National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for downhole temperature measurement

  1. Downhole steam quality measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, David O. (Albuquerque, NM); Montoya, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Muir, James F. (Albuquerque, NM); Wayland, Jr., J. Robert (Albuquerque, NM)

    1987-01-01

    An empirical method for the remote sensing of steam quality that can be easily adapted to downhole steam quality measurements by measuring the electrical properties of two-phase flow across electrode grids at low frequencies.

  2. Downhole steam quality measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, D.O.; Montoya, P.C.; Muir, J.F.; Wayland, J.R. Jr.

    1985-06-19

    The present invention relates to an empirical electrical method for remote sensing of steam quality utilizing flow-through grids which allow measurement of the electrical properties of a flowing two-phase mixture. The measurement of steam quality in the oil field is important to the efficient application of steam assisted recovery of oil. Because of the increased energy content in higher quality steam it is important to maintain the highest possible steam quality at the injection sandface. The effectiveness of a steaming operation without a measure of steam quality downhole close to the point of injection would be difficult to determine. Therefore, a need exists for the remote sensing of steam quality.

  3. Feasibility and Design Studies for a High Temperature Downhole Tool

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objective: Perform feasibility and design studies for a high temperature downhole tool; which uses nuclear techniques for characterization purposes; using measurements and modeling/simulation.

  4. High-Temperature Downhole Tools | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Analysis of Geothermal Technologies Albuquerque, NM 941,000 941,000 Feasibility and Design for a High-Temperature Downhole Tool Tennessee Oak Ridge National...

  5. High-Temperature Motor Windings for Downhole Pumps Used in Geothermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Temperature Motor Windings for Downhole Pumps Used in Geothermal Energy Production High-Temperature Motor Windings for Downhole Pumps Used in Geothermal Energy Production Project...

  6. Development of a High Pressure/High Temperature Down-hole Turbine Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben Plamp

    2008-06-30

    As oil & natural gas deposits become more difficult to obtain by conventional means, wells must extend to deeper more heat-intensive environments. The technology of the drilling equipment required to reach these depths has exceeded the availability of electrical power sources needed to operate these tools. Historically, logging while drilling (LWD) and measure while drilling (MWD) devices utilized a wireline to supply power and communication from the operator to the tool. Lithium ion batteries were used in scenarios where a wireline was not an option, as it complicated operations. In current downhole applications, lithium ion battery (LIB) packs are the primary source for electrical power. LIB technology has been proven to supply reliable downhole power at temperatures up to 175 °C. Many of the deeper well s reach ambient temperatures above 200 °C, creating an environment too harsh for current LIB technology. Other downfalls of LIB technology are cost, limitations on charge cycles, disposal issues and possible safety hazards including explosions and fires. Downhole power generation can also be achieved by utilizing drilling fluid flow and converting it to rotational motion. This rotational motion can be harnessed to spin magnets around a series of windings to produce power proportional to the rpm experienced by the driven assembly. These generators are, in most instances, driven by turbine blades or moyno-based drilling fluid pumps. To date, no commercially available downhole power generators are capable of operating at ambient temperatures of 250 °C. A downhole power g enerator capable of operation in a 250 °C and 20,000 psi ambient environment will be an absolute necessity in the future. Dexter Magnetic Technologies’ High-Pressure High-Temperature (HPHT) Downhole Turbine Generator is capable of operating at 250 °C and 20, 000 psi, but has not been tested in an actual drilling application. The technology exists, but to date no company has been willing to test the tool.

  7. High Temperature Tools and Sensors, Down-hole Pumps and Drilling |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy High Temperature Tools and Sensors, Down-hole Pumps and Drilling High Temperature Tools and Sensors, Down-hole Pumps and Drilling Below are the project presentations and respective peer review results for High Temperature Tools and Sensors, Down-hole Pumps and Drilling. Multiparameter Fiber Optic Sensing System for Monitoring Enhanced Geothermal Systems, Dr. Aaron J. Knobloch, GE Global Research High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems, Norman

  8. High-Temperature Motor Windings for Downhole Pumps Used in Geothermal Energy Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooker, Matthew; Hazelton, Craig; Kano, Kimi

    2010-12-31

    The development of highly reliable downhole equipment is an essential element in enabling the widespread utilization of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). The downhole equipment used in these systems will be required to operate at high voltages and temperatures on the order of 200 to 250C (and eventually to 300?C). These conditions exceed the practical operating ranges of currently available thermoplastic wire insulations, and thus limit the operating lifetime of tools such as Electric Submersible Pumps (ESPs). In this work, high-temperature insulations based on composite materials were developed and demonstrated. The products of this work were found to exhibit electrical resistivities and dielectric breakdown strengths that PEEK at temperatures above 250C. In addition, sub-scale motor windings were fabricated and tested to validate the performance of this technology

  9. Self-Consuming Downhole Packer | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Consuming Downhole Packer Self-Consuming Downhole Packer Self-Consuming Downhole Packer presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado. PDF icon self_consuming_packer_peer2013.pdf More Documents & Publications track 3: enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) | geothermal 2015 peer review track 4: enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) | geothermal 2015 peer review Complete Fiber/Copper Cable Solution for Long-Term Temperature and Pressure Measurement in Supercritical

  10. Method and system for downhole clock synchronization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Bartholomew, David B.; Johnson, Monte; Moon, Justin; Koehler, Roger O.

    2006-11-28

    A method and system for use in synchronizing at least two clocks in a downhole network are disclosed. The method comprises determining a total signal latency between a controlling processing element and at least one downhole processing element in a downhole network and sending a synchronizing time over the downhole network to the at least one downhole processing element adjusted for the signal latency. Electronic time stamps may be used to measure latency between processing elements. A system for electrically synchronizing at least two clocks connected to a downhole network comprises a controlling processing element connected to a synchronizing clock in communication over a downhole network with at least one downhole processing element comprising at least one downhole clock. Preferably, the downhole network is integrated into a downhole tool string.

  11. Downhole Sensor Holds Transformative Potential

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Long-term operation of electronics at high temperatures remains a challenge for the geothermal sector; many downhole sensors are prone to failure when deployed in high-temperature wells, which limits the availability and complexity of logging tools av

  12. Downhole tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Muradov, Andrei; Pixton, David S.; Dahlgren, Scott Steven; Briscoe, Michael A.

    2007-03-20

    A double shouldered downhole tool connection comprises box and pin connections having mating threads intermediate mating primary and secondary shoulders. The connection further comprises a secondary shoulder component retained in the box connection intermediate a floating component and the primary shoulders. The secondary shoulder component and the pin connection cooperate to transfer a portion of makeup load to the box connection. The downhole tool may be selected from the group consisting of drill pipe, drill collars, production pipe, and reamers. The floating component may be selected from the group consisting of electronics modules, generators, gyroscopes, power sources, and stators. The secondary shoulder component may comprises an interface to the box connection selected from the group consisting of radial grooves, axial grooves, tapered grooves, radial protrusions, axial protrusions, tapered protrusions, shoulders, and threads.

  13. Corrosion reference for geothermal downhole materials selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, P.F. II, Smith, C.C.; Keeney, R.C.; Kirk, D.K.; Conover, M.F.

    1983-03-01

    Geothermal downhole conditions that may affect the performance and reliability of selected materials and components used in the drilling, completion, logging, and production of geothermal wells are reviewed. The results of specific research and development efforts aimed at improvement of materials and components for downhole contact with the hostile physicochemical conditions of the geothermal reservoir are discussed. Materials and components covered are tubular goods, stainless steels and non-ferrous metals for high-temperature downhole service, cements for high-temperature geothermal wells, high-temperature elastomers, drilling and completion tools, logging tools, and downhole pumps. (MHR)

  14. Battery switch for downhole tools

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boling, Brian E. (Sugar Land, TX)

    2010-02-23

    An electrical circuit for a downhole tool may include a battery, a load electrically connected to the battery, and at least one switch electrically connected in series with the battery and to the load. The at least one switch may be configured to close when a tool temperature exceeds a selected temperature.

  15. High-Temperature Motor Windings for Downhole Pumps Used in Geothermal Energy Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Project objective: Develop and demonstrate high-temperature ESP motor windings for use in Enhanced Geothermal Systems and operation at 300˚C.

  16. Energy Department Announces First-of-its-Kind, High-Temperature, Downhole Rechargeable Energy Storage Device

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department today announced commercialization of a rechargeable energy storage device capable of operating in the extreme temperatures necessary for geothermal energy production. Industry...

  17. Downhole pulse tube refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.; Gardner, D.

    1997-12-01

    This report summarizes a preliminary design study to explore the plausibility of using pulse tube refrigeration to cool instruments in a hot down-hole environment. The original motivation was to maintain Dave Reagor`s high-temperature superconducting electronics at 75 K, but the study has evolved to include three target design criteria: cooling at 30 C in a 300 C environment, cooling at 75 K in a 50 C environment, cooling at both 75 K and 30 C in a 250 C environment. These specific temperatures were chosen arbitrarily, as representative of what is possible. The primary goals are low cost, reliability, and small package diameter. Pulse-tube refrigeration is a rapidly growing sub-field of cryogenic refrigeration. The pulse tube refrigerator has recently become the simplest, cheapest, most rugged and reliable low-power cryocooler. The authors expect this technology will be applicable downhole because of the ratio of hot to cold temperatures (in absolute units, such as Kelvin) of interest in deep drilling is comparable to the ratios routinely achieved with cryogenic pulse-tube refrigerators.

  18. Dual-cone double-helical downhole logging device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Jiunn S. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A broadband downhole logging device includes a double-helix coil wrapped over a dielectric support and surrounded by a dielectric shield. The device may also include a second coil longitudinally aligned with a first coil and enclosed within the same shield for measuring magnetic permeability of downhole formations and six additional coils for accurately determining downhole parameters.

  19. Downhole Dynamometer Data Processor

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-08-19

    The Downhole Dynamometer Database contains data taken during tests made on a number of different wells using both a surface dynamometer and a number of different downhole dynamometer tools. DOWNDYN allows the user to perform four different functions on the database: select a data file, choose information from the file, and either plot or export that information.

  20. Downhole telemetry system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Normann, Randy A. (Albuquerque, NM); Kadlec, Emil R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1994-01-01

    A downhole telemetry system is described for optically communicating to the surface operating parameters of a drill bit during ongoing drilling operations. The downhole telemetry system includes sensors mounted with a drill bit for monitoring at least one operating parameter of the drill bit and generating a signal representative thereof. The downhole telemetry system includes means for transforming and optically communicating the signal to the surface as well as means at the surface for producing a visual display of the optically communicated operating parameters of the drill bit.

  1. Downhole telemetry system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Normann, R.A.; Kadlec, E.R.

    1994-11-08

    A downhole telemetry system is described for optically communicating to the surface operating parameters of a drill bit during ongoing drilling operations. The downhole telemetry system includes sensors mounted with a drill bit for monitoring at least one operating parameter of the drill bit and generating a signal representative thereof. The downhole telemetry system includes means for transforming and optically communicating the signal to the surface as well as means at the surface for producing a visual display of the optically communicated operating parameters of the drill bit. 7 figs.

  2. Category:Downhole Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Downhole Techniques Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Downhole Techniques page? For detailed information on Downhole...

  3. Downhole Data Transmission System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

    2004-04-06

    A system for transmitting data through a string of down-hole components. In accordance with one aspect, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string. Each downhole component includes a pin end and a box end, with the pin end of one downhole component being adapted to be connected to the box end of another. Each pin end includes external threads and an internal pin face distal to the external threads. Each box end includes an internal shoulder face with internal threads distal to the internal shoulder face. The internal pin face and the internal shoulder face are aligned with and proximate each other when the pin end of the one component is threaded into a box end of the other component.

  4. Three phase downhole separator process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cognata, Louis John (Baytown, TX)

    2008-06-24

    Three Phase Downhole Separator Process (TPDSP) is a process which results in the separation of all three phases, (1) oil, (2) gas, and (3) water, at the downhole location in the well bore, water disposal injection downhole, and oil and gas production uphole.

  5. Distributed downhole drilling network

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Fox, Joe; Pixton, David S.

    2006-11-21

    A high-speed downhole network providing real-time data from downhole components of a drilling strings includes a bottom-hole node interfacing to a bottom-hole assembly located proximate the bottom end of a drill string. A top-hole node is connected proximate the top end of the drill string. One or several intermediate nodes are located along the drill string between the bottom-hole node and the top-hole node. The intermediate nodes are configured to receive and transmit data packets transmitted between the bottom-hole node and the top-hole node. A communications link, integrated into the drill string, is used to operably connect the bottom-hole node, the intermediate nodes, and the top-hole node. In selected embodiments, a personal or other computer may be connected to the top-hole node, to analyze data received from the intermediate and bottom-hole nodes.

  6. Downhole transmission system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

    2008-01-15

    A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a data transmission element in both ends of the downhole component. Each data transmission element houses an electrically conducting coil in a MCEI circular trough. An electrical conductor connects both the transmission elements. The electrical conductor comprises at least three electrically conductive elements insulated from each other. In the preferred embodiment the electrical conductor comprises an electrically conducting outer shield, an electrically conducting inner shield and an electrical conducting core. In some embodiments of the present invention, the electrical conductor comprises an electrically insulating jacket. In other embodiments, the electrical conductor comprises a pair of twisted wires. In some embodiments, the electrical conductor comprises semi-conductive material.

  7. High temperature measuring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    A temperature measuring device for very high design temperatures (to 2,000.degree. C.). The device comprises a homogenous base structure preferably in the form of a sphere or cylinder. The base structure contains a large number of individual walled cells. The base structure has a decreasing coefficient of elasticity within the temperature range being monitored. A predetermined quantity of inert gas is confined within each cell. The cells are dimensionally stable at the normal working temperature of the device. Increases in gaseous pressure within the cells will permanently deform the cell walls at temperatures within the high temperature range to be measured. Such deformation can be correlated to temperature by calibrating similarly constructed devices under known time and temperature conditions.

  8. ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    temperature ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Atmospheric temperature The temperature indicated by a thermometer exposed to the air in a place sheltered from direct solar radiation. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list

  9. Downhole Techniques | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    in-situ within the well, downhole techniques are capable of accurately constraining these reservoir parameters relative to depth.2 Gaining an understanding of these reservoir...

  10. ARM - Measurement - Virtual temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsVirtual temperature ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Virtual temperature The virtual temperature Tv = T(1 + rv/{epsilon}), where rv is the mixing ratio, and {epsilon} is the ratio of the gas constants of air and water vapor ( 0.622). Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to

  11. Downhole steam injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donaldson, A. Burl (Albuquerque, NM); Hoke, Donald E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1983-01-01

    An improved downhole steam injector has an angled water orifice to swirl the water through the device for improved heat transfer before it is converted to steam. The injector also has a sloped diameter reduction in the steam chamber to throw water that collects along the side of the chamber during slant drilling into the flame for conversion to steam. In addition, the output of the flame chamber is beveled to reduce hot spots and increase efficiency, and the fuel-oxidant inputs are arranged to minimize coking.

  12. Temperature measuring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Bible, Don W. (Clinton, TN); Sohns, Carl W. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1999-01-01

    Systems and methods are described for a wireless instrumented silicon wafer that can measure temperatures at various points and transmit those temperature readings to an external receiver. The device has particular utility in the processing of semiconductor wafers, where it can be used to map thermal uniformity on hot plates, cold plates, spin bowl chucks, etc. without the inconvenience of wires or the inevitable thermal perturbations attendant with them.

  13. Downhole thermoacoustic device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuznetsov, O. L.; Malchenok, V. O.; Maxutov, R. A.; Mordukhaev, K. M.; Ostrovsky, A. P.

    1985-12-17

    A downhole thermoacoustic device comprises a heater with a terminal chamber, connected to a source or radiator of acoustic oscillation, including a hollow housing having mounted therein a longitudinal shaft carrying coils with cores in the form of a plurality of flat rings of a magnetostrictive material, operable as the active elements adapted to generate acoustic oscillation. Accommodated intermediate the coils is a member for focusing the acoustic field, in the form of a sleeve, while the longitudinal shaft carries a tube-shaped reflector of acoustic oscillation internally of the core of each coil. The top and bottom portions of the hollow housing of the radiator of acoustic oscillation have mounted therein damping elements including sleeves of a resilient material, while a heat-insulating member including a sleeve with a fluted surface is provided intermediate the terminal chamber of the heater and the hollow housing of the radiator.

  14. Downhole hydraulic seismic generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gregory, Danny L. (Corrales, NM); Hardee, Harry C. (Albuquerque, NM); Smallwood, David O. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A downhole hydraulic seismic generator system for transmitting energy wave vibrations into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system contains an elongated, unitary housing operably connected to a well head aboveground by support and electrical cabling, and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a hydraulic oscillator containing a double-actuating piston whose movement is controlled by an electro-servovalve regulating a high pressure hydraulic fluid flow into and out of upper and lower chambers surrounding the piston. The spent hydraulic fluid from the hydraulic oscillator is stored and pumped back into the system to provide high pressure fluid for conducting another run at the same, or a different location within the borehole.

  15. Downhole data transmission system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S; Dahlgren, Scott; Fox, Joe

    2006-06-20

    A system for transmitting data through a string of downhole components. In one aspect, the system includes first and second magnetically conductive, electrically insulating elements at both ends of the component. Each element includes a first U-shaped trough with a bottom, first and second sides and an opening between the two sides. Electrically conducting coils are located in each trough. An electrical conductor connects the coils in each component. In operation, a varying current applied to a first coil in one component generates a varying magnetic field in the first magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element, which varying magnetic field is conducted to and thereby produces a varying magnetic field in the second magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element of a connected component, which magnetic field thereby generates a varying electrical current in the second coil in the connected component.

  16. Downhole Data Transmission System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

    2003-12-30

    A system for transmitting data through a string of downhole components. In one aspect, the system includes first and second magnetically conductive, electrically insulating elements at both ends of the component. Each element includes a first U-shaped trough with a bottom, first and second sides and an opening between the two sides. Electrically conducting coils are located in each trough. An electrical conductor connects the coils in each component. In operation, a varying current applied to a first coil in one component generates a varying magnetic field in the first magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element, which varying magnetic field is conducted to and thereby produces a varying magnetic field in the second magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element of a connected component, which magnetic field thereby generates a varying electrical current in the second coil in the connected component.

  17. 275 C Downhole Microcomputer System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chris Hutchens; Hooi Miin Soo

    2008-08-31

    An HC11 controller IC and along with serial SRAM and ROM support ICs chip set were developed to support a data acquisition and control for extreme temperature/harsh environment conditions greater than 275 C. The 68HC11 microprocessor is widely used in well logging tools for control, data acquisition, and signal processing applications and was the logical choice for a downhole controller. This extreme temperature version of the 68HC11 enables new high temperature designs and additionally allows 68HC11-based well logging tools and MWD tools to be upgraded for high temperature operation in deep gas reservoirs, The microcomputer chip consists of the microprocessor ALU, a small boot ROM, 4 kbyte data RAM, counter/timer unit, serial peripheral interface (SPI), asynchronous serial interface (SCI), and the A, B, C, and D parallel ports. The chip is code compatible with the single chip mode commercial 68HC11 except for the absence of the analog to digital converter system. To avoid mask programmed internal ROM, a boot program is used to load the microcomputer program from an external mask SPI ROM. A SPI RAM IC completes the chip set and allows data RAM to be added in 4 kbyte increments. The HC11 controller IC chip set is implemented in the Peregrine Semiconductor 0.5 micron Silicon-on-Sapphire (SOS) process using a custom high temperature cell library developed at Oklahoma State University. Yield data is presented for all, the HC11, SPI-RAM and ROM. The lessons learned in this project were extended to the successful development of two high temperature versions of the LEON3 and a companion 8 Kbyte SRAM, a 200 C version for the Navy and a 275 C version for the gas industry.

  18. High Temperature ESP Monitoring

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The purpose of the High Temperature ESP Monitoring project is to develop a down-hole monitoring system to be used in wells with bottom hole temperature up to 300 °C for measuring motor temperature; pump discharge pressure; and formation temperature and pressure.

  19. ARM - Measurement - Sea surface temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sea surface temperature The temperature of sea water near the surface. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the...

  20. Downhole tool adapted for telemetry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Provo, UT)

    2010-12-14

    A cycleable downhole tool such as a Jar, a hydraulic hammer, and a shock absorber adapted for telemetry. This invention applies to other tools where the active components of the tool are displaced when the tool is rotationally or translationally cycled. The invention consists of inductive or contact transmission rings that are connected by an extensible conductor. The extensible conductor permits the transmission of the signal before, after, and during the cycling of the tool. The signal may be continuous or intermittent during cycling. The invention also applies to downhole tools that do not cycle, but in operation are under such stress that an extensible conductor is beneficial. The extensible conductor may also consist of an extensible portion and a fixed portion. The extensible conductor also features clamps that maintain the conductor under stresses greater than that seen by the tool, and seals that are capable of protecting against downhole pressure and contamination.

  1. Transducer for downhole drilling components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R; Fox, Joe R

    2006-05-30

    A robust transmission element for transmitting information between downhole tools, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The transmission element maintains reliable connectivity between transmission elements, thereby providing an uninterrupted flow of information between drill string components. A transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe. The transmission element may include an annular housing forming a trough, an electrical conductor disposed within the trough, and an MCEI material disposed between the annular housing and the electrical conductor.

  2. Multipurpose Acoustic Sensor for Downhole Fluid Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pantea, Cristian

    2012-05-04

    The projects objectives and purpose are to: (1) development a multipurpose acoustic sensor for downhole fluid monitoring in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) reservoirs over typical ranges of pressures and temperatures and demonstrate its capabilities and performance for different EGS systems; (2) determine in real-time and in a single sensor package several parameters - temperature, pressure, fluid flow and fluid properties; (3) needed in nearly every phase of an EGS project, including Testing of Injection and Production Wells, Reservoir Validation, Inter-well Connectivity, Reservoir Scale Up and Reservoir Sustainability. (4) Current sensors are limited to operating at lower temperatures, but the need is for logging at high temperatures. The present project deals with the development of a novel acoustic-based sensor that can work at temperatures up to 374 C, in inhospitable environments.

  3. ARM - Measurement - Surface skin temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    skin temperature ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Surface skin temperature The radiative surface skin temperature, from an IR thermometer measuring the narrowband radiating temperature of the ground surface in its field of view. Categories Radiometric, Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the

  4. ARM - Measurement - Soil surface temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    surface temperature ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Soil surface temperature The temperature of the soil measured near the surface. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those

  5. Downhole steam generator having a downhole oxidant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, R.L.

    1981-01-07

    Am improved apparatus is described for the downhole injection of steam into boreholes, for tertiary oil recovery. It includes an oxidant supply, a fuel supply, an igniter, a water supply, an oxidant compressor, and a combustor assembly. The apparatus is designed for efficiency, preheating of the water, and cooling of the combustion chamber walls. The steam outlet to the borehole is provided with pressure-responsive doors for closing the outlet in response to flameout. (DLC)

  6. Temperature Measurements in the Magnetic Measurement Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-12-13

    Several key LCLS undulator parameter values depend strongly on temperature primarily because of the permanent magnet material the undulators are constructed with. The undulators will be tuned to have specific parameter values in the Magnetic Measurement Facility (MMF). Consequently, it is necessary for the temperature of the MMF to remain fairly constant. Requirements on undulator temperature have been established. When in use, the undulator temperature will be in the range 20.0 {+-} 0.2 C. In the MMF, the undulator tuning will be done at 20.0 {+-} 0.1 C. For special studies, the MMF temperature set point can be changed to a value between 18 C and 23 C with stability of {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure that the MMF temperature requirements are met, the MMF must have a system to measure temperatures. The accuracy of the MMF temperature measurement system must be better than the {+-}0.1 C undulator tuning temperature tolerance, and is taken to be {+-}0.01 C. The temperature measurement system for the MMF is under construction. It is similar to a prototype system we built two years ago in the Sector 10 alignment lab at SLAC. At that time, our goal was to measure the lab temperature to {+-}0.1 C. The system has worked well for two years and has maintained its accuracy. For the MMF system, we propose better sensors and a more extensive calibration program to achieve the factor of 10 increase in accuracy. In this note we describe the measurement system under construction. We motivate our choice of system components and give an overview of the system. Most of the software for the system has been written and will be discussed. We discuss error sources in temperature measurements and show how these errors have been dealt with. The calibration system is described in detail. All the LCLS undulators must be tuned in the Magnetic Measurement Facility at the same temperature to within {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure this, we are building a system to measure the temperature of the undulators to {+-}0.01 C. This note describes the temperature measurement system under construction.

  7. Advanced downhole periodic seismic generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hardee, Harry C. (Albuquerque, NM); Hills, Richard G. (Las Cruces, NM); Striker, Richard P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1991-07-16

    An advanced downhole periodic seismic generator system for transmitting variable frequency, predominantly shear-wave vibration into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system comprises a unitary housing operably connected to a well head by support and electrical cabling and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a variable speed pneumatic oscillator and a self-contained pneumatic reservoir for producing a frequency-swept seismic output over a discrete frequency range.

  8. High-temperature-measuring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1981-01-27

    A temperature measuring device for very high design temperatures (to 2000/sup 0/C) is described. The device comprises a homogenous base structure preferably in the form of a sphere or cylinder. The base structure contains a large number of individual walled cells. The base structure has a decreasing coefficient of elasticity within the temperature range being monitored. A predetermined quantity of inert gas is confined within each cell. The cells are dimensonally stable at the normal working temperature of the device. Increases in gaseous pressure within the cells will permanently deform the cell walls at temperatures within the high temperature range to be measured. Such deformation can be correlated to temperature by calibrating similarly constructed devices under known time and temperature conditions.

  9. Downhole component with a pressure equalization passageway

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Pixton, David S.; Dahlgren, Scott; Reynolds, Jay T.; Breihan, James W.; Briscoe, Michael A.

    2006-08-22

    The present invention includes a downhole component adapted for transmitting downhole data. The downhole component includes a threaded end on a downhole component. The threaded end furthermore includes an interior region, and exterior region, and a mating surface wherein a cavity is formed. A data transmission element is disposed in the cavity and displaces a volume of the cavity. At least one passageway is formed in the threaded region between interior and exterior regions. The passageway is in fluid communication with both the interior and exterior regions and thereby relieves pressure build up of thread lubricant upon tool joint make up.

  10. Downhole steam generator having a downhole oxidant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Ronald L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus and method for generation of steam in a borehole for penetration into an earth formation wherein a downhole oxidant compressor is used to compress relatively low pressure (atmospheric) oxidant, such as air, to a relatively high pressure prior to mixing with fuel for combustion. The multi-stage compressor receives motive power through a shaft driven by a gas turbine powered by the hot expanding combustion gases. The main flow of compressed oxidant passes through a velocity increasing nozzle formed by a reduced central section of the compressor housing. An oxidant bypass feedpipe leading to peripheral oxidant injection nozzles of the combustion chamber are also provided. The downhole compressor allows effective steam generation in deep wells without need for high pressure surface compressors. Feedback preheater means are provided for preheating fuel in a preheat chamber. Preheating of the water occurs in both a water feed line running from aboveground and in a countercurrent water flow channel surrounding the combustor assembly. The countercurrent water flow channels advantageously serve to cool the combustion chamber wall. The water is injected through slotted inlets along the combustion chamber wall to provide an unstable boundary layer and stripping of the water from the wall for efficient steam generation. Pressure responsive doors are provided at the steam outlet for closing and sealing the combustion chamber from entry of reservoir fluids in the event of a flameout.

  11. Downhole steam injector. [Patent application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donaldson, A.B.; Hoke, E.

    1981-06-03

    An improved downhole steam injector has an angled water orifice to swirl the water through the device for improved heat transfer before it is converted to steam. The injector also has a sloped diameter reduction in the steam chamber to throw water that collects along the side of the chamber during slant drilling into the flame for conversion to steam. In addition, the output of the flame chamber is beveled to reduce hot spots and increase efficiency, and the fuel-oxidant inputs are arranged to minimize coking.

  12. Downhole material injector for lost circulation control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glowka, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    This invention is comprised of an apparatus and method for simultaneously and separately emplacing two streams of different materials through a drillstring in a borehole to a downhole location for lost circulation control. The two streams are mixed outside the drillstring at the desired downhole location and harden only after mixing for control of a lost circulation zone.

  13. Downhole material injector for lost circulation control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glowka, David A. (Tijeras, NM)

    1994-01-01

    Apparatus and method for simultaneously and separately emplacing two streams of different materials through a drillstring in a borehole to a downhole location for lost circulation control. The two streams are mixed outside the drillstring at the desired downhole location and harden only after mixing for control of a lost circulation zone.

  14. Downhole material injector for lost circulation control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glowka, D.A.

    1994-09-06

    Apparatus and method are disclosed for simultaneously and separately emplacing two streams of different materials through a drill string in a borehole to a downhole location for lost circulation control. The two streams are mixed outside the drill string at the desired downhole location and harden only after mixing for control of a lost circulation zone. 6 figs.

  15. Integrated Emissivity And Temperature Measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poulsen, Peter (Livermore, CA)

    2005-11-08

    A multi-channel spectrometer and a light source are used to measure both the emitted and the reflected light from a surface which is at an elevated temperature relative to its environment. In a first method, the temperature of the surface and emissivity in each wavelength is calculated from a knowledge of the spectrum and the measurement of the incident and reflected light. In the second method, the reflected light is measured from a reference surface having a known reflectivity and the same geometry as the surface of interest and the emitted and the reflected light are measured for the surface of interest. These measurements permit the computation of the emissivity in each channel of the spectrometer and the temperature of the surface of interest.

  16. Apparatus for downhole drilling communications and method for making and using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Normann, R.A.; Lockwood, G.J.; Gonzales, M.

    1998-03-03

    An apparatus for downhole drilling communications is presented. The apparatus includes a spool and end pieces for maintaining the spool at the bottom of a drill string near a drill bit during drilling operations. The apparatus provides a cable for communicating signals between a downhole electronics package and a surface receiver in order to perform measurements while drilling. A method of forming the apparatus is also set forth wherein the apparatus is formed about a central spindle and lathe. 6 figs.

  17. Apparatus for downhole drilling communications and method for making and using the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Normann, Randy A. (Edgewood, NM); Lockwood, Grant J. (Albuquerque, NM); Gonzales, Meliton (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus for downhole drilling communications is presented. The apparatus includes a spool and end pieces for maintaining the spool at the bottom of a drill string near a drill bit during drilling operations. The apparatus provides a cable for communicating signals between a downhole electronics package and a surface receiver in order to perform measurements while drilling. A method of forming the apparatus is also set forth wherein the apparatus is formed about a central spindle and lathe.

  18. Method for measuring surface temperature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Gary A. (Los Alamos, NM); Baker, Sheila N. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-07-28

    The present invention relates to a method for measuring a surface temperature using is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

  19. High Temperature ESP Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jack Booker; Brindesh Dhruva

    2011-06-20

    The objective of the High Temperature ESP Monitoring project was to develop a downhole monitoring system to be used in wells with bottom hole well temperatures up to 300C for measuring motor temperature, formation pressure, and formation temperature. These measurements are used to monitor the health of the ESP motor, to track the downhole operating conditions, and to optimize the pump operation. A 220 C based High Temperature ESP Monitoring system was commercially released for sale with Schlumberger ESP motors April of 2011 and a 250 C system with will be commercially released at the end of Q2 2011. The measurement system is now fully qualified, except for the sensor, at 300 C.

  20. Loaded transducer for downhole drilling components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT); Daly, Jeffery E. (Cypress, TX)

    2009-05-05

    A system for transmitting information between downhole components has a first downhole component with a first mating surface and a second downhole component having a second mating surface configured to substantially mate with the first mating surface. The system also has a first transmission element with a first communicating surface and is mounted within a recess in the first mating surface. The first transmission element also has an angled surface. The recess has a side with multiple slopes for interacting with the angled surface, each slope exerting a different spring force on the first transmission element. A second transmission element has a second communicating surface mounted proximate the second mating surface and adapted to communicate with the first communicating surface.

  1. Loaded transducer for downhole drilling components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Briscoe, Michael A.; Dahlgren, Scott Steven; Fox, Joe; Sneddon, Cameron

    2006-02-21

    A robust transmission element for transmitting information between downhole tools, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The transmission element maintains reliable connectivity between transmission elements, thereby providing an uninterrupted flow of information between drill string components. A transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe. To close gaps present between transmission elements, transmission elements may be biased with a "spring force, urging them closer together."

  2. Loaded Transducer Fpr Downhole Drilling Component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Hall, H. Tracy; Pixton, David; Dahlgren, Scott; Sneddon, Cameron; Briscoe, Michael; Fox, Joe

    2005-07-05

    A robust transmission element for transmitting information between downhole tools, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The transmission element maintains reliable connectivity between transmission elements, thereby providing an uninterrupted flow of information between drill string components. A transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe. To close gaps present between transmission elements, transmission elements may be biased with a "spring force," urging them closer together.

  3. Remote down-hole well telemetry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Briles, Scott D.; Neagley, Daniel L.; Coates, Don M.; Freund, Samuel M.

    2004-07-20

    The present invention includes an apparatus and method for telemetry communication with oil-well monitoring and recording instruments located in the vicinity of the bottom of gas or oil recovery pipes. Such instruments are currently monitored using electrical cabling that is inserted into the pipes; cabling has a short life in this environment, and requires periodic replacement with the concomitant, costly shutdown of the well. Modulated reflectance, a wireless communication method that does not require signal transmission power from the telemetry package will provide a long-lived and reliable way to monitor down-hole conditions. Normal wireless technology is not practical since batteries and capacitors have to frequently be replaced or recharged, again with the well being removed from service. RF energy generated above ground can also be received, converted and stored down-hole without the use of wires, for actuating down-hole valves, as one example. Although modulated reflectance reduces or eliminates the loss of energy at the sensor package because energy is not consumed, during the transmission process, additional stored extra energy down-hole is needed.

  4. Expandable Metal Liner For Downhole Components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe R. (Provo, UT)

    2004-10-05

    A liner for an annular downhole component is comprised of an expandable metal tube having indentations along its surface. The indentations are formed in the wall of the tube either by drawing the tube through a die, by hydroforming, by stamping, or roll forming and may extend axially, radially, or spirally along its wall. The indentations accommodate radial and axial expansion of the tube within the downhole component. The tube is inserted into the annular component and deformed to match an inside surface of the component. The tube may be expanded using a hydroforming process or by drawing a mandrel through the tube. The tube may be expanded in such a manner so as to place it in compression against the inside wall of the component. The tube is useful for improving component hydraulics, shielding components from contamination, inhibiting corrosion, and preventing wear to the downhole component during use. It may also be useful for positioning conduit and insulated conductors within the component. An insulating material may be disposed between the tube and the component in order to prevent galvanic corrosion of the downhole component.

  5. Measurement of thermodynamic temperature of high temperature fixed points

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gavrilov, V. R.; Khlevnoy, B. B.; Otryaskin, D. A.; Grigorieva, I. A.; Samoylov, M. L.; Sapritsky, V. I.

    2013-09-11

    The paper is devoted to VNIIOFI's measurements of thermodynamic temperature of the high temperature fixed points Co-C, Pt-C and Re-C within the scope of the international project coordinated by the Consultative Committee for Thermometry working group 5 'Radiation Thermometry'. The melting temperatures of the fixed points were measured by a radiance mode radiation thermometer calibrated against a filter radiometer with known irradiance spectral responsivity via a high temperature black body. This paper describes the facility used for the measurements, the results and estimated uncertainties.

  6. ARM - Measurement - Microwave narrowband brightness temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsMicrowave narrowband brightness temperature ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Microwave narrowband brightness temperature A descriptive measure of radiation in terms of the temperature of a hypothetical black body emitting an identical amount of radiation in the same narrow bands of wavelengths. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered

  7. DOWNHOLE POWER GENERATION AND WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS FOR INTELLIGENT COMPLETIONS APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Tubel

    2003-03-24

    The first quarter of the Downhole Power Generation and Wireless Communications for Intelligent Completions Applications was characterized by the evaluation and determination of the specifications required for the development of the system for permanent applications in wellbores to the optimization of hydrocarbon production. The system will monitor and transmit in real time pressure and temperature information from downhole using the production tubing as the medium for the transmission of the acoustic waves carrying digital information. The most common casing and tubing sizes were determined by interfacing with the major oil companies to obtain information related to their wells. The conceptual design was created for both the wireless gauge section of the tool as well as the power generation module. All hardware for the wireless gauge will be placed in an atmospheric pressure chamber located on the outside of a production tubing with 11.4 centimeter (4-1/2 inch) diameter. This mounting technique will reduce cost as well as the diameter and length of the tool and increase the reliability of the system. The power generator will use piezoelectric wafers to generate electricity based on the flow of hydrocarbons through an area in the wellbore where the tool will be deployed. The goal of the project is to create 1 Watt of power continuously.

  8. ARM - Measurement - Longwave narrowband brightness temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    narrowband brightness temperature ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Longwave narrowband brightness temperature A descriptive measure of radiation in terms of the temperature of a hypothetical black body emitting an identical amount of radiation in the same narrow band of wavelengths. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the

  9. ARM - Measurement - Longwave spectral brightness temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    spectral brightness temperature ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Longwave spectral brightness temperature A descriptive measure of radiation in terms of the temperature of a hypothetical black body emitting an identical amount of radiation at the same spectrally resolved wavelengths. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the

  10. Data transmission element for downhole drilling components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Dahlgren, Scott; Fox, Joe; Sneddon, Cameron; Briscoe, Michael

    2006-01-31

    A robust data transmission element for transmitting information between downhole components, such as sections of drill pipe, in the presence of hostile environmental conditions, such as heat, dirt, rocks, mud, fluids, lubricants, and the like. The data transmission element components include a generally U-shaped annular housing, a generally U-shaped magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element such as ferrite, and an insulated conductor. Features on the magnetically conducting, electrically insulating element and the annular housing create a pocket when assembled. The data transmission element is filled with a polymer to retain the components within the annular housing by filling the pocket with the polymer. The polymer can bond with the annular housing and the insulated conductor but preferably not the magnetically conductive, electrically insulating element. A data transmission element is mounted within a recess proximate a mating surface of a downhole drilling component, such as a section of drill pipe.

  11. Polished Downhole Transducer Having Improved Signal Coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

    2006-03-28

    Apparatus and methods to improve signal coupling in downhole inductive transmission elements to reduce the dispersion of magnetic energy at the tool joints and to provide consistent impedance and contact between transmission elements located along the drill string. A transmission element for transmitting information between downhole tools is disclosed in one embodiment of the invention as including an annular core constructed of a magnetically conductive material. The annular core forms an open channel around its circumference and is configured to form a closed channel by mating with a corresponding annular core along an annular mating surface. The mating surface is polished to provide improved magnetic coupling with the corresponding annular core. An annular conductor is disposed within the open channel.

  12. Downhole transmission system comprising a coaxial capacitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Johnson, Monte L. (Orem, UT); Bartholomew, David B. (Springville, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Rawle, Michael (Springville, UT)

    2011-05-24

    A transmission system in a downhole component comprises a plurality of data transmission elements. A coaxial cable having an inner conductor and an outer conductor is disposed within a passage in the downhole component such that at least one capacitor is disposed in the passage and having a first terminal coupled to the inner conductor and a second terminal coupled to the outer conductor. Preferably the transmission element comprises an electrically conducting coil. Preferably, within the passage a connector is adapted to electrically connect the inner conductor of the coaxial cable and the lead wire. The coaxial capacitor may be disposed between and in electrically communication with the connector and the passage. In another embodiment a connector is adapted to electrical connect a first and a second portion of the inner conductor of the coaxial cable and a coaxial capacitor is in electrical communication with the connector and the passage.

  13. Downhole drilling network using burst modulation techniques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall; David R. (Provo, UT), Fox; Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

    2007-04-03

    A downhole drilling system is disclosed in one aspect of the present invention as including a drill string and a transmission line integrated into the drill string. Multiple network nodes are installed at selected intervals along the drill string and are adapted to communicate with one another through the transmission line. In order to efficiently allocate the available bandwidth, the network nodes are configured to use any of numerous burst modulation techniques to transmit data.

  14. Downhole pipe selection for acoustic telemetry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drumheller, D.S.

    1995-12-19

    A system is described for transmitting signals along a downhole string including a plurality of serially connected tubular pipes such as drill or production pipes, a transmitter for transmitting a signal along the string and a receiver for receiving the signal placed along the string at a location spaced from said transmitting means, wherein the pipes between the transmitter and the receiver are ordered according to length of tube to minimize loss of signal from said transmitter to said receiver. 7 figs.

  15. Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angel, S.M.; Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1986-04-22

    A method and apparatus are provided for remotely monitoring temperature. Both method and apparatus employ a temperature probe material having an excitation-dependent emission line whose fluorescence intensity varies directly with temperature whenever excited by light having a first wavelength and whose fluorescence intensity varies inversely with temperature whenever excited by light having a second wavelength. Temperature is measured by alternatively illiminating the temperature probe material with light having the first wavelength and light having the second wavelength, monitoring the intensity of the successive emissions of the excitation-dependent emission line, and relating the intensity ratio of successive emissions to temperature. 3 figs.

  16. Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angel, S. Michael; Hirschfeld, Tomas B.

    1988-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for remotely monitoring temperature. Both method and apparatus employ a temperature probe material having an excitation-dependent emission line whose fluorescence intensity varies directly with temperature whenever excited by light having a first wavelength and whose fluorescence intensity varies inversely with temperature whenever excited by light having a second wavelength. Temperature is measured by alternatively illuminating the temperature probe material with light having the first wavelength and light having the second wavelength, monitoring the intensity of the successive emissions of the excitation-dependent emission line, and relating the intensity ratio of successive emissions to temperature.

  17. Method and apparatus of assessing down-hole drilling conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehl, UT); Johnson, Monte L. (Orem, UT); Bartholomew, David B. (Springville, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

    2007-04-24

    A method and apparatus for use in assessing down-hole drilling conditions are disclosed. The apparatus includes a drill string, a plurality of sensors, a computing device, and a down-hole network. The sensors are distributed along the length of the drill string and are capable of sensing localized down-hole conditions while drilling. The computing device is coupled to at least one sensor of the plurality of sensors. The data is transmitted from the sensors to the computing device over the down-hole network. The computing device analyzes data output by the sensors and representative of the sensed localized conditions to assess the down-hole drilling conditions. The method includes sensing localized drilling conditions at a plurality of points distributed along the length of a drill string during drilling operations; transmitting data representative of the sensed localized conditions to a predetermined location; and analyzing the transmitted data to assess the down-hole drilling conditions.

  18. Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Rourke, P.E.; Livingston, R.R.; Prather, W.S.

    1994-09-20

    A temperature probe and a method for using said probe for temperature measurements based on changes in light absorption by the probe are disclosed. The probe comprises a first and a second optical fiber that carry light to and from the probe, and a temperature sensor material, the absorbance of which changes with temperature, through which the light is directed. Light is directed through the first optical fiber, passes through the temperature sensor material, and is transmitted by a second optical fiber from the material to a detector. Temperature-dependent and temperature-independent factors are derived from measurements of the transmitted light intensity. For each sensor material, the temperature T is a function of the ratio, R, of these factors. The temperature function f(R) is found by applying standard data analysis techniques to plots of T versus R at a series of known temperatures. For a sensor having a known temperature function f(R) and known characteristic and temperature-dependent factors, the temperature can be computed from a measurement of R. Suitable sensor materials include neodymium-doped borosilicate glass, accurate to [+-]0.5 C over an operating temperature range of about [minus]196 C to 400 C; and a mixture of D[sub 2]O and H[sub 2]O, accurate to [+-]0.1 C over an operating range of about 5 C to 90 C. 13 figs.

  19. Method and apparatus for optical temperature measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Rourke, Patrick E.; Livingston, Ronald R.; Prather, William S.

    1994-01-01

    A temperature probe and a method for using said probe for temperature measurements based on changes in light absorption by the probe. The probe comprises a first and a second optical fiber that carry light to and from the probe, and a temperature sensor material, the absorbance of which changes with temperature, through which the light is directed. Light is directed through the first optical fiber, passes through the temperature sensor material, and is transmitted by a second optical fiber from the material to a detector. Temperature-dependent and temperature-independent factors are derived from measurements of the transmitted light intensity. For each sensor material, the temperature T is a function of the ratio, R, of these factors. The temperature function f(R) is found by applying standard data analysis techniques to plots of T versus R at a series of known temperatures. For a sensor having a known temperature function f(R) and known characteristic and temperature-dependent factors, the temperature can be computed from a measurement of R. Suitable sensor materials include neodymium-doped boresilicate glass, accurate to .+-.0.5.degree. C. over an operating temperature range of about -196.degree. C. to 400.degree. C.; and a mixture of D.sub.2 O and H.sub.2 O, accurate to .+-.0.1.degree. C. over an operating range of about 5.degree. C. to 90.degree. C.

  20. Dynamic temperature measurements with embedded optical sensors...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A variety of static and dynamic measurements were performed to assess re ectance changes at di erent temperatures and pressures. Using a minimal optical model for gold, a plausible ...

  1. Downhole delay assembly for blasting with series delay

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ricketts, Thomas E. (Grand Junction, CO)

    1982-01-01

    A downhole delay assembly is provided which can be placed into a blasthole for initiation of explosive in the blasthole. The downhole delay assembly includes at least two detonating time delay devices in series in order to effect a time delay of longer than about 200 milliseconds in a round of explosions. The downhole delay assembly provides a protective housing to prevent detonation of explosive in the blasthole in response to the detonation of the first detonating time delay device. There is further provided a connection between the first and second time delay devices. The connection is responsive to the detonation of the first detonating time delay device and initiates the second detonating time delay device. A plurality of such downhole delay assemblies are placed downhole in unfragmented formation and are initiated simultaneously for providing a round of explosive expansions. The explosive expansions can be used to form an in situ oil shale retort containing a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles.

  2. Apparatus for responding to an anomalous change in downhole pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe; Wilde, Tyson; Barlow, Jonathan S.

    2010-04-13

    A method of responding to an anomalous change in downhole pressure in a bore hole comprises detecting the anomalous change in downhole pressure, sending a signal along the segmented electromagnetic transmission path, receiving the signal, and performing a automated response. The anomalous change in downhole pressure is detected at a first location along a segmented electromagnetic transmission path, and the segmented electromagnetic transmission path is integrated into the tool string. The signal is received by at least one receiver in communication with the segmented electromagnetic transmission path. The automated response is performed along the tool string. Disclosed is an apparatus for responding to an anomalous change in downhole pressure in a downhole tool string, comprising a segmented electromagnetic transmission path connecting one or more receivers and at least one pressure sensor.

  3. Method for bonding a transmission line to a downhole tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

    2007-11-06

    An apparatus for bonding a transmission line to the central bore of a downhole tool includes a pre-formed interface for bonding a transmission line to the inside diameter of a downhole tool. The pre-formed interface includes a first surface that substantially conforms to the outside contour of a transmission line and a second surface that substantially conforms to the inside diameter of a downhole tool. In another aspect of the invention, a method for bonding a transmission line to the inside diameter of a downhole tool includes positioning a transmission line near the inside wall of a downhole tool and placing a mold near the transmission line and the inside wall. The method further includes injecting a bonding material into the mold and curing the bonding material such that the bonding material bonds the transmission line to the inside wall.

  4. DOWNHOLE VIBRATION MONITORING & CONTROL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin E. Cobern

    2005-10-31

    The objective of this program is to develop a system to both monitor the vibration of a bottomhole assembly, and to adjust the properties of an active damper in response to these measured vibrations. Phase I of this program, which entailed modeling and design of the necessary subsystems and design, manufacture and test of a full laboratory prototype, was completed on May 31, 2004. The principal objectives of Phase II are: more extensive laboratory testing, including the evaluation of different feedback algorithms for control of the damper; design and manufacture of a field prototype system; and, testing of the field prototype in drilling laboratories and test wells. Work during this quarter centered on the rebuilding of the prototype using the improved valve design described in the Jan-March report1. Most of the components have been received and assembly was nearly complete at the end of the period. Testing started in October and results will be submitted in the next report. The field testing component of this Phase has been rethought. The current plan is to adapt the laboratory prototype for use in a drilling laboratory and run a series of controlled drilling tests with and without the DVMCS. This should give a more quantitative evaluation of its value, which will help us sign a commercialization partner. While this testing is underway, we will order and begin machining parts for full field prototypes to be use in Phase III. A modification application is being submitted in October to reflect these changes.

  5. DOWNHOLE VIBRATION MONITORING & CONTROL SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin E. Cobern

    2004-08-31

    The deep hard rock drilling environment induces severe vibrations into the drillstring, which can cause reduced rates of penetration (ROP) and premature failure of the equipment. The only current means of controlling vibration under varying conditions is to change either the rotary speed or the weight-on-bit (WOB). These changes often reduce drilling efficiency. Conventional shock subs are useful in some situations, but often exacerbate the problems. The objective of this project is development of a unique system to monitor and control drilling vibrations in a ''smart'' drilling system. This system has two primary elements: (1) The first is an active vibration damper (AVD) to minimize harmful axial, lateral and torsional vibrations. The hardness of this damper will be continuously adjusted using a robust, fast-acting and reliable unique technology. (2) The second is a real-time system to monitor drillstring vibration, and related parameters. This monitor adjusts the damper according to local conditions. In some configurations, it may also send diagnostic information to the surface via real-time telemetry. The AVD is implemented in a configuration using magnetorheological (MR) fluid. By applying a current to the magnetic coils in the damper, the viscosity of the fluid can be changed rapidly, thereby altering the damping coefficient in response to the measured motion of the tool. Phase I of this program entailed modeling and design of the necessary subsystems and design, manufacture and test of a full laboratory prototype. Phase I of the project was completed by the revised end date of May 31, 2004. The objectives of this phase were met, and all prerequisites for Phase II have been completed.

  6. Data Transmission System For A Downhole Component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David; Dahlgren, Scott; Sneddon, Cameron; Fox, Joe; Briscoe, Michael

    2005-01-18

    The invention is a system for transmitting data through a string of downhole components. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string. Each component has a first and second end, with a first communication element located at the first end and a second communication element located at the second end. Each communication element includes a first contact and a second contact. The system also includes a coaxial cable running between the first and second communication elements, the coaxial cable having a conductive tube and a conductive core within it. The system also includes a first and second connector for connecting the first and second communication elements respectively to the coaxial cable. Each connector includes a conductive sleeve, lying concentrically within the conductive tube, which fits around and makes electrical contact with the conductive core. The conductive sleeve is electrically isolated from the conductive tube. The conductive sleeve of the first connector is in electrical contact with the first contact of the first communication element, the conductive sleeve of the second connector is in electrical contact with the first contact of the second communication element, and the conductive tube is in electrical contact with both the second contact of the first communication element and the second contact of the second communication element.

  7. Data transmission system for a downhole component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., Tracy H.; Pixton, David S.; Dahlgren, Scott Steven; Fox, Joe; Sneddon, Cameron; Briscoe, Michael A.

    2006-05-09

    The invention is a system for transmitting data through a string of downhole components. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string. Each component has a first and second end, with a first communication element located at the first end and a second communication element located at the second end. Each communication element includes a first contact and a second contact. The system also includes a coaxial cable running between the first and second communication elements, the coaxial cable having a conductive tube and a conductive core within it. The system also includes a first and second connector for connecting the first and second communication elements respectively to the coaxial cable. Each connector includes a conductive sleeve, lying concentrically within the conductive tube, which fits around and makes electrical contact with the conductive core. The conductive sleeve is electrically isolated from the conductive tube. The conductive sleeve of the first connector is in electrical contact with the first contact of the first communication element, the conductive sleeve of the second connector is in electrical contact with the first contact of the second communication element, and the conductive tube is in electrical contact with both the second contact of the first communication element and the second contact of the second communication element.

  8. Complete Fiber/Copper Cable Solution for Long-Term Temperature and Pressure Measurement in Supercritical Reservoirs and EGS Wells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: 1. Optical fibers that resist hydrogen darkeningŽ for several months instead of hours and days at 300 deg. C and higher. 2. Tube encapsulated cable (TEC) construction that functions as a distributed temperature sensor (DTS) and a power source for a downhole pressure sensor.

  9. Apparatus and method for high temperature viscosity and temperature measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Shah, Vimal; Costley, R. Daniel; Singh, Jagdish P.

    2001-01-01

    A probe for measuring the viscosity and/or temperature of high temperature liquids, such as molten metals, glass and similar materials comprises a rod which is an acoustical waveguide through which a transducer emits an ultrasonic signal through one end of the probe, and which is reflected from (a) a notch or slit or an interface between two materials of the probe and (b) from the other end of the probe which is in contact with the hot liquid or hot melt, and is detected by the same transducer at the signal emission end. To avoid the harmful effects of introducing a thermally conductive heat sink into the melt, the probe is made of relatively thermally insulative (non-heat-conductive) refractory material. The time between signal emission and reflection, and the amplitude of reflections, are compared against calibration curves to obtain temperature and viscosity values.

  10. Dual neutron flux/temperature measurement sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mihalczo, J.T.; Simpson, M.L.; McElhaney, S.A.

    1994-10-04

    Simultaneous measurement of neutron flux and temperature is provided by a single sensor which includes a phosphor mixture having two principal constituents. The first constituent is a neutron sensitive 6LiF and the second is a rare-earth activated Y203 thermophosphor. The mixture is coated on the end of a fiber optic, while the opposite end of the fiber optic is coupled to a light detector. The detected light scintillations are quantified for neutron flux determination, and the decay is measured for temperature determination. 3 figs.

  11. Deep Downhole Seismic Testing for Earthquake Engineering Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stokoe, Kenneth H.; Li, Song Cheng; Cox, Brady R.; Menq, Farn-Yuh; Rohay, Alan C.

    2008-10-17

    Downhole seismic testing is one field test that is commonly used to determine compression-wave (P) and shear-wave (S) velocity profiles in geotechnical earthquake engineering investigations. These profiles are required input in evaluations of the responses to earthquake shaking of geotechnical sites and structures at these sites. In the past, traditional downhole testing has generally involved profiling in the 30- to 150-m depth range. As the number of field seismic investigations at locations with critical facilities has increased, profiling depths have also increased. An improved downhole test that can be used for wave velocity profiling to depths of 300 to 600 m or more is presented.

  12. Signal connection for a downhole tool string

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Bradford, Kline; Fox, Joe; Briscoe, Michael

    2006-08-29

    A signal transmission connection for a tool string used in exploration and production of natural resources, namely: oil, gas, and geothermal energy resources. The connection comprises first and second annular elements deployed in cooperative association with each other. The respective elements comprise inductive transducers that are capable of two-way signal transmission between each other, with downhole components of the tool string, and with ground-level equipment. The respective inductive transducers comprise one or more conductive loops housed within ferrite troughs, or within ferrite trough segments. When energized, the conductive loops produce a magnetic field suitable for transmitting the signal. The second element may be rotational in drilling applications. The respective elements may be fitted with electronic equipment to aid and manipulate the transmission of the signal. The first element may also be in communication with the World Wide Web.

  13. Temperature measurements of shocked silica aerogel foam

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Falk, K.; McCoy, C. A.; Fryer, C. L.; Greeff, C. W.; Hungerford, A. L.; Montgomery, D. S.; Schmidt, D. W.; Sheppard, D. G.; Williams, J. R.; Boehly, T. R.; et al

    2014-09-12

    We present recent results of equation-of-state (EOS) measurements of shocked silica (SiO2) aerogel foam at the OMEGA laser facility. Silica aerogel is an important low-density pressure standard used in many high energy density experiments, including the novel technique of shock and release. Due to its many applications, it has been a heavily studied material and has a well-known Hugoniot curve. This work then complements the velocity and pressure measurements with additional temperature data providing the full EOS information within the warm dense matter regime for the temperature interval of 1–15 eV and shock velocities between 10 and 40 km/s correspondingmore » to shock pressures of 0.3–2 Mbar. The experimental results were compared with hydrodynamic simulations and EOS models. We found that the measured temperature was systematically lower than suggested by theoretical calculations. As a result, simulations provide a possible explanation that the emission measured by optical pyrometry comes from a radiative precursor rather than from the shock front, which could have important implications for such measurements.« less

  14. Hydrogen atom temperature measured with wavelength-modulated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hydrogen atom temperature measured with wavelength-modulated laser absorption spectroscopy ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hydrogen atom temperature measured with ...

  15. Line spectrum and ion temperature measurements from tungsten...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Line spectrum and ion temperature measurements from tungsten ions at low ionization stages ... Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Line spectrum and ion temperature measurements ...

  16. In-situ Thermal Strain and Temperature Measurement and Modeling...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thermal Strain and Temperature Measurement and Modeling during Arc Welding Citation Details In-Document Search Title: In-situ Thermal Strain and Temperature Measurement and ...

  17. Continuous chain bit with downhole cycling capability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ritter, Don F. (Albuquerque, NM); St. Clair, Jack A. (Albuquerque, NM); Togami, Henry K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1983-01-01

    A continuous chain bit for hard rock drilling is capable of downhole cycling. A drill head assembly moves axially relative to a support body while the chain on the head assembly is held in position so that the bodily movement of the chain cycles the chain to present new composite links for drilling. A pair of spring fingers on opposite sides of the chain hold the chain against movement. The chain is held in tension by a spring-biased tensioning bar. A head at the working end of the chain supports the working links. The chain is centered by a reversing pawl and piston actuated by the pressure of the drilling mud. Detent pins lock the head assembly with respect to the support body and are also operated by the drilling mud pressure. A restricted nozzle with a divergent outlet sprays drilling mud into the cavity to remove debris. Indication of the centered position of the chain is provided by noting a low pressure reading indicating proper alignment of drilling mud slots on the links with the corresponding feed branches.

  18. Apparatus for accurately measuring high temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, D.D.

    The present invention is a thermometer used for measuring furnace temperatures in the range of about 1800/sup 0/ to 2700/sup 0/C. The thermometer comprises a broadband multicolor thermal radiation sensor positioned to be in optical alignment with the end of a blackbody sight tube extending into the furnace. A valve-shutter arrangement is positioned between the radiation sensor and the sight tube and a chamber for containing a charge of high pressure gas is positioned between the valve-shutter arrangement and the radiation sensor. A momentary opening of the valve shutter arrangement allows a pulse of the high gas to purge the sight tube of air-borne thermal radiation contaminants which permits the radiation sensor to accurately measure the thermal radiation emanating from the end of the sight tube.

  19. Strength and Debye temperature measurements of cerium across...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    temperature measurements of cerium across the gamma - alpha volume collapse: the lattice contribution Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Strength and Debye temperature ...

  20. Development of Tools for Measuring Temperature, Flow, Pressure...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tools for Measuring Temperature, Flow, Pressure, and Seismicity of EGS Reservoirs 300 C Capable Electronics Platform and Temperature Sensor System for Enhanced Geothermal ...

  1. Hybrid fs/ps Rotational CARS Temperature and Concentration Measurement...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Temperature and Concentration Measurements Using Two Different ps-Duration Probe Beams. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hybrid fsps Rotational CARS Temperature and ...

  2. Device for self-verifying temperature measurement and control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watkins, Arthur D.; Cannon, Collins P.; Tolle, Charles R.

    2004-08-03

    A measuring instrument includes a first temperature sensor, a second temperature sensor and circuitry. The first and second temperature sensors each generate a signal indicative of the temperature of a medium being detected. The circuitry is configured to activate verification of temperature being sensed with the first sensor. According to one construction, the first temperature sensor comprises at least one thermocouple temperature sensor and the second temperature sensor comprises an optical temperature sensor, each sensor measuring temperature over the same range of temperature, but using a different physical phenomena. Also according to one construction, the circuitry comprises a computer configured to detect failure of one of the thermocouples by comparing temperature of the optical temperature sensor with each of the thermocouple temperature sensors. Even further, an output control signal is generated via a fuzzy inference machine and control apparatus.

  3. Downhole steam generator with improved preheating, combustion, and protection features

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, R.L.

    1981-01-07

    For tertiary oil recovery, a downhole steam generator is designed which provides for efficient counterflow cooling of the combustion chamber walls and preheating of the fuel and water. Pressure-responsive doors are provided for closing and opening the outlet in response to flameout, thereby preventing flooding of the combustion chamber. (DLC)

  4. Fabrication, assembly, bench and drilling tests of two prototype downhole pneumatic turbine motors: Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bookwalter, R.; Duettra, P.D.; Johnson, P.; Lyons, W.C.; Miska, S.

    1987-04-01

    The first and second prototype downhole pneumatic turbine motors have been fabricated, assembled and tested. All bench tests showed that the motor will produce horsepower and bit speeds approximating the predicted values. Specifically, the downhole pneumatic turbine motor produced approximately 50 horsepower at 100 rpm, while being supplied with about 3600 SCFM of compressed air. The first prototype was used in a drilling test from a depth of 389 feet to a depth of 789 feet in the Kirtland formation. This first prototype motor drilled at a rate exceeding 180 ft/hr, utilizing only 3000 SCFM of compressed air. High temperature tests (at approximately 460/sup 0/F) were carried out on the thrust assembly and the gearboxes for the two prototypes. These components operated successfully at these temperatures. Although the bench and drilling tests were successful, the tests revealed design changes that should be made before drilling tests are carried out in geothermal boreholes at the Geysers area, near Santa Rosa, California.

  5. Energy Storage and Generation for Extreme Temperature and Pressure and Directional Measurement While Drilling Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Signorelli, Riccardo; Cooley, John

    2015-10-14

    FastCAP Systems Corporation has successfully completed all milestones defined by the award DE-EE0005503. Under this program, FastCAP developed three critical subassemblies to TRL3 demonstrating proof of concept of a geothermal MWD power source. This power source includes an energy harvester, electronics and a novel high temperature ultracapacitor (“ultracap”) rechargeable energy storage device suitable for geothermal exploration applications. FastCAP’s ruggedized ultracapacitor (ultracap) technology has been proven and commercialized in oil and gas exploration operating to rated temperatures of 150°C. Characteristics of this technology are that it is rechargeable and relatively high power. This technology was the basis for the advancements in rechargeable energy storage under this project. The ultracap performs reliably at 250°C and beyond and operates over a wide operating temperature range: -5°C to 250°C. The ultracap has significantly higher power density than lithium thionyl chloride batteries, a non-rechargeable incumbent used in oil and gas drilling today. Several hermetically sealed, prototype devices were tested in our laboratories at constant temperatures of 250°C showing no significant degradation over 2000 hours of operation. Other prototypes were tested at Sandia National Lab in the month of April, 2015 for a third party performance validation. These devices showed outstanding performance over 1000 hours of operation at three rated temperatures, 200°C, 225°C and 250°C, with negligible capacitance degradation and minimal equivalent series resistance (ESR) increase. Similarly, FastCAP’s ruggedized electronics have been proven and commercialized in oil and gas exploration operating to rated temperatures of 150°C. This technology was the basis for the advancements in downhole electronics under this project. Principal contributions here focused on design for manufacture innovations that have reduced the prototype build cycle time by a factor of 10x. The electronics have demonstrated a substantially reduced design cycle time by way of process and material selection innovations and have been qualified for 250°C / 10 Grms for at least 200 hours. FastCAP has also invented a rotary inertial energy generator (RIEG) to harvest various mechanical energy sources that exist downhole. This device is flow-independent and has been demonstrated as a proof of concept to survive geothermal well temperatures under this project. The herein energy harvester has been developed to provide operational power by harvesting rotational mechanical energy that exists downhole in geothermal drilling. The energy harvester has been tested at 250°C / 10 Grms for 200 hours. Deployment of these technologies in geothermal drilling and exploration applications could have an immediate and significant impact on the effectiveness and efficiency of drilling processes, particularly with regard to use of advanced logging and monitoring techniques. The ultimate goal of this work is to reduce drilling risk to make geothermal energy more attractive and viable to the customer. Generally speaking, we aim to support the transfer of MWD techniques from oil and gas to geothermal exploration with considerations toward the practical differences between the two. One of the most significant obstacles to the deployment of advanced drilling and production techniques in the geothermal context are limitations related to the maximum operating temperatures of downhole batteries used to provide power for downhole sensors, steering tools, telemetry equipment and other MWD/LWD technologies. FastCAP’s higher temperature ultracapacitor technology will provide power solutions for similar advanced drilling and production techniques, even in the harsher environments associated with geothermal energy production. This ultracapacitor will enable downhole power solutions for the geothermal industry capable of the same reliable and safe operation our team has demonstrated in the oil and gas context. Without batteries, geothermal MWD is left without a downhole power source. Some very high temperature turbines exist but provide unsteady, intermittent power and no power when the flow is off. In high loss formations common to geothermal exploration, it will be auspicious to support air drilling in which case there is no flow to power a turbine at all. In the best case, rechargeable energy storage will help to buffer unsteady power from non-battery power sources and in the worst case it will be needed to store energy from highly intermittent sources to provide a continuously operable power source to the tool.

  6. Refractory thermowell for continuous high temperature measurement of molten metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thiesen, Todd J.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for the continuous high temperature measurement of materials in vessels lined with rammed or cast refractory materials. A refractory housing member is integral with the refractory lining of the vessel and contains a plurality of high temperature sensing means, such as thermocouples. A face of the housing is flush with the refractory lining and contacts the high temperature material contained in the vessel. Continuous temperature measurement is achieved by a means which is coupled to the thermocouples for indicating the temperature.

  7. ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY WITH DOWNHOLE VIBRATION STIMULATION IN OSAGE COUNTY OKLAHOMA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Westermark; J. Ford Brett

    2003-11-01

    This Final Report covers the entire project from July 13, 2000 to June 30, 2003. The report summarizes the details of the work done on the project entitled ''Enhanced Oil Recovery with Downhole Vibration Stimulation in Osage County Oklahoma'' under DOE Contract Number DE-FG26-00BC15191. The project was divided into nine separate tasks. This report is written in an effort to document the lessons learned during the completion of each task. Therefore each task will be discussed as the work evolved for that task throughout the duration of the project. Most of the tasks are being worked on simultaneously, but certain tasks were dependent on earlier tasks being completed. During the three years of project activities, twelve quarterly technical reports were submitted for the project. Many individual topic and task specific reports were included as appendices in the quarterly reports. Ten of these reports have been included as appendices to this final report. Two technical papers, which were written and accepted by the Society of Petroleum Engineers, have also been included as appendices. The three primary goals of the project were to build a downhole vibration tool (DHVT) to be installed in seven inch casing, conduct a field test of vibration stimulation in a mature waterflooded field and evaluate the effects of the vibration on both the produced fluid characteristics and injection well performance. The field test results are as follows: In Phase I of the field test the DHVT performed exceeding well, generating strong clean signals on command and as designed. During this phase Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory had installed downhole geophones and hydrophones to monitor the signal generated by the downhole vibrator. The signals recorded were strong and clear. Phase II was planned to be ninety-day reservoir stimulation field test. This portion of the field tests was abruptly ended after one week of operations, when the DHVT became stuck in the well during a routine removal activity. The tool cannot operate in this condition and remains in the well. There was no response measured during or afterwards to either the produced fluids from the five production wells or in the injection characteristics of the two injection wells in the pilot test area. Monitoring the pilot area injection and production wells ceased when the field test was terminated March 14, 2003. Thus, a key goal of this project, which was to determine the effects of vibration stimulation on improving oil recovery from a mature waterflood, was not obtained. While there was no improved oil recovery effect measured, there was insufficient vibration stimulation time to expect a change to occur. No conclusion can be drawn about the effectiveness of vibration stimulation in this test.

  8. High-Temperature Downhole MWD Tools for Directional Drilling...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Total Project Cost OM-300 - MWD Geothermal Navigation Instrument Washington Honeywell International Inc. Recovery Act: Enhanced Geothermal Systems Component Research and...

  9. Microsoft Word - NETL-TRS-X-2014_Development of Fiber Optic Sensors for Downhole pH_final_20150723.docx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Development of Fiber Optic Sensors for Downhole pH Measurement 23 July 2015 Office of Fossil Energy NETL-TRS-7-2015 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or

  10. Enhanced Oil Recovery with Downhole Vibrations Stimulation in Osage County, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Ford Brett; Robert V. Westermark

    2001-09-30

    This Technical Quarterly Report is for the reporting period July 1, 2001 to September 30, 2001. The report provides details of the work done on the project entitled ''Enhanced Oil Recovery with Downhole Vibration Stimulation in Osage County Oklahoma''. The project is divided into nine separate tasks. Several of the tasks are being worked on simultaneously, while other tasks are dependent on earlier tasks being completed. The vibration stimulation well is permitted as Well 111-W-27, section 8 T26N R6E Osage County Oklahoma. It was spud July 28, 2001 with Goober Drilling Rig No. 3. The well was drilled to 3090-feet cored, logged, cased and cemented. The Rig No.3 moved off August 6, 2001. Phillips Petroleum Co. has begun analyzing the cores recovered from the test well. Standard porosity, permeability and saturation measurements will be conducted. They will then begin the sonic stimulation core tests Calumet Oil Company, the operator of the NBU, has begun to collect both production and injection wells information to establish a baseline for the project in the pilot field test area. Green Country Submersible Pump Company, a subsidiary of Calumet Oil Company, will provide both the surface equipment and downhole tools to allow the Downhole Vibration Tool to be operated by a surface rod rotating system. The 7-inch Downhole Vibration Tool (DHVT) has been built and is ready for initial shallow testing. The shallow testing will be done in a temporarily abandoned well operated by Calumet Oil Co. in the Wynona waterflood unit. The data acquisition doghouse and rod rotating equipment have been placed on location in anticipation of the shallow test in Well No.20-12 Wynona Waterflood Unit. A notice of invention disclosure was submitted to the DOE Chicago Operations Office. DOE Case No.S-98,124 has been assigned to follow the documentation following the invention disclosure. A paper covering the material presented to the Oklahoma Geologic Survey (OGS)/DOE Annual Workshop in Oklahoma City May 8,9 2001 has been submitted for publication to the OGS. A technical paper draft has been submitted for the ASME/ETCE conference (Feb 2002) Production Technology Symposium. A one-day SPE sponsored short course which is planned to cover seismic stimulation efforts around the world, will be offered at the SPE/DOE Thirteenth Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery in Tulsa, OK, April 13-17, 2002. Dan Maloney, Phillips and Bob Westermark, OGCI will be the instructors. In addition, a proposed technical paper has been submitted for this meeting.

  11. Operating and maintenance benefits of automated oven wall temperature measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leuchtmann, K.P.; Hinz, D.; Bergbau, D.; Platts, M.

    1997-12-31

    For a very long time and regardless of all shortcomings associated with it, the manual measurement of the heating flue temperature has been the only method of monitoring the temperature prevailing in a coke oven battery and discovering weak points in the heating system. In the course of the last few years a number of automated temperature measuring systems have been developed that are intended to replace or supplement the manual heating flue measurement system. These measuring systems and their advantages/disadvantages are briefly described in this paper. Additionally, operational experience gathered with the oven chamber wall temperature measuring system is discussed in detail.

  12. Fracture porosimeter--a new tool for determining fracture conductivity under downhole stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wedorff, C.L.

    1982-09-01

    This paper describes a new, fast, simplified procedure for determining fracture conductivity at downhole stresses. The embedment and crushing of proppant between rock samples from a specific formation are measured at closure stresses. The conductivities of fractures propped with various proppants can be determined rather quickly. As a result, the procedure can supply information useful in determining optimum fracture treatment for a specific well. In the new procedure, samples of formation and proppants are placed in an appropriate confinement chamber. Closure stresses are applied and fracture conductivity can be calculated. A proppant data base obtained using a modified Cooke conductivity test unit includes permeabilities, porosities and fracture widths measured over a range of closure stresses. These properties are dependent upon the type and amount of proppant tested and the stress applied. The paper includes examples of permeability and surface areas of conventional proppants. Fracture conductivity determinations, made with a variety of formations and proppants, indicate how this procedure can be useful when making decisions concerning fracture treatment design. An improvement in equipment design is also presented. The use of a Hoek triaxial cell as a fracture porosimeter allows the application of both closure and confining stresses, thus more closely simulating downhole conditions.

  13. Development of Tools for Measuring Temperature, Flow, Pressure, and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Seismicity of EGS Reservoirs … 300 °C Capable Electronics Platform and Temperature Sensor System for Enhanced Geothermal Systems; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report | Department of Energy Tools for Measuring Temperature, Flow, Pressure, and Seismicity of EGS Reservoirs … 300 °C Capable Electronics Platform and Temperature Sensor System for Enhanced Geothermal Systems; 2010 Geothermal Technology Program Peer Review Report Development of Tools for Measuring Temperature,

  14. Drilling jar for use in a downhole network

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe; McPherson, James; Pixton, David S.; Briscoe, Michael

    2006-01-31

    Apparatus and methods for integrating transmission cable into the body of selected downhole tools, such as drilling jars, having variable or changing lengths. A wired downhole-drilling tool is disclosed in one embodiment of the invention as including a housing and a mandrel insertable into the housing. A coiled cable is enclosed within the housing and has a first end connected to the housing and a second end connected to the mandrel. The coiled cable is configured to stretch and shorten in accordance with axial movement between the housing and the mandrel. A clamp is used to fix the coiled cable with respect to the housing, the mandrel, or both, to accommodate a change of tension in the coiled cable.

  15. Posters Comparisons of Brightness Temperature Measurements and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    radiometric observations of atmospheric emission and attenuation at 20.6, 31.65, and 90 GHz: A comparison of measurements and theory. IEEE Trans. Antennas Prop. AP-38:1569...

  16. Apparatus and method for downhole injection of radioactive tracer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Potter, R.M.; Archuleta, J.; Fink, C.F.

    The disclosure relates to downhole injection of radioactive /sup 82/Br and monitoring its progress through fractured structure to determine the nature thereof. An ampule containing granular /sup 82/Br is remotely crushed and water is repeatedly flushed through it to cleanse the instrument as well as inject the /sup 82/Br into surrounding fractured strata. A sensor in a remote horehole reads progress of the radioactive material through fractured structure.

  17. Apparatus and method for downhole injection of radioactive tracer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Potter, Robert M.; Archuleta, Jacobo R.; Fink, Conrad F.

    1983-01-01

    The disclosure relates to downhole injection of radioactive .sup.82 Br and monitoring its progress through fractured structure to determine the nature thereof. An ampule containing granular .sup.82 Br is remotely crushed and water is repeatedly flushed through it to cleanse the instrument as well as inject the .sup.82 Br into surrounding fractured strata. A sensor in a remote borehole reads progress of the radioactive material through fractured structure.

  18. Use of Downhole Motors in Geothermal Drilling in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pyle, D. E.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the use of downhole motors in the Tiwi geothermal field in the Philippines, The discussion includes the application Of a Dyna-Drill with insert-type bits for drilling through surface alluvium. The economics of this type of drilling are compared to those of conventional rotary drilling. The paper also describes the use of a turbodrill that drills out scale as the well produces geothermal fluids.

  19. High power laser downhole cutting tools and systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Faircloth, Brian O; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F

    2015-01-20

    Downhole cutting systems, devices and methods for utilizing 10 kW or more laser energy transmitted deep into the earth with the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena. Systems and devices for the laser cutting operations within a borehole in the earth. These systems and devices can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perform cutting operations in such boreholes deep within the earth.

  20. System for loading executable code into volatile memory in a downhole tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Bartholomew, David B.; Johnson, Monte L.

    2007-09-25

    A system for loading an executable code into volatile memory in a downhole tool string component comprises a surface control unit comprising executable code. An integrated downhole network comprises data transmission elements in communication with the surface control unit and the volatile memory. The executable code, stored in the surface control unit, is not permanently stored in the downhole tool string component. In a preferred embodiment of the present invention, the downhole tool string component comprises boot memory. In another embodiment, the executable code is an operating system executable code. Preferably, the volatile memory comprises random access memory (RAM). A method for loading executable code to volatile memory in a downhole tool string component comprises sending the code from the surface control unit to a processor in the downhole tool string component over the network. A central processing unit writes the executable code in the volatile memory.

  1. Temperature coefficients for PV modules and arrays: Measurement...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    methods, difficulties, and results King, D.L.; Kratochvil, J.A.; Boyson, W.E. 14 SOLAR ENERGY; SOLAR CELL ARRAYS; SOLAR CELLS; MEASURING METHODS; TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE;...

  2. Active radiometer for self-calibrated furnace temperature measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, Paul P.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Titus, Charles H.; Wittle, J. Kenneth; Surma, Jeffrey E.

    1996-01-01

    Radiometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The radiometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/submillimeter-wave receiver including a millimeter/submillimeter-wave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement.

  3. Multipurpose Acoustic Sensor for Downhole Fluid Monitoring

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Novel sensor design based on acoustics. Determine in real-timeand in a single sensor packagemultiple parameters: temperature, pressure, fluid flow; and fluid properties, such as density, viscosity, fluid composition.

  4. Behavior of a hollow core photonic crystal fiber under high radial pressure for downhole application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sadeghi, J., E-mail: j-sadeghi@sbu.ac.ir; Chenari, Z.; Ziaee, F. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, 1983963113 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Latifi, H., E-mail: latifi@sbu.ac.ir [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, 1983963113 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Shahid Beheshti University, Evin, 1983963113 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Santos, J. L., E-mail: josantos@fc.up.pt [INESC PortoInstituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Departamento de Fsica, da Faculdade de Cincias, da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2014-02-17

    Pressure fiber sensors play an important role in downhole high pressure measurements to withstand long term operation. The purpose of this paper is to present an application of hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) as a high pressure sensor head for downhole application based on dispersion variation. We used a high pressure stainless steel unit to exert pressure on the sensor. The experimental results show that different wavelengths based on sagnac loop interferometer have additive sensitivities from 5??10{sup ?5}?nm/psi at 1480?nm to 1.3??10{sup ?3}?nm/psi at 1680?nm. We developed a simulation to understand the reason for difference in sensitivity of wavelengths and also the relationship between deformation of HC-PCF and dispersion variation under pressure. For this purpose, by using the finite element method, we investigated the effect of structural variation of HC-PCF on spectral transformation of two linear polarizations under 1000?psi pressure. The simulation and experimental results show exponential decay behavior of dispersion variation from ?3.4??10{sup ?6} 1/psi to ?1.3??10{sup ?6} 1/psi and from ?5??10{sup ?6} 1/psi to ?1.8??10{sup ?6} 1/psi, respectively, which were in a good accordance with each other.

  5. Design of a Geothermal Downhole Magnetic Flowmeter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glowka, Dave A.; Normann, Randy A.

    2015-06-15

    This paper covers the development of a 300°C geothermal solid-state magnetic flowmeter (or magmeter) to support in situ monitoring of future EGS (enhanced geothermal system) production wells. Existing flowmeters are simple mechanical spinner sensors. These mechanical sensors fail within as little as 10 hrs, while a solid-state magmeter has the potential for months/years of operation. The design and testing of a magnetic flow sensor for use with existing high-temperature electronics is presented.

  6. Harsh-Environment Solid-State Gamma Detector for Down-hole Gas and Oil Exploration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Sandvik; Stanislav Soloviev; Emad Andarawis; Ho-Young Cha; Jim Rose; Kevin Durocher; Robert Lyons; Bob Pieciuk; Jim Williams; David O'Connor

    2007-08-10

    The goal of this program was to develop a revolutionary solid-state gamma-ray detector suitable for use in down-hole gas and oil exploration. This advanced detector would employ wide-bandgap semiconductor technology to extend the gamma sensor's temperature capability up to 200 C as well as extended reliability, which significantly exceeds current designs based on photomultiplier tubes. In Phase II, project tasks were focused on optimization of the final APD design, growing and characterizing the full scintillator crystals of the selected composition, arranging the APD device packaging, developing the needed optical coupling between scintillator and APD, and characterizing the combined elements as a full detector system preparing for commercialization. What follows is a summary report from the second 18-month phase of this program.

  7. Temperature measurement method using temperature coefficient timing for resistive or capacitive sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Britton, Jr., Charles L.; Ericson, M. Nance

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for temperature measurement especially suited for low cost, low power, moderate accuracy implementation. It uses a sensor whose resistance varies in a known manner, either linearly or nonlinearly, with temperature, and produces a digital output which is proportional to the temperature of the sensor. The method is based on performing a zero-crossing time measurement of a step input signal that is double differentiated using two differentiators functioning as respective first and second time constants; one temperature stable, and the other varying with the sensor temperature.

  8. Temperature measurement method using temperature coefficient timing for resistive or capacitive sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Britton, C.L. Jr.; Ericson, M.N.

    1999-01-19

    A method and apparatus for temperature measurement especially suited for low cost, low power, moderate accuracy implementation. It uses a sensor whose resistance varies in a known manner, either linearly or nonlinearly, with temperature, and produces a digital output which is proportional to the temperature of the sensor. The method is based on performing a zero-crossing time measurement of a step input signal that is double differentiated using two differentiators functioning as respective first and second time constants; one temperature stable, and the other varying with the sensor temperature. 5 figs.

  9. Inductive coupler for downhole components and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Dahlgren, Scott; Sneddon, Cameron; Fox, Joe; Briscoe, Michael A.

    2006-10-03

    An inductive coupler for downhole components. The inductive coupler includes an annular housing having a recess defined by a bottom portion and two opposing side wall portions. At least one side wall portion includes a lip extending toward but not reaching the other side wall portion. A plurality of generally U-shaped MCEI segments, preferably comprised of ferrite, are disposed in the recess and aligned so as to form a circular trough. The coupler further includes a conductor disposed within the circular trough and a polymer filling spaces between the segments, the annular housing and the conductor.

  10. Scanning optical pyrometer for measuring temperatures in hollow cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polk, J. E.; Marrese-Reading, C. M.; Thornber, B.; Dang, L.; Johnson, L. K.; Katz, I.

    2007-09-15

    Life-limiting processes in hollow cathodes are determined largely by the temperature of the electron emitter. To support cathode life assessment, a noncontact temperature measurement technique which employs a stepper motor-driven fiber optic probe was developed. The probe is driven inside the hollow cathode and collects light radiated by the hot interior surface of the emitter. Ratio pyrometry is used to determine the axial temperature profile. Thermocouples on the orifice plate provide measurements of the external temperature during cathode operation and are used to calibrate the pyrometer system in situ with a small oven enclosing the externally heated cathode. The diagnostic method and initial measurements of the temperature distribution in a hollow cathode are discussed.

  11. Active radiometer for self-calibrated furnace temperature measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, P.P.; Cohn, D.R.; Titus, C.H.; Wittle, J.K.; Surma, J.E.

    1996-11-12

    A radiometer is described with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The radiometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/submillimeter-wave receiver including a millimeter/submillimeter-wave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement. 5 figs.

  12. Hybrid fs/ps Rotational CARS Temperature and Concentration Measurements

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Using Two Different ps-Duration Probe Beams. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Hybrid fs/ps Rotational CARS Temperature and Concentration Measurements Using Two Different ps-Duration Probe Beams. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hybrid fs/ps Rotational CARS Temperature and Concentration Measurements Using Two Different ps-Duration Probe Beams. Authors: Kearney, Sean P. ; Scoglietti, Daniel ; Kliewer, Christopher Jesse [1] + Show Author Affiliations (Sandia National Laboratories,

  13. Hydrogen atom temperature measured with wavelength-modulated laser

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    absorption spectroscopy in large scale filament arc negative hydrogen ion source (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Hydrogen atom temperature measured with wavelength-modulated laser absorption spectroscopy in large scale filament arc negative hydrogen ion source Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hydrogen atom temperature measured with wavelength-modulated laser absorption spectroscopy in large scale filament arc negative hydrogen ion source The velocity distribution function of

  14. Internal field, density & temperature measurements in MTF plasmas using

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Pulsed Polarimetry (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Internal field, density & temperature measurements in MTF plasmas using Pulsed Polarimetry Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Internal field, density & temperature measurements in MTF plasmas using Pulsed Polarimetry final report Authors: Smith, Roger J. Publication Date: 2014-08-11 OSTI Identifier: 1149491 Report Number(s): 001 DOE Contract Number: SC0002396 Resource Type: Technical Report Research

  15. Reflectance spectroscopy for high-speed temperature measurements.

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Conference: Reflectance spectroscopy for high-speed temperature measurements. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reflectance spectroscopy for high-speed temperature measurements. Abstract not provided. Authors: Dolan, Daniel H., ; Seagle, Christopher T ; Ao, Tommy ; Herrmann, Mark Publication Date: 2013-05-01 OSTI Identifier: 1106087 Report Number(s): SAND2013-3898C 465305 DOE Contract Number: AC04-94AL85000 Resource Type:

  16. Dynamic temperature measurements with embedded optical sensors. (Technical

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report) | SciTech Connect Dynamic temperature measurements with embedded optical sensors. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dynamic temperature measurements with embedded optical sensors. × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology.

  17. Fracture porosimeter: a new tool for determining fracture conductivity under downhole stress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendorff, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    This work describes a procedure for determining fracture conductivity at down-hole stresses. The embedment and crushing of proppant between rock samples from a specific formation are measured at closure stresses. The conductivities of fractures propped with various proppants can be determined rather quickly. As a result, the procedure can supply information useful in determining optimum fracture treatment for a specific well. In the procedure, samples of formation and proppants are placed in an appropriate confinement chamber. Closure stresses are applied and fracture conductivity can be calculated. The study includes examples of permeability and surface areas of conventional proppants. Fracture conductivity determinations, made with a variety of formations and proppants, indicate how this procedure can be useful when making decisions concerning fracture treatment design. An improvement in equipment design also is presented. 11 references.

  18. Enhanced Oil Recovery with Downhole Vibration Stimulation in Osage County, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Ford Brett; Robert V. Westermark

    2002-06-30

    This Technical Quarterly Report is for the reporting period March 31, 2002 to June 30, 2002. The report provides details of the work done on the project entitled ''Enhanced Oil Recovery with Downhole Vibration Stimulation in Osage County Oklahoma''. The project is divided into nine separate tasks. Several of the tasks are being worked on simultaneously, while other tasks are dependent on earlier tasks being completed. The vibration stimulation Well 111-W-27 is located in section 8 T26N R6E of the North Burbank Unit (NBU), Osage County Oklahoma. It was drilled to 3090-feet cored, logged, cased and cemented. The rig moved off August 6, 2001. Phillips Petroleum Co. has performed several core studies on the cores recovered from the test well. Standard porosity, permeability and saturation measurements have been conducted. In addition Phillips has prepared a Core Petrology Report, detailing the lithology, stratigraphy and sedimentology for Well 111-W27, NBU. Phillips has also conducted the sonic stimulation core tests, the final sonic stimulation report has not yet been released. Calumet Oil Company, the operator of the NBU, began collecting both production and injection wells information to establish a baseline for the project in the pilot field test area since May 2001. The original 7-inch Downhole Vibration Tool (DHVT) has been thoroughly tested and it has been concluded that it needs to be redesigned. An engineering firm from Fayetteville AR has been retained to assist in developing a new design for the DHVT. The project participants requested from the DOE, a no-cost extension for the project through December 31, 2002. The no-cost extension amendment to the contract was signed during this reporting period. A technical paper SPE 75254 ''Enhanced Oil Recovery with Downhole Vibration Stimulation, Osage County, Oklahoma'' was presented at the 2002 SPE/DOE Thirteenth Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, in Tulsa OK, April 17, 2002. A one-day short course was conducted at the SPE/DOE Thirteenth Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery in Tulsa, OK, April 13-14, 2002. Dan Maloney, Phillips and Bob Westermark, OGCI, Brett Davidson and Tim Spanos, Prism Production Technologies, were the instructors. The sixteen attendees also participated in the half-day field trip to the test facility near Tulsa.

  19. DOWNHOLE POWER GENERATION AND WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS FOR INTELLIGENT COMPLETIONS APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Tubel

    2003-07-05

    The third quarter of the project was dedicated to creating the detailed design for the manufacturing of the mechanical system for wireless communications and the power generation module. Another emphasis for the quarter was the development of the surface system and acoustic detector for the downhole tool for 2 way communications. The tasks accomplished during this report period were: (1) All detailed drawings for manufacturing of the wireless communications gauge and power generator were completed and the drawings were forward to a machine shop for manufacturing. (2) The power generator was incorporated to the mandrel of the wireless gauge reducing the length of the tool by 25% and manufacturing cost by about 35%. (3) The new piezoelectric acoustic generator was manufactured successfully and it was delivered during this quarter. The assembly provides a new technique to manufacture large diameter piezoelectric based acoustic generators. (4) The acoustic two-way communications development progressed significantly. The real time firmware for the surface system was developed and the processor was able to detect and process the data frame transmitted from downhole. The analog section of the tool was also developed and it is being tested for filtering capabilities and signal detection and amplification. (5) The new transformer to drive the piezoelectric wafer assembly was designed and manufactured. The transformer has been received and it will go through testing and evaluation during the next quarter.

  20. Self-calibrated active pyrometer for furnace temperature measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woskov, Paul P.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Titus, Charles H.; Surma, Jeffrey E.

    1998-01-01

    Pyrometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The pyrometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave receiver including a millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement. In an alternative embodiment, a translatable base plate and a visible laser beam allow slow mapping out of interference patterns and obtaining peak values therefor. The invention also includes a waveguide having a replaceable end portion, an insulating refractory sleeve and/or a source of inert gas flow. The pyrometer may be used in conjunction with a waveguide to form a system for temperature measurements in a furnace. The system may employ a chopper or alternatively, be constructed without a chopper. The system may also include an auxiliary reflector for surface emissivity measurements.

  1. Determining heat fluxes from temperature measurements made in massive walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Hedstrom, J.C.

    1980-01-01

    A technique is described for determining heat fluxes at the surfaces of masonry walls or floors using temperature data measured at two points within the wall, usually near the surfaces. The process consists of solving the heat diffusion equation in one dimension using finite difference techniques given two measured temperatures as input. The method is fast and accurate and also allows for an in-situ measurement of wall thermal diffusivity if a third temperature is measured. The method is documented in sufficient detail so that it can be readily used by the reader. Examples are given for heat flow through walls. Annual results for two cases are presented. The method has also been used to determine heat flow into floors.

  2. Development of coherent Raman measurements of temperature in condensed phases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mcgrane, Shawn D; Dang, Nhan C; Bolme, Cindy A; Moore, David S

    2010-12-08

    We report theoretical considerations and preliminary data on various forms of coherent Raman spectroscopy that have been considered as candidates for measurement of temperature in condensed phase experiments with picosecond time resolution. Due to the inherent broadness and congestion of vibrational features in condensed phase solids, particularly at high temperatures and pressures, only approaches that rely on the ratio of anti-Stokes to Stokes spectral features are considered. Methods that rely on resolution of vibrational progressions, calibration of frequency shifts with temperature and pressure in reference experiments, or detailed comparison to calculation are inappropriate or impossible for our applications. In particular, we consider femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS), femtosecond/picosecond hybrid coherent Raman spectroscopy (multiplex CARS), and optical heterodyne detected femtosecond Raman induced Kerr Effect spectroscopy (OHD-FRIKES). We show that only FSRS has the ability to measure temperature via an anti-Stokes to Stokes ratio of peaks.

  3. Silicon Carbide Temperature Monitor Measurements at the High Temperature Test Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. L. Rempe; K. G. Condie; D. L. Knudson; L. L. Snead

    2010-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) temperature monitors are now available for use as temperature sensors in Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) irradiation test capsules. Melt wires or paint spots, which are typically used as temperature sensors in ATR static capsules, are limited in that they can only detect whether a single temperature is or is not exceeded. SiC monitors are advantageous because a single monitor can be used to detect for a range of temperatures that may have occurred during irradiation. As part of the efforts initiated by the ATR National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) to make SiC temperature monitors available, a capability was developed to complete post-irradiation evaluations of these monitors. As discussed in this report, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) selected the resistance measurement approach for detecting peak irradiation temperature from SiC temperature monitors. This document describes the INL efforts to develop the capability to complete these resistance measurements. In addition, the procedure is reported that was developed to assure that high quality measurements are made in a consistent fashion.

  4. Method and apparatus for simultaneously measuring temperature and pressure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hirschfeld, Tomas B. (Livermore, CA); Haugen, Gilbert R. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1988-01-01

    Method and apparatus are provided for simultaneously measuring temperature and pressure in a class of crystalline materials having anisotropic thermal coefficients and having a coefficient of linear compression along the crystalline c-axis substantially the same as those perpendicular thereto. Temperature is determined by monitoring the fluorescence half life of a probe of such crystalline material, e.g., ruby. Pressure is determined by monitoring at least one other fluorescent property of the probe that depends on pressure and/or temperature, e.g., absolute fluorescent intensity or frequency shifts of fluorescent emission lines.

  5. Multipoint Pressure and Temperature Sensing Fiber Optic Cable for Monitoring CO2 Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Challener, William

    2014-12-31

    This report describes the work completed on contract DE-FE0010116. The goal of this two year project was to develop and demonstrate in the laboratory a highly accurate multi-point pressure measurement fiber optic cable based on MEMS pressure sensors suitable for downhole deployment in a CO2 sequestration well. The sensor interrogator was also to be demonstrated in a remote monitoring system and environmental testing was to be completed to indicate its downhole survivability over a lengthy period of time (e.g., 20 years). An interrogator system based on a pulsed laser excitation was shown to be capable of multiple (potentially 100+) simultaneous sensor measurements. Two sensors packages were completed and spliced in a cable onto the same fiber and measured. One sensor package was subsequently measured at high temperatures and pressures in supercritical CO2, while the other package was measured prior and after being subjected to high torque stresses to mimic downhole deployment. The environmental and stress tests indicated areas in which the package design should be further improved.

  6. Element for use in an inductive coupler for downhole components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

    2009-03-31

    An element for use in an inductive coupler for downhole components comprises an annular housing having a generally circular recess. The element further comprises a plurality of generally linear, magnetically conductive segments. Each segment includes a bottom portion, an inner wall portion, and an outer wall portion. The portions together define a generally linear trough from a first end to a second end of each segment. The segments are arranged adjacent to each other within the housing recess to form a generally circular trough. The ends of at least half of the segments are shaped such that the first end of one of the segments is complementary in form to the second end of an adjacent segment. In one embodiment, all of the ends are angled. Preferably, the first ends are angled with the same angle and the second ends are angled with the complementary angle.

  7. Subsea intensifier supplies high pressure to downhole safety valves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-07-01

    A subsea high-pressure hydraulic intensifier (HPI) is now available as an alternative method of operating downhole surface-controlled subsea safety valves (SCSSVs). By generating high hydraulic pressures on the seafloor, the system eliminates need for transmitting high pressure via hose from surface. The new intensifier can generate up to 15,000 psi (1,035 bar) from the 3,000-psi (210-bar) low pressure actuator supply already within the umbilical. It uses low pressure hydraulic fluid acting on a large-area piston to push a second piston, one-fifth the cross sectional area, acting in a second hydraulic circuit. To reduce pulsation, the unit is double acting, with one piston drawing in fluid while the other discharges it. This paper reviews the design, performance, and construction of this equipment.

  8. Luminescence imaging for aerodynamic temperature and pressure measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallery, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    A luminescent temperature sensitive paint containing the molecule rhodamine B base (rhBb) is described whose emission intensity can be monitored by video camera to produce qualitative and quantitative two dimensional surface temperature maps. This paint was designed for use with the pressure sensitive paint containing platinum octaethylporphyrin (PtOEP), but is also a useful tool when used alone in the measurement of heat flow, boundary layer transition, and quantitative surface temperature during wind tunnel studies. The ability of the rhBb paint to produce a continuous temperature map makes it possible to locate structures in the temperature field on an airfoil that are otherwise undetected by surface mounted thermocouples spaced a finite distance apart. A dual temperature/pressure sensitive paint was investigated with both the rhBb and PtOEP dyes incorporated into the silicone polymer paint base of the pressure sensor. Photodegradation and batch variations in the polymer were found to compromise the calibration parameters of the PtOEP paint and therefore the accuracy of pressure predictions. Suggestions are made for improving the prediction ability of the paint. The molecule europium(III) thenoyltrifluoroacetonate (EuTTA) is also discussed as a temperature sensor for a two layer temperature/pressure paint. EuTTA can not be directly incorporated into the silicone paint base of the PtOEP paint (as the rhBp paint can), but performs well in non-oxygenpermeable coatings. Benefits of the EuTTA temperature paint include: (1) decreased photodegradation, (2) very bright luminescence intensity, and (3) long luminescent lifetime (several hundred microseconds). The long lifetime facilitates lifetime imaging, a technique currently under development as an alternative detection method where luminescent lifetimes rather than emission intensity are related to temperature and pressure.

  9. Temperature measuring analysis of the nuclear reactor fuel assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, F. E-mail: zdenko.zavodny@stuba.sk; Ku?k, L. E-mail: zdenko.zavodny@stuba.sk; Bereznai, J. E-mail: zdenko.zavodny@stuba.sk; Zvodn, Z. E-mail: zdenko.zavodny@stuba.sk; Mukt, P. E-mail: zdenko.zavodny@stuba.sk

    2014-08-06

    Study was based on rapid changes of measured temperature values from the thermocouple in the VVER 440 nuclear reactor fuel assembly. Task was to determine origin of fluctuations of the temperature values by experiments on physical model of the fuel assembly. During an experiment, heated water was circulating in the system and cold water inlet through central tube to record sensitivity of the temperature sensor. Two positions of the sensor was used. First, just above the central tube in the physical model fuel assembly axis and second at the position of the thermocouple in the VVER 440 nuclear reactor fuel assembly. Dependency of the temperature values on time are presented in the diagram form in the paper.

  10. Neutron scattering effects on fusion ion temperature measurements.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziegler, Lee (Bechtel/Nevada, Las Vegas, NV); Starner, Jason R.; Cooper, Gary Wayne; Ruiz, Carlos L.; Franklin, James Kenneth (Ktech Corporation, Albuquerque, NM); Casey, Daniel T.

    2006-06-01

    To support the nuclear fusion program at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), a consistent and verifiable method to determine fusion ion temperatures needs to be developed. Since the fusion temperature directly affects the width in the spread of neutron energies produced, a measurement of the neutron energy width can yield the fusion temperature. Traditionally, the spread in neutron energies is measured by using time-of-flight to convert a spread in neutron energies at the source to a spread in time at detector. One potential obstacle to using this technique at the Z facility at SNL is the need to shield the neutron detectors from the intense bremsstrahlung produced. The shielding consists of eight inches of lead and the concern is that neutrons will scatter in the lead, artificially broaden the neutron pulse width and lead to an erroneous measurement. To address this issue, experiments were performed at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics, which demonstrated that a reliable ion temperature measurement can be achieved behind eight inches of lead shielding. To further expand upon this finding, Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) was used to simulate the experimental geometric conditions and perform the neutron transport. MCNPX was able to confidently estimate results observed at the University of Rochester.

  11. Method and apparatus for transmitting and receiving data to and from a downhole tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe

    2007-03-13

    A transmission line network system for transmitting and/or receiving data from a downhole tool. The invention is achieved by providing one or more transceiving elements, preferably rings, at either end of a downhole tool. A conduit containing a coaxial cable capable of communicating an electrical signal is attached to the transceiving element and extends through a central bore of the downhole tool and through the central bore of any tool intermediate the first transceiving element and a second transceiving element. Upon receiving an electrical signal from the cable, the second transceiving element may convert such signal to a magnetic field. The magnetic field may be detected by a third transceiving element in close proximity to the second transceiving element. In this manner, many different tools may be included in a downhole transmission network without requiring substantial modification, if any, of any particular tool.

  12. Two-frequency lidar technique for mesospheric Na temperature measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    She, C.Y.; Latifi, H.; Yu, J.R.; Alvarez, R.J. II ); Bills, R.E.; Gardner, C.S. )

    1990-06-01

    The authors describe a new two-frequency lidar for measuring Na temperature profiles that uses a stabilized cw single-mode dye laser oscillator (rms frequency jitter < 1 MHz) followed by a pulsed-dye power amplifier (140 MHz FWHM linewidth) which is pumped by an injection-locked Nd:YAG laser. The laser oscillator is tuned to the two operating frequencies by observing the Doppler-free structure of the Na D{sub 2} fluorescence spectrum in a vapor cells. The lidar technique and the initial observations of the temperature profile between 82 and 102 km at Ft. Collins, CO (40.6{degree}N,105{degree}W) are described. Absolute temperature accuracies at the Na layer peak of better than {plus minus}3 K with a vertical resolution of 1 km and an integration period of approximately 5 min were achieved.

  13. Variability in Measured Space Temperatures in 60 Homes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Variability in Measured Space Temperatures in 60 Homes David Roberts National Renewable Energy Laboratory Kerylyn Lay EnerNOC (formerly of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory) Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-58059 March 2013 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 *

  14. Transient temperature measurements of a plume in a confined space

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, C.H.; Hsieh, C.F.; Teng, J.T.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of the present study is to measure the transient temperature profiles of a plume in a confined space and to develop an empirical formula relating heat transfer and buoyancy. The transient natural convective phenomenon, resulting from the buoyant effect, exists in confined spaces. This phenomenon is of practical importance in many fields, such as the formation process of material, cooling of electronic parts, design of solar collectors, cooling of fins, physics of space, fire plume in a compartment and movement of ocean current, etc. The present work is to study the transient natural convection phenomenon of a thermal plume. The plume is generated by locating a constant heat flux annular cylinder heater at the bottom of a confined cubic enclosure filled with water. The temperature profiles in the plume are measured and collected by six T-type thermocouples and a set of data acquisition system. Each test run lasts about 200 minutes and the measurement time step is 1 minute. The results indicate that the heat transfer mechanism in the plume is characterized by up-moving buoyancy-driven energy envelopes. Stratified temperature structure, which is caused by the retarding motion of the plume near the top surface, is also observed. An empirical correlation along local Nusselt number, Fourier number and modified Rayleigh number is obtained and written as Nu{sub x}/Ra{sub x}*{sup 1/4} = 0.00422Fo{sub L}{sup {minus}0.893}.

  15. Hot wire thermal conductivity measurements in high temperature refractories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dils, R.R.; Allen, J.D.; Richmond, J.C.; McNeil, M.B.

    1982-01-01

    In the hot wire thermal conductivity test, a wire embedded in the material to be tested is heated with constant power input, and the temperature is measured at short time intervals. The thermal conductivity is computed from the known power input to the wire and the measured rate of increase in the wire temperature after about 700 s of heating. A finite-difference computer simulation of the hot wire test was developed to evaluate the effects of several variables in the properties of the materials tested and in the test procedures on the measured thermal conductivity. Equations relating the radiant heat transfer in a material to its optical properties were developed and a radiant heat transfer component was developed for the finite-difference simulation. Equations were derived to compute the spectral optical properties of a test material from the measured spectral normal-hemispherical transmittance of a sample of the material of known thickness that is thin enough to have a measurable transmittance over the wavelength range of about 500 to 20,000 nm, and the spectral near-normal hemispherical reflectance of a sample of the material thick enough to be completely opaque, over the same wavelength range. The optical extinction coefficient, and the ratio of the scattering coefficient, to the absorption coefficient, of MinK 2000 and K3000 brick were evaluated from their measured spectral transmittances and reflectances, and used to compute the radiant heat transfer component in these materials. The hot wire test measures an average thermal conductivity for all directions away from the wire in a plane normal to the wire. Extensive tests were made of MinK 2000 and K3000, and the measured values are compared to the guarded hot plate thermal conductivity, which is unidirectional normal to the face of a brick. 67 references, 31 figures, 23 tables.

  16. Downhole steam generator with improved preheating/cooling features

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donaldson, A. Burl; Hoke, Donald E.; Mulac, Anthony J.

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus for downhole steam generation employing dual-stage preheaters for liquid fuel and for the water. A first heat exchange jacket for the fuel surrounds the fuel/oxidant mixing section of the combustor assembly downstream of the fuel nozzle and contacts the top of the combustor unit of the combustor assembly, thereby receiving heat directly from the combustion of the fuel/oxidant. A second stage heat exchange jacket surrounds an upper portion of the oxidant supply line adjacent the fuel nozzle receiving further heat from the compression heat which results from pressurization of the oxidant. The combustor unit includes an inner combustor sleeve whose inner wall defines the combustion zone. The inner combustor sleeve is surrounded by two concentric water channels, one defined by the space between the inner combustor sleeve and an intermediate sleeve, and the second defined by the space between the intermediate sleeve and an outer cylindrical housing. The channels are connected by an annular passage adjacent the top of the combustor assembly and the countercurrent nature of the water flow provides efficient cooling of the inner combustor sleeve. An annular water ejector with a plurality of nozzles is provided to direct water downwardly into the combustor unit at the boundary of the combustion zone and along the lower section of the intermediate sleeve.

  17. Inductive coupler for downhole components and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Dahlgren, Scott; Briscoe, Michael A.; Sneddon, Cameron; Fox, Joe

    2006-05-09

    The present invention includes a method of making an inductive coupler for downhole components. The method includes providing an annular housing, preferably made of steel, the housing having a recess. A conductor, preferably an insulated wire, is also provided along with a plurality of generally U-shaped magnetically conducting, electrically insulating (MCEI) segments. Preferably, the MCEI segments comprise ferrite. An assembly is formed by placing the plurality of MCEI segments within the recess in the annular housing. The segments are aligned to form a generally circular trough. A first portion of the conductor is placed within the circular trough. This assembly is consolidated with a meltable polymer which fills spaces between the segments, annular housing and the first portion of the conductor. The invention also includes an inductive coupler including an annular housing having a recess defined by a bottom portion and two opposing side wall portions. At least one side wall portion includes a lip extending toward but not reaching the other side wall portion. A plurality of generally U-shaped MCEI segments, preferably comprised of ferrite, are disposed in the recess and aligned so as to form a circular trough. The coupler further includes a conductor disposed within the circular trough and a polymer filling spaces between the segments, the annular housing and the conductor.

  18. High Temperature, High Pressure Devices for Zonal Isolation in Geothermal Wells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objectives: Design, demonstrate, and qualify high-temperature high pressure zonal isolation devices compatible with the high temperature downhole Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) environment.

  19. Enhanced Oil Recovery with Downhole Vibration Stimulation in Osage County, Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Ford Brett; Robert V. Westermark

    2001-12-31

    This Technical Quarterly Report is for the reporting period September 30, 2001 to December 31, 2001. The report provides details of the work done on the project entitled ''Enhanced Oil Recovery with Downhole Vibration Stimulation in Osage County Oklahoma''. The project is divided into nine separate tasks. Several of the tasks are being worked on simultaneously, while other tasks are dependent on earlier tasks being completed. The vibration stimulation well was permitted as Well 111-W-27, section 8 T26N R6E Osage County Oklahoma. It was spud July 28, 2001 with Goober Drilling Rig No. 3. The well was drilled to 3090-feet cored, logged, cased and cemented. The Rig No.3 moved off August 6, 2001. Phillips Petroleum Co. has performed standard core analysis on the cores recovered from the test well. Standard porosity, permeability and saturation measurements have been conducted. Phillips has begun the sonic stimulation core tests. Calumet Oil Company, the operator of the NBU, has been to collecting both production and injection wells information to establish a baseline for the project in the pilot field test area since May 2001. The 7-inch Downhole Vibration Tool (DHVT) has been built and has been run in a shallow well for initial power source testing. This testing was done in a temporarily abandoned well, Wynona Waterflood Unit, Well No.20-12 operated by Calumet Oil Co both in October and December 2001. The data acquisition system, and rod rotating equipment performed as designed. However, the DHVT experienced two internal failures during vibration operations. The DHVT has been repaired with modifications to improve its functionality. A proposed technical paper abstract has been accepted by the SPE to be presented at the 2002 SPE/DOE Thirteenth Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery, in Tulsa OK, 13-17 April 2002. A one-day SPE sponsored short course which is planned to cover seismic stimulation efforts around the world, will be offered at the SPE/DOE Thirteenth Symposium on Improved Oil Recovery in Tulsa, OK, April 13-17, 2002. Dan Maloney, Phillips and Bob Westermark, OGCI will be the instructors.

  20. Apparatus and method for compensating for clock drift in downhole drilling components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Johnson, Monte L. (Orem, UT); Bartholomew, David B. (Springville, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT)

    2007-08-07

    A precise downhole clock that compensates for drift includes a prescaler configured to receive electrical pulses from an oscillator. The prescaler is configured to output a series of clock pulses. The prescaler outputs each clock pulse after counting a preloaded number of electrical pulses from the oscillator. The prescaler is operably connected to a compensator module for adjusting the number loaded into the prescaler. By adjusting the number that is loaded into the prescaler, the timing may be advanced or retarded to more accurately synchronize the clock pulses with a reference time source. The compensator module is controlled by a counter-based trigger module configured to trigger the compensator module to load a value into the prescaler. Finally, a time-base logic module is configured to calculate the drift of the downhole clock by comparing the time of the downhole clock with a reference time source.

  1. Downhole geothermal well sensors comprising a hydrogen-resistant optical fiber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2005-02-08

    A new class of optical fiber based thermal sensors has been invented. The new sensors comprise hydrogen-resistant optical fibers which are able to withstand a hot, hydrogen-containing environment as is often found in the downhole well environment.

  2. Building America Indoor Temperature and Humidity Measurement Protocol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engebrecht-Metzger, C.; Norton, P.

    2014-02-01

    When modeling homes using simulation tools, the heating and cooling set points can have a significant impact on home energy use. Every 4 years the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) asks homeowners about their heating and cooling set points. Unfortunately, no temperature data is measured, and most of the time, the homeowner may be guessing at this number. Even one degree Fahrenheit difference in heating set point can make a 5% difference in heating energy use! So, the survey-based RECS data cannot be used as the definitive reference for the set point for the 'average occupant' in simulations. The purpose of this document is to develop a protocol for collecting consistent data for heating/cooling set points and relative humidity so that an average set point can be determined for asset energy models in residential buildings. This document covers the decision making process for researchers to determine how many sensors should be placed in each home, where to put those sensors, and what kind of asset data should be taken while they are in the home. The authors attempted to design the protocols to maximize the value of this study and minimize the resources required to achieve that value.

  3. The Building America Indoor Temperature and Humidity Measurement Protocol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metzger, C.; Norton, Paul

    2014-02-01

    When modeling homes using simulation tools, the heating and cooling set points can have a significant impact on home energy use. Every four years, the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) asks homeowners about their heating and cooling set points. Unfortunately, no temperature data is measured, and most of the time, the homeowner may be guessing at this number. Even one degree Fahrenheit difference in heating set point can make a 5% difference in heating energy use! So, the survey-based RECS data cannot be used as the definitive reference for the set point for the "average occupant" in simulations. The purpose of this document is to develop a protocol for collecting consistent data for heating/cooling set points and relative humidity so that an average set point can be determined for asset energy models in residential buildings. This document covers the decision making process for researchers to determine how many sensors should be placed in each home, where to put those sensors, and what kind of asset data should be taken while they are in the home. The authors attempted to design the protocols to maximize the value of this study and minimize the resources required to achieve that value.

  4. Device and method for self-verifying temperature measurement and control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watkins, Arthur D.; Cannon, Collins P.; Tolle, Charles R.

    2002-10-29

    A measuring instrument includes a first temperature sensor, a second temperature sensor and circuitry. The first and second temperature sensors each generate a signal indicative of the temperature of a medium being detected. The circuitry is configured to activate verification of temperature being sensed with the first sensor. According to one construction, the first temperature sensor comprises at least one thermocouple temperature sensor and the second temperature sensor comprises an optical temperature sensor, each sensor measuring temperature over the same range of temperature, but using a different physical phenomena. Also according to one construction, the circuitry comprises a computer configured to detect failure of one of the thermocouples by comparing temperature of the optical temperature sensor with each of the thermocouple temperature sensors. Even further, an output control signal is generated via a fuzzy inference machine and control apparatus.

  5. Measured Performance of a Low Temperature Air Source Heat Pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.K. Johnson

    2013-09-01

    A 4-ton Low Temperature Heat Pump (LTHP) manufactured by Hallowell International was installed in a residence near New Haven, Connecticut and monitored over two winters of operation. After attending to some significant service issues, the heat pump operated as designed. This report should be considered a review of the dual compressor “boosted heat pump” technology. The Low Temperature Heat Pump system operates with four increasing levels of capacity (heat output) as the outdoor temperature drops.

  6. Complete Fiber/Copper Cable Solution for Long-Term Temperature and Pressure Measurement in Supercritical Reservoirs and EGS Wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pastouret, Alan; Gooijer, Frans; Overton, Bob; Jonker, Jan; Curley, Jim; Constantine, Walter; Waterman, Kendall Miller

    2015-11-13

    High Temperature insulated wire and optical fiber cable is a key enabling technology for the Geothermal Technologies Program (GTP). Without insulated electrical wires and optical fiber, downhole temperature and pressure sensors, flow meters and gauges cannot communicate with the surface. Unfortunately, there are currently no insulated electrical wire or fiber cable constructions capable of surviving for extended periods of deployment in a geothermal well (240-325°C) or supercritical (374°C) reservoir. This has severely hindered engineered reservoir creation, management and utilization, as hot zones and cool water intrusions cannot be understood over time. The lack of a insulated electrical wire and fiber cable solution is a fundamental limitation to the viability of this energy source. The High Temperature Downhole Tools target specification is development of tools and sensors for logging and monitoring wellbore conditions at depths of up to 10,000 meters and temperatures up to 374oC. It well recognized in the industry that no current electronic or fiber cable can be successfully deployed in a well and function successfully for more a few days at temperatures over 240oC. The goal of this project was to raise this performance level significantly. Prysmian Group’s objective in this project was to develop a complete, multi-purpose cable solution for long-term deployment in geothermal wells/reservoirs that can be used with the widest variety of sensors. In particular, the overall project objective was to produce a manufacturable cable design that can perform without serious degradation: • At temperatures up to 374°C; • At pressures up to 220 bar; • In a hydrogen-rich environment; and • For the life of the well (> 5 years). This cable incorporates: • Specialty optical fibers, with specific glass chemistry and high temperature and pressure protective coatings for data communication and distributed temperature and pressure sensing, and • High-temperature insulated wire conductors Prysmian Group has developed a geothermal fiber optic cable (GFOC) solution which incorporates novel glass chemistry for optical fibers to operate at the required bandwidths in high temperature/high pressure hydrogen rich environments with fiber protection, high temperature insulated conductors and protective cladding for cable components. The cable solution has been tested in a geothermal installation for 10 months. The electrical insulation and optical fibers have been validated through laboratory testing to ensure successful operation for greater than 5 years at 300°C, with the possibility of higher temperatures depending on the particular well environment. With the 300°C optical fiber and electrical insulation developments completed and validated in laboratory tests the greatest challenge to a complete 300°C cable solution was protecting the optical fibers in the cable. Optical fibers are typically incased in a protective tube where the tube is filled with a gel. The gel serves as mechanical protection, prevent moisture ingress, and can include hydrogen scavenging materials. A suitable gel for use at 300°C could not be identified and an industrialized alternative was not fully attained. Despite the problems encountered and the lower long-term operating temperature of the cable solution, the project showed success in developing a complete cable solution for a large portion of the geothermal wells in operation today. Further work to obtain the higher long-term temperature goal of the project can be achieved based on the knowledge gained in the current project. This project is significant for many reasons including the new materials science, manufacturing technology, energy independence, and jobs created and will create.

  7. Improvements in Shallow (Two-Meter) Temperature Measurements...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Center for Geothermal Energy has been working on improvements in shallow (two-meter) temperature surveys in two areas: overcoming limitations posed by difficult ground...

  8. TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENTS FOR PV MODULES AND ARRAYS: MEASUREMENT...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    0 ABSTRACT The term "temperature coefficient" has been applied to several different photovoltaic performance parameters, including voltage, current, and power. The procedures for...

  9. A New Microwave Temperature Profiler … First Measurements in...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Institute of Atmospheric Physics CNR, Italy Introduction Temperature inversions are a ... the Figure 4. MTP-5P have been tested in Italy by Rome IFA-CNR and compared with Vaisala ...

  10. An Internal Coaxial Cable Electrical Connector For Use In Downhole Tools

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Dahlgren, Scott; Fox, Joe; Sneddon, Cameron; Briscoe, Michael

    2005-11-29

    A coaxial cable electrical connector more specifically an internal coaxial cable connector placed within a coaxial cable and its constituent components. A coaxial cable connector is in electrical communcation with an inductive transformer and a coaxial cable. The connector is in electrical communication with the outer housing of the inductive transfonner. A generally coaxial center conductor, a portion of which could be the coil in the inductive transformer, passes through the connector, is electrically insulated from the connector, and is in electrical communication with the conductive care of the coaxial cable. A plurality of bulbous pliant tabs on the coaxial cable connector mechanically engage the inside diameter of the coaxial cable thus grounding the transformer to the coaxial cable. The coaxial cable and inductive transformer are disposed within downhole tools to transmit electrical signals between downhole tools within a drill string.

  11. Biased insert for installing data transmission components in downhole drilling pipe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael A. (Lehi, UT); Garner, Kory K. (Payson, UT); Wilde, Tyson J. (Spanish Fork, UT)

    2007-04-10

    An apparatus for installing data transmission hardware in downhole tools includes an insert insertable into the box end or pin end of drill tool, such as a section of drill pipe. The insert typically includes a mount portion and a slide portion. A data transmission element is mounted in the slide portion of the insert. A biasing element is installed between the mount portion and the slide portion and is configured to create a bias between the slide portion and the mount portion. This biasing element is configured to compensate for varying tolerances encountered in different types of downhole tools. In selected embodiments, the biasing element is an elastomeric material, a spring, compressed gas, or a combination thereof.

  12. Downhole steam generator using low-pressure fuel and air supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, R.L.

    1981-01-07

    For tertiary oil recovery, an apparatus for downhole steam generation is designed in which water is not injected directly onto the flame in the combustor, the combustion process is isolated from the reservoir pressure, the fuel and oxidant are supplied to the combustor at relatively low pressures, and the hot exhaust gases is prevented from entering the earth formation but is used to preheat the fuel and oxidant and water. The combustion process is isolated from the steam generation process. (DLC)

  13. An Internal Coaxial Cable Electrical Connector For Use In Downhole Tools

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Dahlgren, Scott; Fox, Joe; Sneddon, Cameron; Briscoe, Michael

    2005-09-20

    A seal for a coaxial cable electrical connector more specifically an internal seal for a coaxial cable connector placed within a coaxial cable and its constituent components. A coaxial cable connector is in electrical communcation with an inductive transformer and a coaxial cable. The connector is in electrical communication with the outer housing of the inductive transformer. A generally coaxial center conductor, a portion of which could be the coil in the inductive transformer, passes through the connector, is electrically insulated from the connector, and is in electrical communication with the conductive core of the coaxial cable. The electrically insulating material also doubles as a seal to safegaurd against penetration of fluid, thus protecting against shorting out of the electrical connection. The seal is a multi-component seal, which is pre-compressed to a desired pressure rating. The coaxial cable and inductive transformer are disposed within downhole tools to transmit electrical signals between downhole tools within a drill string. The internal coaxial cable connector and its attendant seal can be used in a plurality of downhole tools, such as sections of pipe in a drill string, drill collars, heavy weight drill pipe, and jars.

  14. DEFINING THE 'BLIND SPOT' OF HINODE EIS AND XRT TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winebarger, Amy R.; Cirtain, Jonathan; Mulu-Moore, Fana [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, VP 62, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Warren, Harry P. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Schmelz, Joan T. [Physics Department, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152 (United States); Golub, Leon [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Kobayashi, Ken, E-mail: amy.r.winebarger@nasa.gov [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, 320 Sparkman Dr, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States)

    2012-02-20

    Observing high-temperature, low emission measure plasma is key to unlocking the coronal heating problem. With current instrumentation, a combination of EUV spectral data from Hinode Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS; sensitive to temperatures up to 4 MK) and broadband filter data from Hinode X-ray Telescope (XRT; sensitive to higher temperatures) is typically used to diagnose the temperature structure of the observed plasma. In this Letter, we demonstrate that a 'blind spot' exists in temperature-emission measure space for combined Hinode EIS and XRT observations. For a typical active region core with significant emission at 3-4 MK, Hinode EIS and XRT are insensitive to plasma with temperatures greater than {approx}6 MK and emission measures less than {approx}10{sup 27} cm{sup -5}. We then demonstrate that the temperature and emission measure limits of this blind spot depend upon the temperature distribution of the plasma along the line of sight by considering a hypothetical emission measure distribution sharply peaked at 1 MK. For this emission measure distribution, we find that EIS and XRT are insensitive to plasma with emission measures less than {approx}10{sup 26} cm{sup -5}. We suggest that a spatially and spectrally resolved 6-24 Angstrom-Sign spectrum would improve the sensitivity to these high-temperature, low emission measure plasma.

  15. Harsh-Environment Packaging for Downhole Gas and Oil Exploration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shubhra Bansal; Junghyun Cho; Kevin Durocher; Chris Kapusta; Aaron Knobloch; David Shaddock; Harry Schoeller; Hua Xia

    2007-08-31

    This research into new packaging materials and methods for elevated temperatures and harsh environment electronics focused on gaining a basic understanding of current state-of-the-art in electronics packaging used in industry today, formulating the thermal-mechanical models of the material interactions and developing test structures to confirm these models. Discussions were initiated with the major General Electric (GE) businesses that currently sell into markets requiring high temperature electronics and packaging. They related the major modes of failure they encounter routinely and the hurdles needed to be overcome in order to improve the temperature specifications of these products. We consulted with our GE business partners about the reliability specifications and investigated specifications and guidelines that from IPC and the SAE body that is currently developing guidelines for electronics package reliability. Following this, a risk analysis was conducted for the program to identify the critical risks which need to be mitigated in order to demonstrate a flex-based packaging approach under these conditions. This process identified metal/polyimide adhesion, via reliability for flex substrates and high temperature interconnect as important technical areas for reliability improvement.

  16. A Comprehensive Statistically-Based Method to Interpret Real-Time Flowing Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keita Yoshioka; Pinan Dawkrajai; Analis A. Romero; Ding Zhu; A. D. Hill; Larry W. Lake

    2007-01-15

    With the recent development of temperature measurement systems, continuous temperature profiles can be obtained with high precision. Small temperature changes can be detected by modern temperature measuring instruments such as fiber optic distributed temperature sensor (DTS) in intelligent completions and will potentially aid the diagnosis of downhole flow conditions. In vertical wells, since elevational geothermal changes make the wellbore temperature sensitive to the amount and the type of fluids produced, temperature logs can be used successfully to diagnose the downhole flow conditions. However, geothermal temperature changes along the wellbore being small for horizontal wells, interpretations of a temperature log become difficult. The primary temperature differences for each phase (oil, water, and gas) are caused by frictional effects. Therefore, in developing a thermal model for horizontal wellbore, subtle temperature changes must be accounted for. In this project, we have rigorously derived governing equations for a producing horizontal wellbore and developed a prediction model of the temperature and pressure by coupling the wellbore and reservoir equations. Also, we applied Ramey's model (1962) to the build section and used an energy balance to infer the temperature profile at the junction. The multilateral wellbore temperature model was applied to a wide range of cases at varying fluid thermal properties, absolute values of temperature and pressure, geothermal gradients, flow rates from each lateral, and the trajectories of each build section. With the prediction models developed, we present inversion studies of synthetic and field examples. These results are essential to identify water or gas entry, to guide flow control devices in intelligent completions, and to decide if reservoir stimulation is needed in particular horizontal sections. This study will complete and validate these inversion studies.

  17. Thermal history sensors for non-destructive temperature measurements in harsh environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pilgrim, C. C.; Heyes, A. L.; Feist, J. P.

    2014-02-18

    The operating temperature is a critical physical parameter in many engineering applications, however, can be very challenging to measure in certain environments, particularly when access is limited or on rotating components. A new quantitative non-destructive temperature measurement technique has been proposed which relies on thermally induced permanent changes in ceramic phosphors. This technique has several distinct advantages over current methods for many different applications. The robust ceramic material stores the temperature information allowing long term thermal exposures in harsh environment to be measured at a convenient time. Additionally, rare earth dopants make the ceramic phosphorescent so that the temperature information can be interpreted by automated interrogation of the phosphorescent light. This technique has been demonstrated by application of YAG doped with dysprosium and europium as coatings through the air-plasma spray process. Either material can be used to measure temperature over a wide range, namely between 300C and 900C. Furthermore, results show that the material records the peak exposure temperature and prolonged exposure at lower temperatures would have no effect on the temperature measurement. This indicates that these materials could be used to measure peak operating temperatures in long-term testing.

  18. A comparison of irradiance responsivity and thermodynamic temperature measurement between PTB and NIM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, X.; Yuan, Z.; Anhalt, K.; Taubert, R. D.

    2013-09-11

    This paper describes a comparison between PTB and NIM in the field of absolute spectral-band radiometry and thermodynamic temperature measurement. For the comparison a NIM made interference filter radiometer with a centre wavelength of 633 nm was taken to PTB. The filter radiometer was calibrated at NIM and PTB with respect to spectral irradiance responsivity. For the integral value in the band-pass range an agreement of 0.1% was observed in both calibrations. In a next step, the 633 nm filter radiometer was used to measure the temperature of a high-temperature blackbody in comparison to an 800 nm filter radiometer of PTB in the temperature range between 1400 K and 2750 K. The thermodynamic temperature measured by the two filter radiometers agreed to within 0.2 K to 0.5 K with an estimated measurement uncertainty ranging between 0.1 K and 0.4 K (k=1)

  19. Downhole steam generator with improved preheating, combustion and protection features

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Ronald L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus for generation of steam in a borehole for penetration into an earth formation wherein feedback preheater means are provided for the fuel and water before entering the combustor assembly. First, combustion gases are conducted from the combustion chamber to locations in proximity to the water and fuel supplies. Secondly, both hot combustion gases and steam are conducted from the borehole back to the water and fuel supply. The water used for conversion to steam is passed in a countercurrent manner through a plurality of annular water flow channels surrounding the combustion chamber. In this manner, the water is preheated, and the combustion chamber is cooled simultaneously, thereby minimizing thermal stresses and deterioration of the walls of the combustion chamber. The water is injected through slotted inlets along the combustion chamber wall to provide an unstable boundary layer and stripping of the water from the wall for efficient steam generation. Pressure responsive doors are provided at the steam outlet of the combustor assembly. The outlet doors and fluid flow functions may be controlled by a diagnostic/control module. The module is positioned in the water flow channel to maintain a relatively constant, controlled temperature.

  20. EVALUATION OF ZERO-POWER, ELEVATED-TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS AT JAPANS HIGH TEMPERATURE ENGINEERING TEST REACTOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John D. Bess; Nozomu Fujimoto; James W. Sterbentz; Luka Snoj; Atsushi Zukeran

    2011-03-01

    The High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is a 30 MWth, graphite-moderated, helium-cooled reactor that was constructed with the objectives to establish and upgrade the technological basis for advanced high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs) as well as to conduct various irradiation tests for innovative high-temperature research. The core size of the HTTR represents about one-half of that of future HTGRs, and the high excess reactivity of the HTTR, necessary for compensation of temperature, xenon, and burnup effects during power operations, is similar to that of future HTGRs. During the start-up core physics tests of the HTTR, various annular cores were formed to provide experimental data for verification of design codes for future HTGRs. The experimental benchmark performed and currently evaluated in this report pertains to the data available for two zero-power, warm-critical measurements with the fully-loaded HTTR core. Six isothermal temperature coefficients for the fully-loaded core from approximately 340 to 740 K have also been evaluated. These experiments were performed as part of the power-up tests (References 1 and 2). Evaluation of the start-up core physics tests specific to the fully-loaded core (HTTR-GCR-RESR-001) and annular start-up core loadings (HTTR-GCR-RESR-002) have been previously evaluated.

  1. Measurement of core plasma temperature and rotation on W7-X made...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Measurement of core plasma temperature and rotation on W7-X made available by ... This diagnostic will contribute to the study of ion and electron thermal transport and ...

  2. Waveguide-based ultrasonic and far-field electromagnetic sensors for downhole reservoir characterization.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheen, S. H.; Chien, H. T.; Wang, K.; Liao, S.; Gopalsami, N.; Bakhtiari, S.; Raptis, A. C.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-11-12

    This report summarizes the first year research and development effort leading to development of high-temperature sensors for enhanced geothermal systems. It covers evaluation of ultrasonic and electromagnetic (EM) techniques applied to temperature measurement and flow characterization. On temperature measurement, we have evaluated both microwave radiometry and ultrasonic techniques for temperature gradient and profile measurements. Different antenna designs are evaluated and array loop antenna design is selected for further development. We have also evaluated ultrasonic techniques for total flow characterization, which includes using speed of sound to determine flow temperature, measuring acoustic impedance to estimate fluid density, and using cross-correlation technique to determine the mass flow rate. Method to estimate the flow enthalpy is briefly discussed. At end, the need and proposed techniques to characterize the porosity and permeability of a hot dry rock resource are presented.

  3. Line spectrum and ion temperature measurements from tungsten ions at low

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ionization stages in large helical device based on vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy in wavelength range of 500-2200 Å (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Line spectrum and ion temperature measurements from tungsten ions at low ionization stages in large helical device based on vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy in wavelength range of 500-2200 Å Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Line spectrum and ion temperature measurements from tungsten ions at low ionization stages in large helical

  4. TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENTS FOR PV MODULES AND ARRAYS: MEASUREMENT METHODS, DIFFICULTIES, AND RESULTS

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    TEMPERATURE COEFFICIENTS FOR PV MODULES AND ARRAYS: MEASUREMENT METHODS, DIFFICULTIES, AND RESULTS David L. King, Jay A. Kratochvil, and William E. Boyson Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 0 ABSTRACT The term "temperature coefficient" has been applied to several different photovoltaic performance parameters, including voltage, current, and power. The procedures for measuring the coefficient(s) for modules and arrays are not yet standardized, and systematic influences are

  5. Subsurface exploration using bucket auger borings and down-hole geologic inspection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scullin, C.M. )

    1994-03-01

    The down-hole geologic inspection of 24 in. bucket auger borings has been a hands-on technique for collecting valuable geologic structural and lithologic detail in southern California investigations for over 35 yr. Although it has been used for all types of investigations for hillside urban development, it is of particular benefit in landslide investigations and evaluations. The benefits of down-hole geologic inspection during detailed mapping of large landslide complexes with multiple slide planes are discussed in this paper. Many of the geotechnical investigations of these massive landslide complexes have been very limited in their determinations of accurate landslide parameters and very deficient in proper engineering analysis while based upon this limited data. This has resulted in many cases where the geotechnical consultant erroneously concludes that ancient landslides don't move and it is all right to build upon them, even though they have neither justified the landslide parameters, nor the slope stability or safety. Because this author and the many consultants contacted during the preparation of this paper were not aware of other publications regarding this method of collecting detailed geologic data, this author included the safety considerations, safety equipment, the cost and the Cal OSHA requirements for entering exploration shafts.

  6. Element for use in an inductive coupler for downhole drilling components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Dahlgren, Scott; Fox, Joe; Sneddon, Cameron

    2006-08-29

    The present invention includes an element for use in an inductive coupler in a downhole component. The element includes a plurality of ductile, generally U-shaped leaves that are electrically conductive. The leaves are less than about 0.0625" thick and are separated by an electrically insulating material. These leaves are aligned so as to form a generally circular trough. The invention also includes an inductive coupler for use in downhole components, the inductive coupler including an annular housing having a recess with a magnetically conductive, electrically insulating (MCEI) element disposed in the recess. The MCEI element includes a plurality of segments where each segment further includes a plurality of ductile, generally U-shaped electrically conductive leaves. Each leaf is less than about 0.0625" thick and separated from the otherwise adjacent leaves by electrically insulating material. The segments and leaves are aligned so as to form a generally circular trough. The inductive coupler further includes an insulated conductor disposed within the generally circular trough. A polymer fills spaces between otherwise adjacent segments, the annular housing, insulated conductor, and further fills the circular trough.

  7. Systems and Methods for Integrated Emissivity and Temperature Measurement of a Surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poulsen, Peter

    2005-11-08

    A multi-channel spectrometer and a light source are used to measure both the emitted and the reflected light from a surface which is at an elevated temperature relative to its environment. In a first method, the temperature of the surface and emissivity in each wavelength is calculated from a knowledge of the spectrum and the measurement of the incident and reflected light. In the second method, the reflected light is measured from a reference surface having a known reflectivity and the same geometry as the surface of interest and the emitted and the reflected light are measured for the surface of interest. These measurements permit the computation of the emissivity in each channel of the spectrometer and the temperature of the surface of interest.

  8. Method and apparatus for measuring surface contour on parts with elevated temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horvath, Mark S. (Canton, MI); Nance, Roy A. (McMurray, PA); Cohen, George H. (Pittsburgh, PA); Fodor, George (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1991-01-01

    The invention is directed to a method and apparatus for measuring the surface contour of a test piece, such as the bow of a radioactive fuel rod, which is completely immersed in water. The invention utilizes ultrasonic technology and is capable of measuring surface contours of test pieces which are at a higher temperature than the surrounding water. The presence of a test piece at a higher temperature adversely affects the distance measurements by causing thermal variations in the water near the surface of the test piece. The contour measurements depend upon a constant temperature of the water in the path of the ultrasonic wave to provide a constant acoustical velocity (the measurement is made by the time of flight measurement for an ultrasonic wave). Therefore, any variations of water temperature near the surface will introduce errors degrading the measurement. The present invention overcomes these problems by assuring that the supply of water through which the ultrasonic waves travel is at a predetermined and constant temperature.

  9. Ultrasonic tomography for in-process measurements of temperature in a multi-phase medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beller, L.S.

    1993-01-26

    A method and apparatus are described for the in-process measurement of internal particulate temperature utilizing ultrasonic tomography techniques to determine the speed of sound through a specimen material. Ultrasonic pulses are transmitted through a material, which can be a multi-phase material, over known flight paths and the ultrasonic pulse transit times through all sectors of the specimen are measured to determine the speed of sound. The speed of sound being a function of temperature, it is possible to establish the correlation between speed of sound and temperature, throughout a cross-section of the material, which correlation is programmed into a computer to provide for a continuous in-process measurement of temperature throughout the specimen.

  10. Ultrasonic tomography for in-process measurements of temperature in a multi-phase medium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beller, Laurence S.

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the in-process measurement of internal particulate temperature utilizing ultrasonic tomography techniques to determine the speed of sound through a specimen material. Ultrasonic pulses are transmitted through a material, which can be a multi-phase material, over known flight paths and the ultrasonic pulse transit times through all sectors of the specimen are measured to determine the speed of sound. The speed of sound being a function of temperature, it is possible to establish the correlation between speed of sound and temperature, throughout a cross-section of the material, which correlation is programmed into a computer to provide for a continuous in-process measurement of temperature throughout the specimen.

  11. Multi-temperature method for high-pressure sorption measurements on moist shales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gasparik, Matus; Ghanizadeh, Amin; Gensterblum, Yves; Krooss, Bernhard M.

    2013-08-15

    A simple and effective experimental approach has been developed and tested to study the temperature dependence of high-pressure methane sorption in moist organic-rich shales. This method, denoted as multi-temperature (short multi-T) method, enables measuring multiple isotherms at varying temperatures in a single run. The measurement of individual sorption isotherms at different temperatures takes place in a closed system ensuring that the moisture content remains constant. The multi-T method was successfully tested for methane sorption on an organic-rich shale sample. Excess sorption isotherms for methane were measured at pressures of up to 25 MPa and at temperatures of 318.1 K, 338.1 K, and 348.1 K on dry and moisture-equilibrated samples. The measured isotherms were parameterized with a 3-parameter Langmuir-based excess sorption function, from which thermodynamic sorption parameters (enthalpy and entropy of adsorption) were obtained. Using these, we show that by taking explicitly into account water vapor as molecular species in the gas phase with temperature-dependent water vapor pressure during the experiment, more meaningful results are obtained with respect to thermodynamical considerations. The proposed method can be applied to any adsorbent system (coals, shales, industrial adsorbents) and any supercritical gas (e.g., CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}) and is particularly suitable for sorption measurements using the manometric (volumetric) method.

  12. Soot surface temperature measurements in pure and diluted flames at atmospheric and elevated pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berry Yelverton, T.L.; Roberts, W.L. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Campus Box 7910, North Carolina State University, 3211 Broughton Hall, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Soot surface temperature was measured in laminar jet diffusion flames at atmospheric and elevated pressures. The soot surface temperature was measured in flames at one, two, four, and eight atmospheres with both pure and diluted (using helium, argon, nitrogen, or carbon dioxide individually) ethylene fuels with a calibrated two-color soot pyrometry technique. These two dimensional temperature profiles of the soot aid in the analysis and understanding of soot production, leading to possible methods for reducing soot emission. Each flame investigated was at its smoke point, i.e., at the fuel flow rate where the overall soot production and oxidation rates are equal. The smoke point was chosen because it was desirable to have similar soot loadings for each flame. A second set of measurements were also taken where the fuel flow rate was held constant to compare with earlier work. These measurements show that overall flame temperature decreases with increasing pressure, with increasing pressure the position of peak temperature shifts to the tip of the flame, and the temperatures measured were approximately 10% lower than those calculated assuming equilibrium and neglecting radiation. (author)

  13. Progress Toward Luminescence-Based VAATE Turbine Blade And Vane Temperature Measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkins, Tom P.; Allison, Stephen W; Eldridge, Jeffrey I.; Niska, R. H.; Condevaux, J. J.; Wolfe, Doug E.; Jordan, Eric H.; Heeg, Bauke

    2012-01-01

    Progress towards fielding luminescence-based temperature measurements for the Versatile Affordable Advanced Turbine Engine (VAATE) program is described. The near term programmatic objective is to monitor turbine vane temperatures and health by luminescence from a rare-earth doped thermal barrier coating (TBC), or from a thermographic phosphor layer coated onto a TBC. The first goal is to establish the temperature measurement capability to 1300 C with 1 percent uncertainty in a test engine. An eventual goal is to address rotating turbine blades in an F135 engine. The project consists of four phases, of which the first two have been completed and are described in this paper. The first phase involved laser heating of a 2.54-cm-diameter test sample, coated with a TBC and a thermographic phosphor layer, to produce a thermal gradient across the TBC layer similar to that expected in a turbine engine. Phosphor temperatures correlated well with those measured by long wavelength pyrometry. In the second phase, 10x10- cm coupons were exposed to a jet fuel flame at a burner rig facility. The thermographic phosphor/TBC combination survived the aggressive flame and high exhaust gas velocity, even though the metal substrate melted. Reliable temperature measurements were made up to about 1400 C using YAG:Dy as the thermographic phosphor. In addition, temperature measurements using YAG:Tm showed very desirable background radiation suppression.

  14. A robust and well shielded thermal conductivity device for low temperature measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toews, W. H.; Hill, R. W.

    2014-04-15

    We present a compact mechanically robust thermal conductivity measurement apparatus for measurements at low temperatures (<1 K) and high magnetic fields on small high-purity single crystal samples. A high-conductivity copper box is used to enclose the sample and all the components. The box provides protection for the thermometers, heater, and most importantly the sample increasing the portability of the mount. In addition to physical protection, the copper box is also effective at shielding radio frequency electromagnetic interference and thermal radiation, which is essential for low temperature measurements. A printed circuit board in conjunction with a braided ribbon cable is used to organize the delicate wiring and provide mechanical robustness.

  15. Waveguide-based Ultrasonic and Far-field Electromagnetic Sensors for Downhole Reservoir Characterization

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objective: To develop waveguide-based ultrasonic and farfield electromagnetic sensors to measure key Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) reservoir parameters, including directional temperature, pressure, fluidflow, fracture imaging, and flow/rock interaction.

  16. In-Situ Acoustic Measurements of Temperature Profile in Extreme Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skliar, Mikhail

    2015-03-31

    A gasifier’s temperature is the primary characteristic that must be monitored to ensure its performance and the longevity of its refractory. One of the key technological challenges impacting the reliability and economics of coal and biomass gasification is the lack of temperature sensors that are capable of providing accurate, reliable, and long-life performance in an extreme gasification environment. This research has proposed, demonstrated, and validated a novel approach that uses a noninvasive ultrasound method that provides real-time temperature distribution monitoring across the refractory, especially the hot face temperature of the refractory. The essential idea of the ultrasound measurements of segmental temperature distribution is to use an ultrasound propagation waveguide across a refractory that has been engineered to contain multiple internal partial reflectors at known locations. When an ultrasound excitation pulse is introduced on the cold side of the refractory, it will be partially reflected from each scatterer in the US propagation path in the refractory wall and returned to the receiver as a train of partial echoes. The temperature in the corresponding segment can be determined based on recorded ultrasonic waveform and experimentally defined relationship between the speed of sound and temperature. The ultrasound measurement method offers a powerful solution to provide continuous real time temperature monitoring for the occasions that conventional thermal, optical and other sensors are infeasible, such as the impossibility of insertion of temperature sensor, harsh environment, unavailable optical path, and more. Our developed ultrasound system consists of an ultrasound engineered waveguide, ultrasound transducer/receiver, and data acquisition, logging, interpretation, and online display system, which is simple to install on the existing units with minimal modification on the gasifier or use with new units. This system has been successfully tested with a 100 kW pilot scale down flow oxyfuel combustor, capturing in real time temperature changes during all relevant combustion process changes. The ultrasound measurements have excellent agreement with thermo- couple measurements, and appear to be more sensitive to temperature changes before the thermocouples response, which is believed to be the first demonstration of ultrasound measurements segmental temperature distribution across refractories.

  17. Effects of thermocouple installation and location on fuel rod temperature measurements. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCormick, R.D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes the results of analyses of nuclear fuel rod cladding temperature data obtained during in-reactor experiments under steady state and transient (simulated loss-of-coolant accident) operating conditions. The objective of the analyses was to determine the effect of thermocouple attachment method and location on measured thermal response. The use of external thermocouples increased the time to critical heat flux (CHF), reduced the blowdown peak temperature, and enhanced rod quench. A comparison of laser welded and resistance welded external thermocouple responses showed that the laser welding technique reduced the indicated cladding steady state temperatures and provided shorter time-to-CHF. A comparison of internal welded and embedded thermocouples indicated that the welded technique gave generally unsatisfactory cladding temperature measurements. The embedded thermocouple gave good, consistent results, but was possibly more fragile than the welded thermocouples. Detailed descriptions of the thermocouple designs, attachment methods and locations, and test conditions are provided.

  18. Method and apparatus for measuring gravitational acceleration utilizing a high temperature superconducting bearing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, John R.

    2000-01-01

    Gravitational acceleration is measured in all spatial dimensions with improved sensitivity by utilizing a high temperature superconducting (HTS) gravimeter. The HTS gravimeter is comprised of a permanent magnet suspended in a spaced relationship from a high temperature superconductor, and a cantilever having a mass at its free end is connected to the permanent magnet at its fixed end. The permanent magnet and superconductor combine to form a bearing platform with extremely low frictional losses, and the rotational displacement of the mass is measured to determine gravitational acceleration. Employing a high temperature superconductor component has the significant advantage of having an operating temperature at or below 77K, whereby cooling may be accomplished with liquid nitrogen.

  19. High temperature measurement using very high shutter speed to avoid image saturation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Zhen; Zhang, Yang

    2014-04-11

    This paper explores the adaptation of the two-colour principle to develop a high-speed colour temperature correlation system, which is able to cover a range of temperature that is challenging to achieve before. A colour digital camera has built in RGB filters. It is possible to measure the temperature from the ratio of intensity of the green and red pixels using the two-colour principle based on the expansion of the Planks radiation law. In this study, experiments were carried out using a temperature calibrated tungsten ribbon lamp which can be tuned to vary from 1300 to 2200C. Using very high shutter speed and small aperture, the high-speed camera successfully captured the tungsten ribbon without image saturation at the full temperature scale. Tests have been carried out at different temperature and camera settings. The sensitivity and errors have been analysed, and experiment results demonstrate the potential of using very high shutter speed is available for measuring the temperature even beyond 2200C.

  20. Comparison of lower-frequency (<1000 Hz) downhole seismic sources for use at environmental sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elbring, G.J.

    1995-03-01

    In conjunction with crosswell seismic surveying being done at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington, four different downhole seismic sources have been tested between the same set of boreholes. The four sources evaluated were the Bolt airgun, the OYO-Conoco orbital vibrator, and two Sandia-developed vertical vibrators, one pneumatically-driven, and the other based on a magnetostrictive actuator. The sources generate seismic energy in the lower frequency range of less than 1000 Hz and have different frequency characteristics, radiation patterns, energy levels, and operational considerations. Collection of identical data sets with all four sources allows the direct comparison of these characteristics and an evaluation of the suitability of each source for a given site and target.

  1. Downhole fluid injection systems, CO.sub.2 sequestration methods, and hydrocarbon material recovery methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schaef, Herbert T.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2015-07-28

    Downhole fluid injection systems are provided that can include a first well extending into a geological formation, and a fluid injector assembly located within the well. The fluid injector assembly can be configured to inject a liquid CO.sub.2/H.sub.2O-emulsion into the surrounding geological formation. CO.sub.2 sequestration methods are provided that can include exposing a geological formation to a liquid CO.sub.2/H.sub.2O-emulsion to sequester at least a portion of the CO.sub.2 from the emulsion within the formation. Hydrocarbon material recovery methods are provided that can include exposing a liquid CO.sub.2/H.sub.2O-emulsion to a geological formation having the hydrocarbon material therein. The methods can include recovering at least a portion of the hydrocarbon material from the formation.

  2. Temperature-Dependent Measurements of an Inverted Metamorphic Multijunction (IMM) Solar Cell: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steiner, M. A.; Geisz, J. F.; Friedman, D. J.; Olavarria, W. J.; Duda, A.; Moriarty, T. E.

    2011-07-01

    The inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) solar cell has demonstrated efficiencies as high as 40.8% at 25 degrees C and 326 suns concentration. The actual operating temperature in a commercial module, however, is likely to be as much as 50-70 degrees C hotter, reaching as high as 100 degrees C. In order to be able to evaluate the cell performance under these real-world operating conditions, we have measured the open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current density and efficiency at temperatures up to 125 degrees C and concentrations up to 1000 suns, as well as the temperature coefficients of these parameters. Spectral response and one-sun current-voltage characteristics were measured by carefully adjusting the incident spectrum to selectively current-limit the different subcells. Concentrator measurements were taken on a pulsed solar simulator to minimize any additional heating due to the high intensity illumination. We compare our measured values to predictions based on detailed models of various triple junction solar cells. By choosing the optimum bandgaps for high temperature operation, the IMM can potentially result in greater energy production and lower temperature sensitivity under real operating conditions than a Ge-based solar cell.

  3. Temperature-Dependent Measurements of an Inverted Metamorphic Multijunction (IMM) Solar Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steiner, M. A.; Geisz, J. F.; Friedman, D. J.; Olavarria, W. J.; Duda, A.; Moriarty, T. E.

    2011-01-01

    The inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) solar cell has demonstrated efficiencies as high as 40.8% at 25 C and 326 suns concentration. The actual operating temperature in a commercial module, however, is likely to be as much as 50-70 C hotter, reaching as high as 100 C. In order to be able to evaluate the cell performance under these real-world operating conditions, we have measured the open-circuit voltage, short-circuit current density and efficiency at temperatures up to 125 C and concentrations up to 1000 suns, as well as the temperature coefficients of these parameters. Spectral response and one-sun current-voltage characteristics were measured by carefully adjusting the incident spectrum to selectively current-limit the different subcells. Concentrator measurements were taken on a pulsed solar simulator to minimize any additional heating due to the high intensity illumination. We compare our measured values to predictions based on detailed models of various triple junction solar cells. By choosing the optimum bandgaps for high temperature operation, the IMM can potentially result in greater energy production and lower temperature sensitivity under real operating conditions than a Ge-based solar cell.

  4. In-situ Thermal Strain and Temperature Measurement and Modeling during Arc

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Welding (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: In-situ Thermal Strain and Temperature Measurement and Modeling during Arc Welding Citation Details In-Document Search Title: In-situ Thermal Strain and Temperature Measurement and Modeling during Arc Welding Authors: Chen, Jian [1] ; Yu, Xinghua [1] ; Miller, Roger G [1] ; Feng, Zhili [1] + Show Author Affiliations ORNL Publication Date: 2015-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 1185830 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC05-00OR22725 Resource Type:

  5. Measurement of core plasma temperature and rotation on W7-X made available

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    by the x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Measurement of core plasma temperature and rotation on W7-X made available by the x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Measurement of core plasma temperature and rotation on W7-X made available by the x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) A new x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer diagnostic (XICS) is currently being built for installation on W7-X.

  6. Temperature elevation by HIFU in ex vivo porcine muscle: MRI measurement and simulation study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solovchuk, Maxim A.; Hwang, San Chao; Chang, Hsu; Thiriet, Marc; Sheu, Tony W. H.

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: High-intensity focused ultrasound is a rapidly developing medical technology with a large number of potential clinical applications. Computational model can play a pivotal role in the planning and optimization of the treatment based on the patient's image. Nonlinear propagation effects can significantly affect the temperature elevation and should be taken into account. In order to investigate the importance of nonlinear propagation effects, nonlinear Westervelt equation was solved. Weak nonlinear propagation effects were studied. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between the predicted and measured temperature elevations and lesion in a porcine muscle. Methods: The investigated single-element transducer has a focal length of 12 cm, an aperture of 8 cm, and frequency of 1.08 MHz. Porcine muscle was heated for 30 s by focused ultrasound transducer with an acoustic power in the range of 24–56 W. The theoretical model consists of nonlinear Westervelt equation with relaxation effects being taken into account and Pennes bioheat equation. Results: Excellent agreement between the measured and simulated temperature rises was found. For peak temperatures above 85–90 °C “preboiling” or cavitation activity appears and lesion distortion starts, causing small discrepancy between the measured and simulated temperature rises. From the measurements and simulations, it was shown that distortion of the lesion was caused by the “preboiling” activity. Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that for peak temperatures below 85–90 °C numerical simulation results are in excellent agreement with the experimental data in three dimensions. Both temperature rise and lesion size can be well predicted. Due to nonlinear effect the temperature in the focal region can be increased compared with the linear case. The current magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) resolution is not sufficient. Due to the inevitable averaging the measured temperature can be 10–30 °C lower than the peak temperature. Computational fluid dynamics can provide additional important information that is lost using a state of the art MRI device.

  7. High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems High-Temperature-High-Volume Lifting for Enhanced Geothermal Systems presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado. PDF icon turnquist_high_temp_tools_peer2013.pdf More Documents & Publications High-Temperature Motor Windings for Downhole Pumps Used in Geothermal Energy Production

  8. Logarithmic current measurement circuit with improved accuracy and temperature stability and associated method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ericson, M. Nance (Knoxville, TN); Rochelle, James M. (Knoxville, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A logarithmic current measurement circuit for operating upon an input electric signal utilizes a quad, dielectrically isolated, well-matched, monolithic bipolar transistor array. One group of circuit components within the circuit cooperate with two transistors of the array to convert the input signal logarithmically to provide a first output signal which is temperature-dependant, and another group of circuit components cooperate with the other two transistors of the array to provide a second output signal which is temperature-dependant. A divider ratios the first and second output signals to provide a resultant output signal which is independent of temperature. The method of the invention includes the operating steps performed by the measurement circuit.

  9. Method and system to measure temperature of gases using coherent anti-stokes doppler spectroscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhodes, Mark

    2013-12-17

    A method of measuring a temperature of a noble gas in a chamber includes providing the noble gas in the chamber. The noble gas is characterized by a pressure and a temperature. The method also includes directing a first laser beam into the chamber and directing a second laser beam into the chamber. The first laser beam is characterized by a first frequency and the second laser beam is characterized by a second frequency. The method further includes converting at least a portion of the first laser beam and the second laser beam into a coherent anti-Stokes beam, measuring a Doppler broadening of the coherent anti-Stokes beam, and computing the temperature using the Doppler broadening.

  10. Coherent anti-stokes Raman spectroscopy system for point temperature and major species concentration measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, J.P.; Yueh, Fang-Yu

    1993-10-01

    The Coherent anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy system (CARS) has been developed as a laser-based, advanced, combustion-diagnostic technique to measure temperature and major species concentration. Principles of operation, description of the system and its capabilities, and operational details of this instrument are presented in this report.

  11. MEASUREMENTS OF ANISOTROPIC ION TEMPERATURES, NON-THERMAL VELOCITIES, AND DOPPLER SHIFTS IN A CORONAL HOLE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hahn, M.; Savin, D. W.

    2013-02-15

    We present a new diagnostic allowing one to measure the anisotropy of ion temperatures and non-thermal velocities, as well as Doppler shifts with respect to the ambient magnetic field. This method provides new results, as well as an independent test for previous measurements obtained with other techniques. Our spectral data come from observations of a low-latitude, on-disk coronal hole. A potential field source surface model was used to calculate the angle between the magnetic field lines and the line of sight for each spatial bin of the observation. A fit was performed to determine the line widths and Doppler shifts parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field. For each line width component we derived ion temperatures T {sub i,} and T {sub i, Parallel-To} and non-thermal velocities v {sub nt,} and v {sub nt, Parallel-To }. T {sub i,} was cooler than off-limb polar coronal hole measurements, suggesting increasing collisional cooling with decreasing height. T {sub i, Parallel-To} is consistent with a uniform temperature of (1.8 {+-} 0.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} K for each ion. Since parallel ion heating is expected to be weak, this ion temperature should reflect the proton temperature. A comparison between our results and others implies a large proton temperature gradient around 1.02 R {sub Sun }. The non-thermal velocities are thought to be proportional to the amplitudes of various waves. Our results for v {sub nt,} agree with Alfven wave amplitudes inferred from off-limb polar coronal hole line width measurements. Our v {sub nt, Parallel-To} results are consistent with slow magnetosonic wave amplitudes inferred from Fourier analysis of time-varying intensity fluctuations. Doppler shift measurements yield outflows of Almost-Equal-To 5 km s{sup -1} for ions formed over a broad temperature range. This differs from other studies that found a strong Doppler shift dependence on formation temperature.

  12. Differential absorption lidar measurements of atmospheric temperature profiles - Theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theopold, F.A.; Boesenberg, J. )

    1993-04-01

    The method of measuring atmospheric temperature profiles with differential absorption lidar (DIAL), based on the temperature dependence of oxygen absorption lines in the near-IR, is investigated in detail. Particularly, the influence of Doppler broadening on the Rayleigh-backscattered signal is evaluated, and a correction method for this effect is presented which requires an accurate estimate of the molecular and particle backscatter contributions; this is noted not to be achievable by the usual lidar inversion techniques. Under realistic conditions, resulting errors may be as high as 10 K. First range-resolved measurements using this technique are presented, using a slightly modified DIAL system originally constructed for water vapor measurements. While much better resolution can certainly be achieved by technical improvements, the errors introduced by the uncertainty of the backscatter contributions will remain and determine the accuracy that can be obtained with this method. 35 refs.

  13. Electron density and temperature measurement by continuum radiation emitted from weakly ionized atmospheric pressure plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Sanghoo; Choe, Wonho, E-mail: wchoe@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Youn Moon, Se [High-enthalpy Plasma Research Center, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jaeyoung [5771 La Jolla Corona Drive, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States)

    2014-02-24

    The electron-atom neutral bremsstrahlung continuum radiation emitted from weakly ionized plasmas is investigated for electron density and temperature diagnostics. The continuum spectrum in 4501000?nm emitted from the argon atmospheric pressure plasma is found to be in excellent agreement with the neutral bremsstrahlung formula with the electron-atom momentum transfer cross-section given by Popovi?. In 280450?nm, however, a large discrepancy between the measured and the neutral bremsstrahlung emissivities is observed. We find that without accounting for the radiative H{sub 2} dissociation continuum, the temperature, and density measurements would be largely wrong, so that it should be taken into account for accurate measurement.

  14. System to inject steam and produce oil from the same wellbore through downhole valve switching. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    Through direct contacts with many California Operators, the potential market for this technology and hardware was more closely defined. The largest market might be for re-entry into existing but shut-in wells, equipped with 7{double_prime}OD cemented casings, for which a suitable configuration was designed. For field-testing any prototype Downhole equipment, however, Operators and Service Companies prefer to start with a new well, for better control of the well characteristics. In the relatively shallow reservoirs where Steam injection is currently used with success, the additional drilling cost, in soft formations, is sufficiently small that this became the main design case. Substantial savings were obtained by reducing the number of Downhole valves from two to one and by replacing the twin hydraulically-controlled ball or flapper-type valves with a single sliding sleeve valve, operated by wireline. Laboratory tests conducted at UC-Berkeley confirmed the satisfactory operation of this type of valve with wet steam over extended periods. Low reservoir pressures dictated the use of artificial lift methods, with rod pumps considered the most economical. The availability of live steam downhole at all times is, however, a major advantage which led to the selection of a combined method of artificial lift: (1) steam-lift of the produced fluids up to the kick-off point of the medium curvature drainholes, (2) dumping of the produced fluids into a vertical separator/sump below the kick-off points, (3) vertical rod pumping of the liquid phases from the downhole separator/sump to the surface through a dedicated production tubing.

  15. Temperature measurements of partially-melted tin as a function of shock pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seifter, Achim; Furlanetto, Michael R; Holtkamp, David B; Obst, Andrew W; Payton, J R; Stone, J B; Tabaka, L J; Grover, M; Macrum, G; Stevens, G D; Swift, D C; Turley, W D; Veeser, L R

    2009-01-01

    Equilibrium equation of state theory predicts that the free surface release temperature of shock loaded tin will show a plateau of 505 K in the pressure range from 19.5 to 33.0 GPa, corresponding to the solid-liquid mixed-phase region. In this paper we report free surface temperature measurements on shock-loaded tin from 15 to 31 GPa using multi-wavelength optical pyrometry. The shock waves were generated by direct contact of detonating high explosive with the sample. The pressure in the sample was determined by free surface velocity measurements using Photon Doppler Velocimetry. The emitted thermal radiance was measured at four wavelength bands in the near IR region from 1.5 to 5.0 {micro}m. The samples in most of the experiments had diamond-turned surface finishes, with a few samples being polished or ball rolled. At pressures higher than 25 GPa the measured free surface temperatures were higher than the predicted 505 K and increased with increasing pressure. This deviation could be explained by hot spots and/or variations in surface emissivity and requires a further investigation.

  16. Schlieren technique applied to the arc temperature measurement in a high energy density cutting torch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B.; Artana, G.; Kelly, H.

    2010-01-15

    Plasma temperature and radial density profiles of the plasma species in a high energy density cutting arc have been obtained by using a quantitative schlieren technique. A Z-type two-mirror schlieren system was used in this research. Due to its great sensibility such technique allows measuring plasma composition and temperature from the arc axis to the surrounding medium by processing the gray-level contrast values of digital schlieren images recorded at the observation plane for a given position of a transverse knife located at the exit focal plane of the system. The technique has provided a good visualization of the plasma flow emerging from the nozzle and its interactions with the surrounding medium and the anode. The obtained temperature values are in good agreement with those values previously obtained by the authors on the same torch using Langmuir probes.

  17. Measurement of particle size, velocity and temperature in the plasma spray coating process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fincke, J.R.; Swank, W.D.

    1991-01-01

    The quality and uniformity of coatings fabricated by the plasma spray process is controlled by the condition of the particles on impact. In this work a measurement technique for simultaneously obtaining particle size, velocity, and temperature is used to characterize the particle spray field. Particle size and velocity are obtained from a combination laser particle sizing system and laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV). The particle temperature is determined by a two-color pyrometer technique and the relative particle number density is derived from the data rate. The fraction of unheated or unprocessed particles which result from temperature and velocity fluctuations is also obtained. This fraction can approach 10% by mass of the total particle flow. 17 refs., 10 figs.

  18. Non-contact passive temperature measuring system and method of operation using micro-mechanical sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thundat, Thomas G. (616 Plainfield Rd., Knoxville, TN 37923); Oden, Patrick I. (804-171 Olde Pioneer Trail, Knoxville, TN 37923); Datskos, Panagiotis G. (8444 Mecklenburg Ct., Knoxville, TN 37923)

    2000-01-01

    A non-contact infrared thermometer measures target temperatures remotely without requiring the ratio of the target size to the target distance to the thermometer. A collection means collects and focusses target IR radiation on an IR detector. The detector measures thermal energy of the target over a spectrum using micromechanical sensors. A processor means calculates the collected thermal energy in at least two different spectral regions using a first algorithm in program form and further calculates the ratio of the thermal energy in the at least two different spectral regions to obtain the target temperature independent of the target size, distance to the target and emissivity using a second algorithm in program form.

  19. Instrument for stable high temperature Seebeck coefficient and resistivity measurements under controlled oxygen partial pressure

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Brown-Shaklee, Harlan James; Sharma, Peter Anand

    2015-04-28

    The transport properties of ceramic materials strongly depend on oxygen activity, which is tuned by changing the partial oxygen pressure (pO2) prior to and during measurement. Within, we describe an instrument for highly stable measurements of Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity at temperatures up to 1300 K with controlled oxygen partial pressure. An all platinum construction is used to avoid potential materials instabilities that can cause measurement drift. Two independent heaters are employed to establish a small temperature gradient for Seebeck measurements, while keeping the average temperature constant and avoiding errors associated with pO2-induced drifts in thermocouple readings. Oxygen equilibriummore » is monitored using both an O2 sensor and the transient behavior of the resistance as a proxy. A pO2 range of 10-25–100 atm can be established with appropriate gas mixtures. Seebeck measurements were calibrated against a high purity platinum wire, Pt/Pt–Rh thermocouple wire, and a Bi2Te3 Seebeck coefficient Standard Reference Material. To demonstrate the utility of this instrument for oxide materials we present measurements as a function of pO2 on a 1 % Nb-doped SrTiO3 single crystal, and show systematic changes in properties consistent with oxygen vacancy defect chemistry. Thus, an approximately 11% increase in power factor over a pO2 range of 10-19–10-8 atm at 973 K for the donor-doped single crystals is observed.« less

  20. Considerations for the use of the modified line reversal technique for gas temperature measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winkleman, B.C.

    1993-06-01

    Several areas related to the successful and accurate application of modified line reversal are discussed. Initially, generalized modified line reversal equations are developed. A review of basic line reversal theory is presented followed by development of correction factors for optical system effects. Image size and their effect on accurate determinations of spectral radiances is discussed. Temperature biases introduced by image vignetting is calculated. Measured image irradiances are given.

  1. Measurements of the cosmic microwave background temperature at 1.47 GHz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bensadoun, M.J.

    1991-11-01

    A radiofrequency-gain total power radiometer measured the intensity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at a frequency of 1.47 GHz (20.4 cm wavelength) from White Mountain, California, in September 1988 and from the South Pole, Antarctica, in December 1989. The CMB thermodynamic temperature, TCMB, is 2.27 {plus_minus} 0.25 K (68% C.L.) measured from White Mountain and 2.26 {plus_minus} 0.21 K from the South Pole site. The combined result is 2.27 {plus_minus} 0.19 K. The correction for galactic emission has been derived from scaled low-frequency maps and constitutes the main source, of error. The atmospheric signal is found by extrapolation from zenith scan measurements at higher frequencies. The result is consistent with previous low-frequency measurements, including a measurement at 1.41 GHz (Levin et al. 1988) made with an earlier version of this instrument. The result is {approximately}2.5 {sigma} ({approximately}l% probability) from the 2.74 {plus_minus} 0.02,K global average CMB temperature.

  2. Measurements of the cosmic microwave background temperature at 1. 47 GHz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bensadoun, M.J.

    1991-11-01

    A radiofrequency-gain total power radiometer measured the intensity of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at a frequency of 1.47 GHz (20.4 cm wavelength) from White Mountain, California, in September 1988 and from the South Pole, Antarctica, in December 1989. The CMB thermodynamic temperature, TCMB, is 2.27 {plus minus} 0.25 K (68% C.L.) measured from White Mountain and 2.26 {plus minus} 0.21 K from the South Pole site. The combined result is 2.27 {plus minus} 0.19 K. The correction for galactic emission has been derived from scaled low-frequency maps and constitutes the main source, of error. The atmospheric signal is found by extrapolation from zenith scan measurements at higher frequencies. The result is consistent with previous low-frequency measurements, including a measurement at 1.41 GHz (Levin et al. 1988) made with an earlier version of this instrument. The result is {approximately}2.5 {sigma} ({approximately}l% probability) from the 2.74 {plus minus} 0.02,K global average CMB temperature.

  3. Downhole steam generator with improved preheating/cooling features. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donaldson, A.B.; Hoke, D.E.; Mulac, A.J.

    1980-10-10

    An apparatus is described for downhole steam generation employing dual-stage preheaters for liquid fuel and for the water. A first heat exchange jacket for the fuel surrounds the fuel/oxidant mixing section of the combustor assembly downstream of the fuel nozzle and contacts the top of the combustor unit of the combustor assembly, thereby receiving heat directly from the combustion of the fuel/oxidant. A second stage heat exchange jacket surrounds an upper portion of the oxidant supply line adjacent the fuel nozzle receiving further heat from the compression heat which results from pressurization of the oxidant. The combustor unit includes an inner combustor sleeve whose inner wall defines the combustion zone. The inner combustor sleeve is surrounded by two concentric water channels, one defined by the space between the inner combustor sleeve and an intermediate sleeve, and the second defined by the space between the intermediate sleeve and an outer cylindrical housing. The channels are connected by an annular passage adjacent the top of the combustor assembly and the countercurrent nature of the water flow provides efficient cooling of the inner combustor sleeve. An annular water ejector with a plurality of nozzles is provided to direct water downwardly into the combustor unit at the boundary of the combustion zone and along the lower section of the intermediate sleeve.

  4. Casingless down-hole for sealing an ablation volume and obtaining a sample for analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noble, Donald T. (Ames, IA); Braymen, Steven D. (Ames, IA); Anderson, Marvin S. (Ames, IA)

    1996-10-01

    A casing-less down hole sampling system for acquiring a subsurface sample for analysis using an inductively coupled plasma system is disclosed. The system includes a probe which is pushed into the formation to be analyzed using a hydraulic ram system. The probe includes a detachable tip member which has a soil point mad a barb, with the soil point aiding the penetration of the earth, and the barb causing the tip member to disengage from the probe and remain in the formation when the probe is pulled up. The probe is forced into the formation to be tested, and then pulled up slightly, to disengage the tip member and expose a column of the subsurface formation to be tested. An instrumentation tube mounted in the probe is then extended outward from the probe to longitudinally extend into the exposed column. A balloon seal mounted on the end of the instrumentation tube allows the bottom of the column to be sealed. A source of laser radiation is emitted from the instrumentation tube to ablate a sample from the exposed column. The instrumentation tube can be rotated in the probe to sweep the laser source across the surface of the exposed column. An aerosol transport system carries the ablated sample from the probe to the surface for testing in an inductively coupled plasma system. By testing at various levels in the down-hole as the probe is extracted from the soil, a profile of the subsurface formation may be obtained.

  5. Casingless down-hole for sealing an ablation volume and obtaining a sample for analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noble, D.T.; Braymen, S.D.; Anderson, M.S.

    1996-10-01

    A casing-less down hole sampling system for acquiring a subsurface sample for analysis using an inductively coupled plasma system is disclosed. The system includes a probe which is pushed into the formation to be analyzed using a hydraulic ram system. The probe includes a detachable tip member which has a soil point and a barb, with the soil point aiding the penetration of the earth, and the barb causing the tip member to disengage from the probe and remain in the formation when the probe is pulled up. The probe is forced into the formation to be tested, and then pulled up slightly, to disengage the tip member and expose a column of the subsurface formation to be tested. An instrumentation tube mounted in the probe is then extended outward from the probe to longitudinally extend into the exposed column. A balloon seal mounted on the end of the instrumentation tube allows the bottom of the column to be sealed. A source of laser radiation is emitted from the instrumentation tube to ablate a sample from the exposed column. The instrumentation tube can be rotated in the probe to sweep the laser source across the surface of the exposed column. An aerosol transport system carries the ablated sample from the probe to the surface for testing in an inductively coupled plasma system. By testing at various levels in the down-hole as the probe is extracted from the soil, a profile of the subsurface formation may be obtained. 9 figs.

  6. Methods and computer executable instructions for marking a downhole elongate line and detecting same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watkins, Arthur D.

    2003-05-13

    Methods and computer executable instructions are provided for making an elongate line (22) with a plurality of marks (30) and detecting those marks (30) to determine a distance of the elongate line (22) in a downhole or a physical integrity thereof. In a preferred embodiment, each mark comprises a plurality of particles (44) having a substantially permanent magnetizing capability adhered to an exterior surface of the elongate line (22) at preselected intervals with an epoxy paint. The particles (44) are arranged at each interval as a plurality of bands (40). Thereafter, the particles are oriented into a magnetic signature for that interval by magnetizing the particles to create a magnetic field substantially normal to the exterior surface. This facilitates detection by a Hall effect probe. The magnetic signatures are stored in a computing configuration and, once a mark is detected, a correlation is made to a unique position on the elongate line by comparison with the stored magnetic signatures. Preferred particles include samarium-cobalt and neodymium-iron-boride.

  7. ON MEASURING THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND TEMPERATURE AT REDSHIFT 0.89

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sato, M.; Menten, K. M.; Reid, M. J.; Carilli, C. L.

    2013-02-20

    We report on a measurement of the temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation field, T {sub CMB}, at z = 0.88582 by imaging HC{sub 3}N(3 <- 2) and (5 <- 4) absorption in the foreground galaxy of the gravitationally lens magnified radio source PKS 1830-211 using the Very Long Baseline Array and the phased Very Large Array. Low-resolution imaging of the data yields a value of T {sub rot} = 5.6{sup +2.5} {sub -0.9} K for the rotational temperature, T {sub rot}, which is consistent with the temperature of the cosmic microwave background at the absorber's redshift of 2.73(1 + z) K. However, our high-resolution imaging reveals that the absorption peak position of the foreground gas is offset from the continuum peak position of the synchrotron radiation from PKS 1830-211SW, which indicates that the absorbing cloud is covering only part of the emission from PKS 1830-211, rather than the entire core-jet region. This changes the line-to-continuum ratios, and we find T {sub rot} between 1.1 and 2.5 K, which is lower than the expected value. This shows that previous T {sub rot} measurements could be biased due to unresolved structure.

  8. Thermal input control and enhancement for laser based residual stress measurements using liquid temperature indicating coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pechersky, M.J.

    1999-07-06

    An improved method for measuring residual stress in a material is disclosed comprising the steps of applying a spot of temperature indicating coating to the surface to be studied, establishing a speckle pattern surrounds the spot of coating with a first laser then heating the spot of coating with a far infrared laser until the surface plastically deforms. Comparing the speckle patterns before and after deformation by subtracting one pattern from the other will produce a fringe pattern that serves as a visual and quantitative indication of the degree to which the plasticized surface responded to the stress during heating and enables calculation of the stress. 3 figs.

  9. Thermal input control and enhancement for laser based residual stress measurements using liquid temperature indicating coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pechersky, Martin J. (Aiken, SC)

    1999-01-01

    An improved method for measuring residual stress in a material comprising the steps of applying a spot of temperature indicating coating to the surface to be studied, establishing a speckle pattern surrounds the spot of coating with a first laser then heating the spot of coating with a far infrared laser until the surface plastically deforms. Comparing the speckle patterns before and after deformation by subtracting one pattern from the other will produce a fringe pattern that serves as a visual and quantitative indication of the degree to which the plasticized surface responded to the stress during heating and enables calculation of the stress.

  10. Apparatus for measuring tensile and compressive properties of solid materials at cryogenic temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonczy, J.D.; Markley, F.W.; McCaw, W.R.; Niemann, R.C.

    1992-04-21

    An apparatus for evaluating the tensile and compressive properties of material samples at very low or cryogenic temperatures employs a stationary frame and a dewar mounted below the frame. A pair of coaxial cylindrical tubes extend downward towards the bottom of the dewar. A compressive or tensile load is generated hydraulically and is transmitted by the inner tube to the material sample. The material sample is located near the bottom of the dewar in a liquid refrigerant bath. The apparatus employs a displacement measuring device, such as a linear variable differential transformer, to measure the deformation of the material sample relative to the amount of compressive or tensile force applied to the sample. 7 figs.

  11. A scheme to produce high density and high temperature plasma for opacity measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Yan; Wu, SiZhong; Zheng, WuDi

    2015-04-15

    The opacity of shock-compressed material is of general scientific interest for astrophysical plasmas and for inertial confinement fusion research. A proposal is suggested to produce high temperature plasma with density around 1?g/cm{sup ?3}. Two types of opacity target (the sandwich target and the foam enhanced sandwich target) are investigated numerically. The foam enhanced sandwich target has structure of foamsolid-sample-solid-foam. The foam will increase laser absorption efficiency and the ablating pressure. Hydrodynamic simulations confirm that the laser can be fully absorbed by the under-critical-density foam and a faster shock is produced inside the CH layer. High intensity lasers heat opacity target from both sides. The CH layers must be thick enough to keep the laser away from the sample. The laser-driven shocks move inward and collide at the center. Part of their kinetic energy is converted into internal energy and high density and high temperature local thermodynamic equilibrium sample plasma is produced. The plasma produced by laser heating the foam enhanced sandwich target has higher sample temperature than by laser heating the sandwich target. It may be useful for measuring the opacity of shock compressed material in laboratory.

  12. New Measurements of the Solubility of Metal Oxides at High Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.A. Palmer; P. Benezeth; D.J. Wesolowski; S.A. Wood; C. Xiao

    2000-06-30

    The results of high temperature solubility studies at ORNL are presented in which mainly direct pH measurements were made of aqueous solutions in contact with the crystalline solid phases: Al(OH){sub 3}, AlOOH, Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, Mg(OH){sub 2}, Nd(OH){sub 3}, and ZnO. Examples are highlighted of specific phenomena such as: the kinetics of gibbsite and boehmite dissolution and precipitation; the appearance of metastable equilibria in the dissolution of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}; the extremely rapid precipitation of crystalline brucite, Mg(OH){sub 2}; and anomalies in the apparent solubility profiles of AlO(OH) and ZnO. General trends associated with the effects of temperature and ionic strength are mentioned. Some of the potentiometric investigations were augmented by conventional batch [AlO(OH) and ZnO], and flow-through column (ZnO) experiments. In the additional case of ZnCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}, the extremely low solubility of this spinel permitted application of only the latter technique and these results are discussed in terms of the measured chromium levels that resulted from incongruent dissolution.

  13. Development of a simultaneous Hugoniot and temperature measurement for preheated-metal shock experiments: Melting temperatures of Ta at pressures of 100 GPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Jun; Zhou Xianming; Li Jiabo; Wu Qiang; Cai Lingcang; Dai Chengda

    2012-05-15

    Equations of state of metals are important issues in earth science and planetary science. A major limitation of them is the lack of experimental data for determining pressure-volume and temperature of shocked metal simultaneously. By measuring them in a single experiment, a major source of systematic error is eliminated in determining from which shock pressure release pressure originates. Hence, a non-contact fast optical method was developed and demonstrated to simultaneously measure a Hugoniot pressure-volume (P{sub H}-V{sub H}) point and interfacial temperature T{sub R} on the release of Hugoniot pressure (P{sub R}) for preheated metals up to 1000 K. Experimental details in our investigation are (i) a Ni-Cr resistance coil field placed around the metal specimen to generate a controllable and stable heating source, (ii) a fiber-optic probe with an optical lens coupling system and optical pyrometer with ns time resolution to carry out non-contact fast optical measurements for determining P{sub H}-V{sub H} and T{sub R}. The shock response of preheated tantalum (Ta) at 773 K was investigated in our work. Measured data for shock velocity versus particle velocity at an initial state of room temperature was in agreement with previous shock compression results, while the measured shock data between 248 and 307 GPa initially heated to 773 K were below the Hugoniot evaluation from its off-Hugoniot states. Obtained interfacial temperatures on release of Hugoniot pressures (100-170 GPa) were in agreement with shock-melting points at initial ambient condition and ab initio calculations of melting curve. It indicates a good consistency for shock melting data of Ta at different initial temperatures. Our combined diagnostics for Hugoniot and temperature provides an important approach for studying EOS and the temperature effect of shocked metals. In particular, our measured melting temperatures of Ta address the current controversy about the difference by more than a factor of 2 between the melting temperatures measured under shock and those measured in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell at {approx}100 GPa.

  14. Full Reviews: High-temperature Tools and Drilling | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-temperature Tools and Drilling Full Reviews: High-temperature Tools and Drilling Below are the project presentations and respective peer reviewer comments for High-temperature Tools and Drilling. GUFI: Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager Doug Patterson and Baker Hughes, Oilfield Operations Incorporated Project Presentation | Peer Reviewer Comments High-Temperature Motor Windings for Downhole Pumps Used in Geothermal Energy Production Matthew Hooker, Composite Technology Development, Inc.

  15. X-ray Thomson scattering measurements of temperature and density from multi-shocked CH capsules

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fletcher, L. B.; Glenzer, S. H.; Kritcher, A.; Pak, A.; Ma, T.; Doppner, T.; Fortmann, C.; Divol, L.; Landen, O. L.; Vorberger, J.; et al

    2013-05-24

    Proof-of-principle measurements of the electron densities, temperatures, and ionization states of spherically compressed multi-shocked CH (polystyrene) capsules have been achieved using spectrally resolved x-ray Thomson scattering. A total energy of 13.5 kJ incident on target is used to compress a 70 μm thick CH shell above solid-mass density using three coalescing shocks. Separately, a laser-produced zinc He-α x-ray source at 9 keV delayed 200 ps-800 ps after maximum compression is used to probe the plasma in the non-collective scattering regime. The data show that x-ray Thomson scattering enables a complete description of the time-dependent hydrodynamic evolution of shock-compressed CH capsules,more » with a maximum measured density of ρ > 6 g cm–3. Additionally, the results demonstrate that accurate measurements of x-ray scattering from bound-free transitions in the CH plasma demonstrate strong evidence that continuum lowering is the primary ionization mechanism of carbon L-shell electrons.« less

  16. Measurements of T sub o temperatures of supersaturated Si-As alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Kwang-Ryeol; West, J.A.; Smith, P.M.; Aziz, M.J. . Div. of Applied Sciences); Knapp, J.A. )

    1990-01-01

    The congruent melting point, to T{sub o} curve, of crystalline Si-As alloys has been measured in the range of 1.6 to 18.1 at. % arsenic by line source electron beam annealing. Alloys were created by ion implantation of As into 0.1mm Si-on-sapphire and crystallized by pulsed laser melting. T{sub o} temperatures decrease from 1673{plus minus}10K at 2.0 at. % As to 1516 {plus minus}30K at 18.1 at. % As. The results of these measurements are significantly higher than the previous results of studies using pulsed laser melting techniques. Advantages of the e-beam technique over previous techniques are discussed. Chemical free energy functions of the solid and liquid phases were calculated from existing thermodynamic data. The calculated T{sub o} curve agrees with the measured values only in low concentration region (less than 8 at. %). 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE DEPENDENT DEFLAGRATION RATE MEASUREMENTS OF LLM-105 AND TATB BASED EXPLOSIVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glascoe, E A; Tan, N; Koerner, J; Lorenz, K T; Maienschein, J L

    2009-11-10

    The pressure dependent deflagration rates of LLM-105 and TATB based formulations were measured in the LLNL high pressure strand burner. The role of binder amount, explosive type, and thermal damage and their effects on the deflagration rate will be discussed. Two different formulations of LLM-105 and three formulations of TATB were studied and results indicate that binder amount and type play a minor role in the deflagration behavior. This is in sharp contrast to the HMX based formulations which strongly depend on binder amount and type. The effect of preheating these samples was considerably more dramatic. In the case of LLM-105, preheating the sample appears to have little effect on the deflagration rate. In contrast, preheating TATB formulations causes the deflagration rate to accelerate and become erratic. The thermal and mechanical properties of these formulations will be discussed in the context of their pressure and temperature dependent deflagration rates.

  18. Development of Metal Oxide Nanostructure-based Optical Sensors for Fossil Fuel Derived Gases Measurement at High Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Kevin

    2014-08-31

    This final technical report details research works performed supported by a Department of Energy grant (DE-FE0003859), which was awarded under the University Coal Research Program administrated by National Energy Technology Laboratory. This research program studied high temperature fiber sensor for harsh environment applications. It developed two fiber optical sensor platform technology including regenerative fiber Bragg grating sensors and distributed fiber optical sensing based on Rayleigh backscattering optical frequency domain reflectometry. Through the studies of chemical and thermal regenerative techniques for fiber Bragg grating (FBG) fabrication, high-temperature stable FBG sensors were successfully developed and fabricated in air-hole microstructured fibers, high-attenuation fibers, rare-earth doped fibers, and standard telecommunication fibers. By optimizing the laser processing and thermal annealing procedures, fiber grating sensors with stable performance up to 1100oC have been developed. Using these temperature-stable FBG gratings as sensor platform, fiber optical flow, temperature, pressure, and chemical sensors have been developed to operate at high temperatures up to 800oC. Through the integration of on-fiber functional coating, the use of application-specific air-hole microstructural fiber, and application of active fiber sensing scheme, distributed fiber sensor for temperature, pressure, flow, liquid level, and chemical sensing have been demonstrated with high spatial resolution (1-cm or better) with wide temperature ranges. These include the demonstration of 1) liquid level sensing from 77K to the room temperature, pressure/temperature sensing from the room temperature to 800C and from the 15psi to 2000 psi, and hydrogen concentration measurement from 0.2% to 10% with temperature ranges from the room temperature to 700C. Optical sensors developed by this program has broken several technical records including flow sensors with the highest operation temperature up to 750oC, first distributed chemical measurements at the record high temperature up to 700oC, first distributed pressure measurement at the record high temperature up to 800oC, and the fiber laser sensors with the record high operation temperature up to 700oC. The research performed by this program dramatically expand the functionality, adaptability, and applicability of distributed fiber optical sensors with potential applications in a number of high-temperature energy systems such as fossil-fuel power generation, high-temperature fuel cell applications, and potential for nuclear energy systems.

  19. Shock tube measurements of high temperature rate constants for OH with cycloalkanes and methylcycloalkanes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivaramakrishnan, R.; Michael, J. V.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

    2009-05-01

    High temperature experiments were performed with the reflected shock tube technique using multi-pass absorption spectrometric detection of OH radicals at 308 nm. The present experiments span a wide T-range, 801-1347 K, and represent the first direct measurements of the title rate constants at T>500 K for cyclopentane and cyclohexane and the only high temperature measurements for the corresponding methyl derivatives. The present work utilized 48 optical passes corresponding to a total path length 4.2 m. As a result of this increased path length, the high [OH] detection sensitivity permitted unambiguous analyses for measuring the title rate constants. The experimental rate constants in units, cm3 molecule-1 s-1, can be expressed in Arrhenius form as k{sub OH+Cyclopentane} = (1.90 {+-} 0.30) x 10{sup -10} exp(-1705 {+-} 156 K/T) (813-1341 K), k{sub OH+Cyclohexane} = (1.86 {+-} 0.24) x 10{sup -10} exp(-1513 {+-} 123 K/T) (801-1347 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclopentane} = (2.02 {+-} 0.19) x 10{sup -10} exp(-1799 {+-} 96 K/T) (859-1344 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclohexane} = (2.55 {+-} 0.30) x 10{sup -10} exp(-1824 {+-} 114 K/T) (836-1273 K). These results and lower-T experimental data were used to obtain three parameter evaluations of the experimental rate constants for the title reactions over an even wider T-range. These experimental three parameter fits to the rate constants in units, cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1}, are k{sub OH+Cyclopentane} = 1.390 x 10{sup -16}T{sup 1.779} exp(97 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (209-1341 K), k{sub OH+Cyclohexane} = 3.169 x 10{sup -16} T{sup 1.679} exp(119 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (225-1347 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclopentane} = 6.903 x 10{sup -18}T{sup 2.148} exp(536 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (296-1344 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclohexane} = 2.341 x 10{sup -18}T{sup 2.325} exp(602 K/T) cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1} (296-1273 K). High level electronic structure methods were used to characterize the first three reactions in order to provide reliable extrapolations of the rate constants from 250-2000 K. The results of the theoretical predictions for OH + cyclohexane and OH + methylcyclopentane were sufficient to make a theoretical prediction for OH + methylcyclohexane. The present recommended rate expressions for OH with cyclohexane, and methylcyclohexane, give rate constants that are 15-25% higher (over the T-range 800-1300 K) than the rate constants utilized in recent modeling efforts aimed at addressing the oxidation of cyclohexane and methylcyclohexane. The current measurements reduce the uncertainties in rate constants for the primary cycloalkane consumption channel in a high temperature oxidation environment.

  20. Shock tube measurements of high temperature rate constants for OH with cycloalkanes and methylcycloalkanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sivaramakrishnan, R.; Michael, J.V.

    2009-05-15

    High temperature experiments were performed with the reflected shock tube technique using multi-pass absorption spectrometric detection of OH radicals at 308 nm. The present experiments span a wide T-range, 801-1347 K, and represent the first direct measurements of the title rate constants at T>500 K for cyclopentane and cyclohexane and the only high temperature measurements for the corresponding methyl derivatives. The present work utilized 48 optical passes corresponding to a total path length {proportional_to}4.2 m. As a result of this increased path length, the high [OH] detection sensitivity permitted unambiguous analyses for measuring the title rate constants. The experimental rate constants in units, cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1}, can be expressed in Arrhenius form as k{sub OH+Cyclopentane}=(1.90{+-}0.30) x 10{sup -10}exp(-1705{+-}56 K/T) (813-1341 K), k{sub OH+Cyclohexane}=(1.86{+-}0.24) x 10{sup -10}exp(-1513{+-}123 K/T) (801-1347 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclopentane}=(2.02{+-}0.19) x 10{sup -10}exp(-1799{+-}96 K/T) (859-1344 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclohexane}=(2.55{+-}0.30) x 10{sup -10}exp(-1824{+-}114 K/T) (836-1273 K). These results and lower-T experimental data were used to obtain three parameter evaluations of the experimental rate constants for the title reactions over an even wider T-range. These experimental three parameter fits to the rate constants in units, cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1} s{sup -1}, are k{sub OH+Cyclopentane}=1.390 x 10{sup -16}T{sup 1.779}exp(97 K/T)cm{sup 3} molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1} (209-1341 K), k{sub OH+Cyclohexane}=3.169 x 10{sup -16}T{sup 1.679}exp(119 K/T)cm{sup 3}molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1} (225-1347 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclopentane}=6.903 x 10{sup -18}T{sup 2.148}exp(536 K/T)cm{sup 3}molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1} (296-1344 K), k{sub OH+Methylcyclohexane}=2.341 x 10{sup -18}T{sup 2.325}exp(602 K/T)cm{sup 3}molecule{sup -1}s{sup -1} (296-1273 K). High level electronic structure methods were used to characterize the first three reactions in order to provide reliable extrapolations of the rate constants from 250-2000 K. The results of the theoretical predictions for OH + cyclohexane and OH + methylcyclopentane were sufficient to make a theoretical prediction for OH + methylcyclohexane. The present recommended rate expressions for OH with cyclohexane, and methylcyclohexane, give rate constants that are 15-25% higher (over the T-range 800-1300 K) than the rate constants utilized in recent modeling efforts aimed at addressing the oxidation of cyclohexane and methylcyclohexane. The current measurements reduce the uncertainties in rate constants for the primary cycloalkane consumption channel in a high temperature oxidation environment. (author)

  1. Use of Rapid Temperature Measurements at a 2-Meter Depth to Augment...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    obtains accurate temperatures within an hour of emplacing hollow steel probes into the ground, making it possible to map results on a daily basis so that temperature surveys can...

  2. Development of a 400 Level 3C Clamped Downhole Seismic Receiver Array for 3D Borehole Seismic Imaging of Gas Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bjorn N. P. Paulsson

    2006-09-30

    Borehole seismology is the highest resolution geophysical imaging technique available today to the oil and gas industry for characterization and monitoring of oil and gas reservoirs. However, the industry's ability to perform high resolution 3D imaging of deep and complex gas reservoirs using borehole seismology has been hampered by the lack of acquisition technology necessary to record large volumes of high frequency, high signal-to-noise-ratio borehole seismic data. This project took aim at this shortcoming by developing a 400 level 3C clamped downhole seismic receiver array, and accompanying software, for borehole seismic 3D imaging. This large borehole seismic array has removed the technical acquisition barrier for recording the data volumes necessary to do high resolution 3D VSP and 3D cross-well seismic imaging. Massive 3D VSP{reg_sign} and long range Cross-Well Seismology (CWS) are two of the borehole seismic techniques that promise to take the gas industry to the next level in their quest for higher resolution images of deep and complex oil and gas reservoirs. Today only a fraction of the oil or gas in place is produced when reservoirs are considered depleted. This is primarily due to our lack of understanding of detailed compartmentalization of oil and gas reservoirs. In this project, we developed a 400 level 3C borehole seismic receiver array that allows for economic use of 3D borehole seismic imaging for reservoir characterization and monitoring. This new array has significantly increased the efficiency of recording large data volumes at sufficiently dense spatial sampling to resolve reservoir complexities. The receiver pods have been fabricated and tested to withstand high temperature (200 C/400 F) and high pressure (25,000 psi), so that they can operate in wells up to 7,620 meters (25,000 feet) deep. The receiver array is deployed on standard production or drill tubing. In combination with 3C surface seismic or 3C borehole seismic sources, the 400 level receiver array can be used to obtain 3D 9C data. These 9C borehole seismic data provide both compressional wave and shear wave information that can be used for quantitative prediction of rock and pore fluid types. The 400-level borehole receiver array has been deployed successfully in a number of oil and gas wells during the course of this project, and each survey has resulted in marked improvements in imaging of geologic features that are critical for oil or gas production but were previously considered to be below the limits of seismic resolution. This added level of reservoir detail has resulted in improved well placement in the oil and gas fields that have been drilled using the Massive 3D VSP{reg_sign} images. In the future, the 400-level downhole seismic receiver array is expected to continue to improve reservoir characterization and drilling success in deep and complex oil and gas reservoirs.

  3. Apparatus and method for direct measurement of coal ash sintering and fusion properties at elevated temperatures and pressures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khan, M. Rashid (Morgantown, WV)

    1990-01-01

    A high-pressure microdilatometer is provided for measuring the sintering and fusion properties of various coal ashes under the influence of elevated pressures and temperatures in various atmospheres. Electrical resistivity measurements across a sample of coal ash provide a measurement of the onset of the sintering and fusion of the ash particulates while the contraction of the sample during sintering is measured with a linear variable displacement transducer for detecting the initiation of sintering. These measurements of sintering in coal ash at different pressures provide a mechanism by which deleterious problems due to the sintering and fusion of ash in various combustion systems can be minimized or obviated.

  4. Development of three-wavelength CCD image pyrometer used for the temperature field measurements of continuous casting billets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Zhi; Bai, Haicheng [State Key Laboratory of Synthetical Automation for Process Industries, School of Information Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Synthetical Automation for Process Industries, School of Information Science and Engineering, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China)

    2014-02-15

    This paper develops an imaging based three-color pyrometer for the monitoring of temperature distribution in a continuous casting billet. A novel optical device, together with an embedded electronic system, is designed to sequentially collect a dark image and three thermal images with specified wavelengths on a same monochromatic charge-coupled-device (CCD). The three thermal images provide the basis for the determination of target temperature, while the dark image is used to online eliminate the dark noise of CCD with a differential method. This image pyrometer is not only independent of target emissivity but also overcomes the dissimilarity of measuring accuracy between the micro-sensors of CCD resulted from the non-uniformity of pixels intensity response and the vignetting of optical system. Furthermore, a precise two-color temperature field measuring model on the CCD pyrometer is established, based on which a self-adaptive light-integration mechanism is presented. Compared with the traditional fixed light-integration method, the measuring range of the pyrometer is greatly extended and its sensitivity in low temperature segment is improved. The test results in a steel factory demonstrate that the pyrometer is capable of meeting the requirement of surface temperature measurements about casting billets. Reliability and accuracy of measurement results are also discussed herein.

  5. Electron density and electron temperature measurement in a bi-Maxwellian electron distribution using a derivative method of Langmuir probes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Ikjin; Chung, ChinWook [Department of Electrical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, Hanyang University, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Youn Moon, Se [High-Enthalpy Plasma Research Center, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-do 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)] [High-Enthalpy Plasma Research Center, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-do 561-756 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    In plasma diagnostics with a single Langmuir probe, the electron temperature T{sub e} is usually obtained from the slope of the logarithm of the electron current or from the electron energy probability functions of current (I)-voltage (V) curve. Recently, Chen [F. F. Chen, Phys. Plasmas 8, 3029 (2001)] suggested a derivative analysis method to obtain T{sub e} by the ratio between the probe current and the derivative of the probe current at a plasma potential where the ion current becomes zero. Based on this method, electron temperatures and electron densities were measured and compared with those from the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) measurement in Maxwellian and bi-Maxwellian electron distribution conditions. In a bi-Maxwellian electron distribution, we found the electron temperature T{sub e} obtained from the method is always lower than the effective temperatures T{sub eff} derived from EEDFs. The theoretical analysis for this is presented.

  6. Measurement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    magnetic fluctuation-induced particle flux "invited... a... W. X. Ding, D. L. Brower, and T. Y. Yates Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA ͑Presented 13 May 2008; received 12 May 2008; accepted 16 May 2008; published online 31 October 2008͒ Magnetic field fluctuation-induced particle transport has been directly measured in the high-temperature core of the MST reversed field pinch plasma. Measurement of radial

  7. Generalized Procedure for Improved Accuracy of Thermal Contact Resistance Measurements for Materials With Arbitrary Temperature-Dependent Thermal Conductivity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sayer, Robert A.

    2014-06-26

    Thermal contact resistance (TCR) is most commonly measured using one-dimensional steady-state calorimetric techniques. In the experimental methods we utilized, a temperature gradient is applied across two contacting beams and the temperature drop at the interface is inferred from the temperature profiles of the rods that are measured at discrete points. During data analysis, thermal conductivity of the beams is typically taken to be an average value over the temperature range imposed during the experiment. Our generalized theory is presented and accounts for temperature-dependent changes in thermal conductivity. The procedure presented enables accurate measurement of TCR for contacting materials whose thermalmore » conductivity is any arbitrary function of temperature. For example, it is shown that the standard technique yields TCR values that are about 15% below the actual value for two specific examples of copper and silicon contacts. Conversely, the generalized technique predicts TCR values that are within 1% of the actual value. The method is exact when thermal conductivity is known exactly and no other errors are introduced to the system.« less

  8. High temperature millimeter wave radiometric and interferometric measurements of slag-refractory interaction for application to coal gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCloy, John S.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Sundaram, S. K.; Slaugh, Ryan W.; Woskov, Paul P.

    2011-09-17

    Millimeter wave (MMW) radiometry can be used for simultaneous measurement of emissivity and temperature of materials under extreme environments (high temperature, pressure, and corrosive environments) such as in slagging coal gasifiers, where sensors have been identified as a key enabling technology need for process optimization. We present a state-of-the-art dual-channel MMW heterodyne radiometer with active interferometric capability that allows simultaneous radiometric measurements of sample temperature, emissivity, and flow dynamics to over 1873 K. Interferometric capability is supplied via a probe signal originating from the 137 GHz radiometer local oscillator (LO). The interferometric 'video' channels allow measurement of additional parameters simultaneously, such as volume expansion, thickness change, and slag viscosity along with temperature or emissivity. This capability has been used to demonstrate measurement of temperature and simulated coal slag infiltration into a chromia refractory brick sample as well as slag flow down a vertically placed refractory brick. Observed phenomena include slag melting and slumping, slag reboil and foam with oxygen evolution, and eventual failure of the alumina crucible through corrosion by the molten slag. These results show the promise of the MMW system for extracting quantitative and qualitative process parameters from operating slagging coal gasifiers, providing valuable information for process efficiency, control, and increased productivity.

  9. TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS COLLECTED FROM AN INSTRUMENTED VAN IN SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH AS PART OF URBAN 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.J. BROWN; E.R. PARDYJAK

    2001-08-01

    Measurements of temperature and position were collected during the night from an instrumented van on routes through Salt Lake City and the rural outskirts. The measurements were taken as part of the Department of Energy Chemical and Biological National Security Program URBAN 2 Field Experiment conducted in October 2000 (Shinn et al., 2000 and Allwine et al., 2001a). The instrumented van was driven over three primary routes, two including downtown, residential, and ''rural'' areas and a third that went by a line of permanently fixed temperature probes (Allwine et al., 2001b) for cross-checking purposes. Each route took from 45 to 60 minutes to complete. Based on four nights of data, initial analyses indicate that there was a temperature difference of 2-5 C between the urban core and nearby ''rural'' areas. Analyses also suggest that there were significant fine scale temperature differences over distances of tens of meters within the city and in the nearby rural areas. The temperature measurements that were collected are intended to supplement the meteorological measurements taken during the URBAN2000 Field Experiment, to assess the importance of the urban heat island phenomenon in Salt Lake City, and to test the urban canopy parameterizations that have been developed for regional scale meteorological codes as part of the DOE CBNP program.

  10. First results of electron temperature measurements by the use of multi-pass Thomson scattering system in GAMMA 10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshikawa, M., E-mail: yosikawa@prc.tsukuba.ac.jp; Nagasu, K.; Shimamura, Y.; Shima, Y.; Kohagura, J.; Sakamoto, M.; Nakashima, Y.; Imai, T.; Ichimura, M. [Plasma Research Center, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Yasuhara, R.; Yamada, I.; Funaba, H.; Kawahata, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Minami, T. [Institute of Advanced Energy, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    A multi-pass Thomson scattering (TS) has the advantage of enhancing scattered signals. We constructed a multi-pass TS system for a polarisation-based system and an image relaying system modelled on the GAMMA 10 TS system. We undertook Raman scattering experiments both for the multi-pass setting and for checking the optical components. Moreover, we applied the system to the electron temperature measurements in the GAMMA 10 plasma for the first time. The integrated scattering signal was magnified by approximately three times by using the multi-pass TS system with four passes. The electron temperature measurement accuracy is improved by using this multi-pass system.

  11. Test report for measurement of performance vs temperature of Whittaker Electrochemical Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vargo, G.F., Fluor Daniel Hanford

    1997-02-13

    This document is the test report that summarizes the results of the tests on the Whittaker cells between the temperatures of -20{degrees}F and +120{degrees}F. These sensors are used on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) flammable gas interlock (FGI), to detect and quantify hydrogen gas. The test consisted of operating five Whittaker electrochemical cells in an environmental chamber that was varied in temperature from -20{degrees}F to +120{degrees}F. As the rate rise of the voltage from the cells changed, after exposure to a gas concentration of 1% hydrogen at the different temperatures, the voltage was recorded on a computer controlled data acquisition system. Analysis of the data was made to determine if the cells maximum output voltages and rise times were effected by temperature.

  12. Hydrogen atom temperature measured with wavelength-modulated laser absorption spectroscopy in large scale filament arc negative hydrogen ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakano, H. Goto, M.; Tsumori, K.; Kisaki, M.; Ikeda, K.; Nagaoka, K.; Osakabe, M.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O.; Nishiyama, S.; Sasaki, K.

    2015-04-08

    The velocity distribution function of hydrogen atoms is one of the useful parameters to understand particle dynamics from negative hydrogen production to extraction in a negative hydrogen ion source. Hydrogen atom temperature is one of the indicators of the velocity distribution function. To find a feasibility of hydrogen atom temperature measurement in large scale filament arc negative hydrogen ion source for fusion, a model calculation of wavelength-modulated laser absorption spectroscopy of the hydrogen Balmer alpha line was performed. By utilizing a wide range tunable diode laser, we successfully obtained the hydrogen atom temperature of ?3000?K in the vicinity of the plasma grid electrode. The hydrogen atom temperature increases as well as the arc power, and becomes constant after decreasing with the filling of hydrogen gas pressure.

  13. Test procedure for measurement of performance vs temperature of Whittaker electrochemical cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vargo, G.F.

    1997-01-23

    This document is the test procedure to systematically test the Whittaker cells between the temperatures of -20 degrees F and +120 degrees F. These sensors are used on the Rotary Mode Core Sampling (RMCS) flammable gas interlock (FGI), to detect and quantify hydrogen gas. This procedure supports the testing, that is being performed after cold weather attempts on the Whittaker cell failed.

  14. Spectrographic temperature measurement of a high power breakdown arc in a high pressure gas switch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yeckel, Christopher; Curry, Randy

    2011-09-15

    A procedure for obtaining an approximate temperature value of conducting plasma generated during self-break closure of a RIMFIRE gas switch is described. The plasma is in the form of a breakdown arc which conducts approximately 12 kJ of energy in 1 {mu}s. A spectrographic analysis of the trigger-section of the 6-MV RIMFIRE laser triggered gas switch used in Sandia National Laboratory's ''Z-Machine'' has been made. It is assumed that the breakdown plasma has sufficiently approached local thermodynamic equilibrium allowing a black-body temperature model to be applied. This model allows the plasma temperature and radiated power to be approximated. The gas dielectric used in these tests was pressurized SF{sub 6}. The electrode gap is set at 4.59 cm for each test. The electrode material is stainless steel and insulator material is poly(methyl methacrylate). A spectrum range from 220 to 550 nanometers has been observed and calibrated using two spectral irradiance lamps and three spectrograph gratings. The approximate plasma temperature is reported.

  15. Passivated diamond film temperature sensing probe and measuring system employing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, Jack P. (Oak Ridge, TN); Mamantov, Gleb (Knoxville, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A high temperature sensing probe includes an optical fiber or rod having a distal end and a proximal end. The optical fiber or rod has a coating secured to the distal end thereof, wherein the coating is capable of producing a Raman spectrum when exposed to an exciting radiation source.

  16. Passivated diamond film temperature sensing probe and measuring system employing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, J.P.; Mamantov, G.

    1998-11-24

    A high temperature sensing probe includes an optical fiber or rod having a distal end and a proximal end. The optical fiber or rod has a coating secured to the distal end thereof, wherein the coating is capable of producing a Raman spectrum when exposed to an exciting radiation source. 3 figs.

  17. A compact high-performance low-field NMR apparatus for measurements on fluids at very high pressures and temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freedman, R.; Anand, V. Ganesan, K.; Tabrizi, P.; Torres, R.; Grant, B.; Catina, D.; Ryan, D.; Borman, C.; Krueckl, C.

    2014-02-15

    We discuss an innovative new high-performance apparatus for performing low-field Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) relaxation times and diffusion measurements on fluids at very high pressures and high temperatures. The apparatus sensor design and electronics specifications allow for dual deployment either in a fluid sampling well logging tool or in a laboratory. The sensor and electronics were designed to function in both environments. This paper discusses the use of the apparatus in a laboratory environment. The operating temperature and pressure limits, and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the new system exceed by a very wide margin what is currently possible. This major breakthrough was made possible by a revolutionary new sensor design that breaks many of the rules of conventional high pressure NMR sensor design. A metallic sample holder capable of operating at high pressures and temperatures is provided to contain the fluid under study. The sample holder has been successfully tested for operation up to 36 Kpsi. A solenoid coil wound on a slotted titanium frame sits inside the metallic sample holder and serves as an antenna to transmit RF pulses and receive NMR signals. The metal sample holder is sandwiched between a pair of gradient coils which provide a linear field gradient for pulsed field gradient diffusion measurements. The assembly sits in the bore of a low-gradient permanent magnet. The system can operate over a wide frequency range without the need for tuning the antenna to the Larmor frequency. The SNR measured on a water sample at room temperature is more than 15 times greater than that of the commercial low-field system in our laboratory. Thus, the new system provides for data acquisition more than 200 times faster than was previously possible. Laboratory NMR measurements of relaxations times and diffusion coefficients performed at pressures up to 25 Kpsi and at temperatures up to 175?C with crude oils enlivened with dissolved hydrocarbon gases (referred to as live oils) are shown. This is the first time low-field NMR measurements have been performed at such high temperatures and pressures on live crude oil samples. We discuss the details of the apparatus design, tuning, calibration, and operation. NMR data acquired at multiple temperatures and pressures on a live oil sample are discussed.

  18. Clip gage attachment for frictionless measurement of displacement during high-temperature mechanical testing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alexander, David J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01

    An attachment for placement between a test specimen and a remote clip gage extensometer providing improved fracture toughness tests of materials at elevated temperature. Using a cylindrical tube and axial rod in new relationship, the device transfers the displacement signal of the fracture toughness test specimen directly to a clip gage extensometer located outside the high temperature furnace. Virtually frictionless operation is assured by having the test specimen center one end of the rod in one end of the tube, while the clip gage extensometer arms center the other end of the rod in the other end of the tube. By providing positive control over both ends of both rod and tube, the attachment may be operated in orientations other than vertical.

  19. Clip gage attachment for frictionless measurement of displacement during high-temperature mechanical testing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alexander, D.J.

    1994-01-04

    An attachment for placement between a test specimen and a remote clip gage extensometer providing improved fracture toughness tests of materials at elevated temperature is described. Using a cylindrical tube and axial rod in new relationship, the device transfers the displacement signal of the fracture toughness test specimen directly to a clip gage extensometer located outside the high temperature furnace. Virtually frictionless operation is assured by having the test specimen center one end of the rod in one end of the tube, while the clip gage extensometer arms center the other end of the rod in the other end of the tube. By providing positive control over both ends of both rod and tube, the attachment may be operated in orientations other than vertical. 1 figure.

  20. Measurement of temperature-dependent defect diffusion in proton-irradiated GaN(Mg, H).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, Samuel Maxwell, Jr.; Fleming, Robert M.

    2005-06-01

    Deuterated p-type GaN(Mg,{sup 2}H) films were irradiated at room temperature with 1 MeV protons to create native point defects with a concentration approximately equal to the Mg doping (5 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}). The samples were then annealed isothermally at a succession of temperatures while monitoring the infrared absorption due to the H local mode of the MgH defect. As the samples were annealed, the MgH absorption signal decreased and a new mode at slightly higher frequency appeared, which has been associated with the approach of a mobile nitrogen interstitial. We used the time dependence of the MgH absorption to obtain a diffusion barrier of the nitrogen interstitial in p-type GaN of 1.99 eV. This is in good agreement with theoretical calculations of nitrogen interstitial motion in GaN.

  1. First measurement of time evolution of electron temperature profiles with Nd:YAG Thomson scattering system on Heliotron J

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenmochi, N. Tei, S.; Zang, L.; Ohtani, Y.; Kasajima, K.; Minami, T.; Takahashi, C.; Mizuuchi, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Nagasaki, K.; Nakamura, Y.; Okada, H.; Kado, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Ohshima, S.; Konoshima, S.; Shi, N.; Sano, F.

    2014-11-15

    A Nd:YAG Thomson scattering system has been developed for Heliotron J. The system consists of two 550 mJ 50 Hz lasers, large collection optics, and 25 radial channel (?1 cm spatial resolution) interference polychromators. This measurement system achieves a S/N ratio of ?50 for low-density plasma (n{sub e} ? 0.5 10{sup 19} m{sup ?3}). A time evolution of electron temperature profiles was measured with this system for a high-intensity gas-puff (HIGP) fueling neutral-beam-injection plasma. The peripheral temperature of the higher-density phase after HIGP recovers to the low-density pre-HIGP level, suggesting that improving particle transport in the HIGP plasma may be possible.

  2. Measurement of the temperature dependence of Young's modulus of cartilage by phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, C H; Li, J; Singh, M; Larin, K V; Skryabina, M N; Sobol, E N

    2014-08-31

    The development of an effective system to monitor the changes in the elastic properties of cartilage tissue with increasing temperature in laser reconstruction is an urgent practical task. In this paper, the use of phase-sensitive optical coherence elastography for detection of elastic waves in the sample has allowed Young's modulus of cartilage tissue to be measured directly during heating. Young's modulus was calculated from the group velocity of propagation of elastic waves excited by means of a system supplying focused air pulses. The measurement results are in agreement with the results of measurements of the modulus of elasticity under mechanical compression. The technique developed allows for noninvasive measurements; its development is promising for the use in vivo. (laser biophotonics)

  3. A compact single-camera system for high-speed, simultaneous 3-D velocity and temperature measurements.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Louise; Sick, Volker; Frank, Jonathan H.

    2013-09-01

    The University of Michigan and Sandia National Laboratories collaborated on the initial development of a compact single-camera approach for simultaneously measuring 3-D gasphase velocity and temperature fields at high frame rates. A compact diagnostic tool is desired to enable investigations of flows with limited optical access, such as near-wall flows in an internal combustion engine. These in-cylinder flows play a crucial role in improving engine performance. Thermographic phosphors were proposed as flow and temperature tracers to extend the capabilities of a novel, compact 3D velocimetry diagnostic to include high-speed thermometry. Ratiometric measurements were performed using two spectral bands of laser-induced phosphorescence emission from BaMg2Al10O17:Eu (BAM) phosphors in a heated air flow to determine the optimal optical configuration for accurate temperature measurements. The originally planned multi-year research project ended prematurely after the first year due to the Sandia-sponsored student leaving the research group at the University of Michigan.

  4. Assessment of selected conservation measures for high-temperature process industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kusik, C L; Parameswaran, K; Nadkarni, R; O'Neill, J K; Malhotra, S; Hyde, R; Kinneberg, D; Fox, L; Rossetti, M

    1981-01-01

    Energy conservation projects involving high-temperature processes in various stages of development are assessed to quantify their energy conservation potential; to determine their present status of development; to identify their research and development needs and estimate the associated costs; and to determine the most effective role for the Federal government in developing these technologies. The program analyzed 25 energy conserving processes in the iron and steel, aluminium, copper, magnesium, cement, and glassmaking industries. A preliminary list of other potential energy conservation projects in these industries is also presented in the appendix. (MCW)

  5. Temperature measurement of axisymmetric flames under the influence of magnetic field using Talbot interferometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwal, Shilpi E-mail: manojklakra@gmail.com Kumar, Manoj E-mail: manojklakra@gmail.com Shakher, Chandra E-mail: manojklakra@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    Combustion process control is related with ecological improvement and the problem of energy efficiency; hence it has a wide interest at both economical and scientific levels. Application of a magnetic field is one of the most promising methods of combustion control. The presence of magnetic field induces the changes in flame behavior. The effect of uniform magnetic field developed by permanent magnet is studied by Talbot interferometry using circular gratings. Experimental results show a small decrease in flame temperature and increase in flame dimensions.

  6. Measured and predicted temperature profiles along MEMS bridges at pressures from 0.05 to 625 torr.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallis, Michail A.; Torczynski, John Robert; Piekos, Edward Stanley; Serrano, Justin Raymond; Gorby, Allen D.; Phinney, Leslie Mary

    2010-10-01

    We will present experimental and computational investigations of the thermal performance of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) as a function of the surrounding gas pressure. Lowering the pressure in MEMS packages reduces gas damping, providing increased sensitivity for certain MEMS sensors; however, such packaging also dramatically affects their thermal performance since energy transfer to the environment is substantially reduced. High-spatial-resolution Raman thermometry was used to measure the temperature profiles on electrically heated, polycrystalline silicon bridges that are nominally 10 microns wide, 2.25 microns thick, 12 microns above the substrate, and either 200 or 400 microns long in nitrogen atmospheres with pressures ranging from 0.05 to 625 Torr. Finite element modeling of the thermal behavior of the MEMS bridges is performed and compared to the experimental results. Noncontinuum gas effects are incorporated into the continuum finite element model by imposing temperature discontinuities at gas-solid interfaces that are determined from noncontinuum simulations. The experimental and simulation results indicate that at pressures below 0.5 Torr the gas-phase heat transfer is negligible compared to heat conduction through the thermal actuator legs. As the pressure increases above 0.5 Torr, the gas-phase heat transfer becomes more significant. At ambient pressures, gas-phase heat transfer drastically impacts the thermal performance. The measured and simulated temperature profiles are in qualitative agreement in the present study. Quantitative agreement between experimental and simulated temperature profiles requires accurate knowledge of temperature-dependent thermophysical properties, the device geometry, and the thermal accommodation coefficient.

  7. Measurement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    core velocity fluctuations and the dynamo in a reversed-field pinch * D. J. Den Hartog, †,a) J. T. Chapman, b) D. Craig, G. Fiksel, P. W. Fontana, S. C. Prager, and J. S. Sarff Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 ͑Received 16 November 1998; accepted 20 January 1999͒ Plasma flow velocity fluctuations have been directly measured in the high-temperature magnetically confined plasma in the Madison Symmetric Torus ͑MST͒

  8. Real-time method and apparatus for measuring the temperature of a fluorescing phosphor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Britton, Jr., Charles L. (Alcoa, TN); Beshears, David L. (Knoxville, TN); Simpson, Marc L. (Knoxville, TN); Cates, Michael R. (Oak Ridge, TN); Allison, Steve W. (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01

    A method for determining the temperature of a fluorescing phosphor is provided, together with an apparatus for performing the method. The apparatus includes a photodetector for detecting light emitted by a phosphor irradiated with an excitation pulse and for converting the detected light into an electrical signal. The apparatus further includes a differentiator for differentiating the electrical signal and a zero-crossing discrimination circuit that outputs a pulse signal having a pulse width corresponding to the time period between the start of the excitation pulse and the time when the differentiated electrical signal reaches zero. The width of the output pulse signal is proportional to the decay-time constant of the phosphor.

  9. Spectroscopic measurement of ion temperature and ion velocity distributions in the flux-coil generated FRC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, D.; Gota, H.; Hayashi, R.; Kiyashko, V.; Morehouse, M.; Primavera, S.; Bolte, N.; Marsili, P.; Roche, T.; Wessel, F.

    2010-10-15

    One aim of the flux-coil generated field reversed configuration at Tri Alpha Energy (TAE) is to establish the plasma where the ion rotational energy is greater than the ion thermal energy. To verify this, an optical diagnostic was developed to simultaneously measure the Doppler velocity-shift and line-broadening using a 0.75 m, 1800 groves/mm, spectrometer. The output spectrum is magnified and imaged onto a 16-channel photomultiplier tube (PMT) array. The individual PMT outputs are coupled to high-gain, high-frequency, transimpedance amplifiers, providing fast-time response. The Doppler spectroscopy measurements, along with a survey spectrometer and photodiode-light detector, form a suite of diagnostics that provide insights into the time evolution of the plasma-ion distribution and current when accelerated by an azimuthal-electric field.

  10. A numerical study of geometry dependent errors in velocity, temperature, and density measurements from single grid planar retarding potential analyzers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davidson, R. L.; Earle, G. D.; Heelis, R. A.; Klenzing, J. H.

    2010-08-15

    Planar retarding potential analyzers (RPAs) have been utilized numerous times on high profile missions such as the Communications/Navigation Outage Forecast System and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program to measure plasma composition, temperature, density, and the velocity component perpendicular to the plane of the instrument aperture. These instruments use biased grids to approximate ideal biased planes. These grids introduce perturbations in the electric potential distribution inside the instrument and when unaccounted for cause errors in the measured plasma parameters. Traditionally, the grids utilized in RPAs have been made of fine wires woven into a mesh. Previous studies on the errors caused by grids in RPAs have approximated woven grids with a truly flat grid. Using a commercial ion optics software package, errors in inferred parameters caused by both woven and flat grids are examined. A flat grid geometry shows the smallest temperature and density errors, while the double thick flat grid displays minimal errors for velocities over the temperature and velocity range used. Wire thickness along the dominant flow direction is found to be a critical design parameter in regard to errors in all three inferred plasma parameters. The results shown for each case provide valuable design guidelines for future RPA development.

  11. Hybrid fs/ps rotational CARS temperature and oxygen measurements in the product gases of canonical flat flames

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kearney, Sean Patrick

    2014-12-31

    A hybrid fs/ps pure-rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) scheme is systematically evaluated over a wide range of flame conditions in the product gases of two canonical flat-flame burners. Near-transform-limited, broadband femtosecond pump and Stokes pulses impulsively prepare a rotational Raman coherence, which is later probed using a high-energy, frequency-narrow picosecond beam generated by the second-harmonic bandwidth compression scheme that has recently been demonstrated for rotational CARS generation in H2/air flat flames. The measured spectra are free of collision effects and nonresonant background and can be obtained on a single-shot basis at 1 kHz. The technique is evaluated for temperature/oxygenmore » measurements in near-adiabatic H2/air flames stabilized on the Hencken burner for equivalence ratios of φ = 0.20–1.20. Thermometry is demonstrated in hydrocarbon/air products for φ = 0.75–3.14 in premixed C2H4/air flat flames on the McKenna burner. Reliable spectral fitting is demonstrated for both shot-averaged and single-laser-shot data using a simple phenomenological model. Measurement accuracy is benchmarked by comparison to adiabatic-equilibrium calculations for the H2/air flames, and by comparison with nanosecond CARS measurements for the C2H4/air flames. Quantitative accuracy comparable to nanosecond rotational CARS measurements is observed, while the observed precision in both the temperature and oxygen data is extraordinarily high, exceeding nanosecond CARS, and on par with the best published thermometric precision by femtosecond vibrational CARS in flames, and rotational femtosecond CARS at low temperature. Threshold levels of signal-to-noise ratio to achieve 1–2% precision in temperature and O2/N2 ratio are identified. Our results show that pure-rotational fs/ps CARS is a robust and quantitative tool when applied across a wide range of flame conditions spanning lean H2/air combustion to fuel-rich sooting hydrocarbon flames.« less

  12. Hybrid fs/ps rotational CARS temperature and oxygen measurements in the product gases of canonical flat flames

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kearney, Sean Patrick

    2014-12-31

    We fou hybrid fs/ps pure-rotational coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) scheme is systematically evaluated over a wide range of flame conditions in the product gases of two canonical flat-flame burners. Near-transform-limited, broadband femtosecond pump and Stokes pulses impulsively prepare a rotational Raman coherence, which is later probed using a high-energy, frequency-narrow picosecond beam generated by the second-harmonic bandwidth compression scheme that has recently been demonstrated for rotational CARS generation in H2/air flat flames. The measured spectra are free of collision effects and nonresonant background and can be obtained on a single-shot basis at 1 kHz. The technique is evaluated for temperature/oxygen measurements in near-adiabatic H2/air flames stabilized on the Hencken burner for equivalence ratios of ? = 0.201.20. Thermometry is demonstrated in hydrocarbon/air products for ? = 0.753.14 in premixed C2H4/air flat flames on the McKenna burner. Reliable spectral fitting is demonstrated for both shot-averaged and single-laser-shot data using a simple phenomenological model. Measurement accuracy is benchmarked by comparison to adiabatic-equilibrium calculations for the H2/air flames, and by comparison with nanosecond CARS measurements for the C2H4/air flames. Quantitative accuracy comparable to nanosecond rotational CARS measurements is observed, while the observed precision in both the temperature and oxygen data is extraordinarily high, exceeding nanosecond CARS, and on par with the best published thermometric precision by femtosecond vibrational CARS in flames, and rotational femtosecond CARS at low temperature. Threshold levels of signal-to-noise ratio to achieve 12% precision in temperature and O2/N2 ratio are identified. Our results show that pure-rotational fs/ps CARS is a robust and quantitative tool when applied across a wide range of flame conditions spanning lean H2/air combustion to fuel-rich sooting hydrocarbon flames.

  13. Measurement of damping and temperature: Precision bounds in Gaussian dissipative channels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monras, Alex; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2011-01-15

    We present a comprehensive analysis of the performance of different classes of Gaussian states in the estimation of Gaussian phase-insensitive dissipative channels. In particular, we investigate the optimal estimation of the damping constant and reservoir temperature. We show that, for two-mode squeezed vacuum probe states, the quantum-limited accuracy of both parameters can be achieved simultaneously. Moreover, we show that for both parameters two-mode squeezed vacuum states are more efficient than coherent, thermal, or single-mode squeezed states. This suggests that at high-energy regimes, two-mode squeezed vacuum states are optimal within the Gaussian setup. This optimality result indicates a stronger form of compatibility for the estimation of the two parameters. Indeed, not only the minimum variance can be achieved at fixed probe states, but also the optimal state is common to both parameters. Additionally, we explore numerically the performance of non-Gaussian states for particular parameter values to find that maximally entangled states within d-dimensional cutoff subspaces (d{<=}6) perform better than any randomly sampled states with similar energy. However, we also find that states with very similar performance and energy exist with much less entanglement than the maximally entangled ones.

  14. Nitrogen and hydrogen CARS temperature measurements in a hydrogen/air flame using a near-adiabatic flat-flame burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hancock, R.D.; Bertagnolli, K.E.; Lucht, R.P.

    1997-05-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy of diatomic nitrogen and hydrogen was used to measure flame temperatures in hydrogen/air flames produced using a nonpremixed, near-adiabatic, flat-flame Hencken burner. The CARS temperature measurements are compared with adiabatic flame temperatures calculated by the NASA-Lewis equilibrium code for equivalence ratios from 0.5--2.5. The nitrogen CARS temperatures are in excellent agreement with the equilibrium code calculations. Comparison of nitrogen CARS data and the equilibrium code calculations confirms that for sufficiently high flow rates the Hencken burner produces nearly adiabatic flames. Hydrogen CARS temperature measurements are compared to both nitrogen CARS temperature measurements and equilibrium code predictions in order to evaluate and improve the accuracy of hydrogen CARS as a temperature diagnostic tool. Hydrogen CARS temperatures for fuel-rich flames are on average 70 K ({approximately}3%) above the equilibrium code predictions and nitrogen CARS temperatures. The difference between temperatures measured using hydrogen and nitrogen CARS is probably due primarily to uncertainties in hydrogen linewidths and line-broadening mechanisms at these conditions.

  15. Measurements of net radiation, ground heat flux and surface temperature in an urban canyon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gouveia, F J; Leach, M J; Shinn, J H

    2003-11-06

    The Joint Urban 2003 (JU2003) field study was conducted in Oklahoma City in July 2003 to collect data to increase our knowledge of dispersion in urban areas. Air motions in and around urban areas are very complicated due to the influence of urban structures on both mechanical and thermal forcing. During JU2003, meteorological instruments were deployed at various locations throughout the urban area to characterize the processes that influence dispersion. Some of the instruments were deployed to characterize urban phenomena, such as boundary layer development. In addition, particular sites were chosen for more concentrated measurements to investigate physical processes in more detail. One such site was an urban street canyon on Park Avenue between Broadway and Robinson Avenues in downtown Oklahoma City. The urban canyon study was designed to examine the processes that control dispersion within, into and out of the urban canyon. Several towers were deployed in the Park Avenue block, with multiple levels on each tower for observing the wind using sonic anemometers. Infrared thermometers, net radiometers and ground heat flux plates were deployed on two of the towers midway in the canyon to study the thermodynamic effects and to estimate the surface energy balance. We present results from the surface energy balance observations.

  16. Determination of defect density of state distribution of amorphous silicon solar cells by temperature derivative capacitance-frequency measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Guangtao Swaaij, R. A. C. M. M. van; Dobrovolskiy, S.; Zeman, M.

    2014-01-21

    In this contribution, we demonstrate the application temperature dependent capacitance-frequency measurements (C-f) to n-i-p hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells that are forward-biased. By using a forward bias, the C-f measurement can detect the density of defect states in a particular energy range of the interface region. For this contribution, we have carried out this measurement method on n-i-p a-Si:H solar cells of which the intrinsic layer has been exposed to a H{sub 2}-plasma before p-type layer deposition. After this treatment, the open-circuit voltage and fill factor increased significantly, as well as the blue response of the solar cells as is concluded from external quantum efficiency. For single junction, n-i-p a-Si:H solar cells initial efficiency increased from 6.34% to 8.41%. This performance enhancement is believed to be mainly due to a reduction of the defect density in the i-p interface region after the H{sub 2}-plasma treatment. These results are confirmed by the C-f measurements. After H{sub 2}-plasma treatment, the defect density in the intrinsic layer near the i-p interface region is lower and peaks at an energy level deeper in the band gap. These C-f measurements therefore enable us to monitor changes in the defect density in the interface region as a result of a hydrogen plasma. The lower defect density at the i-p interface as detected by the C-f measurements is supported by dark current-voltage measurements, which indicate a lower carrier recombination rate.

  17. On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristie Cooper; Gary Pickrell; Anbo Wang

    2005-11-01

    This report summarizes technical progress April-September 2005 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. The objective of this program is to bring the sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. Due to the difficulties described on the last report, field testing of the BPDI system has not continued to date. However, we have developed an alternative high temperature sensing solution, which is described in this report. The sensing system will be installed and tested at TECO's Polk Power Station. Following a site visit in June 2005, our efforts have been focused on preparing for that field test, including he design of the sensor mechanical packaging, sensor electronics, the data transfer module, and the necessary software codes to accommodate this application.. We are currently ready to start sensor fabrication.

  18. On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kristie Cooper; Anbo Wang

    2007-03-31

    This report summarizes technical progress October 2006 - March 2007 on the Phase II program ''On-Line Self-Calibrating Single Crystal Sapphire Optical Sensor Instrumentation for Accurate and Reliable Coal Gasifier Temperature Measurement'', funded by the Federal Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The outcome of the first phase of this program was the selection of broadband polarimetric differential interferometry (BPDI) for further prototype instrumentation development. This approach is based on the measurement of the optical path difference (OPD) between two orthogonally polarized light beams in a single-crystal sapphire disk. During the second phase, an alternative high temperature sensing system based on Fabry-Perot interferometry was developed that offers a number of advantages over the BPDI solution. The objective of this program is to bring the sensor technology, which has already been demonstrated in the laboratory, to a level where the sensor can be deployed in the harsh industrial environments and will become commercially viable. The sapphire wafer-based interferometric sensing system that was installed at TECO's Polk Power Station remained in operation for seven months. Our efforts have been focused on monitoring and analyzing the real-time data collected, and preparing for a second field test.

  19. Benchmark Evaluation of Start-Up and Zero-Power Measurements at the High-Temperature Engineering Test Reactor

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bess, John D.; Fujimoto, Nozomu

    2014-10-09

    Benchmark models were developed to evaluate six cold-critical and two warm-critical, zero-power measurements of the HTTR. Additional measurements of a fully-loaded subcritical configuration, core excess reactivity, shutdown margins, six isothermal temperature coefficients, and axial reaction-rate distributions were also evaluated as acceptable benchmark experiments. Insufficient information is publicly available to develop finely-detailed models of the HTTR as much of the design information is still proprietary. However, the uncertainties in the benchmark models are judged to be of sufficient magnitude to encompass any biases and bias uncertainties incurred through the simplification process used to develop the benchmark models. Dominant uncertainties in themore » experimental keff for all core configurations come from uncertainties in the impurity content of the various graphite blocks that comprise the HTTR. Monte Carlo calculations of keff are between approximately 0.9 % and 2.7 % greater than the benchmark values. Reevaluation of the HTTR models as additional information becomes available could improve the quality of this benchmark and possibly reduce the computational biases. High-quality characterization of graphite impurities would significantly improve the quality of the HTTR benchmark assessment. Simulation of the other reactor physics measurements are in good agreement with the benchmark experiment values. The complete benchmark evaluation details are available in the 2014 edition of the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments.« less

  20. Benchmark Evaluation of Start-Up and Zero-Power Measurements at the High-Temperature Engineering Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bess, John D.; Fujimoto, Nozomu

    2014-10-09

    Benchmark models were developed to evaluate six cold-critical and two warm-critical, zero-power measurements of the HTTR. Additional measurements of a fully-loaded subcritical configuration, core excess reactivity, shutdown margins, six isothermal temperature coefficients, and axial reaction-rate distributions were also evaluated as acceptable benchmark experiments. Insufficient information is publicly available to develop finely-detailed models of the HTTR as much of the design information is still proprietary. However, the uncertainties in the benchmark models are judged to be of sufficient magnitude to encompass any biases and bias uncertainties incurred through the simplification process used to develop the benchmark models. Dominant uncertainties in the experimental keff for all core configurations come from uncertainties in the impurity content of the various graphite blocks that comprise the HTTR. Monte Carlo calculations of keff are between approximately 0.9 % and 2.7 % greater than the benchmark values. Reevaluation of the HTTR models as additional information becomes available could improve the quality of this benchmark and possibly reduce the computational biases. High-quality characterization of graphite impurities would significantly improve the quality of the HTTR benchmark assessment. Simulation of the other reactor physics measurements are in good agreement with the benchmark experiment values. The complete benchmark evaluation details are available in the 2014 edition of the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments.

  1. A NOVEL X-RAY IMAGING CRYSTAL SPECTROMETER FOR DOPPLER MEASUREMENTS OF ION TEMPERATURE AND PLASMA ROTATION VELOCITY PROFILES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bitter, M; Hill, K W; Scott, S; Ince-Cushman, A; Reinke, M; Rice, J E; Beiersdorfer, P; Gu, M F; Lee, S G; Broennimann, C; Eikenberry, E F

    2008-06-06

    A new type of X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer has been implemented on Alcator CMod for Doppler measurements of ion temperature and plasma rotation velocity profiles. The instrument consists of two spherically bent (102)-quartz crystals with radii of curvature of 1444 and 1385 mm and four 'PILATUS II' detector modules. It records spectra of He-like argon from the entire, 72 cm high, elongated plasma cross-section and spectra of H-like argon from a 20 cm high, central region of the plasma, with a spatial resolution of 1.3 cm and a time resolution of less than 20 ms. The new spectrometer concept is also of interest for the diagnosis of burning plasmas on future machines. This paper presents recent experimental results from Aclator C-Mod and discusses challenges in X-ray spectroscopy for the diagnosis of fusion plasmas on future machines.

  2. Optimization of pulsed-DEER measurements for Gd-based labels: choice of operational frequencies, pulse durations and positions, and temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raitsimring, Arnold; Astashkin, Andrei V.; Enemark, John H.; Kaminker, Ilia; Goldfarb, Daniella; Walter, Eric D.; Song, Y.; Meade, T. J.

    2013-06-01

    In this work, the experimental conditions and parameters necessary to optimize the long-distance (? 60 ) Double Electron-Electron Resonance (DEER) measurements of biomacromolecules labeled with Gd(III) tags are analyzed. The specific parameters discussed are the temperature, microwave band, the separation between the pumping and observation frequencies, pulse train repetition rate, pulse durations and pulse positioning in the electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum. It was found that: (i) in optimized DEER measurements, the observation pulses have to be applied at the maximum of the EPR spectrum; (ii) the optimal temperature range for Ka-band measurements is 14-17 K, while in W-band the optimal temperatures are between 6-9 K; (iii) W-band is preferable to Ka-band for DEER measurements. Recent achievements and the conditions necessary for short-distance measurements (<15 ) are also briefly discussed.

  3. Downhole pulse radar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Hsi-Tien

    1987-09-28

    A borehole logging tool generates a fast rise-time, short duration, high peak-power radar pulse having broad energy distribution between 30 MHz and 300 MHz through a directional transmitting and receiving antennas having barium titanate in the electromagnetically active region to reduce the wavelength to within an order of magnitude of the diameter of the antenna. Radar returns from geological discontinuities are sampled for transmission uphole. 7 figs.

  4. Downhole pulse radar

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Hsi-Tien (Albuquerque, NM)

    1989-01-01

    A borehole logging tool generates a fast rise-time, short duration, high peak-power radar pulse having broad energy distribution between 30 MHz and 300 MHz through a directional transmitting and receiving antennas having barium titanate in the electromagnetically active region to reduce the wavelength to within an order of magnitude of the diameter of the antenna. Radar returns from geological discontinuities are sampled for transmission uphole.

  5. Spent fuel dry storage technology development: fuel temperature measurements under imposed dry storage conditions (I kW PWR spent fuel assembly)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unterzuber, R.; Wright, J.B.

    1980-09-01

    A spent fuel assembly temperature test under imposed dry storage conditions was conducted at the Engine Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility on the Nevada Test Site in support of spent fuel dry storage technology development. This document presents the test data and results obtained from an approximately 1.0 kW decay heat level PWR spent fuel assembly. A spent fuel test apparatus was designed to utilize a representative stainless steel spent fuel canister, a canister lid containing internal temperature instrumentation to measure fuel cladding temperatures, and a carbon steel liner that encloses the canister and lid. Electrical heaters along the liner length, on the lid, and below the canister are used to impose dry storage canister temperature profiles. Temperature instrumentation is provided on the liner and canister. The liner and canister are supported by a test stand in one of the large hot cells (West Process Cell) inside E-MAD. Fuel temperature measurements have been performed using imposed canister temperature profiles from the electrically heated and spent fuel drywell tests being conducted at E-MAD as well as for four constant canister temperature profiles, each with a vacuum, helium and air backfill. Computer models have been utilized in conjunction with the test to predict the thermal response of the fuel cladding. Computer predictions are presented, and they show good agreement with the test data.

  6. Spent fuel dry storage technology development: fuel temperature measurements under imposed dry storage conditions (1.4 kW PWR spent fuel assembly)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unterzuber, R.

    1981-09-01

    A spent fuel assembly temperature test under imposed dry storage conditions was conducted at the Engine Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility on the Nevada Test Site in support of spent fuel dry storage technology development. This document presents the test data and results obtained from an approximately 1.4 kW decay heat level PWR spent fuel assembly. A spent fuel test apparatus was designed to utilize a stainless steel canister representative of actual fuel canisters, a canister lid containing internal temperature instrumentation to measure fuel cladding temperatures, and a carbon steel liner that encloses the canister and lid. Electrical heaters along the liner length, on the lid, and below the canister are used to impose dry storage canister temperature profiles. Temperature instrumentation is provided on the liner and canister. The liner and canister are supported by a test stand in one of the large hot cells (West Process Cell) inside E-MAD. Fuel temperature measurements have been performed using imposed canister temperature profiles from the electrically heated and spent fuel near-surface drywell tests being conducted at E-MAD, the spent fuel deep geologic storage test being conducted in Climax granite on the Nevada Test Site, and for five constant canister temperature profiles, each with a vacuum, helium and air backfill. Computer models have been utilized in conjunction with the test to predict the thermal response of the fuel cladding. Computer predictions are presented, and they show good agreement with the test data.

  7. Very Low Temperature | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and binary-cycle power generation. Given the significant advances made in downhole pump and binary-cycle power generation technologies over the last two decades, power...

  8. Preparation of W-Ta thin-film thermocouple on diamond anvil cell for in-situ temperature measurement under high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Jie; Li Ming; Zhang Honglin; Gao Chunxiao

    2011-04-15

    In this paper, a W-Ta thin-film thermocouple has been integrated on a diamond anvil cell by thin-film deposition and photolithography methods. The thermocouple was calibrated and its thermal electromotive force was studied under high pressure. The results indicate that the thermal electromotive force of the thermocouple exhibits a linear relationship with temperature and is not associated with pressure. The resistivity measurement of ZnS powders under high pressure at different temperatures shows that the phase transition pressure decreases as the temperature increases.

  9. A frequency-agile lidar for simultaneous measurement of temperature and radial wind in the mesopause region without sodium density contamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, M.; Golias, D.; Krueger, D.A.; She, C.Y.

    1996-12-31

    With early and ongoing climatological surveys established, continuing observations of the mesopause region over Fort Collins, Colorado are discussed, emphasizing the modification of Colorado State University`s two frequency lidar for simultaneous measurement of temperature vis Doppler Broadening and radial wind via Doppler shift. The application of a frequency-agile, tandem acousto-optical modulator system for three-frequency temperature/wind measurements free of contamination from atmospheric Na density fluctuations, as well as frequency characterization of this new apparatus, and future applications are considered.

  10. Anomalous pressure dependence of magnetic ordering temperature in Tb revealed by resistivity measurements to 141 GPa. Comparison with Gd and Dy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lim, J.; Fabbris, G.; Haskel, D.; Schilling, J. S.

    2015-05-26

    In previous studies the pressure dependence of the magnetic ordering temperature To of Dy was found to exhibit a sharp increase above its volume collapse pressure of 73 GPa, appearing to reach temperatures well above ambient at 157 GPa. In a search for a second such lanthanide, electrical resistivity measurements were carried out on neighboring Tb to 141 GPa over the temperature range 3.8 - 295 K. Below Tbs volume collapse pressure of 53 GPa, the pressure dependence To(P) mirrors that of both Dy and Gd. However, at higher pressures To(P) for Tb becomes highly anomalous. This result, together with the very strong suppression of superconductivity by dilute Tb ions in Y, suggests that extreme pressure transports Tb into an unconventional magnetic state with an anomalously high magnetic ordering temperature.

  11. Anomalous pressure dependence of magnetic ordering temperature in Tb revealed by resistivity measurements to 141 GPa. Comparison with Gd and Dy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lim, J.; Fabbris, G.; Haskel, D.; Schilling, J. S.

    2015-05-26

    In previous studies the pressure dependence of the magnetic ordering temperature To of Dy was found to exhibit a sharp increase above its volume collapse pressure of 73 GPa, appearing to reach temperatures well above ambient at 157 GPa. In a search for a second such lanthanide, electrical resistivity measurements were carried out on neighboring Tb to 141 GPa over the temperature range 3.8 - 295 K. Below Tb’s volume collapse pressure of 53 GPa, the pressure dependence To(P) mirrors that of both Dy and Gd. However, at higher pressures To(P) for Tb becomes highly anomalous. This result, together withmore » the very strong suppression of superconductivity by dilute Tb ions in Y, suggests that extreme pressure transports Tb into an unconventional magnetic state with an anomalously high magnetic ordering temperature.« less

  12. Completion of Level 4 Milestone M4AT-15OR2301039 for the Johnson Noise Thermometry for Drift-free Temperature Measurements Work Package AT-15OR230103

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Britton Jr, Charles L.

    2015-09-14

    This memorandum constitutes our September 2015 level 4 milestone for the project entitled Johnson Noise Thermometry for Drift-free Temperature Measurements and satisfies the Milestone/Activity (Conclude HFIR field demonstration of JNT prototype). The progress summary describes the work performed to complete the subject milestone.

  13. Temperature System

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Soil Water and Temperature System  SWATS In the realm of global climate modeling, numerous variables affect the state of the atmosphere and climate. One important area is soil moisture and temperature. The ARM Program uses several types of instruments to gather soil moisture information. An example is the soil water and temperature system (SWATS) (Figure 1). A SWATS is located at each of 21 extended facility sites within the CART site boundary. Each system is configured to measure soil

  14. High-resolution grazing-incidence grating spectrometer for temperature measurements of low-Z ions emitting in the 100300 spectral band

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widmann, K., E-mail: widmann1@llnl.gov; Beiersdorfer, P.; Magee, E. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Boyle, D. P.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    We have constructed a high-resolution grazing-incidence spectrometer designed for measuring the ion temperature of low-Z elements, such as Li{sup +} or Li{sup 2+}, which radiate near 199 and 135 , respectively. Based on measurements at the Livermore Electron Beam Ion Trap we have shown that the instrumental resolution is better than 48 m at the 200 setting and better than 40 m for the 135- range. Such a high spectral resolution corresponds to an instrumental limit for line-width based temperature measurements of about 45 eV for the 199 Li{sup +} and 65 eV for the 135 Li{sup 2+} lines. Recently obtained survey spectra from the Lithium Tokamak Experiment at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory show the presence of these lithium emission lines and the expected core ion temperature of approximately 70 eV is sufficiently high to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing our high-resolution spectrometer as an ion-temperature diagnostic.

  15. Measurement of gas species, temperatures, coal burnout, and wall heat fluxes in a 200 MWe lignite-fired boiler with different overfire air damper openings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jianping Jing; Zhengqi Li; Guangkui Liu; Zhichao Chen; Chunlong Liu

    2009-07-15

    Measurements were performed on a 200 MWe, wall-fired, lignite utility boiler. For different overfire air (OFA) damper openings, the gas temperature, gas species concentration, coal burnout, release rates of components (C, H, and N), furnace temperature, and heat flux and boiler efficiency were measured. Cold air experiments for a single burner were conducted in the laboratory. The double-swirl flow pulverized-coal burner has two ring recirculation zones starting in the secondary air region in the burner. As the secondary air flow increases, the axial velocity of air flow increases, the maxima of radial velocity, tangential velocity and turbulence intensity all increase, and the swirl intensity of air flow and the size of recirculation zones increase slightly. In the central region of the burner, as the OFA damper opening widens, the gas temperature and CO concentration increase, while the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and coal particles ignite earlier. In the secondary air region of the burner, the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and the gas temperature and CO concentration vary slightly. In the sidewall region, the gas temperature, O{sub 2} concentration, and NOx concentration decrease, while the CO concentration increases and the gas temperature varies slightly. The furnace temperature and heat flux in the main burning region decrease appreciably, but increase slightly in the burnout region. The NOx emission decreases from 1203.6 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 0% to 511.7 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 80% and the boiler efficiency decreases from 92.59 to 91.9%. 15 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Measurement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hall Dynamo Effect during Magnetic Reconnection in a High-Temperature Plasma W. X. Ding, 1,3 D. L. Brower, 1,3 D. Craig, 2,3 B. H. Deng, 1,3 G. Fiksel, 2,3 V. Mirnov, 2,3 S. C. Prager, 2,3 J. S. Sarff, 2,3 and V. Svidzinski 2,3 1 Electrical Engineering Department, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA 2 Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA 3 Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Astrophysical and Laboratory

  17. Development of a two-line OH-laser-induced fluorescence thermometry diagnostics strategy for gas-phase temperature measurements in engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devillers, R.; Bruneaux, G.; Schulz, C

    2008-11-01

    This study aims at optimizing two-line OH thermometry strategies for in-cylinder measurement in internal combustion engines. Various aspects are investigated experimentally, such as the selection of suitable OH lines and the possibility of using a single calibration coefficient for variable mixture composition, temperature, and pressure conditions. Two kinds of experimental systems have been investigated. First, a laminar methane-air burner flame at atmospheric pressure, whose stability allowed the determination of OH-laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) intensity ratios from nonsimultaneous imaging. The temperature distribution in the flame is presented for OH-transition pairs with various temperature sensitivities. The burner flame was studied for equivalence ratios from {phi}=0.93 to 1.30 in order to check for the stability of calibration over various flame conditions. Additionally, OH LIF images were acquired in an optical engine for the chosen OH transitions yielding data about the effect of pressure on OH LIF signals under realistic experimental conditions.

  18. Development and Application of Insulated Drill Pipe for High Temperature, High Pressure Drilling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tom Champness; Tony Worthen; John Finger

    2008-12-31

    This project aimed to extend the insulated drill pipe (IDP) technology already demonstrated for geothermal drilling to HTHP drilling in deep gas reservoirs where temperatures are high enough to pose a threat to downhole equipment such as motors and electronics. The major components of the project were: a preliminary design; a market survey to assess industry needs and performance criteria; mechanical testing to verify strength and durability of IDP; and development of an inspection plan that would quantify the ability of various inspection techniques to detect flaws in assembled IDP. This report is a detailed description of those activities.

  19. Measurement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    interpretation of micro benchmark and application energy use on the Cray XC30 Brian Austin, and Nicholas J. Wright ⇤ August 29, 2014 Abstract Understanding patterns of application energy use is key to reaching future HPC e ciency goals. We have measured the sensitivity of en- ergy use to CPU frequency for several microbenchmarks and applications on a Cray XC30. First order fits to the performance and power data are su cient to describe the energy used by these applications. Exam- ination of

  20. Measurement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 H( 7 Be, 8 B)γ cross section by Ryan P. Fitzgerald A dissertation submitted to the faculty of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Department of Physics & Astronomy. Chapel Hill 2005 Approved: A. E. Champagne, Advisor J. C. Blackmon, Reader C. Iliadis, Reader ABSTRACT Ryan P. Fitzgerald: Measurement of the 1 H( 7 Be, 8 B)γ cross section (Under the Direction of A. E. Champagne) The fusion

  1. Optical Measurement Technologies for High Temperature, Radiation Exposure, and Corrosive EnvironmentsSignificant Activities and Findings: In-vessel Optical Measurements for Advanced SMRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Qiao, Hong (Amy) [Amy; Suter, Jonathan D.

    2012-09-01

    Development of advanced Small Modular Reactors (aSMRs) is key to providing the United States with a sustainable, economically viable, and carbon-neutral energy source. The aSMR designs have attractive economic factors that should compensate for the economies of scale that have driven development of large commercial nuclear power plants to date. For example, aSMRs can be manufactured at reduced capital costs in a factory and potentially shorter lead times and then be shipped to a site to provide power away from large grid systems. The integral, self-contained nature of aSMR designs is fundamentally different than conventional reactor designs. Future aSMR deployment will require new instrumentation and control (I&C) architectures to accommodate the integral design and withstand the extreme in-vessel environmental conditions. Operators will depend on sophisticated sensing and machine vision technologies that provide efficient human-machine interface for in-vessel telepresence, telerobotic control, and remote process operations. The future viability of aSMRs is dependent on understanding and overcoming the significant technical challenges involving in-vessel reactor sensing and monitoring under extreme temperatures, pressures, corrosive environments, and radiation fluxes

  2. Photoionization mass spectrometric measurements of initial reaction pathways in low-temperature oxidation of 2,5-dimethylhexane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rotavera, Brandon; Zdor, Judit; Welz, Oliver; Sheps, Leonid; Scheer, Adam M.; Savee, John D.; Akbar Ali, Mohamad; Lee, Taek Soon; Simmons, Blake A.; Osborn, David L.; Violi, Angela; Taatjes, Craig A.

    2014-09-19

    The product formation from R + O2 reactions relevant to low-temperature autoignition chemistry was studied for 2,5-dimethylhexane, a symmetrically branched octane isomer, at 550 and 650 K using Cl-atom initiated oxidation and multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry (MPIMS). The interpretation of time- and photon-energy-resolved mass spectra led to three specific results important to characterizing the initial oxidation steps: (1) quantified isomer-resolved branching ratios for HO2 + alkene channels; (2) 2,2,5,5-tetramethyltetrahydrofuran is formed in substantial yield from addition of O2 to tertiary 2,5-dimethylhex-2-yl followed by isomerization of the resulting ROO adduct to tertiary hydroperoxyalkyl (QOOH) and exhibits a positive dependence on temperature over the range covered leading to a higher flux relative to aggregate cyclic ether yield. The higher relative flux is explained by a 1,5-hydrogen atom shift reaction that converts the initial primary alkyl radical (2,5-dimethylhex-1-yl) to the tertiary alkyl radical 2,5-dimethylhex-2-yl, providing an additional source of tertiary alkyl radicals. Furthermore, quantum-chemical and master-equation calculations of the unimolecular decomposition of the primary alkyl radical reveal that isomerization to the tertiary alkyl radical is the most favorable pathway, and is favored over O2-addition at 650 K under the conditions herein. The isomerization pathway to tertiary alkyl radicals therefore contributes an additional mechanism to 2,2,5,5-tetramethyltetrahydrofuran formation; (3) carbonyl species (acetone, propanal, and methylpropanal) consistent with ?-scission of QOOH radicals were formed in significant yield, indicating unimolecular QOOH decomposition into carbonyl + alkene + OH.

  3. Temperature, Oxygen, and Soot-Volume-Fraction Measurements in a Turbulent C2H4-Fueled Jet Flame

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kearney, Sean P.; Guildenbecher, Daniel Robert; Winters, Caroline; Farias, Paul Abraham; Grasser, Thomas W.; Hewson, John C.

    2015-09-01

    We present a detailed set of measurements from a piloted, sooting, turbulent C 2 H 4 - fueled diffusion flame. Hybrid femtosecond/picosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) is used to monitor temperature and oxygen, while laser-induced incandescence (LII) is applied for imaging of the soot volume fraction in the challenging jet-flame environment at Reynolds number, Re = 20,000. Single-laser shot results are used to map the mean and rms statistics, as well as probability densities. LII data from the soot-growth region of the flame are used to benchmark the soot source term for one-dimensional turbulence (ODT) modeling of this turbulent flame. The ODT code is then used to predict temperature and oxygen fluctuations higher in the soot oxidation region higher in the flame.

  4. Photoionization mass spectrometric measurements of initial reaction pathways in low-temperature oxidation of 2,5-dimethylhexane

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rotavera, Brandon; Zádor, Judit; Welz, Oliver; Sheps, Leonid; Scheer, Adam M.; Savee, John D.; Akbar Ali, Mohamad; Lee, Taek Soon; Simmons, Blake A.; Osborn, David L.; et al

    2014-09-19

    The product formation from R + O2 reactions relevant to low-temperature autoignition chemistry was studied for 2,5-dimethylhexane, a symmetrically branched octane isomer, at 550 and 650 K using Cl-atom initiated oxidation and multiplexed photoionization mass spectrometry (MPIMS). The interpretation of time- and photon-energy-resolved mass spectra led to three specific results important to characterizing the initial oxidation steps: (1) quantified isomer-resolved branching ratios for HO2 + alkene channels; (2) 2,2,5,5-tetramethyltetrahydrofuran is formed in substantial yield from addition of O2 to tertiary 2,5-dimethylhex-2-yl followed by isomerization of the resulting ROO adduct to tertiary hydroperoxyalkyl (QOOH) and exhibits a positive dependence on temperaturemore » over the range covered leading to a higher flux relative to aggregate cyclic ether yield. The higher relative flux is explained by a 1,5-hydrogen atom shift reaction that converts the initial primary alkyl radical (2,5-dimethylhex-1-yl) to the tertiary alkyl radical 2,5-dimethylhex-2-yl, providing an additional source of tertiary alkyl radicals. Furthermore, quantum-chemical and master-equation calculations of the unimolecular decomposition of the primary alkyl radical reveal that isomerization to the tertiary alkyl radical is the most favorable pathway, and is favored over O2-addition at 650 K under the conditions herein. The isomerization pathway to tertiary alkyl radicals therefore contributes an additional mechanism to 2,2,5,5-tetramethyltetrahydrofuran formation; (3) carbonyl species (acetone, propanal, and methylpropanal) consistent with β-scission of QOOH radicals were formed in significant yield, indicating unimolecular QOOH decomposition into carbonyl + alkene + OH.« less

  5. Solubility Measurements of Crystalline NiO in Aqueous Solution as a Function of Temperature and pH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, Donald; Benezeth, Pascale; Xiao, Caibin {nmn}; Wesolowski, David J; Anovitz, Lawrence {Larry} M

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Results of solubility experiments involving crystalline nickel oxide (bunsenite) in aqueous solutions are reported as functions of temperature (0 to 350 C) and pH at pressures slightly exceeding (with one exception) saturation vapor pressure. These experiments were carried out in either flow-through reactors or a hydrogen-electrode concentration cell for mildly acidic to near neutral pH solutions. The results were treated successfully with a thermodynamic model incorporating only the unhydrolyzed aqueous nickel species (viz., Ni2+ ) and the neutrally charged hydrolyzed species (viz., Ni(OH)02 ). The thermodynamic quantities obtained at 25 C and infinite dilution are, with 2 uncertainties: log10Ko s0 = (12.40 0.29), rGo m = (70.8 1.7) kJ mol 1; rHo m = (105.6 1.3) kJ mol 1; rSo m = (116.6 3.2) J K 1 mol 1; rCo p,m = (0 13) J K 1 mol 1; and log10Ko s2 = (8.76 0.15); rGo m = (50.0 1.7) kJ mol 1; rHo m = (17.7 1.7) kJ mol 1; rSo m = (108 7) J K 1 mol 1; rCo p,m = (108 3) J K 1 mol 1. These results are internally consistent, but the latter set differs from those gleaned from previous studies recorded in the literature. The corresponding thermodynamic quantities for the formation of Ni2+ and Ni(OH)02 are also estimated. Moreover, the Ni(OH) 3 anion was never observed, even in relatively strong basic solutions (mOH = 0.1 mol kg 1), contrary to the conclusions drawn from all but one previous study.

  6. Downhole fluid sampling at the SSSDP (Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project) California State 2-14 well, Salton Sea, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goff, F.; Shevenell, L.; Grigsby, C.O.; Dennis, B.

    1987-07-01

    In situ fluid sampling activities were conducted at the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project (SSSDP) well during late December 1985 and late March 1986 to obtain unflashed samples of Salton Sea brine. In late December, three sampling runs were made to depths of approximately 1800 m and temperatures of 300/sup 0/C. In late March, 10 sampling runs were made to depths of approximately 3150 m and temperatures of 350/sup 0/C. In brief, the Los Alamos tool obtained samples from four of eight runs; the Lawrence Berkeley tool obtained samples from one of one run; the Leutert Instruments, Inc., tool obtained samples from zero of three runs; and the USGS quartz crystal experiment was lost in the well. The most complete sample was obtained from run No. 11, using the Los Alamos sampler and Sandia battery pack/controller on a wireline. About 1635 ml of brine, two noble gas samples, and two bulk gas samples were collected from this run. Samples of brine and gas from productive runs have been distributed to about 15 researchers for various types of analyses. Chemical analyses by the Los Alamos and US Geological Survey analytical teams are presented in this report, although they are not corrected for flashing and precipitation.

  7. Dual-pump CARS temperature and major species concentration measurements in counter-flow methane flames using narrowband pump and broadband Stokes lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thariyan, Mathew P.; Ananthanarayanan, Vijaykumar; Bhuiyan, Aizaz H.; Naik, Sameer V.; Gore, Jay P.; Lucht, Robert P.

    2010-07-15

    Dual-pump coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) is used to measure temperature and species profiles in representative non-premixed and partially-premixed CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} flames. A new laser system has been developed to generate a tunable single-frequency beam for the second pump beam in the dual-pump N{sub 2}-CO{sub 2} CARS process. The second harmonic output ({proportional_to}532 nm) from an injection-seeded Nd:YAG laser is used as one of the narrowband pump beams. The second single-longitudinal-mode pump beam centered near 561 nm is generated using an injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator, consisting of two non-linear {beta}-BBO crystals, pumped using the third harmonic output ({proportional_to}355 nm) of the same Nd:YAG laser. A broadband dye laser (BBDL), pumped using the second harmonic output of an unseeded Nd:YAG laser, is employed to produce the Stokes beam centered near 607 nm with full-width-at-half-maximum of {proportional_to}250 cm{sup -1}. The three beams are focused between two opposing nozzles of a counter-flow burner facility to measure temperature and major species concentrations in a variety of CH{sub 4}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} non-premixed and partially-premixed flames stabilized at a global strain rate of 20 s{sup -1} at atmospheric-pressure. For the non-premixed flames, excellent agreement is observed between the measured profiles of temperature and CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} concentration ratios with those calculated using an opposed-flow flame code with detailed chemistry and molecular transport submodels. For partially-premixed flames, with the rich side premixing level beyond the stable premixed flame limit, the calculations overestimate the distance between the premixed and the non-premixed flamefronts. Consequently, the calculated temperatures near the rich, premixed flame are higher than those measured. Accurate prediction of the distance between the premixed and the non-premixed flames provides an interesting challenge for future computations. (author)

  8. The solubility of zinc oxide in 0.03 m NaTr as a function of temperature, with in situ pH measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benezeth, P.; Palmer, D.A.; Wesolowski, D.J.

    1999-05-01

    The solubility of zincite (ZnO) has been measured in noncomplexing solutions over a wide range of pH{sub m} (4--11), and temperature (75--200 C) at 0.03 mol/kg ionic strength in NaTr media (sodium trifluoromethanesulfonate, a noncomplexing 1:1 electrolyte), in a hydrogen electrode concentration cell (HECC), which provided continuous in situ measurement of hydrogen ion molality. Total zinc content was analyzed by atomic absorption using graphite furnace, flame, and inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometers. The direction of approach to the equilibrium saturation state was varied to demonstrate that the system was reversible thermodynamically. Separate experiments were performed in alkaline solutions (0.03 mol/kg NaOH) at 25 and 50 C in polypropylene syringes, and between 50 and 290 C in a Teflon-lined pressure vessel. The aim of these experiments was to reach higher pH{sub m} (>8 depending on the temperature) to determine the thermodynamic properties of the negatively charged species, Zn(OH){sub 3}{sup {minus}}. A least-squares regression of the results obtained at this ionic strength was used to determine the molal solubility products (Q{sub sn}) of zincite. The solubility products (Q{sub sn}) were extrapolated to infinite dilution (K{sub sn}), permitting calculation of the thermodynamic properties of aqueous species of zinc for comparison with previous work.

  9. Beowawe geothermal-resource assessment. Final report. Shallow-hole temperature survey geophysics and deep test hole Collins 76-17

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, N.O.

    1983-03-01

    Geothermal resource investigation field efforts in the Beowawe Geysers Area, Eureka County, Nevada are described. The objectives included acquisition of geotechnical data for understanding the nature and extent of the geothermal resource boundaries south of the known resource area. Fourteen shallow (<500 feet) temperature-gradient holes plus geophysics were used to select the site for a deep exploratory well, the Collins 76-17, which was completed to a total depth of 9005 feet. Maximum downhole recorded temperature was 311/sup 0/F, but no flow could be induced.

  10. CX-007019: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Diagnosis of Multiple Fracture Stimulation in Horizontal Wells by Downhole Temperature Measurement - Phase 1CX(s) Applied: A9Date: 09/21/2011Location(s): College Station, TexasOffice(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  11. Induction heating apparatus and methods for selectively energizing an inductor in response to a measured electrical characteristic that is at least partially a function of a temperature of a material being heated

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richardson, John G.; Morrison, John L.; Hawkes, Grant L.

    2006-07-04

    An induction heating apparatus includes a measurement device for indicating an electrical resistance of a material to be heated. A controller is configured for energizing an inductor in response to the indicated resistance. An inductor may be energized with an alternating current, a characteristic of which may be selected in response to an indicated electrical resistance. Alternatively, a temperature of the material may be indicated via measuring the electrical resistance thereof and a characteristic of an alternating current for energizing the inductor may be selected in response to the temperature. Energizing the inductor may minimize the difference between a desired and indicated resistance or the difference between a desired and indicated temperature. A method of determining a temperature of at least one region of at least one material to be induction heated includes correlating a measured electrical resistance thereof to an average temperature thereof.

  12. A spatially resolving x-ray crystal spectrometer for measurement of ion-temperature and rotation-velocity profiles on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M. L.; Scott, S. D.; Ince-Cushman, A.; Reinke, M.; Rice, J. E.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Gu, M.-F.; Lee, S. G.; Broennimann, Ch.; Eikenberry, E. F.

    2008-10-15

    A new spatially resolving x-ray crystal spectrometer capable of measuring continuous spatial profiles of high resolution spectra ({lambda}/d{lambda}>6000) of He-like and H-like Ar K{alpha} lines with good spatial ({approx}1 cm) and temporal ({approx}10 ms) resolutions has been installed on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. Two spherically bent crystals image the spectra onto four two-dimensional Pilatus II pixel detectors. Tomographic inversion enables inference of local line emissivity, ion temperature (T{sub i}), and toroidal plasma rotation velocity (v{sub {phi}}) from the line Doppler widths and shifts. The data analysis techniques, T{sub i} and v{sub {phi}} profiles, analysis of fusion-neutron background, and predictions of performance on other tokamaks, including ITER, will be presented.

  13. Measurement of Core Plasma Temperature and Rotation on W7-X made available by the X-ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer (XICS)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    5049 PPPL-5049 Measurement of Core Plasma Temperature and Rotation on W7-X made available by the X-ray Imaging Crystal Spectrometer (XICS) N.A. Pablant, M. Bitter, R. Burhenn, L. Delgado-Aparicio, R. Ellis, D. Gates, M. Goto, K.W. Hill, A. Langenberg, S. Lazerson, M. Mardenfeld, S. Morita, G. H. Neilson, T. Oishi and T.S. Pedersen JUNE 2014 f>PPPL P R IN C E T O N P L A S M A PHYSIC S L A B O R A T O R Y Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466. P r in c e

  14. Measuring temperature-dependent propagating disturbances in coronal fan loops using multiple SDO/AIA channels and the surfing transform technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uritsky, Vadim M.; Ofman, Leon [Catholic University of America, Washington, D.C. 20064 (United States); Davila, Joseph M.; Viall, Nicholeen M. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-11-20

    A set of co-aligned high-resolution images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory is used to investigate propagating disturbances (PDs) in warm fan loops at the periphery of a non-flaring active region NOAA AR 11082. To measure PD speeds at multiple coronal temperatures, a new data analysis methodology is proposed enabling a quantitative description of subvisual coronal motions with low signal-to-noise ratios of the order of 0.1%. The technique operates with a set of one-dimensional 'surfing' signals extracted from position-time plots of several AIA channels through a modified version of Radon transform. The signals are used to evaluate a two-dimensional power spectral density distribution in the frequency-velocity space that exhibits a resonance in the presence of quasi-periodic PDs. By applying this analysis to the same fan loop structures observed in several AIA channels, we found that the traveling velocity of PDs increases with the temperature of the coronal plasma following the square-root dependence predicted for slow mode magneto-acoustic waves which seem to be the dominating wave mode in the loop structures studied. This result extends recent observations by Kiddie et al. to a more general class of fan loop system not associated with sunspots and demonstrating consistent slow mode activity in up to four AIA channels.

  15. Band gap estimation from temperature dependent Seebeck measurementDeviations from the 2e|S|{sub max}T{sub max} relation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibbs, Zachary M.; Kim, Hyun-Sik; Wang, Heng; Snyder, G. Jeffrey

    2015-01-12

    In characterizing thermoelectric materials, electrical and thermal transport measurements are often used to estimate electronic band structure properties such as the effective mass and band gap. The Goldsmid-Sharp band gap, E{sub g}?=?2e|S|{sub max}T{sub max}, is a tool widely employed to estimate the band gap from temperature dependent Seebeck coefficient measurements. However, significant deviations of more than a factor of two are now known to occur. We find that this is when either the majority-to-minority weighted mobility ratio (A) becomes very different from 1.0 or as the band gap (E{sub g}) becomes significantly smaller than 10 k{sub B}T. For narrow gaps (E{sub g}???6 k{sub B}T), the Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics applied by Goldsmid-Sharp break down and Fermi-Dirac statistics are required. We generate a chart that can be used to quickly estimate the expected correction to the Goldsmid-Sharp band gap depending on A and S{sub max}; however, additional errors can occur for S?

  16. Finite temperature effects on the X-ray absorption spectra of lithium compounds: First-principles interpretation of X-ray Raman measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pascal, Tod A.; Prendergast, David, E-mail: dgprendergast@lbl.gov [The Molecular Foundry, Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [The Molecular Foundry, Materials Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Boesenberg, Ulrike; Kostecki, Robert; Richardson, Thomas J. [Environmental Energy Technologies Division, LBNL, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)] [Environmental Energy Technologies Division, LBNL, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Weng, Tsu-Chien; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Nordlund, Dennis [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford, California 94720 (United States)] [Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford, California 94720 (United States); McDermott, Eamon; Moewes, Alexander [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2 (Canada)] [University of Saskatchewan, Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E2 (Canada); Cabana, Jordi [Environmental Energy Technologies Division, LBNL, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States) [Environmental Energy Technologies Division, LBNL, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60605 (United States)

    2014-01-21

    We elucidate the role of room-temperature-induced instantaneous structural distortions in the Li K-edge X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) of crystalline LiF, Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Li{sub 2}O, Li{sub 3}N, and Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} using high resolution X-ray Raman spectroscopy (XRS) measurements and first-principles density functional theory calculations within the eXcited electron and Core Hole approach. Based on thermodynamic sampling via ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, we find calculated XAS in much better agreement with experiment than those computed using the rigid crystal structure alone. We show that local instantaneous distortion of the atomic lattice perturbs the symmetry of the Li 1s core-excited-state electronic structure, broadening spectral line-shapes and, in some cases, producing additional spectral features. The excellent agreement with high-resolution XRS measurements validates the accuracy of our first-principles approach to simulating XAS, and provides both accurate benchmarks for model compounds and a predictive theoretical capability for identification and characterization of multi-component systems, such as lithium-ion batteries, under working conditions.

  17. Characterization of room temperature recrystallization kinetics in electroplated copper thin films with concurrent x-ray diffraction and electrical resistivity measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Treger, Mikhail; Noyan, I. C.; Witt, Christian; Cabral, Cyril; Murray, Conal; Jordan-Sweet, Jean; Rosenberg, Robert; Eisenbraun, Eric

    2013-06-07

    Concurrent in-situ four-point probe resistivity and high resolution synchrotron x-ray diffraction measurements were used to characterize room temperature recrystallization in electroplated Cu thin films. The x-ray data were used to obtain the variation with time of the integrated intensities and the peak-breadth from the Cu 111 and 200 reflections of the transforming grains. The variation of the integrated intensity and resistivity data with time was analyzed using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) model. For both 111-textured and non-textured electroplated Cu films, four-point probe resistivity measurements yielded shorter transformation times than the values obtained from the integrated intensities of the corresponding Cu 111 reflections. In addition, the JMAK exponents fitted to the resistivity data were significantly smaller. These discrepancies could be explained by considering the different material volumes from which resistivity and diffraction signals originated, and the physical processes which linked these signals to the changes in the evolving microstructure. Based on these issues, calibration of the resistivity analysis with direct structural characterization techniques is recommended.

  18. Time and space resolved measurement of the electron temperature, mass density and ionization state in the ablation plasma between two exploding Al wires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knapp, P. F.; Pikuz, S. A.; Shelkovenko, T. A.; Hammer, D. A.; Hansen, S. B.

    2012-05-15

    We have determined the properties of plasma around and between two exploding wires using high-resolution x-ray absorption spectroscopy. Plasma densities and temperatures ranging from Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 0.1g/cm{sup 3} and a few eV to less than 0.01 g/cm{sup 3} and 30 eV have been measured in experiments at Cornell University with two 40 {mu}m aluminum (Al) wires spaced 1 mm apart driven by {approx}150 kA peak current pulses with 100 ns rise time. The wire plasma was backlit by the 1.4-1.6 keV continuum radiation produced by a Mo wire X-pinch. The spectrometer employed two spherically bent quartz crystals to record the absorption and backlighter spectra simultaneously. The transition between the dense Al wire core and the coronal plasma is seen as a transition from cold K-edge absorption to Mg-, Na-, and finally Ne-like absorption at the boundary. In the plasma that accumulates between the wires, ionization states up to C-Like Al are observed. The spectrometer geometry and {approx}2{mu}m X-pinch source size provide 0.3 eV spectral resolution and 20 {mu}m spatial resolution enabling us to see 1s{yields} 2p satellite transitions as separate lines as well as O-, F-, and Ne-like 1s{yields} 3p transitions that have not been seen before. A step wedge was used to calibrate the transmission, enabling density to be measured within a factor of two and temperature to be measured within {+-}25%. A genetic algorithm was developed to fit synthetic spectra calculated using the collisional-radiative code SCRAM to the experimental spectra. In order to obtain agreement it was necessary to assume multiple plasma regions with variable thicknesses, thereby allowing the inferred plasma conditions to vary along the absorption path.

  19. Cooled, temperature controlled electrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, John P.

    1992-01-01

    A cooled, temperature controlled electrometer for the measurement of small currents. The device employs a thermal transfer system to remove heat from the electrometer circuit and its environment and dissipate it to the external environment by means of a heat sink. The operation of the thermal transfer system is governed by a temperature regulation circuit which activates the thermal transfer system when the temperature of the electrometer circuit and its environment exceeds a level previously inputted to the external variable temperature control circuit. The variable temperature control circuit functions as subpart of the temperature control circuit. To provide temperature stability and uniformity, the electrometer circuit is enclosed by an insulated housing.

  20. Cooled, temperature controlled electrometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, John P.

    1992-08-04

    A cooled, temperature controlled electrometer for the measurement of small currents. The device employs a thermal transfer system to remove heat from the electrometer circuit and its environment and dissipate it to the external environment by means of a heat sink. The operation of the thermal transfer system is governed by a temperature regulation circuit which activates the thermal transfer system when the temperature of the electrometer circuit and its environment exceeds a level previously inputted to the external variable temperature control circuit. The variable temperature control circuit functions as subpart of the temperature control circuit. To provide temperature stability and uniformity, the electrometer circuit is enclosed by an insulated housing.

  1. High temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1982-01-01

    A high temperature sensor includes a pair of electrical conductors separated by a mass of electrical insulating material. The insulating material has a measurable resistivity within the sensor that changes in relation to the temperature of the insulating material within a high temperature range (1,000 to 2,000 K.). When required, the sensor can be encased within a ceramic protective coating.

  2. Temperature measurement of an atmospheric pressure arc discharge plasma jet using the diatomic CN (B {sup 2}{sigma}{sup +}-X {sup 2}{sigma}{sup +}, violet system) molecular spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moon, Se Youn; Kim, D. B.; Gweon, B.; Choe, W.

    2009-03-01

    The CN (B {sup 2}{sigma}{sup +}-X {sup 2}{sigma}{sup +}) molecular emission spectrum is used to measure both the vibrational and rotational temperatures in atmospheric pressure arc jet discharges. The vibrational and rotational temperature effects on the synthetic diatomic molecular spectra were investigated from the (v{sup '},v{sup ''})=(0,0) band to the (5,5) band. The temperatures obtained from the synthetic spectra compared with the experimental result of a low-frequency arc discharge show a vibrational temperature of (4250-5010) K and a rotational temperature of (3760-3980) K for the input power in the range of (80-280) W. As the (0,0) band is isolated from other vibrational transition bands, determination of the rotational temperature is possible based only on the (0,0) band, which simplifies the temperature measurement. From the result, it was found that the CN molecular spectrum can be used as a thermometer for atmospheric pressure plasmas containing carbon and nitrogen.

  3. Magnetic nanoparticle temperature estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, John B.; Rauwerdink, Adam M.; Hansen, Eric W.

    2009-05-15

    The authors present a method of measuring the temperature of magnetic nanoparticles that can be adapted to provide in vivo temperature maps. Many of the minimally invasive therapies that promise to reduce health care costs and improve patient outcomes heat tissue to very specific temperatures to be effective. Measurements are required because physiological cooling, primarily blood flow, makes the temperature difficult to predict a priori. The ratio of the fifth and third harmonics of the magnetization generated by magnetic nanoparticles in a sinusoidal field is used to generate a calibration curve and to subsequently estimate the temperature. The calibration curve is obtained by varying the amplitude of the sinusoidal field. The temperature can then be estimated from any subsequent measurement of the ratio. The accuracy was 0.3 deg. K between 20 and 50 deg. C using the current apparatus and half-second measurements. The method is independent of nanoparticle concentration and nanoparticle size distribution.

  4. Multispectrum measurements of spectral line parameters including temperature dependences of N2- and self-broadened half-width coefficients in the region of the v9 band of 12C2H6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malathy Devi, V.; Benner, D. C.; Rinsland, C.P.; Smith, M.A.H.; Sams, Robert L.; Blake, Thomas A.; Flaud, Jean Marie; Sung, Keeyoon; Brown, L.R.; Mantz, A. W.

    2010-11-01

    Ethane is a prominent contributor to the spectrum of Titan, particularly in the region of the v9 band at 12?m. A multispectrum nonlinear least squares fitting program was applied to laboratory spectra of ethane to measure accurate positions, absolute intensities, N2- and selfbroadened half- width coefficients and their temperature dependences for a large number transitions. These measurements include several pQ and rQ sub-bands (and other sub-bands such as pP, rR) in the v9 fundamental band of 12C2H6 centered near 822 cm-1. Positions were measured for 2958 transitions and intensities for 3771 transitions. N2- and self-broadened half-width coefficients were determined for over 1700 transitions while temperature dependence exponents were retrieved for over 1350 of those transitions. Of these, many measurements (mostly line positions and intensities) belong to the v9+v4-v4 hot band, v9+2v4-2v4 hot band, 13C12CH6 v9 band and unidentified transitions. Forty-three high resolution (0.0016-0.005 cm-1) infrared laboratory absorption spectra recorded at temperatures between 148 and 298 K were fitted simultaneously to retrieve these parameters. Forty-one of these spectra were obtained in the temperature range of 211-298 K using the Bruker IFS 120HR interferometer located at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in Richland, Washington. Two additional spectra at 148 K were recorded using a new temperature stabilized cryogenic cell designed to work inside the sample compartment of the high resolution Bruker IFS 125HR interferometer of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena California. The specialized cooling cell developed at Connecticut College and capable of achieving gas sample temperatures down to 70 K with a temperature stability and uniformity of better than 0.05 K was employed to record the 148 K spectra. Constraints to intensity ratios, doublet separations, half-width coefficients and their temperature dependence exponents were required to determine these parameters for each of the two torsional split components. Similar to N2- and self-broadened half-width coefficients, their temperature dependence exponents were also found to follow distinctively different patterns. The variations of the observed half-width coefficients and their temperature dependences with respect to J, K quantum numbers are discussed. Because of the high density of torsionally split spectral lines, hot-band ransitions as well as blends, it was not possible to retrieve any information on the small pressure-induced shift coefficients. Present results are compared to other available measurements.

  5. Absolute CF{sub 2} density and gas temperature measurements by absorption spectroscopy in dual-frequency capacitively coupled CF{sub 4}/Ar plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Wen-Yao; Xu, Yong Peng, Fei; Gong, Fa-Ping; Li, Xiao-Song; Zhu, Ai-Min; Liu, Yong-Xin; Wang, You-Nian

    2014-10-15

    Broadband ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy has been used to determine the CF{sub 2} radical density in dual-frequency capacitively coupled CF{sub 4}/Ar plasmas, using the CF{sub 2} A{sup ~1}B{sub 1}?X{sup ~1}A{sub 1} system of absorption spectrum. The rotational temperature of ground state CF{sub 2} and excited state CF was also estimated by using A{sup ~1}B{sub 1}?X{sup ~1}A{sub 1} system and B{sup 2}??X{sup 2}? system, respectively. The translational gas temperature was deduced from the Doppler width of the Ar{sup *}({sup 3}P{sub 2}) and Ar{sup *}({sup 3}P{sub 0}) metastable atoms absorption line by using the tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. The rotational temperatures of the excited state CF are about 100?K higher than those of ground state CF{sub 2}, and about 200?K higher than the translational gas temperatures. The dependences of the radical CF{sub 2} density, electron density, electron temperature, rotational temperature, and gas temperature on the high frequency power and pressure have been analyzed. Furthermore, the production and loss mechanisms of CF{sub 2} radical and the gas heating mechanisms have also been discussed.

  6. Temperature measurement of cold atoms using single-atom transits and Monte Carlo simulation in a strongly coupled atom-cavity system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Wenfang; Du, Jinjin; Wen, Ruijuan; Yang, Pengfei; Li, Gang; Zhang, Tiancai; Liang, Junjun

    2014-03-17

    We investigate the transmission of single-atom transits based on a strongly coupled cavity quantum electrodynamics system. By superposing the transit transmissions of a considerable number of atoms, we obtain the absorption spectra of the cavity induced by single atoms and obtain the temperature of the cold atom. The number of atoms passing through the microcavity for each release is also counted, and this number changes exponentially along with the atom temperature. Monte Carlo simulations agree closely with the experimental results, and the initial temperature of the cold atom is determined. Compared with the conventional time-of-flight (TOF) method, this approach avoids some uncertainties in the standard TOF and sheds new light on determining temperature of cold atoms by counting atoms individually in a confined space.

  7. Measurement of vibrational, gas, and rotational temperatures of H{sub 2} (X{sup 1} {sigma}{sub g}{sup +}) in radio frequency inductive discharge plasma by multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering spectroscopy technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shakhatov, V.A.; De Pascale, O.; Capitelli, M.; Hassouni, K.; Lombardi, G.; Gicquel, A.

    2005-02-01

    Translational, rotational, and vibrational temperatures of H{sub 2} in radio frequency inductive discharge plasmas at pressures and power release ranges, respectively, of 0.5-8 torr and 0.5-2 W/cm{sup 3} have been measured by using multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy. Computational codes have been developed to determine the rotational and vibrational temperatures and to analyze H{sub 2} CARS spectrum for nonequilibrium conditions. The results show a decrease of the vibrational temperature from 4250 to 2800 K by increasing the pressure from 0.5 to 8 torr and a corresponding increase of the rotational temperature from 525 to 750 K.

  8. Automatic temperature adjustment apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaplin, James E.

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus for increasing the efficiency of a conventional central space heating system is disclosed. The temperature of a fluid heating medium is adjusted based on a measurement of the external temperature, and a system parameter. The system parameter is periodically modified based on a closed loop process that monitors the operation of the heating system. This closed loop process provides a heating medium temperature value that is very near the optimum for energy efficiency.

  9. High-temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1981-01-29

    A high temperature sensor is described which includes a pair of electrical conductors separated by a mass of electrical insulating material. The insulating material has a measurable resistivity within the sensor that changes in relation to the temperature of the insulating material within a high temperature range (1000 to 2000/sup 0/K). When required, the sensor can be encased within a ceramic protective coating.

  10. Measurement of Boundary-Layer Temperature Profiles by a Scanning 5-MM Radiometer During the 1999 Winter NSA/AAO Radiometer Exp

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Boundary-Layer Temperature Profiles by a Scanning 5-MM Radiometer During the 1999 Winter NSA/AAO Radiometer Experiment and WVIOP 2000 V. Y. Leuski and E. R. Westwater Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory University of Colorado Boulder, Colorado Introduction A scanning 5-mm-wavelength radiometer was deployed during two Intensive Operational Periods (IOPs) at the Atmospheric Radiation

  11. Line spectrum and ion temperature measurements from tungsten ions at low ionization stages in large helical device based on vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy in wavelength range of 5002200

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oishi, T. Morita, S.; Goto, M.; Huang, X. L.; Zhang, H. M.

    2014-11-15

    Vacuum ultraviolet spectra of emissions released from tungsten ions at lower ionization stages were measured in the Large Helical Device (LHD) in the wavelength range of 5002200 using a 3 m normal incidence spectrometer. Tungsten ions were distributed in the LHD plasma by injecting a pellet consisting of a small piece of tungsten metal and polyethylene tube. Many lines having different wavelengths from intrinsic impurity ions were observed just after the tungsten pellet injection. Doppler broadening of a tungsten candidate line was successfully measured and the ion temperature was obtained.

  12. Development of a spatially resolving x-ray crystal spectrometer for measurement of ion-temperature (T{sub i}) and rotation-velocity (v) profiles in ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, K. W.; Bitter, M.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Johnson, D.; Feder, R.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Dunn, J.; Morris, K.; Wang, E.; Reinke, M.; Podpaly, Y.; Rice, J. E.; Barnsley, R.; O'Mullane, M.; Lee, S. G.

    2010-10-15

    Imaging x-ray crystal spectrometer (XCS) arrays are being developed as a US-ITER activity for Doppler measurement of T{sub i} and v profiles of impurities (W, Kr, and Fe) with {approx}7 cm (a/30) and 10-100 ms resolution in ITER. The imaging XCS, modeled after a prototype instrument on Alcator C-Mod, uses a spherically bent crystal and 2D x-ray detectors to achieve high spectral resolving power (E/dE>6000) horizontally and spatial imaging vertically. Two arrays will measure T{sub i} and both poloidal and toroidal rotation velocity profiles. The measurement of many spatial chords permits tomographic inversion for the inference of local parameters. The instrument design, predictions of performance, and results from C-Mod are presented.

  13. Development of a Spatially Resolving X-Ray Crystal Spectrometer (XCS) for Measurement of Ion-Temperature (Ti) and Rotation-Velocity (v) Profiles in ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, K W; Delgado-Aprico, L; Johnson, D; Feder, R; Beiersdorfer,; Dunn, J; Morris, K; Wang, E; Reinke, M; Podpaly, Y; Rice, J E; Barnsley, R; O'Mullane, M; Lee, S G

    2010-05-21

    Imaging XCS arrays are being developed as a US-ITER activity for Doppler measurement of Ti and v profiles of impurities (W, Kr, Fe) with ~7 cm (a/30) and 10-100 ms resolution in ITER. The imaging XCS, modeled after a PPPL-MIT instrument on Alcator C-Mod, uses a spherically bent crystal and 2d x-ray detectors to achieve high spectral resolving power (E/dE>6000) horizontally and spatial imaging vertically. Two arrays will measure Ti and both poloidal and toroidal rotation velocity profiles. Measurement of many spatial chords permits tomographic inversion for inference of local parameters. The instrument design, predictions of performance, and results from C-Mod will be presented.

  14. Temperature-sensitive optrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1985-09-24

    Method and apparatus are provided for measuring temperature and for generating optical signals related to temperature. Light from a fiber optic is directed to a material whose fluorescent response varies with ambient temperature. The same fiber optic delivering the excitation beam also collects a portion of the fluorescent emission for analysis. Signal collection efficiency of the fiber optic is enhanced by requiring that the fluorescent probe material be in the shape of an oblong parabolically tapered solid. Reproducibility is enhanced by using Raman backscatter to monitor excitation beam fluctuations, and by using measurements of fluorescence lifetime. 10 figs.

  15. Fiber optic temperature sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabold, D.

    1995-12-01

    Our fiber optic temperature measurement sensor and system is a major improvement over methods currently in use in most industrial processes, and it delivers all of the attributes required simplicity, accuracy, and cost efficiency-to help improve all of these processes. Because temperature is a basic physical attribute of nearly every industrial and commercial process, our system can eventually result in significant improvements in nearly every industrial and commercial process. Many finished goods, and the materials that go into them, are critically dependent on the temperature. The better the temperature measurement, the better quality the goods will be and the more economically they can be produced. The production and transmission of energy requires the monitoring of temperature in motors, circuit breakers, power generating plants, and transmission line equipment. The more reliable and robust the methods for measuring these temperature, the more available, stable, and affordable the supply of energy will become. The world is increasingly realizing the threats to health and safety of toxic or otherwise undesirable by products of the industrial economy in the environment. Cleanup of such contamination often depends on techniques that require the constant monitoring of temperature in extremely hazardous environments, which can damage most conventional temperature sensors and which are dangerous for operating personnel. Our system makes such monitoring safer and more economical.

  16. Apparatus and method for maintaining low temperatures about an object at a remote location. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steyert, W.A. Jr.; Overton, W.C. Jr.

    1980-10-29

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus and method for maintaining a body at cryogenic temperatures at a remote location such as down a borehole for an extended period of time. A housing contains a body comprising a material having a high specific heat at cryogenic temperatures such as between about 2 and 15 K. The body contains an orifice for containing an instrument or instruments operable at superconducting temperatures. The apparatus is precooled at the surface and lowered into a borehole to a desired depth, such as 2 to 3 miles. The instruments are operated, and the apparatus withdrawn, the material of the body maintaining the very low temperatures at which the instrument(s) operate for a sufficient period of time at the remote or downhole location. The material may comprise a rare earth compound, such as Gd/sub 2/O/sub 3/, Gd/sub 2/Se/sub 3/, Gd/sub 2/O/sub 2/S or GdAlO/sub 3/. Monoclinic and C-phase gadolinium oxides work well. A low temperature is maintainable at a remote location for several hours.

  17. Beamline Temperatures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Temperatures Energy: 3.0000 GeV Current: 495.5347 mA Date: 09-Jan-2016 04:18:38 Beamline Temperatures Energy 3.0000 GeV Current 495.5 mA 09-Jan-2016 04:18:38 LN:MainTankLevel 112.0...

  18. Operation Greenhouse. Scientific Director's report of atomic weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 1. 6. Blast measurements. Part 5. Measurement of density, temperature, and material velocity in an air shock produced by a nuclear explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porzel, F.B.; Whitener, J.E.

    1985-09-01

    The results from laboratory tests and test firing were quite encouraging. It was concluded that: (1) the beta densitometer is a feasible device for the measurement of density as a function of time in the shock wave from a nuclear explosion. It is limited to pressure levels of 6 or 8 psi for bombs in the range of 50 kt, but is capable of higher-pressure levels on larger bombs where the interference from gamma rays is less serious; (2) dust-loading behind the shock wave is a major perturbation to the ideal hydrodynamics and can change the density by as large a factor as the shock itself; (3) the rise time at distances of 7,500 feet on Easy Shot was sharp within a resolution of approximately 0.2 msec; and (4) the field calibration used on Operation Greenhouse appeared reasonably accurate and was worthy of subsequent development.

  19. Temperature profile detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, R.D.

    1983-10-11

    Disclosed is a temperature profile detector shown as a tubular enclosure surrounding an elongated electrical conductor having a plurality of meltable conductive segments surrounding it. Duplicative meltable segments are spaced apart from one another along the length of the enclosure. Electrical insulators surround these elements to confine molten material from the segments in bridging contact between the conductor and a second electrical conductor, which might be the confining tube. The location and rate of growth of the resulting short circuits between the two conductors can be monitored by measuring changes in electrical resistance between terminals at both ends of the two conductors. Additional conductors and separate sets of meltable segments operational at differing temperatures can be monitored simultaneously for measuring different temperature profiles. 8 figs.

  20. Synchrotron infrared reflectivity measurements of iron at high...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    RANGE GIGA PA; REFLECTIVITY; SYNCHROTRON RADIATION; TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE; TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT; TEMPERATURE RANGE 0273-0400 K; TEMPERATURE RANGE 1000-4000 K; WAVELENGTHS ...

  1. Carbon nanotube temperature and pressure sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ivanov, Ilia N; Geohegan, David Bruce

    2013-10-29

    The present invention, in one embodiment, provides a method of measuring pressure or temperature using a sensor including a sensor element composed of a plurality of carbon nanotubes. In one example, the resistance of the plurality of carbon nanotubes is measured in response to the application of temperature or pressure. The changes in resistance are then recorded and correlated to temperature or pressure. In one embodiment, the present invention provides for independent measurement of pressure or temperature using the sensors disclosed herein.

  2. Determining Outdoor CPV Cell Temperature: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muller, M.; Deline, C.; Marion, B.; Kurtz, S.; Bosco, N.

    2011-07-01

    An accurate method is needed for determining cell temperature when measuring CPV modules outdoors. It has been suggested that cell temperature can be calculated though a procedure that shutters sunlight to the cells while measuring the transients in open-circuit voltage (Voc) and heat sink temperature. This paper documents application of this shutter procedure to multiple CPV modules at NREL. The challenges and limitations are presented along with an alternate approach to measuring CPV cell operating temperature.

  3. Temperature determination using pyrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Breiland, William G.; Gurary, Alexander I.; Boguslavskiy, Vadim

    2002-01-01

    A method for determining the temperature of a surface upon which a coating is grown using optical pyrometry by correcting Kirchhoff's law for errors in the emissivity or reflectance measurements associated with the growth of the coating and subsequent changes in the surface thermal emission and heat transfer characteristics. By a calibration process that can be carried out in situ in the chamber where the coating process occurs, an error calibration parameter can be determined that allows more precise determination of the temperature of the surface using optical pyrometry systems. The calibration process needs only to be carried out when the physical characteristics of the coating chamber change.

  4. Link module for a downhole drilling network

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Fox, Joe (Provo, UT)

    2007-05-29

    A repeater is disclosed in one embodiment of the present invention as including a cylindrical housing, characterized by a proximal end and a distal end, and having a substantially cylindrical wall, the cylindrical wall defining a central bore passing therethrough. The cylindrical housing is formed to define at least one recess in the cylindrical wall, into which a repeater is inserted. The cylindrical housing also includes an annular recess formed into at least one of the proximal end and the distal end. An annular transmission element, operably connected to the repeater, is located in the annular recess. In selected embodiments, the annular transmission element inductively converts electrical energy to magnetic energy. In other embodiments, the annular transmission element includes an electrical contact to transmit electrical energy directly to another contact.

  5. Down-hole periodic seismic generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hardee, H.C.; Hills, R.G.; Striker, R.P.

    1982-10-28

    A down hole periodic seismic generator system is disclosed for transmitting variable frequency, predominantly shear-wave vibration into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system comprises a unitary housing operably connected to a well head by support and electrical cabling and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a variable speed pneumatic oscillator and a self-contained pneumatic reservoir for producing a frequency-swept seismic output over a discrete frequency range.

  6. Coiled tubing solves multiple downhole problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bedford, S. ); Smith, I. )

    1994-11-01

    Declining reservoir pressure and water breakthrough in the UK North Sea Magnus field has coincided with general advances in application of coiled tubing and a continuous drive to reduce operating costs, particularly in a climate of weak oil prices. These factors have led to a dramatic increase in diversity and volume of coiled tubing interventions. In the following article, coiled tubing interventions, and results of those interventions, are discussed. An assessment of future coiled tubing activity on Magnus field is provided.

  7. High temperature thermometric phosphors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, S.W.; Cates, M.R.; Boatner, L.A.; Gillies, G.T.

    1999-03-23

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO{sub 4}:Dy{sub x},Eu{sub y} wherein: 0.1 wt % {<=} x {<=} 20 wt % and 0.1 wt % {<=} y {<=} 20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopant. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions. 2 figs.

  8. High temperature thermometric phosphors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, Stephen W.; Cates, Michael R.; Boatner, Lynn A.; Gillies, George T.

    1999-03-23

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO.sub.4 :Dy.sub.(x),Eu.sub.y) wherein: 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.20 wt % and 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopent. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions.

  9. Actinide Thermodynamics at Elevated Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friese, Judah I.; Rao, Linfeng; Xia, Yuanxian; Bachelor, Paula P.; Tian, Guoxin

    2007-11-16

    The postclosure chemical environment in the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is expected to experience elevated temperatures. Predicting migration of actinides is possible if sufficient, reliable thermodynamic data on hydrolysis and complexation are available for these temperatures. Data are scarce and scattered for 25 degrees C, and nonexistent for elevated temperatures. This collaborative project between LBNL and PNNL collects thermodynamic data at elevated temperatures on actinide complexes with inorganic ligands that may be present in Yucca Mountain. The ligands include hydroxide, fluoride, sulfate, phosphate and carbonate. Thermodynamic parameters of complexation, including stability constants, enthalpy, entropy and heat capacity of complexation, are measured with a variety of techniques including solvent extraction, potentiometry, spectrophotometry and calorimetry

  10. Final Technical Report - 300???°C Capable Electronics Platform and Temperature Sensor System For Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng-Po Chen; David Shaddock; Peter Sandvik; Rich Saia; Amita Patil, Alexey Vert; Tan Zhang

    2012-11-30

    A silicon carbide (SiC) based electronic temperature sensor prototype has been demonstrated to operate at 300???°C. We showed continuous operation of 1,000 hours with SiC operational amplifier and surface mounted discreet resistors and capacitors on a ceramic circuit board. This feasibility demonstration is a major milestone in the development of high temperature electronics in general and high temperature geothermal exploration and well management tools in particular. SiC technology offers technical advantages that are not found in competing technologies such as silicon-on-insulator (SOI) at high temperatures of 200???°C to 300???°C and beyond. The SiC integrated circuits and packaging methods can be used in new product introduction by GE Oil and Gas for high temperature down-hole tools. The existing SiC fabrication facility at GE is sufficient to support the quantities currently demanded by the marketplace, and there are other entities in the United States and other countries capable of ramping up SiC technology manufacturing. The ceramic circuit boards are different from traditional organic-based electronics circuit boards, but the fabrication process is compatible with existing ceramic substrate manufacturing. This project has brought high temperature electronics forward, and brings us closer to commercializing tools that will enable and reduce the cost of enhanced geothermal technology to benefit the public in terms of providing clean renewable energy at lower costs.

  11. A High Temperature Direct Vehicle Exhaust Flowmeter for Heavy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A High Temperature Direct Vehicle Exhaust Flowmeter for Heavy Duty Diesel Emission Measurements. A High Temperature Direct Vehicle Exhaust Flowmeter for Heavy Duty Diesel Emission ...

  12. Static Temperature Survey At Newberry Caldera Area (Combs, Et...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    temperature measurements. These temperature logs were taken with Sandia's platinum-resistance-thermometer (PRT) tool which along with a Sandia logging truck remained on-site for...

  13. Use of Tracers to Characterize Fractures in Engineered Geothermal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    fabricate and test a downhole instrument for measuring fracture flow following a hydraulic stimulation experiment. reservoirrosetracerscharacterizefractures.pdf More...

  14. ARM - Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsAerosols

  15. ARM - Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsRadiometric

  16. Room temperature ferrimagnetism and ferroelectricity in strained...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    room temperature ferroelectricity in the films was measured by piezoresponse force microscopy and was confirmed using angular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy. ...

  17. Sonoluminescence Temperatures During Multi-Bubble Cavitation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; CAVITATION; BUBBLES; LIQUIDS; SOUND WAVES; ACOUSTICS; TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT Word Cloud More Like This Full Text ...

  18. Drexel University Temperature Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. L. Davis; D. L. Knudson; J. L. Rempe; B. M. Chase

    2014-09-01

    This document summarizes background information and presents results related to temperature measurements in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) Drexel University Project 31091 irradiation. The objective of this test was to assess the radiation performance of new ceramic materials for advanced reactor applications. Accordingly, irradiations of transition metal carbides and nitrides were performed using the Hydraulic Shuttle Irradiation System (HSIS) in the B-7 position and in static capsules inserted into the A-3 and East Flux Trap Position 5 locations of the ATR.

  19. Optical temperature sensor using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    Optical thermometry is a growing technological field which exploits the ability of certain materials to change their optical properties with temperature. A subclass of such materials are those which change their color as a reversible and reproducible function of temperature. These materials are thermochromic. This invention is a composition to measure temperature utilizing thermochromic semiconductors.

  20. Elastic wave velocity measurement combined with synchrotron X...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    measurements at high pressure and high temperature conditions: Towards prediction and ... measurements at high pressure and high temperature conditions: Towards prediction and ...

  1. M&V Guidelines: Measurement and Verification for Federal Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... temperature differential for various levels of temperature sensor accuracy (given a 5% error in flow measurement and a 2% error in in power measurement). 22 ...

  2. ARM - Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsCloud Properties

  3. ARM - Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsSurface Properties

  4. Optical absorption measurement system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draggoo, Vaughn G. (Livermore, CA); Morton, Richard G. (San Diego, CA); Sawicki, Richard H. (Pleasanton, CA); Bissinger, Horst D. (Livermore, CA)

    1989-01-01

    The system of the present invention contemplates a non-intrusive method for measuring the temperature rise of optical elements under high laser power optical loading to determine the absorption coefficient. The method comprises irradiating the optical element with a high average power laser beam, viewing the optical element with an infrared camera to determine the temperature across the optical element and calculating the absorption of the optical element from the temperature.

  5. High temperature methods for forming oxidizer fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bravo, Jose Luis (Houston, TX)

    2011-01-11

    A method of treating a formation fluid includes providing formation fluid from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process. The formation fluid is separated to produce a liquid stream and a first gas stream. The first gas stream includes carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, hydrocarbons, hydrogen or mixtures thereof. Molecular oxygen is separated from air to form a molecular oxygen stream comprising molecular oxygen. The first gas stream is combined with the molecular oxygen stream to form a combined stream comprising molecular oxygen and the first gas stream. The combined stream is provided to one or more downhole burners.

  6. Optical temperature sensor using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W.

    1998-01-01

    An optical temperature measuring device utilizes thermochromic semiconductors which vary in color in response to changes in temperature. The thermochromic material is sealed in a glass matrix which allows the temperature sensor to detect high temperatures without breakdown. Cuprous oxide and cadmium sulfide are among the semiconductor materials which provide the best results. The changes in color may be detected visually using a sensor chip and an accompanying color card.

  7. Andreev current for low temperature thermometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Faivre, T. Pekola, J. P.; Golubev, D. S.

    2015-05-04

    We demonstrate experimentally that disorder enhanced Andreev current in a tunnel junction between a normal metal and a superconductor provides a method to measure electronic temperature, specifically at temperatures below 200 mK when aluminum is used. This Andreev thermometer has some advantages over conventional quasiparticle thermometers: For instance, it does not conduct heat and its reading does not saturate until at lower temperatures. Another merit is that the responsivity is constant over a wide temperature range.

  8. Optical temperature sensor using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1998-06-30

    An optical temperature measuring device utilizes thermochromic semiconductors which vary in color in response to changes in temperature. The thermochromic material is sealed in a glass matrix which allows the temperature sensor to detect high temperatures without breakdown. Cuprous oxide and cadmium sulfide are among the semiconductor materials which provide the best results. The changes in color may be detected visually using a sensor chip and an accompanying color card. 8 figs.

  9. Optical temperature sensor using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (108 Independent Blvd., Aiken, SC 29801)

    1996-01-01

    An optical temperature measuring device utilizes thermochromic semiconductors which vary in color in response to changes in temperature. The thermochromic material is sealed in a glass matrix which allows the temperature sensor to detect high temperatures without breakdown. Cuprous oxide and cadmium sulfide are among the semiconductor materials which provide the best results. The changes in color may be detected visually or by utilizing an optical fiber and an electrical sensing circuit.

  10. Optical temperature sensor using thermochromic semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1996-08-20

    An optical temperature measuring device utilizes thermochromic semiconductors which vary in color in response to changes in temperature. The thermochromic material is sealed in a glass matrix which allows the temperature sensor to detect high temperatures without breakdown. Cuprous oxide and cadmium sulfide are among the semiconductor materials which provide the best results. The changes in color may be detected visually or by utilizing an optical fiber and an electrical sensing circuit. 7 figs.

  11. While drilling system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayes, James C.; Araya, Mario A.; Thorp, Richard Edward

    2007-02-20

    A while drilling system and method for determining downhole parameters is provided. The system includes a retrievable while drilling tool positionable in a downhole drilling tool, a sensor chassis and at least one sensor. The while drilling tool is positionable in the downhole drilling tool and has a first communication coupler at an end thereof. The sensor chassis is supported in the drilling tool. The sensor chassis has a second communication coupler at an end thereof for operative connection with the first communication coupler. The sensor is positioned in the chassis and is adapted to measure internal and/or external parameters of the drilling tool. The sensor is operatively connected to the while drilling tool via the communication coupler for communication therebetween. The sensor may be positioned in the while drilling tool and retrievable with the drilling tool. Preferably, the system is operable in high temperature and high pressure conditions.

  12. Temperature sensors for OTEC applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seren, L.; Panchal, C.B.; Rote, D.M.

    1984-05-01

    Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) applications require accurate measurement of temperatures in the 0 to 30/sup 0/C range. This report documents an experimental examination of commercially available quartz-crystal thermometers and thermistors. Three fixed-point baths were used for temperature measurements: the distilled-water/distilled-ice-water slurry, the triple-point-of-water cell, and the gallium melting-point cell. The temperature of carefully prepared ice-water slurries was verified routinely as 0.001 +- 0.003/sup 0/C. Quartz-crystal probes proved accurate to about 1 to 2 mK, with drift errors of the same order over a few days. Bead- and disk-type thermistor probes were found to be about equally stable with time in the 0 to 30/sup 0/C range. The overall probable error of using thermistors was found to be +-4 mK. A solid-block temperature bath suitable for on-site calibrations in OTEC work was used in the temperature-sweeping mode. Various polynomial fits were examined for the purpose of thermistor calibration; fits of order two and higher yielded about equally accurate calculated temperatures.

  13. Performance Measurement of MEAs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Performance Measurement of MEAs Performance Measurement of MEAs Presentation by Shyam S. Kocha at the October 2008 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting PDF icon ...

  14. Automatic HTS force measurement instrument

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanders, S.T.; Niemann, R.C.

    1999-03-30

    A device is disclosed for measuring the levitation force of a high temperature superconductor sample with respect to a reference magnet includes a receptacle for holding several high temperature superconductor samples each cooled to superconducting temperature. A rotatable carousel successively locates a selected one of the high temperature superconductor samples in registry with the reference magnet. Mechanism varies the distance between one of the high temperature superconductor samples and the reference magnet, and a sensor measures levitation force of the sample as a function of the distance between the reference magnet and the sample. A method is also disclosed. 3 figs.

  15. Automatic HTS force measurement instrument

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanders, Scott T. (Valparaiso, IN); Niemann, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1999-01-01

    A device for measuring the levitation force of a high temperature superconductor sample with respect to a reference magnet includes a receptacle for holding several high temperature superconductor samples each cooled to superconducting temperature. A rotatable carousel successively locates a selected one of the high temperature superconductor samples in registry with the reference magnet. Mechanism varies the distance between one of the high temperature superconductor samples and the reference magnet, and a sensor measures levitation force of the sample as a function of the distance between the reference magnet and the sample. A method is also disclosed.

  16. High temperature furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borkowski, Casimer J.

    1976-08-03

    A high temperature furnace for use above 2000.degree.C is provided that features fast initial heating and low power consumption at the operating temperature. The cathode is initially heated by joule heating followed by electron emission heating at the operating temperature. The cathode is designed for routine large temperature excursions without being subjected to high thermal stresses. A further characteristic of the device is the elimination of any ceramic components from the high temperature zone of the furnace.

  17. ARM - Measurement - Advective tendency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsAdvective tendency ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Advective tendency The large-scale advective tendency of temperature and moisture used to force SCMs and CSRMs, derived from constrained variational analysis. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf)

  18. Enzymatic temperature change indicator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klibanov, Alexander M.; Dordick, Jonathan S.

    1989-01-21

    A temperature change indicator is described which is composed of an enzyme and a substrate for that enzyme suspended in a solid organic solvent or mixture of solvents as a support medium. The organic solvent or solvents are chosen so as to melt at a specific temperature or in a specific temperature range. When the temperature of the indicator is elevated above the chosen, or critical temperature, the solid organic solvent support will melt, and the enzymatic reaction will occur, producing a visually detectable product which is stable to further temperature variation.

  19. High temperature thermometric phosphors for use in a temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, Stephen W.; Cates, Michael R.; Boatner, Lynn A.; Gillies, George T.

    1998-01-01

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO.sub.4 :Dy.sub.(x),Eu.sub.(y), wherein: 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.20 wt % and 0.1 wt %.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopent. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions.

  20. High temperature thermometric phosphors for use in a temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allison, S.W.; Cates, M.R.; Boatner, L.A.; Gillies, G.T.

    1998-03-24

    A high temperature phosphor consists essentially of a material having the general formula LuPO{sub 4}:Dy{sub (x)},Eu{sub (y)}, wherein: 0.1 wt %{<=}x{<=}20 wt % and 0.1 wt %{<=}y{<=}20 wt %. The high temperature phosphor is in contact with an article whose temperature is to be determined. The article having the phosphor in contact with it is placed in the environment for which the temperature of the article is to be determined. The phosphor is excited by a laser causing the phosphor to fluoresce. The emission from the phosphor is optically focused into a beam-splitting mirror which separates the emission into two separate emissions, the emission caused by the dysprosium dopant and the emission caused by the europium dopant. The separated emissions are optically filtered and the intensities of the emission are detected and measured. The ratio of the intensity of each emission is determined and the temperature of the article is calculated from the ratio of the intensities of the separate emissions. 2 figs.

  1. Low-temperature Mechanical Properties of Fe-0.06C-18Cr-10Ni-0.4Ti Austenitic Steel Determined Using Ring-Pull Tensile Tests and Microhardness Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neustroev, V. S.; Boev, E. V.; Garner, Francis A.

    2007-08-01

    Irradiated austenitic stainless steels removed from Russian water-cooled VVERs experience irradiation temperatures and He/dpa conditions that are very similar to steels to be used in ITER. Data are presented on the radiation hardening of the Russian analog of AISI 321 at 0.2 to 15 dpa in the range of 285 to 320??. The Russian variant of the ring-pull tensile test was used to obtain mechanical prop-erty data. Microhardness tests on the ring specimens provide useful information throughout the deformed regions, but at high hardening levels caution must be exercised before application of a widely accepted hardness-yield stress correla-tion to prediction of tensile properties. Low-nickel austenitic steels are very prone to form deformation martensite, a phase that increases strongly with the larger deformation levels characteristic of microhardness tests, especially when compared to the 0.2% deformation used to define yield stress.

  2. Low-Temperature Mechanical Properties Of Fe-0.06c-18cr-10ni-0.4ti Austenitic Steel Determined Using Ring-Pull Tensile Tests And Microhardness Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neustroev, V. S.; Boev, E. V.; Garner, Francis A.

    2007-03-01

    Irradiated austenitic stainless steels removed from Russian water-cooled VVERs experience irradia-tion temperatures and He/dpa conditions that are very similar to steels to be used in ITER. Data are presented on the radiation hardening of the Russian analog of AISI 321 at 0.2 to 15 dpa in the range of 285 to 320??. The Russian variant of the ring-pull tensile test was used to obtain mechanical prop-erty data. Microhardness tests on the ring specimens provide useful information throughout the de-formed regions, but at high hardening levels caution must be exercised before application of a widely accepted hardness-yield stress correlation to prediction of tensile properties. Low-nickel austenitic steels are very prone to form deformation martensite, a phase that increases strongly with the larger deformation levels characteristic of microhardness tests, especially when compared to the 0.2% de-formation used to define yield stress.

  3. Temperature monitoring device and thermocouple assembly therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grimm, Noel P.; Bauer, Frank I.; Bengel, Thomas G.; Kothmann, Richard E.; Mavretish, Robert S.; Miller, Phillip E.; Nath, Raymond J.; Salton, Robert B.

    1991-01-01

    A temperature monitoring device for measuring the temperature at a surface of a body, composed of: at least one first thermocouple and a second thermocouple; support members supporting the thermocouples for placing the first thermocouple in contact with the body surface and for maintaining the second thermocouple at a defined spacing from the body surface; and a calculating circuit connected to the thermocouples for receiving individual signals each representative of the temperature reading produced by a respective one of the first and second thermocouples and for producing a corrected temperature signal having a value which represents the temperature of the body surface and is a function of the difference between the temperature reading produced by the first thermocouple and a selected fraction of the temperature reading provided by the second thermocouple.

  4. Temperature-profile detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1981-01-29

    Temperature profiles at elevated temperature conditions are monitored by use of an elongated device having two conductors spaced by the minimum distance required to normally maintain an open circuit between them. The melting point of one conductor is selected at the elevated temperature being detected, while the melting point of the other is higher. As the preselected temperature is reached, liquid metal will flow between the conductors creating short circuits which are detectable as to location.

  5. Temperature profile detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, Richard D.

    1983-01-01

    Temperature profiles at elevated temperature conditions are monitored by use of an elongated device having two conductors spaced by the minimum distance required to normally maintain an open circuit between them. The melting point of one conductor is selected at the elevated temperature being detected, while the melting point of the other is higher. As the preselected temperature is reached, liquid metal will flow between the conductors, creating short circuits which are detectable as to location.

  6. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mosher, Dan Michael

    1997-11-18

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module (20) comprised of a series of solar cells (22) having a thermally activated switch (24) connected in parallel with several of the cells (22). The photovoltaic module (20) is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient (TC) differing from the temperature coefficient (TC) of the module (20). The calibration temperatures of the switches (24) are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module (20), the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells (22). By shorting some of the solar cells (22) as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module (20) is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module (20) is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive.

  7. Temperature compensated photovoltaic array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mosher, D.M.

    1997-11-18

    A temperature compensated photovoltaic module comprises a series of solar cells having a thermally activated switch connected in parallel with several of the cells. The photovoltaic module is adapted to charge conventional batteries having a temperature coefficient differing from the temperature coefficient of the module. The calibration temperatures of the switches are chosen whereby the colder the ambient temperature for the module, the more switches that are on and form a closed circuit to short the associated solar cells. By shorting some of the solar cells as the ambient temperature decreases, the battery being charged by the module is not excessively overcharged at lower temperatures. PV module is an integrated solution that is reliable and inexpensive. 2 figs.

  8. In situ measurement system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lord, D.E.

    1980-11-24

    A multipurpose in situ underground measurement system comprising a plurality of long electrical resistance elements in the form of rigid reinforcing bars, each having an open loop hairpin configuration of shorter length than the other resistance elements. The resistance elements are arranged in pairs in a unitized structure, and grouted in place in the underground volume. Measurement means are provided for obtaining for each pair the electrical resistance of each element and the difference in electrical resistance of the paired elements, which difference values may be used in analytical methods involving resistance as a function of temperature. A scanner means sequentially connects the resistance-measuring apparatus to each individual pair of elements. A source of heating current is also selectively connectable for heating the elements to an initial predetermined temperature prior to electrical resistance measurements when used as an anemometer.

  9. Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) - Nanoscale Measurement...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoscale Measurements of Glass Transition Temperature and Temperature-Dependent Mechanical Properties in Polymers M.P. Nikiforov, S. Jesse, L.T. Germinario (CNMS user, Eastman...

  10. Effect of temperature and CO2 concentration on laser-induced...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    temperature and CO2 concentration on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements of alkali fume. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect of temperature and CO2 ...

  11. Device for calorimetric measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, William P; Lee, Jungchul

    2015-01-13

    In one aspect, provided herein is a single crystal silicon microcalorimeter, for example useful for high temperature operation and long-term stability of calorimetric measurements. Microcalorimeters described herein include microcalorimeter embodiments having a suspended structure and comprising single crystal silicon. Also provided herein are methods for making calorimetric measurements, for example, on small quantities of materials or for determining the energy content of combustible material having an unknown composition.

  12. High temperature refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steyert, Jr., William A.

    1978-01-01

    A high temperature magnetic refrigerator which uses a Stirling-like cycle in which rotating magnetic working material is heated in zero field and adiabatically magnetized, cooled in high field, then adiabatically demagnetized. During this cycle said working material is in heat exchange with a pumped fluid which absorbs heat from a low temperature heat source and deposits heat in a high temperature reservoir. The magnetic refrigeration cycle operates at an efficiency 70% of Carnot.

  13. Low temperature cryoprobe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sungaila, Zenon F. (Orland Park, IL)

    1989-01-01

    A portable, hand held probe usable within a small confine to produce a point source of nitrogen or helium at a relatively constant temperature of 77 degrees Kelvin.

  14. Temperature and RH Targets

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented by Vishal O Mittal of the Florida Solar Energy Center at the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting, San Francisco, September 14, 2006.

  15. Evaluation of High-Temperature Exposure of Photovoltaic Modules: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurtz, S.; Miller, D.; Kempe, M.; Bosco, N.; Whitefield, K.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Dhere, N.; Zgonena, T.

    2009-06-01

    This paper documents measured and modeled PV-module temperatures and evaluates these in the context of the requirements for accelerated testing.

  16. Fluid-inclusion evidence for past temperature fluctuations in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of the inclusion fluids range from dilute meteoric water to highly modified sea water concentrated by boiling. Comparison of measured drill-hole temperatures with...

  17. Geothermal Ultrasonic Fracture Imager

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Development of a downhole wireline tool to characterize fractures in EGS wells in temperatures up to 300°C and depths up to 10; 000 m.

  18. U.S. DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Categorical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology Development, Inc. (CTD), proposes to provide high-temperature, high-voltage wire insulations to improve the reliability of downhole equipment necessary for...

  19. Temperature estimates from zircaloy oxidation kinetics and microstructures. [PWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, C.S.

    1982-10-01

    This report reviews state-of-the-art capability to determine peak zircaloy fuel rod cladding temperatures following an abnormal temperature excursion in a nuclear reactor, based on postirradiation metallographic analysis of zircaloy microstructural and oxidation characteristics. Results of a comprehensive literature search are presented to evaluate the suitability of available zircaloy microstructural and oxidation data for estimating anticipated reactor fuel rod cladding temperatures. Additional oxidation experiments were conducted to evaluate low-temperature zircaloy oxidation characteristics for postirradiation estimation of cladding temperature by metallographic examination. Results of these experiments were used to calculate peak cladding temperatures of electrical heater rods and nuclear fuel rods that had been subjected to reactor temperature transients. Comparison of the calculated and measured peak cladding temperatures for these rods indicates that oxidation kinetics is a viable technique for estimating peak cladding temperatures over a broad temperature range. However, further improvement in zircaloy microstructure technology is necessary for precise estimation of peak cladding temperatures by microstructural examination.

  20. ARM - Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurements Measurement Categories Select below to highlight measurements in specified measurement categories. Aerosols The effect of aerosols is measured by instrument systems and lidars that provide data on the size distribution, optical properties, scattering, and extinction of aerosols. microphysical and chemical properties optical and radiative properties Atmospheric Carbon Measurements of atmospheric carbon are obtained from samples collected at the Southern Great Plains site. For more

  1. ARM - Word Seek: Temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Temperature Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Word Seek: Temperature

  2. High temperature probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swan, Raymond A.

    1994-01-01

    A high temperature probe for sampling, for example, smokestack fumes, and is able to withstand temperatures of 3000.degree. F. The probe is constructed so as to prevent leakage via the seal by placing the seal inside the water jacket whereby the seal is not exposed to high temperature, which destroys the seal. The sample inlet of the probe is also provided with cooling fins about the area of the seal to provide additional cooling to prevent the seal from being destroyed. Also, a heated jacket is provided for maintaining the temperature of the gas being tested as it passes through the probe. The probe includes pressure sensing means for determining the flow velocity of an efficient being sampled. In addition, thermocouples are located in various places on the probe to monitor the temperature of the gas passing there through.

  3. University of Illinois Temperature Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. L. Davis; D. L. Knudson; J. L. Rempe; B. M. Chase

    2014-09-01

    This document summarizes background information and presents results related to temperature measurements in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) University of Illinois Project 29609 irradiation. The objective of this test was to assess the radiation performance of ferritic alloys for advanced reactor applications. The FeCr-based alloy system is considered the lead alloy system for a variety of advanced reactor components and applications. Irradiations of FeCr alloy samples were performed using the Hydraulic Shuttle Irradiation System (HSIS) in the B-7 position and in a static capsule in the A-11 position of the ATR.

  4. Maine Geological Survey Borehole Temperature Profiles

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Marvinney, Robert

    This dataset includes temperature profiles from 30 boreholes throughout Maine that were selected for their depth, location, and lithologies encountered. Depths range from about 300 feet to 2,200 feet. Most of the boreholes selected for measurement were completed in granite because this lithology can be assumed to be nearly homogeneous over the depth of the borehole. Boreholes were also selected to address gaps in existing geothermal datasets. Temperature profiles were collected in October and November, 2012.

  5. Maine Geological Survey Borehole Temperature Profiles

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Marvinney, Robert

    2013-11-06

    This dataset includes temperature profiles from 30 boreholes throughout Maine that were selected for their depth, location, and lithologies encountered. Depths range from about 300 feet to 2,200 feet. Most of the boreholes selected for measurement were completed in granite because this lithology can be assumed to be nearly homogeneous over the depth of the borehole. Boreholes were also selected to address gaps in existing geothermal datasets. Temperature profiles were collected in October and November, 2012.

  6. Temperature Dependence of Phonons in Pyrolitic Graphite

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Brockhouse, B. N.; Shirane, G.

    1977-01-01

    Dispersion curves for longitudinal and transverse phonons propagating along and near the c-axis in pyrolitic graphite at temperatures between 4°K and 1500°C have been measured by neutron spectroscopy. The observed frequencies decrease markedly with increasing temperature (except for the transverse optical ''rippling'' modes in the hexagonal planes). The neutron groups show interesting asymmetrical broadening ascribed to interference between one phonon and many phonon processes.

  7. Temperature | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    C Property:Combustion Intake Air Temperature F Property:FirstWellTemp G Property:GeochemReservoirTemp Property:GeofluidTemp M Property:MeanReservoirTemp R...

  8. High-Temperature Superconductivity

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Peter Johnson

    2010-01-08

    Like astronomers tweaking images to gain a more detailed glimpse of distant stars, physicists at Brookhaven National Laboratory have found ways to sharpen images of the energy spectra in high-temperature superconductors ? materials that carry electrical c

  9. Low temperature cryoprobe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sungaila, Z.F.

    1988-04-12

    A portable, hand held probe usable within a small confine to produce a point source of nitrogen or helium at a relatively constant temperatures of 77 degrees Kelvin, is discussed. 3 figs.

  10. Penrose Well Temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopherson, Karen

    2013-03-15

    Penrose Well Temperatures Geothermal waters have been encountered in several wells near Penrose in Fremont County, Colorado. Most of the wells were drilled for oil and gas exploration and, in a few cases, production. This ESRI point shapefile utilizes data from 95 wells in and around the Penrose area provided by the Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) database at http://cogcc.state.co.us/ . Temperature data from the database were used to calculate a temperature gradient for each well. This information was then used to estimate temperatures at various depths. Projection: UTM Zone 13 NAD27 Extent: West -105.224871 East -105.027633 North 38.486269 South 38.259507 Originators: Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (COGCC) Karen Christopherson

  11. Low temperature reactive bonding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Bionta, Richard M. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    The joining technique requires no external heat source and generates very little heat during joining. It involves the reaction of thin multilayered films deposited on faying surfaces to create a stable compound that functions as an intermediate or braze material in order to create a high strength bond. While high temperatures are reached in the reaction of the multilayer film, very little heat is generated because the films are very thin. It is essentially a room temperature joining process.

  12. High temperature pressure gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Echtler, J. Paul (Pittsburgh, PA); Scandrol, Roy O. (Library, PA)

    1981-01-01

    A high temperature pressure gauge comprising a pressure gauge positioned in fluid communication with one end of a conduit which has a diaphragm mounted in its other end. The conduit is filled with a low melting metal alloy above the diaphragm for a portion of its length with a high temperature fluid being positioned in the remaining length of the conduit and in the pressure gauge.

  13. High Temperature Aqueous Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accurate knowledge of aqueous chemistry at high temperatures and pressures is important in many applications including nuclear waste disposal and energy extraction. Sandia's Defense Waste Management Programs is equipped with a state-of-the-art hydrothermal experimental system that allows us to obtain high quality kinetic and equilibrium data at temperatures and pressures of interest up to 600 o C and 1,000 bars (100 MPa). This state-of-the-art hydrothermal experimental system includes the

  14. ARM - Temperature Converter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CalculatorsTemperature Converter Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Temperature Converter The Fahrenheit scale, invented by German physicist Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686-1736), is based on 32 °F for the freezing point of water and 212 °F for the boiling point of water. The

  15. An optical gas temperature probe for high temperature fossil fuel process streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauman, L.E.; Cook, R.L.; Lineberry, J.T.; Litchford, R.J.

    1995-12-31

    Reported here are the results of a feasibility study of a modular optical gas temperature probe for direct measurement of gas temperature in fossil-fueled combustion streams. A probe based upon the spectroscopic technique of line reversal would be superior to currently available gas temperature technology. The study concluded that a modular form of the line reversal optical temperature probe is feasible and, as such. the probe should be a commercially viable product with potential economic benefits from improved monitoring and control of utility furnaces. Such a probe will have the capability of making direct measurements of gas temperature in hot (>1500 K) process streams of coal combustion systems and large-scale power plant facilities.

  16. A Spatially Resolving X-ray Crystal Spectrometer for Measurement...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A Spatially Resolving X-ray Crystal Spectrometer for Measurement of Ion-temperature and ... Title: A Spatially Resolving X-ray Crystal Spectrometer for Measurement of Ion-temperature ...

  17. Field Test of a DHW Distribution System: Temperature and Flow Analyses (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barley, C. D.; Hendron, B.; Magnusson, L.

    2010-05-13

    This presentation discusses a field test of a DHW distribution system in an occupied townhome. It includes measured fixture flows and temperatures, a tested recirculation system, evaluated disaggregation of flow by measured temperatures, Aquacraft Trace Wizard analysis, and comparison.

  18. Raman Lidar Profiles–Temperature (RLPROFTEMP) Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newsom, RK; Sivaraman, C; McFarlane, SA

    2012-10-31

    The purpose of this document is to describe the Raman Lidar Profiles–Temperature (RLPROFTEMP) value-added product (VAP) and the procedures used to derive atmospheric temperature profiles from the raw RL measurements. Sections 2 and 4 describe the input and output variables, respectively. Section 3 discusses the theory behind the measurement and the details of the algorithm, including calibration and overlap correction.

  19. ARM - Measurement -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurements ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Categories Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. Field Campaign Instruments UV-MFRSR : Ultraviolet

  20. Temperature Measurements in Boreholes: An Overview of Engineering...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is to provide a general introduction to the diverse applications of these data Author Stephen Prensky Published Journal The Log Analyst, 1992 DOI Not Provided Check for DOI...

  1. Reflectance spectroscopy for high-speed temperature measurements...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Have feedback or suggestions for a way to improve these results? Save Share this Record Citation Formats MLA APA Chicago Bibtex Export Metadata Endnote Excel CSV XML Save to My ...

  2. Internal field, density & temperature measurements in MTF plasmas...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Have feedback or suggestions for a way to improve these results? Save Share this Record Citation Formats MLA APA Chicago Bibtex Export Metadata Endnote Excel CSV XML Save to My ...

  3. Ultra-High Temperature Distributed Wireless Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, Russell; Rumpf, Raymond; Coggin, John; Davis, Williams; Yang, Taeyoung; O'Donnell, Alan; Bresnahan, Peter

    2013-03-31

    Research was conducted towards the development of a passive wireless sensor for measurement of temperature in coal gasifiers and coal-fired boiler plants. Approaches investigated included metamaterial sensors based on guided mode resonance filters, and temperature-sensitive antennas that modulate the frequency of incident radio waves as they are re-radiated by the antenna. In the guided mode resonant filter metamaterial approach, temperature is encoded as changes in the sharpness of the filter response, which changes with temperature because the dielectric loss of the guided mode resonance filter is temperature-dependent. In the mechanically modulated antenna approach, the resonant frequency of a vibrating cantilever beam attached to the antenna changes with temperature. The vibration of the beam perturbs the electrical impedance of the antenna, so that incident radio waves are phase modulated at a frequency equal to the resonant frequency of the vibrating beam. Since the beam resonant frequency depends on temperature, a Doppler radar can be used to remotely measure the temperature of the antenna. Laboratory testing of the guided mode resonance filter failed to produce the spectral response predicted by simulations. It was concluded that the spectral response was dominated by spectral reflections of radio waves incident on the filter. Laboratory testing of the mechanically modulated antenna demonstrated that the device frequency shifted incident radio waves, and that the frequency of the re-radiated waves varied linearly with temperature. Radio wave propagation tests in the convection pass of a small research boiler plant identified a spectral window between 10 and 13 GHz for low loss propagation of radio waves in the interior of the boiler.

  4. High temperature lubricating process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Taylor, Robert W. (Livermore, CA); Shell, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1982-01-01

    It has been difficult to provide adaquate lubrication for load bearing, engine components when such engines are operating in excess of about 475.degree. C. The present invention is a process for providing a solid lubricant on a load bearing, solid surface (14), such as in an engine (10) being operated at temperatures in excess of about 475.degree. C. The process comprises contacting and maintaining steps. A gas phase (42) is provided which includes at least one component reactable in a temperature dependent reaction to form a solid lubricant. The gas phase is contacted with the load bearing surface. The load bearing surface is maintained at a temperature which causes reaction of the gas phase component and the formation of the solid lubricant. The solid lubricant is formed directly on the load bearing surface. The method is particularly suitable for use with ceramic engines.

  5. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, C.W.

    1994-11-01

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature. 1 fig.

  6. Temperature initiated passive cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forsberg, Charles W.

    1994-01-01

    A passive cooling system for cooling an enclosure only when the enclosure temperature exceeds a maximum standby temperature comprises a passive heat transfer loop containing heat transfer fluid having a particular thermodynamic critical point temperature just above the maximum standby temperature. An upper portion of the heat transfer loop is insulated to prevent two phase operation below the maximum standby temperature.

  7. Reservoir Temperature Estimator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-12-08

    The Reservoir Temperature Estimator (RTEst) is a program that can be used to estimate deep geothermal reservoir temperature and chemical parameters such as CO2 fugacity based on the water chemistry of shallower, cooler reservoir fluids. This code uses the plugin features provided in The Geochemist’s Workbench (Bethke and Yeakel, 2011) and interfaces with the model-independent parameter estimation code Pest (Doherty, 2005) to provide for optimization of the estimated parameters based on the minimization of themore » weighted sum of squares of a set of saturation indexes from a user-provided mineral assemblage.« less

  8. Fluorescent temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Gary A [Los Alamos, NM; Baker, Sheila N [Los Alamos, NM; McCleskey, T Mark [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-03-03

    The present invention is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

  9. Low temperature reactive bonding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Bionta, R.M.

    1995-01-17

    The joining technique is disclosed that requires no external heat source and generates very little heat during joining. It involves the reaction of thin multilayered films deposited on faying surfaces to create a stable compound that functions as an intermediate or braze material in order to create a high strength bond. While high temperatures are reached in the reaction of the multilayer film, very little heat is generated because the films are very thin. It is essentially a room temperature joining process. 5 figures.

  10. Microbend fiber-optic temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    1995-01-01

    A temperature sensor is made of optical fiber into which quasi-sinusoidal microbends have been permanently introduced. In particular, the present invention includes a graded-index optical fiber directing steady light through a section of the optical fiber containing a plurality of permanent microbends. The microbend section of the optical fiber is contained in a thermally expansive sheath, attached to a thermally expansive structure, or attached to a bimetallic element undergoing temperature changes and being monitored. The microbend section is secured to the thermally expansive sheath which allows the amplitude of the microbends to decrease with temperature. The resultant increase in the optical fiber's transmission thus allows temperature to be measured. The plural microbend section of the optical fiber is secured to the thermally expansive structure only at its ends and the microbends themselves are completely unconstrained laterally by any bonding agent to obtain maximum longitudinal temperature sensitivity. Although the permanent microbends reduce the transmission capabilities of fiber optics, the present invention utilizes this phenomenon as a transduction mechanism which is optimized to measure temperature.

  11. Microbend fiber-optic temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, J.D.

    1995-05-30

    A temperature sensor is made of optical fiber into which quasi-sinusoidal microbends have been permanently introduced. In particular, the present invention includes a graded-index optical fiber directing steady light through a section of the optical fiber containing a plurality of permanent microbends. The microbend section of the optical fiber is contained in a thermally expansive sheath, attached to a thermally expansive structure, or attached to a bimetallic element undergoing temperature changes and being monitored. The microbend section is secured to the thermally expansive sheath which allows the amplitude of the microbends to decrease with temperature. The resultant increase in the optical fiber`s transmission thus allows temperature to be measured. The plural microbend section of the optical fiber is secured to the thermally expansive structure only at its ends and the microbends themselves are completely unconstrained laterally by any bonding agent to obtain maximum longitudinal temperature sensitivity. Although the permanent microbends reduce the transmission capabilities of fiber optics, the present invention utilizes this phenomenon as a transduction mechanism which is optimized to measure temperature. 5 figs.

  12. ARM - Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurements Related Links MC3E Home News News & Press MC3E Backgrounder (PDF, 1.61MB) SGP Images ARM flickr site Field Blog ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Deployment Operations Measurements Science Plan (PDF, 3.85 MB) Featured Data Plots SGP Data Plots (all) Experiment Planning Steering Committee Science Questions MC3E Proposal Abstract and Related Campaigns Meetings Cloud Life Cycle Working Group Contacts Michael Jensen, Lead Scientist Measurements Ground-based Instruments Category

  13. ARM - Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurements Related Links SPARTICUS Home AAF Home Deployment Operations Measurements SGP Data Plots NASA Data Plots ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Experiment Planning SPARTICUS Proposal Abstract Science Questions Science and Operations (PDF, 1.01M) SPARTICUS Wiki News News & Press Backgrounder (PDF, 269K) Contacts Gerald Mace, Lead Scientist Measurements The SPARTICUS field campaign seeks to collect a substantial series of data sets-profiling cirrus ice crystal size and distribution-during

  14. Measurement Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    wins 2016 Joseph F. Keithley Award for Advances in Measurement Science October 15, 2015 Honors to Albert Migliori, developer of resonant ultrasound spectroscopy LOS ALAMOS, N.M., Oct. 15, 2015-Los Alamos National Laboratory physicist Albert Migliori, having led the development of a powerful tool for important measurements in condensed matter physics including superconductivity, is being given the Joseph F. Keithley Award For Advances in Measurement Science, the top instrumentation prize of the

  15. Ch. VII, Temperature, heat flow maps and temperature gradient...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Report: Ch. VII, Temperature, heat flow maps and temperature gradient holes Author T. G. Zacharakis Editor T. G. Zacharakis Published Colorado Geological Survey in Cooperation...

  16. Temperature, heat flow maps and temperature gradient holes |...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to library Report: Temperature, heat flow maps and temperature gradient holes Author T. G. Zacharakis Organization Colorado Geological Survey in Cooperation with the U.S....

  17. Temperature differential detection device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Girling, P.M.

    1986-04-22

    A temperature differential detection device for detecting the temperature differential between predetermined portions of a container wall is disclosed as comprising a Wheatstone bridge circuit for detecting resistance imbalance with a first circuit branch having a first elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a predetermined portion of the container wall, a second circuit branch having a second elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a second predetermined portion of a container wall with the wire elements having a predetermined temperature-resistant coefficient, an indicator interconnected between the first and second branches remote from the container wall for detecting and indicating resistance imbalance between the first and second wire elements, and connector leads for electrically connecting the wire elements to the remote indicator in order to maintain the respective resistance value relationship between the first and second wire elements. The indicator is calibrated to indicate the detected resistance imbalance in terms of a temperature differential between the first and second wall portions. 2 figs.

  18. Temperature differential detection device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Girling, Peter M.

    1986-01-01

    A temperature differential detection device for detecting the temperature differential between predetermined portions of a container wall is disclosed as comprising a Wheatstone bridge circuit for detecting resistance imbalance with a first circuit branch having a first elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a predetermined portion of the container wall, a second circuit branch having a second elongated wire element mounted in thermal contact with a second predetermined portion of a container wall with the wire elements having a predetermined temperature-resistant coefficient, an indicator interconnected between the first and second branches remote from the container wall for detecting and indicating resistance imbalance between the first and second wire elements, and connector leads for electrically connecting the wire elements to the remote indicator in order to maintain the respective resistance value relationship between the first and second wire elements. The indicator is calibrated to indicate the detected resistance imbalance in terms of a temperature differential between the first and second wall portions.

  19. Methods of performing downhole operations using orbital vibrator energy sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Jack H.; Weinberg, David M.; Wilson, Dennis R.

    2004-02-17

    Methods of performing down hole operations in a wellbore. A vibrational source is positioned within a tubular member such that an annulus is formed between the vibrational source and an interior surface of the tubular member. A fluid medium, such as high bulk modulus drilling mud, is disposed within the annulus. The vibrational source forms a fluid coupling with the tubular member through the fluid medium to transfer vibrational energy to the tubular member. The vibrational energy may be used, for example, to free a stuck tubular, consolidate a cement slurry and/or detect voids within a cement slurry prior to the curing thereof.

  20. Geothermal pump down-hole energy regeneration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Matthews, Hugh B. (Boylston, MA)

    1982-01-01

    Geothermal deep well energy extraction apparatus is provided of the general kind in which solute-bearing hot water is pumped to the earth's surface from a subterranean location by utilizing thermal energy extracted from the hot water for operating a turbine motor for driving an electrical power generator at the earth 3 s surface, the solute bearing water being returned into the earth by a reinjection well. Efficiency of operation of the total system is increased by an arrangement of coaxial conduits for greatly reducing the flow of heat from the rising brine into the rising exhaust of the down-well turbine motor.

  1. Downhole burner systems and methods for heating subsurface formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farmayan, Walter Farman (Houston, TX); Giles, Steven Paul (Damon, TX); Brignac, Jr., Joseph Phillip (Katy, TX); Munshi, Abdul Wahid (Houston, TX); Abbasi, Faraz (Sugarland, TX); Clomburg, Lloyd Anthony (Houston, TX); Anderson, Karl Gregory (Missouri City, TX); Tsai, Kuochen (Katy, TX); Siddoway, Mark Alan (Katy, TX)

    2011-05-31

    A gas burner assembly for heating a subsurface formation includes an oxidant conduit, a fuel conduit, and a plurality of oxidizers coupled to the oxidant conduit. At least one of the oxidizers includes a mix chamber for mixing fuel from the fuel conduit with oxidant from the oxidant conduit, an igniter, and a shield. The shield includes a plurality of openings in communication with the oxidant conduit. At least one flame stabilizer is coupled to the shield.

  2. Downhole control -- The key to coiled tubing drilling efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-10-01

    Coiled tubing drilling has experienced dramatic growth in recent years. Originally a step-child, the technique now claims built-for-purpose equipment and promises cost-effective drilling with little damage to formations. The paper describes a bottom hole assembly and an orienting tool designed to be used to control coiled tubing drilling.

  3. Downhole steam generator using low pressure fuel and air supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Ronald L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus for generation of steam in a borehole for penetration into an earth formation wherein a spiral, tubular heat exchanger is used in the combustion chamber to isolate the combustion process from the water being superheated for conversion into steam. The isolation allows combustion of a relatively low pressure oxidant and fuel mixture for generating high enthalpy steam. The fuel is preheated by feedback of combustion gases from the top of the combustion chamber through a fuel preheater chamber. The hot exhaust gases of combustion at the bottom of the combustion chamber, after flowing over the heat exchanger enter an exhaust passage and pipe. The exhaust pipe is mounted inside the water supply line heating the water flowing into the heat exchanger. After being superheated in the heat exchanger, the water is ejected through an expansion nozzle and converts into steam prior to penetration into the earth formation. Pressure responsive doors are provided at a steam outlet downstream of the nozzle and close when the steam pressure is lost due to flameout.

  4. ARM - Measurement - Latent heat flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsLatent heat flux ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Latent heat flux The time rate of flow for the specific enthalpy difference between two phases of a substance at the same temperature, typically water. Categories Surface Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file

  5. Elastic wave velocity measurement combined with synchrotron X-ray

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    measurements at high pressure and high temperature conditions: Towards prediction and reproduction of MoHole rocks (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Elastic wave velocity measurement combined with synchrotron X-ray measurements at high pressure and high temperature conditions: Towards prediction and reproduction of MoHole rocks Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Elastic wave velocity measurement combined with synchrotron X-ray measurements at high pressure and high temperature

  6. High Temperature Membrane Working Group

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The High Temperature Membrane Working Group consists of government, industry, and university researchers interested in developing high temperature membranes for fuel cells.

  7. Zero Temperature Hope Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rozsnyai, B F

    2002-07-26

    The primary purpose of the HOPE code is to calculate opacities over a wide temperature and density range. It can also produce equation of state (EOS) data. Since the experimental data at the high temperature region are scarce, comparisons of predictions with the ample zero temperature data provide a valuable physics check of the code. In this report we show a selected few examples across the periodic table. Below we give a brief general information about the physics of the HOPE code. The HOPE code is an ''average atom'' (AA) Dirac-Slater self-consistent code. The AA label in the case of finite temperature means that the one-electron levels are populated according to the Fermi statistics, at zero temperature it means that the ''aufbau'' principle works, i.e. no a priory electronic configuration is set, although it can be done. As such, it is a one-particle model (any Hartree-Fock model is a one particle model). The code is an ''ion-sphere'' model, meaning that the atom under investigation is neutral within the ion-sphere radius. Furthermore, the boundary conditions for the bound states are also set at the ion-sphere radius, which distinguishes the code from the INFERNO, OPAL and STA codes. Once the self-consistent AA state is obtained, the code proceeds to generate many-electron configurations and proceeds to calculate photoabsorption in the ''detailed configuration accounting'' (DCA) scheme. However, this last feature is meaningless at zero temperature. There is one important feature in the HOPE code which should be noted; any self-consistent model is self-consistent in the space of the occupied orbitals. The unoccupied orbitals, where electrons are lifted via photoexcitation, are unphysical. The rigorous way to deal with that problem is to carry out complete self-consistent calculations both in the initial and final states connecting photoexcitations, an enormous computational task. The Amaldi correction is an attempt to address this problem by distorting the outer part of the self-consistent potential in such a way that in the final state after photoexcitation or photoionization the newly occupied orbital sees the hole left in the initial state. This is very important to account for the large number of Rydberg states in the case of low densities. In the next Section we show calculated photoabsorptions compared with experimental data in figures with some rudimentary explanations.

  8. Local wall heat flux/temperature meter for convective flow and method of utilizing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyd, Ronald D.; Ekhlassi, Ali; Cofie, Penrose

    2004-11-30

    According to one embodiment of the invention, a method includes providing a conduit having a fluid flowing therethrough, disposing a plurality of temperature measurement devices inside a wall of the conduit, positioning at least some of the temperature measurement devices proximate an inside surface of the wall of the conduit, positioning at least some of the temperature measurement devices at different radial positions at the same circumferential location within the wall, measuring a plurality of temperatures of the wall with respective ones of the temperature measurement devices to obtain a three-dimensional temperature topology of the wall, determining the temperature dependent thermal conductivity of the conduit, and determining a multi-dimensional thermal characteristic of the inside surface of the wall of the conduit based on extrapolation of the three-dimensional temperature topology and the temperature dependent thermal conductivities.

  9. Localized temperature stability of low temperature cofired ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Steven Xunhu

    2013-11-26

    The present invention is directed to low temperature cofired ceramic modules having localized temperature stability by incorporating temperature coefficient of resonant frequency compensating materials locally into a multilayer LTCC module. Chemical interactions can be minimized and physical compatibility between the compensating materials and the host LTCC dielectrics can be achieved. The invention enables embedded resonators with nearly temperature-independent resonance frequency.

  10. Method And Apparatus For Evaluatin Of High Temperature Superconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fishman, Ilya M.; Kino, Gordon S.

    1996-11-12

    A technique for evaluation of high-T.sub.c superconducting films and single crystals is based on measurement of temperature dependence of differential optical reflectivity of high-T.sub.c materials. In the claimed method, specific parameters of the superconducting transition such as the critical temperature, anisotropy of the differential optical reflectivity response, and the part of the optical losses related to sample quality are measured. The apparatus for performing this technique includes pump and probe sources, cooling means for sweeping sample temperature across the critical temperature and polarization controller for controlling a state of polarization of a probe light beam.

  11. Temperature dependence of the dielectric response of AlSb

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Y. W.; Kim, T. J.; Kim, Y. D.; Shin, S. H.; Kim, S. Y.; Song, J. D.

    2011-12-23

    Spectroscopic ellipometry was used to determine the optical response of an intrinsic AlSb film as a function of temperature. The 1.5 {mu}m thick film was grown on a (001) GaAs substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. Measurements were done at temperatures from 300 K to the growth temperature of 800 K over a spectral range of 0.7 to 5.0 eV. To avoid oxidation artifacts, measurements were done with the film in situ. The data were analyzed using a parametric semiconductor model for its temperature dependence.

  12. Engine Cylinder Temperature Control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kilkenny, Jonathan Patrick (Peoria, IL); Duffy, Kevin Patrick (Metamora, IL)

    2005-09-27

    A method and apparatus for controlling a temperature in a combustion cylinder in an internal combustion engine. The cylinder is fluidly connected to an intake manifold and an exhaust manifold. The method and apparatus includes increasing a back pressure associated with the exhaust manifold to a level sufficient to maintain a desired quantity of residual exhaust gas in the cylinder, and varying operation of an intake valve located between the intake manifold and the cylinder to an open duration sufficient to maintain a desired quantity of fresh air from the intake manifold to the cylinder, wherein controlling the quantities of residual exhaust gas and fresh air are performed to maintain the temperature in the cylinder at a desired level.

  13. Polycrystalline gamma plutonium's elastic moduli versus temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Migliori, Albert; Betts, J; Trugman, A; Mielke, C H; Mitchell, J N; Ramos, M; Stroe, I

    2009-01-01

    Resonant ultrasound spectroscopy was used to measure the elastic properties of pure polycrystalline {sup 239}Pu in the {gamma} phase. Shear and longitudinal elastic moduli were measured simultaneously and the bulk modulus was computed from them. A smooth, linear, and large decrease of all elastic moduli with increasing temperature was observed. They calculated the Poisson ratio and found that it increases from 0.242 at 519 K to 0.252 at 571 K. These measurements on extremely well characterized pure Pu are in agreement with other reported results where overlap occurs.

  14. High-Temperature Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Temperature Materials - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  15. ARM - Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Project (BBOP)Measurements Related Links BBOP Home Outreach News & Press Backgrounder (PDF, 2.1MB) Images ARM flickr site ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Deployment Operations Airborne Measurements Science Plan (PDF, 2.2MB) BBOP wiki Login Required Data Sets Experiment Planning Proposal Abstract and Related Campaigns BBOP Breakout Session, ASR Science Team Meeting, March 2014 BBOP Breakout Session, ASR Science Team Meeting, March 2013 BNL BBOP Website Contacts Larry Kleinman, Lead Scientist

  16. ARM - Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurements Related Links RACORO Home AAF Home ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Post-Campaign Data Sets Data Guide (PDF, 1.4MB) Campaign Journal Flight Details Images ARM flickr site Deployment Operations Measurements Science & Operations Plan (PDF, 640K) SGP Data Plots RACORO wiki Login Required Experiment Planning Steering Committee Science Questions RACORO Proposal Abstract Full Proposal (PDF, 886K) Collaborations Meetings CLOWD Working Group News Discovery Channel Earth Live Blog News

  17. ARM - Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurements Related Links TCAP Home Outreach News & Press WCAI Interview with Dr. Berg (YouTube) Frequently Asked Questions Brochure Backgrounder (PDF, 1.5MB) AMF Poster, 2012 Images ARM flickr site ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Deployment Operations Data Sets Baseline Instruments and Data Plots at the Archive Airborne Measurements Airborne Data Sets Science Plan (PDF, 1.6 MB) G-1 Cabin Layout TCAP wiki Login Required Experiment Planning Proposal Abstract and Related Campaigns Poster at

  18. Measuring Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurement Activity SI Units and Prefixes Conversions Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstration Measurement Activity: How Much Is Present? The size or weight of a container or shipment does not indicate how much radioactivity is in it. The amount of radioactivity in a quantity of material can be determined by noting how many curies of the material are present. This information should be found on labels and/or shipping

  19. Electrochemical thermodynamic measurement system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reynier, Yvan (Meylan, FR); Yazami, Rachid (Los Angeles, CA); Fultz, Brent T. (Pasadena, CA)

    2009-09-29

    The present invention provides systems and methods for accurately characterizing thermodynamic and materials properties of electrodes and electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems. Systems and methods of the present invention are configured for simultaneously collecting a suite of measurements characterizing a plurality of interconnected electrochemical and thermodynamic parameters relating to the electrode reaction state of advancement, voltage and temperature. Enhanced sensitivity provided by the present methods and systems combined with measurement conditions that reflect thermodynamically stabilized electrode conditions allow very accurate measurement of thermodynamic parameters, including state functions such as the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of electrode/electrochemical cell reactions, that enable prediction of important performance attributes of electrode materials and electrochemical systems, such as the energy, power density, current rate and the cycle life of an electrochemical cell.

  20. High Temperature Membrane Working Group

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation provides an overview of the High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting in May 2007.

  1. Microcantilever heater-thermometer with integrated temperature-compensated strain sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, William P.; Lee, Jungchul; Goericke, Fabian T.

    2011-04-19

    The present invention provides microcantilever hotplate devices which incorporate temperature compensating strain sensors. The microcantilever hotplate devices of the present invention comprise microcantilevers having temperature compensating strain sensors and resistive heaters. The present invention also provides methods for using a microcantilever hotplate for temperature compensated surface stress measurements, chemical/biochemical sensing, measuring various properties of compounds adhered to the microcantilever hotplate surface, or for temperature compensated deflection measurements.

  2. AAPG Low-Temperature Webinar

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program Name or Ancillary Text eere.energy.gov Low Temperature Geothermal Resources Tim Reinhardt Low Temperature and Coproduced Resources Team Lead Geothermal Technologies Program U.S. Department of Energy AAPG's Low Temperature Webinar November 18, 2010 Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy eere.energy.gov Presentation Overview * What are Low Temperature Geothermal Resources? * Where do low temperature geothermal resources fit within petroleum exploration and production? * What is

  3. Line Focus Receiver Infrared Temperature Survey System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-06-01

    For ongoing maintenance and performance purposes, solar parabolic trough field operators desire to know that the Heat Collection Elements (HCEs) are performing properly. Measuring their temperature is one way of doing this One 30MW field can contain approximately 10,000 HCE's. This software interfaces with a GPS receiver and an infrared camera. It takes global positioning data from the GPS and uses this information to automate the infrared image capture and temperature analysis of individual solarmore » parabolic HCEs in a solar parabolic trough field With this software system an entire 30MW field can be surveyed in 2-3 days.« less

  4. Solution mass measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ford, W.; Marshall, R.S.; Osborn, L.C.; Picard, R.; Thomas, C.C. Jr.

    1982-07-01

    This report describes the efforts to develop and demonstrate a solution mass measurement system for use at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility. Because of inaccuracy of load cell measurements, our major effort was directed towards the pneumatic bubbler tube. The differential pressure between the air inlet to the bubbler tube and the glovebox interior is measured and is proportional to the solution mass in the tank. An inexpensive, reliable pressure transducer system for measuring solution mass in vertical, cylindrical tanks was developed, tested, and evaluated in a laboratory test bed. The system can withstand the over- and underpressures resulting from solution transfer operations and can prevent solution backup into the measurement pressure transducer during transfers. Drifts, noise, quantization error, and other effects limit the accuracy to 30 g. A transportable calibration system using a precision machined tank, pneumatic bubbler tubes, and a Ruska DDR 6000 electromanometer was designed, fabricated, tested, and evaluated. Resolution of the system is +-3.5 g out of 50 kg. The calibration error is 5 g, using room-temperature water as the calibrating fluid. Future efforts will be directed towards in-plant test and evaluation of the tank measurement systems. 16 figures, 3 tables.

  5. Global temperature deviations as a random walk

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karner, O.

    1996-12-31

    Surface air temperature is the main parameter to represent the earth`s contemporary climate. Several historical temperature records on a global/monthly basis are available. Time-series analysis shows that they can be modelled via autoregressive moving average models closely connected to the classical random walk model. Fitted models emphasize a nonstationary character of the global/monthly temperature deviation from a certain level. The nonstationarity explains all trends and periods, found in the last century`s variability of global mean temperature. This means that the short-term temperature trends are inevitable and may have little in common with a currently increasing carbon dioxide amount. The calculations show that a reasonable understanding of the contemporary global mean climate is attainable, assuming random forcing to the climate system and treating temperature deviation as a response to it. The forcings occur due to volcanic eruptions, redistribution of cloudiness, variations in snow and ice covered areas, changes in solar output, etc. Their impact can not be directly estimated from changes of the earth`s radiation budget at the top of the atmosphere, because actual measurements represent mixture of the forcings and responses. Thus, it is impossible empirically to separate the impact of one particular forcing (e.g., that due to increase of CO{sub 2} amount) from the sequence of all existing forcings in the earth climate system. More accurate modelling involving main feedback loops is necessary to ease such a separation.

  6. High temperature detonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, James O. (Los Alamos, NM); Dinegar, Robert H. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1988-01-01

    A detonator assembly is provided which is usable at high temperatures about 300.degree. C. A detonator body is provided with an internal volume defining an anvil surface. A first acceptor explosive is disposed on the anvil surface. A donor assembly having an ignition element, an explosive material, and a flying plate, are placed in the body effective to accelerate the flying plate to impact the first acceptor explosive on the anvil for detonating the first acceptor explosive. A second acceptor explosive is eccentrically located in detonation relationship with the first acceptor explosive to thereafter effect detonation of a main charge.

  7. Thermionic converter temperature controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shaner, Benjamin J. (McMurray, PA); Wolf, Joseph H. (Pittsburgh, PA); Johnson, Robert G. R. (Trafford, PA)

    2001-04-24

    A method and apparatus for controlling the temperature of a thermionic reactor over a wide range of operating power, including a thermionic reactor having a plurality of integral cesium reservoirs, a honeycomb material disposed about the reactor which has a plurality of separated cavities, a solid sheath disposed about the honeycomb material and having an opening therein communicating with the honeycomb material and cavities thereof, and a shell disposed about the sheath for creating a coolant annulus therewith so that the coolant in the annulus may fill the cavities and permit nucleate boiling during the operation of the reactor.

  8. Temperature estimates from the zircaloy oxidation kinetics in the. cap alpha. plus. beta. phase region. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olsen, C.S.

    1981-01-01

    Oxidation rates of zircaloy in steam were measured at temperatures between 961 and 1264 K and for duration times between 25 and 1900 seconds in order to calculate, in conjunction with measurements from postirradiation metallographic examination, the prior peak temperatures of zircaloy fuel rod cladding. These temperature estimates will be used in light water reactor research programs to assess (a) the accuracy of temperature measurements of fuel rod cladding peak temperatures from thermocouples attached to the surface during loss-of-coolant experiments (LOCEs), (b) the perturbation of the fuel rod cladding LOCE temperature history caused by the presence of thermocouples, and (c) the measurements of cladding azimuthal temperature gradients near thermocouple locations.

  9. 2006 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy 6 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives 2006 High Temperature Membrane Working Group Meeting Archives View 2006 meeting presentations from the High Temperature Membrane Working Group. September 14, 2006, San Francisco, California Agenda Minutes Discussion Overview, James Fenton, University of Central Florida Membrane Performance and Durability Overview for Automotive Fuel Cell Applications, Tom Greszler, GM Measuring Physical Properties of Polymer Electrolyte

  10. High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids This fact sheet describes a UCLA-led solar project to investigate high operating temperature liquid metal heat transfer fluids, funded by the SunShot initiative. The project team is using a combination of modeling along with a variety of property measurement and validation studies to demonstrate that the metal alloys identified can meet all the needs of a

  11. Rapid reconnaissance of geothermal prospects using shallow temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    at Coso, a simple set of surface conditions. It is concluded that making useful shallow temperature measurements where there is a modest amount of ground water flow need not be a...

  12. Alternative Refrigerant Evaluation for High-Ambient-Temperature...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for High-Ambient-Temperature Environments: R-22 and ... prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of ... Its expertise in this area includes the measurement of heat ...

  13. A NOVEL X-RAY IMAGING CRYSTAL SPECTROMETER FOR DOPPLER MEASUREMENTS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    TEMPERATURE AND PLASMA ROTATION VELOCITY PROFILES Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A NOVEL X-RAY IMAGING CRYSTAL SPECTROMETER FOR DOPPLER MEASUREMENTS OF ION TEMPERATURE ...

  14. Autonomous data transmission apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotlyar, Oleg M. (4675 W. 3825 S, Salt Lake City, UT 84120)

    1997-01-01

    A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters.

  15. Autonomous data transmission apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotlyar, O.M.

    1997-03-25

    A autonomous borehole data transmission apparatus is described for transmitting measurement data from measuring instruments at the downhole end of a drill string by generating pressure pulses utilizing a transducer longitudinally responsive to magnetic field pulses caused by electrical pulses corresponding to the measured downhole parameters. 4 figs.

  16. Battery system with temperature sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, Steven J.; Trester, Dale B.

    2012-11-13

    A battery system to monitor temperature includes at least one cell with a temperature sensing device proximate the at least one cell. The battery system also includes a flexible member that holds the temperature sensor proximate to the at least one cell.

  17. CO2 CH4 flux Air temperature Soil temperature and Soil moisture, Barrow, Alaska 2013 ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Margaret Torn

    2015-01-14

    This dataset consists of field measurements of CO2 and CH4 flux, as well as soil properties made during 2013 in Areas A-D of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Included are i) measurements of CO2 and CH4 flux made from June to September (ii) Calculation of corresponding Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and CH4 exchange (transparent minus opaque) between atmosphere and the ecosystem (ii) Measurements of Los Gatos Research (LGR) chamber air temperature made from June to September (ii) measurements of surface layer depth, type of surface layer, soil temperature and soil moisture from June to September.

  18. CO2 CH4 flux Air temperature Soil temperature and Soil moisture, Barrow, Alaska 2013 ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Margaret Torn

    This dataset consists of field measurements of CO2 and CH4 flux, as well as soil properties made during 2013 in Areas A-D of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Included are i) measurements of CO2 and CH4 flux made from June to September (ii) Calculation of corresponding Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and CH4 exchange (transparent minus opaque) between atmosphere and the ecosystem (ii) Measurements of Los Gatos Research (LGR) chamber air temperature made from June to September (ii) measurements of surface layer depth, type of surface layer, soil temperature and soil moisture from June to September.

  19. Abstract Measurement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurement of the ν µ charged current π + to quasi-elastic cross section ratio on mineral oil in a 0.8 GeV neutrino beam Steven K. Linden 2011 Charged current single pion production (CCπ + ) and charged current quasi-elastic scatter- ing (CCQE ) are the most abundant interaction types for neutrinos at energies around 1 GeV, a region of great interest to oscillation experiments. The cross-sections for these pro- cesses, however, are not well understood in this energy range. This dissertation

  20. Assessment of an ORION-based experimental platform for measuring...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ...h-temperature and high-density plasma Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Assessment of an ORION-based experimental platform for measuring the opacity of high-temperature ...

  1. Real-time Process Monitoring and Temperature Mapping of the 3D...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The IR camera was used to map the temperature within the build volume of the oven and surface temperature measurement of a part as it was being manufactured. The development of the ...

  2. High temperature interfacial superconductivity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bozovic, Ivan (Mount Sinai, NY); Logvenov, Gennady (Port Jefferson Station, NY); Gozar, Adrian Mihai (Port Jefferson, NY)

    2012-06-19

    High-temperature superconductivity confined to nanometer-scale interfaces has been a long standing goal because of potential applications in electronic devices. The spontaneous formation of a superconducting interface in bilayers consisting of an insulator (La.sub.2CuO.sub.4) and a metal (La.sub.1-xSr.sub.xCuO.sub.4), neither of which is superconducting per se, is described. Depending upon the layering sequence of the bilayers, T.sub.c may be either .about.15 K or .about.30 K. This highly robust phenomenon is confined to within 2-3 nm around the interface. After exposing the bilayer to ozone, T.sub.c exceeds 50 K and this enhanced superconductivity is also shown to originate from a 1 to 2 unit cell thick interfacial layer. The results demonstrate that engineering artificial heterostructures provides a novel, unconventional way to fabricate stable, quasi two-dimensional high T.sub.c phases and to significantly enhance superconducting properties in other superconductors. The superconducting interface may be implemented, for example, in SIS tunnel junctions or a SuFET.

  3. Torsional ultrasonic wave based level measurement system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcomb, David E.; Kisner, Roger A.

    2012-07-10

    A level measurement system suitable for use in a high temperature and pressure environment to measure the level of coolant fluid within the environment, the system including a volume of coolant fluid located in a coolant region of the high temperature and pressure environment and having a level therein; an ultrasonic waveguide blade that is positioned within the desired coolant region of the high temperature and pressure environment; a magnetostrictive electrical assembly located within the high temperature and pressure environment and configured to operate in the environment and cooperate with the waveguide blade to launch and receive ultrasonic waves; and an external signal processing system located outside of the high temperature and pressure environment and configured for communicating with the electrical assembly located within the high temperature and pressure environment.

  4. A mathematical model for the estimation of flue temperature in a coke oven

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, K.I.; Kim, S.Y.; Suo, J.S.; Hur, N.S.; Kang, I.S.; Lee, W.J.

    1997-12-31

    The coke plants at the Kwangyang works has adopted an Automatic Battery Control (ABC) system which consists of four main parts, battery heating control, underfiring heat and waste gas oxygen control, pushing and charging schedule and Autotherm-S that measures heating wall temperature during pushing. The measured heating wall temperature is used for calculating Mean Battery Temperature (MBT) which is average temperature of flues for a battery, but the Autotherm-S system can not provide the flue temperatures of an oven. This work attempted to develop mathematical models for the estimation of the flue temperature using the measured heating wall temperature and to examine fitness of the mathematical model for the coke plant operation by analysis of raw gas temperature at the stand pipe. Through this work it is possible to reflect heating wall temperature in calculating MBT for battery heating control without the interruption caused by a maintenance break.

  5. Hot Pot Contoured Temperature Gradient Map

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Lane, Michael

    2013-06-28

    Temperature gradient contours derived from Oski temperature gradient hole program and from earlier published information.

  6. Hot Pot Contoured Temperature Gradient Map

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Lane, Michael

    Temperature gradient contours derived from Oski temperature gradient hole program and from earlier published information.

  7. Using electrical resistance tomography to map subsurface temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramirez, A.L.; Chesnut, D.A.; Daily, W.D.

    1994-09-13

    A method is provided for measuring subsurface soil or rock temperatures remotely using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). Electrical resistivity measurements are made using electrodes implanted in boreholes driven into the soil and/or at the ground surface. The measurements are repeated as some process changes the temperatures of the soil mass/rock mass. Tomographs of electrical resistivity are calculated based on the measurements using Poisson's equation. Changes in the soil/rock resistivity can be related to changes in soil/rock temperatures when: (1) the electrical conductivity of the fluid trapped in the soil's pore space is low, (2) the soil/rock has a high cation exchange capacity and (3) the temperature changes are sufficiently high. When these three conditions exist the resistivity changes observed in the ERT tomographs can be directly attributed to changes in soil/rock temperatures. This method provides a way of mapping temperature changes in subsurface soils remotely. Distances over which the ERT method can be used to monitor changes in soil temperature range from tens to hundreds of meters from the electrode locations. 1 fig.

  8. Using electrical resistance tomography to map subsurface temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramirez, Abelardo L. (Pleasanton, CA); Chesnut, Dwayne A. (San Francisco, CA); Daily, William D. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A method is provided for measuring subsurface soil or rock temperatures remotely using electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). Electrical resistivity measurements are made using electrodes implanted in boreholes driven into the soil and/or at the ground surface. The measurements are repeated as some process changes the temperatures of the soil mass/rock mass. Tomographs of electrical resistivity are calculated based on the measurements using Poisson's equation. Changes in the soil/rock resistivity can be related to changes in soil/rock temperatures when: (1) the electrical conductivity of the fluid trapped in the soil's pore space is low, (2) the soil/rock has a high cation exchange capacity and (3) the temperature changes are sufficiently high. When these three conditions exist the resistivity changes observed in the ERT tomographs can be directly attributed to changes in soil/rock temperatures. This method provides a way of mapping temperature changes in subsurface soils remotely. Distances over which the ERT method can be used to monitor changes in soil temperature range from tens to hundreds of meters from the electrode locations.

  9. ARM - Measurement - Extreme event time

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govMeasurementsExtreme event time ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Extreme event time The time of extreme meteorological events such as min/max temperature and wind gusts. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all

  10. Corrective Measures Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Corrective Measures Process Corrective Measures Process We follow a stringent corrective measures process for legacy cleanup. August 1, 2013 Corrective measures process Corrective measures process

  11. System and method for glass processing and temperature sensing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shepard, Chester L.; Cannon, Bret D.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2004-09-28

    Techniques for measuring the temperature at various locations through the thickness of glass products and to control the glass processing operation with the sensed temperature information are disclosed. Fluorescence emission of iron or cerium in glass is excited and imaged onto segmented detectors. Spatially resolved temperature data are obtained through correlation of the detected photoluminescence signal with location within the glass. In one form the detected photoluminescence is compared to detected scattered excitation light to determine temperature. Stress information is obtained from the time history of the temperature profile data and used to evaluate the quality of processed glass. A heating or cooling rate of the glass is also controlled to maintain a predetermined desired temperature profile in the glass.

  12. Low Temperature Scaling of the Susceptibility of Ni Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, X. H.; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Fan, J.; Jin, Y. R.; Su, S. K.; Zhang, D. L.

    2008-03-01

    Measurement of low field ac susceptibility of Ni thin films over the temperature range 5-300K reveals a surprising power law scaling. The temperature dependent part of the normalized susceptibility, $\\chi_\\parallel/M_S-\\chi_{\\rm rot}/M_S$, where $\\chi_\\parallel$ is the initial susceptibility for in-plane magnetization, $\\chi_{\\rm rot}$ is the domain rotation contribution, and $M_S$ is the saturation magnetization, scales with the nonlinear reduced temperature as $t^{-2}$ over the entire temperature range, where $t=(T-T_C)/(T+T_C)$ and $T_C$ is the Curie temperature. Thickness and reduced temperature dependences are completely decoupled. This result implies that domain wall motion does not contribute to the low field susceptibility.

  13. Sensors for low temperature application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Henderson, Timothy M.; Wuttke, Gilbert H.

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus for low temperature sensing which uses gas filled micro-size hollow glass spheres that are exposed in a confined observation area to a low temperature range (Kelvin) and observed microscopically to determine change of state, i.e., change from gaseous state of the contained gas to condensed state. By suitable indicia and classification of the spheres in the observation area, the temperature can be determined very accurately.

  14. Temperature, Humidity, Wind and Pressure Sensors (THWAPS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ritsche, MT

    2011-01-17

    The temperature, humidity, wind, and pressure system (THWAPS) provide surface reference values of these measurements for balloon-borne sounding system (SONDE) launches. The THWAPS is located adjacent to the SONDE launch site at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility. The THWAPS system is a combination of calibration-quality instruments intended to provide accurate measurements of meteorological conditions near the surface. Although the primary use of the system is to provide accurate surface reference values of temperature, pressure, relative humidity (RH), and wind velocity for comparison with radiosonde readings, the system includes a data logger to record time series of the measured variables.

  15. Low temperature material bonding technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Foote, Robert S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2002-02-12

    A method of performing a lower temperature bonding technique to bond together two mating pieces of glass includes applying a sodium silicate aqueous solution between the two pieces.

  16. Low Temperature Material Bonding Technique

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramsey, J. Michael (Knoxville, TN); Foote, Robert S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2000-10-10

    A method of performing a lower temperature bonding technique to bond together two mating pieces of glass includes applying a sodium silicate aqueous solution between the two pieces.

  17. Technical Sessions Measurements of Surface Heat Flux Over Contrasting...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of surface heat flux were made using point measurements of the correlation of vertical velocity (w) and temperature (T) (sonic anemometer-fine wire thermocouple),...

  18. Advancing Reactive Tracer Methods for Measurement of Thermal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Advancing Reactive Tracer Methods for Measurement of Thermal Evolution in ... result in the lowering of the temperature of the produced fluids (thermal breakthrough). ...

  19. Probing Radiation Damage in Plutonium Alloys with Multiple Measurement...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Probing Radiation Damage in Plutonium Alloys with Multiple Measurement ... as well as external parameters such as the temperature and starting material composition. ...

  20. Measurement of thermal conductivity in proton irradiated silicon...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    we perform our measurement on uncoated samples. This provides greater sensitivity to the change in conductivity of the thin damaged layer. Using sample temperature as a parameter ...