demonstrated that CED technology is capable of reducing the sulfur content of light atmospheric gas oil from 5,000-ppm to less than 15-ppm within the laboratory scale. In continuous flow trials, the CED process consistently produced fuel with approximately 20-ppm of sulfur. The process economics study calculated an estimated process cost of $5.70 per product barrel. The Kline Company performed a marketing study to evaluate the possibility of licensing the CED technology. Kline concluded that only 13 refineries harbored opportunity for the CED process. The Kline study and the research team's discussions with prospective refineries led to the conclusion that there were not likely prospects for the licensing of the CED process.

  4. Proceedings of ISEC 2008, International Solvent Extraction Conference - Solvent Extraction: Fundamentals to Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.

    2008-07-01

    The North American industry has employed major solvent-extraction processes to support a wide range of separations including but not limited to chemical, metallurgical, nuclear, biochemical, pharmaceutical, and petroleum applications. The knowledge enabling these separations has been obtained through fundamental studies in academe, government and industry. The International Solvent Extraction Conferences have been and continue to be a major gathering of scientists, engineers, operators, and vendors from around the world, who present new findings since the last meeting, exchange ideas, make business contacts, and conduct collegial discussions. The ISEC 2008 program emphasizes fundamentals to industrial applications of solvent extraction, particularly how this broad spectrum of activities is interconnected and has led to the implementation of novel processes. The oral and poster sessions have been organized into seven topics: Fundamentals; Novel Reagents, Materials and Techniques; Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing; Hydrometallurgy and Metals Extraction; Analytical and Preparative Applications; Biotechnology, Pharmaceuticals, Life-Science Products, and Organic Products; and Process Chemistry and Engineering. Over 350 abstracts were received, resulting in more than 260 manuscripts published in these proceedings. Five outstanding plenary presentations have been identified, with five parallel sessions for oral presentations and posters. In recognition of the major role solvent extraction (SX) plays in the hydrometallurgical and nuclear industries, these proceedings begin with sections focusing on hydrometallurgy, process chemistry, and engineering. More fundamental topics follow, including sections on novel reagents, materials, and techniques, featuring novel applications in analytical and biotechnology areas. Despite the diversity of topics and ideas represented, however, the primary focus of the ISEC community continues to be metals extraction. Four papers from these proceedings have been entered already in INIS in the form of individual reports. Among the remaining papers, 60 have been selected from the following sessions: Plenary Lectures, Hydrometallurgy and Metals Extraction, Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing, Analytical and Preparative Applications, Fundamentals, and Novel Reagents, Materials, and Techniques.

  5. Novel Slow Extraction Scheme for Proton Accelerators Using Pulsed Dipole

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Correctors and Crystals (Conference) | SciTech Connect Novel Slow Extraction Scheme for Proton Accelerators Using Pulsed Dipole Correctors and Crystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Novel Slow Extraction Scheme for Proton Accelerators Using Pulsed Dipole Correctors and Crystals Slow extraction of protons beams from circular accelerators is currently widely used for a variety of beam-based experiments. The method has some deficiencies including limited efficiency of extraction,

  6. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading

  7. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading

  8. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR URANIUM FROM CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blake, C.A. Jr.; Brown, K.B.; Horner, D.E.

    1960-05-24

    An improvement was made in a uranium extraction process wherein the organic extractant is a phosphine oxide. An aqueous solution containing phosphate ions or sulfate ions together with uranium is provided with a source of chloride ions during the extraction step. The presence of the chloride ions enables a phosphine oxide to extract uranium in the presence of strong uranium- complexing ions such as phosphate or sulfate ions.

  9. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1994-09-06

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid. 4 figs.

  10. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  11. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  12. Kerogen extraction from subterranean oil shale resources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Looney, Mark Dean; Lestz, Robert Steven; Hollis, Kirk; Taylor, Craig; Kinkead, Scott; Wigand, Marcus

    2010-09-07

    The present invention is directed to methods for extracting a kerogen-based product from subsurface (oil) shale formations, wherein such methods rely on fracturing and/or rubblizing portions of said formations so as to enhance their fluid permeability, and wherein such methods further rely on chemically modifying the shale-bound kerogen so as to render it mobile. The present invention is also directed at systems for implementing at least some of the foregoing methods. Additionally, the present invention is also directed to methods of fracturing and/or rubblizing subsurface shale formations and to methods of chemically modifying kerogen in situ so as to render it mobile.

  13. Hot cell shield plug extraction apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knapp, Philip A.; Manhart, Larry K.

    1995-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for moving shielding plugs into and out of holes in concrete shielding walls in hot cells for handling radioactive materials without the use of external moving equipment. The apparatus provides a means whereby a shield plug is extracted from its hole and then swung approximately 90 degrees out of the way so that the hole may be accessed. The apparatus uses hinges to slide the plug in and out and to rotate it out of the way, the hinge apparatus also supporting the weight of the plug in all positions, with the load of the plug being transferred to a vertical wall by means of a bolting arrangement.

  14. Method for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rau, Gregory H. (Castro Valley, CA); Caldeira, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA)

    2005-05-10

    A method and apparatus to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said method and apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2, and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

  15. Apparatus for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rau, Gregory H. (Castro Valley, CA); Caldeira, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-02-02

    An apparatus and method associated therewith to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2 and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

  16. Kerogen extraction from subterranean oil shale resources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Looney, Mark Dean; Lestz, Robert Steven; Hollis, Kirk; Taylor, Craig; Kinkead, Scott; Wigand, Marcus

    2009-03-10

    The present invention is directed to methods for extracting a kerogen-based product from subsurface (oil) shale formations, wherein such methods rely on fracturing and/or rubblizing portions of said formations so as to enhance their fluid permeability, and wherein such methods further rely on chemically modifying the shale-bound kerogen so as to render it mobile. The present invention is also directed at systems for implementing at least some of the foregoing methods. Additionally, the present invention is also directed to methods of fracturing and/or rubblizing subsurface shale formations and to methods of chemically modifying kerogen in situ so as to render it mobile.

  17. APEX. AutoPIPE Extract Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cline, B.E.

    1992-07-01

    The AutoPIPE Extract Program (APEX) provides an interface between CADAM (Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing) Release 21 drafting software and the AutoPIPE, Version 4.4, piping analysis program. APEX produces the AutoPIPE batch input file that corresponds to the piping shown in a CADAM model. The card image file contains header cards, material cards, and pipe cross section cards as well as tee, bend, valve, and flange cards. Node numbers are automatically generated. APEX processes straight pipe, branch lines and ring geometries.

  18. White LED with High Package Extraction Efficiency

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    WHITE LED WITH HIGH PACKAGE EXTRACTION EFFICIENCY Final Report Report Period Start Date: 10/01/2006 Report Period End Date: 09/30/2008 Authors: Yi Zheng and Matthew Stough Report Submission Date: November 2008 DOE Award Number: DE-FC26-06NT42935 Project Manager: Ryan Egidi OSRAM SYLVANIA Product Inc Central Research and Service Laboratory 71 Cherry Hill Dr., Beverly, MA 01915 2 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government.

  19. Enhanced Attenuation Technologies: Passive Soil Vapor Extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vangelas, K.; Looney, B.; Kamath, R.; Adamson, D.; Newell, C.

    2010-03-15

    Passive soil vapor extraction (PSVE) is an enhanced attenuation (EA) approach that removes volatile contaminants from soil. The extraction is driven by natural pressure gradients between the subsurface and atmosphere (Barometric Pumping), or by renewable sources of energy such as wind or solar power (Assisted PSVE). The technology is applicable for remediating sites with low levels of contamination and for transitioning sites from active source technologies such as active soil vapor extraction (ASVE) to natural attenuation. PSVE systems are simple to design and operate and are more cost effective than active systems in many scenarios. Thus, PSVE is often appropriate as an interim-remedial or polishing strategy. Over the past decade, PSVE has been demonstrated in the U.S. and in Europe. These demonstrations provide practical information to assist in selecting, designing and implementing the technology. These demonstrations indicate that the technology can be effective in achieving remedial objectives in a timely fashion. The keys to success include: (1) Application at sites where the residual source quantities, and associated fluxes to groundwater, are relatively low; (2) Selection of the appropriate passive energy source - barometric pumping in cases with a deep vadose zone and barrier (e.g., clay) layers that separate the subsurface from the atmosphere and renewable energy assisted PSVE in other settings and where higher flow rates are required. (3) Provision of sufficient access to the contaminated vadose zones through the spacing and number of extraction wells. This PSVE technology report provides a summary of the relevant technical background, real-world case study performance, key design and cost considerations, and a scenario-based cost evaluation. The key design and cost considerations are organized into a flowchart that dovetails with the Enhanced Attenuation: Chlorinated Organics Guidance of the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC). The PSVE flowchart provides a structured process to determine if the technology is, or is not, reasonable and defensible for a particular site. The central basis for that decision is the expected performance of PSVE under the site specific conditions. Will PSVE have sufficient mass removal rates to reduce the release, or flux, of contamination into the underlying groundwater so that the site can meet it overall remedial objectives? The summary technical information, case study experiences, and structured decision process provided in this 'user guide' should assist environmental decision-makers, regulators, and engineers in selecting and successfully implementing PSVE at appropriate sites.

  20. Solvent-extraction purification of neptunium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyser, E.A.; Hudlow, S.L.

    2008-07-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has recovered {sup 237}Np from reactor fuel that is currently being processed into NpO{sub 2} for future production of {sup 238}Pu. Several purification flowsheets have been utilized. An oxidizing solvent-extraction (SX) flowsheet was used to remove Fe, sulfate ion, and Th while simultaneously {sup 237}Np, {sup 238}Pu, u, and nonradioactive Ce(IV) was extracted into the tributyl phosphate (TBP) based organic solvent. A reducing SX flowsheet (second pass) removed the Ce and Pu and recovered both Np and U. The oxidizing flowsheet was necessary for solutions that contained excessive amounts of sulfate ion. Anion exchange was used to perform final purification of Np from Pu, U, and various non-actinide impurities. The Np(IV) in the purified solution was then oxalate-precipitated and calcined to an oxide for shipment to other facilities for storage and future target fabrication. Performance details of the SX purification and process difficulties are discussed. (authors)

  1. Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction: Prediction of Cesium Extraction for Actual Wastes and Actual Waste Simulants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Sloop, F.V., Jr.; Moyer, B.A.

    2003-02-01

    This report presents the work that followed the CSSX model development completed in FY2002. The developed cesium and potassium extraction model was based on extraction data obtained from simple aqueous media. It was tested to ensure the validity of the prediction for the cesium extraction from actual waste. Compositions of the actual tank waste were obtained from the Savannah River Site personnel and were used to prepare defined simulants and to predict cesium distribution ratios using the model. It was therefore possible to compare the cesium distribution ratios obtained from the actual waste, the simulant, and the predicted values. It was determined that the predicted values agree with the measured values for the simulants. Predicted values also agreed, with three exceptions, with measured values for the tank wastes. Discrepancies were attributed in part to the uncertainty in the cation/anion balance in the actual waste composition, but likely more so to the uncertainty in the potassium concentration in the waste, given the demonstrated large competing effect of this metal on cesium extraction. It was demonstrated that the upper limit for the potassium concentration in the feed ought to not exceed 0.05 M in order to maintain suitable cesium distribution ratios.

  2. EXTRACT: Interactive extraction of environment metadata and term suggestion for metagenomic sample annotation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pafilis, Evangelos; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Ferrell, Barbra; Pereira, Emiliano; Schnetzer, Julia; Arvanitidis, Christos; Jensen, Lars Juhl

    2016-01-01

    The microbial and molecular ecology research communities have made substantial progress on developing standards for annotating samples with environment metadata. However, sample manual annotation is a highly labor intensive process and requires familiarity with the terminologies used. We have therefore developed an interactive annotation tool, EXTRACT, which helps curators identify and extract standard-compliant terms for annotation of metagenomic records and other samples. Behind its web-based user interface, the system combines published methods for named entity recognition of environment, organism, tissue and disease terms. The evaluators in the BioCreative V Interactive Annotation Task found the system to be intuitive, useful, wellmore » documented and sufficiently accurate to be helpful in spotting relevant text passages and extracting organism and environment terms. Here the comparison of fully manual and text-mining-assisted curation revealed that EXTRACT speeds up annotation by 15–25% and helps curators to detect terms that would otherwise have been missed.« less

  3. Commercial Light Water Reactor Tritium Extraction Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McHood, M D

    2000-10-12

    A geotechnical investigation program has been completed for the Commercial Light Water Reactor - Tritium Extraction Facility (CLWR-TEF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The program consisted of reviewing previous geotechnical and geologic data and reports, performing subsurface field exploration, field and laboratory testing, and geologic and engineering analyses. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the subsurface conditions for the CLWR-TEF in terms of subsurface stratigraphy and engineering properties for design and to perform selected engineering analyses. The objectives of the evaluation were to establish site-specific geologic conditions, obtain representative engineering properties of the subsurface and potential fill materials, evaluate the lateral and vertical extent of any soft zones encountered, and perform engineering analyses for slope stability, bearing capacity and settlement, and liquefaction potential. In addition, provide general recommendations for construction and earthwork.

  4. Extraction of information from unstructured text

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Irwin, N.H.; DeLand, S.M.; Crowder, S.V.

    1995-11-01

    Extracting information from unstructured text has become an emphasis in recent years due to the large amount of text now electronically available. This status report describes the findings and work done by the end of the first year of a two-year LDRD. Requirements of the approach included that it model the information in a domain independent way. This means that it would differ from current systems by not relying on previously built domain knowledge and that it would do more than keyword identification. Three areas that are discussed and expected to contribute to a solution include (1) identifying key entities through document level profiling and preprocessing, (2) identifying relationships between entities through sentence level syntax, and (3) combining the first two with semantic knowledge about the terms.

  5. Computational study of ion beam extraction phenomena through multiple apertures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Wanpeng; Sang, Chaofeng; Tang, Tengfei; Wang, Dezhen, E-mail: wangdez@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion, and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion, and Electron Beams (Ministry of Education), School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Li, Ming; Jin, Dazhi; Tan, Xiaohua [Institute of Electronic Engineering, Mianyang, 621900 (China)] [Institute of Electronic Engineering, Mianyang, 621900 (China)

    2014-03-15

    The process of ion extraction through multiple apertures is investigated using a two-dimensional particle-in-cell code. We consider apertures with a fixed diameter with a hydrogen plasma background, and the trajectories of electrons, H{sup +} and H{sub 2}{sup +} ions in the self-consistently calculated electric field are traced. The focus of this work is the fundamental physics of the ion extraction, and not particular to a specific device. The computed convergence and divergence of the extracted ion beam are analyzed. We find that the extracted ion flux reaching the extraction electrode is non-uniform, and the peak flux positions change according to operational parameters, and do not necessarily match the positions of the apertures in the y-direction. The profile of the ion flux reaching the electrode is mainly affected by the bias voltage and the distance between grid wall and extraction electrode.

  6. Method and apparatus for continuous flow injection extraction analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hartenstein, Steven D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Siemer, Darryl D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for a continuous flow injection batch extraction aysis system is disclosed employing extraction of a component of a first liquid into a second liquid which is a solvent for a component of the first liquid, and is immiscible with the first liquid, and for separating the first liquid from the second liquid subsequent to extraction of the component of the first liquid.

  7. Advanced Light Extraction Material for OLED Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light Extraction Material for OLED Lighting Advanced Light Extraction Material for OLED Lighting Lead Performer: Pixelligent Technologies LLC - Baltimore, MD Partners: OLEDWorks LLC DOE Total Funding: $1,000,000 Project Term: April 6, 2015 - April 5, 2017 Funding Opportunity: FY2015 Phase II Release 1 SBIR Awards PROJECT OBJECTIVE The primary goal of this Phase II project is to develop a viable commercial process to manufacture an internal light extraction (ILE) layer to be supplied to OLED

  8. Extracting and Using Data From Tracking Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Extracting and Using Data From Tracking Systems Extracting and Using Data From Tracking Systems Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Data and Evaluation Peer Exchange Call: Extracting and Using Data from Tracking Systems, call slides and discussion summary, October 11, 2012. PDF icon Call Slides and Discussion Summary More Documents & Publications Data and Evaluation Kickoff Call Data Aggregation Strategies for Evaluation and Reporting Calculating and Communicating Program Results

  9. Advanced Light Extraction Structure for OLED Lighting | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Energy Light Extraction Structure for OLED Lighting Advanced Light Extraction Structure for OLED Lighting Lead Performer: Pixelligent Technologies, LLC - Baltimore, MD Partners: OLEDWorks, LLC - Rochester, NY DOE Total Funding: $1,000,000 Cost Share: $250,000 Project Term: 9/10/2014 - 8/31/2016 Funding Opportunity: SSL R&D Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) (DE-FOA-0000973) Project Objective This project will develop a novel internal light extraction (ILE) design to improve the light

  10. Ultrasound enhanced process for extracting metal species in supercritical fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M.; Enokida, Youichi

    2006-10-31

    Improved methods for the extraction or dissolution of metals, metalloids or their oxides, especially lanthanides, actinides, uranium or their oxides, into supercritical solvents containing an extractant are disclosed. The disclosed embodiments specifically include enhancing the extraction or dissolution efficiency with ultrasound. The present methods allow the direct, efficient dissolution of UO2 or other uranium oxides without generating any waste stream or by-products.

  11. Test Plan for Solvent Extraction Data Acquisition to Support Modeling

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Efforts (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Test Plan for Solvent Extraction Data Acquisition to Support Modeling Efforts Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Test Plan for Solvent Extraction Data Acquisition to Support Modeling Efforts This testing will support NEAMS SafeSep Modeling efforts related to droplet simulation in liquid-liquid extraction equipment. Physical characteristic determinations will be completed for the fluids being used in the experiment

  12. Natural lipid extracts and biomembrane-mimicking lipid compositions...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ...phosphatidylserine cholesterol 45:20:20:15 ww) and polar lipid extract from ... a slightly higher temperature, approx 40-45 C. Amore propensity to form nonlamellar ...

  13. Novel Slow Extraction Scheme for Proton Accelerators Using Pulsed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ring at Fermilab. The proposed method of non-resonant slow extraction of protons by bent crystals in combination with orbit fast deflectors shows great promise in...

  14. METHOD OF SEPARATING NEPTUNIUM BY LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peppard, D.F.; Mason, G.W.

    1961-10-17

    A method of solvent extraction for neptunium values in solutions containing other actinide values and rare earth values, using mono (2- ethylhexyl) orthophosphoric acid is described. (AEC)

  15. Extraction of exchange parameters in transition-metal perovskites...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This content will become publicly available on September 14, 2016 Title: Extraction of ... become publicly available on September 14, 2016 Publisher's Version of Record 10.1103...

  16. Extraction of Phosphonic Acids from Urine Samples and Analysis...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Phosphonic Acids from Urine Samples and Analysis by Gas Chromatography with Detection by ... Title: Extraction of Phosphonic Acids from Urine Samples and Analysis by Gas ...

  17. Model independent extraction of the proton magnetic radius from...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Model independent extraction of the proton magnetic radius from electron scattering Authors: Epstein, Zachary ; Paz, Gil ; Roy, Joydeep Publication Date: 2014-10-20 OSTI ...

  18. Extracting hidden messages in steganographic images

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Quach, Tu-Thach

    2014-07-17

    The eventual goal of steganalytic forensic is to extract the hidden messages embedded in steganographic images. A promising technique that addresses this problem partially is steganographic payload location, an approach to reveal the message bits, but not their logical order. It works by finding modified pixels, or residuals, as an artifact of the embedding process. This technique is successful against simple least-significant bit steganography and group-parity steganography. The actual messages, however, remain hidden as no logical order can be inferred from the located payload. This paper establishes an important result addressing this shortcoming: we show that the expected mean residualsmore » contain enough information to logically order the located payload provided that the size of the payload in each stego image is not fixed. The located payload can be ordered as prescribed by the mean residuals to obtain the hidden messages without knowledge of the embedding key, exposing the vulnerability of these embedding algorithms. We provide experimental results to support our analysis.« less

  19. Extracting hot carriers from photoexcited semiconductor nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Xiaoyang

    2014-12-10

    This research program addresses a fundamental question related to the use of nanomaterials in solar energy -- namely, whether semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) can help surpass the efficiency limits, the so-called “Shockley-Queisser” limit, in conventional solar cells. In these cells, absorption of photons with energies above the semiconductor bandgap generates “hot” charge carriers that quickly “cool” to the band edges before they can be utilized to do work; this sets the solar cell efficiency at a limit of ~31%. If instead, all of the energy of the hot carriers could be captured, solar-to-electric power conversion efficiencies could be increased, theoretically, to as high as 66%. A potential route to capture this energy is to utilize semiconductor nanocrystals. In these materials, the quasi-continuous conduction and valence bands of the bulk semiconductor become discretized due to confinement of the charge carriers. Consequently, the energy spacing between the electronic levels can be much larger than the highest phonon frequency of the lattice, creating a “phonon bottleneck” wherein hot-carrier relaxation is possible via slower multiphonon emission. For example, hot-electron lifetimes as long as ~1 ns have been observed in NCs grown by molecular beam epitaxy. In colloidal NCs, long lifetimes have been demonstrated through careful design of the nanocrystal interfaces. Due to their ability to slow electronic relaxation, semiconductor NCs can in principle enable extraction of hot carriers before they cool to the band edges, leading to more efficient solar cells.

  20. Method of underground mining by pillar extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bowen, Ray J. (1879 Delann, Salt Lake City, UT 84121); Bowen, William R. (1636 Sunnydale La., Salt Lake City, UT 84108)

    1980-08-12

    A method of sublevel caving and pillar and top coal extraction for mining thick coal seams includes the advance mining of rooms and crosscuts along the bottom of a seam to a height of about eight feet, and the retreat mining of the top coal from the rooms, crosscuts and portions of the pillars remaining from formation of the rooms and cross-cuts. In the retreat mining, a pocket is formed in a pillar, the top coal above the pocket is drilled, charged and shot, and then the fallen coal is loaded by a continuous miner so that the operator remains under a roof which has not been shot. The top coal from that portion of the room adjacent the pocket is then mined, and another pocket is formed in the pillar. The top coal above the second pocket is mined followed by the mining of the top coal of that portion of the room adjacent the second pocket, all by use of a continuous miner which allows the operator to remain under a roof portion which has not been shot.

  1. Extracting hidden messages in steganographic images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quach, Tu-Thach

    2014-07-17

    The eventual goal of steganalytic forensic is to extract the hidden messages embedded in steganographic images. A promising technique that addresses this problem partially is steganographic payload location, an approach to reveal the message bits, but not their logical order. It works by finding modified pixels, or residuals, as an artifact of the embedding process. This technique is successful against simple least-significant bit steganography and group-parity steganography. The actual messages, however, remain hidden as no logical order can be inferred from the located payload. This paper establishes an important result addressing this shortcoming: we show that the expected mean residuals contain enough information to logically order the located payload provided that the size of the payload in each stego image is not fixed. The located payload can be ordered as prescribed by the mean residuals to obtain the hidden messages without knowledge of the embedding key, exposing the vulnerability of these embedding algorithms. We provide experimental results to support our analysis.

  2. Subcritical water extraction of lipids from wet algal biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deng, Shuguang; Reddy, Harvind K.; Schaub, Tanner; Holguin, Francisco Omar

    2016-05-03

    Methods of lipid extraction from biomass, in particular wet algae, through conventionally heated subcritical water, and microwave-assisted subcritical water. In one embodiment, fatty acid methyl esters from solids in a polar phase are further extracted to increase biofuel production.

  3. Method for extracting copper, silver and related metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moyer, B.A.; McDowell, W.J.

    1987-10-23

    A process for selectively extracting precious metals such as silver and gold concurrent with copper extraction from aqueous solutions containing the same. The process utilizes tetrathiamacrocycles and high molecular weight organic acids that exhibit a synergistic relationship when complexing with certain metal ions thereby removing them from ore leach solutions.

  4. Method for extracting copper, silver and related metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moyer, Bruce A.; McDowell, W. J.

    1990-01-01

    A process for selectively extracting precious metals such as silver and gold concurrent with copper extraction from aqueous solutions containing the same. The process utilizes tetrathiamacrocycles and high molecular weight organic acids that exhibit a synergistic relationship when complexing with certain metal ions thereby removing them from ore leach solutions.

  5. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, R.; Biddy, M.; Jones, S.

    2013-03-01

    This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  6. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  7. Combined Extraction of Cesium and Strontium from Akaline Nitrate Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Bonnesen, Peter V; Engle, Nancy L; Haverlock, Tamara; Sloop Jr, Frederick {Fred} V; Moyer, Bruce A

    2006-01-01

    The combined extraction of cesium and strontium from caustic wastes can be achieved by adding a crown ether and a carboxylic acid to the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent. The ligand 4,4'(5')-di(tert-butyl)cyclohexano-18-crown-6 and one of four different carboxylic acids were combined with the components of the CSSX solvent optimized for the extraction of cesium, allowing for the simultaneous extraction of cesium and strontium from alkaline nitrate media simulating alkaline high level wastes present at the U.S. Department of Energy Savannah River Site. Extraction and stripping experiments were conducted independently and exhibited adequate results for mimicking waste simulant processing through batch contacts. The promising results of these batch tests showed that the system could reasonably be tested on actual waste.

  8. Solvent extraction of Southern US tar sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penney, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Chemical Engineering at the University of Arkansas, in association with Diversified Petroleum Recovery, Inc. (DPR) of Little Rock, Arkansas, has been developing a solvent extraction process for the recovery of bitumen from tar sands for the past five years. The unique feature of the process is that the bitumen is recovered from the solvent by contacting with a co-solvent, which causes the bitumen to precipitate. The overall purpose of this project is to study both the technical and economic feasibility of applying this technology for recovery of bitumen from tar sands by (1) investigating the socioeconmic factors which affect (a) plant siting and (b) the market value of recovered bitumen; (2) operating a process demonstration unit at the rate of 1 lb/hr recovered bitumen while producing clean sand and recyclable solvents; and (3) determine the economic conditions which will make a bitumen recovery project economical. DPR has analyzed the historical trends of domestic production, consumption, discoveries and reserves of crude oil. They have started an investigation of the volatility in the price of crude oil and of gasoline prices and of the differential between gasoline and crude oil. DPR continues to analyze the geographical movement and demand for asphalt products. Utah does not appear economically attractive as a site for a bitumen from tar sands asphalt plant. Oklahoma sites are now being studied. This report also contains the quarterly progress report from a University of Nevada study to determine bitumen composition, oxygen uptake rates, and viscosities of Alabama and Utah bitumens. Both reports have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  9. First results from bent crystal extraction at the Fermilab Tevatron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    The E853 Collaboration

    1996-07-01

    First results from Fermilab Experiment 953 are presented. E853 is an experiment to test the feasibility and efficiency of extracting a low intensity beam from the halo of the Tevatron using channeling in a bent silicon crystal. The motivation for the experiment is to apply crystal extraction to trans-TeV accelerators like the LHC. Extensive simulation work has been carried out. Two accelerator operating modes have been developed for crystal studies, ``kick`` mode and diffusion mode. Results from the first successful extraction in kick mode are presented.

  10. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF THORIUM VALUES FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warf, J.C.

    1959-04-21

    The separation of thorium values from rare earth metals contained ln aqueous solutions by means of extraction with a water immiscible alkyl phosphate diluted with a hydrocarbon such as hexane is described. While the extraction according to this invention may be carried out from any aqueous salt solution, it is preferred to use solutions containing free mineral acid. Hydrochloric acid and in particular nitric acid are sultable in a concentration ranging from 0.1 to 7 normal. The higher acid concentration results in higher extraction values.

  11. Industrial application of GNEP solvent-extraction processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arm, S.T.; Phillips, C.; Dobson, A.

    2008-07-01

    EnergySolutions is currently studying the feasibility of commercially recycling spent nuclear fuel in the USA as part of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership. Uranium, plutonium, and neptunium recycling are accomplished by employing well-established solvent-extraction technology based on the tributylphosphate extractant and acetohydroxamic complexant stripping in a commercially demonstrated configuration. Americium and curium recycling is best achieved by employing the TRUEX and TALSPEAK solvent-extraction processes or a simplified variant of them. Facility design is not predicated on performing any research and development a priori. Process development and demonstration will proceed in parallel with design by proven design-management techniques. (authors)

  12. Degradation problems with the solvent extraction organic at Roessing uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munyungano, Brodrick; Feather, Angus; Virnig, Michael

    2008-07-01

    Roessing Uranium Ltd recovers uranium from a low-grade ore in Namibia. Uranium is recovered and purified from an ion-exchange eluate in a solvent-extraction plant. The solvent-extraction plant uses Alamine 336 as the extractant for uranium, with isodecanol used as a phase modifier in Sasol SSX 210, an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent. Since the plant started in the mid 1970's, there have been a few episodes where the tertiary amine has been quickly and severely degraded when the plant was operated outside certain operating parameters. The Rossing experience is discussed in more detail in this paper. (authors)

  13. Photocurrent extraction efficiency in colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kemp, K. W.; Wong, C. T. O.; Hoogland, S. H.; Sargent, E. H.

    2013-11-18

    The efficiency of photocurrent extraction was studied directly inside operating Colloidal Quantum Dot (CQD) photovoltaic devices. A model was derived from first principles for a thin film p-n junction with a linearly spatially dependent electric field. Using this model, we were able to clarify the origins of recent improvement in CQD solar cell performance. From current-voltage diode characteristics under 1 sun conditions, we extracted transport lengths ranging from 39 nm to 86 nm for these materials. Characterization of the intensity dependence of photocurrent extraction revealed that the dominant loss mechanism limiting the transport length is trap-mediated recombination.

  14. Bidentate organophosphorus solvent extraction process for actinide recovery and partition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schulz, Wallace W.

    1976-01-01

    A liquid-liquid extraction process for the recovery and partitioning of actinide values from acidic nuclear waste aqueous solutions, the actinide values including trivalent, tetravalent and hexavalent oxidation states is provided and includes the steps of contacting the aqueous solution with a bidentate organophosphorous extractant to extract essentially all of the actinide values into the organic phase. Thereafter the respective actinide fractions are selectively partitioned into separate aqueous solutions by contact with dilute nitric or nitric-hydrofluoric acid solutions. The hexavalent uranium is finally removed from the organic phase by contact with a dilute sodium carbonate solution.

  15. Step-wise supercritical extraction of carbonaceous residua

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warzinski, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    A method of fractionating a mixture containing high boiling carbonaceous material and normally solid mineral matter includes processing with a plurality of different supercritical solvents. The mixture is treated with a first solvent of high critical temperature and solvent capacity to extract a large fraction as solute. The solute is released as liquid from solvent and successively treated with other supercritical solvents of different critical values to extract fractions of differing properties. Fractionation can be supplemented by solute reflux over a temperature gradient, pressure let down in steps and extractions at varying temperature and pressure values.

  16. Method and apparatus for back-extracting metal chelates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M.; Smart, Neil G.; Lin, Yuehe

    1998-01-01

    A method of extracting metal and metalloid species from a solid or liquid substrate using a supercritical fluid solvent containing one or more chelating agents followed by back-extracting the metal and metalloid species from the metal and metalloid chelates formed thereby. The back-extraction acidic solution is performed utilizing an acidic solution. Upon sufficient exposure of the metal and metalloid chelates to the acidic solution, the metal and metalloid species are released from the chelates into the acid solution, while the chelating agent remains in the supercritical fluid solvent. The chelating agent is thereby regenerated and the metal and metalloid species recovered.

  17. Method and apparatus for back-extracting metal chelates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Lin, Y.

    1998-08-11

    A method is described for extracting metal and metalloid species from a solid or liquid substrate using a supercritical fluid solvent containing one or more chelating agents followed by back-extracting the metal and metalloid species from the metal and metalloid chelates formed thereby. The back-extraction acidic solution is performed utilizing an acidic solution. Upon sufficient exposure of the metal and metalloid chelates to the acidic solution, the metal and metalloid species are released from the chelates into the acid solution, while the chelating agent remains in the supercritical fluid solvent. The chelating agent is thereby regenerated and the metal and metalloid species recovered. 3 figs.

  18. Approaches for regeneration of amine-carboxylic acid extracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Y.; King, C.J.

    1995-07-01

    Extraction processes based on reversible chemical complexation can be useful for separation of polar organics from dilute solution. Tertiary amines are effective extractants for the recovery of carboxylic acids from aqueous solution. The regeneration of aminecarboxylic acid extracts is an important step which strongly influences the economic viability of the separation process. Several regeneration methods are critically reviewed, and the factors that affect swing regeneration processes, including temperature-swing, diluent composition-swing and pH-swing with a volatile base are discussed. Interest in this area comes from interest in treatment of waste streams, particularly in petrochemical and fermentation manufacture.

  19. Selective Extraction of Uranium from Liquid or Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farawila, Anne F.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Wai, Chien M.; Taylor, Harry Z.; Liao, Yu-Jung

    2012-07-31

    Current liquid-liquid extraction processes used in recycling irradiated nuclear fuel rely on (1) strong nitric acid to dissolve uranium oxide fuel, and (2) the use of aliphatic hydrocarbons as a diluent in formulating the solvent used to extract uranium. The nitric acid dissolution process is not selective. It dissolves virtually the entire fuel meat which complicates the uranium extraction process. In addition, a solvent washing process is used to remove TBP degradation products, which adds complexity to the recycling plant and increases the overall plant footprint and cost. A liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide (l/sc -CO2) system was designed to mitigate these problems. Indeed, TBP nitric acid complexes are highly soluble in l/sc -CO2 and are capable of extracting uranium directly from UO2, UO3 and U3O8 powders. This eliminates the need for total acid dissolution of the irradiated fuel. Furthermore, since CO2 is easily recycled by evaporation at room temperature and pressure, it eliminates the complex solvent washing process. In this report, we demonstrate: (1) A reprocessing scheme starting with the selective extraction of uranium from solid uranium oxides into a TBP-HNO3 loaded Sc-CO2 phase, (2) Back extraction of uranium into an aqueous phase, and (3) Conversion of recovered purified uranium into uranium oxide. The purified uranium product from step 3 can be disposed of as low level waste, or mixed with enriched uranium for use in a reactor for another fuel cycle. After an introduction on the concept and properties of supercritical fluids, we first report the characterization of the different oxides used for this project. Our extraction system and our online monitoring capability using UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy directly in sc-CO2 is then presented. Next, the uranium extraction efficiencies and kinetics is demonstrated for different oxides and under different physical and chemical conditions: l/sc -CO2 pressure and temperature, TBP/HNO3 complex used, reductant or complexant used for selectivity, and ionic liquids used as supportive media. To complete the extraction and recovery cycle, we then demonstrate uranium back extraction from the TBP loaded sc-CO2 phase into an aqueous phase and the characterization of the uranium complex formed at the end of this process. Another aspect of this project was to limit proliferation risks by either co-extracting uranium and plutonium, or by leaving plutonium behind by selectively extracting uranium. We report that the former is easily achieved, since plutonium is in the tetravalent or hexavalent oxidation state in the oxidizing environment created by the TBP-nitric acid complex, and is therefore co-extracted. The latter is more challenging, as a reductant or complexant to plutonium has to be used to selectively extract uranium. After undertaking experiments on different reducing or complexing systems (e.g., AcetoHydroxamic Acid (AHA), Fe(II), ascorbic acid), oxalic acid was chosen as it can complex tetravalent actinides (Pu, Np, Th) in the aqueous phase while allowing the extraction of hexavalent uranium in the sc-CO2 phase. Finally, we show results using an alternative media to commonly used aqueous phases: ionic liquids. We show the dissolution of uranium in ionic liquids and its extraction using sc-CO2 with and without the presence of AHA. The possible separation of trivalent actinides from uranium is also demonstrated in ionic liquids using neodymium as a surrogate and diglycolamides as the extractant.

  20. Solvent Extraction of Sodium Hydroxide Using Alkylphenols and Fluorinated Alcohols: Understanding the Extraction Mechanism by Equilibrium Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Hyun-Ah; Engle, Nancy L.; Bonnesen Peter V.; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Haverlock, Tamara J.; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2004-03-29

    In the present work, it has been the aim to examine extraction efficiencies of nine proton-ionizable alcohols (HAs) in 1-octanol and to identify both the controlling equilibria and predominant species involved in the extraction process within a thermochemical model. Distribution ratios for sodium (DNa) extraction were measured as a function of organic-phase HA and aqueous-phase NaOH molarity at 25 C. Extraction efficiency follows the expected order of acidity of the HAs, 4-(tert-octyl) phenol (HA 1a) and 4-noctyl- a,a-bis-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl alcohol (HA 2a) being the most efficient extractants among the compounds tested. By use of the equilibrium-modeling program SXLSQI, a model for the extraction of NaOH has been advanced based on an ion-pair extraction by the diluent to give organic-phase Na+OH- and corresponding free ions and cation exchange by the weak acids to form monomeric organic-phase Na+A- and corresponding free organic-phase ions.

  1. Technologies for Extracting Valuable Metals and Compounds from Geothermal Fluids

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objectives: Demonstrate geothermal mineral extraction; Demonstrate technical and economic feasibility; Produce products for market development; Generate operational data and scale up data so a commercial scale plant can be designed and built.

  2. Development of novel contactor for nuclear solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Shekhar; Kumar, Rajnish; Sivakumar, D.; Balamurugan, M.; Koganti, S.B.

    2008-07-01

    For current designs of radiochemical plants, solvent-extraction contactors with no periodic maintenance like pulse column are the first choice. In addition, as costs of specialty solvents for nuclear extraction are quite high, there is a demand for operation at extreme phase ratios. Recently a novel mixer-settler was visualized and developed for this kind of service. The mixer of the novel contactor is based on rotated helical tubes and does not involve any mechanical moving part. Mass-transfer runs were carried out with aqueous nitric acid and 30% TBP solvent at A/O of 0.25-200 (in extraction) and A/O of 0.25-10 (in back-extraction mode). The developed contactor exhibited nearly 100% efficiency for all the cases. (authors)

  3. Modified Purex first-cycle extraction for neptunium recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinh, Binh; Moisy, Philippe; Baron, Pascal; Calor, Jean-Noel; Espinoux, Denis; Lorrain, Brigitte; Benchikouhne-Ranchoux, Magali

    2008-07-01

    A new PUREX first-cycle flowsheet was devised to enhance the extraction yield of neptunium at the extraction step of this cycle. Simulation results (using a qualified process-simulation tool), le d to raising the nitric acid concentration of the feed from 3 M to 4.5 M to allow extraction of more than 99% of the neptunium. This flowsheet was operated in the shielded process cell of ATALANTE facility using pulsed columns and mixer-settlers banks. A 15 kg quantity of genuine oxide fuel of average burn up of 52 GWd/t with cooling time of nearly five years was treated, and the neptunium extraction yield obtained was greater than 99.6%. (authors)

  4. High extraction efficiency ultraviolet light-emitting diode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wierer, Jonathan; Montano, Ines; Allerman, Andrew A.

    2015-11-24

    Ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with tailored AlGaN quantum wells can achieve high extraction efficiency. For efficient bottom light extraction, parallel polarized light is preferred, because it propagates predominately perpendicular to the QW plane and into the typical and more efficient light escape cones. This is favored over perpendicular polarized light that propagates along the QW plane which requires multiple, lossy bounces before extraction. The thickness and carrier density of AlGaN QW layers have a strong influence on the valence subband structure, and the resulting optical polarization and light extraction of ultraviolet light-emitting diodes. At Al>0.3, thinner QW layers (<2.5 nm are preferred) result in light preferentially polarized parallel to the QW plane. Also, active regions consisting of six or more QWs, to reduce carrier density, and with thin barriers, to efficiently inject carriers in all the QWs, are preferred.

  5. Texas Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    New Mexico (Million Cubic Feet) Texas Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in New Mexico (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  6. Models for extracting N* parameters of meson-baryon reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.-S. H. Lee

    2006-06-01

    Models for extracting the nucleon resonance parameters from the data of meson-baryon reactions are reviewed. The development of a dynamical coupled-channel model with nnN unitarity is briefly reported.

  7. Extraction of solubles from plant biomass for use as microbial...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    from plant biomass for use as microbial growth stimulant and methods related thereto Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Extraction of solubles from plant biomass for use as ...

  8. Innovative Drying Technology Extracts More Energy from High Moisture Coal

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An innovative coal-drying technology that will extract more energy from high moisture coal at less cost and simultaneously reduce potentially harmful emissions is ready for commercial use after successful testing at a Minnesota electric utility.

  9. Kansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Texas...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Texas (Million Cubic Feet) Kansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Texas (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8...

  10. Colorado Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Kansas...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Kansas (Million Cubic Feet) Colorado Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Kansas (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  11. Kansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Kansas...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Kansas (Million Cubic Feet) Kansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Kansas (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7...

  12. Process to upgrade coal liquids by extraction prior to hydrodenitrogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schneider, Abraham; Hollstein, Elmer J.; Janoski, Edward J.; Scheibel, Edward G.

    1982-01-01

    Oxygen compounds are removed, e.g., by extraction, from a coal liquid prior to its hydrogenation. As a result, compared to hydrogenation of such a non-treated coal liquid, the rate of nitrogen removal is increased.

  13. Method for liquid chromatographic extraction of strontium from acid solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Dietz, Mark L.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for extracting strontium and technetium values from biological, industrial and environmental sample solutions using a chromatographic column is described. An extractant medium for the column is prepared by generating a solution of a diluent containing a Crown ether and dispersing the solution on a resin substrate material. The sample solution is highly acidic and is introduced directed to the chromatographic column and strontium or technetium is eluted using deionized water.

  14. The 2mrad Crossing Angle Interaction Region and Extraction Line

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appleby, R.; U., Manchester; Angal-Kalinin, D.; Dadoun, O.; Bambade, P.; Parker, B.; Keller, L.; Moffeit, K.; Nosochkov, Y.; Seryi, A.; Spencer, C.; Carter, J.; Royal Holloway, U.of London; Napoly, O.; /DAPNIA, Saclay

    2006-07-12

    A complete optics design for the 2mrad crossing angle interaction region and extraction line was presented at Snowmass 2005. Since this time, the design task force has been working on developing and improving the performance of the extraction line. The work has focused on optimizing the final doublet parameters and on reducing the power losses resulting from the disrupted beam transport. In this paper, the most recent status of the 2mrad layout and the corresponding performance are presented.

  15. Requirements for a Dynamic Solvent Extraction Module to Support Development

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Advanced Technologies for the Recycle of Used Nuclear Fuel (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Requirements for a Dynamic Solvent Extraction Module to Support Development of Advanced Technologies for the Recycle of Used Nuclear Fuel Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Requirements for a Dynamic Solvent Extraction Module to Support Development of Advanced Technologies for the Recycle of Used Nuclear Fuel The Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling

  16. Extraction of Equilibrium Energy and Kinetic Parameters from Single

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Molecule Force Spectroscopy Data Alex Noy is the Principal Investigator for the Extraction of Equilibrium Energy and Kinetic Parameters from Single Molecule Force Spectroscopy Data. LLNL BES Programs Highlight Extraction of Equilibrium Energy and Kinetic Parameters from Single Molecule Force Spectroscopy Data Dynamic strength data for 10 different biological bonds fitted by the model R.W. Friddle, A. Noy, J.J. De Yoreo, Interpreting the widespread nonlinear force spectra of intermolecular

  17. Detecting vortices in superconductors: Extracting one-dimensional

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    topological singularities from a discretized complex scalar field (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Detecting vortices in superconductors: Extracting one-dimensional topological singularities from a discretized complex scalar field Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Detecting vortices in superconductors: Extracting one-dimensional topological singularities from a discretized complex scalar field Authors: Phillips, Carolyn L. ; Peterka, Tom ; Karpeyev, Dmitry ; Glatz, Andreas

  18. Natural lipid extracts and biomembrane-mimicking lipid compositions are

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    disposed to form nonlamellar phases, and they release DNA from lipoplexes most efficiently (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Natural lipid extracts and biomembrane-mimicking lipid compositions are disposed to form nonlamellar phases, and they release DNA from lipoplexes most efficiently Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Natural lipid extracts and biomembrane-mimicking lipid compositions are disposed to form nonlamellar phases, and they release DNA from lipoplexes most efficiently

  19. Batch extracting process using magneticparticle held solvents (Patent) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Patent: Batch extracting process using magneticparticle held solvents Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Batch extracting process using magneticparticle held solvents A process for selectively removing metal values which may include catalytic values from a mixture containing same, wherein a magnetic particle is contacted with a liquid solvent which selectively dissolves the metal values to absorb the liquid solvent onto the magnetic particle. Thereafter the

  20. Extraction of cesium and strontium from nuclear waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Jr., Milton W.; Bowers, Jr., Charles B.

    1988-01-01

    Cesium is extracted from acidified nuclear waste by contacting the waste with a bis 4,4'(5) [1-hydroxy-2-ethylhexyl]benzo 18-crown-6 compound and a cation exchanger in a matrix solution. Strontium is extracted from acidified nuclear waste by contacting the waste with a bis 4,4'(5') [1-hydroxyheptyl]cyclohexo 18-crown-6 compound, and a cation exchanger in a matrix solution.

  1. Recovery of Sugars by Solvent Extraction - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Recovery of Sugars by Solvent Extraction Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryResearchers at the Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI) have developed a technology to extract 5C and 6C sugars directly at two points in an ionic liquid biomass pretreatment process and deliver a concentrated solution of fermentable sugars. The process minimizes toxic byproducts and facilitates ionic liquid reuse. DescriptionThe JBEI invention uses solvent

  2. Solvent Extraction of Tc and Cs from Alkaline Nitrate Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Haverlock, T J.; Sachleben, R A.; Leonard, R A.; Conner, C; Lumetta, Gregg J. ); M. Cox, M. Hidalgo, and M. Valiente

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes progress at three collaborating U.S. national laboratories on the extraction of the fission products 99Tc and 137Cs from alkaline high-level wastes. Efficient economical processes for Tc and Cs extraction (SRTALK and alkaline-side CSEX, respectively) have been developed, and testing has progressed through batch tests on actual wastes and continuous counter-current centrifugal-contactor tests on simulants.

  3. Solvent Extraction of Tc and Cs from Alkaline Nitrate Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonnesen, P.V.; Conner, C.; Delmau, L.H.; Haverlock, T.J.; Leonard, R.A.; Lumetta, G.J.; Moyer, B.A.; Sachleben, R.A.

    1999-07-11

    This paper summarizes progress at three collaborating US national laboratories on the extraction of the fission products {sup 99}Tc and {sup 137}Cs from alkaline high-level wastes (HLW). Efficient, economical processes for Tc and Cs extraction (SRTALK and alkaline-side CSEX, respectively) have been developed, and testing has progressed through batch tests on actual wastes and continuous countercurrent centrifugal-contactor tests on simulants.

  4. Application of ion exchange and extraction chromatography to the separation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of actinium from proton-irradiated thorium metal for analytical purposes (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Publisher's Accepted Manuscript: Application of ion exchange and extraction chromatography to the separation of actinium from proton-irradiated thorium metal for analytical purposes This content will become publicly available on March 17, 2017 Title: Application of ion exchange and extraction chromatography to the separation of actinium from proton-irradiated thorium metal for analytical

  5. Detecting vortices in superconductors: Extracting one-dimensional

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    topological singularities from a discretized complex scalar field (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Detecting vortices in superconductors: Extracting one-dimensional topological singularities from a discretized complex scalar field Title: Detecting vortices in superconductors: Extracting one-dimensional topological singularities from a discretized complex scalar field Authors: Phillips, Carolyn L. ; Peterka, Tom ; Karpeyev, Dmitry ; Glatz, Andreas Publication Date: 2015-02-20 OSTI Identifier:

  6. Detecting vortices in superconductors: Extracting one-dimensional

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    topological singularities from a discretized complex scalar field (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Detecting vortices in superconductors: Extracting one-dimensional topological singularities from a discretized complex scalar field Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Detecting vortices in superconductors: Extracting one-dimensional topological singularities from a discretized complex scalar field Authors: Phillips, Carolyn L. ; Peterka, Tom ; Karpeyev, Dmitry ; Glatz, Andreas

  7. Extracting vibrational beat signatures in spectrally dense molecules using

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    multi-pulse femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy. (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Extracting vibrational beat signatures in spectrally dense molecules using multi-pulse femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Extracting vibrational beat signatures in spectrally dense molecules using multi-pulse femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy. No abstract prepared. Authors: Nelson, Thomas Robert ; Urayama, Junji

  8. Extraction of exchange parameters in transition-metal perovskites (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Extraction of exchange parameters in transition-metal perovskites Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on September 14, 2016 Title: Extraction of exchange parameters in transition-metal perovskites Authors: Furrer, A. ; Podlesnyak, A. ; Krämer, K. W. Publication Date: 2015-09-15 OSTI Identifier: 1215771 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical Review B Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume:

  9. Model independent extraction of the proton magnetic radius from electron

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    scattering (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Model independent extraction of the proton magnetic radius from electron scattering Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Model independent extraction of the proton magnetic radius from electron scattering Authors: Epstein, Zachary ; Paz, Gil ; Roy, Joydeep Publication Date: 2014-10-20 OSTI Identifier: 1181119 Grant/Contract Number: FG02-13ER41997 Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Physical Review D Additional Journal

  10. Sharp Interface Tracking in Rotating Microflows of Solvent Extraction

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Sharp Interface Tracking in Rotating Microflows of Solvent Extraction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Sharp Interface Tracking in Rotating Microflows of Solvent Extraction The objective of this project is to develop a specialized sharp interface tracking simulation capability for predicting interaction of micron-sized drops and bubbles in rotating flows relevant to optimized design of contactor devices used in solvent

  11. Tracking vortices in superconductors: Extracting singularities from a

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    discretized complex scalar field evolving in time (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Tracking vortices in superconductors: Extracting singularities from a discretized complex scalar field evolving in time Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on February 18, 2017 Title: Tracking vortices in superconductors: Extracting singularities from a discretized complex scalar field evolving in time Authors:

  12. Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization: Final Technical Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited OCEAN THERMAL EXTRACTABLE ENERGY VISUALIZATION Award # DE-EE0002664 October 28, 2012 Final Technical Report Prepared by Lockheed Martin Mission Systems & Sensors (MS2) DE-EE0002664 Ocean Thermal Energy Resource Assessment Final Draft i 10/28/2012 Project Title: Ocean Thermal Extractable Energy Visualization Recipient: Lockheed Martin Corporation Award #: DE-0002664 Working Partners Project Lead: Matthew Ascari - Lockheed Martin

  13. Extraction of uranium from spent fuels using liquefied gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sawada, Kayo; Hirabayashi, Daisuke; Enokida, Youichi

    2007-07-01

    For reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels, a novel method to extract actinides from spent fuel using highly compressed gases, nitrogen dioxide and carbon dioxide was proposed. As a fundamental study, the nitrate conversion with liquefied nitrogen dioxide and the nitrate extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide were demonstrated by using uranium dioxide powder, uranyl nitrate and tri-n-butylphosphate complex in the present study. (authors)

  14. Extraction of cesium and strontium from nuclear waste

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, M.W. Jr.; Bowers, C.B. Jr.

    1988-06-07

    Cesium is extracted from acidified nuclear waste by contacting the waste with a bis 4,4[prime](5) [1-hydroxy-2-ethylhexyl]benzo 18-crown-6 compound and a cation exchanger in a matrix solution. Strontium is extracted from acidified nuclear waste by contacting the waste with a bis 4,4[prime](5[prime]) [1-hydroxyheptyl]cyclohexo 18-crown-6 compound, and a cation exchanger in a matrix solution. 3 figs.

  15. Test Plan for Solvent Extraction Data Acquisition to Support Modeling

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Efforts (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Test Plan for Solvent Extraction Data Acquisition to Support Modeling Efforts Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Test Plan for Solvent Extraction Data Acquisition to Support Modeling Efforts × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional

  16. Tracking vortices in superconductors: Extracting singularities from a

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    discretized complex scalar field evolving in time (Journal Article) | DOE PAGES Tracking vortices in superconductors: Extracting singularities from a discretized complex scalar field evolving in time This content will become publicly available on February 18, 2017 « Prev Next » Title: Tracking vortices in superconductors: Extracting singularities from a discretized complex scalar field evolving in time Authors: Phillips, Carolyn L. ; Guo, Hanqi ; Peterka, Tom ; Karpeyev, Dmitry ; Glatz,

  17. Pyrochemical investigations into recovering plutonium from americium extraction salt residues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fife, K.W.; West, M.H.

    1987-05-01

    Progress into developing a pyrochemical technique for separating and recovering plutonium from spent americium extraction waste salts has concentrated on selective chemical reduction with lanthanum metal and calcium metal and on the solvent extraction of americium with calcium metal. Both techniques are effective for recovering plutonium from the waste salt, although neither appears suitable as a separation technique for recycling a plutonium stream back to mainline purification processes. 17 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Extractability of heavy metals in wastewater solids undergoing anaerobic digestion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, D.D.

    1983-01-01

    The extractability of heavy metals in wastewater sludge undergoing anaerobic digestion was investigated. Using batch laboratory digesters, raw wastewater sludge was anaerobically digested at different raw sludge solids loadings and two temperatures. From each of the laboratory digesters, wastewater sludge was sampled at three day intervals and sequentially separated into seven extraction fractions and analyzed for the metals Cu, Cr, Cd, Fe, Ni, and Pb. The seven step sequential extraction was for metal species: (a) soluble, (b) displaced-exchangeable, (c) adsorbed, (d) organic, (e) carbonate, (f) sulfide-acid soluble, and (g) residual. At the 35/sup 0/C digestion temperature the distribution of metals in the extractant fractions between the raw and anaerobically digested sludges were significantly different. For the 45/sup 0/C digestion temperature the distribution of metals in the raw and digested sludge extractant fractions were different and different compared to the 35/sup 0/C system. The 45/sup 0/C raw sludge showed greater percent metal in the organic and sulfide-acid soluble fraction than the digested sludge. At the 45/sup 0/C anaerobic digestion temperature the percent of raw sludge solids loading in the digester had a greater effect on changes in metal extractability and proposed metal species than the 35/sup 0/C.

  19. Extraction of metals using supercritical fluid and chelate forming ligand

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, C.M.; Laintz, K.E.

    1998-03-24

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated {beta}-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated {beta}-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated {beta}-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated {beta}-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 7 figs.

  20. Extraction of metals using supercritical fluid and chelate forming legand

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth E.

    1998-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated .beta.-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  1. Tritium extraction throughput at Hanford, 1949--1954

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gydesen, S.P.

    1994-02-24

    Two tritium extraction campaigns were conducted at the 108 B facility. Both glass and metal extraction lines were utilized during the first campaign which began in February 1949 and was completed in March 1952. Five glass lines were constructed and made available for use as needed. Operation of the metal extraction line was begun on May 3, 1951. It continued in production until completion of the first campaign in March 1952. The second campaign used only the metal line. It was initiated in December 1953 and fulfilled in August 1954. Tritium production and extraction throughput information from Hanford operations was recently declassified. This document presents tritium extraction throughput information excerpted from monthly production reports which remain classified SECRET-RESTRICTED DATA because they contain information on weapon part fabrication, shipments, tritium technology and unit costs. Individuals with the appropriate level of clearance and need-to-know may request access to these reports through the DOE or appropriate Hanford contractor, following established written procedures. This data was collected for use by the Source Term Task Leader of the hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project, to develop a source term for tritium to meet a 1994 milestone. The extraction quantities for the two campaigns are presented.

  2. Extracting Scattering Phase-Shifts in Higher Partial-Waves from...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Extracting Scattering Phase-Shifts in Higher Partial-Waves from Lattice QCD Calculations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Extracting Scattering Phase-Shifts in Higher...

  3. Methodology for extracting local constants from petroleum cracking flows

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shen-Lin; Lottes, Steven A.; Zhou, Chenn Q.

    2000-01-01

    A methodology provides for the extraction of local chemical kinetic model constants for use in a reacting flow computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computer code with chemical kinetic computations to optimize the operating conditions or design of the system, including retrofit design improvements to existing systems. The coupled CFD and kinetic computer code are used in combination with data obtained from a matrix of experimental tests to extract the kinetic constants. Local fluid dynamic effects are implicitly included in the extracted local kinetic constants for each particular application system to which the methodology is applied. The extracted local kinetic model constants work well over a fairly broad range of operating conditions for specific and complex reaction sets in specific and complex reactor systems. While disclosed in terms of use in a Fluid Catalytic Cracking (FCC) riser, the inventive methodology has application in virtually any reaction set to extract constants for any particular application and reaction set formulation. The methodology includes the step of: (1) selecting the test data sets for various conditions; (2) establishing the general trend of the parametric effect on the measured product yields; (3) calculating product yields for the selected test conditions using coupled computational fluid dynamics and chemical kinetics; (4) adjusting the local kinetic constants to match calculated product yields with experimental data; and (5) validating the determined set of local kinetic constants by comparing the calculated results with experimental data from additional test runs at different operating conditions.

  4. Parameter extraction from I-V characteristics of PV devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macabebe, Erees Queen B.; Sheppard, Charles J.; Dyk, E. Ernest van

    2011-01-15

    Device parameters such as series and shunt resistances, saturation current and diode ideality factor influence the behaviour of the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of solar cells and photovoltaic modules. It is necessary to determine these parameters since performance parameters are derived from the I-V curve and information provided by the device parameters are useful in analyzing performance losses. This contribution presents device parameters of CuIn(Se,S){sub 2}- and Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2}-based solar cells, as well as, CuInSe{sub 2}, mono- and multicrystalline silicon modules determined using a parameter extraction routine that employs Particle Swarm Optimization. The device parameters of the CuIn(Se,S){sub 2}- and Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S){sub 2}-based solar cells show that the contribution of recombination mechanisms exhibited by high saturation current when coupled with the effects of parasitic resistances result in lower maximum power and conversion efficiency. Device parameters of photovoltaic modules extracted from I-V characteristics obtained at higher temperature show increased saturation current. The extracted values also reflect the adverse effect of temperature on parasitic resistances. The parameters extracted from I-V curves offer an understanding of the different mechanisms involved in the operation of the devices. The parameter extraction routine utilized in this study is a useful tool in determining the device parameters which reveal the mechanisms affecting device performance. (author)

  5. Management of water extracted from carbon sequestration projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harto, C. B.; Veil, J. A.

    2011-03-11

    Throughout the past decade, frequent discussions and debates have centered on the geological sequestration of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). For sequestration to have a reasonably positive impact on atmospheric carbon levels, the anticipated volume of CO{sub 2} that would need to be injected is very large (many millions of tons per year). Many stakeholders have expressed concern about elevated formation pressure following the extended injection of CO{sub 2}. The injected CO{sub 2} plume could potentially extend for many kilometers from the injection well. If not properly managed and monitored, the increased formation pressure could stimulate new fractures or enlarge existing natural cracks or faults, so the CO{sub 2} or the brine pushed ahead of the plume could migrate vertically. One possible tool for management of formation pressure would be to extract water already residing in the formation where CO{sub 2} is being stored. The concept is that by removing water from the receiving formations (referred to as 'extracted water' to distinguish it from 'oil and gas produced water'), the pressure gradients caused by injection could be reduced, and additional pore space could be freed up to sequester CO{sub 2}. Such water extraction would occur away from the CO{sub 2} plume to avoid extracting a portion of the sequestered CO{sub 2} along with the formation water. While water extraction would not be a mandatory component of large-scale carbon storage programs, it could provide many benefits, such as reduction of pressure, increased space for CO{sub 2} storage, and potentially, 'plume steering.' Argonne National Laboratory is developing information for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to evaluate management of extracted water. If water is extracted from geological formations designated to receive injected CO{sub 2} for sequestration, the project operator will need to identify methods for managing very large volumes of water most of which will contain large quantities of salt and other dissolved minerals. Produced water from oil and gas production also typically contains large quantities of dissolved solids. Therefore, many of the same practices that are established and used for managing produced water also may be applicable for extracted water. This report describes the probable composition of the extracted water that is removed from the formations, options for managing the extracted water, the pros and cons of those options, and some opportunities for beneficial use of the water. Following the introductory material in Chapter 1, the report is divided into chapters covering the following topics: (Chapter 2) examines the formations that are likely candidates for CO{sub 2} sequestration and provides a general evaluation of the geochemical characteristics of the formations; (Chapter 3) makes some preliminary estimates of the volume of water that could be extracted; (Chapter 4) provides a qualitative review of many potential technologies and practices for managing extracted water and for each technology or management practice, pros and cons are provided; (Chapter 5) explores the potential costs of water management; and (Chapter 6) presents the conclusions.

  6. Current performance of the self-extracting cyclotron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucas, S.; Swoboda, F.; Kleeven, W.; Delvaux, J.L.; Jongen, Y.

    2003-08-26

    The self-extracting cyclotron is a 14MeV multi-mA H+ machine from which the beam extracts without a deflector. The development of this prototype has started in 1998, and has now reached a point such that IBA considers to use it as a production machine. It is now installed in an irradiation facility and is equipped with two beam lines and two high power target-system. Beams of more than 1 mA have been extracted and transported to targets Further development is ongoing in order to increase the current on target to at least 2 mA in the coming months. Commercial isotope production will start at the end of this year. This paper will describe the current configuration of the cyclotron and the associated performances. Emphases will be put on reliability and associated problems, beam optics and performances of sub-systems.

  7. AQUEOUS BIPHASE EXTRACTION FOR PROCESSING OF FINE COAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Osseo-Asare; X. Zeng

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this research project is to develop an aqueous biphase extraction process for the treatment of fine coals. Aqueous biphase extraction is an advanced separation technology that relies on the ability of an aqueous system consisting of a water-soluble polymer and another component, e.g., another polymer, an inorganic salt, or a nonionic surfactant, to separate into two immiscible aqueous phases. The principle behind the partition of solid particles in aqueous biphase systems is the physicochemical interaction between the solid surface and the surrounding liquid solution. In order to remove sulfur and mineral matter from fine coal with aqueous biphasic extraction, it is necessary to know the partitioning behavior of coal, as well as the inorganic mineral components. Therefore, in this research emphasis was placed on the partitioning behavior of fine coal particles as well as model fine inorganic particles in aqueous biphase systems.

  8. Direct Sampling and Analysis from Solid Phase Extraction Cards using an Automated Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis Nanoelectrospray Mass Spectrometry System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walworth, Matthew J; ElNaggar, Mariam S; Stankovich, Joseph J; WitkowskiII, Charles E.; Norris, Jeremy L; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2011-01-01

    Direct liquid extraction based surface sampling, a technique previously demonstrated with continuous flow and autonomous pipette liquid microjunction surface sampling probes, has recently been implemented as the Liquid Extraction Surface Analysis (LESA) mode on the commercially available Advion NanoMate chip-based infusion nanoelectrospray ionization system. In the present paper, the LESA mode was applied to the analysis of 96-well format custom solid phase extraction (SPE) cards, with each well consisting of either a 1 or 2 mm diameter monolithic hydrophobic stationary phase. These substrate wells were conditioned, loaded with either single or multi-component aqueous mixtures, and read out using the LESA mode of a TriVersa NanoMate or a Nanomate 100 coupled to an ABI/Sciex 4000QTRAPTM hybrid triple quadrupole/linear ion trap mass spectrometer and a Thermo LTQ XL linear ion trap mass spectrometer. Extraction conditions, including extraction/nanoESI solvent composition, volume, and dwell times, were optimized in the analysis of targeted compounds. Limit of detection and quantitation as well as analysis reproducibility figures of merit were measured. Calibration data was obtained for propranolol using a deuterated internal standard which demonstrated linearity and reproducibility. A 10x increase in signal and cleanup of micromolar Angiotensin II from a concentrated salt solution was demonstrated. Additionally, a multicomponent herbicide mixture at ppb concentration levels was analyzed using MS3 spectra for compound identification in the presence of isobaric interferences.

  9. Synthesis of Two-Dimensional Materials by Selective Extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naguib, Michael; Gogotsi, Yury

    2014-12-09

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted much attention in the past decade. They offer high specific surface area, as well as electronic structure and properties that differ from their bulk counterparts due to the low dimensionality. Graphene is the best known and the most studied 2D material, but metal oxides and hydroxides (including clays), dichalcogenides, boron nitride (BN), and other materials that are one or several atoms thick are receiving increasing attention. They may deliver a combination of properties that cannot be provided by other materials. The most common synthesis approach in general is by reacting different elements or compounds to form a new compound. However, this approach does not necessarily work well for low-dimensional structures, since it favors formation of energetically preferred 3D (bulk) solids. Many 2D materials are produced by exfoliation of van der Waals solids, such as graphite or MoS2, breaking large particles into 2D layers. However, these approaches are not universal; for example, 2D transition metal carbides cannot be produced by any of them. An alternative but less studied way of material synthesis is the selective extraction process, which is based on the difference in reactivity and stability between the different components (elements or structural units) of the original material. It can be achieved using thermal, chemical, or electrochemical processes. Many 2D materials have been synthesized using selective extraction, such as graphene from SiC, transition metal oxides (TMO) from layered 3D salts, and transition metal carbides or carbonitrides (MXenes) from MAX phases. Selective extraction synthesis is critically important when the bonds between the building blocks of the material are too strong (e.g., in carbides) to be broken mechanically in order to form nanostructures. Unlike extractive metallurgy, where the extracted metal is the goal of the process, selective extraction of one or more elements from the precursor materials releases 2D structures. In this Account, in addition to graphene and TMO, we focused on MXenes as an example for the use of selective extraction synthesis to produce novel 2D materials. About 10 new carbides and carbonitrides of transition metals have been produced by this method in the past 3 years. They offer an unusual combination of metallic conductivity and hydrophilicity and show very attractive electrochemical properties. We hope that this Account will encourage researchers to extend the use of selective extraction to other layered material systems that in turn will result in expanding the world of nanomaterials in general and 2D materials in particular, generating new materials that cannot be produced by other means.

  10. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Ohio

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Extracted in Ohio (Million Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Ohio (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 346 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Pennsylvania-Ohio

  11. System and method for extracting a sample from a surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Berkel, Gary; Covey, Thomas

    2015-06-23

    A system and method is disclosed for extracting a sample from a sample surface. A sample is provided and a sample surface receives the sample which is deposited on the sample surface. A hydrophobic material is applied to the sample surface, and one or more devices are configured to dispense a liquid on the sample, the liquid dissolving the sample to form a dissolved sample material, and the one or more devices are configured to extract the dissolved sample material from the sample surface.

  12. Preparation of DNA-containing extract for PCR amplification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunbar, John M.; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2006-07-11

    Environmental samples typically include impurities that interfere with PCR amplification and DNA quantitation. Samples of soil, river water, and aerosol were taken from the environment and added to an aqueous buffer (with or without detergent). Cells from the sample are lysed, releasing their DNA into the buffer. After removing insoluble cell components, the remaining soluble DNA-containing extract is treated with N-phenacylthiazolium bromide, which causes rapid precipitation of impurities. Centrifugation provides a supernatant that can be used or diluted for PCR amplification of DNA, or further purified. The method may provide a DNA-containing extract sufficiently pure for PCR amplification within 5–10 minutes.

  13. Illinois Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Illinois

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production Extracted in Illinois (Million Cubic Feet) Illinois Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Illinois (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 47 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent

  14. Rapid automatic keyword extraction for information retrieval and analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rose, Stuart J; Cowley,; Wendy E; Crow, Vernon L; Cramer, Nicholas O

    2012-03-06

    Methods and systems for rapid automatic keyword extraction for information retrieval and analysis. Embodiments can include parsing words in an individual document by delimiters, stop words, or both in order to identify candidate keywords. Word scores for each word within the candidate keywords are then calculated based on a function of co-occurrence degree, co-occurrence frequency, or both. Based on a function of the word scores for words within the candidate keyword, a keyword score is calculated for each of the candidate keywords. A portion of the candidate keywords are then extracted as keywords based, at least in part, on the candidate keywords having the highest keyword scores.

  15. Extraction process for removing metallic impurities from alkalide metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Royer, L.T.

    1987-03-20

    A development is described for removing metallic impurities from alkali metals by employing an extraction process wherein the metallic impurities are extracted from a molten alkali metal into molten lithium metal due to the immiscibility of the alkali metals in lithium and the miscibility of the metallic contaminants or impurities in the lithium. The purified alkali metal may be readily separated from the contaminant-containing lithium metal by simple decanting due to the differences in densities and melting temperatures of the alkali metals as compared to lithium.

  16. Rib pillar extraction - An alternative to longwalling and shortwalling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habenicht, H.; Urschitz, E.

    1987-06-01

    Three mining methods for full extraction in flat coal seams - i.e., longwall (LW), shortwall (SW), and rib pillar extraction (RPE) - are compared with each other in view of the introduction of a mechanized, self-advancing roof support. Features are shown according to which RPE appears most attractive under certain conditions. In this presentation, the mining methods are outlined and discussed. The new support (Alpine Breaker Line Support, ABLS) is described, and its employment is explained. A trial operation in RPE using the ABLS has been conducted successfully in a South African coal mine. The results and improvements are stated.

  17. Florida Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Florida (Million

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cubic Feet) Liquids Production Extracted in Florida (Million Cubic Feet) Florida Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Florida (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 233 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Florida-Florida

  18. Synthesis of Two-Dimensional Materials by Selective Extraction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Naguib, Michael; Gogotsi, Yury

    2014-12-09

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted much attention in the past decade. They offer high specific surface area, as well as electronic structure and properties that differ from their bulk counterparts due to the low dimensionality. Graphene is the best known and the most studied 2D material, but metal oxides and hydroxides (including clays), dichalcogenides, boron nitride (BN), and other materials that are one or several atoms thick are receiving increasing attention. They may deliver a combination of properties that cannot be provided by other materials. The most common synthesis approach in general is by reacting different elements or compounds tomore » form a new compound. However, this approach does not necessarily work well for low-dimensional structures, since it favors formation of energetically preferred 3D (bulk) solids. Many 2D materials are produced by exfoliation of van der Waals solids, such as graphite or MoS2, breaking large particles into 2D layers. However, these approaches are not universal; for example, 2D transition metal carbides cannot be produced by any of them. An alternative but less studied way of material synthesis is the selective extraction process, which is based on the difference in reactivity and stability between the different components (elements or structural units) of the original material. It can be achieved using thermal, chemical, or electrochemical processes. Many 2D materials have been synthesized using selective extraction, such as graphene from SiC, transition metal oxides (TMO) from layered 3D salts, and transition metal carbides or carbonitrides (MXenes) from MAX phases. Selective extraction synthesis is critically important when the bonds between the building blocks of the material are too strong (e.g., in carbides) to be broken mechanically in order to form nanostructures. Unlike extractive metallurgy, where the extracted metal is the goal of the process, selective extraction of one or more elements from the precursor materials releases 2D structures. In this Account, in addition to graphene and TMO, we focused on MXenes as an example for the use of selective extraction synthesis to produce novel 2D materials. About 10 new carbides and carbonitrides of transition metals have been produced by this method in the past 3 years. They offer an unusual combination of metallic conductivity and hydrophilicity and show very attractive electrochemical properties. We hope that this Account will encourage researchers to extend the use of selective extraction to other layered material systems that in turn will result in expanding the world of nanomaterials in general and 2D materials in particular, generating new materials that cannot be produced by other means.« less

  19. Synthesis of Two-Dimensional Materials by Selective Extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelmalak, Michael Naguib; Gogotsi, Yury

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted much attention in the past decade. They offer high specific surface area, as well as electronic structure and properties that differ from their bulk counterparts due to the low dimensionality. Graphene is the best known and the most studied 2D material, but metal oxides and hydroxides (including clays), dichalcogenides, boron nitride (BN), and other materials that are one or several atoms thick are receiving increasing attention. They may deliver a combination of properties that cannot be provided by other materials. The most common synthesis approach in general is by reacting different elements or compounds to form a new compound. However, this approach does not necessarily work well for low-dimensional structures, since it favors formation of energetically preferred 3D (bulk) solids. Many 2D materials are produced by exfoliation of van der Waals solids, such as graphite or MoS2, breaking large particles into 2D layers. However, these approaches are not universal; for example, 2D transition metal carbides cannot be produced by any of them. An alternative but less studied way of material synthesis is the selective extraction process, which is based on the difference in reactivity and stability between the different components (elements or structural units) of the original material. It can be achieved using thermal, chemical, or electrochemical processes. Many 2D materials have been synthesized using selective extraction, such as graphene from SiC, transition metal oxides (TMO) from layered 3D salts, and transition metal carbides or carbonitrides (MXenes) from MAX phases. Selective extraction synthesis is critically important when the bonds between the building blocks of the material are too strong (e.g., in carbides) to be broken mechanically in order to form nanostructures. Unlike extractive metallurgy, where the extracted metal is the goal of the process, selective extraction of one or more elements from the precursor materials releases 2D structures. In this Account, in addition to graphene and TMO, we focused on MXenes as an example for the use of selective extraction synthesis to produce novel 2D materials. About 10 new carbides and carbonitrides of transition metals have been produced by this method in the past 3 years. They offer an unusual combination of metallic conductivity and hydrophilicity and show very attractive electrochemical properties. We hope that this Account will encourage researchers to extend the use of selective extraction to other layered material systems that in turn will result in expanding the world of nanomaterials in general and 2D materials in particular, generating new materials that cannot be produced by other means.

  20. Preparation of DNA-containing extract for PCR amplification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunbar, John M.; Kuske, Cheryl R.

    2006-07-11

    Environmental samples typically include impurities that interfere with PCR amplification and DNA quantitation. Samples of soil, river water, and aerosol were taken from the environment and added to an aqueous buffer (with or without detergent). Cells from the sample are lysed, releasing their DNA into the buffer. After removing insoluble cell components, the remaining soluble DNA-containing extract is treated with N-phenacylthiazolium bromide, which causes rapid precipitation of impurities. Centrifugation provides a supernatant that can be used or diluted for PCR amplification of DNA, or further purified. The method may provide a DNA-containing extract sufficiently pure for PCR amplification within 510 minutes.

  1. Extracting alcohols from aqueous solutions. [USDOE patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Compere, A.L.; Googin, J.M.; Griffith, W.L.

    1981-12-02

    The objective is to provide an efficient process for extracting alcohols in aqueous solutions into hydrocarbon fuel mixtures, such as gasoline, diesel fuel and fuel oil. This is done by contacting an aqueous fermentation liquor with a hydrocarbon or hydrocarbon mixture containing carbon compounds having 5-18 carbon atoms, which may include gasoline, diesel fuel or fuel oil. The hydrocarbon-aqueous alcohol solution is then mixed with one or more of a group of polyoxyalkylene polymers to extract the alcohol into the hydrocarbon fuel-polyoxyalkylene polymer mixture.

  2. System and method for preparing near-surface heavy oil for extraction using microbial degradation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Busche, Frederick D.; Rollins, John B.; Noyes, Harold J.; Bush, James G.

    2011-04-12

    A system and method for enhancing the recovery of heavy oil in an oil extraction environment by feeding nutrients to a preferred microbial species (bacteria and/or fungi). A method is described that includes the steps of: sampling and identifying microbial species that reside in the oil extraction environment; collecting fluid property data from the oil extraction environment; collecting nutrient data from the oil extraction environment; identifying a preferred microbial species from the oil extraction environment that can transform the heavy oil into a lighter oil; identifying a nutrient from the oil extraction environment that promotes a proliferation of the preferred microbial species; and introducing the nutrient into the oil extraction environment.

  3. Technologies for Extracting Valuable Metals and Compounds from Geothermal Fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, Stephen

    2014-04-30

    Executive Summary Simbol Materials studied various methods of extracting valuable minerals from geothermal brines in the Imperial Valley of California, focusing on the extraction of lithium, manganese, zinc and potassium. New methods were explored for managing the potential impact of silica fouling on mineral extraction equipment, and for converting silica management by-products into commercial products.` Studies at the laboratory and bench scale focused on manganese, zinc and potassium extraction and the conversion of silica management by-products into valuable commercial products. The processes for extracting lithium and producing lithium carbonate and lithium hydroxide products were developed at the laboratory scale and scaled up to pilot-scale. Several sorbents designed to extract lithium as lithium chloride from geothermal brine were developed at the laboratory scale and subsequently scaled-up for testing in the lithium extraction pilot plant. Lithium The results of the lithium studies generated the confidence for Simbol to scale its process to commercial operation. The key steps of the process were demonstrated during its development at pilot scale: 1. Silica management. 2. Lithium extraction. 3. Purification. 4. Concentration. 5. Conversion into lithium hydroxide and lithium carbonate products. Results show that greater than 95% of the lithium can be extracted from geothermal brine as lithium chloride, and that the chemical yield in converting lithium chloride to lithium hydroxide and lithium carbonate products is greater than 90%. The product purity produced from the process is consistent with battery grade lithium carbonate and lithium hydroxide. Manganese and zinc Processes for the extraction of zinc and manganese from geothermal brine were developed. It was shown that they could be converted into zinc metal and electrolytic manganese dioxide after purification. These processes were evaluated for their economic potential, and at the present time Simbol Materials is evaluating other products with greater commercial value. Potassium Silicotitanates, zeolites and other sorbents were evaluated as potential reagents for the extraction of potassium from geothermal brines and production of potassium chloride (potash). It was found that zeolites were effective at removing potassium but the capacity of the zeolites and the form that the potassium is in does not have economic potential. Iron-silica by-product The conversion of iron-silica by-product produced during silica management operations into more valuable materials was studied at the laboratory scale. Results indicate that it is technically feasible to convert the iron-silica by-product into ferric chloride and ferric sulfate solutions which are precursors to a ferric phosphate product. However, additional work to purify the solutions is required to determine the commercial viability of this process. Conclusion Simbol Materials is in the process of designing its first commercial plant based on the technology developed to the pilot scale during this project. The investment in the commercial plant is hundreds of millions of dollars, and construction of the commercial plant will generate hundreds of jobs. Plant construction will be completed in 2016 and the first lithium products will be shipped in 2017. The plant will have a lithium carbonate equivalent production capacity of 15,000 tonnes per year. The gross revenues from the project are expected to be approximately $ 80 to 100 million annually. During this development program Simbol grew from a company of about 10 people to over 60 people today. Simbol is expected to employ more than 100 people once the plant is constructed. Simbol Materials’ business is scalable in the Imperial Valley region because there are eleven geothermal power plants already in operation, which allows Simbol to expand its business from one plant to multiple plants. Additionally, the scope of the resource is vast in terms of potential products such as lithium, manganese and zinc and potentially potassium.

  4. U-EXTRACTION--IMPROVEMENTS IN ELIMINATION OF Mo BY USE OF FERRIC ION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clark, H.M.; Duffey, D.

    1958-06-10

    An improved solvent extraction process is described whereby U may be extracted by a water immiscible organic solvent from an aqueous solution of uranyl nitrate. It has been found that Mo in the presence of phosphate ions appears to form a complex with the phosphate which extracts along with the U. This extraction of Mo may be suppressed by providing ferric ion in the solution prior to the extraction step. The ferric ion is preferably provided in the form of ferric nitrate.

  5. Selective aqueous extraction of organics coupled with trapping by membrane separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    van Eikeren, Paul (Bend, OR); Brose, Daniel J. (Bend, OR); Ray, Roderick J. (Bend, OR)

    1991-01-01

    An improvement to processes for the selective extractation of organic solutes from organic solvents by water-based extractants is disclosed, the improvement comprising coupling various membrane separation processes with the organic extraction process, the membrane separation process being utilized to continuously recycle the water-based extractant and at the same time selectively remove or concentrate organic solute from the water-based extractant.

  6. Infrared Extraction Change for the NSLS-II Storage Ring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blednykh,A.; Carr, L.; Coburn, D.; Krinsky, S.

    2009-05-04

    The short- and long-range wakepotentials have been studied for the design of the infrared (IR) extraction chamber with large full aperture: 67mm vertical and 134mm horizontal. The IR-chamber will be installed within a 2.6m long wide-gap bending magnet with 25m bend radius. Due to the large bend radius it is difficult to separate the light from the electron trajectory. The required parameters of the collected IR radiation at the extraction mirror are {approx}50mrad horizontal and {approx}25mrad vertical (full radiation opening angles). If the extraction mirror is seen by the beam, resonant modes are generated in the chamber. In this paper, we present the detailed calculated impedance for the design of the far-IR chamber, and show that placing the extraction mirror in the proper position eliminates the resonances. In this case, the impedance reduces to that of a simple tapered structure, which is acceptable in regard to its impact on the electron beam.

  7. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1990-07-01

    Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

  8. The extraction of bitumen from western tar sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1990-07-01

    Topics discussed include: characterization of bitumen impregnated sandstone, water based tar sand separation technology, electrophoretic characterization of bitumen and fine mineral particles, bitumen and tar sand slurry viscosity, the hot water digestion-flotation process, electric field use on breaking water-in-oil emulsions, upgrading of bitumens and bitumen-derived liquids, solvent extraction.

  9. Bi-directionally draining pore fluid extraction vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prizio, Joseph (Boulder, CO); Ritt, Alexander (Lakewood, CO); Mower, Timothy E. (Wheat Ridge, CO); Rodine, Lonn (Arvada, CO)

    1991-01-01

    The invention is used to extract pore fluid from porous solids through a combination of mechanical compression and inert-gas injection and comprises a piston for axially compressing samples to force water out, and top and bottom drainage plates for capturing the exuded water and using inert gas to force water to exit when the limits of mechanical compression have been reached.

  10. Improved method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.; Kaplan, L.; Mason, G.W.

    1983-07-26

    A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous acidic solutions uses a new series of neutral bi-functional extractants, the alkyl(phenyl)-N,N-dialkylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxides. The process is suitable for the separation of actinide and lanthanide values from fission product values found together in high-level nuclear reprocessing waste solutions.

  11. Structural acceptance criteria Remote Handling Building Tritium Extraction Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mertz, G.

    1999-12-16

    This structural acceptance criteria contains the requirements for the structural analysis and design of the Remote Handling Building (RHB) in the Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF). The purpose of this acceptance criteria is to identify the specific criteria and methods that will ensure a structurally robust building that will safely perform its intended function and comply with the applicable Department of Energy (DOE) structural requirements.

  12. RECOVERY OF METAL VALUES FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, R.L.

    1959-09-01

    An organic solvent mixure is described for extracting actinides from aqueous solutions; the solvent mixture consists of from 10 to 25% by volume of tributyl phosphate and the remainder a chlorine-fluorine-substituted saturated hydrocarbon having two carbon atoms in the molecule.

  13. A Laser-Wire System at the ATF Extraction Line

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boogert, S.T.; Blair, G.; Boorman, G.; Bosco, A.; Deacon, L.; Driouichi, C.; Karataev, P.; /Royal Holloway, U. of London; Kamps, T.; /BESSY, Berlin; Delerue, N.; Dixit, S.; Foster, B.; Gannaway, F.; Howell, D.F.; Qureshi, M.; Reichold, A.; Senanayake, R.; /Oxford U.; Aryshev, A.; Hayano, H.; Kubo, K.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; /KEK, Tsukuba /Liverpool

    2007-02-12

    A new laser-wire (LW) system has been installed at the ATF extraction line at KEK, Tsukuba. The system aims at a micron-scale laser spot size and employs a mode-locked laser system. The purpose-built interaction chamber, light delivery optics, and lens systems are described, and the first results are presented.

  14. Supercritical Fluid Extraction and Separation of Uranium from Other Actinides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donna L. Quach; Bruce J. Mincher; Chien M. Wai

    2014-06-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of separating uranium from other actinides by using supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (sc-CO2) as a solvent modified with tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) for the development of an extraction and counter current stripping technique, which would be a more efficient and environmentally benign technology for used nuclear fuel reprocessing compared to traditional solvent extraction. Several actinides (U(VI), Np(VI), Pu(IV), and Am(III)) were extracted in sc-CO2 modified with TBP over a range of nitric acid concentrations and then the actinides were exposed to reducing and complexing agents to suppress their extractability. According to this study, the separation of uranium from plutonium in sc-CO2 modified with TBP was successful at nitric acid concentrations of less than 3 M in the presence of acetohydroxamic acid or oxalic acid, and the separation of uranium from neptunium was successful at nitric acid concentrations of less than 1 M in the presence of acetohydroxamic acid, oxalic acid, or sodium nitrite.

  15. Process for the extraction of technetium from uranium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gong, Cynthia-May S.; Poineau, Frederic; Czerwinski, Kenneth R.

    2010-12-21

    A spent fuel reprocessing method contacts an aqueous solution containing Technetium(V) and uranyl with an acidic solution comprising hydroxylamine hydrochloride or acetohydroxamic acid to reduce Tc(V) to Tc(II, and then extracts the uranyl with an organic phase, leaving technetium(II) in aqueous solution.

  16. RESEARCH ON CARBON PRODUCTS FROM COAL USING AN EXTRACTIVE PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo; Chong Chen; Brian Bland; David Fenton

    2002-03-31

    This report presents the results of a one-year effort directed at the exploration of the use of coal as a feedstock for a variety of industrially-relevant carbon products. The work was basically divided into three focus areas. The first area dealt with the acquisition of laboratory equipment to aid in the analysis and characterization of both the raw coal and the coal-derived feedstocks. Improvements were also made on the coal-extraction pilot plant which will now allow larger quantities of feedstock to be produced. Mass and energy balances were also performed on the pilot plant in an attempt to evaluate the scale-up potential of the process. The second focus area dealt with exploring hydrogenation conditions specifically aimed at testing several less-expensive candidate hydrogen-donor solvents. Through a process of filtration and vacuum distillation, viable pitch products were produced and evaluated. Moreover, a recycle solvent was also isolated so that the overall solvent balance in the system could be maintained. The effect of variables such as gas pressure and gas atmosphere were evaluated. The pitch product was analyzed and showed low ash content, reasonable yield, good coking value and a coke with anisotropic optical texture. A unique plot of coke yield vs. pitch softening point was discovered to be independent of reaction conditions or hydrogen-donor solvent. The third area of research centered on the investigation of alternate extraction solvents and processing conditions for the solvent extraction step. A wide variety of solvents, co-solvents and enhancement additives were tested with varying degrees of success. For the extraction of raw coal, the efficacy of the alternate solvents when compared to the benchmark solvent, N-methyl pyrrolidone, was not good. However when the same coal was partially hydrogenated prior to solvent extraction, all solvents showed excellent results even for extractions performed at room temperature. Standard analyses of the extraction products indicated that they had the requisite properties of viable carbon-product precursors.

  17. Gravitational wave extraction in simulations of rotating stellar core collapse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reisswig, C.; Ott, C. D.; Sperhake, U.; Schnetter, E.

    2011-03-15

    We perform simulations of general relativistic rotating stellar core collapse and compute the gravitational waves (GWs) emitted in the core-bounce phase of three representative models via multiple techniques. The simplest technique, the quadrupole formula (QF), estimates the GW content in the spacetime from the mass-quadrupole tensor only. It is strictly valid only in the weak-field and slow-motion approximation. For the first time, we apply GW extraction methods in core collapse that are fully curvature based and valid for strongly radiating and highly relativistic sources. These techniques are not restricted to weak-field and slow-motion assumptions. We employ three extraction methods computing (i) the Newman-Penrose (NP) scalar {Psi}{sub 4}, (ii) Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli-Moncrief master functions, and (iii) Cauchy-characteristic extraction (CCE) allowing for the extraction of GWs at future null infinity, where the spacetime is asymptotically flat and the GW content is unambiguously defined. The latter technique is the only one not suffering from residual gauge and finite-radius effects. All curvature-based methods suffer from strong nonlinear drifts. We employ the fixed-frequency integration technique as a high-pass waveform filter. Using the CCE results as a benchmark, we find that finite-radius NP extraction yields results that agree nearly perfectly in phase, but differ in amplitude by {approx}1%-7% at core bounce, depending on the model. Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli-Moncrief waveforms, while, in general, agreeing in phase, contain spurious high-frequency noise of comparable amplitudes to those of the relatively weak GWs emitted in core collapse. We also find remarkably good agreement of the waveforms obtained from the QF with those obtained from CCE. The results from QF agree very well in phase and systematically underpredict peak amplitudes by {approx}5%-11%, which is comparable to the NP results and is certainly within the uncertainties associated with core collapse physics.

  18. Development of Novel Sorbents for Uranium Extraction from Seawater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Wenbin; Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn

    2014-01-08

    As the uranium resource in terrestrial ores is limited, it is difficult to ensure a long-term sustainable nuclear energy technology. The oceans contain approximately 4.5 billion tons of uranium, which is one thousand times the amount of uranium in terrestrial ores. Development of technologies to recover the uranium from seawater would greatly improve the uranium resource availability, sustaining the fuel supply for nuclear energy. Several methods have been previously evaluated including solvent extraction, ion exchange, flotation, biomass collection, and adsorption; however, none have been found to be suitable for reasons such as cost effectiveness, long term stability, and selectivity. Recent research has focused on the amidoxime functional group as a promising candidate for uranium sorption. Polymer beads and fibers have been functionalized with amidoxime functional groups, and uranium adsorption capacities as high as 1.5 g U/kg adsorbent have recently been reported with these types of materials. As uranium concentration in seawater is only ~3 ppb, great improvements to uranium collection systems must be made in order to make uranium extraction from seawater economically feasible. This proposed research intends to develop transformative technologies for economic uranium extraction from seawater. The Lin group will design advanced porous supports by taking advantage of recent breakthroughs in nanoscience and nanotechnology and incorporate high densities of well-designed chelators into such nanoporous supports to allow selective and efficient binding of uranyl ions from seawater. Several classes of nanoporous materials, including mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), mesoporous carbon nanoparticles (MCNs), meta-organic frameworks (MOFs), and covalent-organic frameworks (COFs), will be synthesized. Selective uranium-binding liagnds such as amidoxime will be incorporated into the nanoporous materials to afford a new generation of sorbent materials that will be evaluated for their uranium extraction efficiency. The initial testing of these materials for uranium binding will be carried out in the Lin group, but more detailed sorption studies will be carried out by Dr. Taylor-Pashow of Savannah River National Laboratory in order to obtain quantitative uranyl sorption selectivity and kinetics data for the proposed materials. The proposed nanostructured sorbent materials are expected to have higher binding capacities, enhanced extraction kinetics, optimal stripping efficiency for uranyl ions, and enhanced mechanical and chemical stabilities. This transformative research will significantly impact uranium extraction from seawater as well as benefit DOE’s efforts on environmental remediation by developing new materials and providing knowledge for enriching and sequestering ultralow concentrations of other metals.

  19. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions by modification of Purex solvent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.

    1984-05-21

    A process has been developed for the extraction of multivalent lanthanide and actinide values from acidic waste solutions, and for the separation of these values from fission product and other values, which utilizes a new series of neutral bi-functional extractants, the alkyl(phenyl)-N, N-dialkylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxides, in combination with a phase modifier to form an extraction solution. The addition of the extractant to the Purex process extractant, tri-n-butylphosphate in normal paraffin hydrocarbon diluent, will permit the extraction of multivalent lanthanide and actinide values from 0.1 to 12.0 molar acid solutions.

  20. Extracting Information from Narratives: An Application to Aviation Safety Reports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Posse, Christian; Matzke, Brett D.; Anderson, Catherine M.; Brothers, Alan J.; Matzke, Melissa M.; Ferryman, Thomas A.

    2005-05-12

    Aviation safety reports are the best available source of information about why a flight incident happened. However, stream of consciousness permeates the narratives making difficult the automation of the information extraction task. We propose an approach and infrastructure based on a common pattern specification language to capture relevant information via normalized template expression matching in context. Template expression matching handles variants of multi-word expressions. Normalization improves the likelihood of correct hits by standardizing and cleaning the vocabulary used in narratives. Checking for the presence of negative modifiers in the proximity of a potential hit reduces the chance of false hits. We present the above approach in the context of a specific application, which is the extraction of human performance factors from NASA ASRS reports. While knowledge infusion from experts plays a critical role during the learning phase, early results show that in a production mode, the automated process provides information that is consistent with analyses by human subjects.

  1. CONTINUOUS EXTRACTED BEAM IN THE AGS FAST EXTERNAL BEAM LINE.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GLENN,J.W.; TSOUPAS,N.; BROWN,K.A.; BIRYUKOV,V.M.

    2001-06-18

    A method to split off a few percent of the 6 x 10{sup 13} AGS beam delivered to the Slow External Beam (SEB) lines and send it down the Fast External Beam line (FEB) has been developed. The mission is to feed a counter experiment off the FEB that directly measures the neutrino mass using the muon storage ring. The use of normal thin septum splitters would have an excessive loss overhead and been optically difficult. The AGS Slow Extraction uses a third integer resonance with sextuple strength so the resonance width is a few percent of the beam width. This results in a low density tail which will be clipped by a bent crystal and deflected into the FEB channel. This clipping off of the tail should reduce losses in the SEB transport line. Details of modeled orbits, particle distribution and extraction trajectories into and out off the crystal will be given.

  2. Automatic Labeling for Entity Extraction in Cyber Security

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bridges, Robert A; Jones, Corinne L; Iannacone, Michael D; Testa, Kelly M; Goodall, John R

    2014-01-01

    Timely analysis of cyber-security information necessitates automated information extraction from unstructured text. While state-of-the-art extraction methods produce extremely accurate results, they require ample training data, which is generally unavailable for specialized applications, such as detecting security related entities; moreover, manual annotation of corpora is very costly and often not a viable solution. In response, we develop a very precise method to automatically label text from several data sources by leveraging related, domain-specific, structured data and provide public access to a corpus annotated with cyber-security entities. Next, we implement a Maximum Entropy Model trained with the average perceptron on a portion of our corpus (~750,000 words) and achieve near perfect precision, recall, and accuracy, with training times under 17 seconds.

  3. Injection/Extraction Studies for the Muon FFAG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pasternak, J.; Berg, J. Scott; Kelliher, D. J.; Machida, S.

    2010-03-30

    The non-scaling fixed field alternating gradient (NS-FFAG) ring is a candidate muon accelerator in the Neutrino Factory complex according to the present baseline, which is currently being addressed by the International Design Study (IDS-NF). In order to achieve small orbit excursion, motivated by magnet cost reduction, and small time of flight variation, dictated by the need to use high RF frequency, lattices with a very compact cell structure and short straight sections are required. The resulting geometry dictates very difficult constraints on the injection/extraction systems. Beam dynamics in the non-scaling FFAG is studied using codes capable of correctly tracking with large transverse amplitude and momentum spread. The feasibility of injection/extraction is studied and various implementations focusing on minimization of kicker/septum strength are presented. Finally the parameters of the resulting kicker magnets are estimated.

  4. U.S. Natural Gas Total Liquids Extracted (Thousand Barrels)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Total Liquids Extracted (Thousand Barrels) U.S. Natural Gas Total Liquids Extracted (Thousand Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 569,968 599,518 584,160 571,256 587,502 594,306 569,913 1990's 573,054 602,734 626,320 634,481 635,983 649,149 689,314 690,999 668,011 686,862 2000's 721,895 682,873 681,646 622,291 657,032 619,884 637,635 658,291 673,677 720,612 2010's 749,095 792,481 873,563 937,591 1,124,416 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not

  5. Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yavorsky, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

  6. Fluid extraction using carbon dioxide and organophosphorus chelating agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smart, N.G.; Wai, C.M.; Lin, Y.; Kwang, Y.H.

    1998-11-24

    Methods for extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a fluid solvent, particularly supercritical CO{sub 2}, and a chelating agent are described. The chelating agent forms a chelate with the species, the chelate being soluble in the fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical CO{sub 2} and the chelating agent comprises an organophosphorous chelating agent, particularly sulfur-containing organophosphorous chelating agents, including mixtures of chelating agents. Examples of chelating agents include monothiophosphinic acid, di-thiophosphinic acid, phosphine sulfite, phosphorothioic acid, and mixtures thereof. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metal and metalloids from industrial waste solutions, particularly acidic solutions. Both the chelate and the supercritical fluid can be regenerated and the contaminant species recovered to provide an economic, efficient process. 1 fig.

  7. Fluid extraction using carbon dioxide and organophosphorus chelating agents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smart, Neil G.; Wai, Chien M.; Lin, Yuehe; Kwang, Yak Hwa

    1998-01-01

    Methods for extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a fluid solvent, particularly supercritical CO.sub.2, and a chelating agent are described. The chelating agent forms a chelate with the species, the chelate being soluble in the fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical CO.sub.2 and the chelating agent comprises an organophosphorous chelating agent, particularly sulfur-containing organophosphorous chelating agents, including mixtures of chelating agents. Examples of chelating agents include monothiophosphinic acid, di-thiophosphinic acid, phosphine sulfite, phosphorothioic acid, and mixtures thereof. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metal and metalloids from industrial waste solutions, particularly acidic solutions. Both the chelate and the supercritical fluid can be regenerated and the contaminant species recovered to provide an economic, efficient process.

  8. Algal Lipid Extraction and Upgrading to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, Ryan; Biddy, Mary J.; Jones, Susanne B.

    2013-03-31

    In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the cultivation of algal biomass followed by further lipid extraction and upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuels. Technical barriers and key research needs have been assessed in order for the algal lipid extraction and upgrading pathway to be competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

  9. Colorado Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Utah (Million

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Feet) Utah (Million Cubic Feet) Colorado Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Utah (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 34 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Colorado-Utah

  10. Kansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Oklahoma (Million

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Feet) Oklahoma (Million Cubic Feet) Kansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Oklahoma (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 7 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Kansas-Oklahoma

  11. Montana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Wyoming (Million

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Feet) Wyoming (Million Cubic Feet) Montana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Wyoming (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 27 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Montana-Wyoming

  12. MILESTONES AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS IN THE SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF CAESIUM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A

    2011-01-01

    The remarkable development of solvent-extraction (SX) chemistry for caesium separation over the past half a century as driven by the needs of the nuclear industry now constitutes an instructive case study in exploring the limits of selectivity and cycle efficiency in SX. In this review, key milestones in the pursuit of both fundamentals and applications of caesium extraction will be highlighted along with a look at future prospects. The high-yield fission-product 137Cs constitutes a major fraction of the radioactivity in nuclear wastes, and in view of its heat production, environmental mobility, radiation hazard, and even uses as a radiation source, methods have long been sought for its separation. Toward this end, the evolving science has been challenged by daunting requirements for decontamination in the presence of high concentrations of competing cations, and demands for small footprint, modular design, and high throughput place a premium on selectivity and efficiency. Fortunately, the science has also benefited from the peculiar economics of nuclear separations, which have afforded the development of wonderfully sophisticated reagents. With its location in the lower left side of the periodic table, the Cs+ cation has the distinction of having the lowest charge density of any metal cation except short-lived francium. For practical purposes, Cs+ is thus the least hydrated and, in principle, the most directly extractable metal cation. Technologies employing liquid-liquid cation exchange with very large, durable anions like those from the dicarbollide family have therefore been quite effective based solely on solvation principles. Alternatively, researchers have turned to macrocyclic coordinating extractants, such as calix-crown ethers, following principles of molecular recognition, with dramatic results. Overall, strides continue along these lines, though it is apparent that caesium SX has reached a state of excellent fundamental understanding and technical maturity, evidenced by a suite of highly effective technologies.

  13. Investigation of HNO2 Production in Solvent Extraction Organic Phases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leigh R. Martin

    2014-09-01

    This document is a letter report that was prepared to meet FCR&D level 4 milestone M4FT-14IN0304054, Investigate HNO2 production in solvent extraction organic phases. This work was carried out under the auspices of the Fundamental Radiation Chemistry FCR&D work package. This document reports on an initial tests performed to follow HNO2 formation in reference flowsheet relevant organic phases.

  14. Magnetic relaxation - coal swelling, extraction, pore size. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doetschman, D.C.

    1994-10-26

    The aim of the contract was to employ electron and nuclear magnetic relaxation techniques to investigate solvent swelling of coals, solvent extraction of coals and molecular interaction with solvent coal pores. Many of these investigations have appeared in four major publications and a conference proceedings. Another manuscript has been submitted for publication. The set of Argonne Premium Coals was chosen as extensively characterized and representative samples for this project.

  15. Utah Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Wyoming (Million

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Feet) Wyoming (Million Cubic Feet) Utah Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Wyoming (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 469 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Utah-Wyoming

  16. Extracting source parameters from beam monitors on a chopper spectrometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abernathy, Douglas L [ORNL; Niedziela, Jennifer L [ORNL; Stone, Matthew B [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The intensity distributions of beam monitors in direct-geometry time-of-flight neutron spectrometers provide important information about the instrument resolution. For short-pulse spallation neutron sources in particular, the asymmetry of the source pulse may be extracted and compared to Monte Carlo source simulations. An explicit formula using a Gaussian-convolved Ikeda-Carpenter distribution is given and compared to data from the ARCS instrument at the Spallation Neutron Source.

  17. Extraction of the pretzelosity distribution from experimental data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lefky, Christopher; Prokudin, Alexei

    2015-02-13

    We attempt an extraction of the pretzelosity distribution ($h^{\\perp}_{1T}$) from preliminary COMPASS, HERMES, and JLAB experimental data on $\\sin(3\\phi_h - \\phi_S)$ asymmetry on proton and deuteron targets. The resulting distributions, albeit big errors, show tendency for up quark pretzelosity to be positive and down quark pretzelosity to be negative. A model relation of pretzelosity distribution and Orbital Angular Momentum of quarks is used to estimate contributions of up and down quarks.

  18. Method of modifying a volume mesh using sheet extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borden, Michael J.; Shepherd, Jason F.

    2007-02-20

    A method and machine-readable medium provide a technique to modify a hexahedral finite element volume mesh using dual generation and sheet extraction. After generating a dual of a volume stack (mesh), a predetermined algorithm may be followed to modify the volume mesh of hexahedral elements. The predetermined algorithm may include the steps of determining a sheet of hexahedral mesh elements, generating nodes for merging, and merging the nodes to delete the sheet of hexahedral mesh elements and modify the volume mesh.

  19. Extractions of polarized and unpolarized parton distribution functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jimenez-Delgado, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    An overview of our ongoing extractions of parton distribution functions of the nucleon is given. First JAM results on the determination of spin-dependent parton distribution functions from world data on polarized deep-inelastic scattering are presented first, and followed by a short report on the status of the JR unpolarized parton distributions. Different aspects of PDF analysis are briefly discussed, including effects of the nuclear structure of targets, target-mass corrections and higher twist contributions to the structure functions.

  20. Studies of Flerovium and Element 115 Homologs with Macrocyclic Extractants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Despotopulos, John D.

    2015-03-12

    Study of the chemistry of the heaviest elements, Z ≥ 104, poses a unique challenge due to their low production cross-sections and short half-lives. Chemistry also must be studied on the one-atom-at-a-time scale, requiring automated, fast, and very efficient chemical schemes. Recent studies of the chemical behavior of copernicium (Cn, element 112) and flerovium (Fl, element 114) together with the discovery of isotopes of these elements with half-lives suitable for chemical studies have spurred a renewed interest in the development of rapid systems designed to study the chemical properties of elements with Z ≥ 114. This dissertation explores both extraction chromatography and solvent extraction as methods for development of a rapid chemical separation scheme for the homologs of flerovium (Pb, Sn, Hg) and element 115 (Bi, Sb), with the goal of developing a chemical scheme that, in the future, can be applied to on-line chemistry of both Fl and element 115. Macrocyclic extractants, specifically crown ethers and their derivatives, were chosen for these studies.

  1. Sample extraction and injection with a microscale preconcentrator.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, Alex Lockwood; Chan, Helena Kai Lun

    2007-09-01

    This report details the development of a microfabricated preconcentrator that functions as a fully integrated chemical extractor-injector for a microscale gas chromatograph (GC). The device enables parts-per-billion detection and quantitative analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in indoor air with size and power advantages over macro-scale systems. The 44 mm{sup 3} preconcentrator extracts VOCs using highly adsorptive, granular forms of graphitized carbon black and carbon molecular sieves. The micron-sized silicon cavities have integrated heating and temperature sensing allowing low power, yet rapid heating to thermally desorb the collected VOCs (GC injection). The keys to device construction are a new adsorbent-solvent filling technique and solvent-tolerant wafer-level silicon-gold eutectic bonding technology. The product is the first granular adsorbent preconcentrator integrated at the wafer level. Other advantages include exhaustive VOC extraction and injection peak widths an order of magnitude narrower than predecessor prototypes. A mass transfer model, the first for any microscale preconcentrator, is developed to describe both adsorption and desorption behaviors. The physically intuitive model uses implicit and explicit finite differences to numerically solve the required partial differential equations. The model is applied to the adsorption and desorption of decane at various concentrations to extract Langmuir adsorption isotherm parameters from effluent curve measurements where properties are unknown a priori.

  2. Solvent extraction of radionuclides from aqueous tank waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, B.A.; Bonnesen, P.V.; Sachleben, R.A.; Leonard, R.A.; Lumetta, G.J.

    1997-01-01

    This task aims toward the development of efficient solvent-extraction processes for the removal of the fission products {sup 99}Tc, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs from alkaline tank wastes. Processes already developed or proposed entail direct treatment of the waste solution with the solvent and subsequent stripping of the extracted contaminants from the solvent into a dilute aqueous solution. Working processes to remove Tc(and SR) separately and Cs separately have been developed; the feasibility of a combined process is under investigation. Since Tc, Sr, and Cs will be vitrified together in the high-level fraction, however, a process that could separate Tc, Sr, and Cs simultaneously, as opposed to sequentially, potentially offers the greatest impact. A figure presents a simplified diagram of a proposed solvent-extraction cycle followed by three possible treatments for the stripping solution. Some degree of recycle of the stripping solution (option a) is expected. Simple evaporation (option c) is possible prior to vitrification; this offers the greatest possible volume reduction with simple operation and no consumption of chemicals, but it is energy intensive. However, if the contaminants are concentrated (option b) by fixed-bed technology, the energy penalty of evaporation can be avoided and vitrification facilitated without any additional secondary waste being produced.

  3. Extraction of CP Properties of the H(125) Boson Discovered in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ThesisDissertation: Extraction of CP Properties of the H(125) Boson Discovered in ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Extraction of CP Properties of the H(125) Boson ...

  4. EXTRACTION OF TETRAVALENT PLUTONIUM VALUES WITH METHYL ETHYL KETONE, METHYL ISOBUTYL KETONE ACETOPHENONE OR MENTHONE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1961-08-01

    A process is described for extracting tetravalent plutonium from an aqueous acid solution with methyl ethyl ketone, methyl isobutyl ketone, or acetophenone and with the extraction of either tetravalent or hexavalent plutonium into menthone. (AEC)

  5. Analysis of Contaminant Rebound in Ground Water in Extraction Wells at the

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Tuba City, Arizona, Site | Department of Energy Contaminant Rebound in Ground Water in Extraction Wells at the Tuba City, Arizona, Site Analysis of Contaminant Rebound in Ground Water in Extraction Wells at the Tuba City, Arizona, Site Analysis of Contaminant Rebound in Ground Water in Extraction Wells at the Tuba City, Arizona, Site PDF icon Analysis of Contaminant Rebound in Ground Water in Extraction Wells at the Tuba City, Arizona, Site More Documents & Publications Diffusion

  6. MARS Tracking Simulations for the Mu2e Slow Extracted Proton Beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nagaslaev, Vladimir; Rakhno, Igor

    2015-06-01

    Particle tracking taking into account interactions with fields and materials is necessary for proper evaluation of the resonant extraction losses and geometry optimization for the extraction beam line. This paper describes the tracking simulations for the Mu2e Resonant Extraction and discusses the geometry choices made based on these simulations.

  7. The extraction of bitumen from western oil sands. Final report, July 1989--September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oblad, A.G.; Bunger, J.W.; Dahlstrom, D.A.; Deo, M.D.; Fletcher, J.V.; Hanson, F.V.; Miller, J.D.; Seader, J.D.

    1994-03-01

    Research and development of surface extraction and upgrading processes of western tar sands are described. Research areas included modified hot water, fluidized bed, and rotary kiln pyrolysis of tar sands for extraction of bitumen. Bitumen upgrading included solvent extraction of bitumen, and catalytic hydrotreating of bitumen. Characterization of Utah tar sand deposits is also included.

  8. Octamethyl-octaundecylcyclo[8]pyrrole: A Promising Sulfate Anion Extractant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eller, Leah R; Stepien, Marcin; Fowler, Christopher J; Lee, Jeong Tae; Sessler, Jonathan L.; Moyer, Bruce A

    2008-01-01

    The diprotonated form of an organic-solubilized cyclo[8]pyrrole derivative, bearing eight undecyl chains on the {beta}-pyrrolic positions, was found to extract sulfate anion effectively from neutral aqueous media into a toluene organic phase. The kinetics of sulfate anion exchange between the two phases were found to be exceedingly slow in the absence of the phase-transfer catalyst, Aliquat 336-nitrate (A336N), but appreciable in its presence. The bisnitrate anion bound form of this cyclo[8]pyrrole could be generated in situ by subjecting the toluene phase containing initially 0.5 mM of the sulfate anion bound form and 0.1 mM trioctylamine (TOA) to successive equilibrations with aqueous 0.1 M HNO{sub 3} until sulfate was no longer detected in the aqueous phase. This bisnitrate complex, when studied as a 0.5 mM solution in toluene in the presence of 0.1 mM (TOAH){sup +}(NO{sub 3}{sup -}), was also found to be an effective extractant for sulfate anion. D{sub SO4} values of 0.001 and 1000 were observed at 1 M NaNO{sub 3}(aq) and 0.3 mM NaNO{sub 3}(aq), respectively, and the logarithm of the conditional exchange constant, log(K{prime}{sub exch}), was calculated to be 4.9 {+-} 0.4. The present cyclo[8]pyrrole system is thus noteworthy as being the first synthetic receptor that displays a high selectivity for sulfate anion in the presence of excess nitrate under conditions of solvent extraction.

  9. Towards a Relation Extraction Framework for Cyber-Security Concepts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Corinne L; Bridges, Robert A; Huffer, Kelly M; Goodall, John R

    2015-01-01

    In order to assist security analysts in obtaining information pertaining to their network, such as novel vulnerabilities, exploits, or patches, information retrieval methods tailored to the security domain are needed. As labeled text data is scarce and expensive, we follow developments in semi-supervised NLP and implement a bootstrapping algorithm for extracting security entities and their relationships from text. The algorithm requires little input data, specifically, a few relations or patterns (heuristics for identifying relations), and incorporates an active learning component which queries the user on the most important decisions to prevent drifting the desired relations. Preliminary testing on a small corpus shows promising results, obtaining precision of .82.

  10. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM FROM LANTHANUM BY CHELATION-EXTRACTION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    James, R.A.; Thompson, S.G.

    1958-12-01

    Plutonium can be separated from a mixture of plutonlum and lanthanum in which the lanthanum to plutonium molal ratio ls at least five by adding the ammonium salt of N-nitrosoarylhydroxylamine to an aqueous solution having a pH between about 3 and 0.2 and containing the plutonium in a valence state of at least +3, to form a plutonium chelate compound of N-nitrosoarylhydroxylamine. The plutonium chelate compound may be recovered from the solution by extracting with an immiscible organic solvent such as chloroform.

  11. Extracting the diffusion tensor from molecular dynamics simulation with Milestoning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mugnai, Mauro L.; Elber, Ron

    2015-01-07

    We propose an algorithm to extract the diffusion tensor from Molecular Dynamics simulations with Milestoning. A Kramers-Moyal expansion of a discrete master equation, which is the Markovian limit of the Milestoning theory, determines the diffusion tensor. To test the algorithm, we analyze overdamped Langevin trajectories and recover a multidimensional Fokker-Planck equation. The recovery process determines the flux through a mesh and estimates local kinetic parameters. Rate coefficients are converted to the derivatives of the potential of mean force and to coordinate dependent diffusion tensor. We illustrate the computation on simple models and on an atomically detailed system—the diffusion along the backbone torsions of a solvated alanine dipeptide.

  12. Reductive stripping process for uranium recovery from organic extracts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hurst, Jr., Fred J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1985-01-01

    In the reductive stripping of uranium from an organic extractant in a uranium recovery process, the use of phosphoric acid having a molarity in the range of 8 to 10 increases the efficiency of the reductive stripping and allows the strip step to operate with lower aqueous to organic recycle ratios and shorter retention time in the mixer stages. Under these operating conditions, less solvent is required in the process, and smaller, less expensive process equipment can be utilized. The high strength H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 is available from the evaporator stage of the process.

  13. Reductive stripping process for uranium recovery from organic extracts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hurst, F.J. Jr.

    1983-06-16

    In the reductive stripping of uranium from an organic extractant in a uranium recovery process, the use of phosphoric acid having a molarity in the range of 8 to 10 increases the efficiency of the reductive stripping and allows the strip step to operate with lower aqueous to organic recycle ratios and shorter retention time in the mixer stages. Under these operating conditions, less solvent is required in the process, and smaller, less expensive process equipment can be utilized. The high strength H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ is available from the evaporator stage of the process.

  14. Gulf Of Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Mississippi (Million Cubic Feet) Mississippi (Million Cubic Feet) Gulf Of Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Mississippi (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 9,793 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Gulf of

  15. Kentucky Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in West Virginia

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Cubic Feet) West Virginia (Million Cubic Feet) Kentucky Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in West Virginia (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 1,465 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Kentucky-West Virginia

  16. Louisiana Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Texas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Cubic Feet) Texas (Million Cubic Feet) Louisiana Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Texas (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 325 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Louisiana Onshore-Texas

  17. Montana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in North Dakota

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Cubic Feet) North Dakota (Million Cubic Feet) Montana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in North Dakota (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 303 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Montana-North Dakota

  18. Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Oklahoma

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Cubic Feet) Oklahoma (Million Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Oklahoma (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 166,776 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Oklahoma-Oklahoma

  19. Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Texas (Million

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Feet) Texas (Million Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Texas (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 2,434 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Oklahoma-Texas

  20. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in West

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Virginia (Million Cubic Feet) West Virginia (Million Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in West Virginia (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 14,335 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent

  1. New geothermal heat extraction process to deliver clean power generation

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Pete McGrail

    2012-12-31

    A new method for capturing significantly more heat from low-temperature geothermal resources holds promise for generating virtually pollution-free electrical energy. Scientists at the Department of Energys Pacific Northwest National Laboratory will determine if their innovative approach can safely and economically extract and convert heat from vast untapped geothermal resources. The goal is to enable power generation from low-temperature geothermal resources at an economical cost. In addition to being a clean energy source without any greenhouse gas emissions, geothermal is also a steady and dependable source of power.

  2. Method of extracting heat from dry geothermal reservoirs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Potter, R.M.; Robinson, E.S.; Smith, M.C.

    1974-01-22

    Hydraulic fracturing is used to interconnect two or more holes that penetrate a previously dry geothermal reservoir, and to produce within the reservoir a sufficiently large heat-transfer surface so that heat can be extracted from the reservoir at a usefully high rate by a fluid entering it through one hole and leaving it through another. Introduction of a fluid into the reservoir to remove heat from it and establishment of natural (unpumped) convective circulation through the reservoir to accomplish continuous heat removal are important and novel features of the method. (auth)

  3. Extraction of the pretzelosity distribution from experimental data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lefky, Christopher; Prokudin, Alexei

    2015-02-13

    We attempt an extraction of the pretzelosity distribution (more » $$h^{\\perp}_{1T}$$) from preliminary COMPASS, HERMES, and JLAB experimental data on $$\\sin(3\\phi_h - \\phi_S)$$ asymmetry on proton and deuteron targets. The resulting distributions, albeit big errors, show tendency for up quark pretzelosity to be positive and down quark pretzelosity to be negative. A model relation of pretzelosity distribution and Orbital Angular Momentum of quarks is used to estimate contributions of up and down quarks.« less

  4. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Kalina, Dale G.; Kaplan, Louis; Mason, George W.

    1985-01-01

    A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous acidic solutions with an organic extractant having the formula: ##STR1## where .phi. is phenyl, R.sup.1 is a straight or branched alkyl or alkoxyalkyl containing from 6 to 12 carbon atoms and R.sup.2 is an alkyl containing from 3 to 6 carbon atoms. The process is suitable for the separation of actinide and lanthanide values from fission product values found together in high level nuclear reprocessing waste solutions.

  5. Enhanced spot preparation for liquid extractive sampling and analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Berkel, Gary J.; King, Richard C.

    2015-09-22

    A method for performing surface sampling of an analyte, includes the step of placing the analyte on a stage with a material in molar excess to the analyte, such that analyte-analyte interactions are prevented and the analyte can be solubilized for further analysis. The material can be a matrix material that is mixed with the analyte. The material can be provided on a sample support. The analyte can then be contacted with a solvent to extract the analyte for further processing, such as by electrospray mass spectrometry.

  6. HIGH-PRESSURE SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF METHANE FROM GEOPRESSURED BRINES:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    PRESSURE SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF METHANE FROM GEOPRESSURED BRINES: TECHNICAL EVALUATION AND COST ANALYSIS R. Quong H. H. Otsuki F. E. Locke July 1981 This is an informal report intended primarily for internal or limited extcrual dirtribdk.. 1Lc opinions and condusions stated are tbose of the antbor and m y or may m o t be tbosc of tbe Laboratory. Work performed under the ampices of the U S . Department of Elnrgy by tbe Lawrence Livermore Laboratory under Cwbsct W-7405-Er498. 7 DISTRIBUTIUN OF THIS

  7. Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Wyoming (Million

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Cubic Feet) Wyoming (Million Cubic Feet) Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Wyoming (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 60,873 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Wyoming-Wyoming

  8. Texas Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Texas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7 (Million Cubic Feet)

    Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Texas (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Texas Offshore Natural Gas Plant Processing

  9. Texas Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Oklahoma

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Cubic Feet) Oklahoma (Million Cubic Feet) Texas Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Oklahoma (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 8,718 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Texas Onshore-Oklahoma

  10. Texas Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Texas

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Cubic Feet) Texas (Million Cubic Feet) Texas Onshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production Extracted in Texas (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2010's 790,721 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 4/29/2016 Next Release Date: 5/31/2016 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Texas Onshore-Texas

  11. Less common applications of monoliths: Preconcentration andsolid-phase extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Svec, Frantisek

    2006-03-27

    Monolithic materials are finding their place in a variety of fields. While liquid chromatography is the most emphasized use of this new category of porous media, some other just as important applications are eclipsed by the success of monolithic columns. This review article describes all current facets of use of monoliths in preconcentration and solid-phase extraction. In addition to the typical off line use that does not seem to be the main stream application for the monolithic materials, in-line connection of the preconcentration with HPLC, electrochromatography, electrophoresis, enzymatic digestion, as well as its applications in microfluidics are presented.

  12. Liquid-liquid extraction of short-chain organic acids from anaerobic digesters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wene, E.G.; Antonopoulos, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    Anaerobic digesters with glucose or municipal solid waste (MSW) feed were operated to maximize production of short-chain organic acids. Digester effluent was extracted by liquid-liquid extraction with trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO) or trioctylamine (TOA) in heptane or 2-heptanone as the water immiscible phase. Digester effluent was recycled to digesters after extraction. Both TOPO and TOA in organic solvents effectively extract organic acids from anaerobic digester fluid. Longer chain acids have a higher distribution coefficient than shorter-chain acids. Long term extraction of digester fluid with recycle was not toxic to the anaerobic production of short-chain acids.

  13. Development of Extraction Techniques for the Detection of Signature Lipids from Oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borglin, Sharon; Geller, Jil; Chakraborty, Romy; Hazen, Terry; Mason, Olivia

    2010-05-17

    Pure cultures, including Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Methanococcus maripaludus, were combined with model oil samples and oil/diesel mixtures to optimize extraction techniques of signature lipids from oil in support of investigation of microbial communities in oil deposit samples targets for microbial enhanced hydrocarbon recovery. Several techniques were evaluated, including standard phospholipid extraction, ether linked lipid for Archaeal bacterial detection, and high pressure extractiontechniques. Recovery of lipids ranged from 50-80percent as compared to extraction of the pure culture. Extraction efficiency was evaluated by the use of internal standards. Field samples will also be tested for recovery of signature lipids with optimized extraction techniques.

  14. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR THE SEPARATION OF URANIUM AND THORIUM FROM PROTACTINIUM AND FISSION PRODUCTS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rainey, R.H.; Moore, J.G.

    1962-08-14

    A liquid-liquid extraction process was developed for recovering thorium and uranium values from a neutron irradiated thorium composition. They are separated from a solvent extraction system comprising a first end extraction stage for introducing an aqueous feed containing thorium and uranium into the system consisting of a plurality of intermediate extractiorr stages and a second end extractron stage for introducing an aqueous immiscible selective organic solvent for thorium and uranium in countercurrent contact therein with the aqueous feed. A nitrate iondeficient aqueous feed solution containing thorium and uranium was introduced into the first end extraction stage in countercurrent contact with the organic solvent entering the system from the second end extraction stage while intro ducing an aqueous solution of salting nitric acid into any one of the intermediate extraction stages of the system. The resultant thorium and uranium-laden organic solvent was removed at a point preceding the first end extraction stage of the system. (AEC)

  15. Modeling of distribution and speciation of plutonium in the Urex extraction system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulenova, A.; Tkac, P.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Krebs, J.F.

    2008-07-01

    The PUREX extraction process is used worldwide to recover uranium and plutonium from dissolved spent nuclear fuel using the tributylphosphate-nitric acid extraction system. In the recent decade, significant research progress was achieved with the aim to modify this system by addition of a salt-free agent to optimize stripping of plutonium from the tributylphosphate (TBP) extraction product (UREX). Experimental results on the extraction of Pu(IV) with and without acetohydroxamic acid in the HNO{sub 3}/TBP (30 vol %) were used for the development of a thermodynamic model of distribution and speciation of Pu(IV) in this separation process. Extraction constants for several sets of nitric acid, nitrate, and acetohydroxamic acid concentrations were used to model the obtained data. The extraction model AMUSE (Argonne Model for Universal Solvent Extraction) was employed in our calculations. (authors)

  16. Soil Vapor Extraction System Optimization, Transition, and Closure Guidance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truex, Michael J.; Becker, Dave; Simon, Michelle A.; Oostrom, Martinus; Rice, Amy K.; Johnson, Christian D.

    2013-02-08

    Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is a prevalent remediation approach for volatile contaminants in the vadose zone. A diminishing rate of contaminant extraction over time is typically observed due to 1) diminishing contaminant mass, and/or 2) slow rates of removal for contamination in low-permeability zones. After a SVE system begins to show indications of diminishing contaminant removal rate, SVE performance needs to be evaluated to determine whether the system should be optimized, terminated, or transitioned to another technology to replace or augment SVE. This guidance specifically addresses the elements of this type of performance assessment. While not specifically presented, the approach and analyses in this guidance could also be applied at the onset of remediation selection for a site as a way to evaluate current or future impacts to groundwater from vadose zone contamination. The guidance presented here builds from existing guidance for SVE design, operation, optimization, and closure from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the Air Force Center for Engineering and the Environment. The purpose of the material herein is to clarify and focus on the specific actions and decisions related to SVE optimization, transition, and/or closure.

  17. Vacuum Permeator Analysis for Extraction of Tritium from DCLL Blankets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humrickhouse, Paul Weston; Merrill, Brad Johnson

    2014-11-01

    It is envisioned that tritium will be extracted from DCLL blankets using a vacuum permeator. We derive here an analytical solution for the extraction efficiency of a permeator tube, which is a function of only two dimensionless numbers: one that indicates whether radial transport is limited in the PbLi or in the solid membrane, and another that is the ratio of axial and radial transport times in the PbLi. The permeator efficiency is maximized by decreasing the velocity and tube diameter, and increasing the tube length. This is true regardless of the mass transport correlation used; we review several here and find that they differ little, and the choice of correlation is not a source of significant uncertainty here. The PbLi solubility, on the other hand, is a large source of uncertainty, and we identify upper and lower bounds from the literature data. Under the most optimistic assumptions, we find that a ferritic steel permeator operating at 550 °C will need to be at least an order of magnitude larger in volume than previous conceptual designs using niobium and operating at higher temperatures.

  18. Moving baseline for evaluation of advanced coal-extraction systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bickerton, C.R.; Westerfield, M.D.

    1981-04-15

    This document reports results from the initial effort to establish baseline economic performance comparators for a program whose intent is to define, develop, and demonstrate advanced systems suitable for coal resource extraction beyond the year 2000. Systems used in this study were selected from contemporary coal mining technology and from conservative conjectures of year 2000 technology. The analysis was also based on a seam thickness of 6 ft. Therefore, the results are specific to the study systems and the selected seam thickness. To be more beneficial to the program, the effort should be extended to other seam thicknesses. This document is one of a series which describe systems level requirements for advanced underground coal mining equipment. Five areas of performance are discussed: production cost, miner safety, miner health, environmental impact, and recovery efficiency. The projections for cost and production capability comprise a so-called moving baseline which will be used to assess compliance with the systems requirement for production cost. Separate projections were prepared for room and pillar, longwall, and shortwall technology all operating under comparable sets of mining conditions. This work is part of an effort to define and develop innovative coal extraction systems suitable for the significant resources remaining in the year 2000.

  19. Extracting Effective Higgs Couplings in the Golden Channel

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chen, Yi; Vega-Morales, Roberto

    2014-04-08

    Kinematic distributions in Higgs decays to four charged leptons, the so called ‘golden channel, are a powerful probe of the tensor structure of its couplings to neutral electroweak gauge bosons. In this study we construct the first part of a comprehensive analysis framework designed to maximize the information contained in this channel in order to perform direct extraction of the various possible Higgs couplings. We first complete an earlier analytic calculation of the leading order fully differential cross sections for the golden channel signal and background to include the 4e and 4μ final states with interference between identical final states.more » We also examine the relative fractions of the different possible combinations of scalar-tensor couplings by integrating the fully differential cross section over all kinematic variables as well as show various doubly differential spectra for both the signal and background. From these analytic expressions we then construct a ‘generator level’ analysis framework based on the maximum likelihood method. Then, we demonstrate the ability of our framework to perform multi-parameter extractions of all the possible effective couplings of a spin-0 scalar to pairs of neutral electroweak gauge bosons including any correlations. Furthermore, this framework provides a powerful method for study of these couplings and can be readily adapted to include the relevant detector and systematic effects which we demonstrate in an accompanying study to follow.« less

  20. Solvent Extraction of Chemical Attribution Signature Compounds from Painted Wall Board: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahl, Jon H.; Colburn, Heather A.

    2009-10-29

    This report summarizes work that developed a robust solvent extraction procedure for recovery of chemical attribution signature (CAS) compound dimethyl methyl phosphonate (DMMP) (as well as diethyl methyl phosphonate (DEMP), diethyl methyl phosphonothioate (DEMPT), and diisopropyl methyl phosphonate (DIMP)) from painted wall board (PWB), which was selected previously as the exposed media by the chemical attribution scientific working group (CASWG). An accelerated solvent extraction approach was examined to determine the most effective method of extraction from PWB. Three different solvent systems were examined, which varied in solvent strength and polarity (i.e., 1:1 dichloromethane : acetone,100% methanol, and 1% isopropanol in pentane) with a 1:1 methylene chloride : acetone mixture having the most robust and consistent extraction for four original target organophosphorus compounds. The optimum extraction solvent was determined based on the extraction efficiency of the target analytes from spiked painted wallboard as determined by gas chromatography x gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCxGC-MS) analysis of the extract. An average extraction efficiency of approximately 60% was obtained for these four compounds. The extraction approach was further demonstrated by extracting and detecting the chemical impurities present in neat DMMP that was vapor-deposited onto painted wallboard tickets.

  1. PROCESS OF EXTRACTING URANIUM AND RADIUM FROM ORES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawyer, C.W.; Handley, R.W.

    1959-07-14

    A process is presented for extracting uranium and radium values from a uranium ore which comprises leaching the ore with a ferric chloride solution at an elevated temperature of above 50 deg C and at a pH less than 4; separating the ore residue from the leaching solution by filtration; precipitating the excess ferric iron present at a pH of less than 5 by adding CaCO/sub 3/ to the filtrate; separating the precipitate by filtration; precipitating the uranium present in the filtrate at a Ph less than 6 by adding BaCO/sub 3/ to the filtrate; separating the precipitate by filtration; and precipitating the radium present in the filtrate by adding H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ to the filtrate.

  2. Excitation enhancement and extraction enhancement with photonic crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shapira, Ofer; Soljacic, Marin; Zhen, Bo; Chua, Song-Liang; Lee, Jeongwon; Joannopoulos, John

    2015-03-03

    Disclosed herein is a system for stimulating emission from at least one an emitter, such as a quantum dot or organic molecule, on the surface of a photonic crystal comprising a patterned dielectric substrate. Embodiments of this system include a laser or other source that illuminates the emitter and the photonic crystal, which is characterized by an energy band structure exhibiting a Fano resonance, from a first angle so as to stimulate the emission from the emitter at a second angle. The coupling between the photonic crystal and the emitter may result in spectral and angular enhancement of the emission through excitation and extraction enhancement. These enhancement mechanisms also reduce the emitter's lasing threshold. For instance, these enhancement mechanisms enable lasing of a 100 nm thick layer of diluted organic molecules solution with reduced threshold intensity. This reduction in lasing threshold enables more efficient organic light emitting devices and more sensitive molecular sensing.

  3. Method and apparatus for extracting water from air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Callow, Diane Schafer; Marron, Lisa C.; Salton, Jonathan R.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for extracting liquid water from moist air using minimal energy input. The method comprises compressing moist air under conditions that foster the condensation of liquid water. The air can be decompressed under conditions that do not foster the vaporization of the condensate. The decompressed, dried air can be exchanged for a fresh charge of moist air and the process repeated. The liquid condensate can be removed for use. The apparatus can comprise a compression chamber having a variable internal volume. An intake port allows moist air into the compression chamber. An exhaust port allows dried air out of the compression chamber. A condensation device fosters condensation at the desired conditions. A condensate removal port allows liquid water to be removed.

  4. Method and apparatus for extracting water from air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spletzer, Barry L.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for extracting liquid water from moist air using minimal energy input. The method comprises compressing moist air under conditions that foster the condensation of liquid water (ideally isothermal to a humidity of 1.0, then adiabatic thereafter). The air can be decompressed under conditions that do not foster the vaporization of the condensate. The decompressed, dried air can be exchanged for a fresh charge of moist air and the process repeated. The liquid condensate can be removed for use. The apparatus can comprise a compression chamber having a variable internal volume. An intake port allows moist air into the compression chamber. An exhaust port allows dried air out of the compression chamber. A condensation device fosters condensation at the desired conditions. A condensate removal port allows liquid water to be removed.

  5. Commercial Light Water Reactor Tritium Extraction Facility Geotechnical Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, M.R.

    2000-01-11

    A geotechnical investigation program has been completed for the Circulating Light Water Reactor - Tritium Extraction Facility (CLWR-TEF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The program consisted of reviewing previous geotechnical and geologic data and reports, performing subsurface field exploration, field and laboratory testing and geologic and engineering analyses. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the subsurface conditions for the CLWR-TEF in terms of subsurface stratigraphy and engineering properties for design and to perform selected engineering analyses. The objectives of the evaluation were to establish site-specific geologic conditions, obtain representative engineering properties of the subsurface and potential fill materials, evaluate the lateral and vertical extent of any soft zones encountered, and perform engineering analyses for slope stability, bearing capacity and settlement, and liquefaction potential. In addition, provide general recommendations for construction and earthwork.

  6. In-Situ Containment and Extraction of Volatile Soil Contaminants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Varvel, Mark Darrell

    2005-12-27

    The invention relates to a novel approach to containing and removing toxic waste from a subsurface environment. More specifically the present invention relates to a system for containing and removing volatile toxic chemicals from a subsurface environment using differences in surface and subsurface pressures. The present embodiment generally comprises a deep well, a horizontal tube, at least one injection well, at least one extraction well and a means for containing the waste within the waste zone (in-situ barrier). During operation the deep well air at the bottom of well (which is at a high pressure relative to the land surface as well as relative to the air in the contaminated soil) flows upward through the deep well (or deep well tube). This stream of deep well air is directed into the horizontal tube, down through the injection tube(s) (injection well(s)) and into the contaminate plume where it enhances volatization and/or removal of the contaminants.

  7. Domain-independent information extraction in unstructured text

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Irwin, N.H.

    1996-09-01

    Extracting information from unstructured text has become an important research area in recent years due to the large amount of text now electronically available. This status report describes the findings and work done during the second year of a two-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project. Building on the first-year`s work of identifying important entities, this report details techniques used to group words into semantic categories and to output templates containing selective document content. Using word profiles and category clustering derived during a training run, the time-consuming knowledge-building task can be avoided. Though the output still lacks in completeness when compared to systems with domain-specific knowledge bases, the results do look promising. The two approaches are compatible and could complement each other within the same system. Domain-independent approaches retain appeal as a system that adapts and learns will soon outpace a system with any amount of a priori knowledge.

  8. Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mullins, Lawrence J.; Christensen, Dana C.

    1984-01-01

    A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium from electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

  9. Pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from an electrolyte salt

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mullins, L.J.; Christensen, D.C.

    1982-09-20

    A pyrochemical process for extracting plutonium from a plutonium-bearing salt is disclosed. The process is particularly useful in the recovery of plutonium for electrolyte salts which are left over from the electrorefining of plutonium. In accordance with the process, the plutonium-bearing salt is melted and mixed with metallic calcium. The calcium reduces ionized plutonium in the salt to plutonium metal, and also causes metallic plutonium in the salt, which is typically present as finely dispersed metallic shot, to coalesce. The reduced and coalesced plutonium separates out on the bottom of the reaction vessel as a separate metallic phase which is readily separable from the overlying salt upon cooling of the mixture. Yields of plutonium are typically on the order of 95%. The stripped salt is virtually free of plutonium and may be discarded to low-level waste storage.

  10. Palladium-coated zirconium membranes for oxidative extraction of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, C.; Buxbaum, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    Palladium-coated metal membranes are attractive choices for low pressure, high temperature hydrogen and hydrogen isotope extractions, e.g. from fusion blanket fluids. The authors present experimental data on hydrogen transport through palladium-coated zirconium membranes at 600 - 700/sup 0/K. The upstream hydrogen pressure range is 10/sup -4/ to 10/sup -6/ torr and an oxygen-containing gas flows over the downstream side of the membrane. Thus, the irreversible oxidation reaction drives the flux. Deuterium permeabilities in zirconium are 2.00x10/sup -6/exp(59/T)+-20% g-mol/m.s.Pa/sup 1/2/, similar to the values obtained from diffusivity and solubility measurements. Extrapolated deuterium absorptive sticking coefficients on palladium are about .05.

  11. Ion extraction and charge exchange in laser isotope separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hostein, D.; Doneddu, F.

    1996-02-01

    In the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process, a vapor is ionized by pulsed laser beams, and the ions are extracted by negatively biased collectors. The authors compute the unsteady dynamics of the photoplasma using a two-dimensional (2-D) particle-in-cell (PIC) code. Collisions between ions and neutral species are simulated by a Monte Carlo technique. The plasma dynamics is visualized by snapshots of particle positions showing the directions of their velocities. The three kinds of particles (electrons, photo-ions, and ions created by charge exchange) are marked by different colors. The graphic outputs illustrate the motion of the electrons toward the anodes, the vertical drift of the plasma, its erosion by the transient ion sheath, and nonselective ionization by charge exchange.

  12. Attempts to improve radiolytic stability of amidic extractants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugo, Yumi; Sasaki, Yuji; Kimura, Takaumi; Sekine, Tsutomu

    2007-07-01

    A tridentate diamide, N,N,N',N'-tetra-octyl-diglycol-amide (TODGA) is very useful for the recovery of actinide ions from spent nuclear fuel. Based on the mechanism of the radiolysis of TODGA in organic solution, an improvement of radiolytic stability of amidic extractants was attempted. The radiolytic degradation of TODGA was suppressed by the addition of appropriate compounds, due to reduction in the mole fraction of n-dodecane. In addition, by using the solvents having low ionization potentials, TODGA could be protected from radiation. Because the charge transfer reaction in the primary process was inhibited. It was also confirmed that aromatic substituents in the molecule effectively improved the radiolytic stability. (authors)

  13. Enhanced Anion Exchange for Selective Sulfate Extraction: Overcoming the Hofmeister Bias

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowler, Christopher J; Haverlock, Tamara; Moyer, Bruce A; Shriver, James A.; Gross, Mr. Dustin E.; Marquez, Manuel; Sessler, Jonathan L.; Hossain, Alamgir; Bowman-James, Kristin

    2008-01-01

    Synergism in liquid-liquid extraction, typified by the combination of a neutral extractant with a cation-exchanger to enhance selectively cation extraction strength, has been used and understood for over five decades.1 Surprisingly, analogous synergism in anion extraction has not yet been developed. In this Communication we present a simple way to achieve non-Hofmeister selectivity in liquid-liquid anion exchange by combining a synthetic hydrogen-bond-donating (HBD) anion receptor with a standard quaternary ammonium type extractant. Specifically, we show that the fluorinated calixpyrroles 1 and 22 and the tetraamide macrocycles 3 5,3 may be used to enhance the solvent extraction of sulfate from nitrate by Aliquat 336-nitrate (A336-nitrate).

  14. AFM fluid delivery/liquid extraction surface sampling/electrostatic spray cantilever probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Berkel, Gary J.

    2015-06-23

    An electrospray system comprises a liquid extraction surface sampling probe. The probe comprises a probe body having a liquid inlet and a liquid outlet, and having a liquid extraction tip. A solvent delivery conduit is provided for receiving solvent liquid from the liquid inlet and delivering the solvent liquid to the liquid extraction tip. An open liquid extraction channel extends across an exterior surface of the probe body from the liquid extraction tip to the liquid outlet. An electrospray emitter tip is in liquid communication with the liquid outlet of the liquid extraction surface sampling probe. A system for analyzing samples, a liquid junction surface sampling system, and a method of analyzing samples are also disclosed.

  15. Anion effects in the extraction of lanthanide 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone complexes into an ionic liquid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, Mark P.; Beitz, James V.; Rickert, Paul G.; Borkowski, Marian; Laszak, Ivan; Dietz, Mark L.

    2012-07-01

    The extraction of trivalent lanthanides from an aqueous phase containing 1 M NaClO{sub 4} into the room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium nonafluoro-1-butane sulfonate by the beta-diketone extractant 2-thenoyltrifluoroacetone (Htta) was studied. Radiotracer distribution, absorption spectroscopy, time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption fine structure measurements point to the extraction of multiple lanthanide species. At low extractant concentrations, fully hydrated aqua cations of the lanthanides are present in the ionic liquid phase. As the extractant concentration is increased 1:2 and 1:3 lanthanide:tta species are observed. In contrast, 1:4 Ln:tta complexes were observed in the extraction of lanthanides by Htta into 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide. (authors)

  16. Super critical fluid extraction of a crude oil bitumen-derived liquid and bitumen by carbon dioxide and propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deo, M.D.; Hwang, J.; Hanson, F.V.

    1991-01-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction of complex hydrocarbon mixtures is important in separation processes, petroleum upgrading and enhanced oil recovery. In this study, a paraffinic crude oil, a bitumen- derived liquid and bitumen were extracted at several temperatures and pressures with carbon dioxide and propane to assess the effect of the size and type of compounds that makeup the feedstock on the extraction process. It was observed that the pure solvent density at the extraction conditions was not the sole variable governing extraction, and that the proximity of the extraction conditions to the pure solvent critical point affected the extraction yields and the compositions of the extracts. Heavier compounds reported to the extract phase as the extraction time increased at constant temperature and pressure and as the extraction pressure increased at constant temperature and extraction time for both the paraffin crude-propane and the bitumen-propane systems. This preferential extraction was not observed for the bitumen-derived liquid. The non-discriminatory extraction behavior of the bitumen-derived liquid was attributed to its thermal history and to the presence of the olefins and aromatics in the liquid. Phase behavior calculations using the Peng-Robinson equation of state and component lumping procedures provided reasonable agreement between calculated and experimental results for the crude oil and bitumen extractions, but failed in the prediction of the phase compositions for the bitumen-derived liquid extractions.

  17. Super critical fluid extraction of a crude oil bitumen-derived liquid and bitumen by carbon dioxide and propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deo, M.D.; Hwang, J.; Hanson, F.V.

    1991-12-31

    Supercritical fluid extraction of complex hydrocarbon mixtures is important in separation processes, petroleum upgrading and enhanced oil recovery. In this study, a paraffinic crude oil, a bitumen- derived liquid and bitumen were extracted at several temperatures and pressures with carbon dioxide and propane to assess the effect of the size and type of compounds that makeup the feedstock on the extraction process. It was observed that the pure solvent density at the extraction conditions was not the sole variable governing extraction, and that the proximity of the extraction conditions to the pure solvent critical point affected the extraction yields and the compositions of the extracts. Heavier compounds reported to the extract phase as the extraction time increased at constant temperature and pressure and as the extraction pressure increased at constant temperature and extraction time for both the paraffin crude-propane and the bitumen-propane systems. This preferential extraction was not observed for the bitumen-derived liquid. The non-discriminatory extraction behavior of the bitumen-derived liquid was attributed to its thermal history and to the presence of the olefins and aromatics in the liquid. Phase behavior calculations using the Peng-Robinson equation of state and component lumping procedures provided reasonable agreement between calculated and experimental results for the crude oil and bitumen extractions, but failed in the prediction of the phase compositions for the bitumen-derived liquid extractions.

  18. Hydrothermal energy extraction, Auburn, New York: Final report: Volume 2, Chapters 6-10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castor, T.P.

    1988-03-01

    This paper discusses a hydrothermal energy extraction system in detail. General topics covered are: Reservoir circulation loop; HVAC buffer loop; and automatic temperature control system. (LSP)

  19. Device structure for OLED light device having multi element light extraction and luminescence conversion layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Antoniadis; Homer , Krummacher; Benjamin Claus

    2008-01-22

    An apparatus such as a light source has a multi-element light extraction and luminescence conversion layer disposed over a transparent layer of the light source and on the exterior of said light source. The multi-element light extraction and luminescence conversion layer includes a plurality of light extraction elements and a plurality of luminescence conversion elements. The light extraction elements diffuses the light from the light source while luminescence conversion elements absorbs a first spectrum of light from said light source and emits a second spectrum of light.

  20. OLED lighting devices having multi element light extraction and luminescence conversion layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krummacher, Benjamin Claus; Antoniadis, Homer

    2010-11-16

    An apparatus such as a light source has a multi element light extraction and luminescence conversion layer disposed over a transparent layer of the light source and on the exterior of said light source. The multi-element light extraction and luminescence conversion layer includes a plurality of light extraction elements and a plurality of luminescence conversion elements. The light extraction elements diffuses the light from the light source while luminescence conversion elements absorbs a first spectrum of light from said light source and emits a second spectrum of light.

  1. The effect of irradiation on extraction of various metals by C5-BTBP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fermvik, A.; Retegan, T.; Skarnemark, G.; Ekberg, C.; Foreman, M.R.S.

    2008-07-01

    Different polycyclic molecules containing nitrogen have been developed to be used as extractants in the separation of actinides(III) from lanthanides(III) in the spent nuclear-fuel treatment. During a potential industrial process involving nuclear waste, the extractant will be exposed to high doses of ionizing radiation; hence, the extractant should be resistant towards irradiation. This study explores the capacity of an irradiated solution of C5-BTBP in cyclohexanone to extract Eu and Am but also the fission and corrosion products Pd, Ag, and Cd. (authors)

  2. ARRAY OPTIMIZATION FOR TIDAL ENERGY EXTRACTION IN A TIDAL CHANNEL A NUMERICAL MODELING ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping; Copping, Andrea

    2014-04-18

    This paper presents an application of a hydrodynamic model to simulate tidal energy extraction in a tidal dominated estuary in the Pacific Northwest coast. A series of numerical experiments were carried out to simulate tidal energy extraction with different turbine array configurations, including location, spacing and array size. Preliminary model results suggest that array optimization for tidal energy extraction in a real-world site is a very complex process that requires consideration of multiple factors. Numerical models can be used effectively to assist turbine siting and array arrangement in a tidal turbine farm for tidal energy extraction.

  3. Mixed monofunctional extractants for trivalent actinide/lanthanide separations: TALSPEAK-MME

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Johnson, Aaron T.; Nash, Kenneth L.

    2015-08-20

    The basic features of an f-element extraction process based on a solvent composed of equimolar mixtures of Cyanex-923 (a mixed trialkyl phosphine oxide) and 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEH[EHP]) extractants in n-dodecane are investigated in this report. This system, which combines features of the TRPO and TALSPEAK processes, is based on co-extraction of trivalent lanthanides and actinides from 0.1 to 1.0 M HNO3 followed by application of a buffered aminopolycarboxylate solution strip to accomplish a Reverse TALSPEAK selective removal of actinides. This mixed-extractant medium could enable a simplified approach to selective trivalent f-element extraction and actinide partitioning in a singlemore » process. As compared with other combined process applications in development for more compact actinide partitioning processes (DIAMEX-SANEX, GANEX, TRUSPEAK, ALSEP), this combination features only monofunctional extractants with high solubility limits and comparatively low molar mass. Selective actinide stripping from the loaded extractant phase is done using a glycine-buffered solution containing N-(2-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (HEDTA) or triethylenetetramine-N,N,N',N'',N''',N'''-hexaacetic acid (TTHA). Lastly, the results reported provide evidence for simplified interactions between the two extractants and demonstrate a pathway toward using mixed monofunctional extractants to separate trivalent actinides (An) from fission product lanthanides (Ln).« less

  4. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR THE RECOVERY OF METALS FROM PHOSPHORIC ACID

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bailes, R.H.; Long, R.S.

    1958-11-01

    > A solvent extraction process is presented for recovering metal values including uranium, thorium, and other lanthanide and actinide elements from crude industrial phosphoric acid solutions. The process conslsts of contacting said solution with an immisclble organic solvent extractant containing a diluent and a material selected from the group consisting of mono and di alkyl phosphates, alkyl phosphonates and alkyl phosphites. The uranlum enters the extractant phase and is subsequently recovered by any of the methods known to the art. Recovery is improved if the phosphate solution is treated with a reducing agent such as iron or aluminum powder prior to the extraction step.

  5. Extraction of solubles from plant biomass for use as microbial growth stimulant and methods related thereto

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lau, Ming Woei

    2015-12-08

    A method for producing a microbial growth stimulant (MGS) from a plant biomass is described. In one embodiment, an ammonium hydroxide solution is used to extract a solution of proteins and ammonia from the biomass. Some of the proteins and ammonia are separated from the extracted solution to provide the MGS solution. The removed ammonia can be recycled and the proteins are useful as animal feeds. In one embodiment, the method comprises extracting solubles from pretreated lignocellulosic biomass with a cellulase enzyme-producing growth medium (such T. reesei) in the presence of water and an aqueous extract.

  6. Ion extraction from a saddle antenna RF surface plasma source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dudnikov, V. Johnson, R. P.; Han, B.; Murray, S.; Pennisi, T.; Piller, C.; Santana, M.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R.; Breitschopf, J.; Dudnikova, G.

    2015-04-08

    Existing RF Surface Plasma Sources (SPS) for accelerators have specific efficiencies for H{sup +} and H{sup ?} ion generation around 3 to 5 mA/cm{sup 2} per kW, where about 50 kW of RF power is typically needed for 50 mA beam current production. The Saddle Antenna (SA) SPS described here was developed to improve H{sup ?} ion production efficiency and SPS reliability and availability. At low RF power, the efficiency of positive ion generation in the plasma has been improved to 200 mA/cm{sup 2} per kW of RF power at 13.56 MHz. Initial cesiation of the SPS was performed by heating cesium chromate cartridges by discharge as was done in the very first versions of the SPS. A small oven to decompose cesium compounds and alloys was developed and tested. After cesiation, the current of negative ions to the collector was increased from 1 mA to 10 mA with RF power ?1.5 kW in the plasma (6 mm diameter emission aperture) and up to 30 mA with ?4 kW RF power in the plasma and 250 Gauss longitudinal magnetic field. The ratio of electron current to negative ion current was improved from 30 to 2. Stable generation of H{sup ?} beam without intensity degradation was demonstrated in the AlN discharge chamber for a long time at high discharge power in an RF SPS with an external antenna. Continuous wave (CW) operation of the SA SPS has been tested on the small test stand. The general design of the CW SA SPS is based on the pulsed version. Some modifications were made to improve the cooling and cesiation stability. The extracted collector current can be increased significantly by optimizing the longitudinal magnetic field in the discharge chamber. CW operation with negative ion extraction was tested with RF power up to 1.8 kW from the generator (?1.2 kW in the plasma) with production up to Ic=7 mA. Long term operation was tested with 1.2 kW from the RF generator (?0.8 kW in the plasma) with production of Ic=5 mA, Iex ?15 mA (Uex=8 kV, Uc=14 kV)

  7. Radiation chemistry in solvent extraction: FY2010 Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce J. Mincher; Leigh R. Martin; Stephen P. Mezyk

    2010-09-01

    This report summarizes work accomplished under the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) program in the area of radiation chemistry during FY 2010. The tasks assigned during FY 2010 included: Development of techniques to measure free radical reaction kinetics in the organic phase. Initiation of an alpha-radiolysis program Initiation of an effort to understand dose rate effects in radiation chemistry Continued work to characterize TALSPEAK radiation chemistry Progress made on each of these tasks is reported here. Briefly, a method was developed and used to measure the kinetics of the reactions of the NO3 radical with solvent extraction ligands in organic solution, and the method to measure OH radical reactions under the same conditions has been designed. Rate constants for the CMPO and DMDOHEMA reaction with NO3 radical in organic solution are reported. Alpha-radiolysis was initiated on samples of DMDOHEMA in alkane solution using He ion beam irradiation and 211At isotope irradiation. The samples are currently being analyzed for comparison to DMDOHEMA ?-irradiations using a custom-developed mass spectrometric method. Results are also reported for the radiolytic generation of nitrous acid, in ?-irradiated nitric acid. It is shown that the yield of nitrous acid is unaffected by an order-of-magnitude change in dose rate. Finally, recent results for TALSPEAK radiolysis are reported, summarizing the effects on solvent extraction efficiency due to HDEHP irradiation, and the stable products of lactic acid and DTPA irradiation. In addition, results representing increased scope are presented for the radiation chemistry program. These include an investigation of the effect of metal complexation on radical reaction kinetics using DTPA as an example, and the production of a manuscript reporting the mechanism of Cs-7SB radiolysis. The Cs-7SB work takes advantage of recent results from a current LDRD program to understand the fundamental chemistry of nitration under radiolysis conditions. Finally, work toward understanding the chemistry of irradiated formic acid is presented. This is important because all organic compounds eventually produce formic acid under long-term irradiation.

  8. Deep PDF parsing to extract features for detecting embedded malware.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munson, Miles Arthur; Cross, Jesse S.

    2011-09-01

    The number of PDF files with embedded malicious code has risen significantly in the past few years. This is due to the portability of the file format, the ways Adobe Reader recovers from corrupt PDF files, the addition of many multimedia and scripting extensions to the file format, and many format properties the malware author may use to disguise the presence of malware. Current research focuses on executable, MS Office, and HTML formats. In this paper, several features and properties of PDF Files are identified. Features are extracted using an instrumented open source PDF viewer. The feature descriptions of benign and malicious PDFs can be used to construct a machine learning model for detecting possible malware in future PDF files. The detection rate of PDF malware by current antivirus software is very low. A PDF file is easy to edit and manipulate because it is a text format, providing a low barrier to malware authors. Analyzing PDF files for malware is nonetheless difficult because of (a) the complexity of the formatting language, (b) the parsing idiosyncrasies in Adobe Reader, and (c) undocumented correction techniques employed in Adobe Reader. In May 2011, Esparza demonstrated that PDF malware could be hidden from 42 of 43 antivirus packages by combining multiple obfuscation techniques [4]. One reason current antivirus software fails is the ease of varying byte sequences in PDF malware, thereby rendering conventional signature-based virus detection useless. The compression and encryption functions produce sequences of bytes that are each functions of multiple input bytes. As a result, padding the malware payload with some whitespace before compression/encryption can change many of the bytes in the final payload. In this study we analyzed a corpus of 2591 benign and 87 malicious PDF files. While this corpus is admittedly small, it allowed us to test a system for collecting indicators of embedded PDF malware. We will call these indicators features throughout the rest of this report. The features are extracted using an instrumented PDF viewer, and are the inputs to a prediction model that scores the likelihood of a PDF file containing malware. The prediction model is constructed from a sample of labeled data by a machine learning algorithm (specifically, decision tree ensemble learning). Preliminary experiments show that the model is able to detect half of the PDF malware in the corpus with zero false alarms. We conclude the report with suggestions for extending this work to detect a greater variety of PDF malware.

  9. DNA Extraction by Isotachophoresis in a Microfluidic Channel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephenson, S J

    2011-08-10

    Biological assays have many applications. For example, forensics personnel and medical professionals use these tests to diagnose diseases and track their progression or identify pathogens and the host response to them. One limitation of these tests, however, is that most of them target only one piece of the sample - such as bacterial DNA - and other components (e.g. host genomic DNA) get in the way, even though they may be useful for different tests. To address this problem, it would be useful to extract several different substances from a complex biological sample - such as blood - in an inexpensive and efficient manner. This summer, I worked with Maxim Shusteff at Lawrence Livermore National Lab on the Rapid Automated Sample Prep project. The goal of the project is to solve the aforementioned problem by creating a system that uses a series of different extraction methods to extract cells, bacteria, and DNA from a complex biological sample. Biological assays can then be run on purified output samples. In this device, an operator could input a complex sample such as blood or saliva, and would receive separate outputs of cells, bacteria, viruses, and DNA. I had the opportunity to work this summer with isotachophoresis (ITP), a technique that can be used to extract nucleic acids from a sample. This technique is intended to be the last stage of the purification device. Isotachophoresis separates particles based on different electrophoretic mobilities. This technique is convenient for out application because free solution DNA mobility is approximately equal for DNA longer than 300 base pairs in length. The sample of interest - in our case DNA - is fed into the chip with streams of leading electrolyte (LE) and trailing electrolyte (TE). When an electric field is applied, the species migrate based on their electrophoretic mobilities. Because the ions in the leading electrolyte have a high electrophoretic mobility, they race ahead of the slower sample and trailing electrolyte ions. Conversely, the trailing electrolyte ions have a slow electrophoretic mobility, so they lag behind the sample, thus trapping the species of interest between the LE and TE streams. In a typical isotachophoresis configuration, the electric field is applied in a direction parallel to the direction of flow. The species then form bands that stretch across the width of the channel. A major limitation of that approach is that only a finite amount of sample can be processed at once, and the sample must be processed in batches. For our purposes, a form of free-flow isotachophoresis is more convenient, where the DNA forms a band parallel to the edges of the channel. To achieve this, in our chip, the electric field is applied transversely. This creates a force perpendicular to the direction of flow, which causes the different ions to migrate across the flow direction. Because the mobility of the DNA is between the mobility of the leading and the trailing electrolyte, the DNA is focused in a tight band near the center of the channel. The stream of DNA can then be directed to a different output to produce a highly concentrated outlet stream without batch processing. One hurdle that must be overcome for successful ITP is isolating the electrochemical reactions that result from the application of high voltage for the actual process of isotachophoresis. The electrochemical reactions that occur around metal electrodes produce bubbles and pH changes that are detrimental to successful ITP. The design of the chips we use incorporates polyacrylamide gels to serve as electrodes along the central channel. For our design, the metal electrodes are located away from the chip, and high conductivity buffer streams carry the potential to the chip, functioning as a 'liquid electrode.' The stream then runs alongside a gel barrier. The gel electrode permits ion transfer while simultaneously isolating the separation chamber from any contaminants in the outer, 'liquid electrode' streams. The difference in potential from one side of the chip to the other creates an electric field. This field traverses the inner, separation channel, containing the leading electrolyte, the trailing electrolyte, and the sample of interest (DNA). To increase the ease of use of the chips, a newer chip design has been fabricated. This design has wire electrodes integrated on the chip, rather than elsewhere. To keep the pH changes and bubbling isolated from the separation channel, the chip contains deeper wells near the electrodes so that the flowing buffer can wash away any gases that form around the electrode. This design is significantly more compact because it eliminates the cumbersome electrode boxes. Eliminating the electrode boxes also decreases the required voltage, making the experiments safer. This happens because when the 'liquid electrode' streams travel through small diameter tubing, they lose much of their voltage due to the electrical resistance of the fluid in the tubing.

  10. Lubricant wear particle analysis by filter patch extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smart, C.L.

    1996-07-01

    Lubricating Oil Analysis (LOA) has become an important part of a comprehensive Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) program. However, knowing the condition of the lubricant alone does not provide a complete description of equipment reliability. Condition monitoring for equipment can be accomplished through Wear Particle Analysis (WPA). This usually involves separating suspended materials and wear products from the lubricant by magnetic (ferrographic) means. This paper will present a simple, low-cost, alternate method of particle acquisition called Filter Patch Extraction (FPE). This method removes solids, regardless of their composition, from the lubricant by vacuum filtration and deposits them onto a filter for microscopic examination similar to that of analytical ferrography. A large filter pore size retains suspended materials and permits rapid filtration of large volumes of lubricant thereby increasing the accuracy of the wear and cleanliness profile that can be established for a given machine. Qualitative trending of equipment wear and lubricant system cleanliness are easily performed with FPE. Equipment condition is determined by then characterizing the metal particles which are recovered. Examined filters are easily archived in filter holders for future reference. Equipment for FPE is inexpensive and readily available. The technique is field-portable, allowing WPA to be performed on-site, eliminating delays with remote laboratories while building customer participation and support. There are numerous advantages for using FPE in a machine condition monitoring program.

  11. Macroporous monoliths for trace metal extraction from seawater

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yue, Yanfeng; Mayes, Richard; Gill, Gary A.; Kuo, Li -Jung; Wood, Jordana R.; Binder, Andrew; Brown, Suree; Dai, Sheng

    2015-05-29

    The viability of seawater-based uranium recovery depends on the uranium adsorption rate and capacity, since the concentration of uranium in the oceans is relatively low (3.3 ?gL?). An important consideration for a fast adsorption is to maximize the adsorption properties of adsorbents such as surface areas and pore structures, which can greatly improve the kinetics of uranium extraction and the adsorption capacity simultaneously. Following this consideration, macroporous monolith adsorbents were prepared from the copolymerization of acrylonitrile (AN) and N,N-methylenebis(acrylamide) (MBAAm) based on a cryogel method using both hydrophobic and hydrophilic monomers. The monolithic sorbents were tested with simulated seawater containing a high uranyl concentration (6 ppm) and the uranium adsorption results showed that the adsorption capacities are strongly influenced by the ratio of monomer to the crosslinker, i.e., the density of the amidoxime groups. The preliminary seawater testing indicates the high salinity content of seawater does not hinder the adsorption of uranium.

  12. Aqueour biphase extraction for processing of fine coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osseo-Asare, K.

    1997-07-23

    Ever-stringent environmental constraints dictate that future coal cleaning technologies be compatible with micron-size particles. For super-clean coal production, the degree of liberation needed to separate coal from mineral matter, including pyrite, requires grinding to 10 mm or below. In addition, large amounts of fine coal are discharged to refuse ponds because current coal cleaning technology cannot adequately treat such finely divided materials. This research program seeks to develop an advanced coal cleaning technology uniquely suited to micron-size particles, i.e., aqueous biphase extraction. This technique relies on the ability of an aqueous system consisting of a water-soluble organic polymer and an inorganic metal salt to separate into two immiscible aqueous phases. Differences in the hydrophobic/hydrophilic properties of particulates can then be exploited to effect selective transfers to either the upper polymer-rich phase, or the lower salt-rich phase. An experimental program is proposed involving phase diagram determination, phase separation rate measurements, partition measurements, and washing experiments.

  13. Presidential Rapid Commercialization Initiative for mixed waste solvent extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honigford, L.; Dilday, D.; Cook, D.; Sattler, J.

    1997-03-01

    Recently, the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) has made some major steps in mixed waste treatment which have taken it closer to meeting final remediation goals. However, one major hurdle remains for the FEMP mixed waste treatment program, and that hurdle is tri-mixed waste. Tri-mixed is a term coined to describe low-level waste containing RCRA hazardous constituents along with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB). The prescribed method for disposal of PCBs is incineration. In mixed waste treatment plans developed by the FEMP with public input, the FEMP committed to pursue non-thermal treatment methods and avoid the use of incineration. Through the SITE Program, the FEMP identified a non-thermal treatment technology which uses solvents to extract PCBs. The technology belongs to a small company called Terra-Kleen Response Group, Inc. A question arose as to how can this new and innovative technology be implemented by a small company at a Department of Energy (DOE) facility. The answer came in the form of the Rapid Commercialization Initiative (RCI) and the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA). RCI is a program sponsored by the Department of commerce (DOC), DOE, Department of Defense (DOD), US EPA and various state agencies to aid companies to market new and innovative technologies.

  14. Use of extractive distillation to produce concentrated nitric acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, P.C.; Griffin, T.P.; Irwin, C.F.

    1981-04-01

    Concentrated nitric acid (> 95 wt %) is needed for the treatment of off-gases from a fuels-reprocessing plant. The production of concentrated nitric acid by means of extractive distillation in the two-pot apparatus was studied to determine the steady-state behavior of the system. Four parameters, EDP volume (V/sub EDP/) and temperature (T/sub EDP/), acid feed rate, and solvent recycle, were independently varied. The major response factors were percent recovery (CPRR) and product purity (CCP). Stage efficiencies also provided information about the system response. Correlations developed for the response parameters are: CPRR = 0.02(V/sub EDP/ - 800 cc) + 53.5; CCP = -0.87 (T/sub EDP/ - 140/sup 0/C) + 81; eta/sub V,EDP/ = 9.1(F/sub feed/ - 11.5 cc/min) - 0.047(V/sub EDP/ - 800 cc) - 2.8(F/sub Mg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2// - 50 cc/min) + 390; and eta/sub L,EDP/ = 1.9(T/sub EDP/ - 140/sup 0/C) + 79. A computer simulation of the process capable of predicting steady-state conditions was developed, but it requires further work.

  15. A modeling study of the potential water quality impacts from in-stream tidal energy extraction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Taiping; Yang, Zhaoqing; Copping, Andrea E.

    2013-11-09

    To assess the effects of tidal energy extraction on water quality in a simplified estuarine system, which consists of a tidal bay connected to the coastal ocean through a narrow channel where energy is extracted using in-stream tidal turbines, a three-dimensional coastal ocean model with built-in tidal turbine and water quality modules was applied. The effects of tidal energy extraction on water quality were examined for two energy extraction scenarios as compared with the baseline condition. It was found, in general, that the environmental impacts associated with energy extraction depend highly on the amount of power extracted from the system.more » Model results indicate that, as a result of energy extraction from the channel, the competition between decreased flushing rates in the bay and increased vertical mixing in the channel directly affects water quality responses in the bay. The decreased flushing rates tend to cause a stronger but negative impact on water quality. On the other hand, the increase of vertical mixing could lead to higher bottom dissolved oxygen at times. As the first modeling effort directly aimed at examining the impacts of tidal energy extraction on estuarine water quality, this study demonstrates that numerical models can serve as a very useful tool for this purpose. Furthermore, more careful efforts are warranted to address system-specific environmental issues in real-world, complex estuarine systems.« less

  16. Extraction of weakly reductive and reductive coals with sub- and supercritical water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bo Wu; Haoquan Hu; Shiping Huang; Yunming Fang; Xian Li; Meng Meng

    2008-11-15

    On a semi-continuous apparatus, a weakly reductive Shenfu-Dongsheng (SD) coal and a reductive Pingshuo (PS) coal were non-isothermally extracted with sub- and supercritical water to explore the differences between the two coals. The effect of the temperature on the extract formation rate, conversion, and product composition under different pressures was investigated. The extraction results of two coal samples indicate that the extract formation rate has a maximum in the studied temperature range between room temperature and 500{degree}C. The temperature corresponding to the maximum extract formation rate, changing with the pressure, is between 390 and 410{degree}C. The gas yield, extract yield, and conversion of two coals increase with the increasing pressure. In comparison to PS coal, SD coal has a low temperature corresponding to the maximum extract formation rate under the same pressure. Both coals have a main fraction of asphaltene, but SD coal has a higher fraction of oil than PS coal. The main gas components are CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, and H{sub 2}. The gas from PS coal has a higher CH{sub 4} content and lower CO{sub 2} content than that from SD coal. The analysis results of the extraction residue indicated that SD coal has a low residue yield and the residue shows a large surface area and small average pore diameter compared to PS coal. 17 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  17. Extraction of actinides by multi-dentate diamides and their evaluation with computational molecular modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sasaki, Y.; Kitatsuji, Y.; Hirata, M.; Kimura, T.; Yoshizuka, K.

    2008-07-01

    Multi-dentate diamides have been synthesized and examined for actinide (An) extractions. Bi- and tridentate extractants are the focus in this work. The extraction of actinides was performed from 0.1-6 M HNO{sub 3} to organic solvents. It was obvious that N,N,N',N'-tetra-alkyl-diglycolamide (DGA) derivatives, 2,2'-(methylimino)bis(N,N-dioctyl-acetamide) (MIDOA), and N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-dioctyl-2-(3-oxa-pentadecane)-malonamide (DMDOOPDMA) have relatively high D values (D(Pu) > 70). The following notable results using DGA extractants were obtained: (1) DGAs with short alkyl chains give higher D values than those with long alkyl chain, (2) DGAs with long alkyl chain have high solubility in n-dodecane. Computational molecular modeling was also used to elucidate the effects of structural and electronic properties of the reagents on their different extractabilities. (authors)

  18. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions by modification of purex solvent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Kalina, Dale G.

    1986-01-01

    A process for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous solutions with an extraction solution containing an organic extractant having the formula: ##STR1## where .phi. is phenyl, R.sup.1 is a straight or branched alkyl or alkoxyalkyl containing from 6 to 12 carbon atoms and R.sup.2 is an alkyl containing from 3 to 6 carbon atoms and phase modifiers in a water-immiscible hydrocarbon diluent. The addition of the extractant to the Purex process extractant, tri-n-butylphosphate in normal paraffin hydrocarbon diluent, will permit the extraction of multivalent lanthanide and actinide values from 0.1 to 12.0 molar acid solutions.

  19. Novel materials and methods for solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ambrose, D.

    1997-06-24

    This report contains a general introduction which discusses solid-phase extraction and solid-phase micro-extraction as sample preparation techniques for high-performance liquid chromatography, which is also evaluated in the study. This report also contains the Conclusions section. Four sections have been removed and processed separately: silicalite as a sorbent for solid-phase extraction; a new, high-capacity carboxylic acid functionalized resin for solid-phase extraction; semi-micro solid-phase extraction of organic compounds from aqueous and biological samples; and the high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of drugs and metabolites in human serum and urine using direct injection and a unique molecular sieve.

  20. Method for extracting lanthanides and actinides from acid solutions by modification of Purex solvent

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, E.P.; Kalina, D.G.

    1986-03-04

    A process is described for the recovery of actinide and lanthanide values from aqueous solutions with an extraction solution containing an organic extractant having the formula as shown in a diagram where [phi] is phenyl, R[sup 1] is a straight or branched alkyl or alkoxyalkyl containing from 6 to 12 carbon atoms and R[sup 2] is an alkyl containing from 3 to 6 carbon atoms and phase modifiers in a water-immiscible hydrocarbon diluent. The addition of the extractant to the Purex process extractant, tri-n-butylphosphate in normal paraffin hydrocarbon diluent, will permit the extraction of multivalent lanthanide and actinide values from 0.1 to 12.0 molar acid solutions. 6 figs.

  1. Extractability of zinc, cadmium, and nickel in soils amended with EDTA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zhenbin; Shuman, L.M.

    1996-04-01

    Synthetic chelating agents are produced in large quantities for use in many industrial applications. Certain chelates, such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), are persistent in the environment. The presence of EDTA in soil may alter the mobility and transport of Zn, Cd, and Ni in soils because of the formation of water soluble chelates, thus increasing the potential for metal pollution of natural waters. Mobility of metals is related to their extractability. To investigate metal extractability affected by EDTA, Zn, Cd, and Ni were added to a portion of eight Georgia topsoil samples at rates of 75.9, 1.62, and 4.30 mg kg{sup -1}, respectively. Both natural and metal-amended soils were treated with Na{sub 2-}EDTA at rates of 0, 1.0, and 2.0 g kg{sup -1}. After 5 months of incubation, soil samples were extracted with Mehlich-1, DTPA (diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid) and 1 M Mg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, the latter of which extracts the exchangeable form of metals. Results showed that Zn and Ni in Mehlich-1 and DTPA extractions increased with increasing rates of EDTA. The increase for Cd was not as great as for Zn or Ni. Similar changes were found for the Mg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} extraction. As a percentage of total metal concentration, the Mehlich-1 and DTPA extractable Zn was greater than Ni in the natural soils, and the order for the metal-amended soils was Cd > Zn > Ni. The results also suggested that EDTA significantly elevated the extractability of Zn and Ni in both natural and metal-amended soils. The order of mobility based on extractability was: Cd > Zn > Ni for metals added to soils, but when EDTA was present, added Ni was more extractable than Zn or Cd. 36 refs., 5 tabs.

  2. Electrophoretic extraction of proteins from two-dimensional electrophoresis gel spots

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jian-Shi; Giometti, Carol S.; Tollaksen, Sandra L.

    1989-01-01

    After two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins or the like, resulting in a polyacrylamide gel slab having a pattern of protein gel spots thereon, an individual protein gel spot is cored out from the slab, to form a gel spot core which is placed in an extraction tube, with a dialysis membrane across the lower end of the tube. Replicate gel spots can be cored out from replicate gel slabs and placed in the extraction tube. Molten agarose gel is poured into the extraction tube where the agarose gel hardens to form an immobilizing gel, covering the gel spot cores. The upper end portion of the extraction tube is filled with a volume of buffer solution, and the upper end is closed by another dialysis membrane. Upper and lower bodies of a buffer solution are brought into contact with the upper and lower membranes and are provided with electrodes connected to the positive and negative terminals of a DC power supply, thereby producing an electrical current which flows through the upper membrane, the volume of buffer solution, the agarose, the gel spot cores and the lower membrane. The current causes the proteins to be extracted electrophoretically from the gel spot cores, so that the extracted proteins accumulate and are contained in the space between the agarose gel and the upper membrane. A high percentage extraction of proteins is achieved. The extracted proteins can be removed and subjected to partial digestion by trypsin or the like, followed by two-dimensional electrophoresis, resulting in a gel slab having a pattern of peptide gel spots which can be cored out and subjected to electrophoretic extraction to extract individual peptides.

  3. Pore-Water Extraction Intermediate-Scale Laboratory Experiments and Numerical Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oostrom, Martinus; Freedman, Vicky L.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Truex, Michael J.

    2011-06-30

    A series of flow cell experiments was conducted to demonstrate the process of water removal through pore-water extraction in unsaturated systems. In this process, a vacuum (negative pressure) is applied at the extraction well establishing gas and water pressure gradients towards the well. The gradient may force water and dissolved contaminants, such as 99Tc, to move towards the well. The tested flow cell configurations consist of packings, with or without fine-grained well pack material, representing, in terms of particle size distribution, subsurface sediments at the SX tank farm. A pore water extraction process should not be considered to be equal to soil vapor extraction because during soil vapor extraction, the main goal may be to maximize gas removal. For pore water extraction systems, pressure gradients in both the gas and water phases need to be considered while for soil vapor extraction purposes, gas phase flow is the only concern. In general, based on the limited set (six) of flow experiments that were conducted, it can be concluded that pore water extraction rates and cumulative outflow are related to water content, the applied vacuum, and the dimensions of the sediment layer providing the extracted water. In particular, it was observed that application of a 100-cm vacuum (negative pressure) in a controlled manner leads to pore-water extraction until the water pressure gradients towards the well approach zero. Increased cumulative outflow was obtained with an increase in initial water content from 0.11 to 0.18, an increase in the applied vacuum to 200 cm, and when the water-supplying sediment was not limited. The experimental matrix was not sufficiently large to come to conclusions regarding maximizing cumulative outflow.

  4. A new augmentation based algorithm for extracting maximal chordal subgraphs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Chen, Tzu-Yi; Halappanavar, Mahantesh

    2015-02-01

    A graph is chordal if every cycle of length greater than three contains an edge between non-adjacent vertices. Chordal graphs are of interest both theoretically, since they admit polynomial time solutions to a range of NP-hard graph problems, and practically, since they arise in many applications including sparse linear algebra, computer vision, and computational biology. A maximal chordal subgraph is a chordal subgraph that is not a proper subgraph of any other chordal subgraph. Existing algorithms for computing maximal chordal subgraphs depend on dynamically ordering the vertices, which is an inherently sequential process and therefore limits the algorithms’ parallelizability. Inmore » this paper we explore techniques to develop a scalable parallel algorithm for extracting a maximal chordal subgraph. We demonstrate that an earlier attempt at developing a parallel algorithm may induce a non-optimal vertex ordering and is therefore not guaranteed to terminate with a maximal chordal subgraph. We then give a new algorithm that first computes and then repeatedly augments a spanning chordal subgraph. After proving that the algorithm terminates with a maximal chordal subgraph, we then demonstrate that this algorithm is more amenable to parallelization and that the parallel version also terminates with a maximal chordal subgraph. That said, the complexity of the new algorithm is higher than that of the previous parallel algorithm, although the earlier algorithm computes a chordal subgraph which is not guaranteed to be maximal. We experimented with our augmentation-based algorithm on both synthetic and real-world graphs. We provide scalability results and also explore the effect of different choices for the initial spanning chordal subgraph on both the running time and on the number of edges in the maximal chordal subgraph.« less

  5. Significance-weighted feature extraction from hyper-dimensional data and its applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujimura, S.; Kiyasu, S.

    1996-11-01

    Extracting significant features is essential for processing and transmission of vast volume of hyper-dimensional data. Conventional ways of extracting features are not always satisfactory for this kind of data in terms of optimality and computation time. Here we present a successive feature extraction method designed for significance-weighted supervised classification. After all the data are orthogonalized and reduced by principal component analysis, a set of appropriate features for prescribed purpose is extracted as linear combinations of the reduced components. We applied this method to 411 dimensional hyperspectral data obtained by a ground-based imaging spectrometer. The data were obtained from tree leaves of five categories, soil, stone and concrete. Features were successively extracted, and they were found to yield more than several percents higher accuracy for the classification of prescribed classes than a conventional method. We applied the results of feature extraction for evaluating the performance of current sensors and for designing the spectral bands of new sensors. Bands of new sensors were designed by allocating them to the highly weighted wavelength in extracted features. The designed bands were revealed to be more appropriate for the specific purpose than the current sensors. 8 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Beam extraction from TeV accelerators using channeling in bent crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carrigan, R.A. Jr.; Toohig, T.E.; Tsyganov, E.N.; Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX; Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna )

    1989-08-01

    Bent crystal channeling offers an interesting alternative for beam extraction from trans-GeV accelerators. Conventional extraction employs resonant beam blow-up coupled with electromagnetic beam deflecting channels. It is limited by the length of the available accelerator straight section. Channeling crystals require much less space. A five-step approach to applying crystal extraction in the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) is discussed. Two steps, extraction from the 8 GeV Dubna Synchrophasotron and the 76 GeV Serpukhov accelerator, have occurred. The next possibility is extraction from a multi-hundred GeV superconducting accelerator. In the nineties the program could continue at UNK (3 TeV) and culminate at the TeV SSC. The possibilities and limitations of crystal extraction are reviewed. More information is needed on dechanneling in bent crystals including the effects of dislocations at TeV energies. Long, dislocation-free'' crystals are required. A more thorough understanding of the theory of crystal extraction is also desirable. 12 refs.

  7. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Plutonium and Americium from Soil using Thenoyltrifluoroacetone and Tributylphosphate Complexation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mincher, Bruce Jay; Fox, Robert Vincent; Holmes, R.; Robbins, R; Boardman, C.

    2001-10-01

    Samples of clean soil from the source used to backfill pits at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's Radioactive Waste Management Complex were spiked with Pu-239 and Am-241 to evaluate ligand-assistedsupercritical fluid extraction as a decontamination method. The actual soil in the pits has been subject to approximately three decades of weatheringsince it was originally contaminated. No surrogate soil can perfectly simulate the real event, but actual contaminated soil was not available for research purposes. However, fractionation of Am and Pu in the surrogate soil was found to be similar to that previously measured in the real soil using asequential aqueous extraction procedure. This suggests that Pu and Am behavior are similar in the two soils. The surrogate was subjected to supercritical carbon dioxide extraction, in the presence of the fluorinated beta diketone thenoyltrifluoroacetone (TTA), and tributylphosphate (TBP). As much as 69% of the Pu and 88% of the Am were removed from the soil using 3.2mol% TTA and 2.7 mol % TBP, in a single 45 minute extraction. Extraction conditions employing a 5 mol % ethanol modifier with 0.33 mol % TTA and 0.27 mol %TBP resulted in 66% Pu and 68% Am extracted. To our knowledge, this is thefirst report of the use of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) for the removal of actinides from soil.

  8. Design Study of the Extraction System of the 3rd Generation ECR Ion Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leitner, M.A.; Lyneis, C.M.; Taylor, C.E.; Wutte, D.; Xie, Z.Q.

    1998-10-06

    A design study for the extraction system of the 3rd Generation super conducting ECR ion source at LBNL is presented. The magnetic design of the ion source has a mirror field of 4 T at the injection and 3 T at the extraction side and a radial field of 2.4 T at the plasma chamber wall. Therefore, the ion beam formation takes place in a strong axial magnetic field. Furthermore the axial field drops from 3 T to 0.4 T within the first 30 cm. The influence of the high magnetic field on the ion beam extraction and matching to the beam line is investigated. The extraction system is first simulated with the 2D ion trajectory code IGUN with an estimated mean charge state of the extracted ion beam. These results are then compared with the 2D code AXCEL-INP, which can simulate the extraction of ions with different charge states. Finally, the influence of the strong magnetic hexapole field is studied with the three dimensional ion optics code KOBRA. The introduced tool set can be used to optimize the extraction system of the super conducting ECR ion source.

  9. Determination of terpenoid content in pine by organic solvent extraction and fast-GC analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Harman-Ware, Anne E.; Sykes, Robert; Peter, Gary F.; Davis, Mark

    2016-01-25

    Terpenoids, naturally occurring compounds derived from isoprene units present in pine oleoresin, are a valuable source of chemicals used in solvents, fragrances, flavors, and have shown potential use as a biofuel. This paper describes a method to extract and analyze the terpenoids present in loblolly pine saplings and pine lighter wood. Various extraction solvents were tested over different times and temperatures. Samples were analyzed by pyrolysis-molecular beam mass spectrometry before and after extractions to monitor the extraction efficiency. The pyrolysis studies indicated that the optimal extraction method used a 1:1 hexane/acetone solvent system at 22°C for 1 h. Extracts frommore » the hexane/acetone experiments were analyzed using a low thermal mass modular accelerated column heater for fast-GC/FID analysis. The most abundant terpenoids from the pine samples were quantified, using standard curves, and included the monoterpenes, α- and β-pinene, camphene, and δ-carene. Sesquiterpenes analyzed included caryophyllene, humulene, and α-bisabolene. In conclusion, diterpenoid resin acids were quantified in derivatized extractions, including pimaric, isopimaric, levopimaric, palustric, dehydroabietic, abietic, and neoabietic acids.« less

  10. Design of a crystal extraction facility in the east utility straight

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dukes, E.C.; Murphy, C.T.; Parker, B.

    1993-09-01

    Parasitic extraction of a small fraction of the 20-TeV circulating beam of the Superconducting Super Collider can be done using a bent crystal situated in the halo of the orbiting beam. The authors present a design of a crystal extraction system that is compatible with current plans for momentum scraping in the east utility straight. The only modification to the collider tunnel is the addition of a 160-m-long alcove in the east utility straight to mate the extracted beam line microtunnel with the collider tunnel. No other changes to the east utility straight tunnel are needed.

  11. Pseudophasic extraction method for the separation of ultra-fine minerals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, David J.

    2002-01-01

    An improved aqueous-based extraction method for the separation and recovery of ultra-fine mineral particles. The process operates within the pseudophase region of the conventional aqueous biphasic extraction system where a low-molecular-weight, water soluble polymer alone is used in combination with a salt and operates within the pseudo-biphase regime of the conventional aqueous biphasic extraction system. A combination of low molecular weight, mutually immiscible polymers are used with or without a salt. This method is especially suited for the purification of clays that are useful as rheological control agents and for the preparation of nanocomposites.

  12. PROCESS FOR SEPARATING YTTRIUM FROM THE RARE EARTHS BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peppard, D.F.; Mason, G.W.

    1963-11-12

    A process of isolating yttrium from other rare earths present together with it in aqueous solutions is presented. Yttrium and rare earths heavier than yttrium are first extracted with dialkyl phosphoric acid, after adjustment of the acidity to 2 N, and then back-extracted with 5-6 N mineral acid to form a strip solution. Thiocyanate is added to the strip solution and the rare earths heavier than yttrium are then selectively extracted with trialkyl phosphate, dialkyl phosphoric acid, alkyl phosphonate, or dialkyl aryl phosphonate, leaving the yttrium in the aqueous solution. (AEC)

  13. Fluorinated Calixpyrroles: Anion-Binding Extractants that Reduce the Hofmeister Bias

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Marquez, Manuel; Sessler, Jonathan L.; Shriver, James A.; Vercouter, Thomas; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2003-04-30

    b-Fluorinated calix[4]pyrrole 1 and calix[5]pyrrole 2, strong, neutral anion-binding agents, were found to transport small anions effectively while overcoming the classical solvation-based Hofmeister anion bias selectivity. These two receptors showed an ability to extract smaller anions (bromide and chloride for 1 and nitrate and fluoride for 2) as effectively as iodide anion into nitrobenzene (NB). The present results also represent a rare example of liquid-liquid extraction of inorganic salts effected using an anion receptor in the absence of a cation co-extractant.

  14. Extraction of protactinium-233 and separation from thermal neutron-irradiated thorium-232 using crown ethers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jalhoom, Moayyed G.; Mohammed, Dawood A.; Khalaf, Jumah S.

    2008-07-01

    A new method was developed for the extraction and separation of {sup 233}Pa from thermal neutron-irradiated {sup 232}Th. Solutions of Pa{sup 233} were prepared in LiCI-HCl solutions from which appreciable extraction was obtained using dibenzo-18-crown-6 in 1,2-dichloroethane. The effects of cavity size, substitutions on the crown ring, type of the organic solvent, and temperature on extraction are discussed. Very high separation factors were obtained for the pairs {sup 233}Pa/{sup 232}Th (>105), {sup 233}Pa/{sup 233}U (> 1000), and {sup 232}U/{sup 232}Th (>60). (authors)

  15. Ferric ion as a scavenging agent in a solvent extraction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bruns, Lester E.; Martin, Earl C.

    1976-01-01

    Ferric ions are added into the aqueous feed of a plutonium scrap recovery process that employs a tributyl phosphate extractant. Radiolytic degradation products of tributyl phosphate such as dibutyl phosphate form a solid precipitate with iron and are removed from the extraction stages via the waste stream. Consequently, the solvent extraction characteristics are improved, particularly in respect to minimizing the formation of nonstrippable plutonium complexes in the stripping stages. The method is expected to be also applicable to the partitioning of plutonium and uranium in a scrap recovery process.

  16. Understanding extraction and beam transport in the ISIS H{sup -} Penning surface plasma ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faircloth, D. C.; Letchford, A. P.; Gabor, C.; Whitehead, M. O.; Wood, T.; Jolly, S.; Pozimski, J.; Savage, P.; Woods, M.

    2008-02-15

    The ISIS H{sup -} Penning surface plasma source has been developed to produce beam currents up to 70 mA and pulse lengths up to 1.5 ms at 50 Hz. This paper details the investigation into beam extraction and beam transport in an attempt to understand the beam emittance and to try to improve the emittance. A scintillator profile measurement technique has been developed to assess the performance of different plasma electrode apertures, extraction electrode geometries, and postextraction acceleration configurations. This work shows that the present extraction, beam transport, and postacceleration system are suboptimal and further work is required to improve it.

  17. Plasma meniscus and extraction electrode studies of the ISIS H{sup -} ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrie, S. R.; Faircloth, D. C.; Letchford, A. P.; Gabor, C.; Pozimski, J. K.

    2010-02-15

    In order to reduce the emittance and increase the transported beam current from the ISIS Penning-type H{sup -} ion source, improvements to the extraction system are required. This ion source is currently being commissioned on the front end test stand at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, which demands higher extraction energies, higher beam currents, and smaller emittances. To facilitate this, the present geometry requires optimization. This paper details the experimental and simulation studies performed of the plasma meniscus and the possible electrode geometry modifications needed to extract the highest quality beam.

  18. COMMISSIONING RESULTS OF SLOW EXTRACTION OF HEAVY IONS FROM THE AGS BOOSTER.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, K A; Bellavia, S; Binello, S; Brelsford, B; Dumont, D; Eng, W; Gardner, G; Gassner, D; Glenn, J W; Hammons, L; Hock, J; Hoff, L; Hutchinson, E; Jamilkowski, J; Kling, N; Kotlyar, Y; Krishock, A; Lockey, R; Mapes, M; Marneris, I; Marr, G; McNerney, A; Meyer, A; Morris, J; Naylor, C; Nemesure, S; Phillips, D; Rusek, A; Ryan, J; Shrey, T; Snydstrup, L; Tsoupas, N; Vankuik, B; Zahariou-Cohen, K

    2003-05-12

    Brookhaven's AGS Booster has been modified to deliver slow extracted beam to a new beam line, the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). This facility was constructed in collaboration with NASA for the purpose of performing radiation effect studies for the NASA space program. The design of the resonant extraction system has been described in [1]. A more detailed description, which includes predictions of the slow extracted beam time structure has been described in [2]. In this report we will present results of the system commissioning and performance.

  19. Apparatus and method for extraction of chemicals from aquifer remediation effluent water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McMurtrey, Ryan D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Moor, Kenneth S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Shook, G. Michael (Idaho Falls, ID); Moses, John M. (Dedham, MA); Barker, Donna L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for extraction of chemicals from an aquifer remediation aqueous effluent are provided. The extraction method utilizes a critical fluid for separation and recovery of chemicals employed in remediating aquifers contaminated with hazardous organic substances, and is particularly suited for separation and recovery of organic contaminants and process chemicals used in surfactant-based remediation technologies. The extraction method separates and recovers high-value chemicals from the remediation effluent and minimizes the volume of generated hazardous waste. The recovered chemicals can be recycled to the remediation process or stored for later use.

  20. Method and system for extraction of chemicals from aquifer remediation effluent water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McMurtrey, Ryan D. (Idaho Falls, ID); Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Moor, Kenneth S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Shook, G. Michael (Idaho Falls, ID); Barker, Donna L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2003-01-01

    A method and system for extraction of chemicals from an groundwater remediation aqueous effluent are provided. The extraction method utilizes a critical fluid for separation and recovery of chemicals employed in remediating groundwater contaminated with hazardous organic substances, and is particularly suited for separation and recovery of organic contaminants and process chemicals used in surfactant-based remediation technologies. The extraction method separates and recovers high-value chemicals from the remediation effluent and minimizes the volume of generated hazardous waste. The recovered chemicals can be recycled to the remediation process or stored for later use.

  1. Extraction and analysis of neuron firing signals from deep cortical video microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerekes, Ryan A; Blundon, Jay

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a method for extracting and analyzing neuronal activity time signals from video of the cortex of a live animal. The signals correspond to the firing activity of individual cortical neurons. Activity signals are based on the changing fluorescence of calcium indicators in the cells over time. We propose a cell segmentation method that relies on a user-specified center point, from which the signal extraction method proceeds. A stabilization approach is used to reduce tissue motion in the video. The extracted signal is then processed to flatten the baseline and detect action potentials. We show results from applying the method to a cortical video of a live mouse.

  2. Method for extracting metals from aqueous waste streams for long term storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, David J.

    1995-01-01

    A liquid--liquid extraction method for removing metals and hydrous metal colloids from waste streams is provided wherein said waste streams are contacted with a solvent system containing a water-in-oil microemulsion wherein the inverted micelles contain the extracted metal. A silicon alkoxide, either alone or in combination with other metal alkoxide compounds is added to the water-in-oil microemulsion, thereby allowing encapsulation of the extracted metal within a silicon oxide network. Lastly, the now-encapsulated metal is precipitated from the water-in-oil microemulsion phase to yield aggregates of metal-silicate particles having average individual particle sizes of approximately 40 nanometers.

  3. Method for extracting metals from aqueous waste streams for long term storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, D.J.

    1995-03-07

    A liquid-liquid extraction method for removing metals and hydrous metal colloids from waste streams is provided wherein said waste streams are contacted with a solvent system containing a water-in-oil microemulsion wherein the inverted micelles contain the extracted metal. A silicon alkoxide, either alone or in combination with other metal alkoxide compounds is added to the water-in-oil microemulsion, thereby allowing encapsulation of the extracted metal within a silicon oxide network. Lastly, the now-encapsulated metal is precipitated from the water-in-oil microemulsion phase to yield aggregates of metal-silicate particles having average individual particle sizes of approximately 40 nanometers. 2 figs.

  4. Method for extracting metals from aqueous waste streams for long term storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    A liquid-liquid extraction method for removing metals and hydrous metal colloids from waste streams is provided wherein said waste streams are contacted with a solvent system containing a water-in-oil microemulsion wherein the inverted micelles contain the extracted metal. A silicon alkoxide, either alone or in combination with other metal alkoxide compounds is added to the water-in-oil microemulsion, thereby allowing encapsulation of the extracted metal within a silicon oxide network. Lastly, the now-encapsulated metal is precipitated from the water-in-oil microemulsion phase to yield aggregates of metal-silicate particles having average. individual particle sizes of approximately 40 manometers.

  5. Process for producing fuel grade ethanol by continuous fermentation, solvent extraction and alcohol separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tedder, Daniel W.

    1985-05-14

    Alcohol substantially free of water is prepared by continuously fermenting a fermentable biomass feedstock in a fermentation unit, thereby forming an aqueous fermentation liquor containing alcohol and microorganisms. Continuously extracting a portion of alcohol from said fermentation liquor with an organic solvent system containing an extractant for said alcohol, thereby forming an alcohol-organic solvent extract phase and an aqueous raffinate. Said alcohol is separated from said alcohol-organic solvent phase. A raffinate comprising microorganisms and unextracted alcohol is returned to the fermentation unit.

  6. Development of a process for the extraction of {sup 137}Cs from acidic HLLW based on crown-calix extractant use of di-alkylamide modifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexova, J.; Sirova, M.; Rais, J.; Suzuki, S.; Hirata, M.; Kimura, T.; Tachimori, S.

    2008-07-01

    Within the framework of the ARTIST project of total fuel retreatment with ecological mixtures of solvents and extractants containing only C, H, O, and N atoms, a process segment of extraction of {sup 137}Cs from acidic stream was developed. The process with 25,27-Bis(1-octyloxy)calix[4]arene-crown- 6, DOC[4]C6, dissolved at its 0.01 M concentration in a mixture of 90 vol % 1-octanol and 10% dihexyl octanamide, DHOA was proposed as a viable variant due to its good multicycle performance, even with irradiated solvent, and due to the good chemical stability of the chosen combination of solvent mixture. (authors)

  7. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part I. Regeneration of Amine-Carboxylic Acid Extracts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poole, L.J.; King, C.J.

    1990-03-01

    Two novel regenerated solvent extraction processes are examined. The first process has the potential to reduce the energy costs inherent in the recovery of low-volatility carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solutions. The second process has the potential for reducing the energy costs required for separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases (e.g. CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S) from industrial sour waters. The recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution can be achieved by extraction with tertiary amines. An approach for regeneration and product recovery from such extracts is to back-extract the carboxylic acid with a water-soluble, volatile tertiary amine, such as trimethylamine. The resulting trimethylammonium carboxylate solution can be concentrated and thermally decomposed, yielding the product acid and the volatile amine for recycle. Experimental work was performed with lactic acid, succinic acid, and fumaric acid. Equilibrium data show near-stoichiometric recovery of the carboxylic acids from an organic solution of Alamine 336 into aqueous solutions of trimethylamine. For fumaric and succinic acids, partial evaporation of the aqueous back extract decomposes the carboxylate and yields the acid product in crystalline form. The decomposition of aqueous solutions of trimethylammonium lactates was not carried out to completion, due to the high water solubility of lactic acid and the tendency of the acid to self-associate. The separate recovery of ammonia and acid gases from sour waters can be achieved by combining steam-stripping of the acid gases with simultaneous removal of ammonia by extraction with a liquid cation exchanger. The use of di-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid as the liquid cation exchanger is explored in this work. Batch extraction experiments were carried out to measure the equilibrium distribution ratio of ammonia between an aqueous buffer solution and an organic solution of the phosphinic acid (0.2N) in Norpar 12. The concentration-based distribution ratios increase from 0.11 to 0.46 as the aqueous phase pH increases from 7.18 to 8.15. Regeneration of the organic extractant solution was carried out by stripping at elevated temperatures to remove the ammonia, with 99% recovery of the ammonia being obtained at 125 C.

  8. ASSESSMENT OF MARKER PROTEINS IDENTIFIED IN WHOLE CELL EXTRACTS FOR BACTERIAL SPECIATION USING LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY ELECTROSPRAY IONIZATION TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kooken, Jennifer M.; Fox, Karen F.; Fox, Alvin; Wunschel, David S.

    2014-02-02

    ASSESSMENT OF MARKER PROTEINS IDENTIFIED IN WHOLE CELL EXTRACTS FOR BACTERIAL SPECIATION USING LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY ELECTROSPRAY IONIZATION TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY

  9. Membrane contactor assisted water extraction system for separating hydrogen peroxide from a working solution, and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Snyder, Seth W.; Lin, Yupo J.; Hestekin' Jamie A.; Henry, Michael P.; Pujado, Peter; Oroskar, Anil; Kulprathipanja, Santi; Randhava, Sarabjit

    2010-09-21

    The present invention relates to a membrane contactor assisted extraction system and method for extracting a single phase species from multi-phase working solutions. More specifically one preferred embodiment of the invention relates to a method and system for membrane contactor assisted water (MCAWE) extraction of hydrogen peroxide (H.sub.2O.sub.2) from a working solution.

  10. Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

    2006-06-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the power plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention or adjustment. Water produced from this process should require little processing for use, depending on the end application. Test Series II water quality was not as good as that obtained in Test Series I; however, this was believed to be due to a system upset that contaminated the product water system during Test Series II. The amount of water that can be recovered from flue gas with the LDDS is a function of several variables, including desiccant temperature, L/G in the absorber, flash drum pressure, liquid-gas contact method, and desiccant concentration. Corrosion will be an issue with the use of calcium chloride as expected but can be largely mitigated through proper material selection. Integration of the LDDS with either low-grade waste heat and or ground-source heating and cooling can affect the parasitic power draw the LDDS will have on a power plant. Depending on the amount of water to be removed from the flue gas, the system can be designed with no parasitic power draw on the power plant other than pumping loads. This can be accomplished in one scenario by taking advantage of the heat of absorption and the heat of vaporization to provide the necessary temperature changes in the desiccant with the flue gas and precipitates that may form and how to handle them. These questions must be addressed in subsequent testing before scale-up of the process can be confidently completed.

  11. Evaluating ligands for use in polymer ligand film (PLF) for plutonium and uranium extraction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rim, Jung H.; Peterson, Dominic S.; Armenta, Claudine E.; Gonzales, Edward R.; Ünlü, Kenan

    2015-05-08

    We describe a new analyte extraction technique using Polymer Ligand Film (PLF). PLFs were synthesized to perform direct sorption of analytes onto its surface for direct counting using alpha spectroscopy. The main focus of the new technique is to shorten and simplify the procedure for chemically isolating radionuclides for determination through a radiometric technique. 4'(5')-di-t-butylcyclohexano 18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6) and 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid (HEH[EHP]) were examined for plutonium extraction. Di(2-ethyl hexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP) were examined for plutonium and uranium extraction. DtBuCH18C6 and HEH[EHP] were not effective in plutonium extraction. HDEHP PLFs were effective for plutonium but not for uranium.

  12. Extraction of CP Properties of the H(125) Boson Discovered in...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Extraction of CP Properties of the H(125) Boson Discovered in Proton-Proton Collisions at sqrts 7 and 8 TeV with the CMS Detector at the LHC In this thesis we build ...

  13. PROCESS OF RECOVERING ZIRCONIUM VALUES FROM HAFNIUM VALUES BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION WITH AN ALKYL PHOSPHATE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peppard, D.F.

    1960-02-01

    A process of separating hafnium nitrate from zirconium nitrate contained in a nitric acid solution by selectively. extracting the zirconium nitrate with a water-immiscible alkyl phosphate is reported.

  14. Evaluating ligands for use in polymer ligand film (PLF) for plutonium and uranium extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rim, Jung H.; Peterson, Dominic S.; Armenta, Claudine E.; Gonzales, Edward R.; Ünlü, Kenan

    2015-05-08

    We describe a new analyte extraction technique using Polymer Ligand Film (PLF). PLFs were synthesized to perform direct sorption of analytes onto its surface for direct counting using alpha spectroscopy. The main focus of the new technique is to shorten and simplify the procedure for chemically isolating radionuclides for determination through a radiometric technique. 4'(5')-di-t-butylcyclohexano 18-crown-6 (DtBuCH18C6) and 2-ethylhexylphosphonic acid (HEH[EHP]) were examined for plutonium extraction. Di(2-ethyl hexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP) were examined for plutonium and uranium extraction. DtBuCH18C6 and HEH[EHP] were not effective in plutonium extraction. HDEHP PLFs were effective for plutonium but not for uranium.

  15. Use of solvent extraction technique in Brazilian uranium mills - an overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gomiero, Luiz A.

    2008-07-01

    Solvent extraction has been applied to uranium-concentrate production in Brazil. At the first plant, uranium minerals associated with Zr and Mo were acid leached. Extraction was carried out by a mixture of Alamine 336 and Alamine 304, followed by selective Zr, U, and Mo stripping. At the currently operating facilities, a single U mineral is processed by acid heap leaching. Uranium is extracted with Alamine 336 and stripped with NaCl solution. As all water is recycled, chloride contents in the liquor have increased, causing detrimental effects to the extraction process. The current plant operating conditions and the improvements arisen from the research developed to solve these problems are presented. (authors)

  16. Next generation extractants for separation of cesium from high-level waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartsch, R.A.; Zhou, H.; Delmau, L.H.; Moyer, B.A.

    2008-07-01

    Using calix[4]arene as a scaffold, lipophilic, proton-ionizable ligands for cesium ion extraction have been synthesized. In the 1,3-alternate conformation, lipophilic octyl groups are attached to distal oxygens on one side of the calix[4]arene molecule, and an alkylated benzo-crown-6 unit is connected to distal oxygens on the other side. One phenyl octyl ether unit bears an acidic group in the para-position which orients it directly over the polyether ring. Solvent extractions of trace cesium ion from aqueous solutions into toluene have been performed. The efficiency of cesium ion extraction as a function of the aqueous phase pH and the identity of the acidic group have been assessed. Promising results are obtained for this new series of cesium ion extractants. (authors)

  17. Nonthermal plasma processor utilizing additive-gas injection and/or gas extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rosocha, Louis A.

    2006-06-20

    A device for processing gases includes a cylindrical housing in which an electrically grounded, metal injection/extraction gas supply tube is disposed. A dielectric tube surrounds the injection/extraction gas supply tube to establish a gas modification passage therearound. Additionally, a metal high voltage electrode circumscribes the dielectric tube. The high voltage electrode is energizable to create nonthermal electrical microdischarges between the high voltage electrode and the injection/extraction gas supply tube across the dielectric tube within the gas modification passage. An injection/extraction gas and a process gas flow through the nonthermal electrical microdischarges within the gas modification passage and a modified process gas results. Using the device contaminants that are entrained in the process gas can be destroyed to yield a cleaner, modified process gas.

  18. Negative hydrogen ion beam extraction from an AC heated cathode driven Bernas-type ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okano, Y.; Miyamoto, N.; Kasuya, T.; Wada, M.

    2015-04-08

    A plasma grid structure was installed to a Bernas-type ion source used for ion implantation equipment. A negative hydrogen (H{sup −}) ion beam was extracted by an AC driven ion source by adjusting the bias to the plasma grid. The extracted electron current was reduced by positively biasing the plasma grid, while an optimum plasma grid bias voltage for negative ion beam extraction was found to be positive 3 V with respect to the arc chamber. Source operations with AC cathode heating show extraction characteristics almost identical to that with DC cathode heating, except a minute increase in H{sup −} current at higher frequency of cathode heating current.

  19. EXTRACTION OF TETRAVALENT PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM AQUEOUS ACID SOLUTIONS BY 2($beta$-ETHYLBUTOXY) ETHANOL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1961-08-15

    A process of extracting tetnavalent plutonium from aqueous inonganic acid solutions (acidity between 1 N and pH of 2.5) with 2( beta -ethylbutoxy) ethanol is described. (AEC)

  20. Pore-Water Extraction Scale-Up Study for the SX Tank Farm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Last, George V.; Lanigan, David C.

    2013-01-15

    The phenomena related to pore-water extraction from unsaturated sediments have been previously examined with limited laboratory experiments and numerical modeling. However, key scale-up issues have not yet been addressed. Laboratory experiments and numerical modeling were conducted to specifically examine pore-water extraction for sediment conditions relevant to the vadose zone beneath the SX Tank Farm at Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Available SX Tank Farm data were evaluated to generate a conceptual model of the subsurface for a targeted pore-water extraction application in areas with elevated moisture and Tc-99 concentration. The hydraulic properties of the types of porous media representative of the SX Tank Farm target application were determined using sediment mixtures prepared in the laboratory based on available borehole sediment particle size data. Numerical modeling was used as an evaluation tool for scale-up of pore-water extraction for targeted field applications.

  1. Negative ion production and beam extraction processes in a large ion source

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (invited) (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Negative ion production and beam extraction processes in a large ion source (invited) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Negative ion production and beam extraction processes in a large ion source (invited) Recent research results on negative-ion-rich plasmas in a large negative ion source have been reviewed. Spatial density and flow distributions of negative hydrogen ions (H{sup -}) and positive hydrogen ions together with those of

  2. Recovery of sugars from ionic liquid biomass liquor by solvent extraction

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Patent) | SciTech Connect Recovery of sugars from ionic liquid biomass liquor by solvent extraction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Recovery of sugars from ionic liquid biomass liquor by solvent extraction The present invention provides for a composition comprising a solution comprising (a) an ionic liquid (IL) or ionic liquid-aqueous (ILA) phase and (b) an organic phase, wherein the solution comprises a sugar and a boronic acid. The present invention also provides for a method

  3. COLLOQUIUM: "The Environmental Footprint of Shale Gas Extraction and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydraulic Fracturing" | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab January 9, 2013, 4:15pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium COLLOQUIUM: "The Environmental Footprint of Shale Gas Extraction and Hydraulic Fracturing" Professor Robert Jackson Duke University Presentation: PDF icon WC09JAN2013_RBJackson.pdf Shale gas extraction is growing rapidly, developed in large part through horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. Concerns over potential environmental impacts have accompanied the

  4. Pore-Water Extraction from Unsaturated Porous Media: Intermediate-Scale Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oostrom, Martinus; Truex, Michael J.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Tartakovsky, Guzel D.

    2014-08-15

    As a remedial approach, vacuum-induced pore-water extraction offers the possibility of contaminant and water removal from the vadose zone, which may be beneficial in reducing the flux of vadose zone contaminants to groundwater. Vadose zone water extraction is being considered at the Hanford Site in Washington State as a means to remove technetium-99 contamination from low permeability sediments with relatively high water contents. A series of intermediate-scale laboratory experiments have been conducted to improve the fundamental understanding and limitations of the technique. Column experiments were designed to investigate the relations between imposed suctions, water saturations, and water production. Flow cell experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of high-permeability layers and near-well compaction on pore-water extraction efficiency. Results show that water extraction from unsaturated systems can be achieved in low permeability sediments, provided that the initial water saturations are relatively high. The presence of a high-permeability layer decreased the yield, and compaction near the well screen had a limited effect on overall performance. In all experiments, large pressure gradients were observed near the extraction screen. Minimum requirements for water extraction include an imposed vacuum-induced suction larger than the initial sediment capillary pressure, in combination with a fully saturated seepage-face boundary. A numerical multiphase simulator with a coupled seepage-face boundary conditions was used to simulate the experiments. Reasonable matches were obtained between measured and simulated results for both water extraction and capillary pressures, suggesting that numerical simulations may be used as a design tool for field-scale applications of pore-water extraction.

  5. Extracting Scattering Phase-Shifts in Higher Partial-Waves from Lattice QCD

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Calculations (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Extracting Scattering Phase-Shifts in Higher Partial-Waves from Lattice QCD Calculations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Extracting Scattering Phase-Shifts in Higher Partial-Waves from Lattice QCD Calculations Authors: Luu, T ; Savage, M J Publication Date: 2011-01-18 OSTI Identifier: 1068270 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-472171 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Physical

  6. Flowsheet Testing of the Fission Product Extraction Process as Part of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Advanced Aqueous Reprocessing (Conference) | SciTech Connect Flowsheet Testing of the Fission Product Extraction Process as Part of Advanced Aqueous Reprocessing Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flowsheet Testing of the Fission Product Extraction Process as Part of Advanced Aqueous Reprocessing As part of the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI), the reduction in volume and heat generation of spent nuclear fuel requiring geologic disposal is currently being addressed. The goal is

  7. Flowsheet Testing of the Fission Product Extraction Process as Part of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Advanced Aqueous Reprocessing (Conference) | SciTech Connect Flowsheet Testing of the Fission Product Extraction Process as Part of Advanced Aqueous Reprocessing Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flowsheet Testing of the Fission Product Extraction Process as Part of Advanced Aqueous Reprocessing × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided

  8. Development of Continuous Solvent Extraction Processes for Coal Derived Carbon Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliot B. Kennel

    2006-12-31

    This DOE NETL-sponsored effort seeks to develop continuous processes for producing carbon products from solvent-extracted coal. A key process step is removal of solids from liquefied coal. Three different processes were compared: gravity separation, centrifugation using a decanter-type Sharples Pennwalt centrifuge, and a Spinner-II centrifuge. The data suggest that extracts can be cleaned to as low as 0.5% ash level and probably lower using a combination of these techniques.

  9. Enhanced Geothermal in Nevada: Extracting Heat From the Earth to Generate

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sustainable Power | Department of Energy Enhanced Geothermal in Nevada: Extracting Heat From the Earth to Generate Sustainable Power Enhanced Geothermal in Nevada: Extracting Heat From the Earth to Generate Sustainable Power April 12, 2013 - 11:17am Addthis Learn the basics of enhanced geothermal systems technology. I Infographic by <a href="http://energy.gov/contributors/sarah-gerrity">Sarah Gerrity</a>. Learn the basics of enhanced geothermal systems technology. I

  10. CONTINUOUS CHELATION-EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR THE SEPARATION AND PURIFICATION OF METALS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thomas, J.R.; Hicks, T.E.; Rubin, B.; Crandall, H.W.

    1959-12-01

    A continuous process is presented for separating metal values and groups of metal values from each other. A complex mixture. e.g., neutron-irradiated uranium, can be resolved into component parts. In the present process the values are dissolved in an acidic solution and adjusted to the proper oxidation state. Thenceforth the solution is contacted with an extractant phase comprising a fluorinated beta -diketone in an organic solvent under centain pH conditions whereupon plutonium and zirconium are extracted. Plutonium is extracted from the foregoing extract with reducing aqueous solutions or under specified acidic conditions and can be recovered from the aqueous solution. Zirconium is then removed with an oxalic acid aqueous phase. The uranium is recovered from the residual original solution using hexone and hexone-diketone extractants leaving residual fission products in the original solution. The uranium is extracted from the hexone solution with dilute nitric acid. Improved separations and purifications are achieved using recycled scrub solutions and the "self-salting" effect of uranyl ions.

  11. Pseudo-hydroxide extraction in the separation of sodium hydroxide from aqueous solutions using alkyl phenols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Hyun Ah; Moyer, Bruce A

    2006-01-01

    Pseudo-hydroxide extraction of sodium hydroxide from aqueous solution using four alkyl phenols of nearly identical molecular weight in 1-octanol at 25 degrees C was examined to understand the effect of alkyl substituents. The order of extraction strength among the four alkyl phenols tested was 4-tert-octylphenol. 3,5-di-tertbutylphenol. 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol. 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol. A good correlation with phenol pK(a) was observed, indicating that extraction strength is determined by phenol acidity, as modified by steric effects in proximity to the phenol - OH group. The effective partition ratios (P-eff) of two phenols from 1 M NaOH solution were determined, showing that the phenols remain predominantly in the 1-octanol phase even when converted to their sodium salts. However, the hydrophobicity of the tested phenols may not be sufficient for process purposes. The equilibrium constants for the governing extraction equilibria were determined by modeling the data using the program SXLSQI, supporting the cation-exchange extraction mechanism. The proposed mechanism consists of two simple sets of equilibria for a. Ion-pair extraction to give Na+OH- ion pairs and corresponding free ions in 1-octanol the phase and b. Cation exchange by monomeric phenol molecules (HAs) to form monomeric organic-phase Na(+)A(-) ion pairs and corresponding free organic-phase ions.

  12. Towards a more accurate extraction of the SPICE netlist from MAGIC based layouts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geronimo, G.D.

    1998-08-01

    The extraction of the SPICE netlist form MAGIC based layouts is investigated. It is assumed that the layout is fully coherent with the corresponding mask representation. The process of the extraction can be made in three steps: (1) extraction of .EXT file from layout, through MAGIC command extract; (2) extraction of the netlist from .EXT file through ext2spice extractor; and (3) correction of the netlist through ext2spice.corr program. Each of these steps introduces some approximations, most of which can be optimized, and some errors, most of which can be corrected. Aim of this work is the description of each step, of the approximations and errors on each step, and of the corresponding optimizations and corrections to be made in order to improve the accuracy of the extraction. The HP AMOS14TB 0.5 {micro}m process with linear capacitor and silicide block options and the corresponding SCN3MLC{_}SUBM.30.tech27 technology file will be used in the following examples.

  13. Robust Extraction Interface for Coupling Droplet-Based and Continuous Flow Microfluidics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xuefei; Tang, Keqi; Smith, Richard D.; Kelly, Ryan T.

    2012-03-07

    Reliable and highly efficient extraction of droplets from oil to aqueous phase is key for downstream coupling with chemical separations and nonoptical detection methods such as amperometry and mass spectrometry. This paper presents an improved interface providing robust extraction for droplet-based poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microfluidic devices. The extraction interface consists of an array of cylindrical posts with narrow apertures in between. The aqueous flow channel into which droplets coalesced was simply and selectively modified to be hydrophilic, while the continuous oil phase flow channel that contained encapsulated aqueous droplets retained a hydrophobic surface. The different surfaces on both sides of the extraction region form a highly stable liquid interface between the two immiscible phases, allowing rapid droplet transfer to the aqueous stream. Entire droplets could be completely extracted within broad ranges of aqueous and oil flow rates (0 - 1 and 0.1 - 1 uL/min, respectively). After extraction, the droplet contents could be transported electrophoretically or by pressure-driven flow to a monolithically integrated emitter for nano-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (nanoESI-MS) analysis. This interface should be amenable to the separation and identification of droplet contents and on-line monitoring of in-droplet reactions.

  14. Modeling In-stream Tidal Energy Extraction and Its Potential Environmental Impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Wang, Taiping; Copping, Andrea; Geerlofs, Simon H.

    2014-09-30

    In recent years, there has been growing interest in harnessing in-stream tidal energy in response to concerns of increasing energy demand and to mitigate climate change impacts. While many studies have been conducted to assess and map tidal energy resources, efforts for quantifying the associated potential environmental impacts have been limited. This paper presents the development of a tidal turbine module within a three-dimensional unstructured-grid coastal ocean model and its application for assessing the potential environmental impacts associated with tidal energy extraction. The model is used to investigate in-stream tidal energy extraction and associated impacts on estuarine hydrodynamic and biological processes in a tidally dominant estuary. A series of numerical experiments with varying numbers and configurations of turbines installed in an idealized estuary were carried out to assess the changes in the hydrodynamics and biological processes due to tidal energy extraction. Model results indicated that a large number of turbines are required to extract the maximum tidal energy and cause significant reduction of the volume flux. Preliminary model results also indicate that extraction of tidal energy increases vertical mixing and decreases flushing rate in a stratified estuary. The tidal turbine model was applied to simulate tidal energy extraction in Puget Sound, a large fjord-like estuary in the Pacific Northwest coast.

  15. Electrophoretic extraction of proteins from two-dimensional electrophoresis gel spots

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Jian-Shi; Giometti, C.S.; Tollaksen, S.L.

    1987-09-04

    After two-dimensional electrophoresis of proteins or the like, resulting in a polyacrylamide gel slab having a pattern of protein gel spots thereon, an individual protein gel spot is cored out from the slab, to form a gel spot core which is placed in an extraction tube, with a dialysis membrane across the lower end of the tube. Replicate gel spots can be cored out from replicate gel slabs and placed in the extraction tube. Molten agarose gel is poured into the extraction tube where the agarose gel hardens to form an immobilizing gel, covering the gel spot cores. The upper end portion of the extraction tube is filled with a volume of buffer solution, and the upper end is closed by another dialysis membrane. Upper and lower bodies of a buffer solution are brought into contact with the upper and lower membranes and are provided with electrodes connected to the positive and negative terminals of a dc power supply, thereby producing an electrical current which flows through the upper membrane, the volume of buffer solution, the agarose, the gel spot cores and the lower membrane. The current causes the proteins to be extracted electrophoretically from the gel spot cores, so that the extracted proteins accumulate and are contained in the space between the agarose gel and the upper membrane. 8 figs.

  16. Field Test Design Simulations of Pore-Water Extraction for the SX Tank Farm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus

    2013-09-01

    A proof of principle test of pore water extraction is being performed by Washington River Protection Solutions for the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection. This test is being conducted to meet the requirements of Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (HFFACO) (Ecology et al. 1989) Milestone M 045-20, and is described in RPP-PLAN-53808, 200 West Area Tank Farms Interim Measures Investigation Work Plan. To support design of this test, numerical simulations were conducted to help define equipment and operational parameters. The modeling effort builds from information collected in laboratory studies and from field characterization information collected at the test site near the Hanford Site 241-SX Tank Farm. Numerical simulations were used to evaluate pore-water extraction performance as a function of the test site properties and for the type of extraction well configuration that can be constructed using the direct-push installation technique. Output of simulations included rates of water and soil-gas production as a function of operational conditions for use in supporting field equipment design. The simulations also investigated the impact of subsurface heterogeneities in sediment properties and moisture distribution on pore-water extraction performance. Phenomena near the extraction well were also investigated because of their importance for pore-water extraction performance.

  17. Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, T.W.; Schmidt, F.A.

    1995-08-01

    A method is described for treating rare earth metal-bearing scrap, waste or other material (e.g. Nd--Fe--B or Dy--Tb--Fe scrap) to recover the rare earth metal comprising melting the rare earth metal-bearing material, melting a Group IIA metal extractant, such as Mg, Ca, or Ba, in which the rare earth is soluble in the molten state, and contacting the melted material and melted extractant at a temperature and for a time effective to extract the rare earth from the melted material into the melted extractant. The rare earth metal is separated from the extractant metal by vacuum sublimation or distillation. 2 figs.

  18. Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ellis, Timothy W.; Schmidt, Frederick A.

    1995-08-01

    Method of treating rare earth metal-bearing scrap, waste or other material (e.g. Nd--Fe--B or Dy--Tb--Fe scrap) to recover the rare earth metal comprising melting the rare earth metal-bearing material, melting a Group IIA metal extractant, such as Mg, Ca, or Ba, in which the rare earth is soluble in the molten state, and contacting the melted material and melted extractant at a temperature and for a time effective to extract the rare earth from the melted material into the melted extractant. The rare earth metal is separated from the extractant metal by vacuum sublimation or distillation.

  19. Process for the solvent extraction for the radiolysis and dehalogenation of halogenated organic compounds in soils, sludges, sediments and slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mincher, Bruce J.; Curry, Randy Dale; Clevenger, Thomas E.; Golden, Jeffry

    2000-01-01

    A process of extracting halogenated organic compounds, and particularly PCBs, from soil, sediment, slurry, sludge and dehalogenating the compounds contacting a contaminated soil sample with an extraction medium of a mixture of an alkane and a water miscible alcohol. The organic compounds dissolve in the extraction medium which is separated from the soil by passing water upwardly through the soil. The extraction medium floats to the surface of the water and is separated. Thereafter, the extraction medium containing the halogenated organic contaminants is subjected to ionizing radiation to radiolytically dehalogenate the compounds.

  20. Process for the solvent extraction for the radiolysis and dehalogenation of halogenated organic compounds in soils, sludges, sediments and slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mincher, Bruce J.; Curry, Randy Dale; Clevenger, Thomas E.; Golden, Jeffry

    2003-05-27

    A process of extracting halogenated organic compounds, and particularly PCBs, from soil, sediment, slurry, sludge and dehalogenating the compounds contacts a contaminated soil sample with an extraction medium of a mixture of an alkane and a water miscible alcohol. The organic compounds dissolve in the extraction medium which is separated from the soil by passing water upwardly through the soil. The extraction medium floats to the surface of the water and is separated. Thereafter, the extraction medium containing the halogenated organic contaminants is subjected to ionizing radiation to radiolytically dehalogenate the compounds.

  1. Process for the solvent extraction for the radiolysis and dehalogenation of halogenated organic compounds in soils, sludges, sediments and slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golden, Jeffry

    2007-02-13

    A process of extracting halogenated organic compounds, and particularly PCBs, from soil, sediment, slurry, sludge and dehalogenating the compounds contacts a contaminated soil sample with an extraction medium of a mixture of an alkane and a water miscible alcohol. The organic compounds dissolve in the extraction medium which is separated from the soil by passing water upwardly through the soil. The extraction medium floats to the surface of the water and is separated. Thereafter, the extraction medium containing the halogenated organic contaminants is subjected to ionizing radiation to radiolytically dehalogenate the compounds.

  2. Next Generation Extractants for Cesium Separation from High-Level Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A; Bazelaire, Eve; Bonnesen, Peter V; Custelcean, Radu; Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Ditto, Mary E; Engle, Nancy L; Gorbunova, Maryna; Haverlock, Tamara; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Bartsch, Richard A.; Surowiec, Malgorzata A.; Marquez, Manuel; Zhou, Hui

    2006-01-01

    This project seeks a fundamental understanding and major improvement in cesium separation from high-level waste by cesium-selective calixcrown extractants. Systems of particular interest involve novel solvent-extraction systems containing specific members of the calix[4]arene-crown-6 family, alcohol solvating agents, and alkylamines. Questions being addressed bear upon cesium binding strength, extraction selectivity, cesium stripping, and extractant solubility. Enhanced properties in this regard will specifically benefit applied projects funded by the USDOE Office of Environmental Management to clean up sites such as the Savannah River Site (SRS), Hanford, and the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory. The most direct beneficiary will be the SRS Salt Processing Project, which has recently identified the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process employing a calixcrown as its preferred technology for cesium removal from SRS high-level tank waste. Disposal of high-level waste is horrendously expensive, in large part because the actual radioactive matter in underground waste tanks at various USDOE sites has been diluted over 1000-fold by ordinary inorganic chemicals. To vitrify the entire mass of the high-level waste would be prohibitively expensive. Accordingly, an urgent need has arisen for technologies to remove radionuclides such as {sup 137}Cs from the high-level waste so that the bulk of it may be diverted to cheaper low-level waste forms and cheaper storage. To address this need in part, chemical research at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has focused on calixcrown extractants, molecules that combine a crown ether with a calixarene. This hybrid possesses a cavity that is highly complementary for the Cs{sup +} ion vs. the Na+ ion, making it possible to cleanly separate cesium from wastes that contain 10,000- to 1,000,000-fold higher concentrations of sodium. Previous EMSP results in Project 55087 elucidated the underlying extraction equilibria in cesium nitrate extraction by the calixcrown used in the CSSX process, calix[4]arene-bis(t-octylbenzo-crown-6), designated here as BOBCalixC6 (see structure). This understanding led to key improvements in the development of the CSSX process under the EM Efficient Separations and Crosscutting Program, entailing a method to back-extract or 'strip' cesium from the calixcrown subsequent to cesium extraction from waste. Having this stripping method allowed the cesium to be concentrated in a relatively pure aqueous stream and the extractant to be regenerated for recycle. Closing the cycle then made possible the design of a process flowsheet and successful demonstration through collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory and Savannah River Technology Center under funding from the USDOE Office of Project Completion and Tanks Focus Area. Despite these successes, the CSSX process represents young technology that can benefit substantially from further fundamental inquiry. First, reversibility of the process (stripping efficiency) still presents the greatest potential for problems and the greatest potential for improvement. Second, although the calixcrown extractants for cesium are two orders of magnitude stronger than the next best simple crown ether, a minor fraction of the extractant capacity is utilized. Third, potassium competes significantly with cesium for the calixcrown binding site, an important issue in dealing with Hanford wastes having potassium concentrations as high as 1 M. Fourth, the calixcrown solubility needs to be improved. And finally, the mechanism of extraction must be understood in detail to provide the base of knowledge from which further development of the technology can be rationally made.

  3. Targeted Pressure Management During CO2 Sequestration: Optimization of Well Placement and Brine Extraction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cihan, Abdullah; Birkholzer, Jens; Bianchi, Marco

    2014-12-31

    Large-scale pressure increases resulting from carbon dioxide (CO2) injection in the subsurface can potentially impact caprock integrity, induce reactivation of critically stressed faults, and drive CO2 or brine through conductive features into shallow groundwater. Pressure management involving the extraction of native fluids from storage formations can be used to minimize pressure increases while maximizing CO2 storage. However, brine extraction requires pumping, transportation, possibly treatment, and disposal of substantial volumes of extracted brackish or saline water, all of which can be technically challenging and expensive. This paper describes a constrained differential evolution (CDE) algorithm for optimal well placement and injection/ extractionmore » control with the goal of minimizing brine extraction while achieving predefined pressure contraints. The CDE methodology was tested for a simple optimization problem whose solution can be partially obtained with a gradient-based optimization methodology. The CDE successfully estimated the true global optimum for both extraction well location and extraction rate, needed for the test problem. A more complex example application of the developed strategy was also presented for a hypothetical CO2 storage scenario in a heterogeneous reservoir consisting of a critically stressed fault nearby an injection zone. Through the CDE optimization algorithm coupled to a numerical vertically-averaged reservoir model, we successfully estimated optimal rates and locations for CO2 injection and brine extraction wells while simultaneously satisfying multiple pressure buildup constraints to avoid fault activation and caprock fracturing. The study shows that the CDE methodology is a very promising tool to solve also other optimization problems related to GCS, such as reducing ‘Area of Review’, monitoring design, reducing risk of leakage and increasing storage capacity and trapping.« less

  4. Impact of photonic crystals on LED light extraction efficiency: approaches and limits to vertical structure designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matioli, Elison; Weisbuch, Claude

    2010-08-19

    The enhancement of the extraction efficiency in light emitting diodes (LEDs) through the use of photonic crystals (PhCs) requires a structure design that optimizes the interaction of the guided modes with the PhCs. The main optimization parameters are related to the vertical structure of the LED, such as the thickness of layers, depth of the PhCs, position of the quantum wells as well as the PhC period and fill factor. We review the impact of the vertical design of different approaches of PhC LEDs through a theoretical and experimental standpoint, assessing quantitatively the competing mechanisms that act over each guided mode. Three approaches are described to overcome the main limitation of LEDs with surface PhCs, i.e. the insufficient interaction of low order guided modes with the PhCs. The introduction of an AlGaN confining layer in such structure is shown to be effective in extracting a fraction of the optical energy of low order modes; however, this approach is limited by the growth of the lattice mismatched AlGaN layer on GaN. The second approach, based on thin-film LEDs with PhCs, is limited by the presence of an absorbing reflective metal layer close to the guided modes that plays a major role in the competition between PhC extraction and metal dissipation. Finally, we demonstrate both experimentally and theoretically the superior extraction of the guided light in embedded PhC LEDs due to the higher interaction between all optical modes and the PhCs, which resulted in a close to unity extraction efficiency for this device. The use of high-resolution angle-resolved measurements to experimentally determine the PhC extraction parameters was an essential tool for corroborating the theoretical models and quantifying the competing absorption and extraction mechanisms in LEDs.

  5. Benefits and Costs of Brine Extraction for Increasing Injection Efficiency In geologic CO2 Sequestration

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Davidson, Casie L.; Watson, David J.; Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.

    2014-12-31

    Pressure increases attendant with CO2 injection into the subsurface drive many of the risk factors associated with commercial-scale CCS projects, impacting project costs and liabilities in a number of ways. The area of elevated pressure defines the area that must be characterized and monitored; pressure drives fluid flow out of the storage reservoir along higher-permeability pathways that might exist through the caprock into overlying aquifers or hydrocarbon reservoirs; and pressure drives geomechanical changes that could potentially impact subsurface infrastructure or the integrity of the storage system itself. Pressure also limits injectivity, which can increase capital costs associated with installing additionalmore » wells to meet a given target injection rate. The ability to mitigate pressure increases in storage reservoirs could have significant value to a CCS project, but these benefits are offset by the costs of the pressure mitigation technique itself. Of particular interest for CO2 storage operators is the lifetime cost of implementing brine extraction at a CCS project site, and the relative value of benefits derived from the extraction process. This is expected to vary from site to site and from one implementation scenario to the next. Indeed, quantifying benefits against costs could allow operators to optimize their return on project investment by calculating the most effective scenario for pressure mitigation. This work builds on research recently submitted for publication by the authors examining the costs and benefits of brine extraction across operational scenarios to evaluate the effects of fluid extraction on injection rate to assess the cost effectiveness of several options for reducing the number of injection wells required. Modeling suggests that extracting at 90% of the volumetric equivalent of injection rate resulted in a 1.8% improvement in rate over a non-extraction base case; a four-fold increase in extraction rate results in a 7.6% increase in injection rate over the no-extraction base case. However, the practical impacts on capital costs suggest that this strategy is fiscally ineffective when evaluated solely on this metric, with extraction reducing injection well needs by only one per 56 (1x case) or one per 13 (4x case).« less

  6. Benefits and Costs of Brine Extraction for Increasing Injection Efficiency In geologic CO2 Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, Casie L.; Watson, David J.; Dooley, James J.; Dahowski, Robert T.

    2014-12-31

    Pressure increases attendant with CO2 injection into the subsurface drive many of the risk factors associated with commercial-scale CCS projects, impacting project costs and liabilities in a number of ways. The area of elevated pressure defines the area that must be characterized and monitored; pressure drives fluid flow out of the storage reservoir along higher-permeability pathways that might exist through the caprock into overlying aquifers or hydrocarbon reservoirs; and pressure drives geomechanical changes that could potentially impact subsurface infrastructure or the integrity of the storage system itself. Pressure also limits injectivity, which can increase capital costs associated with installing additional wells to meet a given target injection rate. The ability to mitigate pressure increases in storage reservoirs could have significant value to a CCS project, but these benefits are offset by the costs of the pressure mitigation technique itself. Of particular interest for CO2 storage operators is the lifetime cost of implementing brine extraction at a CCS project site, and the relative value of benefits derived from the extraction process. This is expected to vary from site to site and from one implementation scenario to the next. Indeed, quantifying benefits against costs could allow operators to optimize their return on project investment by calculating the most effective scenario for pressure mitigation. This work builds on research recently submitted for publication by the authors examining the costs and benefits of brine extraction across operational scenarios to evaluate the effects of fluid extraction on injection rate to assess the cost effectiveness of several options for reducing the number of injection wells required. Modeling suggests that extracting at 90% of the volumetric equivalent of injection rate resulted in a 1.8% improvement in rate over a non-extraction base case; a four-fold increase in extraction rate results in a 7.6% increase in injection rate over the no-extraction base case. However, the practical impacts on capital costs suggest that this strategy is fiscally ineffective when evaluated solely on this metric, with extraction reducing injection well needs by only one per 56 (1x case) or one per 13 (4x case).

  7. The radiation chemistry of Cs-7SB, a solvent modifier used in Cs and Sr extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mincher, B.J.; Martin, L.R.; Elias, G.; Mezyk, S.P.

    2008-07-01

    The solvent modifier 1-(2,2,3,3-tetrafluoro-propoxy)-3-(4-sec-butylphenoxy)-2-propanol, (Cs- 7SB) is used in conjunction with calixarenes and crown ethers dissolved in alkane diluents for the extraction of Cs and Sr from highly radioactive solutions. Its purpose is to solvate the ligands and the resulting ligand-metal complexes in the organic phase. Given this role, and its relatively high concentration in the formulations used for solvent extraction, radiolytic degradation of Cs-7SB might decrease the extraction efficiency of these elements as the solvent accumulates absorbed radiation dose. This work presents the results of studies of Cs-7SB using post-radiolysis gas chromatography with electron-capture detection and solvent-extraction distribution-ratio measurements. Also presented is the kinetic analysis of the bimolecular rate constant for the modifier's reaction with nitrogen trioxide and nitrogen dioxide radicals, major radiolytically-produced radical species in irradiated aqueous nitric acid. Although Cs-7SB was found to undergo reactions with nitrogen-centered radicals, little decrease in extraction efficiency was found. It is concluded the modifier, always present at concentrations much higher than the ligands, acts as a radical scavenger, protecting ligands from radiolytic attack. (authors)

  8. Calix[4]pyrrole: A New Ion-Pair Receptor As Demonstrated by Liquid-Liquid Extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wintergerst, Mr. Matthieu; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Moyer, Bruce A; Sessler, Jonathan L.; Delmau, Laetitia Helene

    2008-01-01

    Solvent extraction studies provide confirming evidence that meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole acts as an ion-pair receptor for cesium chloride and cesium bromide in nitrobenzene solution. The stoichiometry of the interaction under extraction conditions from water to nitrobenzene was determined from plots of the cesium distribution ratios vs. cesium salt and receptor concentration, indicating the formation of an ion-paired 1:1:1 cesium:calix[4]pyrrole:halide complex. The extraction results were modeled to evaluate the equilibria inherent to the solvent extraction system, either with chloride or bromide. The binding energy between the halide anion and the calix[4]pyrrole was found to be about 7 kJ/mol larger for cesium chloride than for the cesium bromide. The ion-pairing free energies between the calix[4]pyrrole-halide complex and the cesium cation are nearly the same within experimental uncertainty for either halide, consistent with a structural model in which the Cs+ cation resides in the calix bowl. These results are unexpected since nitrobenzene is a very polar solvent that generally leads to dissociated complexes in the organic phase when used as a diluent in extraction studies of univalent ions. Control studies involving nitrate revealed no evidence of ion-pairing for CsNO3 under conditions identical to those where it is observed for CsCl and CsBr.

  9. Calix[4]pyrrole: A New Ion-Pair Receptor As Demonstrated by Liquid-Liquid Extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wintergerst, Mr. Matthieu; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Moyer, Bruce A; Sessler, Jonathan L.; Delmau, Laetitia Helene

    2008-01-01

    Solvent-extraction studies provide confirming evidence that meso-octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole acts as an ion-pair receptor for cesium chloride and cesium bromide in nitrobenzene solution. The stoichiometry of the interaction under extraction conditions from water to nitrobenzene was determined from plots of the cesium distribution ratios vs cesium salt and receptor concentration, indicating the formation of an ionpaired 1:1:1 cesium:calix[4]pyrrole:halide complex. The extraction results were modeled to evaluate the equilibria inherent to the solvent-extraction system, with either chloride or bromide. The binding energy between the halide anion and the calix[4]pyrrole was found to be about 7 kJ/mol larger for cesium chloride than for the cesium bromide. The ion-pairing free energies between the calix[4]pyrrole-halide complex and the cesium cation are nearly the same within experimental uncertainty for either halide, consistent with a structural model in which the Cs+ cation resides in the calix bowl. These results are unexpected since nitrobenzene is a polar solvent that generally leads to dissociated complexes in the organic phase when used as a diluent in extraction studies of univalent ions. Control studies involving nitrate revealed no evidence of ion pairing for CsNO3 under conditions identical to those where it is observed for CsCl and CsBr.

  10. Chemical and biological extraction of metals present in E waste: A hybrid technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pant, Deepak; Joshi, Deepika; Upreti, Manoj K.; Kotnala, Ravindra K.

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hybrid methodology for E waste management. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Efficient extraction of metals. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trace metal extraction is possible. - Abstract: Management of metal pollution associated with E-waste is widespread across the globe. Currently used techniques for the extraction of metals from E-waste by using either chemical or biological leaching have their own limitations. Chemical leaching is much rapid and efficient but has its own environmental consequences, even the future prospects of associated nanoremediation are also uncertain. Biological leaching on the other hand is comparatively a cost effective technique but at the same moment it is time consuming and the complete recovery of the metal, alone by biological leaching is not possible in most of the cases. The current review addresses the individual issues related to chemical and biological extraction techniques and proposes a hybrid-methodology which incorporates both, along with safer chemicals and compatible microbes for better and efficient extraction of metals from the E-waste.

  11. Application of extraction chromatography to actinide decontamination of hydrochloric acid effluent streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schulte, L.D.; McKee, S.D.; Salazar, R.R.

    1996-05-01

    Extraction chromatography is under development as a method to lower actinide activity levels in effluent steams. Successful application of this technique for radioactive liquid waste treatment would provide a low activity feed stream for HCl recycle, reduce the loss of radioactivity to the environment in aqueous effluents, and would lower the quantity and reduce the hazard of the associated solid waste. The extraction of Pu and Am from HCl solutions was examined for several commercial and laboratory-produced sorbed resin materials. Inert supports included silica and polymer beads of differing mesh sizes. The support material was coated with either n-octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (O-CMPO) or di-(4-t-butylphenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (D-CMPO) as an extractant, and using either tributyl phosphate (TBP) or diamyl amylphosphonate (DAAP) as a diluent. Solutions tested were effluent streams generated by ion exchange and solvent extraction recovery of Pu. A finer mesh silica support material demonstrated advantages in removal of trivalent Am in some tests, but also showed a tendency toward plugging and channeling as column sizes and flow rates were increased. Larger bead sizes showed better physical properties as the process was scaled up to removal of gram quantities of Am from large effluent volumes. The ratio of extractant to diluent also appeared to play a role in the retention of Am. In direct comparative studies, when loaded on identical supports and diluent conditions, D-CMPO demonstrated better Am retention than O-CMPO from HCl process effluents.

  12. Method of extracting iodine from liquid mixtures of iodine, water and hydrogen iodide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mysels, Karol J.

    1979-01-01

    The components of a liquid mixture consisting essentially of HI, water and at least about 50 w/o iodine are separated in a countercurrent extraction zone by treating with phosphoric acid containing at least about 90 w/o H.sub.3 PO.sub.4. The bottom stream from the extraction zone is substantially completely molten iodine, and the overhead stream contains water, HI, H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 and a small fraction of the amount of original iodine. When the water and HI are present in near-azeotropic proportions, there is particular advantage in feeding the overhead stream to an extractive distillation zone wherein it is treated with additional concentrated phosphoric acid to create an anhydrous HI vapor stream and bottoms which contain at least about 85 w/o H.sub.3 PO.sub.4. Concentration of these bottoms provides phosphoric acid infeed for both the countercurrent extraction zone and for the extractive distillation zone.

  13. Heat extracted from the long term flow test in the Fenton Hill HDR reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruger, Paul; Robinson, Bruce

    1994-01-20

    A long-term flow test was carried out in the Fenton Hill HDR Phase-2 reservoir for 14 months during 1992-1993 to examine the potential for supplying thermal energy at a sustained rate as a commercial demonstration of HDR technology. The test was accomplished in several segments with changes in mean flowrate due to pumping conditions. Re-test estimates of the extractable heat content above a minimum useful temperature were based on physical evidence of the size of the Fenton Hill reservoir. A numerical model was used to estimate the extent of heat extracted during the individual flow segments from the database of measured production data during the test. For a reservoir volume of 6.5x10{sup 6}m{sup 3}, the total heat content above a minimum temperature of 150{degree} C was 1.5x10{sup 15}J. For the total test period at the three sustained mean flowrates, the integrated heat extracted was 0.088x10{sup 15}J, with no discernable temperature decline of the produced fluid. The fraction of energy extracted above the abandonment temperature was 5.9%. On the basis of a constant thermal energy extraction rate, the lifetime of the reservoir (without reservoir growth) to the abandonment temperature would be 13.3 years, in good agreement with the pre-test estimate of 15.0 years for the given reservoir volume.

  14. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Radionuclides - A Green Technology for Nuclear Waste Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wai, Chien M.

    2003-09-10

    Supercritical fluid carbon dioxide (SF-CO2) is capable of extracting radionuclides including cesium, strontium, uranium, plutonium and lanthanides directly from liquid and solid samples with proper complexing agents. Of particular interest is the ability of SF-CO2 to dissolve uranium dioxide directly using a CO2-soluble tri-nbutylphosphate- nitric acid (TBP-HNO3) extractant to form a highly soluble UO2(NO3)2(TBP)2 complex that can be transported and separated from Cs, Sr, and other transition metals. This method can also dissolve plutonium dioxide in SF-CO2. The SF-CO2 extraction technology offers several advantages over conventional solvent-based methods including ability to extract radionuclides directly from solids, easy separation of solutes from CO2, and minimization of liquid waste generation. Potential applications of the SF-CO2 extraction technology for nuclear waste treatment and for reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels will be discussed. Information on current demonstrations of the SF-CO2 technology by nuclear companies and research organizations in different countries will be reviewed.

  15. DRAMATIC IMPROVEMENTS IN CAUSTIC-SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF CESIUM THROUGH MORE EFFICIENT STRIPPING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delmau, Laetitia Helene; Bazelaire, Eve; Bonnesen, Peter V; Engle, Nancy L; Gorbunova, Maryna; Haverlock, Tamara; Moyer, Bruce A; Ensor, Dale; Meadors, Viola M; Harmon, Ben; Bartsch, Richard A.; Surowiec, Malgorzata A.; Zhou, Hui

    2008-01-01

    Dramatic potential improvements to the chemistry of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process are presented as related to enhancement of cesium stripping. The current process for removing cesium from the alkaline high-level waste (HLW) at the USDOE Savannah River Site employs acidic scrub and strip stages and shows remarkable extraction and selectivity properties for cesium. It was determined that cesium stripping can be greatly improved with caustic or near-neutral stages using sodium hydroxide and boric acid as scrub and strip solutions, respectively. Improvements can also be achieved by appending pH-sensitive functional groups to the calix[4]arene-crown-6 extractant. Addition of a proton-ionizable group to the calixarene frame leads to a dramatic "pH swing" of up to 6 orders of magnitude change in cesium distribution ratio.

  16. Electrochemical probe for simultaneous extraction and identification of elements in metal alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alperin, D.M.; Vargas, V.I.; Carminatti, H.

    1984-04-01

    A method based on well-known electrochemical procedures is currently used for the extraction and identification of metal alloys. In this method, the elements are passed to the ionic state with a dc source by using two electrodes, one applied to the metal and the other to a wet paper which is in contact with the sample. After the extraction, the paper is submitted to detection procedures. Here a problem is described in which the electrodes are placed differently from those of the methods mentioned above. In this probe both electrodes are in contact with the paper. The paper of the probe could be used for the simultaneous extraction and identification of ions, requiring only a small area of the sample (e.g., 1mm/sup 2/)

  17. Causal extraction of black hole rotational energy by various kinds of electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koide, Shinji; Baba, Tamon

    2014-09-10

    Recent general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations have suggested that relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have been powered by the rotational energy of central black holes. Some mechanisms for extraction of black hole rotational energy have been proposed, like the Penrose process, Blandford-Znajek mechanism, MHD Penrose process, and superradiance. The Blandford-Znajek mechanism is the most promising mechanism for the engines of the relativistic jets from AGNs. However, an intuitive interpretation of this mechanism with causality is not yet clarified, while the Penrose process has a clear interpretation for causal energy extraction from a black hole with negative energy. In this paper, we present a formula to build physical intuition so that in the Blandford-Znajek mechanism, as well as in other electromagnetic processes, negative electromagnetic energy plays an important role in causal extraction of the rotational energy of black holes.

  18. Extraction of metals and/or metalloids from acidic media using supercritical fluids and salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M.; Smart, Neil G.; Lin, Yuehe

    1998-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a fluid solvent, particularly supercritical carbon dioxide, containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent comprises a trialkyl phosphate, a triaryl phosphate, a trialkylphosphine oxide, a triarylphosphine oxide, or mixtures thereof. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides from acidic solutions, and the process can be aided by the addition of nitrate salts. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  19. Extraction of metals and/or metalloids from acidic media using supercritical fluids and salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Lin, Y.

    1998-06-23

    A method is described for extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a fluid solvent, particularly supercritical carbon dioxide, containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent comprises a trialkyl phosphate, a triaryl phosphate, a trialkylphosphine oxide, a triarylphosphine oxide, or mixtures thereof. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides from acidic solutions, and the process can be aided by the addition of nitrate salts. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 7 figs.

  20. Equilibrium and rate data for the extraction of lipids using compressed carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, M.B.; Bott, T.R.; Barr, M.J.; Mahmud, R.S.; Sanders, N.

    1987-01-01

    Equilibrium data are given for the solubilities in compressed CO2 of the lipid components in freshly ground rape seed and of glycerol trioleate (a typical constituent of rape oil) at pressures up to 200 bar and temperatures 25 to 75C. Continuous flow tests in which a bed of ground rape seed was contacted with a stream of liquid CO2 at 25C and varied flow conditions are also reported. The results are collated in terms of an empirical mass transfer coefficient. A sharp change took place in the lipid concentration in the extractant stream leaving the bed when about 65% of the available oil had been extracted. This, and changes in the composition of the extract, are discussed, together with the use of this type of data for design purposes.

  1. Retorting of oil shale followed by solvent extraction of spent shale: Experiment and kinetic analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khraisha, Y.H.

    2000-05-01

    Samples of El-Lajjun oil shale were thermally decomposed in a laboratory retort system under a slow heating rate (0.07 K/s) up to a maximum temperature of 698--773 K. After decomposition, 0.02 kg of spent shale was extracted by chloroform in a Soxhlet extraction unit for 2 h to investigate the ultimate amount of shale oil that could be produced. The retorting results indicate an increase in the oil yields from 3.24% to 9.77% of oil shale feed with retorting temperature, while the extraction results show a decrease in oil yields from 8.10% to 3.32% of spent shale. The analysis of the data according to the global first-order model for isothermal and nonisothermal conditions shows kinetic parameters close to those reported in literature.

  2. Co-extraction of Am(VI) and the major actinides with tributyl phosphate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mincher, Bruce J.; Martin, Leigh R.; Schmitt, Nicholas C.

    2007-07-01

    Sodium bismuthate was found to be an effective oxidant for Am in nitric acid solutions up to 6 M in concentration. However, in the presence of tributyl phosphate, americium was quickly reduced to the trivalent state, resulting in low distribution ratios. Pre-equilibration of the organic phase with bismuthate at the appropriate acid concentration was not effective at preventing americium reduction by tributyl phosphate. However, when a small amount of perchloric acid was added to the acidic, bismuthate-containing aqueous phase, much higher distribution ratios for americium extraction were achieved. Data comparing the extraction of americium to hexavalent uranium, neptunium and plutonium are presented. Slope analysis was used to confirm the extraction of americium in the hexavalent state. (authors)

  3. Effects of Love Canal soil extracts on maternal health and fetal development in rats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silkworth, J.B.; Tumasonis, C.; Briggs, R.G.; Narang, A.S.; Narang, R.S.; Rej, R.; Stein, V.; McMartin, D.N.; Kaminsky, L.S.

    1986-10-01

    The effects of a solvent extract of the surface soil of the Love Canal chemical dump site, Niagara Falls, New York, and of a natural extract, or leachate, which is drained from the canal for treatment, on the maternal health and fetal development were determined in rats. The solvent extract, which was contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2, 3,7,8-TCDD) at 170 ppb and numerous other chlorinated organic compounds with the primary identified components being the isomers of benzenehexachloride (BHC), was dissolved in corn oil and administered by gavage to pregnant rats at 0,25,75, or 150 mg crude extract/kg/day on Days 6-15 of gestation. A 67% mortality was observed at the highest dose. The rats were sacrificed on Day 20. Dose-related increases in relative liver weight accompanied by hepatocyte hypertrophy were observed at all dose levels. Fetal birthweight was decreased at 75 and 150 mg extract/kg/day. No major treatment-related soft tissue or skeletal malformations, except for delayed ossification, were observed. Based on literature values for BHC, all of the observed toxicity could be accounted for by the BHC contaminants of the extract. The crude organic phase of the leachate was administered to pregnant rats at 0,10,100, or 250 mg/kg/day as described above. Maternal weight gain decreased at 100 and 250 mg/kg/day, accompanied by 5 and 14% maternal mortality, and 1 and 3 dead fetuses, respectively. Early resorptions and the percentage of dead implants increased whereas fetal birthweights were decreased at 250 mg/kg/day. No major treatment-related soft tissue or skeletal malformations, except for delayed ossification, were observed. The primary components of the complex leachate by mass were tetrachloroethanes; however, 2,3,7,8-TCDD, which was present at 3 ppm, probably accounted for all the observed toxicity.

  4. Developing and Testing an Alkaline-Side Solvent Extraction Process for Technetium Separation from Tank Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonard, Ralph A.; Conner, Cliff; Liberatore, Matthew W.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Presley, Derek J.; Moyer, Bruce A.; Lumetta, Gregg J. )

    1998-11-01

    Engineering development and testing of the SRTALK solvent extraction process are discussed in this paper. This process provides a way to carry out alkaline-side removal and recovery of technetium in the form of pertechnetate anion from nuclear waste tanks within the DOE complex. The SRTALK extractant consists of a crown ether, bis-4,4'(5')[(tert-butyl)cyclohexano]-18-crown-6, in a modifier, tributyl phosphate, and a diluent, Isopar-L. The SRTALK flowsheet given here separates technetium form the waste and concentrates it by a factor of ten to minimize the load on downstream evaporator for the technetium effluent. In this work, we initially generated and correlated the technetium extraction data, measured the dispersion number for various processing conditions, and determined hydraulic performance in a single-stage 2-cm centrifugal contactor. Then we used extraction-factor analysis, single-stage contactor tests, and stage-to-stage process calculations to develop a SRTALK flowsheet . Key features of the flowsheet are (1) a low organic-to-aqueous (O/A) flow ratio in the extraction section and a high O/A flow ratio in the strip section to concentrate the technetium and (2) the use of a scrub section to reduce the salt load in the concentrated technetium effluent. Finally, the SRTALK process was evaluated in a multistage test using a synthetic tank waste. This test was very successful. Initial batch tests with actual waste from the Hanford nuclear waste tanks show the same technetium extractability as determined with the synthetic waste feed. Therefore, technetium removal from actual tank wastes should also work well using the SRTALK process.

  5. Next Generation Solvent Performance in the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Process - 15495

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Tara E.; Scherman, Carl; Martin, David; Suggs, Patricia

    2015-01-14

    Changes to the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) flow-sheet were implemented in the facility. Implementation included changing the scrub and strip chemicals and concentrations, modifying the O/A ratios for the strip, scrub, and extraction contactor banks, and blending the current BoBCalixC6 extractant-based solvent in MCU with clean MaxCalix extractant-based solvent. During the successful demonstration period, the MCU process was subject to rigorous oversight to ensure hydraulic stability and chemical/radionuclide analysis of the key process tanks (caustic wash tank, solvent hold tank, strip effluent hold tank, and decontaminated salt solution hold tank) to evaluate solvent carryover to downstream facilities and the effectiveness of cesium removal from the liquid salt waste. Results indicated the extraction of cesium was significantly more effective with an average Decontamination Factor (DF) of 1,129 (range was 107 to 1,824) and that stripping was effective. The contactor hydraulic performance was stable and satisfactory, as indicated by contactor vibration, contactor rotational speed, and flow stability; all of which remained at or near target values. Furthermore, the Solvent Hold Tank (SHT) level and specific gravity was as expected, indicating that solvent integrity and organic hydraulic stability were maintained. The coalescer performances were in the range of processing results under the BOBCalixC6 flow sheet, indicating negligible adverse impact of NGS deployment. After the Demonstration period, MCU began processing via routine operations. Results to date reiterate the enhanced cesium extraction and stripping capability of the Next Generation Solvent (NGS) flow sheet. This paper presents process performance results of the NGS Demonstration and continued operations of MCU utilizing the blended BobCalixC6-MaxCalix solvent under the NGS flowsheet.

  6. SAMPLE RESULTS FROM THE NEXT GENERATION SOLVENT PROGRAM REAL WASTE EXTRACTION-SCRUB-STRIP TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.

    2013-06-03

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed multiple Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) testing using real waste solutions, and three Next Generation Solvent (NGS) variations, which included radiologically clean pure NGS, a blend of radiologically clean NGS and radiologically clean BOBCalixC6 (NGS-MCU), and a blend of radiologically clean NGS and radiologically contaminated BOBCalixC6 from the MCU Solvent system. The results from the tests indicate that both the NGS and the NGS-MCU blend exhibit adequate extraction, scrub and strip behavior.

  7. Sample Results From The Next Generation Solvent Program Real Waste Extraction-Scrub-Strip Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T. B.; Washington, A. L. II

    2013-08-08

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed multiple Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) testing using real waste solutions, and three Next Generation Solvent (NGS) variations, which included radiologically clean pure NGS, a blend of radiologically clean NGS and radiologically clean BOBCalixC6 (NGS-MCU), and a blend of radiologically clean NGS and radiologically contaminated BOBCalixC6 from the MCU Solvent system. The results from the tests indicate that both the NGS and the NGS-MCU blend exhibit adequate extraction, scrub and strip behavior.

  8. Extraction and identification of fillers and pigments from pyrolyzed rubber and tire samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadhukhan, P.; Zimmerman, J.B.

    1996-12-31

    Rubber stocks, specially tires, are composed of natural rubber and synthetic polymers and also of several compounding ingredients, such as carbon black, silica, zinc oxide etc. These are generally mixed and vulcanized with additional curing agents, mainly organic in nature, to achieve certain {open_quotes}designing properties{close_quotes} including wear, traction, rolling resistance and handling of tires. Considerable importance is, therefore, attached both by the manufacturers and their competitors to be able to extract, identify and characterize various types of fillers and pigments. Several analytical procedures have been in use to extract, preferentially, these fillers and pigments and subsequently identify and characterize them under a transmission electron microscope.

  9. High-Efficiency Beam Extraction and Collimation Using Channeling in Very Short Bent Crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Afonin, A. G.; Baranov, V. T.; Biryukov, V. M.; Breese, M. B. H.; Chepegin, V. N.; Chesnokov, Yu. A.; Guidi, V.; Ivanov, Yu. M.; Kotov, V. I.; Martinelli, G.

    2001-08-27

    A silicon crystal was used to channel and extract 70GeV protons from the U-70 accelerator with an efficiency of 85.3{+-}2.8% , as measured for a beam of {approx}10{sup 12} protons directed towards crystals of {approx}2 mm length in spills of {approx}2 s duration. The experimental data follow very well the prediction of Monte Carlo simulations. This demonstration is important in devising a more efficient use of the U-70 accelerator in Protvino and provides crucial support for implementing crystal-assisted slow extraction and collimation in other machines, such as the Tevatron, RHIC, the AGS, the SNS, COSY, and the LHC.

  10. Extraction of CP Properties of the H(125) Boson Discovered in Proton-Proton

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Collisions at√s = 7 and 8 TeV with the CMS Detector at the LHC (Thesis/Dissertation) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Thesis/Dissertation: Extraction of CP Properties of the H(125) Boson Discovered in Proton-Proton Collisions at√s = 7 and 8 TeV with the CMS Detector at the LHC Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Extraction of CP Properties of the H(125) Boson Discovered in Proton-Proton Collisions at√s = 7 and 8 TeV with the CMS Detector at the LHC In this thesis

  11. Extraction of CP Properties of the H(125) Boson Discovered in Proton-Proton

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Collisions at√s = 7 and 8 TeV with the CMS Detector at the LHC (Thesis/Dissertation) | SciTech Connect Thesis/Dissertation: Extraction of CP Properties of the H(125) Boson Discovered in Proton-Proton Collisions at√s = 7 and 8 TeV with the CMS Detector at the LHC Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Extraction of CP Properties of the H(125) Boson Discovered in Proton-Proton Collisions at√s = 7 and 8 TeV with the CMS Detector at the LHC × You are accessing a document from the

  12. Modeling of heat extraction from variably fractured porous media in Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hadgu, Teklu; Kalinina, Elena Arkadievna; Lowry, Thomas Stephen

    2016-01-30

    Modeling of heat extraction in Enhanced Geothermal Systems is presented. The study builds on recent studies on the use of directional wells to improve heat transfer between doublet injection and production wells. The current study focuses on the influence of fracture orientation on production temperature in deep low permeability geothermal systems, and the effects of directional drilling and separation distance between boreholes on heat extraction. The modeling results indicate that fracture orientation with respect to the well-pair plane has significant influence on reservoir thermal drawdown. As a result, the vertical well doublet is impacted significantly more than the horizontal wellmore » doublet« less

  13. The behavior and importance of lactic acid complexation in Talspeak extraction systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grimes, Travis S.; Nilsson, Mikael; Nash, Kenneth L.

    2008-07-01

    Advanced partitioning of spent nuclear fuel in the UREX +la process relies on the TALSPEAK process for separation of fission-product lanthanides from trivalent actinides. The classic TALSPEAK utilizes an aqueous medium of both lactic acid and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid and the extraction reagent di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid in an aromatic diluent. In this study, the specific role of lactic acid and the complexes involved in the extraction of the trivalent actinides and lanthanides have been investigated using {sup 14}C-labeled lactic acid. Our results show that lactic acid partitions between the phases in a complex fashion. (authors)

  14. Synergistic extraction of some univalent cations into nitrobenzene by using cesium dicarbollylcobaltate and calix[4]arene-...

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makrlik, Emanuel; Selucky, P.; Vanura, Petr; Moyer, Bruce A

    2013-01-01

    From extraction experiments and c-activity measurements, the exchange extraction constants corresponding to the general equilibrium M+ (aq) + CsL+ (nb) , ML+ (nb) + Cs+ (aq) taking place in the two-phase water nitrobenzene system (M+ = K+, Rb+, NH+4,Ag+, Tl+; L = calix[4]arene-bis(t-octylbenzo-18-crown-6); aq = aqueous phase, nb = nitrobenzene phase) were evaluated. Furthermore, the stability constants of the ML+ complexes in nitrobenzene saturated with water were calculated; they were found to increase in the following cation order: NH+4 < K+ < Ag+ < Rb+ < Tl+.

  15. Quantify Water Extraction by TBP/Dodecane via Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khomami, Bamin; Cui, Shengting; de Almeida, Valmor F.; Felker, Kevin

    2013-05-16

    The purpose of this project is to quantify the interfacial transport of water into the most prevalent nuclear reprocessing solvent extractant mixture, namely tri-butyl- phosphate (TBP) and dodecane, via massively parallel molecular dynamics simulations on the most powerful machines available for open research. Specifically, we will accomplish this objective by evolving the water/TBP/dodecane system up to 1 ms elapsed time, and validate the simulation results by direct comparison with experimentally measured water solubility in the organic phase. The significance of this effort is to demonstrate for the first time that the combination of emerging simulation tools and state-of-the-art supercomputers can provide quantitative information on par to experimental measurements for solvent extraction systems of relevance to the nuclear fuel cycle. Results: Initially, the isolated single component, and single phase systems were studied followed by the two-phase, multicomponent counterpart. Specifically, the systems we studied were: pure TBP; pure n-dodecane; TBP/n-dodecane mixture; and the complete extraction system: water-TBP/n-dodecane two phase system to gain deep insight into the water extraction process. We have completely achieved our goal of simulating the molecular extraction of water molecules into the TBP/n-dodecane mixture up to the saturation point, and obtained favorable comparison with experimental data. Many insights into fundamental molecular level processes and physics were obtained from the process. Most importantly, we found that the dipole moment of the extracting agent is crucially important in affecting the interface roughness and the extraction rate of water molecules into the organic phase. In addition, we have identified shortcomings in the existing OPLS-AA force field potential for long-chain alkanes. The significance of this force field is that it is supposed to be optimized for molecular liquid simulations. We found that it failed for dodecane and/or longer chains for this particular solvent extraction application. We have proposed a simple way to circumvent the artificial crystallization of the chains at ambient temperature.

  16. Factors Controlling Redox Speciation of Plutonium and Neptunium in Extraction Separation Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulenova, Alena; Vandegrift, III, George F.

    2013-09-24

    The objective of the project was to examine the factors controlling redox speciation of plutonium and neptunium in UREX+ extraction in terms of redox potentials, redox mechanism, kinetics and thermodynamics. Researchers employed redox-speciation extractions schemes in parallel to the spectroscopic experiments. The resulting distribution of redox species w studied uring spectroscopic, electrochemical, and spectro-electrochemical methods. This work reulted in collection of data on redox stability and distribution of redox couples in the nitric acid/nitrate electrolyte and the development of redox buffers to stabilize the desired oxidation state of separated radionuclides. The effects of temperature and concentrations on the redox behavior of neptunium were evaluated.

  17. A Spin on Technology: Extracting Value from Wasted Heat | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy A Spin on Technology: Extracting Value from Wasted Heat A Spin on Technology: Extracting Value from Wasted Heat November 12, 2010 - 2:12pm Addthis Ener-G-Rotors has developed a system that converts hot water and steam into electricity. | File photo Ener-G-Rotors has developed a system that converts hot water and steam into electricity. | File photo Joshua DeLung What are the key facts? This new system allows manufacturers to convert heated wastewater and steam to energy. $834,000

  18. Effects of disorder on spin injection and extraction for organic semiconductor spin-valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Sha Liu, Feilong; Smith, Darryl L.; Ruden, P. Paul

    2015-02-28

    A device model for tunnel injection and extraction of spin-polarized charge carriers between ferromagnetic contacts and organic semiconductors with disordered molecular states is presented. Transition rates for tunneling are calculated based on a transfer Hamiltonian. Transport in the bulk semiconductor is described by macroscopic device equations. Tunneling predominantly involves organic molecular levels near the metal Fermi energy, and therefore typically in the tail of the band that supports carrier transport in the semiconductor. Disorder-induced broadening of the relevant band plays a critical role for the injection and extraction of charge carriers and for the resulting magneto-resistance of an organic semiconductor spin valve.

  19. Construction and Operation of a Tritium Extraction Facility at the Savannah Siver Site

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    N I T E D S T A T E S O F A M E R I C A D E P A R T M E NT O F E N E R G Y DOE/EIS-0271 Construction & Operation of a Tritium Extraction Facility at the Savannah River Site Department of Energy Savannah River Operations Office Aiken, South Carolina Final Environmental Impact Statement March 1999 DOE/EIS-0271 March 1999 Preface iii COVER SHEET RESPONSIBLE AGENCY: U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) TITLE: Final Environmental Impact Statement: Construction and Operation of a Tritium Extraction

  20. Next Generation Extractants for Cesium Separation from High-Level Waste: From Fundamental Concepts to Site Implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonnesen, Peter V.; Engle, Nancy L.; Gorbunova, Maryna G.; Haverlock, Tamara J.; Tomkins, Bruce A.; Bazelaire, Eve; Delamu, Laetitia H.; Moyer, Bruce A.

    2003-09-10

    The successful development of the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process at ORNL owes a great deal to basic scientific concepts uncovered and discoveries made through research programs funded both by the US DOE's Basic Energy Sciences and Environmental Management Science Programs. Under the EMSP, we have been designing, synthesizing and characterizing new calixarene-crown ethers for cesium extraction. Scientific issues we are addressing with the new extractants include increasing hydrocarbon solubility, and improving the efficiency of cesium ion binding and release. The fundamental chemistry and extraction behavior of these new calixarene crowns will be discussed.

  1. Aqueous biphasic extraction process with pH and particle control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mensah-Biney, R.

    1995-05-02

    A process for aqueous biphasic extraction of metallic oxides and the like from substances containing silica. Control of media pH enables efficient and effective partition of mixture components. The inventive method may be employed to remove excess silica from kaolin clay. 2 figs.

  2. Aqueous biphasic extraction process with pH and particle control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, David J.; Mensah-Biney, R.

    1995-01-01

    A process for aqueous biphasic extraction of metallic oxides and the like from substances containing silica. Control of media pH enables efficient and effective partition of mixture components. The inventive method may be employed to remove excess silica from kaolin clay.

  3. Extractive industries and sustainable development: an evaluation of World Bank Group experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andres Liebenthal; Roland Michelitsch; Ethel Tarazona

    2005-07-01

    How effectively has the World Bank Group assisted its clients in enhancing the contribution of the extractive industries to sustainable development? (Extractive industries include oil, gas, and mining of minerals including coals and metals.) This evaluation finds that with its global mandate and experience, comprehensive country development focus, and overarching mission to fight poverty, the World Bank Group is well positioned to help countries overcome the policy, institutional, and technical challenges that prevent them from transforming resource endowments into sustainable benefits. Furthermore, the World Bank Group's achievements are many. On the whole, its extractive industries projects have produced positive economic and financial results, though compliance with its environmental and social safeguards remains a challenge. Its research has broadened and deepened understanding of the causes for the disappointing performance of resource-rich countries. Its guidelines for the mitigation of adverse environmental and social impacts have been widely used and appreciated. More recently, it has begun to address the challenge of country governance with a variety of instruments. The World Bank Group can, however, do much to improve its performance in enhancing the extractive industry sector's contribution to sustainable development and poverty reduction. The report identifies three main areas for improvement - formulating an integrated strategy, strengthening implementation and engagement of stakeholders. 5 annexes.

  4. SEPARATION OF URANYL AND RUTHENIUM VALUES BY THE TRIBUTYL PHOSPHATE EXTRACTION PROCESS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, A.S.

    1961-05-01

    A process is given for separating uranyl values from ruthenium values contained in an aqueous 3 to 4 M nitric acid solution. After the addition of hydrogen peroxide to obtain a concentration of 0.3 M, the uranium is selectively extracted with kerosene-diluted tributyl phosphate.

  5. Percutaneous Extraction of Cement Leakage After Vertebroplasty Under CT and Fluoroscopy Guidance: A New Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amoretti, Nicolas Huwart, Laurent

    2012-12-15

    Purpose: We report a new minimally invasive technique of extraction of cement leakage following percutaneous vertebroplasty in adults. Methods: Seven adult patients (five women, two men; mean age: 81 years) treated for vertebral compression fractures by percutaneous vertebroplasty had cement leakage into perivertebral soft tissues along the needle route. Immediately after vertebroplasty, the procedure of extraction was performed under computed tomography (CT) and fluoroscopy guidance: a Chiba needle was first inserted using the same route as the vertebroplasty until contact was obtained with the cement fragment. This needle was then used as a guide for an 11-gauge Trocar t'am (Thiebaud, France). After needle withdrawal, a 13-gauge endoscopy clamp was inserted through the cannula to extract the cement fragments. The whole procedure was performed under local anesthesia. Results: In each patient, all cement fragments were withdrawn within 10 min, without complication. Conclusions: This report suggests that this CT- and fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous technique of extraction could reduce the rate of cement leakage-related complications.

  6. SEPARATION OF FISCHER-TROPSCH WAX FROM CATALYST BY SUPERCRITICAL EXTRACTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patrick C. Joyce; Mark C. Thies

    1999-03-31

    The objective of this research project was to evaluate the potential of supercritical fluid (SCF) extraction for the recovery and fractionation of the wax product from the slurry bubble column (SBC) reactor of the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) process. The wax, comprised mostly of branched and linear alkanes with a broad molecular weight distribution up to C{sub 100}, is to be extracted with a hydrocarbon solvent that has a critical temperature near the operating temperature of the SBC reactor, i.e., 200-300 C. Aspen Plus{trademark} was used to perform process simulation studies on the proposed extraction process, with Redlich-Kwong-Soave (RKS) being used for the thermodynamic property model. In summary, we have made comprehensive VLE measurements for short alkane + long alkane systems over a wide range of pressures and temperatures, dramatically increasing the amount of high-quality data available for these simple, yet highly relevant systems. In addition, our work has demonstrated that, surprisingly, no current thermodynamic model can adequately predict VLE behavior for these systems. Thus, process simulations (such as those for our proposed SCF extraction process) that incorporate these systems can currently only give results that are qualitative at best. Although significant progress has been made in the past decade, more experimental and theoretical work remain to be done before the phase equilibria of asymmetric alkane mixtures can be predicted with confidence.

  7. Method for separating water soluble organics from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, David J.; Mego, William A.

    1999-01-01

    A method for separating water-miscible organic species from a process stream by aqueous biphasic extraction is provided. An aqueous biphase system is generated by contacting a process stream comprised of water, salt, and organic species with an aqueous polymer solution. The organic species transfer from the salt-rich phase to the polymer-rich phase, and the phases are separated. Next, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer phase by selectively extracting the polymer into an organic phase at an elevated temperature, while the organic species remain in a substantially salt-free aqueous solution. Alternatively, the polymer is recovered from the loaded polymer by a temperature induced phase separation (cloud point extraction), whereby the polymer and the organic species separate into two distinct solutions. The method for separating water-miscible organic species is applicable to the treatment of industrial wastewater streams, including the extraction and recovery of complexed metal ions from salt solutions, organic contaminants from mineral processing streams, and colorants from spent dye baths.

  8. Calixarene crown ether solvent composition and use thereof for extraction of cesium from alkaline waste solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moyer, Bruce A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sachleben, Richard A. (Knoxville, TN); Bonnesen, Peter V. (Knoxville, TN); Presley, Derek J. (Ooltewah, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A solvent composition and corresponding method for extracting cesium (Cs) from aqueous neutral and alkaline solutions containing Cs and perhaps other competing metal ions is described. The method entails contacting an aqueous Cs-containing solution with a solvent consisting of a specific class of lipophilic calix[4]arene-crown ether extractants dissolved in a hydrocarbon-based diluent containing a specific class of alkyl-aromatic ether alcohols as modifiers. The cesium values are subsequently recovered from the extractant, and the solvent subsequently recycled, by contacting the Cs-containing organic solution with an aqueous stripping solution. This combined extraction and stripping method is especially useful as a process for removal of the radionuclide cesium-137 from highly alkaline waste solutions which are also very concentrated in sodium and potassium. No pre-treatment of the waste solution is necessary, and the cesium can be recovered using a safe and inexpensive stripping process using water, dilute (millimolar) acid solutions, or dilute (millimolar) salt solutions. An important application for this invention would be treatment of alkaline nuclear tank wastes. Alternatively, the invention could be applied to decontamination of acidic reprocessing wastes containing cesium-137.

  9. Strategies for Using Host-Guest Chemistry in the Extractive Separations of Ionic Guests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Custelcean, Radu; Delmau, Laetitia H.; Hay, Benjamin P.

    2005-09-12

    Host-guest chemistry has led to a new paradigm in extractive separations, generating new possibilities for efficient separations of ionic species to meet the challenging needs of industry. This account describes the approach the authors have recently undertaken, recent results, and future directions toward highly selective separations of anions based on host?guest chemistry principles. The material presented deals mainly with the genesis and discovery of new extractive systems, illustrating the potential of particular chemical concepts with examples of practical application. Major questions of interest concern the role of anions in extractive processes and factors underlying the recognition and transport of anions. Theoretical efforts explore the technique of molecular-design itself as embodied in the evolving HostDesigner program. Design calculations are capable of generating ranked candidate multifunctional ion receptors based on hydrogen-bond-donor groups having O?H and N?H donor functionalities. Efforts to synthesize candidate receptors together with studies of molecular structure and the thermodynamics of binding and transport provide a complete picture for understanding structure-function relationships and feedback for further molecular modeling. Extraction data are evaluated in a thermochemical context in which the solvent matrix, including use of anion-solvating lipophilic alcohols, plays a pivotal role. Applications are envisioned for the solution of many types of separations needs, and examples are taken mainly from the authors' own research as applied to treatment of radioactive wastes for disposal.

  10. Biologically-based signal processing system applied to noise removal for signal extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fu, Chi Yung; Petrich, Loren I.

    2004-07-13

    The method and system described herein use a biologically-based signal processing system for noise removal for signal extraction. A wavelet transform may be used in conjunction with a neural network to imitate a biological system. The neural network may be trained using ideal data derived from physical principles or noiseless signals to determine to remove noise from the signal.

  11. Raidiation-Induced Fragmentation of Diamide Extraction Agents in Ionic Liquid Diluents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, Jason R; Dai, Sheng; Shkrob, Ilya A.; Marin, Timothy W.; Luo, Huimin; Hatcher, Jasmine; Rimmer, R. Dale; Wishart, James F.

    2012-01-01

    N,N,N',N'-Tetraalkyldiglycolamides are extracting agents that are used for liquid-liquid extraction of trivalent metal ions in wet processing of spent nuclear fuel. This application places such agents in contact with the decaying radionuclides, causing radiolysis of the agent in the organic diluent. Recent research seeks to replace common molecular diluents (such as n-dodecane) with hydrophobic room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs), which have superior solvation properties. In alkane diluents, rapid radiolytic deterioration of diglycolamide agents can be inhibited by addition of an aromatic cosolvent that scavenges highly reactive alkane radical cations before these oxidize the extracting agent. Do aromatic ILs exhibit a similar radioprotective effect? To answer this question, we used electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy to study the fragmentation pathways in radiolysis of neat diglycolamides, their model compounds, and their solutions in the ILs. Our study indicates that aromatic ILs do not protect these types of solutes from extensive radiolytic damage. Previous research indicated a similar lack of protection for crown ethers, whereas the ILs readily protected di- and trialkyl phosphates (another large class of metal-extracting agents). Our analysis of these unanticipated failures suggests that new types of organic anions are required in order to formulate ILs capable of radioprotection for these classes of solutes. This study is a cautionary tale of the fallacy of analogical thinking when applied to an entirely new and insufficiently understood class of chemical materials.

  12. CORROSION ISSUES ASSOCIATED WITH AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL COMPONENTS USED IN NUCLEAR MATERIALS EXTRACTION AND SEPARATION PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mickalonis, J.; Louthan, M.; Sindelar, R.

    2012-12-17

    This paper illustrated the magnitude of the systems, structures and components used at the Savannah River Site for nuclear materials extraction and separation processes. Corrosion issues, including stress corrosion cracking, pitting, crevice corrosion and other corrosion induced degradation processes are discussed and corrosion mitigation strategies such as a chloride exclusion program and corrosion release testing are also discussed.

  13. Feature Extraction of PDV Challenge Data Set A with Digital Down Shift (DDS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tunnell, T. W.

    2012-10-18

    This slide-show is about data analysis in photonic Doppler velocimetry. The digital down shift subtracts a specified velocity (frequency) from all components in the Fourier frequency domain and generates both the down shifted in-phase and out-of-phase waveforms so that phase and displacement can be extracted through a continuous unfold of the arctangent.

  14. SImbol Materials Lithium Extraction Operating Data From Elmore and Featherstone Geothermal Plants

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Stephen Harrison

    2015-07-08

    The data provided in this upload is summary data from its Demonstration Plant operation at the geothermal power production plants in the Imperial Valley. The data provided is averaged data for the Elmore Plant and the Featherstone Plant. Included is both temperature and analytical data (ICP_OES). Provide is the feed to the Simbol Process, post brine treatment and post lithium extraction.

  15. CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE OPERATING EXPERIENCE AND LESSONS LEARNED

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S.

    2010-01-06

    The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) is the first, production-scale Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction process for cesium separation to be constructed. The process utilizes an engineered solvent to remove cesium from waste alkaline salt solution resulting from nuclear processes. While the application of this solvent extraction process is unique, the process uses commercially available centrifugal contactors for the primary unit operation as well as other common methods of physical separation of immiscible liquids. The fission product, cesium-137, is the primary focus of the process due to the hazards associated with its decay. The cesium is extracted from the waste, concentrated, and stripped out of the solvent resulting in a low-level waste salt solution and a concentrated cesium nitrate stream. The concentrated cesium stream can be vitrified into borosilicate glass with almost no increase in glass volume, and the salt solution can be dispositioned as a low-level grout. The unit is deployed as an interim process to disposition waste prior to start-up of the Salt Waste Processing Facility. The Salt Waste Processing Facility utilizes the same cesium removal technology, but will treat more contaminated waste. The MCU is not only fulfilling a critical need, it is the first demonstration of the process at production-scale.

  16. Method for forming an extraction agent for the separation of actinides from lanthanides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klaehn, John R.; Harrup, Mason K.; Law, Jack D.; Peterman, Dean R.

    2010-04-27

    An extraction agent for the separation of trivalent actinides from lanthanides in an acidic media and a method for forming same are described, and wherein the methodology produces a stable regiospecific and/or stereospecific dithiophosphinic acid that can operate in an acidic media having a pH of less than about 7.

  17. SImbol Materials Lithium Extraction Operating Data From Elmore and Featherstone Geothermal Plants

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Stephen Harrison

    The data provided in this upload is summary data from its Demonstration Plant operation at the geothermal power production plants in the Imperial Valley. The data provided is averaged data for the Elmore Plant and the Featherstone Plant. Included is both temperature and analytical data (ICP_OES). Provide is the feed to the Simbol Process, post brine treatment and post lithium extraction.

  18. Using Tensor Momentum Dependent Deuteron Potential to Extract the Asymptotic D/S Ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emad El-Deen, A. Sultan; Mustafa, Mustafa M.; Zahran, Elbadry S.

    2010-09-30

    A new value for the deuteron asymptotic D/S ratio {eta} = 0.02640{+-}0.00024 is extracted from an empirical linear {eta}-Q relation found for a class of deuteron momentum dependent potentials with tensor momentum dependent part. These potentials fit a recently published phase shift analysis and the binding energy of the deuteron.

  19. Comparison between continuous stirred tank reactor extractor and soxhlet extractor for extraction of El-Lajjun oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anabtawi, M.Z. [Univ. of Bahrain, Isa Town (Bahrain)

    1996-02-01

    Extraction on El-Lajjun oil shale in a continuous stirred tank reactor extractor (CSTRE) and a Soxhlet extractor was carried out using toluene and chloroform as solvents. Solvents were recovered using two distillation stages, a simple distillation followed by a fractional distillation. Gas chromotography was used to test for the existence of trapped solvent in the yield. It was found that extraction using a CSTRE gave a 12% increase in yield on average compared with the Soxhlet extractor, and an optimum shale size of 1.0mm offered a better yield and solvent recovery for both techniques. It was also found that an optimum ratio of solvent to oil shale of 2:1 gave the best oil yield. The Soxhlet extractor was found to offer an extraction rate of 1 hour to complete extraction compared with 4 hours in a CSTRE. The yield in a CSTRE was found to increase on increase of stirring. When extraction was carried out at the boiling point of the solvents in a CSTRE, the yield was found to increase by 30% on average compared to that of extraction when the solvent was at room temperature. When toluene was used for extraction, the average amount of bitumen extracted was 0.032 g/g of oil shale and 76.4% of the solvent recovered, compared with 0.037 g/g of oil shale and 84.1% of the solvent recovered using a Soxhlet extractor.

  20. EXTRACTION APPARATUS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ballard, A.E.; Brigham, H.R.

    1958-10-28

    An apparatus whereby relatlvely volatile solvents may be contacted with volatile or non-volatile material without certaln attendant hazards is described. A suitable apparatus for handling relatively volatlle liqulds may be constructed comprising a tank, and a closure covering the tank and adapted to be securely attached to an external suppont. The closure is provided with a rigidly mounted motor-driven agitator. This agitator is connected from the driving motor lnto the lnterlor of the tank through a gland adapted to be cooled witb inert gas thereby eliminating possible hazard due to frictional heat. The closure is arranged so that the tank may be removed from it without materially dlsturbing the closure which, as described, carrles the motor driven agitator and other parts.

  1. PROTACTINIUM EXTRACTION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horn, F.L.

    1962-07-24

    A method of producing and separating protactinium from taorium containing solids is described. The protactinium is formed by irradiating thorium containing solids, such as thorium dioxide and thorium tetrafluoride with neutrons. The protactinium is separated from the thorium solids by contacting the solids with a non-squeous solution of hydrogen fluoride and a complexing agent, NO/sub 2/. The protactinium complex formed is soluble in the non-aqueous solution, whereas the thorium solids remain insoluble in the solution. (AEC)

  2. Predominant induction of kinetochore-containing micronuclei by extracts of diesel exhaust particulates in cultured human lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Odagiri, Youichi; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Kawamura, Ken; Adachi, Shuichi; Takemoto, Kazuo ); Jian-Xin Zhang )

    1994-01-01

    The aneuploidy-inducing activity of extracts of diesel exhaust particulates from light duty (LD) and heavy duty (HD) engines was investigated in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes of 8 healthy donors using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus test with the kinetochore labelling modification. A majority of the subjects tested showed a significant kinetochore-positive micronucleus induction after treatment with the highest dose (150 [mu]g/ml) of LD extract, although some subjects also showed induction of kinetochore-negative micronuclei. Only one subject had significantly increased numbers of kinetochore-positive micronuclei at a dose of 400 [mu]g/ml of HD extract. These results suggest that diesel extract, at least LD extract, possesses the ability to induce whole chromosome loss (aneuploidy) preferentially, although there are also chromosome breaks. 21 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Next Generation Extractants for Cesium Separation from High-Level Waste: From Fundamental Concepts to Site Implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Bryan, Jeffrey C.; Engle, Nancy L.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Sachleben, Richard A.; Bartsch, Richard A.; Talanov, Vladimir S.; Gibson, Harry W.; Jones, Jason W.

    2001-08-20

    This project seeks a fundamental understanding and major improvement in cesium separation from high-level waste by cesium-selective calixcrown extractants. Systems of particular interest involve novel solvent-extraction systems containing specific members of the calix[4]arene-crown-6 family, alcohol solvating agents, and alkylamines. Questions being addressed bear upon cesium binding strength, extraction selectivity, cesium stripping, and extractant solubility. Enhanced properties in this regard will specifically benefit applied projects funded by the USDOE Office of Environmental Management to clean up sites such as the Savannah River Site (SRS), Hanford, and the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory. The most direct beneficiary will be the SRS Salt Processing Project, which has recently identified the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process employing a calixcrown as its preferred technology for cesium removal from SRS high-level tank waste.

  4. Next Generation Extractants for Cesium Separation from High-Level Waste: From Fundamental Concepts to Site Implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Bryan, Jeffrey C.; Engle, Nancy L.; Keever, Tamara J.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Sachleben, Richard A.; Bartsch, Richard A.; Talanov, Vladimir S.; Gibson, Harry W.; Jones, Jason W.; Hay, Benjamin P.

    2002-06-01

    This project seeks a fundamental understanding and major improvement in cesium separation from high-level waste by cesium-selective calixcrown extractants. Systems of particular interest involve novel solvent-extraction systems containing specific members of the calix[4]arene-crown-6 family, alcohol solvating agents, and alkylamines. Questions being addressed bear upon cesium binding strength, extraction selectivity, cesium stripping, and extractant solubility. Enhanced properties in this regard will specifically benefit applied projects funded by the USDOE Office of Environmental Management to clean up sites such as the Savannah River Site (SRS), Hanford, and the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory. The most direct beneficiary will be the SRS Salt Processing Project, which has recently identified the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) process employing a calixcrown as its preferred technology for cesium removal from SRS high-level tank waste.

  5. Partitioning of trivalent actinides from a Purex raffinate using a TODGA-based solvent-extraction process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Modolo, G.; Vijgen, H.; Malmbeck, R.; Magnusson, D.; Sorel, C.

    2008-07-01

    A TODGA/TBP process has been developed to separate trivalent actinides from a PUREX raffinate using a mixture of tetraoctyl-diglycolamide (TODGA) and tributylphosphate (TBP). Batch extraction experiments allowed us to choose and optimize the composition of the organic extractant and the aqueous feed solutions. With the aid of computer-code calculations, a countercurrent process has been developed, and an optimized flowsheet has been tested with a spiked feed solution and finally with a genuine PUREX raffinate. The results of the two tests were very promising, demonstrating that more than 99.9% of the trivalent actinides are extracted, and very high decontamination factors are obtained to the non-lanthanide fission products. Co-extracted ruthenium (10% during spiked test, 18% during hot test) is less efficiently back-extracted and therefore requires further process development. (authors)

  6. Next Generation Extractants for Cesium Separation from High-Level Waste: From Fundamental Concepts to Site Implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Bartsch, Richard A.

    2003-06-01

    Calix[4]arenebiscrown-6 molecules are currently the selected technology for removal of radioactive cesium-137 from DOE nuclear wastes. By attachment of an acidic function to such molecules, the efficiency with which cesium ion can be extracted from an aqueous solution into an organic diluent is markedly increased since the requirement for concomitant extraction of an aqueous phase anion is avoided. Thus, cesium ion extraction by proton-ionizable calix[4]arenebiscrown-6 molecules may be the ''second-generation'' technology for removal of cesium-137 from DOE nuclear wastes. During Year 1 of this EMSP project, we have established synthetic routes to new, lipophilic, proton-ionizable calix[4]arenebiscrown-6 molecules to be evaluated for solvent extraction of cesium ion at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Analogous calix[4]arenecrown-6 compounds are also being prepared to determine if even higher cesium ion selectivities can be obtained with extractants having a single crown ether unit.

  7. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2004-06-22

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  8. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2007-03-27

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  9. Extraction of uranium: comparison of stripping with ammonia vs. strong acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moldovan, B.; Grinbaum, B.; Efraim, A.

    2008-07-01

    Following extraction of uranium in the first stage of solvent extraction using a tertiary amine, typically Alamine 336, the stripping of the extracted uranium is accomplished either by use of an aqueous solution of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4} /NH{sub 4}OH or by strong-acid stripping using 400-500 g/L H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Both processes have their merits and determine the downstream processing. The classical stripping with ammonia is followed by addition of strong base, to precipitate ammonium uranyl sulfate (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}UO{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}, which yields finally the yellow cake. Conversely, stripping with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, followed by oxidation with hydrogen peroxide yields uranyl oxide as product. At the Cameco Key Lake operation, both processes were tested on a pilot scale, using a Bateman Pulsed Column (BPC). The BPC proved to be applicable to both processes. It met the process criteria both for extraction and stripping, leaving less than 1 mg/L of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} in the raffinate, and product solution had the required concentration of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} at high flux and reasonable height of transfer unit. In the Key Lake mill, each operation can be carried out in a single column. The main advantages of the strong-acid stripping over ammonia stripping are: (1) 60% higher flux in the extraction, (2) tenfold higher concentration of the uranium in the product solution, and (3) far more robust process, with no need of pH control in the stripping and no need to add acid to the extraction in order to keep the pH above the point of precipitation of iron compounds. The advantages of the ammoniacal process are easier stripping, that is, less stages needed to reach equilibrium and lower concentration of modifier needed to prevent the creation of a third phase. (authors)

  10. Uranium in Hanford Site 300 Area: Extraction Data on Borehole Sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Guohui; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Lindberg, Michael J.; Um, Wooyong; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Williams, Benjamin D.; Kutynakov, I. V.; Wang, Zheming; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2012-11-26

    In this study, sediments collected from boreholes drilled in 2010 and 2011 as part of a remedial investigation/feasibility study were characterized. The wells, located within or around two process ponds and one process trench waste site, were characterized in terms of total uranium concentration, mobile fraction of uranium, particle size, and moisture content along the borehole depth. In general, the gravel-dominated sediments of the vadose zone Hanford formation in all investigated boreholes had low moisture contents. Based on total uranium content, a total of 48 vadose zone and periodically rewetted zone sediment samples were selected for more detailed characterization, including measuring the concentration of uranium extracted with 8 M nitric acid, and leached using bicarbonate mixed solutions to determine the liable uranium (U(VI)) contents. In addition, water extraction was conducted on 17 selected sediments. Results from the sediment acid and bicarbonate extractions indicated the total concentrations of anthropogenic labile uranium in the sediments varied among the investigated boreholes. The peak uranium concentration (114.84 g/g, acid extract) in <2-mm size fractions was found in borehole 399 1-55, which was drilled directly in the southwest corner of the North Process Pond. Lower uranium concentrations (~0.32.5 g/g, acid extract) in <2-mm size fractions were found in boreholes 399-1-57, 399-1-58, and 399-1-59, which were drilled either near the Columbia River or inland and upgradient of any waste process ponds or trenches. A general trend of total uranium concentrations was observed that increased as the particle size decreased when relating the sediment particle size and acid extractable uranium concentrations in two selected sediment samples. The labile uranium bicarbonate leaching kinetic experiments on three selected sediments indicated a two-step leaching rate: an initial rapid release, followed by a slow continual release of uranium from the sediment. Based on the uranium leaching kinetic results, quasi equilibrium can be assumed after 1000-h batch reaction time in this study.

  11. Selective extraction of U(VI) and some other metals from nitric acid media by poly-phosphine poly-oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nogami, M.; Sugiyama, Y.; Ikeda, Y.; Maruyama, K.

    2008-07-01

    For the selective extraction of radionuclides from nitrate media, the extractabilities of organo-poly-phosphine poly-oxides were examined in the form of impregnated resins. It was found that the extractability of 1,1,3,5,5-pentaphenyl-1,3,5-tri-phospha-pentane trioxide (PPTPT) for U(VI) is quite unusual with very high values at both low and high concentrations of nitric acid, which is not observed for other types of extractants. Thus, this extractant might be promising for the selective extraction of U(VI) in very high concentrations of HNO{sub 3}. (authors)

  12. Test bench to commission a third ion source beam line and a newly designed extraction system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkelmann, T.; Cee, R.; Haberer, T.; Naas, B.; Peters, A.

    2012-02-15

    The HIT (Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center) is the first hospital-based treatment facility in Europe where patients can be irradiated with protons and carbon ions. Since the commissioning starting in 2006 two 14.5 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion sources are routinely used to produce a variety of ion beams from protons up to oxygen. In the future a helium beam for regular patient treatment is requested, therefore a third ion source (Supernanogan source from PANTECHNIK S.A.) will be integrated. This third ECR source with a newly designed extraction system and a spectrometer line is installed at a test bench at HIT to commission and validate this section. Measurements with different extraction system setups will be presented to show the improvement of beam quality for helium, proton, and carbon beams. An outlook to the possible integration scheme of the new ion source into the production facility will be discussed.

  13. A NEW CONCEPTUAL DESIGN OF THE SNS FULL TURN FAST EXTRACTION KICKER POWER SUPPLY SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ZHANG,W.; SANDBERG,J.; TSOUPAS,N.; MI,J.; LAMBIASE,R.; PAI,C.; TUOZZOLO,J.; NEHRING,T.; WARBURTON,D.

    2001-06-18

    The new conceptual design of full turn fast extraction kicker power supply system of the Spallation Neutron Source main ring will be presented in this paper. In this design, the extraction kicker power modulators will be located outside of the tunnel, as requested by the SNS Project. Its purpose is to minimize the components inside of the synchrotron tunnel. The high voltage modulator will use Blumlein pulser and hollow-anode thyratron structure, a parallel termination resistor and two transmission cables. Main advantages include: flexible system configuration for unipolar single drive or push-pull double drive of the kicker magnets, lower charging voltage, lower beam impedance, lower number of high voltage cables, and large design margin for implementation and future upgrade.

  14. Identification And Characterization Of The Solids Found In Extraction Contactor SEP-401 In June 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fondeur, F. F.; Fink, S. D.

    2012-12-10

    The Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) recently conducted an outage that included maintenance on the centrifugal contactors. Operations personnel observed solids or deposits in two contactors and attempted to collect samples for analyses by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). The residues found in Extraction Contactor SEP-401 are a mixture of amorphous silica, aluminosilicate, titanium, and debris from low alloy steel. The solids contain low concentrations of plutonium and strontium. These isotopes are associated with the titanium that came from the monosodium titanate (MST) added in the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) most likely as leached Ti from the MST that precipitated subsequently in MCU. An attempt was also made to obtain samples from the contents of Wash Contactor SEP-702. However, sampling provide ineffective.

  15. The Need for Polarization for Extracting Baryon Resonances and the NSTAR Program at CLAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, Philip L.

    2007-10-26

    We report on the NSTAR program in Hall B of JLab on using polarization observables to extract parameters of baryon resonances. The scientific purpose of the program is to improve the understanding of the underlying quark degrees of freedom, especially in the higher resonance regions, where we expect to uncover many of missing baryon resonances that mainly decay through multi-meson channels. With the high-quality beam of circularly- and linearly-polarized photons onto unpolarized and polarized proton and deteurium targets, and coupled with the nearly complete solid angle coverage of CLAS, we will extract the differential cross sections and associated polarization observables obtained by the photoproduction of vector mesons and kaons at center of mass energies of 1.7 to 2.2 GeV. The paper will primarily present the photon beam aspects of the excited baryon program.

  16. The Need for Polarization for Extracting Baryon Resonances and the NSTAR Program at CLAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P.L. Cole

    2007-10-01

    We report on the NSTAR program in Hall B of JLab on using polarization observables to extract parameters of baryon resonances. The scientific purpose of the program is to improve the understanding of the underlying quark degrees of freedom, especially in the higher resonance regions, where we expect to uncover many of missing baryon resonances that mainly decay through multi-meson channels. With the high-quality beam of circularly- and linearly-polarized photons onto unpolarized and polarized proton and deteurium targets, and coupled with the nearly complete solid angle coverage of CLAS, we will extract the differential cross sections and associated polarization observables obtained by the photoproduction of vector mesons and kaons at center of mass energies of 1.7 to 2.2 GeV. The paper will primarily present the photon beam aspects of the excited baryon program.

  17. CHANNEL MORPHOLOGY TOOL (CMT): A GIS-BASED AUTOMATED EXTRACTION MODEL FOR CHANNEL GEOMETRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JUDI, DAVID; KALYANAPU, ALFRED; MCPHERSON, TIMOTHY; BERSCHEID, ALAN

    2007-01-17

    This paper describes an automated Channel Morphology Tool (CMT) developed in ArcGIS 9.1 environment. The CMT creates cross-sections along a stream centerline and uses a digital elevation model (DEM) to create station points with elevations along each of the cross-sections. The generated cross-sections may then be exported into a hydraulic model. Along with the rapid cross-section generation the CMT also eliminates any cross-section overlaps that might occur due to the sinuosity of the channels using the Cross-section Overlap Correction Algorithm (COCoA). The CMT was tested by extracting cross-sections from a 5-m DEM for a 50-km channel length in Houston, Texas. The extracted cross-sections were compared directly with surveyed cross-sections in terms of the cross-section area. Results indicated that the CMT-generated cross-sections satisfactorily matched the surveyed data.

  18. Molten salt extraction of transuranic and reactive fission products from used uranium oxide fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herrmann, Steven Douglas

    2014-05-27

    Used uranium oxide fuel is detoxified by extracting transuranic and reactive fission products into molten salt. By contacting declad and crushed used uranium oxide fuel with a molten halide salt containing a minor fraction of the respective uranium trihalide, transuranic and reactive fission products partition from the fuel to the molten salt phase, while uranium oxide and non-reactive, or noble metal, fission products remain in an insoluble solid phase. The salt is then separated from the fuel via draining and distillation. By this method, the bulk of the decay heat, fission poisoning capacity, and radiotoxicity are removed from the used fuel. The remaining radioactivity from the noble metal fission products in the detoxified fuel is primarily limited to soft beta emitters. The extracted transuranic and reactive fission products are amenable to existing technologies for group uranium/transuranic product recovery and fission product immobilization in engineered waste forms.

  19. SE-72/AS-72 generator system based on Se extraction/ As reextraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fassbender, Michael Ernst; Ballard, Beau D

    2013-09-10

    The preparation of a .sup.72Se/.sup.72As radioisotope generator involves forming an acidic aqueous solution of an irradiated alkali bromide target such as a NaBr target, oxidizing soluble bromide in the solution to elemental bromine, removing the elemental bromine, evaporating the resulting solution to a residue, removing hydrogen chloride from the residue, forming an acidic aqueous solution of the residue, adding a chelator that selectively forms a chelation complex with selenium, and extracting the chelation complex from the acidic aqueous solution into an organic phase. As the .sup.72Se generates .sup.72As in the organic phase, the .sup.72As may be extracted repeatedly from the organic phase with an aqueous acid solution.

  20. Radiation Stability of Benzyl Tributyl Ammonium Chloride Towards Technetium-99 Extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jared Horkley; Audrey Roman; Keri Campbell; Ana Nunez; Amparo Espartero

    2013-02-01

    A closed nuclear fuel cycle combining new separation technologies along with generation III and generation IV reactors is a promising way to achieve a sustainable energy supply. But it is important to keep in mind that future recycling processes of used nuclear fuel (UNF) must minimize wastes, improve partitioning process, and integrate waste considerations into processes. New separation processes are being developed worldwide to complement the actual industrialized PUREX process which selectively separates U(VI) and Pu(IV) from the raffinate. As an example, low nitric acid concentration in the aqueous phase of a UREX based process will co-extract U(VI) and Tc(VII) by tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP). Technetium (Tc-99) is recognized to be one of the most abundant, long-lived radiotoxic isotopes in UNF (half-life, t1/2 = 2.13 × 105 years), and as such, it is targeted in UNF separation strategies for isolation and encapsulation in solid waste forms for final disposal in a nuclear waste repository. Immobilization of Tc-99 by a durable solid waste form is a challenge, and its fate in new advanced technology processes is of importance. It is essential to be able to quantify and locate 1) its occurrence in any new developed flow sheets, 2) its chemical form in the individual phases of a process, 3) its potential quantitative transfer in any waste streams, and consequently, 4) its quantitative separation for either potential transmutation to Ru-100 or isolation and encapsulation in solid waste forms for ultimate disposal. Furthermore, as a result of an U(VI)-Tc(VII) co-extraction in a UREX-based process, Tc(VII) could be found in low level waste (LLW) streams. There is a need for the development of new extraction systems that would selectively extract Tc-99 from LLW streams and concentrate it for feed into high level waste (HLW) for either Tc-99 immobilization in metallic waste forms (Tc-Zr alloys), and/or borosilicate-based waste glass. Studies have been launched to investigate the suitability of new macrocompounds such as crown-ethers, aza-crown ethers, and resorcinarenes for the selective extraction of Tc-99 from nitric acid solutions. The selectivity of the ligand is important in evaluating potential separation processes and also the radiation stability of the molecule is essential for minimization of waste and radiolysis products. In this paper, we are reporting the extraction of TcO4- by benzyltributyl ammonium chloride (BTBA). Experimental efforts were focused on determining the best extraction conditions by varying the ligand’s matrix conditions and concentration, as well as varying the organic phase composition (i.e., diluent variation). Furthermore, the ligand has been investigated for radiation stability. The ?-irradiation was performed on the neat organic phases containing the ligand at different absorbed doses to a maximum of 200 kGy using external Co-60 source. Post-irradiation solvent extraction measurements will be discussed.