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1

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Research Institutions  

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Institutions Institutions Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute Biological Bases for Radiation Adaptive Responses in the Lung-Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM USA Contact: Dr. Bobby R. Scott Program Objective Our research focuses on elucidating the biological bases for radiation adaptive responses in the lung and for suppressing lung cancer, and to use the knowledge gained to produce an improved systems-biology-based, risk model for lung cancer induction by low-dose, low linear-energy-transfer (LET) radiation. Research was initiated in October 2009. This research should help foster a new era of low-dose radiation risk/benefit assessment. It will have important implications for possible use of low-dose diagnostic radiation (e.g., X-rays) in cancer therapy. It

2

Low Dose Radiation Program: 2010 Low Dose Radiation Research Program  

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Low Dose Radiation Research Program Investigators' Workshop Low Dose Radiation Research Program Investigators' Workshop »» Event Slide Show More than 150 people attended this year's workshop, held April 12-14 at the Renaissance M Street Hotel in Washington, D.C. In addition to 34 plenary talks and more than 70 poster presentations made by the program investigators, participants heard guest speakers from the National Cancer Institute and from sister low-dose programs in Europe and Japan. Remarks from DOE Dr. Anna Palmisano, Associate Director, Office of Science, Director for Biological and Environmental Research (BER), welcomed the meeting participants, thanked Low Dose Radiation Research Program Manager Dr. Noelle Metting for her leadership, and acknowledged the importance of the Low Dose Program to DOE because of its unique focus and important role. She

3

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Image Gallery  

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Image Gallery Image Gallery These are images, photographs, and charts presented or developed for Low Dose Radiation Research Investigators’ Meetings. They may be used for presentations or reports. To save, right click on the picture, then choose "Save picture as." U.S. annual per-capita effective radiation dose from various sources for 1980. various sources 1980 Enlarge Image. U.S. annual per-capita effective radiation dose from various sources for 2006. various sources 2006 Enlarge Image. U.S. annual per-capita effective radiation dose from man-made sources in the United States for 2006. man-made 2006 Enlarge Image. Ionizing Radiation Dose Ranges showing the wide range of radiation doses that humans experience (Rem) Enlarge Image. Ionizing Radiation Dose Ranges showing the wide range of radiation doses that humans experience

4

Low Dose Radiation Program: Radiation Biology and the Radiation Research  

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Biology and the Radiation Research Program Biology and the Radiation Research Program The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor organizations, Energy Research and Development Agency (ERDA) and Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), always have been concerned about the health effects of ionizing radiation. Extensive research has been conducted under their sponsorship at all levels of biological organization from molecules to man. Over the past 60 years, studies using every type of radiation source have included exposure to both external radiation sources and to internally deposited radioactive materials. These exposures used different dose patterns and distributions delivered over a wide range of experimental times. This extensive research provided the basis for the new Low Dose Radiation Research Program, linking

5

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: About  

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About About Background. Extensive research on the health effects of radiation using standard epidemiological and toxicological approaches has been done for decades to characterize responses of populations and individuals to high radiation doses, and to set exposure standards to protect both the public and the workforce. These standards were set using models that extrapolated from the cancers observed following exposure to high doses of radiation to predicted, but not measurable, changes in cancer frequency at low radiation doses. The use of models was necessary because of our inability to detect changes in cancer incidence following low doses of radiation. Historically, the predominant approach has been the Linear-no-Threshold model (see Wikipedia entry) and collective dose concept that assumes each unit of radiation, no

6

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: National Laboratories  

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National Laboratories National Laboratories The Low Dose Radiation Program funding encompasses several Scientific Focus Areas (SFAs). The SFAs fund merit-reviewed research at DOE national laboratories. This management approach was created in 2008 by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) within the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Science. PNNL's Low Dose Radiation Research Program Scientific Focus Area Linear and Nonlinear Tissue-Signaling Mechanisms in Response to Low Dose and Low Dose-Rate Radiation This program is funded as a U.S. Department of Energy Scientific Focus Area (SFA), and is an integrated cooperative program to understand low dose radiation effects in a complex model system. Coordinating Multidisciplinary Expertise The SFAs are designed to take advantage of the multidisciplinary,

7

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Original Research Program Plan  

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Original Research Program Plan Original Research Program Plan Biological Effects of Low Dose and Dose Rate Radiation Prepared for the Office of Biological and Environmental Research by The Low Dose Radiation Research Program Plan Subcommittee of the Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee. II. Table of Contents Face Page Table of Contents Executive Summary Introduction Program Outline Low Dose Radiation vs. Endogenous Oxidative Damage - The Same or Different? Key Question Description Decision Making Value Recommendations and Costs Understanding Biological Responses to Radiation And Endogenous Damage Key Question Description Decision Making Value Recommendations and Costs Thresholds for Low Dose Radiation - Fact or Fiction? Key Question Description Decision Making Value Recommendations and Costs

8

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Universities  

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Universities Universities | Duke University | Loma Linda University | Northwestern University | University of Chicago | University of California Davis | Northwestern University University of Chicago University of California Davis Effects of Low Dose Irradiation on NF-κB Signaling Networks and Mitochondria Principal Investigator: Dr. Gayle Woloschak DOE Low Dose Research Program Projects Low dose-low dose rate irradiation leads to long term changes in numbers of mitochondria and mitochondrial genomes - Principal Investigator: Gayle Woloschak, Professor, Department of Radiation Oncology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA NF-κB-mediated pro-survival network in low dose radiation-induced adaptive protection - Principal Investigator: Jian Jian Li, Professor, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis, Davis,

9

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Research Program Workshop I Abstracts  

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Genetic Factors Affecting Susceptibility to Low-Dose Radiation Genetic Factors Affecting Susceptibility to Low-Dose Radiation William F. Morgan and John H.J. Petrini Radiation Oncology Research Laboratory, University of Maryland at Baltimore, Baltimore, MD Summary: The goal of our application is to improve the scientific basis for understanding potential risks to the population from low dose radiation exposure based on potential genetic differences that may modulate an individual's sensitivity to low doses of radiation. Abstract: The goal of this application is to improve the scientific basis for understanding potential risks to the population from low dose radiation exposure. We propose to address specific genetic factors that affect individual susceptibility to low dose radiation and ask the question do genetic differences exist that make some individuals more sensitive to

10

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Low Dose Radiation Effects in  

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Radiation Effects in Differentiating Human Lens Cells Radiation Effects in Differentiating Human Lens Cells E.A. Blakely1, M.P. McNamara1, P.Y. Chang1, K.A. Bjornstad1, D. Sudar1, and A.C. Thompson2 1Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California; 2Advanced Light Source Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California. Introduction The human lens is one of the most radiosensitive organs of the body. Cataract, the opacification of the lens, is a late-appearing response to radiation damage. There are few data available on the late radiation effects of exposure in space flight to charged particle beams, the most prevalent of which are protons. Basic research in this area is needed to integrate the responses of both critical and other representative tissues

11

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Research Highlights - Health Physics  

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Health Physics Special Issue Features Contributions by Low Dose Health Physics Special Issue Features Contributions by Low Dose Investigators Health Physics The March 2011 special issue of Health Physics highlights the Victor Bond Workshop held May 2-5, 2010, in Richland, Wash. The workshop honored the late Dr. Victor (Vic) Bond for his lifetime achievement in the radiation sciences. Dr. Bond's research resulted in numerous influential scientific papers that contributed greatly to the understanding of radiation effects in biological systems. The workshop attracted internationally recognized experts in biophysics, experimental radiation biology, epidemiology, and risk assessment to discuss issues of low-dose risk. Participants included current and previously funded U.S. Department of Energy Low Dose Radiation Research

12

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Glossary  

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Glossary Glossary A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z We welcome updates to the glossary. Please send them to Low Dose. A α=β Ratio: A measure of the curvature of the cell survival curve and a measure of the sensitivity of a tissue or tumor to dose fractionation. The dose at which the linear and quadratic components of cell killing are equal. Abscopal Effect: The radiation response in tissue at a distance from the irradiated site invoked by local irradiation. Absorbed Dose Rate: Absorbed dose divided by the time it takes to deliver that dose. High dose rates are usually more damaging to humans and animals than low-dose rates. This is because repair of damage is more efficient when the dose rate is low. Absorbed Dose: The amount of energy deposited in any substance by ionizing

13

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: DOE Lowdose Radiation Program Workshop  

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Using a Low LET Electron Microbeam to Investigate Non-Targeted Using a Low LET Electron Microbeam to Investigate Non-Targeted Effects of Low Dose Radiation. Authors: William F. Morgan1 and Marianne B. Sowa2 Institutions: 1Radiation Oncology Research Laboratory, University of Maryland, Baltimore MD 21201 2 Chemical Structure and Dynamics, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 We have recently installed a low LET electron microbeam that generates energetic electrons to mimic radiation damage from gamma and x-ray sources. It has been designed such that high-energy electrons deposit energy in a pre-selected subset of cells leaving neighboring cells unirradiated (Figure 1). In this way it is possible to examine non-targeted effects associated with low dose radiation exposure including induced genomic instability and

14

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Earlier Events  

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Earlier Events Earlier Events 2000 | 2001 | 2002 | 2003 | 2004 April 2000 Ionizing Radiation Science and Protection in the 21st Century, NCRP, April 5-6, Arlington, VA. RADIATION RESEARCH 2000, Association for Radiation Research, April 10-12, Bristol, UK. Florida Chapter of the Health Physics Society Spring 2000 Meeting, Gainesville, FL, April 13-14. 47th Annual Meeting of the Radiation Research Society, April 29-May 3, Albuquerque, NM. May 2000 IRPA-10 International Congress 2000, May 14-19, Hiroshima, Japan. IRPA-10 Secretariat, c/o Japan Convention Services, Inc., Nippon Press Center Building, 2-2-1, Uchisaiwai-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan. Phone: 81-3-3508-1214. Fax: 81-3-3508-0820. irpa10@convention.jp. 4th International Non-Ionizing Radiation Workshop, May 22-25, Kyoto,

15

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: William F. Morgan  

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William F. Morgan William F. Morgan Pacific Northwest National Laboratory PO Box 999 Richland, Washington About this Project Projects Using a Low LET Electron Microbeam to Investigate Non-Targeted Effects of Low Dose Radiation. Optimizing the Scientific, Regulatory, and Societal Impact of the DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Program A Mechanistic Study of the Radiation Quality Dependence of Bystander Effects in Human Cells. Genetic Factors Affecting Susceptibility to Low-Dose Radiation Mechanisms of Adaptive Responses and Genomic Instability Induced by Low Dose/ Low Dose Rate Radiation Technical Abstracts 2006 Workshop: Using a Low-LET Electron Microbeam to Investigate Non-Targeted Effects of Low Dose Radiation Sowa, M.B., Goetz, W., Baulch, J., and Morgan, W.F. Genetic Factors Affecting Susceptibility to Low-Dose Radiation

16

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Bruce E. Lehnert  

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E. Lehnert E. Lehnert Los Alamos National Laboratory Past Project Low Dose Ionizing Radiation-Induced Effects in Irradiated and Unirradiated Cells: Pathways Analysis in Support of Risk Assessment. Technical Abstracts 2002 Workshop: Low Dose Ionizing Radiation-Induced Effects in Irradiated and Unirradiated cells: Pathways Analysis in Support of Risk Assessment. Lehnert, B.E., Cary, R., Gadbois, D. and Gupta G. 2001 Workshop: Low Dose, Low Dose Rate Effects of Ionizing Radiation in Irradiated and Unirradiated Cells. Lehnert, B.E. 1999 Workshop: Low Dose, Low Dose Rate Effects of Ionizing Radiation in Irradiated and Unirradiated Cells. Lehnert, B.E. Publications Lehnert, B.E., Radiation bystander effects. U.S.Department of Energy Research News (March 6 issue) Goldberg, Z. and Lehnert, B.E. (2002). Radiation-induced effects in

17

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: 2003 Molecular Characterization of the  

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Characterization of the Roles of SOD Genes in Mammalian Characterization of the Roles of SOD Genes in Mammalian Cellular Response to Low Dose Radiation Authors: Chuan-Yuan Li,1 Eric Chuang2 Institutions: 1Dept of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, 2Advanced Technology Center, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland The potential risks of exposure to low dose radiation are of major concerns to the DOE/OBER Low Dose Radiation Research Program. It has been long recognized that much of the radiation-induced genetic damage to cells are caused by secondary oxidative species. Therefore, internal cellular defense systems against oxidative stress play significant roles in countering genetic damage induced by ionizing radiation. The role of the detoxifying

18

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Molecular Characterization of the  

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Molecular Characterization of the Roles of SOD Genes in Mammalian Molecular Characterization of the Roles of SOD Genes in Mammalian Cellular Response to Low Dose Radiation Authors: Chuan-Yuan Li, Zhanjun Guo, Zhonghui Yang, and Eric Chuang Institutions: Dept of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC Advanced Technology Center, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland Background The potential risks of exposure to low dose radiation are of major concerns to the DOE/OBER Low Dose Radiation Research Program. It has been long recognized that much of the radiation-induced genetic damage to cells are caused by secondary oxidative species. Therefore internal cellular defense systems against oxidative stress play significant roles in countering genetic damage induced by ionizing radiation. The role of the detoxifying

19

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: DOE / NASA Joint Funded Projects  

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DOE/NASA Joint Funded Projects DOE/NASA Joint Funded Projects NASA Source Photo Space explorers are subject to exposure to low dose ionizing radiation. Research that helps determine health risks from this exposure is funded by NASA and DOE. Source: NASA DOE's Low Dose Program and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) jointly fund new research to develop a better scientific basis for understanding risks to humans from exposures to low doses or low fluences of ionizing radiation. Research must focus on elucidating molecular mechanisms and pathways involved in normal radiobiological responses to low dose exposure, and must have the potential to ultimately increase understanding of health outcomes from radiation exposures that are at or near current workplace exposure

20

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Chaun-Yuan Li  

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Chaun-Yuan Li Chaun-Yuan Li Radiation Biology Research, Duke University Medical Center Funded Projects Molecular Characterization of the Role of SOD Genes in Mammalian Cellular Response to Low Dose Ionizing, abstract, description. Technical Abstracts 2006 Workshop: The Roles of Superoxide Dismutage (SOD) in Low Dose Radiation Induced Adaptive Response Yang, Z., Chuang, E., Batinic-Haberle, I., and Li, C.-Y. 2005 Workshop: Molecular Characterization of the Roles of SOD Genes in Mammalian Cellular Response to Low Dose Radiation Li, C.-Y., Guo, Z., Yang, Z., and Chuang, E. 2003 Workshop: Molecular Characterization of the Roles of SOD Genes in Mammalian Cellular Response to Low Dose Radiation Li, C.-Y. and Chuang, E. Publications Li, F., Sonveaux, P., Rabbani, Z.N., Liu, S., Yan, B., Huang, Q.,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose radiation research" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Melvyn Folkard  

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Melvyn Folkard Melvyn Folkard Gray Cancer Institute About this Project Currently Funded Projects A Variable Energy Soft X-ray Microprobe to Investigate Mechanisms of the Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect Technical Abstracts 2005 Workshop: A Variable-Energy Soft X-Ray Microprobe to Investiage Mechanisms of the Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect Folkard, M., Vojnovic, B., Schettiono, G., Atkinson, K., Prise, K.M., Michael, B.D. 2003 Workshop: A Variable-Energy Soft X-Ray Microprobe to Investigate Mechanisms of the Radiation -Induced Bystander Effect. Folkard, M., Vojnovic, B., Schettino, G., Atkinson, K., Prise, K.M., Michael, B.D. 2002 Workshop: A Variable-Energy Soft X-ray Microprobe to Investigate Mechanisms of the Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect. Folkard, M., Vojnovic, B., Schettino,

22

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: What's New Archive  

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What's New What's New Tony Brooks Chosen As Lauriston S. Taylor Lecturer Congratulations to radiation biologist Dr. Antone "Tony" Brooks, a consultant to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Low Dose Radiation Research Program, on his selection to give the 36th Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture at the Annual Meeting of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP). Brooks is former chief scientist for the U.S. Department of Energy's Low Dose Radiation Research Program. His lecture, titled "From the Field to the Laboratory and Back: The What Ifs, Wows, and Who Cares of Radiation Biology," will be a featured presentation at the meeting, which will be held March 12 and 13, 2012, at the Hyatt Regency Bethesda, Bethesda, Maryland.

23

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Optimizing the Scientific, Regulatory,  

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Optimizing the Scientific, Regulatory, and Societal Impact of the DOE Low Optimizing the Scientific, Regulatory, and Societal Impact of the DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Program Antone L. Brooks Why This Project? For maximum benefit, state-of-the-art research and new data from the Low Dose Radiation Research Program must be available to other scientists, regulatory agencies, and the public. This project stays abreast of scientific advances in the field, gathers, integrates, and summarizes the research within the program, and disseminates this information to appropriate scientific, regulatory, and public venues. Project Goals Provides a focal point for distribution of information generated in the program, to scientific committees, other governmental and regulatory agencies, and to the public Provides scientific support for the Low Dose Program website

24

DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Workshop I November 1999  

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Low Dose Radiation Research Program Low Dose Radiation Research Program U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biological and Environmental Research David G. Thomassen, Ph.D. Program Coordinator Office of Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy, SC-72 19901 Germantown Road Germantown, MD 20874-1290 Phone: 301-903-9817 Fax: 301-903-8521 Email: david.thomassen@science.doe.gov Arthur Katz, Ph.D. Life Sciences Division Office of Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy, SC-72 19901 Germantown Road Germantown, MD 20874-1290 Phone: 301-903-4932 Fax: 301-903-8521 Email: arthur.katz@science.doe.gov Marvin E. Frazier, Ph.D. Director, Life Sciences Division Office of Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy, SC-72 19901 Germantown Road

25

Errors and Uncertainties in Dose Reconstruction for Radiation Effects Research  

SciTech Connect

Dose reconstruction for studies of the health effects of ionizing radiation have been carried out for many decades. Major studies have included Japanese bomb survivors, atomic veterans, downwinders of the Nevada Test Site and Hanford, underground uranium miners, and populations of nuclear workers. For such studies to be credible, significant effort must be put into applying the best science to reconstructing unbiased absorbed doses to tissues and organs as a function of time. In many cases, more and more sophisticated dose reconstruction methods have been developed as studies progressed. For the example of the Japanese bomb survivors, the dose surrogate distance from the hypocenter was replaced by slant range, and then by TD65 doses, DS86 doses, and more recently DS02 doses. Over the years, it has become increasingly clear that an equal level of effort must be expended on the quantitative assessment of uncertainty in such doses, and to reducing and managing uncertainty. In this context, this paper reviews difficulties in terminology, explores the nature of Berkson and classical uncertainties in dose reconstruction through examples, and proposes a path forward for Joint Coordinating Committee for Radiation Effects Research (JCCRER) Project 2.4 that requires a reasonably small level of effort for DOSES-2008.

Strom, Daniel J.

2008-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

26

United States Department of Energy Low Dose Radiation Research Program  

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History of the History of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Low Dose Radiation Research Program: 1998-2008 Dr. Antone L. Brooks tbrooks@tricity.wsu.edu September 2012 Review Draft i Contents Preface............................................................................................................................................. v Summary ........................................................................................................................................ vi Acronyms and Initialisms ............................................................................................................. vii Chapter 1 Introduction ................................................................................................................... 1

27

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Frequencies of Radiation-Induced  

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Frequencies of Radiation-Induced Chromosome Interchanges and Frequencies of Radiation-Induced Chromosome Interchanges and Randomness of Chromosome Territory Locations Relative to One Another. Authors: RK Sachs,§ MN Cornforth,‡ KM Greulich-Bode,* L Hlatky, and DJ Brenner|| Institutions: §Department of Mathematics, University of California, ‡University of Texas Medical Branch, *Department of Skin Carcinogenesis, German Cancer Research Center DFCI, Harvard Medical School, ||Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University. Leukemogenesis, and perhaps carcinogenesis in general, often involves specific chromosome translocations. Radiation-induced chromosome translocation frequencies are strongly influenced by how close participating chromosomes are to one another in an interphase cell nucleus. We sought to determine whether chromosomes in human peripheral blood

28

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Optimizing the Scientific, Regulatory  

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Optimizing the Scientific, Regulatory and Social Impact of the DOE Optimizing the Scientific, Regulatory and Social Impact of the DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Program. Authors: Antone L.Brooks, Richard J. Bull, Lezlie A. Couch. Institutions: Washington State University Tri-Cities The purpose of this project is to provide scientific, technical, and organizational support to optimize the impact of the DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Program. This project will serve as a focal point for collection and dissemination of scientific information from the scientists funded in the Program to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the regulatory agencies, and the public. The project will be responsible for analysis of the scientific information in the broader context of biomedical research and will provide this information to the Office of Biological Research

29

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Research Highlights - Ionizing  

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Affects Cancer Frequency and Characteristics by Acting Affects Cancer Frequency and Characteristics by Acting on the Microenvironment Background: For more than a quarter century the scientific rationale for extrapolating radiation health effects has been underpinned by biophysical target theory. Fundamental to target theory is that the effect (e.g., DNA damage, mutation, cancer) is proportional to dose based on interaction of energy with biological targets, specifically DNA. However, the biology following ionizing radiation is more than just DNA damage, repair, or misrepair. Cellular responses to ionizing radiation can affect phenotype, cell interactions, lineage commitment, differentiation and genomic stability, all of which have been widely documented in cultured cells and many observed in vivo. This class of non-targeted effects induced

30

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Research Highlights - Collateral  

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Collateral Damage Collateral Damage Using targeted irradiation to understand radiation-induced effects in bystander cells chromosomal A typical example of chromosomal instability induction measured by chromosome-type aberrations in primary human lymphocytes at delay time post-irradiation of a fraction of the cell population. Similar types of aberrations were observed in whole irradiated population but were not observed in untreated cells. Munira Kadhim Background: It has long been understood that radiation exposure can influence cellular changes. Studies indicate that even very low doses of high linear energy transfer (LET) alpha-particle irradiation, such as that from environmental radon, can affect cells. Radiation-induced genomic instability can be observed in the progeny of irradiated cells and as a

31

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Optimizing the Scientific, Regulatory  

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Optimizing the Scientific, Regulatory and Societal Impact of the DOE Optimizing the Scientific, Regulatory and Societal Impact of the DOE Low Dose Research Program Authors: Antone L. Brooks Institution: Washington State University Tri-Cities Richland, Washington The purpose of this project is to provide a focal point for communication of the research results from the DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Program. The major communication tool provided by this project is a Website at Washington State University. The website is being maintained to provide communication between the scientific advances generated by the research program and scientists both in and outside the program, policy makers, regulators and the public. The website also contains a number of presentations and illustrations that are written so that they will be easy

32

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Low-Dose Dose-Response of  

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Low-Dose Dose-Response of Proliferating Human Cells Exposed to Low Low-Dose Dose-Response of Proliferating Human Cells Exposed to Low Dose Rate g-Radiation. Authors: Louise Enns,1 Michael Weinfeld,1 Albert Murtha,1 and Kenneth Bogen2 Institutions: 1Cross Cancer Institute and 2Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Clinical and environmental exposure to ionizing radiation rarely exceeds 200 cGy. To examine cell proliferation at early times (up to 5 days) post-irradiation, we are utilizing an assay in which single cells encapsulated within ~30- to 70-µm-diameter agarose gel microdrops (GMDs) are exposed and cultured for 4 days at 37°C, then analyzed by flow cytometry (FC). Clonogenic proliferation is measured as the fraction of occupied GMDs containing multicellular microcolonies after 4 days in culture. This assay was applied to human A549 lung cells exposed to gamma

33

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Low Dose Response of Respiratory Cells  

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Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Low Dose Response of Respiratory Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Low Dose Response of Respiratory Cells in Intact Tissues and Reconstituted Tissue Constructs Authors: John Ford, Amy Maslowski, Alex Redd and Les Braby Institutions: Texas A&M University, College Station, TX We are developing a model of respiratory tissue using a perfusion culture system. We are using this system to quantify the effects of normal tissue architecture, and the interaction of epithelial cells with other cell types, on radiation-induced bystander effects. Tracheal tissue taken from young adult Fischer 344 rats is imbedded in a growth factor enriched agarose matrix. The chamber is designed to allow growth medium to periodically wash the epithelial surface of the tracheal lumen while maintaining the air-interface that is necessary for the normal

34

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Genetic Factors Affecting  

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Affecting Susceptibility to Low-Dose Radiation Affecting Susceptibility to Low-Dose Radiation William F. Morgan Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Why This Project The short-term effects of high doses of ionizing radiation on cellular responses are relatively well understood. Less clear are the long-term consequences of exposure to low dose/low dose-rate radiation and the effects of radiation exposure on the progeny of surviving cells. If a cell survives radiation, it is generally thought to have repaired all the radiation-induced insults and be capable of a "normal healthy life". At a certain frequency, however, we have found that some cells surviving radiation grow normally, but will rearrange their genetic material during time in culture. We call this radiation-induced genomic instability. Many

35

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Effects of Low Doses of Radiation on  

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Low Doses of Radiation on DNA Repair Low Doses of Radiation on DNA Repair Eric Ackerman Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Why this Project? Even low doses (0.1 Gy) exert measurable effects on DNA repair. The first-known oxidative lesion repaired only by nucleotide excision repair found in normal cells is cyclo-dA. This lesion is found in normal cells and thought to be a byproduct of oxidative metabolism. When this lesion occurs, it stimulates repair. If repair is stimulated by low dose radiation, there are some implications for human health. For example, do some individuals exhibit a greater, lower, or no stimulation to certain DNA lesions? If there are population polymorphism that influence DNA repair, then it would be possible to use our assay for screening individuals for repair sensitivity.

36

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Effects of Low Doses of Radiation on  

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Abstract Abstract Title: Effects of Low Doses of Radiation on DNA Repair (PNNL Project # 42699) Authors: Eric J. Ackerman, Ph.D. Institutions: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, WA We developed a functional assay to measure the effects of LDR on repair of many different lesions representative of those found in cells as consequences of normal oxidative metabolism, as well as those caused by radiation. Currently only 1/10th attomole =105 damaged molecules/cell and 3000 cells/measurement are required. We have found that even low doses (10 rad) exert measurable effects on DNA repair. Interestingly, the amount of DNA repair increases at 10-50 rads, plateaus, and then increases even further at higher doses well below doses where radiation-induced lethality

37

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Low Dose Ionizing Radiation-Induced  

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Low Dose Ionizing Radiation-Induced Effects in Irradiated and Low Dose Ionizing Radiation-Induced Effects in Irradiated and Unirradiated cells: Pathways Analysis in Support of Risk Assessment. Authors: B.E. Lehnert, R. Cary, D. Gadbois, and G. Gupta. Institutions: Bioscience Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory. The scientific literature presents a confusing picture concerning health risks due to low dose ionizing radiation (LDIR), e.g., <1-10 cGy. Some effects of LDIR such as enhanced rates of cell proliferation and the induction of radioadaptation may be benign under some circumstances. Other evidence suggests LDIR can be hazardous and that a threshold for potentially detrimental responses, e.g., increases in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), increases in sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), alterations in gene or protein expression profiles, and increased

38

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Linking Molecular Events to Cellular  

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Linking Molecular Events to Cellular Responses at Low Dose Exposures Linking Molecular Events to Cellular Responses at Low Dose Exposures Thomas Weber Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Why This Project It currently costs billions of dollars to protect workers and the public from exposure to man-made radiation, despite exposure levels lower than the natural background levels of radiation. If it could be demonstrated that there is no increased cancer risk associated with these low dose exposures, these resources could be directed toward more critical societal issues. Defining low dose radiation cancer risks is limited by our ability to measure and directly correlate relevant cellular and molecular responses occurring at the low radiation dose and dose rate with tumor formation. This deficiency has led to conservative risk assessments based on low dose

39

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Research Highlights - 2010  

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DNA Double-Strand Break Repair Capacities Before and After Exposure to Low DNA Double-Strand Break Repair Capacities Before and After Exposure to Low Dose Radiation Immunochemical detection of DSB foci in the nuclei of human fibroblasts. (A) γ-H2AX phospho-serine 139 foci (chromatin marker of DSBs; green). (B) ataxia-telangiectasia mutated phospho-serine 1981 foci (ATM, DNA damage-responsive kinase; red). (C) Merge of images A and B. (White arrows mark large γ-H2AX foci and coincident γ-H2AX/pATM foci that were positively scored; yellow arrows mark small γ-H2AX foci that lack corresponding pATM foci that were not scored.) Enlarge Image Immunochemical detection of DSB foci in the nuclei of human fibroblasts. (A) γ-H2AX phospho-serine 139 foci (chromatin marker of DSBs; green). (B) ataxia-telangiectasia mutated phospho-serine 1981 foci (ATM,

40

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Computational Modeling of Biochemical  

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Computational Modeling of Biochemical Pathways Linking Ionizing Computational Modeling of Biochemical Pathways Linking Ionizing Radiation to Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis, and Tumor Incidence Authors: Yuchao Maggie Zhao and Rory Conolly Institutions: Center for Computational Systems Biology CIIT Centers for Health Research Long-Range Goal: To develop an integrated, computational framework for the prediction of low-dose-response to ionizing radiation (IR) in people. Methodology: To provide a flexible framework to evaluate mechanisms of cellular adaptive responses after exposure to IR, three progressively more complicated descriptions of biochemical pathways linking DNA damage with cell-cycle checkpoint control and apoptosis were developed. These descriptions focus on p53-dependent checkpoint arrest and apoptosis, p73-dependent apoptosis, and Chk2-dependent checkpoint arrest,

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41

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Induction of Genomic Instability in  

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Induction of Genomic Instability in vivo by Low Doses of 137Cs y Induction of Genomic Instability in vivo by Low Doses of 137Cs y rays, Authors: K. Rithidech1, E.B. Whorton2, M. Tungjai1, E. Ar-Bab1, S.R. Simon1, M. Tawde3 and C.W. Anderson3. Institutions: 1Pathology Department, Stony Brook University, NY 11794-8691, USA, 2University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, TX 77550-1047,3Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000. Information on potential health hazards of radiation at doses below or equal to the level traditionally requiring human radiation protection (less than or equal to 10 cGy) is currently lacking. It is therefore important to characterize early and subsequent in vivo biological response induced by low doses of ionizing radiation because such data should provide information that can help determine whether radiation at this dose level

42

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Use of Computational Modeling to  

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Use of Computational Modeling to Evaluate Hypotheses about the Use of Computational Modeling to Evaluate Hypotheses about the Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Bystander Effects Authors: Yuchao “Maggie” Zhao and Rory Conolly Institutions: CIIT Centers for Health Research, 6 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina A detailed understanding of the biological mechanisms of radiation-induced damage at the molecular and cellular levels is needed for accurate assessment of the shape of the dose-response curve for radiationinduced health effects in the intact organism. Computational models can contribute to the improved understanding of mechanisms through integration of data and quantitative evaluation of hypotheses. We propose to develop a novel computational model of bystander effects elicited by oxidative stress and a

43

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Genetic Factors Affecting  

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Genetic Factors Affecting Susceptibility to Low-Doses of Ionizing Genetic Factors Affecting Susceptibility to Low-Doses of Ionizing Radiation. Authors: William F. Morgan, Pat Concannon & John H.J. Petrini The goal of this program is to test the hypothesis that mice heterozygous for the NBS1 gene are genetically susceptible to low doses of ionizing radiation. Patients with Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome (NBS) are radiation sensitive, because of defects in cellular responses to radiation induced genetic damage. It is unclear whether humans heterozygous for the mutations associated with NBS are radiation sensitive and results from cell culture experiments give conflicting results. In collaboration with John Petrini at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York City we developed a mouse model of this disorder and are directly testing the hypothesis

44

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Current Funded Project Descriptions  

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Funded Project Descriptions Funded Project Descriptions Effects Of Low Doses of Radiation on DNA Repair Jointly funded by NASA and DOE Eric J Ackerman Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, WA 99352 Dr. Ackerman will study the effect of low doses of ionizing radiation on the repair of different types of damage to DNA, including damage from ionizing radiation and that produced by the normal internal operation of the cell. Using a very sensitive technique called host cell reactivation assay (HCR), he will quantitatively measure the repair of each type of DNA damage and thereby measure if the cellular repair system itself has been damaged. He will also determine if unique forms of DNA repair system damage are induced by low doses of cosmic radiation exposure present during space

45

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Marianne B. Sowa  

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Marianne B. Sowa Marianne B. Sowa PNNL - Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Funded Projects A Mechanistic Study of the Radiation Quality Dependence of Bystander Effects in Human Cells Technical Abstracts 2006 Workshop: Using a Low-LET Electron Microbeam to Investigate Non-Targeted Effects of Low Dose Radiation. Sowa, M.B., Goetz, W., Baulch, J., and Morgan, W.F. Morphological Changes in a 3D Mammary Model Following Exposure to Low Dose, Low-LET Radiation Opresko, L.K., Chrisler, W., Emory, K., Arthurs, B., and Sowa, M.B. 2005 Workshops: Using a Low LET Electron Microbeam to Investigate Non-Targeted Effects of Low Dose Radiation Morgan, W.F. and Sowa, M.B. Publications Perrine, K.A., Lamarche, B.L., Hopkins, D.F., Budge, S.E., Opresko, L.K., Wiley, H.S., and Sowa, M.B. (2007). High speed method for in situ

46

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Project Descriptions-Archive  

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Project Descriptions-Archive Project Descriptions-Archive Effects Of Low Doses of Radiation on DNA Repair Eric J Ackerman (former PNNL) (Jointly funded by NASA and DOE) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, WA Dr. Ackerman will study the effect of low doses of ionizing radiation on the repair of different types of damage to DNA, including damage from ionizing radiation and that produced by the normal internal operation of the cell. Using a very sensitive technique called host cell reactivation assay (HCR), he will quantitatively measure the repair of each type of DNA damage and thereby measure if the cellular repair system itself has been damaged. He will also determine if unique forms of DNA repair system damage are induced by low doses of cosmic radiation exposure present during space

47

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Research Highlights - Real-time  

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Real-time imaging of repair processes possible with Nickel-63 Real-time imaging of repair processes possible with Nickel-63 microirradiator Microscope Microscope stage-mounted microirradiation system. (A) Overall system shown mounted on a micromanipulator housed within a heated, humidified, environmental chamber of a microscope. (B) Close-up showing attachment of device to the micromanipulator. (C) Detail showing the bend in the enclosing capillary, which allows positioning of the active surface directly above the target cell. (D) Microirradiator tip in dissecting microscope. (E) Close-up view through microscope optics (scale bar, 10 microns.) Background: Scientists know that mammalian cells begin a nucleoplasmic repair process within seconds after being exposed to ionizing radiation. Real-time imaging of this process could further understanding of the

48

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Do Heritable Differences in an  

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Do Heritable Differences in an Individual's Immune System Predict Do Heritable Differences in an Individual's Immune System Predict Differential Sensitivity to Low Dose Radiation Exposure? Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping Enlarge Image Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping identifies two strong candidate genes, Ptprk (Chr 10) and Acp1 (Chr 12) that are linked to genetic variation in the relative abundance of peripheral Th and Tc cells, two cell populations that are sensitive to radiation exposure at low doses. Expression of each gene is significantly altered by exposure to low dose radiation in vivo. Genome-wide scans for the ratio of %CD4+ (Th) to %CD8+ (Tc) lymphocytes were performed using genenetwork.org. The solid horizontal line represents genome-wide significance at P < 0.05, based on 1,000 permutations. LOD indicates logarithm of odds scores.

49

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Biologically Based Analysis of Lung  

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Biologically Based Analysis of Lung Cancer Incidence in a Large Biologically Based Analysis of Lung Cancer Incidence in a Large Canadian Occupational Cohort with Low-LET Low-dose Radiation Exposure, and Comparison with Japanese Atomic Bomb Survivors. Authors: W.D. Hazelton, D. Krewski, S.H. Moolgavkar Lung cancer incidence is analyzed in a large Canadian National Dose Registry (CNDR) cohort with individual annual dosimetry for low-dose occupational exposure to gamma and tritium radiation using several types of multistage models. The primary analysis utilizes the two-stage clonal expansion model (TSCE), with sensitivity analyses using extensions of this model incorporating additional stages. Characteristic and distinct temporal patterns of risk are found for dose-response affecting early, middle, or late stages of carcinogenesis, e.g., initiation with one or more stages,

50

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Adaptive Response of Mouse Skin  

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Adaptive Response of Mouse Skin Epithelial Cells to Low Dose Adaptive Response of Mouse Skin Epithelial Cells to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation: Induction of NF-κB, MnSOD, 14-3-3ζ and Cyclin B1 Authors: Jian Jian Li, Kazi M. Ahmed, Ming Fan, Shaozhong Dong, Douglas R. Spitz, and Cheng-Rong Yu Institutions: Division of Molecular Radiobiology, Purdue University School of Health Sciences, West Lafayette, Indiana; Free Radical and Radiation Biology Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa; Molecular Immunology Section, Laboratory of Immunology, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland Gene expression profiles demonstrate that a group of key stress-responsive genes are associated with radiation exposure and may contribute to cellular

51

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Molecular Mechanisms of  

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Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability in Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability in Human Cells. Authors: Howard L. Liber1 and Jeffrey L. Schwartz2. Institutions: 1Colorado State University and 2University of Washington. Knowledge of the signal and target through which radiation induces genomic instability, which we propose to investigate herein, will allow us to model effects at low doses. Such knowledge will aid in understanding variations in the induction of this genomic instability, both among cells and among individuals. This information could also lead to more sensitive measures of instability that could yield accurate measures of instability induction at low doses. We have developed an in-vitro cell model, in which radiation-induced chromosome instability develops in a two-stage process.

52

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Molecular Characterization of Survival  

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Survival Advantage, Bystander Effect, and Survival Advantage, Bystander Effect, and Genomic Instability after Low-LET Low Dose Radiation Exposure Mohan Natarajan University of Texas Health Science Center Why this Project? To understand the molecular link between the activation of NF-kB and cellular outcomes such as better cell survival after low-LET radiation and to determine whether low dose radiation-induced NF-kB signaling can mediate telomerase activation and thus confer enhanced cell survival of normal aortic endothelial cells. Project Goals To determine whether low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation can cause a positive feedback signal initiated by the activation of the NF-kB. To examine one of the mechanisms involving TNF-a as a signaling mediator, which could mediate the bystander effect through the generation

53

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Janet E. Baulch  

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Janet E. Baulch Janet E. Baulch University of California, Davis Currently Funded Projects Impact of Genetic Factors on the Heritable Effects of Paternal Exposure to Low-Dose Radiation Technical Abstracts 2003 Workshop: DNA damage in acutely irradiated F2 mice with a history of paternal F0 germline irradiation Baulch, J.E. and Raabe, O G. 2002 Workshop Impact of Genetic Factors on the Heritable Effects of Paternal Exposure to Low-Dose Radiation, Baulch, J.E., Ph.D. and Raabe, O.G., Ph.D. Publications Kovalchuk, O. and Baulch, J.E. (2008). Epigenetic changes and nontargeted radiation effects - Is there a link? Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 49(1):16-25 Laiakis, E.C., Baulch, J.E., and Morgan, W.F. (2008). Interleukin 8 exhibits a pro-mitogenic and pro-survival role in radiation induced

54

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Jian Jian Li  

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Jian Jian Li Jian Jian Li School of Health Sciences, Purdue University Newly Funded Projects Regulation of NF-kB and Mn SOD in Low Dose Radiation-Induced Adaptive Responses in Mouse and Human Skin Cells, abstract, description. Technical Abstracts 2006 Workshops: NF-kB Mediated Signaling Network in Low Dose X-Ray Induced Adaptive Protection on Mouse and Human Skin Epithelial Cells Ahmed, K.M., Fan, M., Spitz, and Li, J.J. 2005 Workshops: Adaptive Response of Mouse Skin Epithelial Cells to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation: Induction of NF-κB, MnSOD, 14-3-3ζ and Cyclin B1. Li, J.J., Ahmed, K.M., Fan, M., Dong, S., Spitz, D.R., and Yu, C.-R. 2003 Workshops: Gene Expression Profiles of Human Skin Keratinocytes Exposed to Acute and Chronic Ionizing Radiation Li, J.J., Ozeki, M., Wang, T., Tamae, D., Nelson, D., Wyrobek, A., and

55

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Robert L. Ullrich  

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Robert L. Ullrich Robert L. Ullrich Colorado State University Currently Funded Projects Radiation Leukemogenesis at Low Dose Rates (NSCOR) Genetic Mechanisms of Induced Chromosomal Instability and their Relationships with Radiation Tumorigenesis Technical Abstracts 2006 Workshop: The Role of Telomere Dysfunction in Driving Genomic Instability Bailey, S.M., Williams, E.S., and Ullrich, R.L. 2005 Workshop: Dsyfunctional Mammalian Telomeres in DNA-PKcs Deficient Backgrounds Bailey, S.M., Williams, E., Hagelstrom, T., and Ullrich, R.L. 2003 Workshop: Dysfunctional Mammalian Telomeres Join to Double-Strand Breaks Bailey, S.M., Goodwin, E.H., Williams, E., and Ullrich, R.L. 2002 Workshop: Dysfunctional Telomeres, Radiation-Induced Instability and Tumorigenesis Bailey, S.M., Goodwin, E.H., Cornforth, M.N., and Ullrich, R.L.

56

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Rainer K. Sachs  

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Rainer K. Sachs Rainer K. Sachs University of California, Berkeley Funded Projects BIO-BASED RISK MODELING 03-20: Modeling the Interrelations Among Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects, Genomic Instability and Cancer Cytogenetic Tests of Radiobiological Models Relating Epidemiologically Measurable Risks to Low-Dose Risks Technical Abstracts 2006 Workshop The Bystander Effect in Normal Human 3-D Tissue: Experiments, Models, and Implications Brenner, D., Ponnaiya, B., Shuryak, I., Sachs, R., and Geard, D. Radiation Carcinogenesis Risk as Influenced by Intercellular Interaction Hahnfeldt, P., Hlatky, L., and Sachs, R.K. 2005 Workshop: Modelling Intercellular Interactions During Radiation Carcinogenesis Sachs, R.K., Chan, M., Hlatky, L., and Hahnfeldt, P. 2003 Workshop: Chromosome Spatial Clustering Uncovered Through Radiogenic Aberrations

57

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Assessing Biological Function of DNA  

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Assessing Biological Function of DNA Damage Response Genes Assessing Biological Function of DNA Damage Response Genes Larry H. Thompson Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Why This Project To understand the relative importance of individual DNA repair and DNA-damage response pathways to the recovery of mammalian cells after exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation (IR). This understanding may lead to better ways of setting limits on human exposure to IR. In spite of the discovery of many mammalian DNA repair genes, our current knowledge of how many of these genes contribute to cellular recovery from IR exposure is quite limited. Project Goals Measure cellular responses at doses in the 5-100 cGy range, which generally cause changes too small to detect in normal, repair-proficient cells Focus on DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and DNA oxidative base

58

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Quantification of Repair of  

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Quantification of Repair of Low-Dose-Induced DNA Double-Strand Quantification of Repair of Low-Dose-Induced DNA Double-Strand Breaks in Diploid Human Cells Authors: David Schild,1 and Larry H. Thompson,2 Institutions: 1Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; and 2BBR Program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the biochemical lesions of primary concern in radiation related health effects. Compelling evidence from rodent and chicken model systems indicates that homologous recombinational repair (HRR) plays an essential role for cell viability in the repair of spontaneous DSBs arising during DNA replication and an important role in the repair of IR-induced DSBs. IR-induced DSBs are also repaired by error-prone nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ). Using hTERT-immortalized

59

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Howard L. Liber  

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Howard L. Liber Howard L. Liber Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences Colorado State University Currently Funded Projects Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability in Human Cells Technical Abstracts 2003 Workshop: Delayed genomic instability in human lymphoblasts exposed to 137Cs y-rays radiation Schwartz, J.L., Jordan, R., Lenarczyk, M. and Liber, H.L. 2002 Workshop: Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability in Human Cells. Liber, H.L. and Schwartz, J.L. Publications Zhang, Y., Zhou, J., Held, K.D., Redmond, R.W., Prise, K.M., and Liber, H.L. (2008). Deficiencies of double-strand break repair factors and effects on mutagenesis in directly [gamma]-irradiated and medium-mediated bystander human lymphoblastoid cells. Radiation Research 169(2):197-206.

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Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Characterizing Bystander Effects  

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Irradiation. Irradiation. Authors: L.A. Braby and J.R. Ford. Institutions: Texas A&M University. Bystander effects, which are typically seen as in increase in the cellular concentration of specific repair related molecules or as cytogenetic changes which appear to be the consequence of DNA damage, may be a significant factor in the risk of long-term health effects of low doses of radiation. These effects clearly increase the effective size of the target for radiation response, from the diameter of a single cell or cell nucleus to something significantly larger, by bringing additional cells into the process. It is unclear whether this larger target will result in an increase or a decrease in the probability of inducing a change which would be detrimental to the health of the organism, but it clearly reduces the

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose radiation research" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Genetic Mechanisms of Induced  

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Mechanisms of Induced Chromosomal Instability and their Mechanisms of Induced Chromosomal Instability and their Relationships with Radiation Tumorigenesis Robert Ullrich Colorado State University Why This Project A combination of epidemiological, experimental, animal, and cellular molecular data is used in the estimation of tumor risk after low doses of low-LET radiation. Uncertainties are recognized in the interpretation of all these data sets, and recent findings concerning genomic instability in irradiated cells challenge the conventional view that induced DNA damage is expressed during the immediate post-irradiation cell cycle. These data on genomic instability are based largely upon studies of cell cultures the mechanisms involved and implications for tumor formation in living organisms remain unclear. Nevertheless, if induced genomic instability were

62

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Cooperation Between Homologous  

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Cooperation Between Homologous Recombination and the Fanconi Anemia Cooperation Between Homologous Recombination and the Fanconi Anemia Cancer Suppressor Proteins in Minimizing Spontaneous and Radiation-Induced Chromosomal Instability Authors: Larry H. Thompson, John M. Hinz, Robert S. Tebbs, and N. Alice Yamada Institutions: Biosciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California Purpose and experimental approach. This study addresses the genetic basis of spontaneous mutagenesis as a means of understanding the DNA damage-response pathways that maintain chromosome stability. It is our view that knowledge of these processes is fundamental to understanding how low dose ionizing radiation (IR) produces chromosomal rearrangements that lead to carcinogenesis. Endogenous oxidative DNA damage is presumed to be a

63

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Molecular Mechanisms of  

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Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability in Human Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability in Human Cells Howard L. Liber Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences Colorado State University Why This Project This research will be to investigate the condition known as genomic instability. This can be defined as a state in which genetic alterations, including chromosome aberrations and gene mutations, occur at rates that are much higher than normal. In fact, genomic instability is what allows a normal cell to accumulate the multiple genetic alterations that are required to convert it into a cancer cell. The chromosomes of human cells have structures at their ends called telomeres. Telomeres normally function to prevent chromosomes from fusing together end-to-end. An important

64

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Comparison of DNA Damage Risk from  

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Comparison of DNA Damage Risk from Low-Dose Radiation and Folate Comparison of DNA Damage Risk from Low-Dose Radiation and Folate Deficiency. Authors: Chantal Courtemanche, Arnold C. Huang, Nicole Kerry, Bernice Ng, and Bruce N. Ames. Institutions: Children’s Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, California. Our overall goal is to understand and quantify the real effects of low-dose radiation by measuring direct and specific cellular changes. However, since the background dose of radiation to which most individuals are exposed is well below the levels where significant biological effects, such as mutation or tumor induction, are observed, our novel approach is to compare the consequences of radiation to those of specific nutritional deficiencies. By determining which of these two common stresses at physiologically relevant doses leads to a greater amount of DNA damage, we

65

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Communicating the Science of the Low  

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Communicating the Science of the Low Dose Radiation Research Program Communicating the Science of the Low Dose Radiation Research Program Authors: John S. Wassom, Elizabeth T. Owens, Sheryl A. Martin, Amy K. Wolfe, Margaret K. Lyday,* and Susan L. Dimmick** Institutions: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, *Keener Communications, and the **University of Tennessee Graduate School of Medicine. Summary The project team developed a communications plan based on an explicit communications strategy. The plan presents a set of strategic goals, identifies categories of stakeholders relevant to the program, and suggests methods that can be used to achieve strategic goals and reach targeted stakeholders. Context is key to the communication plan. Providing contextual information about low dose radiation, radiation biology, and Low Dose Radiation

66

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Low Dose Response of Respiratory Cells  

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Response of Respiratory Cells in Intact Tissues and Reconstituted Response of Respiratory Cells in Intact Tissues and Reconstituted Tissue John Ford Department of Nuclear Engineering Texas A & M University Why this Project? Using the well-established rat trachea model to test the hypothesis that normal respiratory epithelial cells transmit signals to neighboring cells in response to very low dose radiation exposure. Project Goals By comparing the responses shown by cells in these normal rodent respiratory tissues to those seen for human respiratory epithelial cells in reconstituted tissue constructs, it will be possible to better understand the responds in human respiratory cells in vivo. These studies will characterize responses after exposure to a variety of radiation types and dose distributions. Experimental Approach

67

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Identification of Mouse Genetic  

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Mouse Genetic Susceptibility to Radiation Carcinogenesis Mouse Genetic Susceptibility to Radiation Carcinogenesis Allan Balmain University of California, San Francisco San Francisco, CA. (Jointly funded by NASA and DOE) Why this Project? To identify pathways that control genetic susceptibility to radiation-induced DNA damage and tumor development using novel developments in genomics together with mouse genetics. Project Goals To identify genetic loci that trigger rapid tumor development of mice after radiation. To characterize new genes at these loci that act as tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes. Experimental Approach New candidate-radiation susceptibility genes will be identified using a unique haplotyping approach. Using DNA from radiation-induced lymphoma, changes in the gene copy number can be detected using BAC microarrays. The

68

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Dual Regulation of JB6 Transformation  

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Dual Regulation of JB6 Transformation by Low Dose Gamma Radiation. Dual Regulation of JB6 Transformation by Low Dose Gamma Radiation. Authors: Thomas J. Weber,1 Lye M. Markillie,1 William B. Chrisler,1 Xingye C. Lei,1 and Nancy H. Colburn2 Institutions: 1Molecular Biosciences, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. 2Gene Regulation Section, Basic Research Laboratory, National Cancer Institute JB6 mouse epidermal cells have been instrumental in defining the molecular mechanisms associated with neoplastic transformation in response to known tumor promoters. JB6 cells exhibit a clonal growth response to oxygen free radicals suggesting this model may also be useful for radiation research. Treatment of JB6 cells with 2 and 20 cGy gamma radiation resulted in a weak, but dose-dependent increase in anchorage-independent growth observed

69

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Using a Low LET Electron Microbeam to  

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a Low LET Electron Microbeam to Investigate Non-Targeted Effects of a Low LET Electron Microbeam to Investigate Non-Targeted Effects of Low Dose Radiation William F. Morgan Radiation Oncology Research Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Why this Project? To examine genomic instability and bystander effects as non-targeted effects associated with low dose radiation exposure. Project Goals To provides a robust, reliable, highly sensitive assay for detecting delayed events occurring in cells exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation. Experimental Approach To mimic radiation damage from gamma and x-ray sources, a low-LET electron microbeam that generates energetic electrons has been designed such that high-energy electrons deposit energy in a pre-selected subset of cells leaving neighboring cells unirradiated. Using a novel green fluorescence gene (GFP) reporter assay, a high through

70

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Gregory A. Kimmel  

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Gregory A. Kimmel Gregory A. Kimmel Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Past Project A Novel Spatially Resolved Cell Irradiator to Study Bystander and Adaptive Responses to Low-LET Radiation. Technical Abstracts 2002 Workshop: Spatially Resolved Single Cell Irradiator to Study Bystander Responses to Low LET Radiation. Resat, M.S., Kimmel, G.A., Miller, J.H., McDonald, J.C., Murphy, M.K., Strom, D.J., Thrall, B.D., and Colson, S.D. 2001 Workshop: Spatially Resolved Single Cell Irradiator to Study Bystander Responses to Low LET Radiation. Resat, M.S., Kimmel, G.A., Miller, J.H., McDonald, J.C., Murphy, M.K., Strom, D.J., Thrall, B.D., Metting, N.F., and Colson, S.D 1999 Workshop: A Novel, Spatially Resolved Cell Irradiator to Study Bystander and Adaptive Responses to Low-LET Radiation.

71

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Radiation-Induced Nuclear Factor kB  

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Radiation-Induced Nuclear Factor kB mediates survival advantage by Radiation-Induced Nuclear Factor kB mediates survival advantage by Telomerase Activation. Authors: Natarajan M.,1 Mohan S.,2 Pandeswara, S.L.,1 and Herman T.S.1 Institutions: Departments of 1Radiation Oncology and 2Pathology, The University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas Activation of NF-kB in response to low doses of ionizing radiation was first shown in our laboratory. Although studies have shown that NF-kB plays an important role in anti-apoptotic function, little has been done to understand the molecular link between the activation of NF-kB and cellular outcome such as enhanced cell survival after low dose low-linear transfer (LET) radiation. Because upregulation of telomerase activity is associated with longevity and allows cells to escape from senescence, we hypothesize

72

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Interaction between Tissue and  

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between Tissue and Cellular Stress Responses: Effect of between Tissue and Cellular Stress Responses: Effect of TGF-ß Depletion on Radiation-Induced p53 Response M.H. Barcellos-Hoff, S.A. Ravani, R.L. Henshall, K.B. Ewan, R.L. Warters,* B. Parvin Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory *University of Utah One of the most widely studied cellular responses to radiation is the activation of the transcription factor, p53, whose abundance and action dictates individual cellular fate decisions regarding proliferation, differentiation and death. A cell's response to damage needs to be rapid. Thus, it is not surprising that the activation of the p53 stress response primarily involves post-translational changes in the p53 protein. Whereas intracellular radiation-induced mediators of p53 stability have been the subject of intense study, little is known about the extracellular factors

73

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Modeling Intercellular Interactions  

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Modeling Intercellular Interactions During Radiation Carcinogenesis Modeling Intercellular Interactions During Radiation Carcinogenesis Authors: Rainer K Sachs,1 Michael Chan,2 Lynn Hlatky,3 Philip Hahnfeldt3 Institutions: 1Departments of Mathematics and Physics, University of California Berkeley California; 2School of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla California; 3Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston Massachusetts Abstract By modulating the microenvironment of malignant or pre-malignant epithelial cells, inhibitory or stimulatory signals from nearby cells, including those in stromal and vascular tissues, can play a key role in carcinogenesis; cancer is ultimately a disease of a whole-cell community, not just of a single cell, clone, or cell lineage. However, current commonly used

74

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Interaction of Genome and Cellular  

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of Genome and Cellular Micronenvioronment of Genome and Cellular Micronenvioronment Mina Bissell Life Sciences Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Why this Project While normal stoma can delay or prevent tumorigenesis, abnormal stromal components can promote tumor growth. Acquired or inherited mutations that alter stromal cell function can release the context-suppressed malignant cells. Literature spanning more than a century has shown that inflammation associated with tissue wounding can produce tunors. Radiation produces changes in reactive oxygen that are similar to inflammation and may represent a mechanism for radiation-induced damage. Project Goals To determine the underlying role of stromal alterations in controling genomic instability accompanying epithelial-mesenchyumal transformation.

75

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Impact of Genetic Factors on the  

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Genetic Factors on the Heritable Effects of Paternal Exposure to Genetic Factors on the Heritable Effects of Paternal Exposure to Low-Dose Radiation Janet E. Baulch University of California, Davis Why This Project? There is concern about the possible genetic effects of low dose radiation exposure. As a result, much effort has gone towards understanding mutation of cells due to radiation exposure. While recognition of the potential for mutation from exposure to ionizing radiation has led to extensive research, less effort has been given to the possible delayed risk of radiation exposure transmitted to the offspring of the exposed parent. Data from animal models show that parental exposures to DNA-damaging agents, such as ionizing radiation, predispose the offspring to serious health effects, including cancer offspring. Additionally, data from both humans and animal

76

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: The Progeny of Irradiated Mammary  

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Progeny of Irradiated Mammary Epithelial Cells Exhibit a Phenotype Progeny of Irradiated Mammary Epithelial Cells Exhibit a Phenotype Characteristic of Malignancy Mary H. Barcellos-Hoff, R.L. Henshall-Powell, M.J. Bissell, and B. Parvin Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Life Sciences Division We have proposed that the ability of radiation to induce altered microenvironments affects the frequency and features of neoplastic progression. Thus, we have sought to characterize the irradiated microenvironment and determine how these events contribute to mammary carcinogenesis. By using imaging bioinformatics to analyze mouse and human models of breast cancer we have now examined cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) critical for tissue-specific organization and function. We found that 1) radiation-induced microenvironments can contribute to neoplastic potential

77

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Funded Project Descriptions  

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Funded Project Descriptions Funded Project Descriptions Non-Invasive Early Detection and Molecular Analysis of Low X-Ray Dose Effects in the Lens Jointly funded by NASA and DOE Principal Investigator: Lee Goldstein, M.D., Ph.D., Associate Professor in Psychiatry, Neurology, Ophthalmology, Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, & Biomedical Engineering, Boston University’s School Medicine, College of Engineering, and Photonics Center. Boston, Ma. The project includes a new DOE FWP (~$400 K over 3 years) to Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with Eleanor Blakely as Project Leader. The work includes a subcontract to support the collaboration of Polly Chang of SRI, International, Menlo Park, CA. and is scheduled to begin as early as August 2009. This proposal was submitted in response to the joint DOE/NASA

78

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Quantitative Analysis of Connexin  

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Quantitative Analysis of Connexin Expression in Cultured Colonies Quantitative Analysis of Connexin Expression in Cultured Colonies Authors: B. Parvin, Q. Yang, R. L. Henshall-Powell and M.H. Barcellos Hoff We are studying the effects of ionizing radiation on the signaling between human mammary epithelial cells and the extracellular microenvironment. To do so we use an assay based on the ability of the cells to organize into three-dimensional acini when embedded into an extracellular matrix. Although tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic mammary epithelial cells are nearly indistinguishable when cultured as monolayers, their biological character readily diverge when tissue-specific morphogenesis is analyzed. Non-malignant human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) cultured within a reconstituted basement membrane organize into acinar-like structures with

79

Radiation Dose Estimates from  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Summary: Radiation Dose Estimates from Hanford Radioactive Material Releases to the Air- tantly, what radiation dose people may have received. An independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP, additionalProjectworkcouldresultin revisions of these dose estimates. April 21, 1994 Companion

80

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Role of TNF-α as a Potential  

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Role of TNF-α as a Potential Signaling Mediator of Role of TNF-α as a Potential Signaling Mediator of Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect in Human Vascular Cells. Authors: Mohan Natarajan, Sumathy Mohan, Catherine Gibbons, Yan Bo and Munira A. Kadhim Institutions: Departments of Radiation Oncology and Pathology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas; Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside; Radiation and Genomic Stability Unit, Medical research Council, Oxford, United Kingdom Identifying reliable and sensitive signaling pathways that are implicated in adverse health effects after exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation would allow us to understand the scientific basis of low dose-induced signaling pathways and their downstream phenotypic expression. This

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81

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Using a Low LET Electron Microbeam to  

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Using a Low LET Electron Microbeam to Investigate Non-Targeted Using a Low LET Electron Microbeam to Investigate Non-Targeted Effects of Low Dose Radiation Authors: William F. Morgan1 and Marianne B. Sowa2 Institutions: 1Radiation Oncology Research Laboratory, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland; 2Chemical Structure and Dynamics, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington We have recently installed a low-linear energy transfer (LET) electron microbeam that generates energetic electrons to mimic radiation damage from gamma- and x-ray sources. It has been designed such that high-energy electrons deposit energy in a pre-selected subset of cells, leaving neighboring cells unirradiated (Figure 1). In this way it is possible to examine non-targeted effects associated with low dose radiation exposure,

82

Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - Organizations Conducting Radiation  

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Conducting Low Dose Radiation Research Conducting Low Dose Radiation Research DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Program DoReMi Integrating Low Dose Research High Level Expert Group (HLEG) on European Low Dose Risk Research Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Initiative (MELODI) RISC-RAD Radiosensitivity of Individuals and Susceptibility to Cancer induced by Ionizing Radiation United States Transuranium & Uranium Registries Organizations Conducting other Radiation Research Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Armed Forces Radiology Research Institute (AFRRI) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) Colorado State University Columbia University

83

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Comparisons of IR and ROS for  

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Comparisons of IR and ROS for Induction of Damage to Cells Comparisons of IR and ROS for Induction of Damage to Cells Kathryn D. Held1, Yvonne L. McCarey1, Laurence Tartier1, Elena V. Rusyn1, Giuseppe Schettino2, Melvyn Folkard2, Kevin M. Prise2, and Barry D. Michael2 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114; 2Gray Laboratory Cancer Research Trust, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, HA6 2JR, UK Accurate evaluation of the risks associated with exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation (IR) is a major challenge for environmental sciences. Studies on the mechanisms of the actions of low doses of IR are needed to help understand possible risks. IR exerts its effects on cells through production of reactive oxidizing species (ROS) such as ·OH, H2O2 and

84

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: A Variable Energy Soft X-ray  

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Variable Energy Soft X-ray Microprobe to Investigate Mechanisms of the Variable Energy Soft X-ray Microprobe to Investigate Mechanisms of the Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect Melvyn Folkard Gray Cancer Institute Why This Project The aim of this project is to determine the effects of low radiation doses using a machine that makes it possible to radiate one cell at a time. Our soft X-ray microprobe can irradiate individual cells, or locations within cells with defined doses and with sub-micron precision. We can use low doses approaching that of a single electron track, which is of relevance to environmental level exposures. Much of our work is concentrating on irradiating specified individual cells within cell populations to identify "bystander responses" where non-radiated cells respond to signals from nearby radiated cells. Higher energy x-rays are being generated to extend

85

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff - 2003  

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DOE Low Dose Radiation Program Workshop IV DOE Low Dose Radiation Program Workshop IV Abstract Title: TGF-β Protects Human Mammary Epithelial Cells from Radiation-Induced Centrosome Amplification Authors: Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff, Bahram Parvin, Anna C. Erickson and Rishi Gupta Institutions: Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Life Sciences Division, Ernest Orlando Lawrence, Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California In recent studies we have shown that ionizing radiation (IR), a known carcinogen of human and murine mammary gland, compromises human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) polarity and multicellular organization in a manner characteristic of neoplastic progression through a heritable, non-mutational mechanism (1). Thus, when all cells are irradiated with a significant dose (2 Gy), the daughters of irradiated cells lose their

86

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Multi-cellular Crosstalk in Radiation  

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About this Project About this Project Multi-cellular Crosstalk in Radiation Damage Technical Abstracts 2006 Workshop: Low-LET Bystander Effects in Cells In Vitro Are Significantly Less Than Published For High-LET Radiation Blakely, E.A., Thompson, A.C., Chang, P., Schwarz, R.I., Bjornstad, K., Rosen, C., Wisnewski, C., and Mocherla, D. 2005 Workshop: X-ray Microbeam Bystander Studies with Human Mammary Epithelial Cells and Fibroblasts Blakely, E.A., Schwarz, R.I., Thompson, A.C., Bjornstad, K.A., Chang, P.Y., Rosen, C.J., Sudar, D., Romano, R., and Parvin, B. 2003 Workshop: 12.5 keV X-ray Microbeam Bystander Studies with Human Mammary Epithelial Cells and Fibroblasts Blakely, E.A., Schwarz, R.I., Thompson, A.C., Bjornstad, K.A., Chang, P.Y., Rosen, C.J., and Sudar, D. 2001 Workshop:

87

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: The Role of the Number and Spacing of  

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Program Workshop I Program Workshop I November 10-12, 1999, Washington, D.C. The Role of the Number and Spacing of Electron Tracks on the Consequences of Low Dose Irradiation Leslie A. Braby and J. R. Ford Nuclear Engineering, Texas A&M University, 129 Zachry, College Station, Texas. Summary: Biological mechanisms, which may influence the health risks resulting from very low dose radiation exposures, will be investigated using a collimated beam of electrons to simulate the irradiation patterns occurring with low dose exposures. Abstract: Ionizing radiation produces a variety of free radicals and chemical products that react to produce the same types of oxidative damage in a mammalian cell as produced by the normal metabolic activity of the cell. However, the damage produced by radiation is distributed differently

88

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Wide Expression of LLIR and the  

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Wide Expression of LLIR and the Biological Consequences Wide Expression of LLIR and the Biological Consequences David J. Chen Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Why This Project It is known that changes in gene expression alter biological effects. It is necessary to identify the specific genes that demonstrate altered expression after exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation and to determine pathways involved in DNA damage recognition, signaling, and repair that are associated with radiation-induced adaptive and bystander effects. Project Goals Identification of genes whose transcription is regulated in response to low levels of ionizing radiation Identification of the genes and communication pathways that control these responses to low dose radiation Identification of the cellular and molecular targets that influence

89

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Genetic Control of Repair and Adaptive  

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Repair and Adaptive Responses to Low-level DNA Damage Repair and Adaptive Responses to Low-level DNA Damage James E. Haber Brandeis University Why This Project In order to fully understand mechanisms resulting in effects of low dose, whole system rather than cells must be examined. Although not identical to mammalian systems, simple systems usually have many similarities and give direction for further study of more complex systems. We use the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as a model system because it is easy to manipulate and its genome is simple and well characterized. Project Goals Examine mechanisms and effects of low dose radiation response for: Genetic recombination mechanisms that lead to genomic instability Genetic factors that affect individual susceptibility to low-dose radiation The adaptive response

90

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Mechanisms of Tissue Response to Low  

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Tissue Response to Low Dose Radiation Tissue Response to Low Dose Radiation Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Why This Project? In the past, the effects of ionizing radiation on humans has been attributed in great part to its ability to damage DNA, which transmits information from cell to cell, and generation to generation. Damaged DNA can lead to cell death or perpetuate the damage to daughter cells and to future generations. In addition to the information contained with the genome (i.e., DNA sequence), information directing cell behavior and tissue function is also stored outside the DNA. The success in cloning sheep from the DNA contained in the nucleus of an adult cell shows how important signals from the outside are in defining how the genome is expressed. This

91

Low Dose Radiation  

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Ancient Salt Beds Ancient Salt Beds Repository Science Renewable Energy The WIPP Underground may be ideal to study effects of Very Low Dose Rates on Biological Systems Low Background Radiation Experiment We're all bathing in it. It's in the food we eat, the water we drink, the soil we tread and even the air we breathe. It's background radiation, it's everywhere and we can't get away from it. But what would happen if you somehow "pulled the plug" on natural background radiation? Would organisms suffer or thrive if they grew up without their constant exposure to background radiation? That's what a consortium of scientists conducting an experiment at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant aim to find out. Despite being an underground repository for transuranic radioactive waste,

92

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: DNA Damage in Acutely Irradiated F2  

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DNA Damage in Acutely Irradiated F2 Mice with a History of Paternal DNA Damage in Acutely Irradiated F2 Mice with a History of Paternal F0 Germline Irradiation Authors: J.E. Baulch and O.G. Raabe Institutions: Center for Health and the Environment, University of California, Davis, CA. The main goal of this grant is to evaluate heritable, transgenerational effects of low dose, low-linear-energy-transfer (LET) radiation (0.1 Gy attenuated 137Cs gamma rays) on Type B spermatogonia in 129SVE mice; wild-type and heterozygous for Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT). The ATM heterozygotes are carriers for a genetic mutation (AT mutated, ATM) that is thought to predispose both humans and mice to radiation sensitivity. Experiments conducted in our laboratory have demonstrated heritable effects of paternal germline exposure to ionizing radiation in mice using 1.0 Gy of

93

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: A Variable Energy Soft X-ray  

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Variable Energy Soft X-ray Microprobe to Investigate Mechanisms of Variable Energy Soft X-ray Microprobe to Investigate Mechanisms of the Radiation Induced Bystander Effect. Authors: Melvyn Folkard, Borivoj Vojnovic, Giuseppe Schettino, Kevin M Prise and Barry D Michael. Institutions: Gray Cancer Institute. We are currently engaged on two projects in the Low-dose Program: "Low dose studies with focused X-rays in cell and tissue models: mechanisms of bystander and genomic instability responses" (DE-FG07-99ER62877) and "Mechanistic modeling of bystander effects: An integrated theoretical and experimental approach" (DE-FG02-02ER63305). Central to both of these studies is a unique micro irradiation facility that uses ultrasoft X-rays focused to a sub micron beam for individual cell and sub cellular targeting. This facility allows us to selectively irradiate individual

94

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: A Variable-Energy Soft X-Ray  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Variable-Energy Soft X-Ray Microprobe to Investigate Mechanisms of A Variable-Energy Soft X-Ray Microprobe to Investigate Mechanisms of the Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect. Authors: Melvyn Folkard, Borivoj Vojnovic, Giuseppe Schettino, Kirk Atkinson, Kevin M Prise, Barry D Michael Institutions: Gray Cancer Institute, PO BO Box100, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, HA6 2JR, UK The Gray Cancer Institute (GCI) has pioneered the use of X-ray focussing techniques to develop systems for micro-irradiating individual cells and sub-cellular targets. Our prototype X-ray microprobe was developed alongside our existing charged-particle microbeam to address problems specific to low LET radiations, or where very precise targeting accuracy and dose delivery are required. This facility was optimised for focusing 278 eV CK X-rays; however there are a number of reasons for extending the

95

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: A Paracrine Signal Mediates The Cell  

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A Paracrine Signal Mediates The Cell Transformation Response To Low A Paracrine Signal Mediates The Cell Transformation Response To Low Dose Gamma Radiation in JB6 Cells. Authors: Thomas J. Weber,1 Robert W. Siegel,2 Lye M. Markillie,1 William B. Chrisler,1 Xingye C. Lei,3 and Nancy H. Colburn4 Institutions: 1Cell Biology and Biochemistry, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington. 2Protein Function, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington. 3Statistical and Mathematical Sciences, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington. 4Gene Regulation Section, Laboratory of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, Maryland. The carcinogenic response to radiation is complex and may involve adaptive cellular responses as well as a bystander effect mediated by paracrine or

96

Chronic Low Dose Radiation Effects on Radiation Sensitivity  

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Chronic Low Dose Radiation Effects on Radiation Sensitivity Chronic Low Dose Radiation Effects on Radiation Sensitivity and Chromosome Instability Induction in TK6 Cells Schwartz J.L. 1 , Jordan R. 1 , Slovic J. 1 , Moruzzi A. 1 , Kimmel R. 2 , and Liber, H.L. 3 1 University of Washington, Seattle, WA; 2 Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA; 3 Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado There are a number of cell responses that can be detected after low dose radiation exposures including the adaptive response, low dose hypersensitivity, and induced genomic instability. The relationship between these different phenomena is unknown. In this study, we measured adaptive responses, low dose hypersensitivity, and induced genomic instability in a human B-lymphoblastoid cell model, TK6, where we could genetically modify radiation responses by either over-expression of BCL-2 or deletion of TP53. TK6

97

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: A Variable-Energy Soft X-Ray  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Variable-Energy Soft X-Ray Microprobe to Investigate Mechanisms of A Variable-Energy Soft X-Ray Microprobe to Investigate Mechanisms of the Radiation -Induced Bystander Effect. Authors: Melvyn Folkard, Borivoj Vojnovic, Giuseppe Schettino, Kirk Atkinson, Kevin M Prise, Barry D Michael Institutes: Gray Cancer Institute, PO Box 100, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, HA6 2JR, UK For over a decade, the Gray Cancer Institute (GCI) has been actively engaged in the development and use of micro-irradiation techniques applied to radiobiological research. Our initial investigations made use of a charged-particle microbeam capable of irradiating individual cells with collimated energetic protons or 3He ions. By the end of the 1990's, a second facility had been constructed, which uses diffractive X-ray optics to focus ultrasoft X-rays to a sub-micron spot. The X-ray microprobe was

98

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Regulation of NF-kB and MnSOD in Low  

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NF-kB and MnSOD in Low Dose Radiation-Induced Adaptive NF-kB and MnSOD in Low Dose Radiation-Induced Adaptive Responses in Mouse and Human Skin Cells Jian Jian Li School of Health Sciences, Purdue University West Lafayette, Indiana Why this Project? To determine if low dose ionizing radiation-induced adaptive responses in skin cells are mediated by activation of signaling networks. Project Goals To evaluate the signaling networks involving transcription factor NF-kB and the mitochondrial antioxidant protein MnSOD. To determine if NF-kB is activated by low dose radiation in vivo. To determine if NF-kB activation is critical in the pathways that produce adaptive responses. Experimental Approach Cells transfected with NF-kB luciferase responder genes will be used to define a dose-response relationship for activation of the NF-kB gene. NF-kB

99

Dose reconstruction for the Urals population. Joint Coordinating Committee on Radiation Effects Research, Project 1.1 -- Final report  

SciTech Connect

This work is being carried out as a feasibility study to determine if a long-term course of work can be implemented to assess the long-term risks of radiation exposure delivered at low to moderate dose rates to the populations living in the vicinity of the Mayak Industrial Association (MIA). This work was authorized and conducted under the auspices of the US-Russian Joint Coordinating Committee on Radiation Effects Research (JCCRER) and its Executive Committee (EC). The MIA was the first Russian site for the production and separation of plutonium. This plant began operation in 1948, and during its early days there were technological failures that resulted in the release of large amounts of waste into the rather small Techa River. There were also gaseous releases of radioiodines and other radionuclides during the early days of operation. In addition, there was an accidental explosion in a waste storage tank in 1957 that resulted in a significant release. The Techa River Cohort has been studied for several years by scientists from the Urals Research Centre for Radiation Medicine and an increase in both leukemia and solid tumors has been noted.

Degteva, M.O. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation)] [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Drozhko, E. [Branch 1 of Moscow Biophysics Inst., Ozersk (Russian Federation)] [Branch 1 of Moscow Biophysics Inst., Ozersk (Russian Federation); Anspaugh, L.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Napier, B.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bouville, A.C. [National Cancer Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States)] [National Cancer Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States); Miller, C.W. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States)] [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - Online Literature  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Online Literature Online Literature Journals, Books and other Publications Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute Chornobyl Center for Nuclear Safety Radioactive Waste and Radioecology "Insight" Magazine Central Research Institute of the Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) News: Aiming at an information center on low dose radiation research Health Physics International Journal of Radiation Biology Iranian Journal of Radiation Research Journal of Radiological Protection National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Radiation Research U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Information Bridge Reports Animal Cancer Tests and Human Cancer Risk Assessment: A Broad Perspective Effects of Ionizing Radiation: Atomic Bomb Survivors and Their Children (1945-1995) Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR

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While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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101

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Kanokporn Noy Rithidech, Ph.D.  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Kanokporn Noy Rithidech, Ph.D. Kanokporn Noy Rithidech, Ph.D. University of New York at Stony Brook Currently Funded Projects Induction of Genomic Instability In vivo by Low Doses of 137Cs Gamma Rays Technical Abstracts 2006 Workshop: No Evidence for In Vivo Induction of Genomic Instability in Bone Marrow Cells Collected from Mice Exposed to Low-Dose 137CS γ Rays Rithidech, K.N., Loetchutinat, C., Honikel, L., and Whorton, E.B. 2005 Workshop: Induction of Genomic Instability in Vivo by Low Doses of 137Cs γ rays. Rithidech, K.N., Leotchutinat, C., Honikel, L., Simon, S.R. and Whorton, E.B. 2003 Workshop: Induction of Genomic Instability in vivo by Low Doses of 137Cs y rays Rithidech. K., Whorton, E.B., Tungjai, M., Ar-Bab, E., Simon, S.R. Tawde, M. and Anderson, C.W. 2002 Workshop: Induction of Genomic Instability In vivo by Low Doses of 137Cs gamma rays.

102

7 - Estimation of Radiation Doses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Radiation doses to the Japanese population from inhalation of contaminated air, external irradiation, terrestrial and marine food contamination are estimated and compared with other sources of anthropogenic (global fallout, Chernobyl accident), natural (radionuclides in food, cosmic radiation) and medical applications (X-ray tests, CT-tests, etc.) of ionizing radiation. The estimated doses from inhalation, ingestion of terrestrial and marine food, and radiation exposure from radioactive clouds and deposited radionuclides were generally below the levels which could cause health damage of the Japanese population, as well as of the world population. The estimated total radiation doses to fish and shellfish in coastal waters during the largest radionuclide releases were by a factor of 10 lower than the baseline safe level postulated for the marine organisms, therefore no harmful effects are expected for the marine ecosystem as well.

Pavel P. Povinec; Katsumi Hirose; Michio Aoyama

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

RADIATION EXPOSURE DURING PAEDIATRIC CT IN SUDAN: CT DOSE, ORGAN AND EFFECTIVE DOSES  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......research-article Paper RADIATION EXPOSURE DURING PAEDIATRIC...Energy Commission, Radiation Safety Institute, PO Box 3001...assess the magnitude of radiation exposure during paediatric...CT-Expo 2.1 dosimetry software. Doses were evaluated......

I. I. Suliman; H. M. Khamis; T. H. Ombada; K. Alzimami; M. Alkhorayef; A. Sulieman

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Modeling the Physics of Damage Cluster  

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Modeling the Physics of Damage Cluster Formation in a Cellular Environment Modeling the Physics of Damage Cluster Formation in a Cellular Environment Larry Toburen East Carolina University Why This Project Modern tools of radiobiology are leading to many new discoveries regarding how cells and tissues respond to radiation exposure. We can now irradiate single cells and observe responses in adjacent cells. We can also measure clusters of radiation damage produced in DNA. The primary tools available to describe the initial spatial pattern of damage formed by the absorption of ionizing radiation are based on (MC) Monte Carlo simulations of the structure of charged particle tracks. Although many MC codes exist and considerable progress is being made in the incorporation of detailed macromolecular target structures into these codes, much of the interaction

105

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: 12.5 keV Xray Microbeam Bystander  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

12.5 keV Xray Microbeam Bystander Studies With Human Mammary 12.5 keV Xray Microbeam Bystander Studies With Human Mammary Epithelial Cells and Fibroblasts Authors: E. A. Blakely1, R. I. Schwarz1, A. C. Thompson2, K. A. Bjornstad1, P. Y. Chang1,3 C.J. Rosen1, and D. Sudar1 Institutions: Divisions of 1Life Sciences and 2Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA. and 3SRI International, Menlo Park, CA. We are using a novel x-ray Microprobe Beamline at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) at LBNL to investigate bystander effects of low doses in well characterized human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) and human skin fibroblasts (HSF). The ALS facility is capable of producing a beam of 12.5 keV x-rays with a focussed spot size of __m_ and a wide range of doses and dose-rates. Unlike normal x-ray sources, this beam has a very small background of either low-

106

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: U.S. Department of Energy -  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Search Publications Search Publications Year of Publication: Any 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 1987 1986 1985 1984 1983 1981 1980 1979 1978 1973 1970 1968 1956 Source: Select a Source... Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia 27th Annual CNS Conference and 30th CNS/CAN Student Conference, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Accounts of Chemical Research Acta Histochemica Acta Med. Nagasaki Advances in Medical Physics 2006 Advances in Space Research AJR, American J. of Roentgenology American Assoc. for Cancer Research American J. of Clinical Nutrition American J. of Epidemiology American J. of Human Genetics American J. of Pathology American Journal of Industrial Medicine American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology American Scientist

107

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Real-time Study of Signal Transduction  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Real-time Study of Signal Transduction Pathways Involving in Real-time Study of Signal Transduction Pathways Involving in Bystander Effects Using Single Nanoparticle Optics and Single Living Cell Imaging Authors: Prakash D. Nallathamby, X. Nancy Xu, Mohan Natarajan Institutions: Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia and Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas The mechanisms of bystander effects remain largely unknown. Bystander responses are thought to depend on activation of cellular communication processes. Recent studies have speculated that several crucial signal transduction pathways could play a major role in bystander effects. These crucial signal transduction pathways are controlled by a coordinated

108

Radiation Leukaemongenesis at Low Doses  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Leukaemongenesis at Low Doses Leukaemongenesis at Low Doses Simon Bouffler Health Protection Agency Abstract Myeloid leukaemias feature prominently among the cancers associated with human exposures to ionising radiation. The CBA mouse model of radiation-induced acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) has been used extensively for both quantitative and mechanistic studies. Loss of genetic material from chromosome 2 (chr2) is known to be associated with most radiation-induced AMLs. AML develops in CBA mice exposed to X- or γ-radiation, after a mean latency period of 18 months, with a maximal incidence of approximately 25% at 3Gy. A strong candidate AML-suppressor gene located within the commonly deleted region of chr2 has been identified, Sƒpil/PU.1. This gene suffers hemizygous loss and specific

109

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: The Risk of Cancer Induction Due to  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

November 10-12, 1999, Washington, D.C. November 10-12, 1999, Washington, D.C. The Risk of Cancer Induction Due to Routine Mammographic Screening Featured Project Description David J. Brenner, Steve Marino, and Charles Geard, Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University, 630 West 168th Street, New York Summary: To obtain realistic and credible risk estimates for breast-cancer mortality due to clinical mammographic imaging examinations. Abstract: The aim of this work is to obtain realistic and credible risk estimates for breast-cancer mortality due to clinical mammographic imaging examinations. Given the increasing emphasis on clinical mammographic screening for breast cancer, it is of societal importance to provide realistic risk estimates with realistic confidence bounds for breast cancer

110

Oxidative Stress and Skeletal Health with Low Dose, Ionizing Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxidative Stress and Skeletal Health with Low Dose, Ionizing Radiation Oxidative Stress and Skeletal Health with Low Dose, Ionizing Radiation Globus Ruth NASA Ames Research Center Abstract Osteoporosis profoundly affects the aging U.S. population and exposure to high doses of radiation causes bone loss similar to age-related osteoporosis, although the influence of low dose radiation exposures is not known. The central hypothesis of our DOE project (NASA supplement) is that low doses of radiation modulate subsequent skeletal degeneration via oxidative pathways. Our working hypothesis is that a prior exposure to low dose radiation regulates oxidative metabolism within bone and contributes to bone loss caused either by subsequent high, challenge doses of radiation or by aging. HZE source: Because astronauts are exposed to radiation from GCR and solar

111

Low-Dose/Dose-Rate Low-LET Radiation Protects Us from Cancer  

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Dose/Dose-Rate Low-LET Radiation Protects Us from Cancer Dose/Dose-Rate Low-LET Radiation Protects Us from Cancer Bobby R. Scott, Ph.D. and Jennifer D. Di Palma Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, 2425 Ridgecrest Drive SE Albuquerque, NM 87108 USA Life on earth evolved in a low-level ionizing radiation environment comprised of terrestrial radiation and cosmic rays. Today we all reside in an ionizing radiation environment comprised of both natural background radiation and radiation from human activities (e.g., Chernobyl accident). An evolutionary benefit of the interaction of low-level, low linear-energy-transfer (LET) ionizing radiation with mammalian life forms on earth is adapted protection. Adapted protection involves low-dose/dose-rate, low-LET radiation induced high-fidelity DNA repair in cooperation with normal apoptosis (presumed p53

112

Estimated Ultraviolet Radiation Doses in Wetlands in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Estimated Ultraviolet Radiation Doses in Wetlands in Six National Parks Stephen A. Diamond,1 ABSTRACT Ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280­320-nm wave- lengths) doses were estimated for 1024 wetlands of vegetative features, and quantification of DOC concentration and spectral absorbance. UV-B dose estimates

Knapp, Roland

113

Molecular Mechanism Underlying Cellular Adaptive Response to Low Dose Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mechanism Underlying Cellular Adaptive Response to Low Dose Radiation Mechanism Underlying Cellular Adaptive Response to Low Dose Radiation Colette A. Sacksteder § , DJ Black ‡ , Heather Smallwood § , David G. Camp II † , and Thomas C. Squier § § Cell Biology and Biochemistry; † Biological Sciences Division Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 ‡ School of Biological Sciences, University of Missouri, Kansas City MO 64110 The goal of this research is to identify the molecular mechanisms by which cells adapt to low dose radiation exposure. Previously we have shown a radiation dependent increase of Calmodulin (CaM) in RAW 264.7 macrophages (RAW). Therefore we hypothesize that CaM and associated signaling complexes are sensors of low-dose radiation, resulting in alterations in energy metabolism and gene expression. The ultimate experimental goal

114

Low Dose Radiation Program: Workshop VI Abstracts  

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Workshop VI Principal Investigator and Abstracts Workshop VI Principal Investigator and Abstracts Anderson, Carl Whole Genome Analysis of Functional Protein Binding Sites and DNA Methylation: Application to p53 and Low Dose Ionizing Radiation. Averbeck, Dietrich Cellular Responses at Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation. Azzam, Edouard Adaptive Responses to Low Dose/Low Dose-Rate ?-Rays in Normal Human Fibroblasts: The Role of Oxidative Metabolism. Bailey, Susan The Role of Telomere Dysfunction in Driving Genomic Instability. Balajee, Adayabalam Low Dose Radiation Induced DNA Damage Signaling and Repair Responses in Human 3-Dimensional Skin Model System. Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen Imaging Bioinformatics for Mapping Multidimensional Responses. Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen Biological Response to Radiation Mediated through the Microenvironment and

115

Low Dose Radiation Program: Workshops, Proceedings, Abstracts and Programs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Workshops, Proceedings, Abstracts and Programs Workshops, Proceedings, Abstracts and Programs UPDATE: Investigators' Workshop Postponed The annual Low Dose Radiation Research Program Investigators' Workshop typically held in April or May has been postponed until next year. Please keep checking the website for updates. 2010 The 2010 DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Investigators' Workshop was held April 12-14, 2010, at the Renaissance M Street Hotel in Washington, D.C. In addition to 34 plenary talks and more than 70 poster presentations made by the program investigators, participants heard guest speakers from the National Cancer Institute and from sister low-dose programs in Europe and Japan. See link for investigators' abstracts. 2009 The DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Investigators' Workshop VIII was held

116

Molecular mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis and the linear, non-threshold dose response model of radiation risk estimation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recent research in molecular radiation carcinogenesis is reviewed with the specific aim of exploring the implications this research may have on the dose response relationship of radiation-induced cancer at low...

K. R. Trott; M. Rosemann

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Review and evaluation of updated research on the health effects associated with low-dose ionising radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......studies of radiation workers, such as the Rocketdyne(149), Mayak(150, 151) and National...occupational studies is not known. Rocketdyne study-other studies of radiation workers...in the 15-country study include the Rocketdyne study(149). By itself, this study......

Lawrence T. Dauer; Antone L. Brooks; David G. Hoel; William F. Morgan; Daniel Stram; Phung Tran

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Review and evaluation of updated research on the health effects associated with low-dose ionising radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......reaction exon analyses of HPRT-mutations induced by radon and radon progeny. Radiat. Res. (1994) 137:371-379...from Soviet atmospheric nuclear weapons testing in Kazakhstan: solid cancer mortality in the Semipalatinsk historical......

Lawrence T. Dauer; Antone L. Brooks; David G. Hoel; William F. Morgan; Daniel Stram; Phung Tran

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Estimating Radiation Risk from Total Effective Dose Equivalent...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

and UNSCEAR 1988 in Radiation Risk Assessment - Lifetime Total Cancer Mortality Risk Estimates at Low Doses and Low Dose Rates for Low-LET Radiation, Committee on Interagency...

120

Radiation dose in dental radiology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...The aim of this study was to compare radiation exposure in panoramic radiography (PR), dental CT, and digital volume tomography (DVT) ... at appropriate locations were exposed as in a dental examination. In PR...

M. Cohnen; J. Kemper; O. Mbes; J. Pawelzik; U. Mdder

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose radiation research" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

RADIATION DOSE FROM CIGARETTE TOBACCO  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The radioactivity in tobacco leaves collected from 15 different regions of Greece before cigarette production was studied in order to estimate the effective dose from cigarette tobacco due to the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides such as 226 Ra and 210 Pb of the uranium series and 228 Ra of the thorium series and/or man?made produced radionuclides such as 137 Cs of Chernobyl origin. Gamma?ray spectrometry was applied using Ge planar and coaxial type detectors of high resolution and high efficiency. It was concluded that the annual effective dose due to inhalation for adults (smokers) for 226 Ra varied from 42.5 to 178.6?? Sv ? y ?1 (average 79.7?? Sv ? y ?1 ) while for 228 Ra from 19.3 to 116.0?? Sv ? y ?1 (average 67.1?? Sv ? y ?1 ) and for 210 Pb from 47.0 to 134.9?? Sv ? y ?1 (average 104.7?? Sv ? y ?1 ) that is the same order of magnitude for each radionuclide. The sum of the effective dose of the three natural radionuclides varied from 151.9 to 401.3?? Sv ? y ?1 (average 251.5?? Sv ? y ?1 ). The annual effective dose from 137 Cs of Chernobyl origin was three orders of magnitude lower as it varied from 70.4 to 410.4? nSv ? y ?1 (average 199.3? nSv ? y ?1 ).

C. Papastefanou

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Radiation dose from cigarette tobacco  

SciTech Connect

The radioactivity in tobacco leaves collected from 15 different regions of Greece before cigarette production was studied in order to estimate the effective dose from cigarette tobacco due to the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides, such as {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb of the uranium series and {sup 228}Ra of the thorium series and/or man-made produced radionuclides, such as {sup 137}Cs of Chernobyl origin. Gamma-ray spectrometry was applied using Ge planar and coaxial type detectors of high resolution and high efficiency. It was concluded that the annual effective dose due to inhalation for adults (smokers) for {sup 226}Ra varied from 42.5 to 178.6 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} (average 79.7 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}), while for {sup 228}Ra from 19.3 to 116.0 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} (average 67.1 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}) and for {sup 210}Pb from 47.0 to 134.9 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} (average 104.7 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}), that is the same order of magnitude for each radionuclide. The sum of the effective dose of the three natural radionuclides varied from 151.9 to 401.3 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} (average 251.5 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}). The annual effective dose from {sup 137}Cs of Chernobyl origin was three orders of magnitude lower as it varied from 70.4 to 410.4 nSv y{sup -1} (average 199.3 nSv y{sup -1})

Papastefanou, C. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Atomic and Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece)

2008-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

123

Functional proteomic pattern identification under low dose ionizing radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Objective: High dose radiation has been well known for increasing the risk of carcinogenesis. However, the understanding of biological effects of low dose radiation is limited. Low dose radiation is reported to affect several signaling pathways including ... Keywords: Feature selection, Jumping emerging identification, Low dose radiation, Proteomic signaling patterns

Young Bun Kim; Chin-Rang Yang; Jean Gao

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

EXTRAPOLATING RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER RISKS FROM LOW DOSES TO VERY LOW DOSES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Brenner* Abstract--There is strong evidence that ionizing radiation increases cancer risks at high doses. There exists a range of high radiation doses which demonstra- bly increase cancer risks, and a lower dose rangePaper EXTRAPOLATING RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER RISKS FROM LOW DOSES TO VERY LOW DOSES David J

Brenner, David Jonathan

125

Low Dose Radiation | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Radiobiology: Low Dose Radiation Radiobiology: Low Dose Radiation Research Biological and Environmental Research (BER) BER Home About Research Research Abstracts Searchable Archive of BER Highlights External link Biological Systems Science Division (BSSD) Genomic Science DOE Bioenergy Research Centers Radiochemistry & Imaging Instrumentation Radiobiology: Low Dose Radiation Research DOE Human Subjects Protection Program Structural Biology DOE Joint Genome Institute Climate and Environmental Sciences Division (CESD) Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BER Funding Opportunities Biological & Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC) News & Resources Contact Information Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-23/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3251 F: (301)

126

76Radiation Dose and Dose Rate Radiation is measured in two  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Seiverts per year. Hasty reports about the devastating Japan 2011 nuclear power plant radiation leakages have by Concorde, what are the total radiation doses for a passenger in each case? Problem 3 - The Japan 2011 earthquake damaged several nuclear reactors, causing radiation leakage across northern Japan. On March 22

127

The Effects of High Dose Rates of Ionizing Radiations on Solutions of Iron and Cerium Salts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article The Effects of High Dose Rates of Ionizing Radiations on Solutions of Iron and Cerium...of 1.3 duration and over a range of dose rates from 0.5 to 20 000 rads/pulse. Radiation yields at constant dose rate...

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Persistent DNA damage foci, cellular senescence and low dose radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Persistent DNA damage foci, cellular senescence and low dose radiation Persistent DNA damage foci, cellular senescence and low dose radiation Denise Munoz 1 , Albert Davalos 1 , Francis Rodier 1 , Misako Kawahara 1 , Judith Campisi 1,2 and Steven Yannone 1,3 1 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Mailstop 84-171, Berkeley CA 94720; 2 Buck Institute for Age Research, 8001 Redwood Boulevard, Novato CA 94945; 3 Corresponding author Ionizing radiation (IR) induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are cytologically detectable as large nuclear foci that contain phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX), the adaptor protein 53BP1, and several other proteins that participate in the sensing and processing of DNA damage (DNA damage foci). In normal human cells, moderately high IR (0.5-1 Gy) doses cause the rapid appearance of these foci (acute DNA damage foci), which gradually disappear

129

Biological equivalent dose studies for dose escalation in the stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy clinical trials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility ESRF . To estimate the possible risks, the doses receivedBiological equivalent dose studies for dose escalation in the stereotactic synchrotron radiation technique a radiation dose enhancement specific to the tumor is obtained. The tumor is loaded with a high

Boyer, Edmond

130

Extended range radiation dose-rate monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An extended range dose-rate monitor is provided which utilizes the pulse pileup phenomenon that occurs in conventional counting systems to alter the dynamic response of the system to extend the dose-rate counting range. The current pulses from a solid-state detector generated by radiation events are amplified and shaped prior to applying the pulses to the input of a comparator. The comparator generates one logic pulse for each input pulse which exceeds the comparator reference threshold. These pulses are integrated and applied to a meter calibrated to indicate the measured dose-rate in response to the integrator output. A portion of the output signal from the integrator is fed back to vary the comparator reference threshold in proportion to the output count rate to extend the sensitive dynamic detection range by delaying the asymptotic approach of the integrator output toward full scale as measured by the meter.

Valentine, Kenneth H. (Knoxville, TN)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Oligonucleotide microarray analysis of low-dose ionizing radiation exposure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...health risk due to low-dose ionizing radiation is still debated. Functional...pathways that are induced by ionizing irradiation (IR...transcriptionally regulated by low-dose IR in occupationally...and showed different ranges of accumulated doses...

Paola Silingardi; Elena Morandi; Cinzia Severini; Daniele Quercioli; Monica Vaccari; Wolfango Horn; Maria Concetta Nucci; Vittorio Lodi; Francesco Violante; Sandro Grilli; and Annmaria Colacci

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Cell cycle responses to low-dose ionizing radiation.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...47, 2006] 5178 Low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity...radiosensitivity of cells to doses of ionizing radiation less than 0.5 Gy...connection between low-dose HRS survival, Ataxia...the low dose radiation range (0-1 Gy). MR4 cells...

Sarah A. Krueger; George D. Wilson; Michael C. Joiner; and Brian Marples

2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

133

Extremely Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Up-regulates CXC Chemokines in Normal Human Fibroblasts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Research Center for Radiation Safety, National...263-8555 Chiba, Japan. Phone: 81-43-206-3159...doses of ionizing radiation (5). A recent...study showed that Japan has the worlds highest...Research Center for Radiation Safety, National...Inage, Chiba, Japan. fujimora@nirs...

Akira Fujimori; Ryuichi Okayasu; Hiroshi Ishihara; Satoshi Yoshida; Kiyomi Eguchi-Kasai; Kumie Nojima; Satoru Ebisawa; and Sentaro Takahashi

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

134

Reduction of radiation dose to radiosensitive organs and its tradeoff with image quality in Computed Tomography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Trimester Fetal Radiation Dose Estimation in 16-MDCT Withoutsimulations for radiation dose estimations discussed in thisspecific radiation dose and cancer risk estimation in CT:

Zhang, Di

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

We can do better than effective dose for estimating or comparing low-dose radiation risks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We can do better than effective dose for estimating or comparing low-dose radiation risks D of exposure to different radiation fields. More commonly these days, it is used to estimate or compare radi. Keywords: Low dose risk estimation; Effective dose; Flawed definition; Effective risk 1. INTRODUCTION

Brenner, David Jonathan

136

Molecular signatures of low dose radiation exposure in human subjects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Molecular signatures of low dose radiation exposure in human subjects...Volume 46, 2005] 3096 Low dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) in the 1-10 cGy range has largely unknown biological...the effect and risk at low dose by extrapolation from measured...

Zelanna Goldberg; Chad W. Schwietert; Maggie Isbell; Joerg Lehmann; Robin Stern; Christine Hartmann Siantar; and David M. Rocke

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

RADIATION RESEARCH 155, 397401 (2001) 0033-7587/01 $5.00  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for risk estimation for low-dose radiation. 2001 by Radiation Research Society INTRODUCTION It has been to low doses of particles, biological effects occur in a larger proportion of cells than are estimated397 RADIATION RESEARCH 155, 397­401 (2001) 0033-7587/01 $5.00 2001 by Radiation Research Society

138

Global methylation responses to low dose radiation exposure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

methylation responses to low dose radiation exposure methylation responses to low dose radiation exposure Pamela J Sykes, Michelle R Newman, Benjamin J Blyth and Rebecca J Ormsby Haematology and Genetic Pathology, Flinders University and Medical Centre, Flinders Centre for Cancer Prevention and Control, Bedford Park, Adelaide, South Australia 5042 Australia. (pam.sykes@flinders.edu.au). Our goal is to study the mechanisms involved in biological responses to low doses of radiation in vivo in the dose range that is relevant to population and occupational exposures. At high radiation doses, DNA double-strand breaks are considered the critical lesion underlying the initiation of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. However, at the very low radiation doses relevant for the general public, the induction of DNA double-strand breaks

139

Low-Dose Radiation Cataract and Genetic Determinants of Radiosensitivity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cataract and Genetic Determinants of Radiosensitivity Cataract and Genetic Determinants of Radiosensitivity Kleiman, N.J. 1 , Smilenov, L.B. 2 , Brenner, D.J. 2 and Hall, E.J. 2 1 Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health & 2 The Center for Radiological Research, College of Physicians & Surgeons, Columbia University, New York 10032 The lens of the eye is one of the most radiosensitive tissues in the body. Ocular ionizing radiation exposure results in characteristic, dose related, progressive lens changes leading to cataract formation. While initial, early stages of such opacification may not cause visual disability, the severity of such changes progressively increases with dose until vision is impaired and cataract extraction surgery may be required. The

140

RADIATION RESEARCH 162, 257263 (2004) 0033-7587/04 $15.00  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and could possibly be used as a biodosimeter to estimate both the dose and type of radiation exposure. The existence of a stable biomarker in the genome that is dose-dependent and radiation quality-specific would257 RADIATION RESEARCH 162, 257­263 (2004) 0033-7587/04 $15.00 2004 by Radiation Research Society

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose radiation research" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Radiation dose rates from UF{sub 6} cylinders  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the results of many studies, both theoretical and experimental, which have been carried out by Urenco over the last 15 years into radiation dose rates from uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) cylinders. The contents of the cylinder, its history, and the geometry all affect the radiation dose rate. These factors are all examined in detail. Actual and predicted dose rates are compared with levels permitted by IAEA transport regulations.

Friend, P.J. [Urenco, Capenhurst (United Kingdom)

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

142

The Concentration Of Tritium In Urine And Internal Radiation Dose Estimation Of PTNBR Radiation Workers  

SciTech Connect

The operation of Triga 2000 reactor in Nuclear Technology Center for Materials and Radiometry (PTNBR BATAN) normally produce tritium radionuclide which is the activation product of deuterium atom in reactor primary cooling water. According to previous monitoring, tritium was detected with the concentration of 8.236{+-}0.677 kBq/L and 1.704{+-}0.046 Bq/L in the primary cooling water and in reactor hall air, respectively. The tritium in reactor hall air chronically can be inhaled by the workers. In this research, tritium content in radiation workers' urine was determined to estimate the internal radiation doses received by the workers. About 50-100 mL of urine samples were collected from 48 PTNBR workers that is classified as 24 radiation workers and 24 administration staffs as a control. Urine samples of 25 mL were then prepared by active charcoal and KMnO{sub 4} addition and followed with complete distillation. The 2 mL of distillate was added with 13 mL scintillator, shaked vigorously and remained in cool and dark condition for about 24 hours. The tritium in the samples was then measured using liquid scintillation counter (LSC) for 1 hour. From the measurement results it was obtained that the tritium concentration in the urine of radiation workers were in the range of not detected and 5.191 Bq/mL, whereas in the administration staffs the concentration were between not detected and 4.607 Bq/mL. Internally radiation doses were calculated using the tritium concentration data, and it was found the averages about 0.602 {mu}Sv/year and 0.532 {mu}Sv/year for radiation workers and administration staffs, respectively. The doses received by the workers were lower than that of the permissible doses from tritium, i.e. 40 {mu}Sv/year.

Tjahaja, Poppy Intan; Sukmabuana, Putu; Aisyah, Neneng Nur [PTNBR BATAN, Jl. Tamansari no. 71, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

143

The effect of different adaptation strengths on image quality and radiation dose using Siemens Care Dose 4D  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......undertaking strategies for CT radiation dose optimisation...supported by the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSI P 1579...4D new technique for radiation dose reduction. SOMATOM...Application Guide. Software Version syngo CT 2005A......

Marcus Sderberg; Mikael Gunnarsson

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

NREL: Solar Radiation Research - Facilities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Facilities Facilities Photo of two researchers standing on a platform near a solar tracker at the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory. The Solar Radiation Research Laboratory gathers solar radiation and meteorological data on South Table Mountain. NREL's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) has been collecting continuous measurements of basic solar radiation components since 1981. Since then, it has expanded its expertise to include integrated metrology, optics, electronics, and data acquisition capabilities. In addition, the SRRL provides facilities for outdoor performance testing of new research instrumentation and energy conversion devices such as photovoltaic modules. The SRRL is located on NREL's South Table Mountain site in Golden, Colorado, where it has excellent solar access because of its unrestricted

145

74Exploring Nuclear Decay and Radiation Dose The devastating earthquake  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

74Exploring Nuclear Decay and Radiation Dose The devastating earthquake that struck northern Japan vent radioactive gas and dust clouds into the environment. Although the initial radiation levels were extremely high, the natural decay of the radioactive compounds will cause the radiation levels at any given

146

NREL: Solar Radiation Research - Solar Radiation Research Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solar Radiation Research Laboratory Photographs Solar Radiation Research Laboratory Photographs The Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) houses more than 70 instruments to analyze and record solar radiation and surface meteorology data. Learn more about this equipment by exploring the photographs below. Click on a thumbnail to view the full image. Photo of researcher working on an instrument platform in front of the SRRL building. The SRRL is located on South Table Mountain in Golden, Colorado, at 39.74° N, 105.18° W, and 1,829 m AMSL. Photo of four researchers working on equipment atop the SRRL instrument deck. The SRRL's instrument deck is 96 ft long and 16 feet wide. Photo of two pyrheliometers mounted to an automatic sun-tracking base. These two SRRL pyrheliometers are mounted to automatically track the sun

147

E-Print Network 3.0 - assessing radiation dose Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of radiation; radiation measurement; and dose information. ATOMS... Assessments, DOETIC-11026. RADIATION Radiation, or radiant energy, is energy in the form of waves... )...

148

Research priorities for occupational radiation protection  

SciTech Connect

The Subpanel on Occupational Radiation Protection Research concludes that the most urgently needed research is that leading to the resolution of the potential effects of low-level ionizing radiation. This is the primary driving force in setting appropriate radiation protection standards and in directing the emphasis of radiation protection efforts. Much has already been done in collecting data that represents a compendium of knowledge that should be fully reviewed and understood. It is imperative that health physics researchers more effectively use that data and apply the findings to enhance understanding of the potential health effects of low-level ionizing radiation and improve the risk estimates upon which current occupational radiation protection procedures and requirements depend. Research must be focused to best serve needs in the immediate years ahead. Only then will we get the most out of what is accomplished. Beyond the above fundamental need, a number of applied research areas also have been identified as national priority issues. If effective governmental focus is achieved on several of the most important national priority issues, important occupational radiation protection research will be enhanced, more effectively coordinated, and more quickly applied to the work environment. Response in the near term will be enhanced and costs will be reduced by: developing microprocessor-aided {open_quotes}smart{close_quotes} instruments to simplify the use and processing of radiation data; developing more sensitive, energy-independent, and tissue-equivalent dosimeters to more accurately quantify personnel dose; and developing an improved risk assessment technology base. This can lead to savings of millions of dollars in current efforts needed to ensure personnel safety and to meet new, more stringent occupational guidelines.

Not Available

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

ORISE: Radiation Dose Estimates and Other Compendia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

downloaded free from the Adobe website. Early Internal and External Dose Magnitude Estimation (PDF) This article addresses methods that can be used to rapidly estimate internal...

150

Sandia National Laboratories: Research: Research Foundations: Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation Effects and High Energy Density Science Radiation Effects and High Energy Density Science Rings of Saturn, Sandia's workhorse pulsed-power machine. The Radiation Effects and High Energy Density Science Research Foundation seeks to advance science and engineering in the areas of radiation effects sciences, high energy density science, and pulsed-power science and technology to address critical national security issues. Why our work matters We address several issues key to nuclear security and maintaining a safe, secure, and effective nuclear stockpile. For example, radiation effects science ensures that engineered systems are able to operate as intended in the radiation environments they encounter. In addition, high energy density science validates models that are used to certify the performance of the

151

Measurement of radiation dose in dental radiology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......product to effective dose and energy imparted to the patient. Phys...C. A. and Persliden, J. Energy imparted to the patient in diagnostic...factors for determining the energy imparted from measurements of...dental radiology. | Patient dose audit is an important tool for quality......

Ebba Helmrot; Gudrun Alm Carlsson

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Annual report shows potential INL radiation doses well below...  

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Annual report shows potential INL radiation doses well below safe regulatory limits July 21, 2010 Media contact: Tim Jackson (208) 526-8484 Idaho Falls, ID The U.S. Department...

153

Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - Agencies with Radiation Regulatory  

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Agencies with Radiation Regulatory Concerns and Involvement Agencies with Radiation Regulatory Concerns and Involvement Biological Effects of Low Level Exposures (BELLE) Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission Center for Risk Excellence Health Protection Agency The Health Risks of Extraterrestrial Environments International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, Inc. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) NASA Space Radiation Program National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) NASA OBRR Task Book Publication National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) National Toxicology Program (NTP) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

154

Radiation dose modeling using IGRIP and Deneb/ERGO  

SciTech Connect

The Radiological Environment Modeling System (REMS) quantifies dose to humans in radiation environments using the IGRIP (Interactive Graphical Robot Instruction Program) and Deneb/ERGO (Ergonomics) simulation software products. These commercially available products are augmented with custom C code to provide the radiation exposure information to and collect the radiation dose information from the workcell simulations. The emphasis of this paper is on the IGRIP and Deneb/ERGO parts of REMS, since that represents the extension to existing capabilities developed by the authors. Through the use of any radiation transport code or measured data, a radiation exposure input database may be formulated. User-specified IGRIP simulations utilize these database files to compute and accumulate dose to human devices (Deneb`s ERGO human) during simulated operations around radiation sources. Timing, distances, shielding, and human activity may be modeled accurately in the simulations. The accumulated dose is recorded in output files, and the user is able to process and view this output. REMS was developed because the proposed reduction in the yearly radiation exposure limit will preclude or require changes in many of the manual operations currently being utilized in the Weapons Complex. This is particularly relevant in the area of dismantlement activities at the Pantex Plant in Amarillo, TX. Therefore, a capability was needed to be able to quantify the dose associated with certain manual processes so that the benefits of automation could be identified and understood.

Vickers, D.S.; Davis, K.R.; Breazeal, N.L.; Watson, R.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ford, M.S. [Battelle Pantex, Amarillo, TX (United States). Dept. of Radiation Safety

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

155

Radiation Dose-Volume Effects in the Heart  

SciTech Connect

The literature is reviewed to identify the main clinical and dose-volume predictors for acute and late radiation-induced heart disease. A clear quantitative dose and/or volume dependence for most cardiac toxicity has not yet been shown, primarily because of the scarcity of the data. Several clinical factors, such as age, comorbidities and doxorubicin use, appear to increase the risk of injury. The existing dose-volume data is presented, as well as suggestions for future investigations to better define radiation-induced cardiac injury.

Gagliardi, Giovanna, E-mail: giovanna.gagliardi@karolinska.s [Department of Medical Physics, Karolinska University Hospital and Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Constine, Louis S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Cancer Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Moiseenko, Vitali [Vancouver Cancer Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Correa, Candace; Pierce, Lori J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Allen, Aaron M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana- Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Rabin Medical Center Petach Tikvah (Israel); Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Radiation Dose Metrics in CT: Assessing Dose Using the National Quality Forum CT Patient Safety Measure  

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Purpose The National Quality Forum (NQF) is a nonprofit consensus organization that recently endorsed a measure focused on CT radiation doses. To comply, facilities must summarize the doses from consecutive scans within age and anatomic area strata and report the data in the medical record. Our purpose was to assess the time needed to assemble the data and to demonstrate how review of such data permits a facility to understand doses. Methods and Materials To assemble the data we used for analysis, we used the dose monitoring softwareeXposure to automatically export dose metrics from consecutive scans in 2010 and 2012. For a subset of 50exams, we also collected dose metrics manually, copying data directly from the PACS into an excel spreadsheet. Results Manual data collection for 50 scans required 2 hours and 15 minutes. eXposure compiled the data in under an hour. All dose metrics demonstrated a 30% to 50% reduction between 2010 and 2012. There was also a significant decline and a reduction in the variability of the doses over time. Conclusion The NQF measure facilitates an institution's capacity to assess the doses they are using for CT as part of routine practice. The necessary data can be collected within a reasonable amount of time either with automatic software or manually. The collection and review of these data will allow facilities to compare their radiation dose distributions with national distributions and allow assessment of temporal trends in the doses they are using.

Jillian Keegan; Diana L. Miglioretti; Robert Gould; Lane F. Donnelly; Nicole D. Wilson; Rebecca Smith-Bindman

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Low Dose Radiation Exposure: Exploring Bystander Effects In Vivo.  

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Exposure: Exploring Bystander Effects Exposure: Exploring Bystander Effects In Vivo. 1 Blyth, B.J., 1 Sykes, P.J. 1 Department of Haematology and Genetic Pathology, Flinders University and Medical Centre, Bedford Park, South Australia, 5042, The general population is daily exposed to chronic, low doses of ionizing radiation from both natural and artificial sources. The shape of the radiation dose-response curve at these low doses is currently linearly extrapolated from data obtained after high dose exposure due to the low sensitivity of traditional biological assays after near-background exposures. At odds with this Linear No-Threshold model, are the phenomena collectively referred to as the radiation-induced bystander effect. The bystander effect describes a collection of in vitro

158

Low-Dose Radiation Cataract and Genetic Determinants of Radiosensitivity  

SciTech Connect

The lens of the eye is one of the most radiosensitive tissues in the body. Ocular ionizing radiation exposure results in characteristic, dose related, progressive lens changes leading to cataract formation. While initial, early stages of lens opacification may not cause visual disability, the severity of such changes progressively increases with dose until vision is impaired and cataract extraction surgery may be required. Because of the transparency of the eye, radiation induced lens changes can easily be followed non-invasively over time. Thus, the lens provides a unique model system in which to study the effects of low dose ionizing radiation exposure in a complex, highly organized tissue. Despite this observation, considerable uncertainties remain surrounding the relationship between dose and risk of developing radiation cataract. For example, a growing number of human epidemiological findings suggest significant risk among various groups of occupationally and accidentally exposed individuals and confidence intervals that include zero dose. Nevertheless, questions remain concerning the relationship between lens opacities, visual disability, clinical cataract, threshold dose and/or the role of genetics in determining radiosensitivity. Experimentally, the response of the rodent eye to radiation is quite similar to that in humans and thus animal studies are well suited to examine the relationship between radiation exposure, genetic determinants of radiosensitivity and cataractogenesis. The current work has expanded our knowledge of the low-dose effects of X-irradiation or high-LET heavy ion exposure on timing and progression of radiation cataract and has provided new information on the genetic, molecular, biochemical and cell biological features which contribute to this pathology. Furthermore, findings have indicated that single and/or multiple haploinsufficiency for various genes involved in DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint control, such as Atm, Brca1 or Rad9, influence cataract development and thus radiosensitivity. These observations have direct applicability to various human populations including accidentally exposed individuals, interventional medical workers, astronauts and nuclear plant workers.

Kleiman, Norman Jay [Columbia University] [Columbia University

2013-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

159

Low dose radiation combines with the Src oncoprotein to transform  

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radiation combines with the Src oncoprotein to transform radiation combines with the Src oncoprotein to transform pre-malignant human breast cells Paul Yaswen Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract Goal: Determine whether low dose radiation exerts persistent epigenetic effects that promote malignancy. Background and Significance: Some persistent carcinogenic effects of radiation may not be traceable to specific DNA sequence alterations and may not be linearly related to dose. Through the biochemical initiation of positive feedback loops, ionization-induced events may have heritable non-linear effects on cellular behavior. Inflammatory responses involving the transcription factor NFκB may be subject to such effects. Increased NFκB activity has been strongly linked to carcinogenesis in a number of published in vitro and in vivo studies (reviewed in [1]). Since radiation

160

NREL: Solar Radiation Research - Research Staff  

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Research Staff Research Staff NREL's resource assessment and forecasting research staff provides expertise in renewable energy measurement and instrumentation through NREL's Power Systems Engineering Center. Photo of Mary Anderberg Mary Anderberg - Scientist M.S. Physics, University of Denver B.S. Physics, Auburn University Mary performs solar radiometric data quality analysis for the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program and provides programming support for the resource integration section. She also contributed to the National Solar Radiation Database update. In addition, Mary is the Web administrator of the Renewable Resource Data Center, for which she provides UNIX, C, Perl, and HTML support. Photo of Afshín Andreas Afshín Andreas - Senior Scientist

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161

Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL)  

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Renewable Energy Laboratory Renewable Energy Laboratory Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) Instrument Calibrations Weather Observations Measurement Research Support Measurements & Instrumentation Team Center for Electric & Hydrogen Technologies & Systems http://www.nrel.gov/srrl NREL * * * * 1617 Cole Boulevard * * * * Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 * * * * (303) 275-3000 Operated for the U.S. Department of Energy by Midwest Research Institute * * * * Battelle * * * * Bechtel Mission Provide a unique outdoor research facility for supporting renewable energy conversion technologies and climate change studies for the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE). Objectives * Provide Improved Methods for Radiometer Calibrations * Develop a Solar Resource Climate Database for Golden, Colorado

162

Concurrent Temozolomide and Dose-Escalated Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy in Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma  

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...dose (MTD) of radiation (RT) with concurrent...We show the safety and tolerability...delivering higher radiation (RT) doses with...tools (FIAT), a software package developed...Development of image software tools for radiation therapy assessment...

Christina I. Tsien; Doris Brown; Daniel Normolle; Matthew Schipper; Morand Piert; Larry Junck; Jason Heth; Diana Gomez-Hassan; Randall K. Ten Haken; Thomas Chenevert; Yue Cao; and Theodore Lawrence

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Radiation dose distribution for workers in South Korean nuclear power plants  

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......KHNP has implemented a radiation safety management system...dose registry of NPPs radiation workers, in order to...existing plants. From the software point of view, training...annual average individual radiation exposure dose is expected......

Byoung-il Lee; So-i Kim; Dong-hee Suh; Young-woo Jin; Jeong-in Kim; Hoon Choi; Young-khi Lim

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Radiation doses from some common paediatric X-ray examinations in Sudan  

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......and Technical Papers Radiation doses from some common...suliman@gmail.com Radiation Safety Institute, Sudan Atomic...3001, Khartoum, Sudan Radiation doses to patients from...settings using DosCal software. Totally, 459 patients......

I. I. Suliman; E. H. A. Elshiekh

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Radiation dose management in CT, SPECT/CT and PET/CT techniques  

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......report from the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority showed that...of the collective radiation dose in Sweden in 2005...more and more wasted radiation dose is delivered to...overscanning(37). Both a software solution(38) and......

Sren Mattsson; Marcus Sderberg

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Extremely Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Up-regulates CXC Chemokines in Normal Human Fibroblasts  

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...with radiation exposure (1). Ionizing radiation at moderate and higher doses (0.1-10 Gy) can produce DNA strand...death. Studies of mutants sensitive to ionizing radiation at this range of doses have revealed that the responsible genes...

Akira Fujimori; Ryuichi Okayasu; Hiroshi Ishihara; Satoshi Yoshida; Kiyomi Eguchi-Kasai; Kumie Nojima; Satoru Ebisawa; and Sentaro Takahashi

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

167

Cellular response to low dose radiation: Role of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase like kinases  

SciTech Connect

It is increasingly realized that human exposure either to an acute low dose or multiple chronic low doses of low LET radiation has the potential to cause different types of cancer. Therefore, the central theme of research for DOE and NASA is focused on understanding the molecular mechanisms and pathways responsible for the cellular response to low dose radiation which would not only improve the accuracy of estimating health risks but also help in the development of predictive assays for low dose radiation risks associated with tissue degeneration and cancer. The working hypothesis for this proposal is that the cellular mechanisms in terms of DNA damage signaling, repair and cell cycle checkpoint regulation are different for low and high doses of low LET radiation and that the mode of action of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase like kinases (PIKK: ATM, ATR and DNA-PK) determines the dose dependent cellular responses. The hypothesis will be tested at two levels: (I) Evaluation of the role of ATM, ATR and DNA-PK in cellular response to low and high doses of low LET radiation in simple in vitro human cell systems and (II) Determination of radiation responses in complex cell microenvironments such as human EpiDerm tissue constructs. Cellular responses to low and high doses of low LET radiation will be assessed from the view points of DNA damage signaling, DNA double strand break repair and cell cycle checkpoint regulation by analyzing the activities (i.e. post-translational modifications and kinetics of protein-protein interactions) of the key target proteins for PI-3 kinase like kinases both at the intra-cellular and molecular levels. The proteins chosen for this proposal are placed under three categories: (I) sensors/initiators include ATM ser1981, ATR, 53BP1, gamma-H2AX, MDC1, MRE11, Rad50 and Nbs1; (II) signal transducers include Chk1, Chk2, FANCD2 and SMC1; and (III) effectors include p53, CDC25A and CDC25C. The primary goal of this proposal is to elucidate the differences in cellular defense mechanisms between low and high doses of low LET radiation and to define the radiation doses where the cellular DNA damage signaling and repair mechanisms tend to shift. This information is critically important to address and advance some of the low dose research program objectives of DOE. The results of this proposed study will lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms for the cellular responses to low and high doses of low LET radiation. Further, systematic analysis of the role of PIKK signaling pathways as a function of radiation dose in tissue microenvironment will provide useful mechanistic information for improving the accuracy of radiation risk assessment for low doses. Knowledge of radiation responses in tissue microenvironment is important for the accurate prediction of ionizing radiation risks associated with cancer and tissue degeneration in humans.

Balajee, A.S.; Meador, J.A.; Su, Y.

2011-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

168

CHIPLESS PASSIVE SENSOR FOR WIRELESS MONITORING OF HIGH RADIATION DOSES IN NUCLEAR INFRASTRUCTURES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CHIPLESS PASSIVE SENSOR FOR WIRELESS MONITORING OF HIGH RADIATION DOSES IN NUCLEAR INFRASTRUCTURES for Nuclear Research, Otwock, Poland 4 Wroclaw University of Technology, Wroclaw, Poland 5 TRAD, BP 47471, Labège, France ppons@laas.fr ABSTRACT The dosimetry is one of the crucial techniques that are needed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

169

Proteomic and Biochemical Studies of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Response to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation  

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Proteomic and Biochemical Studies of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Proteomic and Biochemical Studies of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Response to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Deok-Jin Jang 1 , Mingquan Guo 1 , Julia S.F.Chu 2 , Kyle T. Kurpinski 2 , Bjorn Rydberg 1 , Song Li 2 , and Daojing Wang 1 1. Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 2. Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 We will present data obtained during the first year of our DOE/NASA Low Dose Radiation Research program. We utilized a comprehensive approach including transcriptomics, proteomics, phosphoproteomics, and biochemistry to characterize human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in response to low dose ionizing radiation. We first determined the cell survival, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of

170

Human In vivo Dose-Response to Controlled, Low-Dose Low Linear Energy Transfer Ionizing Radiation Exposure  

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...biotinylated nucleotide analogue/ribonucleotide mix. The biotinylated cRNA targets were then...dose-response to controlled, low-dose low linear energy transfer ionizing radiation exposure. | The effect of low doses of low-linear energy transfer (photon) ionizing radiation...

Zelanna Goldberg; David M. Rocke; Chad Schwietert; Susanne R. Berglund; Alison Santana; Angela Jones; Jrg Lehmann; Robin Stern; Ruixiao Lu; and Christine Hartmann Siantar

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

171

PET/CT-guided Interventions: Personnel Radiation Dose  

SciTech Connect

PurposeTo quantify radiation exposure to the primary operator and staff during PET/CT-guided interventional procedures.MethodsIn this prospective study, 12 patients underwent PET/CT-guided interventions over a 6 month period. Radiation exposure was measured for the primary operator, the radiology technologist, and the nurse anesthetist by means of optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters. Radiation exposure was correlated with the procedure time and the use of in-room image guidance (CT fluoroscopy or ultrasound).ResultsThe median effective dose was 0.02 (range 0-0.13) mSv for the primary operator, 0.01 (range 0-0.05) mSv for the nurse anesthetist, and 0.02 (range 0-0.05) mSv for the radiology technologist. The median extremity dose equivalent for the operator was 0.05 (range 0-0.62) mSv. Radiation exposure correlated with procedure duration and with the use of in-room image guidance. The median operator effective dose for the procedure was 0.015 mSv when conventional biopsy mode CT was used, compared to 0.06 mSv for in-room image guidance, although this did not achieve statistical significance as a result of the small sample size (p = 0.06).ConclusionThe operator dose from PET/CT-guided procedures is not significantly different than typical doses from fluoroscopically guided procedures. The major determinant of radiation exposure to the operator from PET/CT-guided interventional procedures is time spent in close proximity to the patient.

Ryan, E. Ronan, E-mail: ronan@ronanryan.com; Thornton, Raymond; Sofocleous, Constantinos T.; Erinjeri, Joseph P. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Hsu, Meier [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics (United States); Quinn, Brian; Dauer, Lawrence T. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medical Physics (United States); Solomon, Stephen B. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology (United States)

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Human In vivo Dose-Response to Controlled, Low-Dose Low Linear Energy Transfer Ionizing Radiation Exposure  

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...effects of low-dose low-linear energy transfer ionizing radiation (LDIR) in humans...direct evidence that doses in the range of 1 to 10 cGy...the intentional radiation of healthy tissue...the response to ionizing radiation. Attempts...

Zelanna Goldberg; David M. Rocke; Chad Schwietert; Susanne R. Berglund; Alison Santana; Angela Jones; Jrg Lehmann; Robin Stern; Ruixiao Lu; and Christine Hartmann Siantar

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

173

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorbed radiation dose Sample Search Results  

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know Summary: . Absorbed dose is the physical quantity describing energy deposited per unit mass. For radiation protection... Cancer risks attributable to low doses of ionizing...

174

E-Print Network 3.0 - accumulated radiation dose Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

. At the end, this seminar concentrates on the dose contributions of naturally occurring ionizing radiation... particles. - The equivalent dose, HT, which takes into account...

175

Radiation exposure for 'caregivers' during high-dose outpatient radioiodine therapy  

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......designed to evaluate radiation safety issues and predict...to comply with radiation safety instructions...list of radiation safety instructions...record cumulative radiation dose for each...using EasyEPD2 software (version 1......

Christopher J. Marriott; Colin E. Webber; Karen Y. Gulenchyn

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Method to Improve Total Dose Radiation Hardness in a CMOS dc-dc Boost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in a wide range of radiation environment, with increasing total dose radiation, The efticieney also greatlyMethod to Improve Total Dose Radiation Hardness in a CMOS dc-dc Boost Converter Huadian Pan to natural radiation in space. Among the effects of ionizing radiation are shiftsin threshold voltageand

Wilamowski, Bogdan Maciej

177

Correlation of radiation absorbed dose to the human thyroid using the FBX dosimeter and external probe techniques  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Internal Radiaion Dose Reports (MIRD) of the Society of Nuclear Medicine. The dosimeter exhibited a similar response to that. obtained in the research of Benedetto who also correlated his results to ca)culat)ons made using MIRD techniques (Beg4k... that would be able to assess the radiation absorbed dose produced by radioisotopes in both nuclear medicine and due to accidental internal deposition of radionuclides to radiation workers or to members of the general public would have many desirable...

Bateman, Sarah Caroline Louisa

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

178

Low dose ionizing radiation induces tumor growth promoting factors in  

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ionizing radiation induces tumor growth promoting factors in ionizing radiation induces tumor growth promoting factors in stress-induced premature senescent fibroblasts David Boothman University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas Abstract Recent evidence suggest that the causes of cancer development are not limited to mutations within cancer cells, but also involve in alterations of cancer microenvironment. Senescent cells are irreversibly growth arrested, but remain metabolically active. Senescent cells, especially senescent fibroblasts in the stroma may provide a beneficial environment for tumor growth through secretion of certain factors. Accumulation of senescent cells in the stroma of patients repeatedly exposed to low doses of IR or low dose rates of IR, could be an important factor, causing alteration of the microenvironment that ultimately benefits tumor

179

Patient radiation dose audits for fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Quality management for any use of medical x-ray imaging should include monitoring of radiation dose. Fluoroscopically guided interventional (FGI) procedures are inherently clinically variable and have the potential for inducing deterministic injuries in patients. The use of a conventional diagnostic reference level is not appropriate for FGI procedures. A similar but more detailed quality process for management of radiation dose in FGI procedures is described. Methods: A method that takes into account both the inherent variability of FGI procedures and the risk of deterministic injuries from these procedures is suggested. The substantial radiation dose level (SRDL) is an absolute action level (with regard to patient follow-up) below which skin injury is highly unlikely and above which skin injury is possible. The quality process for FGI procedures collects data from all instances of a given procedure from a number of facilities into an advisory data set (ADS). An individual facility collects a facility data set (FDS) comprised of all instances of the same procedure at that facility. The individual FDS is then compared to the multifacility ADS with regard to the overall shape of the dose distributions and the percent of instances in both the ADS and the FDS that exceed the SRDL. Results: Samples of an ADS and FDS for percutaneous coronary intervention, using the dose metric of reference air kerma (K{sub a,r}) (i.e., the cumulative air kerma at the reference point), are used to illustrate the proposed quality process for FGI procedures. Investigation is warranted whenever the FDS is noticeably different from the ADS for the specific FGI procedure and particularly in two circumstances: (1) When the facility's local median K{sub a,r} exceeds the 75th percentile of the ADS and (2) when the percent of instances where K{sub a,r} exceeds the facility-selected SRDL is greater for the FDS than for the ADS. Conclusions: Analysis of the two data sets (ADS and FDS) and of the percent of instances that exceed the SRDL provides a means for the facility to better manage radiation dose (and therefore both deterministic and stochastic radiation risk) to the patient during FGI procedures.

Balter, Stephen; Rosenstein, Marvin; Miller, Donald L.; Schueler, Beth; Spelic, David [Department of Radiology and Department of Medicine, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032 (United States); Clarksburg, Maryland 20871 (United States); Department of Radiology, F. Edward Hebert School of Medicine, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, Maryland 20814 (United States); Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Division of Mammography Quality and Radiation Programs, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Avenue, Silver Spring, Maryland 20903 (United States)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

180

Japan Program: Radiation Effects Research Foundation | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

The Life Span Study is the major RERF epidemiologic study that generates data on cancer incidence, cancer mortality, and non-cancer effects in relation to radiation dose. The...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose radiation research" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

extremely low-dose ionizing radiation upregulates CXC chemokines in normal human fibroblasts  

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...2006 Abstract Tumor Biology 32: Radiation Biology 2 Proc Amer Assoc Cancer...Volume 47, 2006 extremely low-dose ionizing radiation upregulates CXC chemokines in...biological effects of this low dose range have not been established. We...

Akira Fujimori; Katsutoshi Suetomi; Keiji Kinoshita; Ayako Kojima; Yaqun Fang; Ayako Egusa; and Ryuichi Okayasu

2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

182

Radiation Dose Estimation from the Analysis of Radionuclides in Marine Fish of the Bay of Bengal  

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...Radiation Protection Dosimetry Article Radiation Dose Estimation from the Analysis of Radionuclides in Marine Fish of the Bay of Bengal S. Ghose M.N. Alam M.N...respectively. The annual effective doses due to ingestion of radionuclides......

S. Ghose; M.N. Alam; M.N. Islam

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Radiation Dose-Volume Effects in the Brain  

SciTech Connect

We have reviewed the published data regarding radiotherapy (RT)-induced brain injury. Radiation necrosis appears a median of 1-2 years after RT; however, cognitive decline develops over many years. The incidence and severity is dose and volume dependent and can also be increased by chemotherapy, age, diabetes, and spatial factors. For fractionated RT with a fraction size of <2.5 Gy, an incidence of radiation necrosis of 5% and 10% is predicted to occur at a biologically effective dose of 120 Gy (range, 100-140) and 150 Gy (range, 140-170), respectively. For twice-daily fractionation, a steep increase in toxicity appears to occur when the biologically effective dose is >80 Gy. For large fraction sizes (>=2.5 Gy), the incidence and severity of toxicity is unpredictable. For single fraction radiosurgery, a clear correlation has been demonstrated between the target size and the risk of adverse events. Substantial variation among different centers' reported outcomes have prevented us from making toxicity-risk predictions. Cognitive dysfunction in children is largely seen for whole brain doses of >=18 Gy. No substantial evidence has shown that RT induces irreversible cognitive decline in adults within 4 years of RT.

Lawrence, Yaacov Richard, E-mail: richard.lawrence@jefferson.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Li, X. Allen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); El Naqa, Issam [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Hahn, Carol A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Merchant, Thomas E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Dicker, Adam P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Molecular Mechanisms of Low Dose Radiation Mediated Hormesis in C. elegans  

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Mechanisms of Low Dose Radiation Mediated Hormesis in C. Mechanisms of Low Dose Radiation Mediated Hormesis in C. elegans Anders Olsen, Maithili C. Vantipalli, Arnold Kahn, Judith Campisi and Gordon J. Lithgow. Buck Institute for Age Research, 8001 Redwood Boulevard, Novato CA 94945 Brief exposure to a mild stress causes induction of stress gene expression leading to enhanced stress responses, improved maintenance and repair and in some cases lifespan increase. This phenomenon is termed hormesis and has been observed in several species. For example, we previously demonstrated that short periods of mild heat stress in early life increase both mean and maximum lifespan of the soil nematode C. elegans. Similar hormetic responses have been described for many other stressors. Here we present data showing that treatment of the nematode with low-doses of ionizing

185

MEASUREMENT OF THE HIGH GAMMA RADIATION DOSE USING THE MEMS BASED DOSIMETER AND RADIOLISYS EFFECT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

radiation dose. If we consider, that the average time of exploitation is estimated to be 40 years and veryMEASUREMENT OF THE HIGH GAMMA RADIATION DOSE USING THE MEMS BASED DOSIMETER AND RADIOLISYS EFFECT M of high and very high doses of ionizing radiation is crucial for the monitoring of the existing Nuclear

Boyer, Edmond

186

AN INTERNAL RADIATION DOSIMETRY COMPUTER PROGRAM, IDAC 2.0, FOR ESTIMATION OF PATIENT DOSES FROM RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......dose to estimate the radiation risk from a diagnostic...grant from the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority [grant number...second-generation personal computer software for internal dose assessment...Radiological Protection. Radiation dose to patients from......

M. Andersson; L. Johansson; D. Minarik; S. Mattsson; S. Leide-Svegborn

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Radiation doses to patients undergoing barium meal and barium enema examinations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......organ dose determination in radiation hygiene. STUK-A87 Raport, Finish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (1989). 14. Carroll, E...methods Greece Humans Middle Aged Radiation Dosage Radiometry methods Software...

M. G. Delichas; K. Hatziioannou; E. Papanastassiou; P. Albanopoulou; E. Chatzi; A. Sioundas; K. Psarrakos

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Patient-size-dependent radiation dose optimisation technique for abdominal CT examinations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......CT dosimetry and radiation safety. Radiol. Soc...Notification. Reducing radiation risk from computed...gov/cdrh/safety/110201-ct...McCollough C. H. Radiation dose in computed...region of interest software available in both......

J. E. Ngaile; P. Msaki; R. Kazema

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Radiation dose survey in a paediatric cardiac catheterisation laboratory equipped with flat-panel detectors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......investigate the radiation doses delivered...using the PCXMC software. For diagnostic...the E are the radiation field size at...DAP. The PCXMC software calculates organ...Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. Report No......

O. Dragusin; M. Gewillig; W. Desmet; K. Smans; L. Struelens; H. Bosmans

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With Dose Painting to Treat Rhabdomyosarcoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To examine local control and patterns of failure in rhabdomyosarcoma patients treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (RT) with dose painting (DP-IMRT). Patients and Methods: A total of 41 patients underwent DP-IMRT with chemotherapy for definitive treatment. Nineteen also underwent surgery with or without intraoperative RT. Fifty-six percent had alveolar histologic features. The median interval from beginning chemotherapy to RT was 17 weeks (range, 4-25). Very young children who underwent second-look procedures with or without intraoperative RT received reduced doses of 24-36 Gy in 1.4-1.8-Gy fractions. Young adults received 50.4 Gy to the primary tumor and lower doses of 36 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions to at-risk lymph node chains. Results: With 22 months of median follow-up, the actuarial local control rate was 90%. Patients aged {<=}7 years who received reduced overall and fractional doses had 100% local control, and young adults had 79% (P=.07) local control. Three local failures were identified in young adults whose primary target volumes had received 50.4 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions. Conclusions: DP-IMRT with lower fractional and cumulative doses is feasible for very young children after second-look procedures with or without intraoperative RT. DP-IMRT is also feasible in adolescents and young adults with aggressive disease who would benefit from prophylactic RT to high-risk lymph node chains, although dose escalation might be warranted for improved local control. With limited follow-up, it appears that DP-IMRT produces local control rates comparable to those of sequential IMRT in patients with rhabdomyosarcoma.

Yang, Joanna C.; Dharmarajan, Kavita V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Wexler, Leonard H. [Department of Pediatrics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Pediatrics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); La Quaglia, Michael P. [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Happersett, Laura [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Wolden, Suzanne L., E-mail: woldens@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Population doses from environmental gamma radiation in Iraq  

SciTech Connect

The exposure rates due to external gamma radiation were measured in 11 Iraqi governerates. Measurements were performed with an Environmental Monitoring System (RSS-111) in open air 1 m above the ground. The average absorbed dose rate in each governerate was as follows (number x 10(-2) microGy h-1): Babylon (6.0), Kerbala (5.3), Al-Najaf (5.4), Al-Kadysia (6.5), Wasit (6.5), Diala (6.5), Al-Anbar (6.5), Al-Muthana (6.6), Maisan (6.8), Thee-Kar (6.6), and Al-Basrah (6.5). The collective doses to the population living in these governerates were 499, 187, 239, 269, 262, 458, 384, 153, 250, 450, and 419 person-Sv, respectively.

Marouf, B.A.; Mohamad, A.S.; Taha, J.S.; al-Haddad, I.K. (Iraq Atomic Energy Commission, Nuclear Research Center, Tuwaitha, Baghdad, (Iraq))

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Assessment of the Technologies for Molecular Biodosimetry for Human Low-Dose Radiation Exposure Symposium  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to ionizing radiation produces few immediate outwardly-visible clinical signs, yet, depending on dose, can severely damage vital physiological functions within days to weeks and produce long-lasting health consequences among survivors. In the event of a radiological accident, the rapid evaluation of the individual absorbed dose is paramount to discriminate the worried but unharmed from those individuals who must receive medical attention. Physical, clinical and biological dosimetry are usually combined for the best dose assessment. However, because of the practical limits of physical and clinical dosimetry, many attempts have been made to develop a dosimetry system based on changes in biological parameters, including techniques for hematology, biochemistry, immunology, cytogenetics, etc. Lymphocyte counts and chromosome aberrations analyses are among the methods that have been routinely used for estimating radiation dose. However, these assays require several days to a week to be completed and therefore cannot be used to obtain a fast estimate of the dose during the first few days after exposure when the information would be most critical for identifying victims of radiation accidents who could benefit the most by medical intervention. The steadily increasing sophistication in our understanding of the early biochemical responses of irradiated cells and tissues provides the opportunity for developing mechanism-based biosignatures of exposure. Compelling breakthroughs have been made in the technologies for genome-scale analysis of cellular transcriptional and proteomic profiles. There have also been major strides in the mechanistic understanding of the early events in DNA damage and radiation damage products, as well as in the cellular pathways that lead to radiation injury. New research with genomic- and proteomic-wide tools is showing that within minutes to hours after exposure to ionizing radiation protein machines are modified and activated, and large-scale changes occur in the gene expression profile involving a broad variety of cell-process pathways after a wide range of both low (<10 cGy) and high dose (>10 cGy) exposures. Evaluation of these potential gene and protein biomarkers for early and late diagnostic information will be critical for determining the efficacy of the signatures to both low and high dose IR exposures. Also needed are approaches that enable rapid handling and processing for mass-casualty and population triage scenarios. Development of in vivo model system will be crucial for validating both the biological and the instrumentation for biodosimetry. Such studies will also help further understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the biological effects of radiation and the differences of responses due to individual genetic variation.

Matthew A. Coleman Ph.D.; Narayani Ramakrishnan, Ph.D.; Sally A. Amundson; James D. Tucker, Ph.D.; Stephen D. Dertinger, Ph.D.; Natalia I. Ossetrova, Ph.D.; Tao Chen

2009-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

193

Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Modulates Immune Function New Project Overview  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Modulates Immune Function New Project Overview Modulates Immune Function New Project Overview Gregory Nelson Loma Linda University Abstract The immune system provides the first line of defense for exposures to environmental hazards. Protective immunity mechanisms using innate or adaptive responses are employed to mitigate acute challenges or amplify the readiness of the system to respond to future challenges. Some stimuli lead to amplified inflammatory reactions such as delayed hypersensitivity which is required for immunity to parasites and can also lead to adverse consequences such as contact dermatitis. Radiation exposure has the potential to aggravate hypersensitivity reactions as well as to suppress protective immunity. Ionizing radiation at high doses has long been recognized as highly effective in destroying cells of the immune system,

194

Mechanisms underlying cellular responses of cells from haemopoeitic tissue to low dose-low LET radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

underlying cellular responses of cells from haemopoeitic underlying cellular responses of cells from haemopoeitic tissue to low dose-low LET radiation Munira Kadhim 1 , Sarah Irons 1 , Deborah Bowler 1 , Virginia Serra 1 , Stefania Militi 2 , Kim Chapman 1 1 Genomic Instability Research Group, School of Life Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Gipsy Lane, Headington, Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX3 0BP, UK 2 Mammalian Genetics Unit, Medical Research Council Harwell, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Oxfordshire, OX11 0RD, UK Radiation-induced responses at the cellular and whole body levels are influenced by genetic predisposition, with implications for environmental and potentially, diagnostic exposures. Currently, the extent to which genetic background play a role in the mechanisms and signalling pathways involved in radiation-induced

195

Radiation dose-rate meter using an energy-sensitive counter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation dose-rate meter is provided which uses an energy-sensitive detector and combines charge quantization and pulse-rate measurement to monitor radiation dose rates. The charge from each detected photon is quantized by level-sensitive comparators so that the resulting total output pulse rate is proportional to the dose-rate.

Kopp, Manfred K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Enhancement of natural background gamma-radiation dose around uranium microparticles in the human body  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...photoelectrons. For most ionizing radiations, a large proportion...the absorbed dose is deposited...having a shorter range and being more strongly ionizing close to the...in high local doses, causing damage...enhancement of the radiation dose in volumes...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Radiation dose and image quality in K-edge subtraction computed tomography of lung in vivo  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Radiation dose dependency of image quality was showed in in vivo rabbit lung images with and without a contrast agent using the synchrotron-radiation-based K-edge subtraction method. Consistency of the theoretical and measured radiation dose rate values was found.

Strengell, S.

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Current status of patient radiation doses from computed tomography examinations in Tanzania  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......the magnitude of radiation dose imparted to...and the CTDOSE software based on NRPB conversion...CT dosimetry and radiation safety. Radiol. Soc...requirements for the safety of X-ray equipment...Tingey, D. R. C. Radiation doses from computed......

J. E. Ngaile; P. Msaki; R. Kazema

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Modeling proton intensity gradients and radiation dose equivalents in the inner  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modeling proton intensity gradients and radiation dose equivalents in the inner heliosphere using a significant radiation hazard for manned and unmanned interplanetary (IP) space missions. In order to estimate intensities, event fluences, and radiation dose equivalents of 27­31 May 2003 SEP events at eight different

Pringle, James "Jamie"

200

Whole-Body Biodistribution and Estimation of Radiation-Absorbed Doses of the Dopamine D1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Whole-Body Biodistribution and Estimation of Radiation-Absorbed Doses of the Dopamine D1 Receptor-SCH-23390 (6,7), and is highly reliable for PET quantification (7). Radiation-absorbed dose estimates of 11C and Behaviour, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia The present study estimated radiation

Shen, Jun

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While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Effect of low-dose, low-LET γ-radiation and BaP injection on pulmonary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

low-dose, low-LET γ-radiation and BaP injection on pulmonary low-dose, low-LET γ-radiation and BaP injection on pulmonary immunity in A/J mice K. Gott Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute Abstract Introduction: Low-dose, low-linear-energy-transfer (LET) radiation (LDR; < 100 mGy) activates the immune response (Nowosielska et al., 2006), presumably via epigenetic pathways (Scott et al., 2009) and has been implicated as suppressing both alpha-radiation-induced and smoking-related lung cancer (Scott et al. 2009). One of the hypothesized adaptive-response mechanisms by which LDR does so is by activating immune cell function in the lung, which would then increase their anti-cancer surveillance function (Liu, 2007; Bogdandi et al., 2010). One measure of activated immune cell function is their expression of markers on their cell surface that are

202

Estimation of radiation doses from 137Cs to frogs in a wetland ecosystem  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Currently, there is no established methodology to estimate radiation doses to non-human biota. Therefore, in this study, various dose models were used to estimate radiation doses to moor frogs (Rana arvalis) in a wetland ecosystem contaminated with 137Cs. External dose estimations were based on activity concentrations of 137Cs in soil and water, considering changes in habitat over a life-cycle. Internal doses were calculated from the activity concentrations of 137Cs measured in moor frogs. Depending on the dose model used, the results varied substantially. External dose rates ranged from 21 to 160 mGy/y, and internal dose rates varied between 1 and 14 mGy/y. Maximum total dose rates to frogs were below the expected safe level for terrestrial populations, but close to the suggested critical dose rate for amphibians. The results show that realistic assumptions in dose models are particularly important at high levels of contamination.

K. Stark; R. Avila; P. Wallberg

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Radiation hormesis research findings and therapeutic applications  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In 1982, Professor Thomas Don Luckey of Missouri University asserted 'radiation hormesis' in the journal Health Physics. Following his assertion, the CRIEPI initiated a research programme on radiation hormesis to confirm 'is it true or not'. Twelve years of research with 8??14 universities in Japan produced fruitful results on radiation hormesis. Hormone response tests on rabbits, enzyme response tests on rats and mice, p53 gene responses from mice and rats and helper-T responses from human patients gave us impressive information to consider the therapeutic application of radiation hormesis.

Sadao Hattori

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Measurement of natural radioactivity and dose rate assessment of terrestrial gamma radiation in the soil of southern Punjab, Pakistan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......terrestrial background radiation mainly due to these...assess the population radiation doses(4-9). However...data are available on naturally occuring and artificial radionulides...order to assess the radiation doses for the general......

I. Fatima; J. H. Zaidi; M. Arif; M. Daud; S. A. Ahmad; S. N. A. Tahir

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Estimation of risk from medical radiation exposure based on effective and organ dose: how much difference is there?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Russian Basic Sanitary Radiation Protection Standards...Basic Sanitary Rules for Radiation Safety of 2010(3). It is...CT)(4). Although radiation dose is the primary...effective dose; this software is addressed to radiologists......

V. K. Ivanov; V. V. Kashcheev; S. Yu. Chekin; A. N. Menyaylo; E. A. Pryakhin; A. F. Tsyb; F. A. Mettler

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Effect of incremental doses of radiation on viability of the microbial population on synthetic operating room gowns.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...manufacturer and peri- 528 RADIATION DOSE AND MICROBIAL VIABILITY...used to calculate the radiation resistances because...SEM does allow an estimation of the number of cells...ENVIRON. MICROBIOL. RADIATION DOSE AND MICROBIAL VIABILITY...

J L Whitby; D G Storey

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Exposure to Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation from Medical Imaging Procedures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...did not use measures of radiation dose that are specific to the subjects we studied but instead relied on estimates of effective doses, which are neither precisely measured nor subject-specific. The effective dose is a calculated estimate designed to provide a sex-averaged dose for a reference subject... Experimental and epidemiologic evidence has linked exposure to low-dose, ionizing radiation with the development of solid cancers and leukemia.1 As a result, persons at risk for repeated radiation exposure, such as workers in health care and the nuclear ...

Fazel R.; Krumholz H.M.; Wang Y.

2009-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

208

End group characterization in DNA of thymocytes after low doses of ionizing radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Investigations into the configuration of the radiation induced strand breaks in the low dose range are presented. DNA sections containing the radiation induced strand breaks were separated from the undamaged s...

Th. Coquerelle; C. Sexauer

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Estimation of the Radiation Dose to the Public Due to Atmospheric Emissions from the Rostov NPP  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The radiation dose to the public due to atmospheric emissions from the Rostov NPP is calculated using a point conservative approach and a complex of migration and dosimetric models. The radiation exposure path...

L. A. Sharpan; E. I. Karpenko; S. I. Spiridonov

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Ris National Laboratory Radiation Research Department  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Risø National Laboratory Postprint Radiation Research Department Year 2007 Paper: www Radiation Physics, Lund University Hospital, 22185 Lund, Sweden 12 Lab. d'Analyses de Surveillance et d Tokai works, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki 319-1994, Japan 17 Risoe National Laboratory, 4000 Roskilde

211

Ris National Laboratory DTU Radiation Research Department  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-life of 2.13?105 yeas. Although 99 Tc is a naturally occurring radionuclide, the main sources of 99 TcRisø National Laboratory DTU Postprint Radiation Research Department Year 2007 Paper: www

212

Radiation Effects Research Foundation Links Past and Future ...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Radiation Effects Research Foundation Links Past and Future Radiation Effects Research Foundation Links Past and Future August 2009 This document provides historical information...

213

Typical Radiation Doses to Patients from Some Common X Ray Examinations in Tanzania  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Radiation Protection Dosimetry Article Typical Radiation Doses to Patients from Some Common X Ray Examinations in Tanzania W.E. Muhogora A.M. Nyanda U.S. Lema J.E. Ngaile The results of entrance surface dose measurements on adult patients......

W.E. Muhogora; A.M. Nyanda; U.S. Lema; J.E. Ngaile

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Improvement of the equivalent sphere model for better estimates of skin or eye dose in space radiation environments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

sphere Radiation transport a b s t r a c t It is often useful to get a quick estimate of the dose or dose drastically improves the accuracy of the estimates of dose and dose equivalent in space radiation environmentsImprovement of the equivalent sphere model for better estimates of skin or eye dose in space

Lin, Zi-wei

215

Estimation of internal radiation dose from both immediate releases and continued  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A brief description is provided of the basic concepts related to 'internal dose' and how it differs from doses that result from radioactive materials and direct radiation outside of the body. The principles of radiation dose reconstruction, as applied to both internal and external doses, are discussed on the basis of a recent publication prepared by the US National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Finally, ideas are introduced related to residual radioactive contamination in the environment that has resulted from the releases from damaged reactors and also to the management of wastes that may be generated in both regional cleanup and decommissioning of the Fukushima nuclear power plant.

Bruce Napier

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Low dose diagnostic radiation exposure and cancer risk in Trp53+/- mice  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

diagnostic radiation exposure and cancer risk in Trp53+/- mice diagnostic radiation exposure and cancer risk in Trp53+/- mice K Taylor, N Phan, ME Cybulski, L Laframboise, DR Boreham Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton ON L8S 4K1 The cancer risk associated with exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation has traditionally been extrapolated from effects observed at high doses and high dose rates using a linear no threshold model. Based on this approach, it has been postulated that human exposure to medical imaging involving low doses of x-rays and gamma rays increase an individual's risk of developing cancer throughout their lifetime. Conversely, there is evidence that low doses of gamma radiation increase the latency period of cancer depending upon genotype, cancer type, and the magnitude of

217

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility | Argonne  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Argonne scientists study climate change 1 of 22 Argonne scientists study climate change The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science provided $60 million in ARRA funding for climate research to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, a DOE national user facility that has been operating climate observing sites around the world for nearly two decades. These sites help scientists study clouds and their influence on the sun's radiant energy, which heats our planet. Above is one of the purchases: the Vaisala Present Weather Detector. It optically measures visibility, present weather, precipitation intensity, and precipitation type. It provides a measure of current weather conditions by combining measurements from three

218

Genetic Factors Affecting Susceptibility to Low Dose & Low Dose-Rate Radiation  

SciTech Connect

Our laboratory has, among other things, developed and used the gamma H2AX focus assay and other chromosomal and cell killing assays to show that differences in this DNA double strand break (dsb) related response can be clearly and distinctly demonstrated for cells which are mildly hyper-radiosensitive such as those associated with A-T heterozygosity. We have found this level of mild hypersensitivity for cells from some 20 to 30 % of apparently normal individuals and from apparently normal parents of Retinoblastoma patients. We found significant differences in gene expression in somatic cells from unaffected parents of Rb patients as compared with normal controls, suggesting that these parents may harbor some as yet unidentified genetic abnormality. In other experiments we sought to determine the extent of differences in normal human cellular reaponses to radiation depending on their irradiation in 2D monolayer vs 3D organized acinar growth conditions. We exmined cell reproductive death, chromosomal aberration induction, and the levels of ?-H2AX foci in cells after single acute gamma-ray doses and immediately after 20 hours of irradiation at a dose rate of 0.0017 Gy/min. We found no significant differences in the dose-responses of these cells under the 2D or 3D growth conditions. While this does not mean such differences cannot occur in other situations, it does mean that they do not generally or necessarily occur. In another series of studies in collaboration with Dr Chuan Li, with supprt from this current grant. We reported a role for apoptotic cell death in promoting wound healing and tissue regeneration in mice. Apoptotic cells released growth signals that stimulated the proliferation of progenitor or stem cells. In yet another collaboration with Dr, B. Chen with funds from this grant, the relative radiosensitivity to cell killing as well as chromosomal instability of 13 DNA-PKcs site-directed mutant cell lines (defective at phosphorylation sites or kinase activity) were examined after exposure of synchronized G1 cells to 137Cs c rays. DNA-PKcs mutant cells defective in phosphorylation at multiple sites withinthe T2609 cluster or within the PI3K domain displayed extreme radiosensitivity. Cells defective at the S2056 cluster or T2609 single site alone were only mildly radiosensitive, but cells defective at even one site in both the S2056 and T2609 clusters were maximally radiosensitive. Thus a synergism between the capacity for phosphorylation at the S2056 and T2609 clusterswas found to be critical for induction of radiosensitivity.

Bedford, Joel

2014-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

219

Alteration of cytokine profiles in mice exposed to chronic low-dose ionizing radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

While a high-dose of ionizing radiation is generally harmful and causes damage to living organisms, a low-dose of radiation has been shown to be beneficial in a variety of animal models. To understand the basis for the effect of low-dose radiation in vivo, we examined the cellular and immunological changes evoked in mice exposed to low-dose radiation at very low (0.7mGy/h) and low (3.95mGy/h) dose rate for the total dose of 0.2 and 2Gy, respectively. Mice exposed to low-dose radiation, either at very low- or low-dose rate, demonstrated normal range of body weight and complete blood counts. Likewise, the number and percentage of peripheral lymphocyte populations, CD4+ T, CD8+ T, B, or NK cells, stayed unchanged following irradiation. Nonetheless, the sera from these mice exhibited elevated levels of IL-3, IL-4, leptin, MCP-1, MCP-5, MIP-1?, thrombopoietin, and VEGF along with slight reduction of IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17, and IFN-?. This pattern of cytokine release suggests the stimulation of innate immunity facilitating myeloid differentiation and activation while suppressing pro-inflammatory responses and promoting differentiation of nave T cells into T-helper 2, not T-helper 1, types. Collectively, our data highlight the subtle changes of cytokine milieu by chronic low-dose ?-radiation, which may be associated with the functional benefits observed in various experimental models.

Suk Chul Shin; Kyung-Mi Lee; Yu Mi Kang; Kwanghee Kim; Cha Soon Kim; Kwang Hee Yang; Young-Woo Jin; Chong Soon Kim; Hee Sun Kim

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Influence of organs in the ICRP's remainder on effective dose equivalent computed for diagnostic radiation exposures  

SciTech Connect

The ICRP effective dose equivalent has been compared with a weighted dose equivalent, computed by treating the entire remainder instead of the sample of five remainder organs in the ICRP method as uniformly radiosensitive, for dose distributions from three common diagnostic exposures: chest, dental full-mouth and dental panoramic. Complete dose distributions were computed by a Monte Carlo model. In all three cases the effective dose equivalent was greater than the weighted dose equivalent. The difference was only 20% for the chest exam but was more than fivefold for both dental exposures. Dose distributions for the dental exposures were less homogeneous than for the chest examination. Selection of organs to be included in the remainder markedly affects the effective dose equivalent. In the case of highly inhomogeneous dose distributions, the effective dose equivalent probably significantly over-estimates radiation detriment.

Gibbs, S.J.

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose radiation research" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Apoptosis as a Mechanism for Low Dose Radiation-and Amifostine-Mediated  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Apoptosis as a Mechanism for Low Dose Radiation- and Amifostine-Mediated Apoptosis as a Mechanism for Low Dose Radiation- and Amifostine-Mediated Chromosomal Inversion Responses Pam Sykes Flinders University and Medical Centre Abstract Low dose radiation and the chemical radioprotector amifostine have both been shown to protect cells from the immediate and delayed effects of radiation exposure. They display a number of distinct similarities including their ability to protect cells against radiation-induced DNA damage, radiation-induced cell death and metastases formation. Amifostine, which protects cells from the toxic effects of ionizing radiation, has a broad range of activities including free radical scavenging, polyamine-like DNA binding, and induction of hypoxia and redox-regulated genes. Amifostine’s ability to protect cells is often

222

Opportunities in Catalysis Research Using Synchrotron Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in Catalysis Research Using Synchrotron Radiation in Catalysis Research Using Synchrotron Radiation Tuesday 10/8/02 Chair: Lars Pettersson 1:30-1:40 Anders Nilsson Welcome 1:40-2:30 Gabor Somorjai University of California, Berkeley and LBLN Need for New Directions of Research at the Frontiers of Catalysis Science 2:30-3:00 Geoff Thornton University of Manchester Influence of defects on the reactivity of ZnO 3:00-3:30 Anders Nilsson Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory Soft X-ray Spectroscopy of Surfaces and Reactions 3:30-3:45 Break Chair: Anders Nilsson 3:45-4:15 Lars Pettersson Stockholm University Adsorbate-Substrate Bonding: An Experimental and Theoretical MO Picture 4:15-4:45 Miquel Salmeron Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Photoelectron Spectroscopy studies of surfaces in high pressure gas

223

Implications of Intercellular Signaling for Radiation Therapy: A Theoretical Dose-Planning Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Recent in vitro results have shown significant contributions to cell killing from signaling effects at doses that are typically used in radiation therapy. This study investigates whether these in vitro observations can be reconciled with in vivo knowledge and how signaling may have an impact on future developments in radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Prostate cancer treatment plans were generated for a series of 10 patients using 3-dimensional conformal therapy, intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and volumetric modulated arc therapy techniques. These plans were evaluated using mathematical models of survival following modulated radiation exposures that were developed from in vitro observations and incorporate the effects of intercellular signaling. The impact on dosevolume histograms and mean doses were evaluated by converting these survival levels into signaling-adjusted doses for comparison. Results: Inclusion of intercellular communication leads to significant differences between the signalling-adjusted and physical doses across a large volume. Organs in low-dose regions near target volumes see the largest increases, with mean signaling-adjusted bladder doses increasing from 23 to 33 Gy in IMRT plans. By contrast, in high-dose regions, there is a small decrease in signaling-adjusted dose due to reduced contributions from neighboring cells, with planning target volume mean doses falling from 74 to 71 Gy in IMRT. Overall, however, the dose distributions remain broadly similar, and comparisons between the treatment modalities are largely unchanged whether physical or signaling-adjusted dose is compared. Conclusions: Although incorporating cellular signaling significantly affects cell killing in low-dose regions and suggests a different interpretation for many phenomena, their effect in high-dose regions for typical planning techniques is comparatively small. This indicates that the significant signaling effects observed in vitro are not contradicted by comparison with clinical observations. Future investigations are needed to validate these effects in vivo and to quantify their ranges and potential impact on more advanced radiation therapy techniques.

McMahon, Stephen J., E-mail: stephen.mcmahon@qub.ac.uk [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); McGarry, Conor K. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Radiotherapy Physics, Northern Ireland Cancer Centre, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Butterworth, Karl T. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); O'Sullivan, Joe M. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Clinical Oncology, Northern Ireland Cancer Centre, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Hounsell, Alan R. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Radiotherapy Physics, Northern Ireland Cancer Centre, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Prise, Kevin M. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

The assessment of the absorbed dose of radiation around a nuclear fuel manufacturing plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The estimation of the absorbed dose of radiation by the public around a nuclear plant is a substantial issue for nuclear industries and serves as an essential factor in radiation protection. In this study, the absorbed dose of radiation by the individuals living around a nuclear fuel manufacturing plant was calculated. The Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) code, which is the generalised version of the AIREM program manual a computer code for calculating doses, population doses, and ground depositions due to atmospheric emissions of radionuclides was used to investigate the following pathways: cloud immersion, ground deposition, inhalation and ingestion. The study was carried out in 16 geographical directions over an 80 km radius. The experimental results demonstrate that the maximum dose is absorbed at 800 m distance from the nuclear plant stack in the east southeast (ESE) direction and is equal to 3.7 10 ?Sv, which is negligible in comparison with the background radiation.

Seyed Mahmoud Reza Aghamiri; Neda Bostani; Manuchehr Roshanzamir

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Estimation of background radiation doses for the Peninsular Malaysias population by ESR dosimetry of tooth enamel  

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It is worth mentioning that the background dose is required in evaluating a tooths excess dose of radiation workers or individuals accidentally exposed to radiation, by subtracting the background level of a give...

Mohd Rodzi; Kassym Zhumadilov; Megu Ohtaki

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Annual report shows potential INL radiation dose well below safe regulatory  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Annual report shows potential INL radiation dose well below safe Annual report shows potential INL radiation dose well below safe regulatory limits Annual report shows potential INL radiation dose well below safe regulatory limits August 9, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contact Tim Jackson, DOE-Idaho Operations Office 208-526-8484 The U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho Operations Office reported this month that radiation from the site falls well below limits established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The annual report's conclusions are supported by direct environmental monitoring data routinely taken during the year, and show that activities at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site are protective of human health and the environment. Data shows that the INL site potential radiation dose is less than 1% of

227

Benchmarking and validation of a Geant4-SHADOW Monte Carlo simulation for dose calculations in microbeam radiation therapy  

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Benchmarking and validation of a new Monte Carlo code for dose calculations in microbeam radiation therapy are described.

Cornelius, I.

2014-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

228

Low dose ionizing radiation produces too few reactive oxygen species to directly affect antioxidant concentrations in cells  

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...Radiolysis products and internal dose distribution - Calculation of...products and internal distribution of doses Low dose ionizing radiation produces too few reactive oxygen...stress is the mechanism for a wide range of negative impacts on biota living...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

E-Print Network 3.0 - assess lung dose Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

radiation-related lung cancer risks associated with annual low-dose... lung radiation dose from ... Source: Brenner, David Jonathan - Center for Radiological Research &...

230

Total dose radiation response of plasma-damaged NMOS devices  

SciTech Connect

Plasma-damaged NMOS devices were subjected to the X-ray total dose irradiation. Unlike the traditional hot-carrier or Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) stress where the hole trap generation is less pronounced, this study shows enhanced hole trap and interface trap generation on plasma-damaged devices after total dose irradiation.

Yue, J.; Lo, E.; Flanery, M. [Honeywell Solid-State Electronic Center, Plymouth, MN (United States)] [Honeywell Solid-State Electronic Center, Plymouth, MN (United States)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

LOW DOSE PHOTON RADIATION-INDUCED CHANGES IN T HELPER LYMPHOCYTES  

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LOW DOSE PHOTON RADIATION-INDUCED CHANGES IN T HELPER LYMPHOCYTES LOW DOSE PHOTON RADIATION-INDUCED CHANGES IN T HELPER LYMPHOCYTES Daila S. Gridley 1,2 , Asma Rizvi 2 , Xian Luo 1 , Adeola Y. Makinde 2 , Steve Rightnar 1 , Jian Tian 1 , Melba L. Andres 1 , James M. Slater 1 , and Michael J. Pecaut 1,2 Departments of 1 Radiation Medicine and 2 Biochemistry & Microbiology Loma Linda University and Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA 92354 USA Health risks due to protracted low dose irradiation remain unclear. This project investigates T helper (Th) lymphocyte function and the cellular milieu in which they reside under conditions of low dose, low- linear energy transfer (LET) radiation exposure. The Th cells are important because they secrete cytokines essential for generating optimal immune defenses against tumor, virus-infected, and other

232

Radiation dose profile in 125I brachytherapy: an 8-year review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......KFSHRC is well known in the Kingdom to specialise in cancer treatment using both radiation therapy and brachytherapy...using the IAEA rod phantom and an Eberline DNS-26 depleted uranium standard reference source with a known absorbed dose......

A. N. Al-Haj; A. M. Lobriguito; C. S. Lagarde

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Estimation of the committed radiation dose resulting from gamma radionuclides ingested with food  

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The objective of the study was to estimate the value of the radiation dose absorbed in consequence of consumption of popular food products for individual age groups. Potatoes, corn and sugar beet were selected...

Piotr Gody?; Agnieszka Do?ha?czuk-?rdka

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Image Estimation from Marker Locations for Dose Calculation in Prostate Radiation Therapy  

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Tracking implanted markers in the prostate during each radiation treatment delivery provides an accurate approximation of prostate location, which enables the use of higher daily doses with tighter margins of ...

Huai-Ping Lee; Mark Foskey; Josh Levy

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Genetic susceptibility to low-dose ionizing radiation in the mouse mammary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Genetic susceptibility to low-dose ionizing radiation in the mouse mammary Genetic susceptibility to low-dose ionizing radiation in the mouse mammary gland as a means of understanding human risk for breast cancer Antoine M. Snijders Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract Goal: Our goal is to develop an in vivo mechanistic model of genetic variation in the low-dose damage responses of mammary glands using inbred mice known to vary in their sensitivity to low-dose induced mammary gland cancer, and to develop molecular predictors for susceptibility or resistance to low-dose induced breast cancer. Background and Significance: It is increasingly believed that individuals differ in their genetic susceptibilities to environmental insults for diseases such as cancer. This concern is especially important for the large numbers of individuals receiving low-dose exposures in the nuclear energy

236

Targeted and Nontargeted Effects of Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation on Delayed Genomic Instability in Human Cells  

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...humans receive some radiation exposure, mostly...risks associated with radiation exposure come from populations exposed to ionizing radiation, primarily from epidemiologic...However, those doses, in the range of 0.2 to 2.5...

Lei Huang; Perry M. Kim; Jac A. Nickoloff; and William F. Morgan

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Radiation dose reduction and image enhancement in biological imaging through equally-sloped tomography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Iterative reconstruction algorithm Radiation dose reduction Image enhancement Computed tomography a b s t r-dose data acquisi- tion schemes have made it possible to record multiple projections quickly without-energy electrons (Henderson, 1995), which limits the number of projections that can be acquired. Furthermore

Miao, Jianwei "John"

238

Effects of low-dose radiation on immune cell function using genetic and  

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low-dose radiation on immune cell function using genetic and low-dose radiation on immune cell function using genetic and metabolomics approaches Henghong Li Georgetown University Abstract The objectives of this study are to investigate acute and persistent effects of ionizing radiation and space radiation on immune cell subsets and function. The role(s) for p38 MAP kinase in such radiation responses is being investigated using a genetic approach where an engineered mouse line has had one wt p38α gene replaced with a dominantnegative mutant (p38α+/DN). T cells are one of the most radiosensitive cell types in vivo, and radiation is known to impact CD4 T cell function long term. T cells are normally activated by antigen, which triggers differentiation to specific subsets involving various cytokines. In addition, T cells have a

239

Dose-Rate Dependence of High-Dose Health Effects in Humans from Photon Radiation with Application to Radiological Terrorism  

SciTech Connect

In 1981, as part of a symposium entitled ''The Control of Exposure of the Public to Ionizing Radiation in the Event of Accident or Attack,'' Lushbaugh, H?bner, and Fry published a paper examining ''radiation tolerance'' of various human health endpoints as a function of dose rate. This paper may not have received the notice it warrants. The health endpoints examined by Lushbaugh et al. were the lethal dose that will kill 50% of people within 60 days of exposure without medical care (LD50/60); severe bone marrow damage in healthy men; severe bone marrow damage in leukemia patients; temporary sterility (azoospermia); reduced male fertility; and late effects such as cancer. Their analysis was grounded in extensive clinical experience and anchored to a few selected data points, and based on the 1968 dose-rate dependence theory of J.L. Bateman. The Lushbaugh et al. paper did not give predictive equations for the relationships, although they were implied in the text, and the relationships were presented in a non-intuitive way. This work derives the parameters needed in Bateman's equation for each health endpoint, tabulates the results, and plots them in a more conventional manner on logarithmic scales. The results give a quantitative indication of how the human organism can tolerate more radiation dose when it is delivered at lower dose rates. For example, the LD50/60 increases from about 3 grays (300 rads) when given at very high dose rates to over 10 grays (1,000 rads) when given at much lower dose rates over periods of several months. The latter figure is borne out by the case of an individual who survived for at least 19 years after receiving doses in the range of 9 to 17 grays (900-1700 rads) over 106 days. The Lushbaugh et al. work shows the importance of sheltering when confronted with long-term exposure to radiological contamination such as would be expected from a radiological dispersion event, reactor accident, or ground-level nuclear explosion.

Strom, Daniel J.

2005-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

240

Annexin A2 Regulates A Low Dose-Specific Stress Response To Radiation.  

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Annexin A2 Regulates A Low Dose-Specific Stress Response To Radiation. Thomas J. Annexin A2 Regulates A Low Dose-Specific Stress Response To Radiation. Thomas J. Weber (PI), Greg J. Newton, Ryan D. Quesenberry, Janani I. Shutthanandan, Nikki Bollinger, Heather E. Engelmann and Lee K. Opresko. Cell Biology and Biochemistry Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354. Previous studies have demonstrated that JB6 cells release cell transforming paracrine factors following exposure to a low dose of radiation (10 cGy). Investigation of secreted proteins by SDS-Page and silver stain led to the identification of a 36 kDa band whose levels were increased in medium from irradiated cells, relative to sham controls. The 36 kDa band was identified as annexin A2 by mass spectrometry. Western blot analysis confirmed a dose-dependent increase in annexin A2 levels associated with medium from

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241

Dose-Effect Relationship in Chemoradiotherapy for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer: A Randomized Trial Comparing Two Radiation Doses  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Locally advanced rectal cancer represents a major therapeutic challenge. Preoperative chemoradiation therapy is considered standard, but little is known about the dose-effect relationship. The present study represents a dose-escalation phase III trial comparing 2 doses of radiation. Methods and Materials: The inclusion criteria were resectable T3 and T4 tumors with a circumferential margin of {<=}5 mm on magnetic resonance imaging. The patients were randomized to receive 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions to the tumor and pelvic lymph nodes (arm A) or the same treatment supplemented with an endorectal boost given as high-dose-rate brachytherapy (10 Gy in 2 fractions; arm B). Concomitant chemotherapy, uftoral 300 mg/m{sup 2} and L-leucovorin 22.5 mg/d, was added to both arms on treatment days. The primary endpoint was complete pathologic remission. The secondary endpoints included tumor response and rate of complete resection (R0). Results: The study included 248 patients. No significant difference was found in toxicity or surgical complications between the 2 groups. Based on intention to treat, no significant difference was found in the complete pathologic remission rate between the 2 arms (18% and 18%). The rate of R0 resection was different in T3 tumors (90% and 99%; P=.03). The same applied to the rate of major response (tumor regression grade, 1+2), 29% and 44%, respectively (P=.04). Conclusions: This first randomized trial comparing 2 radiation doses indicated that the higher dose increased the rate of major response by 50% in T3 tumors. The endorectal boost is feasible, with no significant increase in toxicity or surgical complications.

Jakobsen, Anders, E-mail: anders.jakobsen@slb.regionsyddanmark.dk [Danish Colorectal Cancer Group South, Vejle Hospital, Vejle (Denmark) [Danish Colorectal Cancer Group South, Vejle Hospital, Vejle (Denmark); University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Ploen, John [University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark)] [University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Vuong, Te [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Appelt, Ane [Danish Colorectal Cancer Group South, Vejle Hospital, Vejle (Denmark) [Danish Colorectal Cancer Group South, Vejle Hospital, Vejle (Denmark); University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Lindebjerg, Jan; Rafaelsen, Soren R. [Danish Colorectal Cancer Group South, Vejle Hospital, Vejle (Denmark)] [Danish Colorectal Cancer Group South, Vejle Hospital, Vejle (Denmark)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

242

Surgeon education decreases radiation dose in complex endovascular procedures and improves patient safety  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Objective Complex endovascular procedures such as fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair (FEVAR) are associated with higher radiation doses compared with other fluoroscopically guided interventions (FGIs). The purpose of this study was to determine whether surgeon education on radiation dose control can lead to lower reference air kerma (RAK) and peak skin dose (PSD) levels in high-dose procedures. Methods Radiation dose and operating factors were recorded for FGI performed in a hybrid room over a 16-month period. Cases exceeding 6 Gy RAK were investigated according to institutional policy. Information obtained from these investigations led to surgeon education focused on reducing patient dose. Points addressed included increasing table height, utilizing collimation and angulation, decreasing magnification modes, and maintaining minimal patient-to-detector distance. Procedural RAK doses and operating factors were compared 8 months pre- (group A) and 8 months post- (group B) educational intervention using analysis of variance with Tukey pairwise comparisons and t-tests. PSD distributions were calculated using custom software employing input data from fluoroscopic machine logs. Results Of 447 procedures performed, 300 \\{FGIs\\} had sufficient data to be included in the analysis (54% lower extremity, 11% thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair, 10% cerebral, 8% FEVAR, 7% endovascular aneurysm repair, 5% visceral, and 5% embolization). Twenty-one cases were investigated for exceeding 6 Gy RAK. FEVAR comprised 70% of the investigated cases and had a significantly higher median RAK dose compared with all other \\{FGIs\\} (Pradiation dose, and decreased the number of non-FEVAR cases that exceeded 6 Gy. It is essential thatvascular surgeons be educated in best operating practices to lower PSD; nonetheless, FEVAR remains a high-dose procedure.

Melissa L. Kirkwood; Gary M. Arbique; Jeffrey B. Guild; Carlos Timaran; Jayer Chung; Jon A. Anderson; R. James Valentine

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - Suggested Books and Literature for  

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Suggested Books and Literature for Teachers about Radiation Suggested Books and Literature for Teachers about Radiation Popular Press News Articles Newspapers is an excellent portal or gateway to newspapers from all 50 states. To find a newspaper of interest, select a state and click Search. For a more specified search, fill in the Title of the newspaper and click Search. The newspapers available from that state are listed alphabetically. Hall, E., Radiation and Life Hall, E.J.Radiobiology for the Radiologist. 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA. 2000 Nagai, T.Atomic Bomb Rescue and Relief Report. Nagasaki Association for Hibakushas' Medical Care (NASHIM), Nagasaki, Japan. 2000 Nagataki, S.Nagasaki Symposium on Chernobyl: Update and Future, Proceedings of "Chernobyl Update" 3 June 1994 at the 67th Annual Meeting of

244

Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway by extremely low-dose ionizing radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

X-ray irradiation at very low doses, between 2 and 5 cGy, stimulated activity of a member of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in normal human diploid cells. Higher doses of irradiation at more than 1 Gy induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and accumulated p53 protein. Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 decreased with doses down to 50 cGy, however, doses of between 2 and 5 cGy phosphorylated ERK1/2 as efficiently as higher doses of X-rays, while the p53 protein level was no longer changed by doses below 50 cGy. Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)-dependent phosphorylation of p53 protein at Ser15 and histone H2AX at Ser139 was only observed at higher doses of more than 10 cGy of X-rays. We found that the MEK1 inhibitor, PD98059, and the specific epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, AG1478, decreased phosphorylation of the ERK1/2 proteins induced by 2 cGy or 6 Gy of X-rays. These results indicate that a limited range of low-dose ionizing radiation differentially activates ERK1/2 kinases via activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and MAP kinaseERK kinase, which mediates various effects of cells receiving very low doses of ionizing radiation.

Keiji Suzuki; Seiji Kodama; Masami Watanabe

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

A method for estimating occupational radiation dose to individuals, using weekly dosimetry data  

SciTech Connect

Statistical analyses of data from epidemiologic studies of workers exposed to radiation have been based on recorded annual radiation doses. It is usually assumed that the annual dose values are known exactly, although it is generally recognized that the data contain uncertainty due to measurement error and bias. We propose the use of a probability distribution to describe an individual`s dose during a specific period of time. Statistical methods for estimating this dose distribution are developed. The methods take into account the ``measurement error`` that is produced by the dosimetry system, and the bias that was introduced by policies that lead to right censoring of small doses as zero. The method is applied to a sample of dose histories obtained from hard copy dosimetry records at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The result of this evaluation raises serious questions about the validity of the historical personnel dosimetry data that is currently being used in low-dose studies of nuclear industry workers. In particular, it appears that there was a systematic underestimation of doses for ORNL workers. This could result in biased estimates of dose-response coefficients and their standard errors.

Mitchell, T.J.; Ostrouchov, G.; Frome, E.L.; Kerr, G.D.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Estimates of Radiation Dose from Strontium-90 Due to Fallout  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...2412"` d., 74" h. 2" fiberglas insulation. 1 50() watts, 11 5, 208, or 230...gratings, electro-luminescence, thermal radiation backgrounds, infrared polarizers...chart. Write for complete data and specifications. SMALL ANIMAL BALANCE Model 4203B-TC-SA...

MERRIL EISENBUD

1959-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

247

Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation Alters the Epigenome of the Avy Mouse  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ionizing Radiation Alters the Epigenome of the A Ionizing Radiation Alters the Epigenome of the A vy Mouse Autumn Bernal 1,2,3 , Dale Huang 1 , Yue Li 4 , Dana Dolinoy 5 , and Randy Jirtle 1 Department of Radiation Oncology 1 , University Program in Genetics and Genomic 2 , Integrated Toxicology & Environmental Health Program 3 , Department of Community and Family Medicine 4 , Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA, Department of Environmental and Health Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA 4 Background: Humans have evolved and thrived amidst constant low-dose (0-10 cGy) background radiation exposure from natural sources. Currently, however, the frequency of exposures to low doses of radiation is increasing due to man-made sources such as diagnostic imaging and nuclear power. This increased exposure has led to concerns amongst the general public and the government about the

248

Mechanisms Underlying Cellular Responses to Low Doses/Low LET Ionizing Radiation in Primary Haemopoietic Cells.  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mechanisms Underlying Cellular Responses to Low Doses/Low LET Ionizing Radiation Mechanisms Underlying Cellular Responses to Low Doses/Low LET Ionizing Radiation in Primary Haemopoietic Cells. Munira Kadhim 1 , Stefania Militi 1 , Debbie Bowler 1 , Denise Macdonald 1 and Kevin Prise 2 1 Radiation and Genome Stability Unit, MRC, Harwell, Didcot, Oxon, OX11 0RD, UK 2 Gray Cancer Institute ,PO Box 100, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, HA6 2JR, UK Because the human population is genetically heterogeneous, it is important to understand the role that heterogeneity may play in radiation response. Exposure to ionizing radiation can lead to a suite of changes, including increased mutation rate, delayed reproductive cell death, and delayed chromosomal aberrations, all of which are manifestations of the complex genomic instability (GI) phenotype. Following exposure to either high LET

249

Effect of low-dose, low-LET γ-radiation and BaP injection on pulmonary immunity in A/J mice  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

low-dose, low-LET γ-radiation and BaP injection on pulmonary immunity in A/J mice low-dose, low-LET γ-radiation and BaP injection on pulmonary immunity in A/J mice K. Gott, V. Gonzales, M. Makvandi, N. Kikendall, A. Monier, E. Maloy, C. Rietz, B. Scott and J. Wilder. Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM Introduction: Low-dose, low-linear-energy-transfer (LET) radiation (LDR; < 100 mGy) activates the immune response (Nowosielska et al., 2006), presumably via epigenetic pathways (Scott et al., 2009) and has been implicated as suppressing both alpha-radiation-induced and smoking-related lung cancer (Scott et al. 2009). One of the hypothesized adaptive-response mechanisms by which LDR does so is by activating immune cell function in the lung, which would then increase their anti-cancer surveillance

250

Low-dose, low-LET γ-radiation alters carcinogen-induced splenic cytokine production and immune cell phenotype of A/J mice  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

dose, low-LET γ-radiation alters carcinogen-induced splenic cytokine production and immune cell dose, low-LET γ-radiation alters carcinogen-induced splenic cytokine production and immune cell phenotype of A/J mice. V. Gonzales, K. Gott, M. Makvandi, N. Kikendall, A. Monier, E. Maloy, C. Rietz, B. Scott and J. Wilder. Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM. Introduction: Low-dose, low-linear-energy-transfer (LET) radiation (LDR; < 100 mGy) activates the immune response, presumably via epigenetic pathways (Scott et al. 2009) and may lead to cancer suppression (Nowosielska et al. 2006). One of the mechanisms by which it might do so is by altering the cytokines produced after carcinogen and/or radiation exposure. Alternatively, LDR may activate

251

NREL: Solar Radiation Research - Optical Metrology Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Optical Metrology Laboratory Optical Metrology Laboratory Photo of a laser and a spectral irradiance calibration system used to create lamp-detector alignment. Researchers use a spectral irradiance calibration alignment jig and a laser beam to align a calibration source and test unit. The NREL Optical Metrology Laboratory ensures that optical radiation resource measurement equipment is calibrated to national or international standards to ensure the quality and traceability of data. NREL considers optical radiation to range from 250 nm to 2,500 nm and to include the ultraviolet (250-400 nm), visible (400-750 nm), near infrared (750-1,100 nm), and shortwave infrared (1,100-2,500 nm) ranges. Activities The Optical Metrology Laboratory provides National Institute of Standards and Technology-traceable measurements for:

252

RADIATION CARCINOGENESIS IN MAN: INFLUENCE OF DOSE-RESPONSE MODELS AND RISK PROJECTION MODELS IN THE ESTIMATION OF RISK COEFFICIENTS FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO LOW-LEVEL RADIATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RADIATION CARCINOGENESIS IN MAN: INFLUENCE OF DOSE-RESPONSE MODELS AND RISK PROJECTION MODELS IN THE ESTIMATIONRADIATION CARCINOGENESIS IN HAN: INFLUENCE OF DOSE-RESPONSE MODELS AND RISK PROJECTION MODELS IN THE ESTIMATION

Fabrikant, J.I.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Mechanisms underlying cellular responses of cells from haemopoietic tissue to low dose/low LET radiation  

SciTech Connect

To accurately define the risks associated with human exposure to relevant environmental doses of low LET ionizing radiation, it is necessary to completely understand the biological effects at very low doses (i.e., less than 0.1 Gy), including the lowest possible dose, that of a single electron track traversal. At such low doses, a range of studies have shown responses in biological systems which are not related to the direct interaction of radiation tracks with DNA. The role of these non-targeted responses in critical tissues is poorly understood and little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms. Although critical for dosimetry and risk assessment, the role of individual genetic susceptibility in radiation risk is not satisfactorily defined at present. The aim of the proposed grant is to critically evaluate radiation-induced genomic instability and bystander responses in key stem cell populations from haemopoietic tissue. Using stem cells from two mouse strains (CBA/H and C57BL/6J) known to differ in their susceptibility to radiation effects, we plan to carefully dissect the role of genetic predisposition on two non-targeted radiation responses in these models; the bystander effect and genomic instability, which we believe are closely related. We will specifically focus on the effects of low doses of low LET radiation, down to doses approaching a single electron traversal. Using conventional X-ray and ?-ray sources, novel dish separation and targeted irradiation approaches, we will be able to assess the role of genetic variation under various bystander conditions at doses down to a few electron tracks. Irradiations will be carried out using facilities in routine operation for bystander targeted studies. Mechanistic studies of instability and the bystander response in different cell lineages will focus initially on the role of cytokines which have been shown to be involved in bystander signaling and the initiation of instability. These studies also aim to uncover protein mediators of the bystander responses using advanced proteomic screening of factors released from irradiated, bystander and unstable cells. Integral to these studies will be an assessment of the role of genetic susceptibility in these responses, using CBA/H and C57BL/6J mice. The relevance of in vivo interactions between stem cells and the stem cell niche will be explored in the future by re-implantation techniques of previously irradiated cells. The above studies will provide fundamental mechanistic information relating genetic predisposition to important low dose phenomena, and will aid in the development of Department of Energy policy, as well as radiation risk policy for the public and the workplace. We believe the proposed studies accurately reflect the goals of the DOE low dose program.

Munira A Kadhim

2010-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

254

Extremely Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation Causes Activation of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Pathway and Enhances Proliferation of Normal Human Diploid Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...stimulative effect of low-dose irradiation. These results indicate that a limited range of low-dose ionizing radiation differentially activates...indicate that a limited range of low-dose ionizing radiation differentially activates...

Keiji Suzuki; Seiji Kodama; and Masami Watanabe

2001-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

255

The Mechanism of Low Dose Radiation Risk Associated with Diagnostic X-rays,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mechanism of Low Dose Radiation Risk Associated with Diagnostic X-rays, Mechanism of Low Dose Radiation Risk Associated with Diagnostic X-rays, PET, and Gamma-rays Douglas Boreham McMaster University Abstract The goal of this project was to investigate low dose ionizing radiation effects associated with exposure to diagnostic computed tomography (CT) or positron emission tomography (PET) scans. Biological effects were evaluated in wild type and Trp53+/- heterozygous females, following in vivo exposure to diagnostic CT (75kVp, 200µ) or PET (18F-FDG) scans. The short term biological effects following CT or PET scans were evaluated in order to understand biological modification of mechanisms, such as DNA repair processes and apoptosis, that might alter long term cancer risk. Corresponding life-time cancer risk studies are in progress. Short-term

256

Investigation of non-targeted effects of low dose ionizing radiation on the mammary gland  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

non-targeted effects of low dose ionizing radiation on the mammary gland non-targeted effects of low dose ionizing radiation on the mammary gland utilizing three-dimensional culture models of mammary cells derived from mouse strains that differ in susceptibility to tumorigenesis Joni D. Mott, Antoine M. Snijders, Alvin Lo, Dinah Levy-Groesser, Bahram Parvin, Andrew J. Wyrobek, Jian-Hua Mao, and Mina J. Bissell Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA 94720 Goal: Within the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's SFA, Project 2, our studies focus on utilizing three dimensional (3D) cell culture models as surrogates for in vivo studies to determine how low doses of ionizing radiation influence mammary gland tissue architecture and how this may relate both to tumor progression and/or adaptive response.

257

The leaded apron revisited: does it reduce gonadal radiation dose in dental radiology  

SciTech Connect

A tissue-equivalent anthropomorphic human phantom was used with a lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimetry system to evaluate the radiation absorbed dose to the ovarian and testicular region during dental radiologic procedures. Measurements were made with and without personal lead shielding devices consisting of thyroid collar and apron of 0.25 mm lead thickness equivalence. The radiation absorbed dose with or without lead shielding did not differ significantly from control dosimeters in vertex occlusal and periapical views (p greater than 0.05). Personal lead shielding devices did reduce gonadal dose in the case of accidental exposure (p less than 0.05). A leaded apron of 0.25 mm lead thickness equivalent was permeable to radiation in direct exposure testing.

Wood, R.E.; Harris, A.M.; van der Merwe, E.J.; Nortje, C.J. (Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada))

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Hypothesis regarding a membrane-associated mechanism of biological action due to low-dose ionizing radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel theory is proposed regarding the action of ionizing radiation in the range of very low doses. The basic premise of the theory presented is that the low-dose effect cannot be explained by direct damage ......

Lazar Kh. Eidus

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Using the Microsoft Kinect for Patient Size Estimation and Radiation Dose Normalization: Proof of Concept and Initial Validation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Monitoring patients' imaging-related radiation is currently a hot topic, but there ... are many obstacles to accurate, patient-specific dose estimation. While some, such as easier access to dose data and paramete...

Tessa S. Cook; Gregory Couch; Timothy J. Couch; Woojin Kim

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Calculation of radiation therapy dose using all particle Monte Carlo transport  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The actual radiation dose absorbed in the body is calculated using three-dimensional Monte Carlo transport. Neutrons, protons, deuterons, tritons, helium-3, alpha particles, photons, electrons, and positrons are transported in a completely coupled manner, using this Monte Carlo All-Particle Method (MCAPM). The major elements of the invention include: computer hardware, user description of the patient, description of the radiation source, physical databases, Monte Carlo transport, and output of dose distributions. This facilitated the estimation of dose distributions on a Cartesian grid for neutrons, photons, electrons, positrons, and heavy charged-particles incident on any biological target, with resolutions ranging from microns to centimeters. Calculations can be extended to estimate dose distributions on general-geometry (non-Cartesian) grids for biological and/or non-biological media.

Chandler, William P. (Tracy, CA); Hartmann-Siantar, Christine L. (San Ramon, CA); Rathkopf, James A. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose radiation research" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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261

Estimation of organs doses and radiation-induced secondary cancer risk from scattered photons for conventional radiation therapy of nasopharynx: a Monte Carlo study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We used Monte Carlo modeling to calculate the organs doses due to out-of field photons during radiation therapy of the nasopharynx.

Asghar Mesbahi; Farshad Seyednejad; Amir Gasemi-Jangjoo

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Answers to questions about updated estimates of occupational radiation doses at Three Mile Island, Unit 2  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this question and answer report is to provide a clear, easy-to-understand explanation of revised radiation dose estimates which workers are likely to receive over the course of the cleanup at Three Mile Island, Unit 2, and of the possible health consequences to workers of these new estimates. We will focus primarily on occupational dose, although pertinent questions about public health and safety will also be answered.

Not Available

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Mammalian Tissue Response to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation: The Role of Oxidative Metabolism and Intercellular Communication  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the project was to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the biological effects of low dose/low dose rate ionizing radiation in organs/tissues of irradiated mice that differ in their susceptibility to ionizing radiation, and in human cells grown under conditions that mimic the natural in vivo environment. The focus was on the effects of sparsely ionizing cesium-137 gamma rays and the role of oxidative metabolism and intercellular communication in these effects. Four Specific Aims were proposed. The integrated outcome of the experiments performed to investigate these aims has been significant towards developing a scientific basis to more accurately estimate human health risks from exposures to low doses ionizing radiation. By understanding the biochemical and molecular changes induced by low dose radiation, several novel markers associated with mitochondrial functions were identified, which has opened new avenues to investigate metabolic processes that may be affected by such exposure. In particular, a sensitive biomarker that is differentially modulated by low and high dose gamma rays was discovered.

Azzam, Edouard I

2013-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

264

An integrated genetics approach to systemic low-dose radiation responses  

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integrated genetics approach to systemic low-dose radiation responses integrated genetics approach to systemic low-dose radiation responses G. Huang 1 , Y. Huang 1 , D.H. Nguyen 1 , K. Bjornstad 1 , C. Rosen 1 , P. Chang 2 , R. DelRosario 3 , Do Yup Lee 1 , B. Bowen 1 , W. Reindl 1 , J. Mott 1 , A. Balmain 3 , M.H. Barcellos-Hoff 4 , Joe W Gray 1,5 , Mina Bissell 1 , Gary Karpen 1 , T. Northen 1 , E. A. Blakely 1 , J. H. Mao 1 1 Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 2 SRI International, Menlo Park, CA

265

Quantitative estimation of UV light dose concomitant to irradiation with ionizing radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A simple mathematical model for biological estimation of UV light dose concomitant to ionizing radiation was suggested. This approach was applied to determine the dependency of equivalent UV light dose accompanied by 100Gy of ionizing radiation on energy of sparsely ionizing radiation and on volume of the exposed cell suspension. It was revealed that the relative excitation contribution to the total lethal effect and the value of UV dose was greatly increased with an increase in energy of ionizing radiation and volume of irradiated suspensions. It is concluded that these observations are in agreement with the supposition that ?erenkov emission is responsible for the production of UV light damage and the phenomenon of photoreactivation observed after ionizing exposure of bacterial and yeast cells hypersensitive to UV light. A possible synergistic interaction of the damages produced by ionizations and excitations as well as a probable participation of UV component of ionizing radiation in the mechanism of hormesis and adaptive response observed after ionizing radiation exposure is discussed.

Vladislav G. Petin; Ivan I. Morozov; Jin Kyu Kim; Maria A. Semkina

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Radiation Pneumonitis After Hypofractionated Radiotherapy: Evaluation of the LQ(L) Model and Different Dose Parameters  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the linear quadratic (LQ) model for hypofractionated radiotherapy within the context of predicting radiation pneumonitis (RP) and to investigate the effect if a linear (L) model in the high region (LQL model) is used. Methods and Materials: The radiation doses used for 128 patients treated with hypofractionated radiotherapy were converted to the equivalent doses given in fractions of 2 Gy for a range of {alpha}/{beta} ratios (1 Gy to infinity) according to the LQ(L) model. For the LQL model, different cut-off values between the LQ model and the linear component were used. The Lyman model parameters were fitted to the events of RP grade 2 or higher to derive the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). The lung dose was calculated as the mean lung dose and the percentage of lung volume (V) receiving doses higher than a threshold dose of xGy (V{sub x}). Results: The best NTCP fit was found if the mean lung dose, or V{sub x}, was calculated with an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 3 Gy. The NTCP fit of other {alpha}/{beta} ratios and the LQL model were worse but within the 95% confidence interval of the NTCP fit of the LQ model with an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 3 Gy. The V{sub 50} NTCP fit was better than the NTCP fit of lower threshold doses. Conclusions: For high fraction doses, the LQ model with an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 3 Gy was the best method for converting the physical lung dose to predict RP.

Borst, Gerben R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ishikawa, Masayori [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Nijkamp, Jasper [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Low dose radiation hypersensitivity and clustered DNA damages in human fibroblasts exposed to low dose and dose rate protons or 137CS y-rays  

SciTech Connect

Effective radioprotection for human space travelers hinges upon understanding the individual properties of charged particles. A significant fraction of particle radiation astronauts will encounter in space exploratory missions will come from high energy protons in galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) and/or possible exposures to lower energy proton flux from solar particle events (SPEs). These potential exposures present major concerns for NASA and others, in planning and executing long term space exploratory missions. We recently reported cell survival and transformation (acquisition of anchorage-independent growth in soft agar) frequencies in apparently normal NFF-28 primary human fibroblasts exposed to 0-30 cGy of 50MeV, 100MeV (SPE-like), or 1000 MeV (GCR-like) monoenergetic protons. These were modeled after 1989 SPE energies at an SPE-like low dose-rate (LDR) of 1.65 cGy/min or high dose rate (HDR) of 33.3 cGy/min delivered at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL.

Bennett P. V.; Bennett, P.V.; Keszenman, D.J.; Johnson, A.M.; Sutherland, B.M.; Wilson, P.F.

2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

268

DOE Research Contributions to Radiation and Cancer Therapy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DOE Research Contributions to Radiation and Cancer Therapy Resources with Additional Information Planned radiation treatment Peregrine calculation from Mission Possible: DOE Advanced Biomedical Technology Research, page 10 Over the time span of many years, DOE's research has made many contributions to radiation and cancer therapy, including PEREGRINE and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). 'PEREGRINE, a hardware and software system that addresses the problem of radiation therapy dosage using fundamental physics principles, is a revolutionary new tool for analyzing and planning radiation treatment for cancer patients. About 90 percent of radiation treatment patients receive photon therapy, which is PEREGRINE's principal application. PEREGRINE may also be applied to the less frequently used electron-beam therapy and to brachytherapy, which is radiation therapy from an internally planted radiation source. It is effective for radiography, which predicts the pattern of radiation that is transmitted through a patient or other object.'1

269

85Kr management trade-offs: a perspective to total radiation dose commitment  

SciTech Connect

Radiological consequences arising from the trade-offs for /sup 85/Kr waste management from possible nuclear fuel resource recovery activities have been investigated. The reference management technique is to release all the waste gas to the atmosphere where it is diluted and dispersed. A potential alternative is to collect, concentrate, package and submit the gas to long-term storage. This study compares the radiation dose commitment to the public and to the occupationally exposed work force from these alternatives. The results indicate that it makes little difference to the magnitude of the world population dose whether /sup 85/Kr is captured and stored or chronically released to the environment. Further, comparisons of radiation exposures (for the purpose of estimating health effects) at very low dose rates to very large populations with exposures to a small number of occupationally exposed workers who each receive much higher dose rates may be misleading. Finally, cost studies (EPA 1976 and DOE 1979a) show that inordinate amounts of money will be required to lower this already extremely small 80-year cumulative world population dose of 0.05 mrem/person (<0.001% of natural background radiation for the same time period).

Mellinger, P.J.; Hoenes, G.R.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Greenborg, J.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Applied Radiation and Isotopes 64 (2006) 6062 Weak energy dependence of EBT gafchromic film dose  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is almost free of all these drawbacks. Its response is relatively energy-independent, and its sensitivityApplied Radiation and Isotopes 64 (2006) 60­62 Weak energy dependence of EBT gafchromic film dose of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong b Department

Yu, K.N.

271

Style Guide Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Style Guide Style Guide Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility March 2013 Style Guide Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility March 2013 Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research March 2013 ii Contents 1.0 Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 1 2.0 Acronyms and Abbreviations ............................................................................................................... 1 2.1 Usage ............................................................................................................................................ 1

272

PARP-1, PARP-2, and the cellular response to low doses of ionizing radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Purpose Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is rapidly and directly activated by single-strand breaks and is required for efficient base excision repair. These properties indicate that inhibition of PARP-1 might enhance the cellular response to low doses of radiation. We tested the effect of chemical inhibition of PARP-1 on low-dose clonogenic survival in a number of cell lines and the low-dose radiation response of a PARP-1 knockout murine cell line. Methods and materials Clonogenic cell survival of V79-379A and CHO-K1 hamster fibroblasts, T98G and U373-MG human glioma cells, and 3T3 mouse embryo fibroblast PARP-1 knockout cells was measured using a precise flow cytometry-based plating assay. Chemical inhibitors of PARP enzymes were tested for their effect on clonogenic survival after a range of ionizing radiation doses. Results Chemical inhibition of PARP activity induced marked radiosensitization of V79, CHO, and exponentially growing T98G cells in the 0.050.3-Gy range. This effect was not seen in U373 cells or in confluent T98G populations. Low-dose radiosensitization was not apparent in PARP-1 knockout cells. Conclusion Low-dose radiosensitization of actively dividing tumor cells by PARP-1 inhibitors suggests that they may have a role in enhancing the efficacy of ultrafractionated or low-dose-rate radiotherapy regimens. We hypothesize that PARP-2 compensates for the absence of PARP-1 in the knockout cell line.

Anthony Chalmers; Peter Johnston; Mick Woodcock; Michael Joiner; Brian Marples

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

ESnet supports Sandia and APNIC IPv6 Background Radiation research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

supports Sandia and APNIC IPv6 Background Radiation research Engineering Services The Network OSCARS Fasterdata IPv6 Network IPv6 Implementation Checklist ESnet IPv6 Mirror Servers...

274

Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 7  

SciTech Connect

The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in the continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This is volume 7 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings and conferences, journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges from use of robotics to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 7 contains 293 abstract, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 7. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes.

Kaurin, D.G.; Khan, T.A.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 8  

SciTech Connect

The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in a continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This volume 8 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected form proceedings of technical meetings and conference journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to the many aspects of radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges form use of robotics, to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 8 contains 232 abstracts, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 8. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes.

Sullivan, S.G.; Khan, T.A.; Xie, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Radiation-Induced Rib Fractures After Hypofractionated Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy: Risk Factors and Dose-Volume Relationship  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to clarify the incidence, the clinical risk factors, and the dose-volume relationship of radiation-induced rib fracture (RIRF) after hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: One hundred sixteen patients treated with SBRT for primary or metastatic lung cancer at our institution, with at least 6 months of follow-up and no previous overlapping radiation exposure, were included in this study. To determine the clinical risk factors associated with RIRF, correlations between the incidence of RIRF and the variables, including age, sex, diagnosis, gross tumor volume diameter, rib-tumor distance, and use of steroid administration, were analyzed. Dose-volume histogram analysis was also conducted. Regarding the maximum dose, V10, V20, V30, and V40 of the rib, and the incidences of RIRF were compared between the two groups divided by the cutoff value determined by the receiver operating characteristic curves. Results: One hundred sixteen patients and 374 ribs met the inclusion criteria. Among the 116 patients, 28 patients (46 ribs) experienced RIRF. The estimated incidence of rib fracture was 37.7% at 3 years. Limited distance from the rib to the tumor (<2.0 cm) was the only significant risk factor for RIRF (p = 0.0001). Among the dosimetric parameters used for receiver operating characteristic analysis, the maximum dose showed the highest area under the curve. The 3-year estimated risk of RIRF and the determined cutoff value were 45.8% vs. 1.4% (maximum dose, {>=}42.4 Gy or less), 51.6% vs. 2.0% (V40, {>=}0.29 cm{sup 3} or less), 45.8% vs. 2.2% (V30, {>=}1.35 cm{sup 3} or less), 42.0% vs. 8.5% (V20, {>=}3.62 cm{sup 3} or less), or 25.9% vs. 10.5% (V10, {>=}5.03 cm{sup 3} or less). Conclusions: The incidence of RIRF after hypofractionated SBRT is relatively high. The maximum dose and high-dose volume are strongly correlated with RIRF.

Asai, Kaori [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)] [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Shioyama, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: shioyama@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Heavy Particle Therapy and Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)] [Department of Heavy Particle Therapy and Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Nakamura, Katsumasa; Sasaki, Tomonari; Ohga, Saiji; Nonoshita, Takeshi [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)] [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Yoshitake, Tadamasa [Department of Heavy Particle Therapy and Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)] [Department of Heavy Particle Therapy and Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Ohnishi, Kayoko [Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Terashima, Kotaro; Matsumoto, Keiji [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)] [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Hirata, Hideki [Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)] [Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Honda, Hiroshi [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)] [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Low-LET Microdosimetry Calculations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low-LET Microdosimetry Calculations Low-LET Microdosimetry Calculations Authors: W.E. Wilson, J.H. Miller, D.J. Lynch, R.R. Lewis and M. Batdorf Institutions: Washington State University, Richland, WA, USA Liquid Model Calculations of low-linear-transfer (LET) microdosimetry have been extended to condensed phase by introducing new modules into the PITS code suite. Probability tables for inelastic interactions are constructed using the Dingfelder-GSF model for liquid-water cross-sections. Dingfelder et al. 1 re-evaluated low-energy electron interactions in liquid water in terms of five excitation and five ionization channels, and without assuming any collective interactions (plasmons). We use Dingfelder’s algorithms to calculate differential energy-loss distributions for the ten channels; by

278

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Mating-Type Regulation of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mating-Type Regulation of Non-homologous End Joining in Mating-Type Regulation of Non-homologous End Joining in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Authors: Maria Valencia,* Marc Bentele,^ Moreshwar B. Vaze,* Gernot Herrmann, Ellayhu Kraus, Sang Eun Lee, Primo Schar,^ and James E. Haber* Institutions: *Rosenstiel Center and Department of Biology, Brandeis University ^Institute of Medical Radiobiology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. In the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, broken DNA ends can be ligated, either in a precise or an error-prone manner by a process known as Non-Homologous End Joining (NHEJ). Several proteins have been identified that play a role in NHEJ: the yKu70/80 heterodimer, DNA ligase IV and its associated protein Lif1/Xrcc4, the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2 complex, as well as the silencing proteins Sir 2, 3, 4. Recent studies suggest that SIR genes may

279

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Molecular Energetics of Clustered  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Molecular Energetics of Clustered Damage Sites Molecular Energetics of Clustered Damage Sites Authors and Institutions: Principal Investigator: Dr. Michel Dupuis (PNNL) Co-investigators: Professor John H. Miller (WSU Tri-Cities), Professor Robert D. Stewart (Purdue University), Dr. Maciej S. Gutowski (PNNL), Dr. Eric J. Ackerman (PNNL); Collaborators: Mr. Matt Hernst (WSU Tri-Cities), Dr. Vladimir A. Semenenko (Purdue University), Mr. Maciej Haranczyk (Gdansk University , Poland), Mr. Rafal A. Bachorz (Poznan University, Poland), and Ms. Iwona Dabkowska (Gdansk University, Poland). Project: The goal of this project is to provide critical information to help characterize clustered damage sites relative to singly damaged sites with respect to their susceptibility to DNA repair. The premise is that differences in base pairing rules and mutagenic properties of singly and

280

Estimation of children's radiation dose from cardiac catheterisations, performed for the  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Entrance surface radiation doses were measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters for 98 children who were referred to a cardiology department for the diagnosis or the treatment of a congenital heart disease. Additionally, all the radiographic parameters were recorded and Monte Carlo simulations were performed for the estimation of entrance surface dose to effective dose conversion factors, in order to further calculate the effective dose for each child. For diagnostic catheterisations the values ranged from 0.16 to 14.44mSv, with average 3.71mSv, and for therapeutic catheterisations the values ranged from 0.38 to 25.01mSv, with average value 5mSv. Effective doses were estimated for diagnostic procedures and interventional procedures performed for the treatment of five different heart diseases: (a)atrial septal defect (ASD), (b)ventricular septal defect (VSD), (c)patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), (d)aorta coarctation and (e)pulmonary stenosis. The high levels of radiation exposure are, however, balanced with the advantages of cardiac catheterisations such as the avoidance of surgical closure and the necessity of shorter or even nohospitalisation.

E N Yakoumakis; G I Gialousis; Despina Papadopoulou; Triantafillia Makri; Zografia Pappouli; Nikolaos Yakoumakis; Panayotis Papagiannis; Evangelos Georgiou

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose radiation research" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Radiation Exposures Associated with Shipments of Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel  

SciTech Connect

Experience has shown that the analyses of marine transport of spent fuel in the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) were conservative. It is anticipated that for most shipments. The external dose rate for the loaded transportation cask will be more in line with recent shipments. At the radiation levels associated with these shipments, we would not expect any personnel to exceed radiation exposure limits for the public. Package dose rates usually well below the regulatory limits and personnel work practices following ALARA principles are keeping human exposures to minimal levels. However, the potential for Mure shipments with external dose rates closer to the exclusive-use regulatory limit suggests that DOE should continue to provide a means to assure that individual crew members do not receive doses in excess of the public dose limits. As a minimum, the program will monitor cask dose rates and continue to implement administrative procedures that will maintain records of the dose rates associated with each shipment, the vessel used, and the crew list for the vessel. DOE will continue to include a clause in the contract for shipment of the foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel requiring that the Mitigation Action Plan be followed.

MASSEY,CHARLES D.; MESSICK,C.E.; MUSTIN,T.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Uptake, depuration, and radiation dose estimation in zebrafish exposed to radionuclides via aqueous or dietary routes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Understanding uptake and depuration of radionuclides in organisms is necessary to relate exposure to radiation dose and ultimately to biological effects. We investigated uptake and depuration of a mixture of radionuclides to link bioaccumulation with radiation dose in zebrafish, Danio rerio. Adult zebrafish were exposed to radionuclides (54Mn, 60Co, 65Zn, 75Se, 109Cd, 110mAg, 134Cs and 241Am) at tracer levels (dose rates were modelled from activity concentrations in whole body and exposure medium (water or diet). After 14-day aqueous exposure, radionuclides were detected in decreasing activity concentrations: 75Se>65Zn>109Cd>110mAg>54Mn>60Co>241Am>134Cs (range: 1758Bqg1). After dietary exposure the order of radionuclide activity concentration in tissues (Bqg?1) was: 65Zn>60Co>75Se>109Cd>110mAg>241Am>54Mn>134Cs (range: 911Bqg?1). Aqueous exposure resulted in higher whole body activity concentrations for all radionuclides except 60Co. Route of exposure did not appear to influence activity concentrations in gonads, except for 54Mn, 65Zn, and 75Se, which had higher activity concentrations in gonads following aqueous exposure. Highest gonad activity concentrations (Bqg?1) were for 75Se (211), 109Cd (142), and 65Zn (117), and highest dose rates (?Gyh?1) were from 241Am (aqueous, 1050; diet 242). This study links radionuclide bioaccumulation data obtained in laboratory experiments with radiation dose determined by application of a dosimetry modelling tool, an approach that will enable better linkages to be made between exposure, dose, and effects of radionuclides in organisms.

Helena C. Reinardy; Jean-Louis Teyssie; Ross A. Jeffree; David Copplestone; Theodore B. Henry; Awadhesh N. Jha

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Third Radiation Effects Research Foundation Board of Councilors Meeting  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Third Radiation Effects Research Foundation Board of Councilors Third Radiation Effects Research Foundation Board of Councilors Meeting Held in Hiroshima Third Radiation Effects Research Foundation Board of Councilors Meeting Held in Hiroshima July 22, 2013 - 4:54pm Addthis Third Radiation Effects Research Foundation Board of Councilors Meeting Held in Hiroshima The third Board of Councilors (BOC) meeting was held on June 18-19 at the Hiroshima Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), a bi-national U.S.-Japan research organization. The BOC is the highest decision-making body at RERF, consisting of eight Councilors elected from the United States and Japan. A total of 23 participants, including 8 Councilors from the United States and Japan and officials from the U.S. and Japanese Governments, were present at the meeting. The Office of Health, Safety and

284

A modified Phase I trial of radiation dose escalation in 3D conformal radiation therapy with concurrent vinorelbine and carboplatin chemotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......system (VENUS 5014 software, Shanghai Tuoneng Co.) used to design the radiation plan. The convolution...stopped. Grade III radiation pneumonia was defined...DLT. To examine the safety of the 70 Gy dose level...Case Case Case (%) Radiation pneumonia 11 (61......

Qiang Lin; Yue'e Liu; Na Wang; Yuehua Huang; Xiaohui Ge; Xiaocang Ren; Xueji Chen; Jing Hu; Zhijun Guo; Yannan Zhao; Junichi Asaumi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Nuclear Decay Data in the MIRD (Medical Internal Radiation Dose) Format  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

MIRD is a database of evaluated nuclear decay data for over 2,100 radioactive nuclei. Data are extracted from ENSDF, processed by the program RadList, and used for medical internal radiation dose calculations. When using the MIRD interface, tables of nuclear and atomic radiations from nuclear decay and decay scheme drawings will be produced in the MIRD format from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) for the specified nuclide. Output may be either HTML-formatted tables and JPEG drawings, PostScript tables and drawings, or PDF tables and drawings.

286

A revised model of the kidney for medical internal radiation dose calculations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are frequently the organs receiving the highest level of radioactivity and, therefore, the largest radiation dose. Short lived radiopharmaceuticals, that are now injected in millicurie quantities in nuclear medicine for rapid-sequence imaging of the brain... radionuclides (Appendix B). 17 These include the following radionuclides presently used in nuclear medicine: P-32, Cr-51, Co-57, Ga-67, Tc-99m, In-ill, I-123, Xe-127, I-131, Xe-133, and T1-201. If the radionuclide emits penetrating radiation, the code...

Patel, Jyoti Shivabhai

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Radiation dose estimation in computed tomography examinations using NRPB-SR250 software in aretrospective analysis of a patient population  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......NRPB-SR250 software in aretrospective...fi 1 STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority...342:d947. RADIATION DOSE ESTIMATION...NRPB-SR250 SOFTWARE IN A RETROSPECTIVE...of medical radiation exposure...to patients safety, frequent......

E. Salminen; H. Niiniviita; J. Kulmala; H. Mttnen; H. Jrvinen

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Low Dose Radiation Stimulates Antioxidant Capacity in the Brain and Lessens  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Stimulates Antioxidant Capacity in the Brain and Lessens Stimulates Antioxidant Capacity in the Brain and Lessens Behavioral Symptoms in a 6-OHDA-Induced Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease Mohan Doss Fox Chase Cancer Center Abstract Background: Progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) pars compacta results in motor deficits in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. Oxidative damage to the nigral dopaminergic neurons has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. Our hypothesis is that low dose radiation induces the production of antioxidants in the brain, which could provide protection to the dopaminergic neurons, potentially leading to prevention or stabilization of PD. The purpose of the study is (1) to determine the effect of low dose radiation on the total antioxidant capacity in SN in

289

TABLES OF RADIATION ABSORBED DOSE TO THE EMBRYO/FETUS FROM RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

TABLES OF RADIATION ABSORBED DOSE TO THE EMBRYO/FETUS TABLES OF RADIATION ABSORBED DOSE TO THE EMBRYO/FETUS FROM RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS LATEST REVISION DATE: 1/21/98 The material in this document is taken from the Master's thesis of Ms. Joy Russell (University of Tennessee, Master's Degree conferred August 1995). The data below, and the methods and assumptions used to derive them, are published in two documents in the Health Physics Journal (73(5):747-755, 1997 and 73(5):756-769, 1997) and also in the Proceedings of the Sixth International Radiopharmaceutical Dosimetry Symposium. Please contact the center with any questions or comments about the data. Richard E. Toohey, 423-576-3448 phone, 423-576-8673 fax, tooheyr@orau.gov e-mail Audrey T. Stelson, 423-576-3450 phone, 423-576-8673 fax, stelsona@orau.gov e-mail

290

Radiation Dose and Radiation Protection for Patients and Physicians During Interventional Procedure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Radiation Injury in IVR 101 those in the left coronary artery (LCA, AHA #1115: 0.628, AHA #510: 0.694).40) Therefore...criphysicianfactsheet.asp. Published May 10, 2006. 58. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Atomic Energy......

Koichi Chida; Mamoru Kato; Yutaka Kagaya; Masayuki Zuguchi; Haruo Saito; Tadashi Ishibashi; Shoki Takahashi; Shogo Yamada; Yoshihiro Takai

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Radiation dose assessment methodology and preliminary dose estimates to support US Department of Energy radiation control criteria for regulated treatment and disposal of hazardous wastes and materials  

SciTech Connect

This report provides unit dose to concentration levels that may be used to develop control criteria for radionuclide activity in hazardous waste; if implemented, these criteria would be developed to provide an adequate level of public and worker health protection, for wastes regulated under U.S, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements (as derived from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act [RCRA] and/or the Toxic Substances Control Act [TSCA]). Thus, DOE and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission can fulfill their obligation to protect the public from radiation by ensuring that such wastes are appropriately managed, while simultaneously reducing the current level of dual regulation. In terms of health protection, dual regulation of very small quantities of radionuclides provides no benefit.

Aaberg, R.L.; Baker, D.A.; Rhoads, K.; Jarvis, M.F.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Ionizing Radiation Causes a Dose-Dependent Release of Transforming Growth Factor ? In vitro from Irradiated Xenografts and during Palliative Treatment of Hormone-Refractory Prostate Carcinoma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Preclinical Pharmacology Ionizing Radiation Causes a Dose-Dependent Release of...linear function of the radiation dose over the range 0-10 Gy with r2 0...20: 91-5, 2000. Ionizing radiation causes a dose-dependent release of...

Michael Hagan; Adly Yacoub; and Paul Dent

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Effects of Substerilization Doses of Co60 Gamma Radiation on the Cold-Storage Life Extension of Shucked Soft-Shelled Clams and Haddock Fillets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...000 rad of ionizing radiation. In the dose range from 200,000...000 rad of ionizing radiation. In the dose range from 200,000...000 rad of ionizing radiation. Nevertheless...indicate that in the dose range from 400,000...

E. B. Masurovsky; S. A. Goldblith; J. T. R. Nickerson

1963-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Low Dose Ionizing Radiation and HZE Particle Effects on Adult Hippocampal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and HZE Particle Effects on Adult Hippocampal and HZE Particle Effects on Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis and mRNA Expression Kerry O'Banion University of Rochester School of Medicine & Dentistry Abstract Most of our knowledge about low dose radiation effects relates to DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations that result in cell death or alterations in genetic programs leading to malignancy. In addition To direct DNA damage, there is accumulating evidence that radiation induced alterations in the microenvironment can have significant effects on programs of cell replication and differentiation such as neurogenesis in adult mammalian brain. Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is postulated to play an important role in learning and memory and manipulations that alter neurogenesis, including inhibition following radiation exposure, have been

295

Effects of non-lethal doses of ionising radiation on the instrumental behaviour of rats  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The dose-effect dependence of the instrumental behaviour of white rats after a single total ?-exposure (60Co) in the dosage range of 0.05 to 7.0 Gy was studied. Generalised results of seven years of our studies of post-radiation changes of operant behaviour in shuttle (active avoidance of shock ?? negative reinforcement) and in Skinner (drinking reward ?? positive reinforcement) boxes were evaluated weekly for a two-month period after exposure. The dose dependence, obtained using these two behavioural paradigms, displays a non-linear pattern. Three regions with different characteristic patterns of the observed effects were found: performance declines relative to control animals after exposure to doses up to 1.0 Gy; performance increases at doses in the range from 1.0 to 3.0 Gy; and again declines with dose increases up to 7.0 Gy. Possible underlying mechanisms, particularly the role of additional stress caused by animal testing, are discussed.

Eugene V. Tukalenko; Vyacheslav V. Varetsky; Olexander G. Rakochi; Inna R. Dmitrieva; Mikola U. Makarchuk

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Monte Carlo estimation of radiation doses during paediatric barium meal and cystourethrography examinations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Organ doses are important quantities in assessing the radiation risk. In the case of children, estimation of this risk is of particular concern due to their significant radiosensitivity and the greater health detriment. The purpose of this study is to estimate the organ doses to paediatric patients undergoing barium meal and micturating cystourethrography examinations by clinical measurements and Monte Carlo simulation. In clinical measurements, dosearea products (DAPs) were assessed during examination of 50 patients undergoing barium meal and 90 patients undergoing cystourethrography examinations, separated equally within three age categories: namely newborn, 1 year and 5 years old. Monte Carlo simulation of photon transport in male and female mathematical phantoms was applied using the MCNP5 code in order to estimate the equivalent organ doses. Regarding the micturating cystourethrography examinations, the organs receiving considerable amounts of radiation doses were the urinary bladder (1.87, 2.43 and 4.7 mSv, the first, second and third value in the parentheses corresponds to neonatal, 1 year old and 5 year old patients, respectively), the large intestines (1.54, 1.8, 3.1 mSv), the small intestines (1.34, 1.56, 2.78 mSv), the stomach (1.46, 1.02, 2.01 mSv) and the gall bladder (1.46, 1.66, 2.18 mSv), depending upon the age of the child. Organs receiving considerable amounts of radiation during barium meal examinations were the stomach (9.81, 9.92, 11.5 mSv), the gall bladder (3.05, 5.74, 7.15 mSv), the rib bones (9.82, 10.1, 11.1 mSv) and the pancreas (5.8, 5.93, 6.65 mSv), depending upon the age of the child. DAPs to organ/effective doses conversion factors were derived for each age and examination in order to be compared with other studies.

A Dimitriadis; G Gialousis; T Makri; M Karlatira; P Karaiskos; E Georgiou; S Papaodysseas; E Yakoumakis

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Significance of certain rustler aquifer parameters for predicting long-term radiation doses from WIPP  

SciTech Connect

This report considers some aspects of the radionuclide transport modeling presented in documents published by the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) nuclear waste repository proposed for development in Southeastern New Mexico. The radionuclide transport modeling is used to predict worst possible consequences of a WIPP repository breach event in which waste enters groundwater. The aim of this report is to determine whether plausible changes in the parameters used by DOE to describe the flow of groundwater near the WIPP site could result in: (a) significantly faster radionuclide movement in groundwater; and (b) significantly higher concentrations of radionuclides in Pecos River water and correspondingly higher radiation doses than predicted by DOE. The conclusion reached is that while plausible changes in hydrologic conditions and waste-rock interactions might result in a significant reduction in the time it takes for radionuclides to reach the Pecos River, the shorter travel times do not result in significant increases in the estimated concentrations of radionuclides in the Pecos River nor in the radiation doses associated with the use of such water. Other ways in which parameter changes might affect these concentrations and doses are mentioned in the Conclusions section of the report, but are not the subject of this analysis.

Wofsy, C

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Retrospective Cohort Study of Bronchial Doses and Radiation-Induced Atelectasis After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy of Lung Tumors Located Close to the Bronchial Tree  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the doseresponse relationship between radiation-induced atelectasis after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and bronchial dose. Methods and Materials: Seventy-four patients treated with SBRT for tumors close to main, lobar, or segmental bronchi were selected. The association between incidence of atelectasis and bronchial dose parameters (maximum point-dose and minimum dose to the high-dose bronchial volume [ranging from 0.1 cm{sup 3} up to 2.0 cm{sup 3}]) was statistically evaluated with survival analysis models. Results: Prescribed doses varied between 4 and 20 Gy per fraction in 2-5 fractions. Eighteen patients (24.3%) developed atelectasis considered to be radiation-induced. Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation between the incidence of radiation-induced atelectasis and minimum dose to the high-dose bronchial volumes, of which 0.1 cm{sup 3} (D{sub 0.1cm3}) was used for further analysis. The median value of D{sub 0.1cm3} (?/? = 3 Gy) was EQD{sub 2,LQ} = 147 Gy{sub 3} (range, 20-293 Gy{sub 3}). For patients who developed atelectasis the median value was EQD{sub 2,LQ} = 210 Gy{sub 3}, and for patients who did not develop atelectasis, EQD{sub 2,LQ} = 105 Gy{sub 3}. Median time from treatment to development of atelectasis was 8.0 months (range, 1.1-30.1 months). Conclusion: In this retrospective study a significant doseresponse relationship between the incidence of atelectasis and the dose to the high-dose volume of the bronchi is shown.

Karlsson, Kristin, E-mail: kristin.karlsson@karolinska.se [Department of Medical Physics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Nyman, Jan [Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Baumann, Pia; Wersll, Peter [Department of Oncology, Radiumhemmet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Drugge, Ninni [Department of Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Gagliardi, Giovanna [Department of Medical Physics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Johansson, Karl-Axel [Department of Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Persson, Jan-Olov [Statistical Research Group, Mathematical Statistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Rutkowska, Eva [Physics Department, Clatterbridge Cancer Centre, Wirral (United Kingdom); Tullgren, Owe [Department of Oncology, Radiumhemmet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Lax, Ingmar [Department of Medical Physics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Research Reactors and Radiation Facilities for Joint Use Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Observatory, a facility of the Graduate School of Science of Kyoto University, was constructed in 1968's current main research target is to unveil the origin of the solar magnetic activities that govern science and technology, material science, radiation life science, and radiation medical science

Takada, Shoji

300

Impact of Internal Metallic Ports in Temporary Tissue Expanders on Postmastectomy Radiation Dose Distribution  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Temporary tissue expanders (TTE) with an internal magnetic metal port (IMP) have been increasingly used for breast reconstruction in post-mastectomy patients who receive radiation therapy (XRT). We evaluated XRT plans of patients with IMP to determine its effect on XRT dose distribution. Methods and Materials: Original treatment plans with CT simulation scans of 24 consecutive patients who received XRT (ORI), planned without heterogeneity corrections, to a reconstructed breast containing an IMP were used. Two additional treatment plans were then generated: one treatment plan with the IMP assigned the electron density of the rare earth magnet, nickel plated neodymium-iron-boron (HET), and a second treatment plan with the IMP assigned a CT value of 1 to simulate a homogeneous breast without an IMP (BRS). All plans were prescribed 50 Gy to the reconstructed breast (CTV). Results: CTV coverage by 50 Gy was significantly lower in the HET (mean 87.7% CTV) than in either the ORI (mean 99.7% CTV, P<.001) or BRS plans (mean 95.0% CTV, P<.001). The effect of the port was more pronounced on CT slices containing the IMP with prescription dose coverage of the CTV being less in the HET than in either ORI (mean difference 33.6%, P<.01) or BRS plans (mean difference 30.1%, P<.001). HET had a less homogeneous and conformal dose distribution than BRS or ORI. Conclusion: IMPs increase dose heterogeneity and reduce dose to the breast CTV through attenuation of the beam. For optimal XRT treatment, heterogeneity corrections should be used in XRT planning for patients with TTE with IMP, as the IMP impacts dose distribution.

Chen, Susie A.; Ogunleye, Tomiwa; Dhabbaan, Anees [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Huang, Eugene H. [North Coast Cancer Care, Sandusky, Ohio (United States)] [North Coast Cancer Care, Sandusky, Ohio (United States); Losken, Albert [Division of Plastic Surgery and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)] [Division of Plastic Surgery and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Gabram, Sheryl [Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)] [Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Davis, Lawrence [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Torres, Mylin A., E-mail: matorre@emory.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

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301

Reference Radiation for Cosmic Rays in RBE Research  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When astronauts travel in space, they are exposed to high energy cosmic radiations. The cosmic ray spectrum contains very high energy particles, generally up to several GeV per nucleon. Currently NASA is funding research on the effects...

Feng, Shaoyong

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

302

Standard Test Method for Measuring Dose for Use in Linear Accelerator Pulsed Radiation Effects Tests  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 This test method covers a calorimetric measurement of the total dose delivered in a single pulse of electrons from an electron linear accelerator or a flash X-ray machine (FXR, e-beam mode) used as an ionizing source in radiation-effects testing. The test method is designed for use with pulses of electrons in the energy range from 10 to 50 MeV and is only valid for cases in which both the calorimeter and the test specimen to be irradiated arethin compared to the range of these electrons in the materials of which they are constructed. 1.2 The procedure described can be used in those cases in which (1) the dose delivered in a single pulse is 5 Gy (matl) (500 rd (matl)) or greater, or (2) multiple pulses of a lower dose can be delivered in a short time compared to the thermal time constant of the calorimeter. Matl refers to the material of the calorimeter. The minimum dose per pulse that can be acceptably monitored depends on the variables of the particular test, including pulse rate, pulse uniformity...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Radiation-Absorbed Dose Estimation of 166Ho Microspheres in Liver Radioembolization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Purpose To investigate the potential of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for accurate assessment of the three-dimensional 166Ho activity distribution to estimate radiation-absorbed dose distributions in 166Ho-loaded poly (L-lactic acid) microsphere (166Ho-PLLA-MS) liver radioembolization. Methods and Materials MRI, computed tomography (CT), and single photon emission CT (SPECT) experiments were conducted on an anthropomorphic gel phantom with tumor-simulating gel samples and on an excised human tumor-bearing liver, both containing known amounts of 166Ho-PLLA-MS. Three-dimensional radiation-absorbed dose distributions were estimated at the voxel level by convolving the 166Ho activity distribution, derived from quantitative MRI data, with a 166Ho dose point-kernel generated by MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code) and from Medical Internal Radiation Dose Pamphlet 17. MRI-based radiation-absorbed dose distributions were qualitatively compared with CT and autoradiography images and quantitatively compared with SPECT-based dose distributions. Both MRI- and SPECT-based activity estimations were validated against dose calibrator measurements. Results Evaluation on an anthropomorphic phantom showed that MRI enables accurate assessment of local 166Ho-PLLA-MS mass and activity distributions, as supported by a regression coefficient of 1.05 and a correlation coefficient of 0.99, relating local MRI-based mass and activity calculations to reference values obtained with a dose calibrator. Estimated MRI-based radiation-absorbed dose distributions of 166Ho-PLLA-MS in an exvivo human liver visually showed high correspondence to SPECT-based radiation-absorbed dose distributions. Quantitative analysis revealed that the differences in local and total amounts of 166Ho-PLLA-MS estimated by MRI, SPECT, and the dose calibrator were within 10%. Excellent agreement was observed between MRI- and SPECT-based dosevolume histograms. Conclusions Quantitative MRI was demonstrated to provide accurate three-dimensional 166Ho-PLLA-MS activity distributions, enabling localized intrahepatic radiation-absorbed dose estimation by convolution with a 166Ho dose point-kernel for liver radioembolization treatment optimization and evaluation.

Peter R. Seevinck; Gerrit H. van de Maat; Tim C. de Wit; Maarten A.D. Vente; Johannes F.W. Nijsen; Chris J.G. Bakker

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Evaluation and Control of Radiation Dose to the Embryo/Fetus Guide for Use with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This Guide provides an acceptable methodology for establishing and operating a program to control fetal exposure to ionizing radiation and evaluate the resultant dose that will comply with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements specified in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection (DOE 1998), hereinafter referred to as 10 CFR 835.

1999-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

305

Proprietary Research | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Proprietary Research Proprietary Research Proprietary Research is defined as that for which users request confidentiality of proposal, data and results for a certain period of time. This research follows the guidelines for implementation by the Stanford University Faculty Senate and is executed through a Proprietary User Agreement. Proprietary Research is subject to the Department of Energy's full-cost recovery requirement for facility charges for the use of user facilities and advance payment of those charges. The facility charges are established as a dollar rate for each shift of beam time. Experimenters interested in conducting Proprietary Research should contact the User Research Administration Manager well in advance of the anticipated need for beam time as the legal and financial procedures involved may take

306

RET/PTC Rearrangements Preferentially Occurred in Papillary Thyroid Cancer among Atomic Bomb Survivors Exposed to High Radiation Dose  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Molecular Epidemiology, Radiation Effects Research Foundation...Hiroshima 732-0815, Japan. Phone: 81-82-261-3169...an important role in radiation-associated thyroid...Molecular Epidemiology, Radiation Effects Research Foundation...Hiroshima 732-0815, Japan. hamatani@rerf...

Kiyohiro Hamatani; Hidetaka Eguchi; Reiko Ito; Mayumi Mukai; Keiko Takahashi; Masataka Taga; Kazue Imai; John Cologne; Midori Soda; Koji Arihiro; Megumu Fujihara; Kuniko Abe; Tomayoshi Hayashi; Masahiro Nakashima; Ichiro Sekine; Wataru Yasui; Yuzo Hayashi; and Kei Nakachi

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Impact of Gastric Filling on Radiation Dose Delivered to Gastroesophageal Junction Tumors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This study examined the impact of gastric filling variation on target coverage of gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) tumors in three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), or IMRT with simultaneous integrated boost (IMRT-SIB) plans. Materials and Methods: Eight patients previously receiving radiation therapy for esophageal cancer had computed tomography (CT) datasets acquired with full stomach (FS) and empty stomach (ES). We generated treatment plans for 3DCRT, IMRT, or IMRT-SIB for each patient on the ES-CT and on the FS-CT datasets. The 3DCRT and IMRT plans were planned to 50.4 Gy to the clinical target volume (CTV), and the same for IMRT-SIB plus 63.0 Gy to the gross tumor volume (GTV). Target coverage was evaluated using dose-volume histogram data for patient treatments simulated with ES-CT sets, assuming treatment on an FS for the entire course, and vice versa. Results: FS volumes were a mean of 3.3 (range, 1.7-7.5) times greater than ES volumes. The volume of the GTV receiving >=50.4 Gy (V{sub 50.4Gy}) was 100% in all situations. The planning GTV V{sub 63Gy} became suboptimal when gastric filling varied, regardless of whether simulation was done on the ES-CT or the FS-CT set. Conclusions: Stomach filling has a negligible impact on prescribed dose delivered to the GEJ GTV, using either 3DCRT or IMRT planning. Thus, local relapses are not likely to be related to variations in gastric filling. Dose escalation for GEJ tumors with IMRT-SIB may require gastric filling monitoring.

Bouchard, Myriam, E-mail: mybouchard@gmail.co [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); McAleer, Mary Frances [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Starkschall, George, E-mail: gstarksc@mdanderson.or [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Radiation dose rates now and in the future for residents neighboring restricted areas of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...background radiation doses in Japan. Finally, health risk...recruited from 63 of 151 households (42%). In Minamisomas Haramachi...radon concentration in Japan . J Environ Radioact 65...indoor Rn concentration in Japan . J Environ Radioact 45...International Atomic Energy Agency (2011) Radiation...

Kouji H. Harada; Tamon Niisoe; Mie Imanaka; Tomoyuki Takahashi; Katsumi Amako; Yukiko Fujii; Masatoshi Kanameishi; Kenji Ohse; Yasumichi Nakai; Tamami Nishikawa; Yuuichi Saito; Hiroko Sakamoto; Keiko Ueyama; Kumiko Hisaki; Eiji Ohara; Tokiko Inoue; Kanako Yamamoto; Yukiyo Matsuoka; Hitomi Ohata; Kazue Toshima; Ayumi Okada; Hitomi Sato; Toyomi Kuwamori; Hiroko Tani; Reiko Suzuki; Mai Kashikura; Michiko Nezu; Yoko Miyachi; Fusako Arai; Masanori Kuwamori; Sumiko Harada; Akira Ohmori; Hirohiko Ishikawa; Akio Koizumi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

A hybrid approach for rapid, accurate, and direct kilovoltage radiation dose calculations in CT voxel space  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To develop and validate a fast and accurate method that uses computed tomography (CT) voxel data to estimate absorbed radiation dose at a point of interest (POI) or series of POIs from a kilovoltage (kV) imaging procedure. Methods: The authors developed an approach that computes absorbed radiation dose at a POI by numerically evaluating the linear Boltzmann transport equation (LBTE) using a combination of deterministic and Monte Carlo (MC) techniques. This hybrid approach accounts for material heterogeneity with a level of accuracy comparable to the general MC algorithms. Also, the dose at a POI is computed within seconds using the Intel Core i7 CPU 920 2.67 GHz quad core architecture, and the calculations are performed using CT voxel data, making it flexible and feasible for clinical applications. To validate the method, the authors constructed and acquired a CT scan of a heterogeneous block phantom consisting of a succession of slab densities: Tissue (1.29 cm), bone (2.42 cm), lung (4.84 cm), bone (1.37 cm), and tissue (4.84 cm). Using the hybrid transport method, the authors computed the absorbed doses at a set of points along the central axis and x direction of the phantom for an isotropic 125 kVp photon spectral point source located along the central axis 92.7 cm above the phantom surface. The accuracy of the results was compared to those computed with MCNP, which was cross-validated with EGSnrc, and served as the benchmark for validation. Results: The error in the depth dose ranged from -1.45% to +1.39% with a mean and standard deviation of -0.12% and 0.66%, respectively. The error in the x profile ranged from -1.3% to +0.9%, with standard deviations of -0.3% and 0.5%, respectively. The number of photons required to achieve these results was 1x10{sup 6}. Conclusions: The voxel-based hybrid method evaluates the LBTE rapidly and accurately to estimate the absorbed x-ray dose at any POI or series of POIs from a kV imaging procedure.

Kouznetsov, Alexei; Tambasco, Mauro [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy and Department of Oncology, University of Calgary and Tom Baker Cancer Centre, 1331-29 Street NW Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2 (Canada)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

310

int. j. radiat. biol 2002, vol. 78, no. 7, 593 604 Do low dose-rate bystander eVects in uence domestic radon risks?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

int. j. radiat. biol 2002, vol. 78, no. 7, 593± 604 Do low dose-rate bystander eVects in uence that bystander radon risk estimation. eVects can be induced by high-LET radiation even Conclusions : Bystander e of inverse dose-rate eVects by high- exposed to low doses of low-LET radiation (SawantLET radiation

Brenner, David Jonathan

311

Specific gene expression by extremely low-dose ionizing radiation which related to enhance proliferation of normal human diploid cells  

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We demonstrated that X-ray irradiation at low doses of between 2 and 5 cGy stimulated proliferation of a normal human diploid. At low doses of between 2 and 5 cGy, ERK1/2 was phosphorylated as efficiently as at higher doses between 50 and 100 cGy of X-rays, while the p53 protein level was not increased by doses below 50 cGy. On the other hand, the p53 protein was efficiently accumulated at higher doses of X-ray more than 100 cGy. ERK1/2 was phosphorylated by doses over 50 cGy with increasing doses. We found that activated ERK1/2 augmented phosphorylation of the Elk-1 protein. Furthermore, over expression of ERK2 in NCI-H1299, and human lung carcinoma cells, potentiated enhanced proliferation, while down-regulation of ERK2 using the anti-sense ERK2 gene abrogated the stimulative effect of low-dose irradiation. These results indicate that a limited range of low-dose ionizing radiation differentially activate ERK1/2 kinases, which causes enhanced proliferation of cells receiving very low doses of ionizing radiation.

Masami Watanabe; Keiji Suzuki; Seiji Kodama

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

RADIATION RESEARCH 145,501-507 (1996) 0033-7587196 $5.00  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

range of most interest for risk estimation for low-dose radiation (-900-1,450 m), predictions Biological Evidence for a Significant Neutron Dose to Survivors of the Hiroshima Atomic Bomb. Radiat. Res-bomb survivor cohorts in radiation risk estimation, dosimetry for the sur- vivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Brenner, David Jonathan

313

Prevention of Low Dose Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability with Clinically Relevant Non-Protein Thiols and Vitamin E.  

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Prevention of Low Dose Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability with Clinically Relevant Prevention of Low Dose Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability with Clinically Relevant Non-Protein Thiols and Vitamin E. J.S. Murley 1 , Y. Kataoka 1 , W.F. Morgan 2 , and D.J. Grdina 1 . The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 1 , The University of Maryland Medical School, Baltimore, MD 2 Induced or delayed radioprotection is a novel phenomenon that shares many similarities with the low dose radiation-induced radiobiological phenomenon referred to as the adaptive response. Induced or delayed radioprotection is defined as an enhancement in the radiation resistance of cells at long times following their exposure to non-protein thiols (NPT) such as WR1065, the free thiol form of amifostine. This effect is the result of the induction of a cascade of intracellular

314

Whole Genome Analysis of Functional Protein Binding Sites and DNA Methylation: Application to p53 and Low Dose Ionizing Radiation.  

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Whole Genome Analysis of Functional Protein Binding Sites and DNA Methylation: Whole Genome Analysis of Functional Protein Binding Sites and DNA Methylation: Application to p53 and Low Dose Ionizing Radiation. Krassimira Botcheva, John J. Dunn and Carl W. Anderson Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA The effects of exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation on humans results largely from changes in gene expression mediated by the activation of sequence-specific DNA binding proteins (transcription factors) as well as changes to other chromosomal proteins and perhaps to DNA. To develop a molecular understanding of the consequences of exposures to low doses of ionizing radiation, it will be necessary to understanding where radiation-activated transcription factors bind in whole genomes and how

315

RESEARCH Open Access Spatial variation of net radiation and its  

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RESEARCH Open Access Spatial variation of net radiation and its contribution to energy balance the uncertainties of carbon, water, and energy measurements and has thus hampered the urgent research of scaling up closures in grassland ecosystems Changliang Shao1,2 , Linghao Li2 , Gang Dong3 and Jiquan Chen1,2* Abstract

Chen, Jiquan

316

A Systems Genetic Approach to Identify Low Dose Radiation-Induced Lymphoma Susceptibility/DOE2013FinalReport  

SciTech Connect

The ultimate goal of this project is to identify the combinations of genetic variants that confer an individual's susceptibility to the effects of low dose (0.1 Gy) gamma-radiation, in particular with regard to tumor development. In contrast to the known effects of high dose radiation in cancer induction, the responses to low dose radiation (defined as 0.1 Gy or less) are much less well understood, and have been proposed to involve a protective anti-tumor effect in some in vivo scientific models. These conflicting results confound attempts to develop predictive models of the risk of exposure to low dose radiation, particularly when combined with the strong effects of inherited genetic variants on both radiation effects and cancer susceptibility. We have used a ??Systems Genetics approach in mice that combines genetic background analysis with responses to low and high dose radiation, in order to develop insights that will allow us to reconcile these disparate observations. Using this comprehensive approach we have analyzed normal tissue gene expression (in this case the skin and thymus), together with the changes that take place in this gene expression architecture a) in response to low or high- dose radiation and b) during tumor development. Additionally, we have demonstrated that using our expression analysis approach in our genetically heterogeneous/defined radiation-induced tumor mouse models can uniquely identify genes and pathways relevant to human T-ALL, and uncover interactions between common genetic variants of genes which may lead to tumor susceptibility.

Balmain, Allan [University of California, San Francisco; Song, Ihn Young [University of California, San Francisco

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

317

Reduced Kilovoltage in Computed TomographyGuided Intervention in a Community Hospital: Effect on the Radiation Dose  

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AbstractPurpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether low-kilovoltage (80 or 100 kV) computed tomography (CT)-guided interventions performed in a community-based hospital are feasible and to compare radiation exposure incurred with conventional 120 kV potential. Materials and Methods Effective doses (ED) received by patients who underwent CT-guided intervention were analysed before and after a low-dose kilovoltage protocol was instituted in our department. We performed CT-guided procedures of 93 consecutive patients by using conventional 120-kV tube voltage (50 patients) and a low voltage of 80 or 100 kV for the remainder of this cohort. Automatic tube current modulation was enabled to obtain the best image quality. Procedure details were prospectively recorded and included examination site and type, slice width, tube voltage and current, dose length product, volume CT dose index, and size-specific dose estimate. Dose length product was converted to ED to account for radiosensitivity of specific organs. Statistical comparisons with test differences in the ED, volume CT dose index, size-specific dose estimate, and effective diameter (patient size) were made by using the Student t test. Results All but 6 of the procedures performed at 80 kV were successful, for a success rate of 86%. At lower voltages, the ED was significantly (P dose radiation technique by using 80 or 100 kV results in a high technical success rate for pelvic, chest, and abdomen CT-guided interventional procedures, although dramatically decreasing radiation exposure. There was no significant difference in effective diameter (patient size) between the conventional and the low-dose groups, which would suggest that dose reduction was indeed a result of kVp change and not patient size.

Saman Rezazadeh; Steven J. Co; Simon Bicknell

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Japan Program - Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF)  

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Safety Safety Home Sub Offices › Worker Safety & Health Policy › Worker Safety & Health Assistance › Illness & Injury Prevention Programs › International Health Studies › Office of Worker Screening and Compensation Support Mission & Functions › Health & Safety › Worker Safety & Health Policy › Worker Safety & Health Assistance › Illness & Injury Prevention Programs › International Health Studies › Worker Screening and Compensation Support Federal Line Management Oversight of DOE Nuclear Facilities Integrated Safety Management (ISM) A-Z Index Directory OSH Regulatory and Policy Response Line Health Resources Policy and Standards Worker Safety Beryllium Chemical Safety Biological Safety Radiation Safety Rules 10 CFR 707 10 CFR 835

319

Impact of Dose to the Bladder Trigone on Long-Term Urinary Function After High-Dose Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the potential association between genitourinary (GU) toxicity and planning dosevolume parameters for GU pelvic structures after high-dose intensity modulated radiation therapy in localized prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 268 patients who underwent intensity modulated radiation therapy to a prescribed dose of 86.4 Gy in 48 fractions during June 2004-December 2008 were evaluated with the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire. Dosevolume histograms of the whole bladder, bladder wall, urethra, and bladder trigone were analyzed. The primary endpoint for GU toxicity was an IPSS sum increase ?10 points over baseline. Univariate and multivariate analyses were done by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard models, respectively. Results: Median follow-up was 5 years (range, 3-7.7 years). Thirty-nine patients experienced an IPSS sum increase ?10 during follow-up; 84% remained event free at 5 years. After univariate analysis, lower baseline IPSS sum (P=.006), the V90 of the trigone (P=.006), and the maximal dose to the trigone (P=.003) were significantly associated with an IPSS sum increase ?10. After multivariate analysis, lower baseline IPSS sum (P=.009) and increased maximal dose to the trigone (P=.005) remained significantly associated. Seventy-two patients had both a lower baseline IPSS sum and a higher maximal dose to the trigone and were defined as high risk, and 68 patients had both a higher baseline IPSS sum and a lower maximal dose to the trigone and were defined as low risk for development of an IPSS sum increase ?10. Twenty-one of 72 high-risk patients (29%) and 5 of 68 low-risk patients (7%) experienced an IPSS sum increase ?10 (P=.001; odds ratio 5.19). Conclusions: The application of hot spots to the bladder trigone was significantly associated with relevant changes in IPSS during follow-up. Reduction of radiation dose to the lower bladder and specifically the bladder trigone seems to be associated with a reduction in late GU toxicity.

Ghadjar, Pirus; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Spratt, Daniel E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Munck af Rosenschld, Per; Oh, Jung Hun; Hunt, Margie [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Kollmeier, Marisa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Happersett, Laura; Yorke, Ellen; Deasy, Joseph O. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Jackson, Andrew, E-mail: jacksona@mskcc.org [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

The Research Program | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource  

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The Research Program The Research Program What is the chemical and physical form of uranium in reduced aquifers? Uranium behavior in the Rifle, CO, aquifer. In order to directly interrogate the chemical and physical form of reduced uranium (U(IV)) in bioremediated sediments within the contaminated aquifer at the Rifle site, a novel technique was developed based on reactors installed in wells (center right). U(IV) was found to be bound to biomass (structural model shown in upper left-hand) within thin (microns) sulfide-rich coatings on mineral grains (bottom left). Uranium in its oxidized (U(VI)) form, is one of the most common, abundant, and problematic subsurface contaminants at legacy nuclear sites. In contrast, the tetravalent form of uranium (U(IV) ) is relatively insoluble

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321

Forbush decrease effects on radiation dose received on-board aeroplanes  

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......information provided by the US FAA to promote radiation safety for air carrier crew members. Radiat...Cosmic Radiation Humans Monte Carlo Method Radiation Dosage Radiation Monitoring methods Software Solar Activity...

P. Lantos

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and Atmospheric  

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Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and Atmospheric System Research (ASR) Science and Infrastructure Steering Committee CHARTER June 2012 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not

323

Assessment of retrospective dose estimation, with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), of six victims previously exposed to accidental ionizing radiation  

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Abstract The present study aims to evaluate the use of the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) translocation assay for retrospective dose estimation of acute accidental exposure to radiation in the past. Reciprocal translocation analysis by FISH with three whole-chromosome probes was performed on normal peripheral blood samples. Samples were irradiated with 05Gy 60Co ?-rays in vitro, and doseeffect curves were established. FISH-based translocation analyses for six accident victims were then performed, and biological doses were estimated retrospectively by comparison with the doseeffect curves. Reconstructed doses by FISH were compared with estimated doses obtained by analysis of di-centrics performed soon after exposure, or with dose estimates from tooth-enamel electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) data obtained at the same time as the FISH analysis. Follow-up FISH analyses for an adolescent victim were performed. Results showed that doseeffect curves established in the present study follow a linear-quadratic model, regardless of the background translocation frequency. Estimated doses according to two doseeffect curves for all six victims were similar. FISH dose estimations of three adult victims exposed to accidental radiation less than a decade prior to analysis (3, 6, or 7 years ago) were consistent with those estimated with tooth-enamel EPR measurements or analyses of di-centrics. Estimated doses of two other adult victims exposed to radiation over a decade prior to analysis (16 or 33 years ago) were underestimated and two to three times lower than the values obtained from analysis of di-centrics or tooth-enamel EPR. Follow-up analyses of the adolescent victim showed that doses estimated by FISH analysis decrease rapidly over time. Therefore, the accuracy of dose estimates by FISH is acceptable only when analysis is performed less than 7 years after exposure. Measurements carried out more than a decade after exposure through FISH analysis resulted in underestimation of the biological doses compared with values obtained through analysis of di-centrics and tooth-enamel EPR.

Qing-Jie Liu; Xue Lu; Xiao-Tao Zhao; Jiang-Bin Feng; Yu-Min L; En-Hai Jiang; Shu-Lan Zhang; De-Qing Chen; Ting-Zhen Jia; Li Liang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

BioDoser: Improved dose-estimation software for biological radiation dosimetry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper introduces a software program that was developed with the aims to improve the efficiency and veracity of calibration curve fitting and data processing in radiation biological dosimetry and other biological experiments, and which is termed BioDoser. BioDoser uses least squares and loop testing of monotonicity method and algorithm of non-uniformed confidence interval. In addition, this program enables integration of multiple different biomarkers typically used in biological dosimetry. These include partial body exposure, minimum number of cells to be analyzed, G function correction modules that are helpful in dose estimation when using chromosome aberration frequencies, micronucleus rate, comet assay and other biological methods. The software is freely available at http://bit.ly/kKBSNR.

Hong Wang; Qiang Liu; Dandan Wan; Jian Xiang; Liqing Du; Yan Wang; Jia Cao; Yue Fu; Feiyue Fan; Markus Hecker

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Modular Systems Biology applied to TGFbeta and DNA Damage Response Signaling following Low Dose Radiation  

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Modular Systems Biology applied to TGFbeta and DNA Damage Response Signaling following Modular Systems Biology applied to TGFbeta and DNA Damage Response Signaling following Low Dose Radiation Francis A. Cucinotta 1 , Yongfeng Li 2 , Minli Wang 2 , Claudio Carra 2 , Janice Pluth 3 , and Peter O'Neill 4 1 NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 2 U.S.R.A. Division of Life Sciences, Houston TX 3 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA 4 Oxford University, Oxford UK Abstract: Modular systems biology (MSB) describes the complexity of biological systems using well defined modules that represent distinct biological response pathways or sub-systems within pathways. We review mathematical concepts from control theory that can be used to identify and construct well defined modules for describing complex biological processes. The DNA damage response and TGFbeta/Smad signaling are two important response pathways following

326

New dose-mortality data based on 3-D radiation shielding calculation for concrete buildings at Nagasaki  

SciTech Connect

The analysis of radiation doses received during the World War II attack on Nagasaki provides an important source of biochemical information. More than 40 years after the war, it has been possible to make a satisfactory calculation of the doses to personnel inside reinforced concrete buildings by use of a 3-dimensional discrete ordinates code, TORT. The results were used to deduce a new value of the LD50 parameter that is in good agreement with traditional values. The new discrete ordinates software appears to have potential application to conventional radiation transport calculations as well. 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

Rhoades, W.A.; Childs, R.L.; Ingersoll, D.T.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Establishing cytogenetic biodosimetry laboratory in Saudi Arabia and producing preliminary calibration curve of dicentric chromosomes as biomarker for medical dose estimation in response to radiation emergencies  

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In cases of individual radiation overexposure, it is important to provide suitable dose assessment, medical triage, diagnoses and treatment ... for effective medical management of a suspected acute radiation over...

Khaled Al-Hadyan; Sara Elewisy; Belal Moftah; Mohamed Shoukri; Awad Alzahrany

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2008  

SciTech Connect

The Importance of Clouds and Radiation for Climate Change: The Earths surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols, can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earths energy balance. In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To reduce these scientific uncertainties, the ARM Program uses a unique twopronged approach: The ARM Climate Research Facility, a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes; and The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF and other data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report provides an overview of each of these components and a sample of achievements for each in fiscal year (FY) 2008.

LR Roeder

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

A study on leakage radiation dose at ELV-4 electron accelerator bunker  

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Shielding is an important aspect in the safety of an accelerator and the most important aspects of a bunker shielding is the door. The bunkers door should be designed properly to minimize the leakage radiation and shall not exceed the permitted limit of 2.5?Sv/hr. In determining the leakage radiation dose that passed through the door and gaps between the door and the wall 2-dimensional manual calculations are often used. This method is hard to perform because visual 2-dimensional is limited and is also very difficult in the real situation. Therefore estimation values are normally performed. In doing so the construction cost would be higher because of overestimate or underestimate which require costly modification to the bunker. Therefore in this study two methods are introduced to overcome the problem such as simulation using MCNPX Version 2.6.0 software and manual calculation using 3-dimensional model from Autodesk Inventor 2010 software. The values from the two methods were eventually compared to the real values from direct measurements using Ludlum Model 3 with Model 44-9 probe survey meter.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

DOE-STD-1153-2002; A Graded Approach for Evaluating Radiation Doses to Aquatic and Terrestrial Biota  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

M3-19 M3-19 3 Equations and Models for Calculating Dose to Biota and Deriving BCGs Based on the potential pathways of exposure, BCGs were derived for surface water, sediment, and soil. Calculated using conservative assumptions, the BCGs are intended to preclude the relevant biota from being exposed to radiation levels in excess of established or recommended biota dose limits. Determination of compliance with the dose limits requires that all organism- relevant environmental media be evaluated at the same time. This is done by using the "sum of fractions" approach commonly used in evaluating radionuclide discharges to the environment. 3.1 An Important Note on Estimating Internal Tissue Concentrations for Use in Dose Equations: The Lumped Parameter For most radionuclides, the single most important predictor of biota dose is the method used to estimate internal tissue concentrations.

331

The cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay: Dose estimation and inter-individual differences in the response to ?-radiation  

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Abstract Biological dosimetry plays an important role in case of a radiation accident or incident, either when it is the only way to estimate the dose or when it is used to complement physical dosimetry. A cytogenetic study was conducted in a group of 16 Portuguese individuals by use of the cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (CBMN) assay. A doseresponse curve for micronuclei yield was established with a linear-quadratic model: Y=(0.01220.0010)+(0.02410.0023)D+(0.01930.0007)D2. Also, baseline values for the micronucleus formation in the 16 donors were analyzed, with results in close agreement with those from other laboratories. A validation experiment was carried out with three individuals. The real and the estimated doses obtained with the doseresponse curve were in very good agreement, allowing the use of the micronucleus doseresponse calibration curve in biological dosimetry for estimation of radiation dose in case of overexposure. The results obtained for the cytogenetic endpoints, studied in the same group of 16 individuals, were also analyzed as a function of age and gender. A higher inter-variability was observed for the higher dose points and differences in response were identified between genders, above 2Gy, for all endpoints.

A.C. Antunes; V. Martins; J. Cardoso; L. Santos; O. Monteiro Gil

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Low Dose Radiation Induced DNA Damage Signaling and Repair Responses in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Induced DNA Damage Signaling and Repair Responses in Induced DNA Damage Signaling and Repair Responses in Human 3-Dimensional Skin Model System Yanrong Su, Jarah Meador and Adayabalam S. Balajee Center for Radiological Research, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 630 West, 168th Street, New York, NY 10032. Exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) inflicts a wide variety of lesions in the genomic DNA. Among them, DNA double strand break (DSB) is considered to be the critical lesion for most of the deleterious radiation effects including carcinogenesis. Much of our knowledge on induction and repair kinetics of DSB has come from studies in two dimensional cell culture systems. However, the damage signaling and repair responses to DSB in tissue microenvironment are largely unknown. Knowledge of tissue responses to

333

Estimation of the biological dose received by five victims of a radiation accident using three different cytogenetic tools  

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The present study aims to estimate the biological doses received by five victims (A, B, C, D and E) of the Shanxi Taiyuan radiation accident in China of 2008 and to investigate the value of the cytokinesis-block micronuclei (CBMN) and premature chromosome condensation (PCC) assays in the estimation of biological doses received by the victims of a radiation accident. Conventional chromosome aberration analysis and the CBMN assay, as well as a drug-induced PCC assay recently established by our group, were performed on peripheral blood and bone marrow samples from five victims after the accident. The biological doses were estimated by scoring dicentrics plus centric rings, micronuclei and PCC rings. A high doseeffect curve and the nuclear division index (NDI) we previously established were used to estimate the dose received by victim A, the most highly affected victim of the five. The doses for the five victims (A, B, C, D and E) were 12.4, 3.4, 2.5, 2.1 and 2.2Gy, respectively, estimated by scoring dicentrics plus rings in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Similar results were obtained by combining the CBMN and NDI (CBMN+NDI) assays and the PCC assay. The doses estimated by the three methods were in accordance with the clinical symptoms observed. The specific dicentric assay with a low background level may be a better indicator for biological dose evaluation than the CBMN and PCC assays. The high dose curve we established is reliable and could become a suitable supplement to traditional biodosimetry for dose estimation. The CBMN and drug-induced PCC assays are simple, rapid and accurate. The two methods reinforce and verify the results observed with chromosome aberration analysis.

Bo Yao; Yufang Li; Guangxian Liu; Mei Guo; Juan Bai; Qiuhong Man; Lijuan Qiu; Huisheng Ai

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Oxygen Image Hypoxic Fraction Plus Radiation Dose Strongly Correlates With Tumor Cure in FSa Fibrosarcomas  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Tumor hypoxia has long been known to produce resistance to radiation. In this study, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oxygen imaging was investigated for its power to predict the success of tumor control according to tumor oxygenation level and radiation dose. Methods and Materials: A total of 34 EPR oxygen images were obtained from the legs of C3H mice bearing 0.5-cm{sup 3} FSa fibrosarcomas under both normal (air breathing) and clamped tumor conditions. Under the same conditions as those during which the images were obtained, the tumors were irradiated to a variety of doses near the FSa dose at which 50% of tumors were cured. Tumor tissue was distinguished from normal tissue using co-registration of the EPR oxygen images with spin-echo magnetic resonance imaging of the tumor and/or stereotactic localization. The tumor voxel statistics in the EPR oxygen image included the mean and median partial pressure of oxygen and the fraction of tumor voxels below the specified partial pressure of oxygen values of 3, 6, and 10 mm Hg. Bivariate logistic regression analysis using the radiation dose and each of the EPR oxygen image statistics to determine which best separated treatment failure from success. Results: The measurements of the dose at which 50% of tumors were cured were similar to those found in published data for this syngeneic tumor. Bivariate analysis of 34 tumors demonstrated that tumor cure correlated with dose (p = 0.004) and with a <10 mm Hg hypoxic fraction (p = 0.023). Conclusion: Our results have shown that, together, radiation dose and EPR image hypoxic fraction separate the population of FSa fibrosarcomas that are cured from those that fail, thus predicting curability.

Elas, Martyna [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Center for Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging In Vivo Physiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow (Poland); Bell, Rebecca; Hleihel, Danielle; Barth, Eugene D.; McFaul, Colin [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Center for Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging In Vivo Physiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Haney, Chad R. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Center for Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging In Vivo Physiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Bielanska, Joanna; Pustelny, Katarzyna [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Center for Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging In Vivo Physiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Faculty of Biochemistry, Biophysics and Biotechnology, Jagiellonian University, Krakow (Poland); Ahn, Kang-Hyun [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Center for Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Imaging In Vivo Physiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)] (and others)

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Assessment of the occupational radiation exposure doses to workers at INMOL Pakistan (200711)  

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......measures and safety of workers during...been sent to the Radiation Dosimetry Laboratory...fabricated computer software . The calibration...PNRA and IAEA radiation protection and safety guidelines...radiation and for the safety of radiation sources. (1994......

Khalid Masood; Junaid Zafar; Tasneem Zafar; Haroon Zafar

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

RADIATION RESEARCH 151, 225-229 (1999) 0033-7587199 $5.00  

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site, estimates of the dose-rate effec- tiveness factor (DDREF) generated by comparing the results Society INTRODUCTION One of the most important issues in radiation protection is the effect of dose protraction. Specifically, while most of the data from which we derive risk estimates for low-LET radiation

Brenner, David Jonathan

337

The Estimation of Molecular and Cytogenetic Effects in Mice Exposed to Chronic Low Dose-Rate Gamma-Radiation  

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Molecular and cytogenetic parameters were estimated in male CBA/lac mice exposed to chronic low dose-rate ?-radiation (62 cGy/year) for 40, 80, 120, 210, and 365 days. After 40 days of exposure (6.7 cGy), sple...

A. N. Osipov; A. L. Elakov; P. V. Puchkov

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Evaluation of radiation doses and associated risk from the Fukushima nuclear accident to marine biota and human consumers of seafood  

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...to marine biota and human consumers of seafood 10.1073/pnas.1221834110 Nicholas...radionuclides are in human food items such as seafood. Although statements were released by...or for human consumers of contaminated seafood. We have therefore calculated the radiation doses absorbed by diverse marine...

Nicholas S. Fisher; Karine Beaugelin-Seiller; Thomas G. Hinton; Zofia Baumann; Daniel J. Madigan; Jacqueline Garnier-Laplace

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 476 (2002) 758764 Observation of radiation induced latchup in the readout  

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to high levels of radiation resulting in an ionizing radiation dose of more than 200 krad and displacement with a radia- tion hard technology that can resist up to radiation dose levels greater than 1 Mrad. Both chips were fabricated according to almost identical designs. 2. Estimation of dose and fluence NA50

Ramello, Luciano

340

Quantifying murine bone marrow and blood radiation dose response following 18F-FDG PET with DNA damage biomarkers  

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Abstract The purpose of this study was to quantify the poorly understood radiation doses to murine bone marrow and blood from whole-body fluorine 18 (18F)-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), by using specific biomarkers and comparing with whole body external low dose exposures. Groups of 35 mice were randomly assigned to 10 groups, each receiving either a different activity of 18F-FDG: 037MBq or whole body irradiated with corresponding doses of 0300mGy X-rays. Blood samples were collected at 24h and at 43h for reticulocyte micronucleus assays and QPCR analysis of gene expression in peripheral blood leukocytes. Blood and bone marrow dose estimates were calculated from injected activities of 18F-FDG and were based on a recommended ICRP model. Doses to the bone marrow corresponding to 33.43mGy and above for internal 18F-FDG exposure and to 25mGy and above for external X-ray exposure, showed significant increases in radiation-induced MN-RET formation relative to controls (Pdoseresponses at 24h for Bbc3 and Cdkn1 were similar for 18F-FDG and X-ray exposures, with significant modifications occurring for doses over 300mGy for Bbc3 and at the lower dose of 150mGy for Cdkn1a. Both leucocyte gene expression and quantification of MN-RET are highly sensitive biomarkers for reliable estimation of the low doses delivered in vivo to, respectively, blood and bone marrow, following 18F-FDG PET.

Grainne Manning; Kristina Taylor; Paul Finnon; Jennifer A. Lemon; Douglas R. Boreham; Christophe Badie

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose radiation research" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Radiation dose to the internal pudendal arteries from permanent-seed prostate brachytherapy as determined by time-of-flight MR angiography  

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Purpose: To determine the feasibility of time-of-flight magnetic resonance (MR) angiography to visualize the internal pudendal arteries (IPAs) in potent men undergoing permanent-seed prostate brachytherapy and to calculate the radiation dose received by these arteries. Methods and Materials: Prostate brachytherapy is performed at the University Health Network/Princess Margaret Hospital by use of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) preplanning and preloaded needles. All patients received {sup 125}I, with a mean seed activity of 0.32 mCi/seed (0.41 U). Postplan evaluation is performed at 1 month by magnetic resonance-computed tomography fusion. Twenty consecutive potent men had time-of-flight MR angiography as part of their postplan evaluation. Results: The mean V100 was 96.5%, and the mean D90 was171.5 Gy. The IPAs were easily visualized for 18 of the 20 men. The mean peak dose received by the IPA was 17 Gy. The highest peak dose received by any patient was 38.2 Gy, with only 1 other patient receiving a peak dose greater than 30 Gy. Eleven of 18 had a measurable portion of at least 1 IPA that received 10% of the prescribed dose (V10 = 14.5 Gy). Only 2 patients had nonzero values for V25. The distal third of the IPA received the highest dose for 16 of the 18 patients. Conclusions: The IPAs can be well visualized in the majority of potent men by use of time-of-flight MR angiography 1 month after brachytherapy. The IPAs receive a low but calculable dose from permanent-seed {sup 125}I brachytherapy. Further research is needed to determine if this outcome has any correlation with subsequent potency.

Gillan, Caitlin [Department of Radiation Medicine, University Health Network, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Kirilova, Anna [Department of Radiation Physics, University Health Network, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Landon, Angela [Department of Radiation Medicine, University Health Network, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Yeung, Ivan [Department of Radiation Physics, University Health Network, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Pond, Gregory [Department of Biostatistics, University Health Network, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada); Crook, Juanita [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Health Network, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada)]. E-mail: juanita.crook@rmp.uhn.on.ca

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

COLUMBIA RADIATION LABORATORY RESEARCH INVESTIGATION DIRECTED TOWARD EXTENDING  

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iVP-^"^^? iVP-^"^^? COLUMBIA RADIATION LABORATORY RESEARCH INVESTIGATION DIRECTED TOWARD EXTENDING THE USEFUL RANGE OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM Special Technical Report Signal Corps Contract DA-36-039 SC-64630 DA Project No. 3-99-10-022 SC Project No. 102B U. S. Army Laboratory Procurement Office Signal Corps Supply Agency Fort Monmouth, New Jersey The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York Box 6, Low Memorial Library New York 27, New York March 1, 1956 DISCLAIMER Portions of this document may be illegible in electronic image products. Images are produced from the best available original document. COLUMBIA RADIATION LABORATORY Collected Papers on the AAASER (Microwave Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) Special Technical Report

343

Dosimetric Comparison of High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy and Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy as a Boost to the Prostate  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: We compared the dose conformity of two radiation modalities: high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR BT) and intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to deliver a boost to the prostate after external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials: Ten successive patients with prostate adenocarcinoma treated with a single 10-Gy HDR BT boost after EBRT were investigated. Four theoretical IMRT plans were computed: (a) 32.85 Gy IMRT and (b) 26 Gy IMRT with CTV-PTV expansions, doses corresponding to the equivalent dose in 2-Gy fractions (EQD2) of one 10-Gy fraction calculated with a prostate alpha/beta ratio of respectively 1.5 and 3 Gy; and (c) 32.85 Gy IMRT and (d) 26 Gy IMRT without CTV-PTV expansions. The dose-volume histogram values converted in EQD2 with an alpha/beta ratio of 3 Gy for the organs at risk were compared. Results: The HDR BT plan delivered higher mean doses to the PTV compared with IMRT plans. In all, 33% of the rectal volume received a mean dose of 5.32 +- 0.65 Gy and 20% of bladder volume received 4.61 +- 1.24 Gy with HDR BT. In comparison, doses delivered with IMRT were respectively 13.4 +- 1.49 Gy and 10.81 +- 4 Gy, even if only 26 Gy was prescribed to the PTV with no CTV-PTV expansion (p < 0.0001). The hot spots inside the urethra were greater with HDR BT but acceptable. Conclusions: Use of HDR BT produced a more conformal plan for the boost to the prostate than IMRT even without CTV-PTV expansions.

Hermesse, Johanne, E-mail: jhermesse@chu.ulg.ac.b [Department of Radiation Oncology, Liege University Hospital, Liege (Belgium); Biver, Sylvie; Jansen, Nicolas [Department of Radiation Oncology, Liege University Hospital, Liege (Belgium); Lenaerts, Eric [Department of Medical Physics, Liege University Hospital, Liege (Belgium); Nickers, Philippe [Department of Radiation Oncology, Oscar Lambret Center, Lille (France)

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

344

Implementation of dose management system at radiation protection board of Ghana Atomic Energy Commission  

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......12-20. 7 Occupational Radiation Protection. Radiation Protection and Safety Guide. (2002) GRPB-G3...International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements...system (DMS) is a computer software developed by the International......

F. Hasford; J. K. Amoako; E. O. Darko; G. Emi-Reynolds; E. K. Sosu; F. Otoo; G. O. Asiedu

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Quantifying the Impact of Immediate Reconstruction in Postmastectomy Radiation: A Large, Dose-Volume Histogram-Based Analysis  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To assess the impact of immediate breast reconstruction on postmastectomy radiation (PMRT) using dose-volume histogram (DVH) data. Methods and Materials: Two hundred forty-seven women underwent PMRT at our center, 196 with implant reconstruction and 51 without reconstruction. Patients with reconstruction were treated with tangential photons, and patients without reconstruction were treated with en-face electron fields and customized bolus. Twenty percent of patients received internal mammary node (IMN) treatment. The DVH data were compared between groups. Ipsilateral lung parameters included V20 (% volume receiving 20 Gy), V40 (% volume receiving 40 Gy), mean dose, and maximum dose. Heart parameters included V25 (% volume receiving 25 Gy), mean dose, and maximum dose. IMN coverage was assessed when applicable. Chest wall coverage was assessed in patients with reconstruction. Propensity-matched analysis adjusted for potential confounders of laterality and IMN treatment. Results: Reconstruction was associated with lower lung V20, mean dose, and maximum dose compared with no reconstruction (all P<.0001). These associations persisted on propensity-matched analysis (all P<.0001). Heart doses were similar between groups (P=NS). Ninety percent of patients with reconstruction had excellent chest wall coverage (D95 >98%). IMN coverage was superior in patients with reconstruction (D95 >92.0 vs 75.7%, P<.001). IMN treatment significantly increased lung and heart parameters in patients with reconstruction (all P<.05) but minimally affected those without reconstruction (all P>.05). Among IMN-treated patients, only lower lung V20 in those without reconstruction persisted (P=.022), and mean and maximum heart doses were higher than in patients without reconstruction (P=.006, P=.015, respectively). Conclusions: Implant reconstruction does not compromise the technical quality of PMRT when the IMNs are untreated. Treatment technique, not reconstruction, is the primary determinant of target coverage and normal tissue doses.

Ohri, Nisha [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Cordeiro, Peter G. [Department of Plastic Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Plastic Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Keam, Jennifer [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Ballangrud, Ase [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Shi Weiji; Zhang Zhigang [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Nerbun, Claire T.; Woch, Katherine M.; Stein, Nicholas F.; Zhou Ying [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); McCormick, Beryl; Powell, Simon N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Ho, Alice Y., E-mail: HoA1234@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

RADIATION RESEARCH 162, 264269 (2004) 0033-7587/04 $15.00  

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Radiation Laboratory, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 4-9-1 Anagawa, Chiba 263-8555, Japan; e264 RADIATION RESEARCH 162, 264­269 (2004) 0033-7587/04 $15.00 2004 by Radiation Research Society. Radiat. Res. 162, 264­269 (2004). In the present study, we examined the potential contribu- tion

347

The bovine tuberculosis burden in cattle herds in zones with low dose radiation pollution in the Ukraine  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe a study of the tuberculosis (TB) incidence in cattle exposed to low doses of radiation resulting from the Chernobyl (pronounced Chornobyl in Ukrainian) nuclear plant catastrophe in 1986. The purpose of the study was to determine if ionising radiation influences the number of outbreaks of bovine TB and their severity on farms in the Kyiv, Cherkasy and Chernigiv regions of the Ukraine. These farms are all located within a 200 km radius of Chernobyl and have had low?dose radiation pollution. Pathological and blood samples were taken from cattle in those regions that had positive TB skin tests. Mycobacterium spp. were isolated, differentiated by PCR, analysed and tested in guinea?pigs and rabbits. Species differentiation showed a significant percentage of atypical mycobacteria, which resulted in the allergic reactions to tuberculin antigen in the skin test. Mixed infection of M. bovis and M. avium subsp. hominissuis was found in three cases. The results concluded that low?dose radiation plays a major role in the occurrence of bovine TB in regions affected by the Chernobyl nuclear disaster.

Weller, Richard E.; Skrypnyk, Artem; Zavgorodniy, Andriy; Stegniy, Borys; Gerilovych, Anton; Kutsan, Oleksandr; Pozmogova, Svitlana; Sapko, Svitlana

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Adaptive Liver Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy: Automated Daily Plan Reoptimization Prevents Dose Delivery Degradation Caused by Anatomy Deformations  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate how dose distributions for liver stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) can be improved by using automated, daily plan reoptimization to account for anatomy deformations, compared with setup corrections only. Methods and Materials: For 12 tumors, 3 strategies for dose delivery were simulated. In the first strategy, computed tomography scans made before each treatment fraction were used only for patient repositioning before dose delivery for correction of detected tumor setup errors. In adaptive second and third strategies, in addition to the isocenter shift, intensity modulated radiation therapy beam profiles were reoptimized or both intensity profiles and beam orientations were reoptimized, respectively. All optimizations were performed with a recently published algorithm for automated, multicriteria optimization of both beam profiles and beam angles. Results: In 6 of 12 cases, violations of organs at risk (ie, heart, stomach, kidney) constraints of 1 to 6 Gy in single fractions occurred in cases of tumor repositioning only. By using the adaptive strategies, these could be avoided (<1 Gy). For 1 case, this needed adaptation by slightly underdosing the planning target volume. For 2 cases with restricted tumor dose in the planning phase to avoid organ-at-risk constraint violations, fraction doses could be increased by 1 and 2 Gy because of more favorable anatomy. Daily reoptimization of both beam profiles and beam angles (third strategy) performed slightly better than reoptimization of profiles only, but the latter required only a few minutes of computation time, whereas full reoptimization took several hours. Conclusions: This simulation study demonstrated that replanning based on daily acquired computed tomography scans can improve liver stereotactic body radiation therapy dose delivery.

Leinders, Suzanne M. [Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Breedveld, Sebastiaan; Mndez Romero, Alejandra [Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Schaart, Dennis [Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Seppenwoolde, Yvette, E-mail: y.seppenwoolde@erasmusmc.nl [Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Heijmen, Ben J.M. [Erasmus Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Threshold estimation from the linear dose-response model: Method and radiation data  

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The linear dose-response model is considered a conservative, nonthreshold relationship. This is based on a confusion between the sufficient condition (that is, zero slope at zero dose) and the necessary condit...

David J. Schaeffer; Konanur G. Janardan; Harold W. Kerster

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Radioactivity of 210Pb in Japanese cigarettes and radiation dose from smoking inhalation  

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......Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1550 Kamisaibara...cigarettes a day. The average doses from 210Pb...nine samples were home-grown tobaccos...N is the daily consumption of cigarettes...respectively. The average effective doses were...cigarettes a day. The average doses from (210......

A. Sakoda; K. Fukao; A. Kawabe; T. Kataoka; K. Hanamoto; K. Yamaoka

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

The estimation of radiation doses in human organs due to natural and artificial radioactivity in surface waters of the Ebro river basin (Northeast Spain)  

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This paper reports the estimation of the radiation doses in the human body in the Ebro river basin (Northeast Spain), following drinking water ingestion by measuring 40K, 226Ra, 90Sr and 3H. The equivalent dose in ten different organs was estimated. Dose calculations were performed by means of the GENII computer program. The lowest equivalent dose calculated through ingesting drinking water was in the small intestine whereas the highest was in the bone surface.

Feda Oner; Nazmi T. Okumusoglu

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Radiation Doses to Members of the U.S. Population from Ubiquitous Radionuclides in the Body: Part 2, Methods and Dose Calculations  

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This paper is part two of a three-part series investigating annual effective doses to residents of the United States from intakes of ubiquitous radionuclides, including radionuclides occurring naturally, radionuclides whose concentrations are technologically enhanced, and anthropogenic radionuclides. This series of papers explicitly excludes intakes from inhaling 222Rn, 220Rn, and their short-lived decay products; it also excludes intakes of radionuclides in occupational and medical settings. Part one reviewed, summarized, characterized, and grouped all published and some unpublished data for U.S. residents on ubiquitous radionuclide concentrations in tissues and organs. Assumptions about equilibrium with long-lived parents are made for the 28 other radionuclides in these series lacking data. This paper describes the methods developed to group the collected data into source regions described in the Radiation Dose Assessment Resource (RADAR) dosimetric methodology. Methods for converting the various units of data published over 50 years into a standard form are developed and described. Often, meaningful values of uncertainty of measurements were not published so that variability in data sets is confounded with measurement uncertainty. A description of the methods developed to estimate variability is included in this paper. The data described in part one are grouped by gender and age to match the RADAR dosimetric phantoms. Within these phantoms, concentration values are grouped into source tissue regions by radionuclide, and they are imputed for source regions lacking tissue data. Radionuclide concentrations are then imputed for other phantoms source regions with missing concentration values, and the uncertainties of the imputed values are increased. The content concentrations of hollow organs are calculated, and activities are apportioned to the bone source regions using assumptions about each radionuclides bone-seeking behavior. The data sets are then ready to be used to estimate equivalent doses to target tissues from these source regions. The target tissues are then mapped to lists of tissues with International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP) tissue weighting factors, or they are mapped to surrogate tissue regions when there is no direct match. Effective doses, using ICRP tissue weighting factors recommended in 1977, 1990, and 2007, are calculated from tissue and organ equivalent doses.

Watson, David J.; Strom, Daniel J.

2011-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

353

Construction of dose response calibration curves for dicentrics and micronuclei for X radiation in a Serbian population  

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Abstract Biological dosimetry using chromosome damage biomarkers is a valuable dose assessment method in cases of radiation overexposure with or without physical dosimetry data. In order to estimate dose by biodosimetry, any biological dosimetry service have to have its own dose response calibration curve. This paper reveals the results obtained after irradiation of blood samples from fourteen healthy male and female volunteers in order to establish biodosimetry in Serbia and produce dose response calibration curves for dicentrics and micronuclei. Taking into account pooled data from all the donors, the resultant fitted curve for dicentrics is: Ydic=0.0009 (0.0003)+0.0421 (0.0042)נD+0.0602 (0.0022)נD2; and for micronuclei: Ymn=0.0104 (0.0015)+0.0824 (0.0050)נD+0.0189 (0.0017)נD2. Following establishment of the dose response curve, a validation experiment was carried out with four blood samples. Applied and estimated doses were in good agreement. On this basis, the results reported here give us confidence to apply both calibration curves for future biological dosimetry requirements in Serbia.

J. Pajic; B. Rakic; D. Jovicic; A. Milovanovic

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Radiosurgery for Para-IAC Meningiomas: The Effect of Radiation Dose to the Cochlea on Hearing Outcome  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This study was performed to assess the radiosurgical results of meningiomas extending into the internal acoustic canal (para-IAC meningiomas), with a particular focus on the effect of radiation dose to the cochlea on hearing outcome. Methods and Materials: A total of 50 patients who underwent radiosurgery for para-IAC meningiomas between 1998 and 2009, which were followed for 2 years, were enrolled. The mean age was 55.8 years (range, 15-75). The mean tumor volume was 6.1 cm{sup 3} (range, 1.0-19.0), the mean tumor length in the IAC was 6.9 mm (range, 1.3-13.3), and the mean prescribed marginal dose was 13.1 Gy (range, 10-15) at an isodose line of 50%. The mean follow-up duration was 46 months (range, 24-122). Results: Eight (16.0%) patients had nonserviceable hearing at the time of surgery. At the last follow-up, the tumor control rate was 94%; unchanged in 17 patients, decreased in 30 patients, and increased in 3 patients. Among 42 patients with serviceable hearing at the time of radiosurgery, it was preserved in 41 (97.6%) patients at the last follow-up. The maximal and mean radiation doses to the cochleae of these 41 patients were 5.8 Gy {+-} 0.3 (range, 3.1-11.5) and 4.3 Gy {+-} 0.2 (range, 2.2-7.5), respectively. The maximal dose to the cochlea of the patient who lost hearing after radiosurgery was 4.7 Gy. Conclusions: The radiation dose to the cochlea may have the minimal toxic effect on the hearing outcome in patients who undergo radiosurgery for para-IAC meningiomas.

Kim, Young-Hoon [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Gyu, E-mail: gknife@plaza.snu.ac.kr [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jung Ho [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Hyun-Tai; Kim, In Kyung; Song, Sang Woo [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jeong-Hoon [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Wook; Kim, Yong Hwy; Park, Chul-Kee [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chae-Yong [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam-si (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paek, Sun Ha; Jung, Hee-Won [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Neurosurgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Estimation of tumour dose enhancement due to gold nanoparticles during typical radiation treatments: a preliminary Monte Carlo study  

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A recent mice study demonstrated that gold nanoparticles could be safely administered and used to enhance the tumour dose during radiation therapy. The use of gold nanoparticles seems more promising than earlier methods because of the high atomic number of gold and because nanoparticles can more easily penetrate the tumour vasculature. However, to date, possible dose enhancement due to the use of gold nanoparticles has not been well quantified, especially for common radiation treatment situations. Therefore, the current preliminary study estimated this dose enhancement by Monte Carlo calculations for several phantom test cases representing radiation treatments with the following modalities: 140 kVp x-rays, 4 and 6 MV photon beams, and 192Ir gamma rays. The current study considered three levels of gold concentration within the tumour, two of which are based on the aforementioned mice study, and assumed either no gold or a single gold concentration level outside the tumour. The dose enhancement over the tumour volume considered for the 140 kVp x-ray case can be at least a factor of 2 at an achievable gold concentration of 7 mg Au/g tumour assuming no gold outside the tumour. The tumour dose enhancement for the cases involving the 4 and 6 MV photon beams based on the same assumption ranged from about 1% to 7%, depending on the amount of gold within the tumour and photon beam qualities. For the 192Ir cases, the dose enhancement within the tumour region ranged from 5% to 31%, depending on radial distance and gold concentration level within the tumour. For the 7 mg Au/g tumour cases, the loading of gold into surrounding normal tissue at 2 mg Au/g resulted in an increase in the normal tissue dose, up to 30%, negligible, and about 2% for the 140 kVp x-rays, 6 MV photon beam, and 192Ir gamma rays, respectively, while the magnitude of dose enhancement within the tumour was essentially unchanged.

Sang Hyun Cho

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Internal Dose Estimates from  

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Appendix F Internal Dose Estimates from NTS Fallout F-1 #12;Radiation Dose to the Population;TABLE OF CONTENTS Page F- Part I. Estimates of Dose...........................................................................................40 Comparison to dose estimates from global fallout

357

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2007  

SciTech Connect

This annual report describes the purpose and structure of the program, and presents key accomplishments in 2007. Notable achievements include: Successful review of the ACRF as a user facility by the DOE Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee. The subcommittee reinforced the importance of the scientific impacts of this facility, and its value for the international research community. Leadership of the Cloud Land Surface Interaction Campaign. This multi-agency, interdisciplinary field campaign involved enhanced surface instrumentation at the ACRF Southern Great Plains site and, in concert with the Cumulus Humilis Aerosol Processing Study sponsored by the DOE Atmospheric Science Program, coordination of nine aircraft through the ARM Aerial Vehicles Program. Successful deployment of the ARM Mobile Facility in Germany, including hosting nearly a dozen guest instruments and drawing almost 5000 visitors to the site. Key advancements in the representation of radiative transfer in weather forecast models from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. Development of several new enhanced data sets, ranging from best estimate surface radiation measurements from multiple sensors at all ACRF sites to the extension of time-height cloud occurrence profiles to Niamey, Niger, Africa. Publication of three research papers in a single issue (February 2007) of the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society.

LR Roeder

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Radiation Dose Is More Than A Number Workshop 15-16 September 2011  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

or Water Contamination Nuclear detonation Accident ­ Power Plant Release ­ Sealed radiological sources.D. Associate Director, Radiation/Nuclear Countermeasures Program Division of Allergy, Immunology #12;NIAID Radiation/Nuclear Medical Countermeasures Development Program HHS assigned NIH

359

Central dose data management and analysis in IT-driven radiation protection strategies  

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......at the very heart of the provision of radiation safety services or, alternatively, placing radiation safety management at the heart of radiological practice. MATERIALS AND METHODS Software development During the summer of 1993......

M. Ward; D. Hughes; P. Connolly; B. M. Moores

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Prediction of proton and neutron absorbed-dose distributions in proton beam radiation therapy using Monte Carlo n-particle transport code (MCNPX)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The objective of this research was to develop a complex MCNPX model of the human head to predict absorbed dose distributions during proton therapy of ocular tumors. Absorbed dose distributions using the complex geometry were compared to a simple...

Massingill, Brian Edward

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose radiation research" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

8 8 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January 1-March 31, 2011 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or

362

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 1 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1-December 31, 2011 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or

363

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

7 7 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January 1-March 31, 2012 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the U.S. Government. Neither the United States nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or

364

Using Generalized Equivalent Uniform Dose Atlases to Combine and Analyze Prospective Dosimetric and Radiation Pneumonitis Data From 2 Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Dose Escalation Protocols  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To demonstrate the use of generalized equivalent uniform dose (gEUD) atlas for data pooling in radiation pneumonitis (RP) modeling, to determine the dependence of RP on gEUD, to study the consistency between data sets, and to verify the increased statistical power of the combination. Methods and Materials: Patients enrolled in prospective phase I/II dose escalation studies of radiation therapy of non-small cell lung cancer at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) (78 pts) and the Netherlands Cancer Institute (NKI) (86 pts) were included; 10 (13%) and 14 (17%) experienced RP requiring steroids (RPS) within 6 months after treatment. gEUD was calculated from dose-volume histograms. Atlases for each data set were created using 1-Gy steps from exact gEUDs and RPS data. The Lyman-Kutcher-Burman model was fit to the atlas and exact gEUD data. Heterogeneity and inconsistency statistics for the fitted parameters were computed. gEUD maps of the probability of RPS rate {>=}20% were plotted. Results: The 2 data sets were homogeneous and consistent. The best fit values of the volume effect parameter a were small, with upper 95% confidence limit around 1.0 in the joint data. The likelihood profiles around the best fit a values were flat in all cases, making determination of the best fit a weak. All confidence intervals (CIs) were narrower in the joint than in the individual data sets. The minimum P value for correlations of gEUD with RPS in the joint data was .002, compared with P=.01 and .05 for MSKCC and NKI data sets, respectively. gEUD maps showed that at small a, RPS risk increases with gEUD. Conclusions: The atlas can be used to combine gEUD and RPS information from different institutions and model gEUD dependence of RPS. RPS has a large volume effect with the mean dose model barely included in the 95% CI. Data pooling increased statistical power.

Liu Fan; Yorke, Ellen D. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Belderbos, Jose S.A.; Borst, Gerben R. [The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rosenzweig, Kenneth E. [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States)] [Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York (United States); Lebesque, Joos V. [The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Antoni Van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Jackson, Andrew, E-mail: jacksona@mskcc.org [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

DOE-STD-1153-2002; A Graded Approach for Evaluating Radiation Doses to Aquatic and Terrestrial Biota  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1 1 PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATION MODULE 1: PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATION DOE-STD-1153-2002 INTENTIONALLY BLANK DOE-STD-1153-2002 M1-1 1 Introduction The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is accountable to Congress and the public for the safe conduct of its activities, including facility operation, waste management and disposal activities, and remediation of environmental contamination. These routine activities may result in releases of radionuclides to the air and water, accumulation of radionuclides in soil and sediment, and the potential for plants, animals, and members of the public to be exposed to radiation. DOE Order 5400.5, "Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment" (1990a), lists the environmental radiation protection requirements that DOE and DOE- contractor employees must meet to protect aquatic animals. In addition, dose limits below

366

Cumulative radiation dose estimates from medical imaging in paediatric patients with non-oncologic chronic illnesses. A systematic review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Paediatric patients with non-oncologic chronic illnesses often require ongoing care that may result in repeated imaging and exposure to ionizing radiation from both diagnostic and interventional procedures. In this study the scientific literature on cumulative effective dose (CED) of radiation accrued from medical imaging among specific cohorts of paediatric, non-oncologic chronic patients (inflammatory bowel disease, cystic fibrosis, congenital heart disease, shunt-treated hydrocephalus, hemophilia, spinal dysraphism) was systematically reviewed. We conducted PubMed/Medline, Scopus and EMBASE searches of peer-reviewed papers on CED from diagnostic and therapeutic radiological examinations. No time restriction was introduced in the search. Only studies reporting \\{CEDs\\} accrued for a period >1 year were included. We found that the annual CED was relatively low (320mSv/year) in Crohn's patients. This extra yearly radiation exposure accrues over the lifetime and can reach high values (>100mSv) in selected cohorts of paediatric chronic patients.

Marco Brambilla; Andreana De Mauri; Domenico Lizio; Lucia Leva; Alessandro Carriero; Clara Carpeggiani; Eugenio Picano

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

International Dose-Response Society and Lovelace Respiratory Research Insitue present a Webinar  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute and Present a Webinar Radiation Hormesis and Life - Mild Radiation Stress Makes You Stronger May 25, 2010 at 12:00 p.m. (MST), 6:00 p.m. (GMT) Presenter: Bobby R. Scott, PhD, LRRI Senior Scientist 2425 Ridgecrest Drive SE, Albuquerque, NM 87108 USA E-mail: bscott@LRRI.org Register for the webinar using this e-mail address: registration@LRRI.org. Please provide your name, the number of attendees, and your organizational affiliation in the message. Registration is free, but the num- ber of attendees is limited, so please register as soon as possible. After registering, you will receive further instructions for logging onto the website. Questions may be sent

368

The similar effects of low-dose ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation from background environmental levels of exposure  

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The meltdown and release of radioactivity (ionizing radiation) from four damaged nuclear reactors at the Fukushima Nuclear Facility in Japan in March 2011 continues to contaminate air and ocean water even 1year ...

Cindy Sage

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Patient radiation doses in interventional cardiology in the U.S.: Advisory data sets and possible initial values for U.S. reference levels  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine patient radiation doses from interventional cardiology procedures in the U.S and to suggest possible initial values for U.S. benchmarks for patient radiation dose from selected interventional cardiology procedures [fluoroscopically guided diagnostic cardiac catheterization and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)]. Methods: Patient radiation dose metrics were derived from analysis of data from the 2008 to 2009 Nationwide Evaluation of X-ray Trends (NEXT) survey of cardiac catheterization. This analysis used deidentified data and did not require review by an IRB. Data from 171 facilities in 30 states were analyzed. The distributions (percentiles) of radiation dose metrics were determined for diagnostic cardiac catheterizations, PCI, and combined diagnostic and PCI procedures. Confidence intervals for these dose distributions were determined using bootstrap resampling. Results: Percentile distributions (advisory data sets) and possible preliminary U.S. reference levels (based on the 75th percentile of the dose distributions) are provided for cumulative air kerma at the reference point (K{sub a,r}), cumulative air kerma-area product (P{sub KA}), fluoroscopy time, and number of cine runs. Dose distributions are sufficiently detailed to permit dose audits as described in National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Report No. 168. Fluoroscopy times are consistent with those observed in European studies, but P{sub KA} is higher in the U.S. Conclusions: Sufficient data exist to suggest possible initial benchmarks for patient radiation dose for certain interventional cardiology procedures in the U.S. Our data suggest that patient radiation dose in these procedures is not optimized in U.S. practice.

Miller, Donald L.; Hilohi, C. Michael; Spelic, David C. [Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Avenue, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

370

The Potential for Reduction of Radiation Doses to Patients Undergoing some Common X Ray Examinations in Tanzania  

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......Undergoing some Common X Ray Examinations in Tanzania W.E. Muhogora A.M. Nyanda The potential...undergoing some common X ray examinations in Tanzania. | The potential for patient dose reduction...Commission, Arusha, United Republic of Tanzania. | Journal Article Research Support......

W.E. Muhogora; A.M. Nyanda

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

How air influences radiation dose deposition in multiwell culture plates: a Monte Carlo simulation of radiation geometry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......that this underdosage does not have a significant...related to a lack of electronic equilibrium. This is...Fig. 5b). MC calculations of the same plate geometry...Oncology Physics: A Handbook for Teachers and Students-Podgorsak...Comparison of dose calculation algorithms in slab phantoms......

Sebastia Sabater; Roberto Berenguer; Paloma Honrubia-Gomez; Miguel Rivera; Ana Nuez; Esther Jimenez-Jimenez; Ana Martos; Carmen Ramirez-Castillejo

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Estimation of the contribution of photon radiation for measurement of the exposure dose rate of neutron sources based on 252Cf  

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A method for the estimation of the contribution of photon radiation to the detector readings for measurement of the exposure dose rate and the equivalent activity of neutron ... screens and filters is considered....

N. F. Demchenko; R. N. Minvaliev; V. I. Shipilov

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Relative age-specific radiation dose commitment factors for major radionuclides released from nuclear fuel facilities  

SciTech Connect

During the licensing process for nuclear fuel facilities, committed dose equivalents must be calculated for potential exposures to people in the area around these facilities. These committed dose equivalents are usually calculated from tabulated dose-conversion factors that convert the quantity of radioactive material potentially taken in by individuals through ingestion or inhalation. For calculating committed dose equivalents to children, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission has in the past appealed to age-specific dose-conversion factors listed in NUREG-0172 (1977), which is based on a computational methodology found in ICRP Publication 2 (1959). Since the publication of NUREG-0172 new models and new concepts of risk have been provided in ICRP Publications 26 and 30 (1977, 1979). These documents provide a detailed methodology for calculating dose-conversion factors for the various radionuclides for an adult reference man. In this report are tabulated age-specific dose-conversion factors, given as multiples of the adult values, for inhalation or ingestion of each of the following isotopes: U-234, U-235, U-238, Th-228, Th-230, Th-232, Ra-226, Ra-228, Pb-210, or Po-210. Our methodology is consistent as far as practical with that of ICRP Publications 26 and 30, but we have modified and extended the ICRP methodology as necessary to include age dependence and to include metabolic and dosimetric information that has been developed since the issuance of these ICRP documents.

Cristy, M.; Leggett, R.W.; Dunning, D.E. Jr.; Eckerman, K.F.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Patient radiation dose in prospectively gated axial CT coronary angiography and retrospectively gated helical technique with a 320-detector row CT scanner  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate radiation dose to patients undergoing computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) for prospectively gated axial (PGA) technique and retrospectively gated helical (RGH) technique. Methods: Radiation doses were measured for a 320-detector row CT scanner (Toshiba Aquilion ONE) using small sized silicon-photodiode dosimeters, which were implanted at various tissue and organ positions within an anthropomorphic phantom for a standard Japanese adult male. Output signals from photodiode dosimeters were read out on a personal computer, from which organ and effective doses were computed according to guidelines published in the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 103. Results: Organs that received high doses were breast, followed by lung, esophagus, and liver. Breast doses obtained with PGA technique and a phase window width of 16% at a simulated heart rate of 60 beats per minute were 13 mGy compared to 53 mGy with RGH technique using electrocardiographically dependent dose modulation at the same phase window width as that in PGA technique. Effective doses obtained in this case were 4.7 and 20 mSv for the PGA and RGH techniques, respectively. Conversion factors of dose length product to the effective dose in PGA and RGH were 0.022 and 0.025 mSv mGy{sup -1} cm{sup -1} with a scan length of 140 mm. Conclusions: CTCA performed with PGA technique provided a substantial effective dose reduction, i.e., 70%-76%, compared to RGH technique using the dose modulation at the same phase windows as those in PGA technique. Though radiation doses in CTCA with RGH technique were the same level as, or some higher than, those in conventional coronary angiography (CCA), the use of PGA technique reduced organ and effective doses to levels less than CCA except for breast dose.

Seguchi, Shigenobu; Aoyama, Takahiko; Koyama, Shuji; Fujii, Keisuke; Yamauchi-Kawaura, Chiyo [Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University, Daikominami, Higashi-ku, Nagoya 461-8673 (Japan) and Department of Medical Technology, Nagoya Daini Red Cross Hospital, Myouken-chou, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8650 (Japan); Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University, Daikominami, Higashi-ku, Nagoya 461-8673 (Japan); Section of Radiological Protection, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University, Daikominami, Higashi-ku, Nagoya 461-8673 (Japan)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

375

Estimation of radiation doses to patients and surgeons from various fluoroscopically guided orthopaedic surgeries  

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......the medical personnel exposure...the medical personnel is always...to the operating surgeon and...potential selections. At 80 kVp...level of training and experience of the operating surgeon...patient and personnel doses. Using......

Ioannis A. Tsalafoutas; Virginia Tsapaki; Alkiviadis Kaliakmanis; Spiridon Pneumaticos; Fotis Tsoronis; Elias D. Koulentianos; George Papachristou

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Review of research on use of radiation-induced mutations in crop breeding in Japan  

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In Japan, the research on radiation-induced mutation has been conducted as one...32P, we now have various kinds of radiation facilities available for mutation breeding. The fundamental...

Takane Matsuo; Hikoyuki Yamaguchi

1962-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

On the use of computed radiography plates for quality assurance of intensity modulated radiation therapy dose distributions  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: As traditional film is phased out in most radiotherapy centers, computed radiography (CR) systems are increasingly being purchased as a replacement. CR plates can be used for patient imaging, but may also be used for a variety of quality assurance (QA) purposes and can be calibrated in terms of dose. This study looks at their suitability for verification of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dose distributions. Methods: A CR plate was calibrated in terms of the relative dose and the stability of response over 1 year was studied. The effect of exposing the CR plate to ambient light and of using different time delays before scanning was quantified. The CR plate was used to verify the relative dose distributions for ten IMRT patients and the results were compared to those obtained using a two dimensional (2D) diode array. Results: Exposing the CR plate to 10 s of ambient light between irradiation (174 cGy) and scanning erased approximately 80% of the signal. Changes in delay time between irradiation and scanning also affected the measurement results. The signal on the plate was found to decay at a rate of approximately 3.6 cGy/min in the first 10 min after irradiation. The use of a CR plate for IMRT patient-specific QA resulted in a significantly lower distance to agreement (DTA) and gamma pass rate than when using a 2D diode array for the measurement. This was primarily due to the over-response of the CR phosphor to low energy scattered radiation. For the IMRT QA using the CR plate, the average gamma pass rate was 97.3%. For the same IMRT QA using a diode array, the average gamma pass rate was 99.7%. The gamma criteria used were 4% dose difference and 4 mm DTA for head and neck treatments and 3% dose difference and 3 mm DTA for prostate treatments. The gamma index tolerance was 1. The lowest 10% of the dose distribution was excluded from all gamma and DTA analyses. Conclusions: Although the authors showed that CR plates can be used for patient specific IMRT QA, the practical problems such as the over-response to low energy scatter and signal fading with light exposure and time mean that alternative detectors such as radiochromic film or diode arrays will be a more sensible choice for most radiotherapy departments.

Day, R. A.; Sankar, A. P.; Nailon, W. H.; MacLeod, A. S. [Department of Oncology Physics, Edinburgh Cancer Centre, Western General Hospital, Crewe Road South, Edinburgh EH4 2XU (United Kingdom)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

378

A Dose-Volume Analysis of Radiation Pneumonitis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Treated With Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To examine the rates and risk factors of radiation pneumonitis (RP) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: Dosimetry records for 251 patients with lymph node-negative Stage I-IIB NSCLC and no prior chest radiation therapy (RT) treated with SBRT were reviewed. Patients were coded on the basis of the presence of at least Grade (G) 2 RP using the Common Toxicity Criteria version 2 criteria. Radiation doses, V5, V10, V20, and mean lung dose (MLD) data points were extracted from the dose-volume histogram (DVH). Results: Median PTV volume was 48 cc. Median prescribed radiation dose was 60 Gy delivered in three fractions to the 80% isodose line. Median age at treatment was 74 years. Median follow-up was 17 months. RP was reported after treatment of 42 lesions: G1 in 19 (8%), G2 in 17 (7%), G3 in 5 (2%), and G4 in 1 (0.4%). Total lung DVHs were available for 143 patients. For evaluable patients, median MLD, V5, V10, and V20 were 4.1 Gy, 20%, 12%, and 4%, respectively. Median MLDs were 4 Gy and 5 Gy for G0-1 and G2-4 groups, respectively (p = 0.14); median V5 was 20% for G0-1 and 24% for G2-4 (p = 0.70); median V10 was 12% in G0-1 and 16% in G2-4 (p = 0.08), and median V20 was 4% in G0-1 and 6.6% in G2-4 (p = 0.05). G2-4 RP was noted in 4.3% of patients with MLD {<=}4 Gy compared with 17.6% of patients with MLD >4 Gy (p = 0.02), and in 4.3% of patients with V20 {<=}4% compared with 16.4% of patients with V20 >4% (p = 0.03). Conclusion: Overall rate of G2-4 RP in our population treated with SBRT was 9.4%. Development of symptomatic RP in this series correlated with MLD and V20.

Barriger, R. Bryan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Forquer, Jeffrey A. [Toledo Radiation Oncology Inc., Toledo, OH (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH (United States); Brabham, Jeffrey G. [Florida Hospital Cancer Institute Waterman, Tavares, Florida (United States); Andolino, David L.; Shapiro, Ronald H.; Henderson, Mark A.; Johnstone, Peter A.S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Fakiris, Achilles J., E-mail: afakiris@iupui.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

MILDOS - A Computer Program for Calculating Environmental Radiation Doses from Uranium Recovery Operations  

SciTech Connect

The MILDOS Computer Code estimates impacts from radioactive emissions from uranium milling facilities. These impacts are presented as dose commitments to individuals and the regional population within an 80 km radius of the facility. Only airborne releases of radioactive materials are considered: releases to surface water and to groundwater are not addressed in MILDOS. This code is multi-purposed and can be used to evaluate population doses for NEPA assessments, maximum individual doses for predictive 40 CFR 190 compliance evaluations, or maximum offsite air concentrations for predictive evaluations of 10 CFR 20 compliance. Emissions of radioactive materials from fixed point source locations and from area sources are modeled using a sector-averaged Gaussian plume dispersion model, which utilizes user-provided wind frequency data. Mechanisms such as deposition of particulates, resuspension. radioactive decay and ingrowth of daughter radionuclides are included in the transport model. Annual average air concentrations are computed, from which subsequent impacts to humans through various pathways are computed. Ground surface concentrations are estimated from deposition buildup and ingrowth of radioactive daughters. The surface concentrations are modified by radioactive decay, weathering and other environmental processes. The MILDOS Computer Code allows the user to vary the emission sources as a step function of time by adjustinq the emission rates. which includes shutting them off completely. Thus the results of a computer run can be made to reflect changing processes throughout the facility's operational lifetime. The pathways considered for individual dose commitments and for population impacts are: Inhalation External exposure from ground concentrations External exposure from cloud immersion Ingestioo of vegetables Ingestion of meat Ingestion of milk Dose commitments are calculated using dose conversion factors, which are ultimately based on recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). These factors are fixed internally in the code, and are not part of the input option. Dose commitments which are available from the code are as follows: Individual dose commitments for use in predictive 40 CFR 190 compliance evaluations (Radon and short-lived daughters are excluded) Total individual dose commitments (impacts from all available radionuclides are considered) Annual population dose commitments (regional, extraregional, total and cummulative). This model is primarily designed for uranium mill facilities, and should not be used for operations with different radionuclides or processes.

Strange, D. L.; Bander, T. J.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

The Circadian Rhythm, A Continuous Transcription-Translation Feedback Loop, Contributes to Low-Dose Radiation-Induced Radioadaptive Response  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The Circadian Rhythm, A Continuous Transcription-Translation Feedback Loop, Contributes to Low-Dose Radiation-Induced Radioadaptive Response Aris Alexandrou and Jian Jian Li Department of Radiation Oncology, the University of California Davis, Sacramento, California, 95817 The initiation of the circadian rhythm field occurred when the Takahashi group defined a mutation in the mouse gene "Clock" and cloned the circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (Clock) in the mid- 1990's (1-3). Currently more than a dozen clock genes have been identified (3-4). Disruptions in the circadian rhythm via changes in environmental conditions, such as, diet, temperature, and night/day hours lead to the pathogenesis of a multitude of diseases, such as, cancer, diabetes mellitus,

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381

GENII-LIN project: A multipurpose health physics code to estimate radiation dose and risk from environment contamination  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract GENII-LIN11 GENII is the name of the code precursor. LIN stands for Laboratorio di Ingegneria Nucleare, the laboratory where the code has been developed. is an open source radiation protection environmental code with capabilities for calculating radiation dose and risk to individuals or populations from radionuclides released to the environment and from pre-existing environmental contamination. The code can be used for purposes such as siting facilities, environmental impact statements, and safety analysis reports. The code can handle exposure pathways that include: external exposure from finite or infinite atmospheric plumes; inhalation; external exposure from contaminated soil, sediments, and water; external exposure from special geometries; and internal exposures from consumption of terrestrial foods, aquatic foods, drinking water, animal products, and inadvertent intake of soil. The flexible modular structure and the strictly object oriented software design simplify code improvement and patching: other modules can be added and the present ones updated, with minimal effort.

F. Teodori; M. Sumini

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Estimation of external gamma radiation dose in the area of Bory Stobrawskie forests (PL)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Rather poor relationship between E I and H...was found. The correlation coefficient value was 0.46, supposing existence of other important sources of gamma radiation in environment that were not i...

Agnieszka Do?ha?czuk-?rdka

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Radiation dose to members of public residing around uranium mining complex, Jaduguda, Jharkhand, India  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......radionuclides may contaminate the ground water and deliver radiation...around the TP through water ingestion pathway. In...Characterisation and remediation of soils contaminated...uranium mill tailings, water, air, and soil pollution......

R. M. Tripathi; S. K. Sahoo; V. N. Jha; Rajesh Kumar; A. K. Shukla; V. D. Puranik; H. S. Kushwaha

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Distribution of uranium in drinking water and associated age-dependent radiation dose in India  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......uranium in Argentina bottled mineral waters. Radiat. Prot. Dosim (1996...exposure to natural uranium in well water. J. Environ. Radioact (2002...Identification, investigation and remediation of ground water containing elevated levels of......

S. K. Sahoo; S. Mohapatra; A. Chakrabarty; C. G. Sumesh; V. N. Jha; R. M. Tripathi; V. D. Puranik

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Microsoft PowerPoint - Low Dose Update Metting 6 Dec 2012  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Low Dose DOE's Low Dose Low Dose DOE's Low Dose R di ti R h R di ti R h Radiation Research Radiation Research Program Program g g NF Metting, Sc.D., Program Manager Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee Meeting Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee Meeting L'Enfant Plaza Hotel L'Enfant Plaza Hotel 6 December 2012 Office of Science Office of Biological and Environmental Research DOE's Low Dose Program: DOE s Low Dose Program: Is unique within the U.S. government in focusing on low dose biological research aimed at informing current and future g g national radiation risk policy for the public and the workplace * DOE focuses on worker and public safety from very low dose x- and p y y gamma-ray exposures encountered in energy production and environmental cleanup In contrast: In contrast: * NASA focuses on astronaut safety from high energy particulate radiation

386

DOE/SC-ARM-13-007 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January 1-March 31, 2013 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by the...

387

Radiological Survey of Contaminated Installations of Research Reactor before Dismantling in High Dose Conditions with Complex for Remote Measurements of Radioactivity - 12069  

SciTech Connect

Decontamination and decommissioning of the research reactors MR (Testing Reactor) and RFT (Reactor of Physics and Technology) has recently been initiated in the National Research Center (NRC) 'Kurchatov institute', Moscow. These research reactors have a long history and many installations - nine loop facilities for experiments with different kinds of fuel. When decommissioning nuclear facilities it is necessary to measure the distribution of radioactive contamination in the rooms and at the equipment at high levels of background radiation. At 'Kurchatov Institute' some special remote control measuring systems were developed and they are applied during dismantling of the reactors MR and RFT. For a survey of high-level objects a radiometric system mounted on the robotic Brokk vehicle is used. This system has two (4? and collimated) dose meters and a high resolution video camera. Maximum measured dose rate for this system is ?8.5 Sv/h. To determine the composition of contaminants, a portable spectrometric system is used. It is a remotely controlled, collimated detector for scanning the distribution of radioactive contamination. To obtain a detailed distribution of contamination a remote-controlled gamma camera is applied. For work at highly contaminated premises with non-uniform background radiation, another camera is equipped with rotating coded mask (coded aperture imaging). As a result, a new system of instruments for remote radioactivity measurements with wide range of sensitivity and angular resolution was developed. The experience and results of measurements in different areas of the reactor and at its loop installations, with emphasis on the radioactive survey of highly-contaminated samples, are presented. These activities are conducted under the Federal Program for Nuclear and Radiation Safety of Russia. Adaptation of complex remote measurements of radioactivity and survey of contaminated installations of research reactor before dismantling in high dose conditions has proven successful. The radioactivity measuring devices for operation at high, non-uniform dose background were tested in the field and a new data of measurement of contamination distribution in the premises and installations were obtained. (authors)

Danilovich, Alexey; Ivanov, Oleg; Lemus, Alexey; Smirnov, Sergey; Stepanov, Vyacheslav; Volkovich, Anatoly [National Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute', Moscow (Russian Federation)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Inference of Causal Networks from Time-course Transcription Data in Response to a2 Gy Challenge Dose of Ionizing Radiation with or without a 10 cGy Priming Dose  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Causal Networks from Time-course Transcription Data in Response to a Causal Networks from Time-course Transcription Data in Response to a 2 Gy Challenge Dose of Ionizing Radiation with or without a 10 cGy Priming Dose Kai Zhang, Ju Han, Torsten Groesser, Priscilla Cooper, and Bahram Parvin Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Goal: To elucidate temporal-dependent gene templates, causal networks, and underlying biological processes that can be inferred in response to a 10 cGy priming dose with or without a later higher challenged dose. Background and significance: Mechanistic inference of regulatory network can provide new insights into radiation systems biology. The main challenge continues to be high dimensionality of data, complex network architecture and limited knowledge of biological processes.

389

Doses and risks from uranium are not increased significantly by interactions with natural background photon radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......of doses to members of the public, since all humans are exposed...22). For members of the public, ingestion could also be an...Physics Society First Annual Meeting 25-27 June 1956. 33-48...United States Uranium Registry/Hanford Environmental Health Foundation......

R. J. Tanner; J. S. Eakins; J. T. M. Jansen; J. D. Harrison

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Central dose data management and analysis in IT-driven radiation protection strategies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......central dose data management system for use...requirements for such an approach are presented...central data management facility are...an M.Sc. in Science and Technology...noted. With this approach optimisation...thesis in X-ray Science and Technology...quality assurance management system in mammography......

M. Ward; D. Hughes; P. Connolly; B. M. Moores

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Radionuclides and radiation doses in heavy mineral sands and other mining operations in Mozambique  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......commodities including oil, gas and coal...measurements made in the field, and aimed at identifying...the mine at full production is 800 000 ton per...2000-h exposure, the cumulative dose would be 40...associated to uranium production. Am. J. Environ...contamination from uranium production facilities and their......

Fernando P. Carvalho; Obete F. Matine; Suzete Tamo; Joo M. Oliveira; Ldia Silva; Margarida Malta

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Genetic susceptibility to low-dose ionizing radiation in the mouse mammary glandas a means of understanding human risk for breast cancer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

susceptibility to low-dose ionizing radiation in the mouse mammary gland susceptibility to low-dose ionizing radiation in the mouse mammary gland as a means of understanding human risk for breast cancer Antoine M. Snijders 1 , Francesco Marchetti 1 , Ju Han 1 , Sandhya Bhatnagar 1 , Nadire Duru 1 , Zhi Hu 1 , Jian-Hua Mao 1 , Mina Bissell 1 , Joe Gray 1,2 , Gary H. Karpen 1 , Priscilla K. Cooper 1 and Andrew J. Wyrobek 1 1 Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 2 Current affiliation: Biomedical Engineering, Oregon Health Science Univ, Portland, OR Goal: Our goal is to develop an in vivo mechanistic model of genetic variation in the low-dose damage responses of mammary glands using inbred mice known to vary in their sensitivity to low-dose induced mammary gland cancer, and to develop molecular predictors for susceptibility or resistance to low-dose induced breast cancer.

393

Recommendations to the Technical Steering Panel regarding approach for estimating individual radiation doses resulting from releases of radionuclides to the Columbia River  

SciTech Connect

At the direction of the Technical Steering Panel (TSP) of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, Battelle staff have reviewed and analyzed available data regarding possible historical radiation doses to individuals resulting from radionuclide releases to the Columbia River. The objective of this review was to recommend to the TSP the spatial and temporal scope and level of effort on Columbia River work to most effectively extend work performed in Phase I of the project (PNL 1991a, PNL 1991b) to meet the project objectives. A number of options were analyzed. Four stretches of the Columbia River and adjacent Pacific coastal waters were defined and investigated for four time periods. Radiation doses arising from ten potentially major exposure pathways were evaluated for each of the time/location combinations, and several alternative methods were defined for estimating the doses from each pathway. Preliminary cost estimates were also developed for implementing dose estimation activities for each of the possible combinations.

Napier, B.A.; Brothers, A.J.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Recommendations to the Technical Steering Panel regarding approach for estimating individual radiation doses resulting from releases of radionuclides to the Columbia River. Volume 1, Recommendations  

SciTech Connect

At the direction of the Technical Steering Panel (TSP) of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, Battelle staff have reviewed and analyzed available data regarding possible historical radiation doses to individuals resulting from radionuclide releases to the Columbia River. The objective of this review was to recommend to the TSP the spatial and temporal scope and level of effort on Columbia River work to most effectively extend work performed in Phase I of the project (PNL 1991a, PNL 1991b) to meet the project objectives. A number of options were analyzed. Four stretches of the Columbia River and adjacent Pacific coastal waters were defined and investigated for four time periods. Radiation doses arising from ten potentially major exposure pathways were evaluated for each of the time/location combinations, and several alternative methods were defined for estimating the doses from each pathway. Preliminary cost estimates were also developed for implementing dose estimation activities for each of the possible combinations.

Napier, B.A.; Brothers, A.J.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Applying the conventional moving average filter for estimation of low radiation doses using EPR spectroscopy: Benefits and drawbacks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Alanine/EPR is the most common dosimetry system for high radiation doses because of its high stability and wide linear response, however, use of alanine in most of medical applications still require special sophisticated methodologies and techniques in order to extend alanine detection limit to low levels of radiation doses. One of these techniques is the use of digital processing of acquired alanine spectra for enhancing useful components in spectra while useless features are suppressed. Simple moving average filter (MA) impacts on alanine EPR spectra have been studied in terms of peak-to-peak height, peak-to-peak line width, and associated uncertainty. Three types of the used filter were investigated: upward MA, central MA, and downward MA filters, effects of each on the peak position for different values of filter width were studied. It was found that MA filter always lead to the reduction in signal intensity and the increase of line width of the central peak of alanine spectrum. Peak position also changes in cases of the upward MA and downward MA filters while no significant changes were observed in the case of central MA. Uncertainties associated to the averaging process were evaluated and plotted versus the filter width resulting in a linear relationship. Filter width value should be carefully selected in order to avoid probable distortion in processed spectra while gaining less noisy spectra with less associated uncertainties.

Ahmed M. Maghraby

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

DOE-STD-1153-2002; A Graded Approach for Evaluating Radiation Doses to Aquatic and Terrestrial Biota  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

3 3 METHODS DERIVATION MODULE 3: METHODS DERIVATION DOE-STD-1153-2002 INTENTIONALLY BLANK DOE-STD-1153-2002 M3-1 1 Introduction and Basis for the Approach The Department of Energy (DOE) currently has in place a radiation dose limit of 1 rad/d (10 mGy/d) for the protection of aquatic organisms (DOE Order 5400.5), and has proposed dose limits for both aquatic and terrestrial organisms. These limits are: 1 rad/d (10 mGy/d) for aquatic animals; 1 rad/d (10 mGy/d) for terrestrial plants; and 0.1 rad/d (1 mGy/d) for terrestrial animals. Because the biota protection limits are dose-based, a calculational method is needed to demonstrate compliance. In theory, derived radionuclide concentration limits for environmental media (e.g., Biota Concentration Guides, BCGs, for water, sediment, or soil) provide a relatively straightforward and simple means to do so. However, because of the

397

JOURNALDE PHYSIQUE Colloque C2, supplkment au nO 3, Tome 40, mars 1979, page C2-462 ESTIMATION OF NATURAL RADIATION DOSE AND OF THE AGE OF ANCIENT POTTERY BY MOSSBAUER  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OF NATURAL RADIATION DOSE AND OF THE AGE OF ANCIENT POTTERY BY MOSSBAUER EFFECT 3E N.A. Eissa, H.A. Sallams was estimated to be 2960 + 90 years, assuming the 1 same annual dose. 3. Discussion and conclusion.- The obtained values / for the natural radiation dose are in agreement with those (0.3 to 0.4 radslyear) given

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

398

Third Radiation Effects Research Foundation Board of Councilors Meeting Held in Hiroshima  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The third Board of Councilors (BOC) meeting was held on June 18-19 at the Hiroshima Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), a bi-national U.S.-Japan research organization.

399

Rapid assessment of high-dose radiation exposures through scoring of cell-fusion-induced premature chromosome condensation and ring chromosomes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Analysis of premature chromosome condensation (PCC) mediated by fusion of G0-lymphocytes with mitotic CHO cells in combination with rapid visualization and quantification of rings (PCC-Rf) is proposed as an alternative technique for dose assessment of radiation-exposed individuals. Isolated lymphocytes or whole blood from six individuals were ?-irradiated with 5, 10, 15 and 20Gy at a dose rate of 0.5Gy/min. Following either 8- or 24-h post-exposure incubation of irradiated samples at 37C, chromosome spreads were prepared by standard PCC cytogenetic procedures. The protocol for PCC fusion proved to be effective at doses as high as 20Gy, enabling the analysis of ring chromosomes and excess PCC fragments. The ring frequencies remained constant during the 824-h repair time; the pooled dose relationship between ring frequency (Y) and dose (D) was linear: Y=(0.0880.005)נD. During the repair time, excess fragments decreased from 0.91 to 0.59 chromatid pieces per Gy, revealing the importance of information about the exact time of exposure for dose assessment on the basis of fragments. Compared with other cytogenetic assays to estimate radiation dose, the PCC-Rf method has the following benefits: a 48-h culture time is not required, allowing a much faster assessment of dose in comparison with conventional scoring of dicentrics and rings in assays for chemically-induced premature chromosome condensation (PCC-Rch), and it allows the analysis of heavily irradiated lymphocytes that are delayed or never reach mitosis, thus avoiding the problem of saturation at high doses. In conclusion, the use of the PCC fusion assay in conjunction with scoring of rings in G0-lymphocytes offers a suitable alternative for fast dose estimation following accidental exposure to high radiation doses.

A.I. Lamadrid Boada; I. Romero Aguilera; G.I. Terzoudi; J.E. Gonzlez Mesa; G. Pantelias; O. Garca

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Dose-Response Relations from Epidemiological Studies [and Discussion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article Dose-Response Relations...The paper discusses dose-response relations...available over a range wide enough to make...chrysotile asbestos and ionizing radiation. In both cases the...increases with the dose of asbestos (principally...

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose radiation research" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Factors Affecting Radiation Dose from a Hypothetical Extrusive Volcanic Event at Yucca Mountain, Nevada  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the factors that could affect doses to the reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) as a result of a hypothetical extrusive igneous event at Yucca Mountain. Based on available information, there is no evidence that most of the spent fuel in waste packages intersected by a volcanic conduit would be reduced to fine-grained material and subsequently erupted as volcanic ash. (authors)

Weiner, R. [U. S. NRC Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste and Materials, Rockville, MD (United States); Coleman, N. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Rockville, MD (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Radiation dose profile in 125I brachytherapy: an 8-year review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......brachytherapy: an 8-year review A. N. Al-Haj...prepare the treatment plan. The radiation oncologists...KFSHRC Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory...DNS-26 depleted uranium standard reference...brachytherapy: an 8-year review. | The use of episcleral...Journal Article Review | 0 Iodine Radioisotopes......

A. N. Al-Haj; A. M. Lobriguito; C. S. Lagarde

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Dosimetry experiences and lessons learned for radiation dose assessment in Korean nuclear power plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......various long-term plans to reduce radiation...conducted by the regulatory body in Korea...and thorough review in order to apply...body counting, review of inhalation...15). The regulatory body has provided...from various reviews and studies...the mid-term plan for reduction......

Jong Rak Choi; Hee Geun Kim; Tae Young Kong; Jung Kwon Son

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Doses and risks from uranium are not increased significantly by interactions with natural background photon radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......retained in the skeleton is associated with mineral bone and is not incorporated into living...Pattison J. E. , Hugtenberg R. P., Green S. Enhancement of natural background gamma-radiation...R. , Khoury H. J., Viera J. W., Lime V. J. M. MAX06 and FAX06: update of......

R. J. Tanner; J. S. Eakins; J. T. M. Jansen; J. D. Harrison

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Internal Dose Estimates from  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Appendix H Internal Dose Estimates from Global Fallout H-1 #12;Radiation Dose to the Population. 263-MQ-008090 September 30, 2000 H-2 #12;Radiation Dose to the Population of the Continental United Site Part I. Estimates of Dose Lynn R. Anspaugh Lynn R. Anspaugh, Consulting Salt Lake City, UT Report

406

Radiation Research Department Paper: www.risoe.dk/rispubl/art/2007_333.pdf  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and released to the environment by human nuclear activity, including nuclear weapons testing, operation of Radionuclides in Environmental, Biological and Nuclear Waste Samples Xiaolin Hou and Per Roos Radiation Research in Environmental, Biological and Nuclear Waste Samples Xiaolin Hou* Per Roos Radiation Research Department, Risø

407

Re-examination of the Linear No Threshold (LNT) hypothesis, and a trial for the public to comprehend the reality of the low-dose effects of radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

People have imprinted knowledge of the LNT hypothesis. Use of the terms LNT hypothesis, ALARA, or stochastic effect, etc. clouds the understanding of people about the real effects of very low doses of radiation. In this paper, the scientific basis of the LNT hypothesis is re-examined. A denial of the presence of a threshold means that individuals have no protection from even very small doses or dose rates of radiation in the body. As the human population is heterogeneous, a linear dose-response curve is obtained, as even whole majorities have a threshold. Current results from radiation epidemiological studies and experimental studies from cells and animals were reported by experts from USA, Canada and Japan at the Radition Effects Association (REA) symposium in March 2005 in Tokyo. The findings did not support the LNT hypothesis, but the importance of biological reactions and factors involving radiation-carcinogenesis. Even a few antinuclear audiences started to think about the presence of a body-defence mechanism against radiation. Necessary information on radiation-carcinogenesis is summarised in several figures for better comprehensions by the public.

Junko Matsubara

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Assessment of Fukushima-Derived Radiation Doses and Effects on Wildlife in Japan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Following releases from the nuclear accident at the Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS), contention has arisen over the potential radiological impact on wildlife. ... This work was conducted under the auspices of the UNSCEAR, and a more comprehensive version of the assessment presented here is reported within the UN publication Levels and effects of radiation exposure due to the nuclear accident after the 2011 Great East Japan earthquake and Tsunami. ...

P. Strand; T. Aono; J. E. Brown; J. Garnier-Laplace; A. Hosseini; T. Sazykina; F. Steenhuisen; J. Vives i Batlle

2014-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

409

Natural radioactivity in various water samples and radiation dose estimations in Bolu province, Turkey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The level of natural radioactivity for Bolu province of north-western Turkey was assessed in this study. There is no information about radioactivity measurement reported in water samples in the Bolu province so far. For this reason, gross ? and ? activities of 55 different water samples collected from tap, spring, mineral, river and lake waters in Bolu were determined. The mean activity concentrations were 68.11mBqL?1, 169.44mBqL?1 for gross ? and ? in tap water. For all samples the gross ? activity is always higher than the gross ? activity. All value of the gross ? were lower than the limit value of 500mBqL?1 while two spring and one mineral water samples were found to have gross ? activity concentrations of greater than 1000mBqL?1. The associated age-dependent dose from all water ingestion in Bolu was estimated. The total dose for adults had an average value exceeds the WHO recommended limit value. The risk levels from the direct ingestion of the natural radionuclides in tap and mineral water in Bolu were determinated. The mean 210Po and 228Ra risk the value of tap and mineral waters slightly exceeds what some consider on acceptable risk of 10?4 or less.

F. Korkmaz Gorur; H. Camgoz

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

DOE-STD-1153-2002; A Graded Approach for Evaluating Radiation Doses to Aquatic and Terrestrial Biota  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2 2 DETAILED GUIDANCE MODULE 2: DETAILED GUIDANCE DOE-STD-1153-2002 INTENTIONALLY BLANK DOE-STD-1153-2002 M2-1 1 The Graded Approach, Ecological Risk Assessment, and Guidance on Their Implementation in Evaluating Radiation Doses to Biota The graded approach was made available to DOE field and program elements and to external users for a trial use period beginning in July 2000 as an interim version of this technical standard. The purpose of the trial period was to give users an opportunity to become familiar with and implement the graded approach at their sites, and to have an opportunity to provide suggestions and lessons learned to the BDAC regarding any refinements and associated guidance that needed to be incorporated into the graded approach prior to finalizing the technical standard. During this trial period the graded approach received strong interest and requests from

411

DOE-STD-1153-2002; A Graded Approach for Evaluating Radiation Doses to Aquatic and Terrestrial Biota  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1153-2002 1153-2002 July 2002 DOE STANDARD A GRADED APPROACH FOR EVALUATING RADIATION DOSES TO AQUATIC AND TERRESTRIAL BIOTA U.S. Department of Energy AREA ENVR Washington, D.C. 20585 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This document has been reproduced from the best available copy. Available to DOE and DOE contractors from ES&H Technical Information Services, U.S. Department of Energy, (800) 473-4375, fax: (301) 903-9823. Available to the public from the U.S. Department of Commerce, Technology Administration, National Technical Information Service, Springfield, VA 22161; (703) 605-6000. DOE-STD-1153-2002 iii Foreword 1. Department of Energy (DOE) activities may expose populations of plants and animals to radioactive materials in environmental media, or to radioactive materials released in waste streams. This DOE voluntary

412

Radiation dose profile in 125I brachytherapy: an 8-year review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......phantom and an Eberline DNS-26 depleted uranium standard reference source with...to 2002 were retrieved from the Health Physics file of the Research Centre-KFSHRC...Neoplasms nursing radiotherapy Gold Health Personnel Humans Infant Infant......

A. N. Al-Haj; A. M. Lobriguito; C. S. Lagarde

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA; Volume 5  

SciTech Connect

Promoting the exchange of information related to implementation of the As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) philosophy is a continuing objective for the Department of Energy (DOE). This report was prepared by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) ALARA Center for the DOE Office of Health. It contains the fifth in a series of bibliographies on dose reduction at DOE facilities. The BNL ALARA Center was originally established in 1983 under the sponsorship of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to monitor dose-reduction research and ALARA activities at nuclear power plants. This effort was expanded in 1988 by the DOE`s Office of Environment, Safety and Health, to include DOE nuclear facilities. This bibliography contains abstracts relating to various aspects of ALARA program implementation and dose-reduction activities, with a specific focus on DOE facilities. Abstracts included in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches of the DOE Energy, Science and Technology Database (in general, the citation and abstract information is presented as obtained from this database), and reprints of published articles provided by the authors. Facility types and activities covered in the scope of this report include: radioactive waste, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel storage and reprocessing, facility decommissioning, hot laboratories, tritium production, research, test and production reactors, weapons fabrication and testing, fusion, uranium and plutonium processing, radiography, and accelerators. Information on improved shielding design, decontamination, containments, robotics, source prevention and control, job planning, improved operational and design techniques, as well as on other topics, has been included. In addition, DOE/EH reports not included in previous volumes of the bibliography are in this volume (abstracts 611 to 684). This volume (Volume 5 of the series) contains 217 abstracts.

Dionne, B.J.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

The effect of thymosin on the survival of CBA/J mice exposed to lethal and acute doses of ionizing radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THE EFFECT OF THYMOSIN ON THE SURVIVAL OF CBA/J MICE EXPOSED TO LETHAL AND ACUTE DOSES OF IONIZING RADIATION A Thesis ROGER LYNN HUCHTON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M Unrversrty in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1978 Major Subject: Biophysrcs THE EFFECT OF THYMQSIN ON THE SURVIVAL OF CBA/J MICE EXPOSED TO LETHAL AND ACUTE DOSES OF IONIZING RADIATION A Thesis by ROGER LYNN HUCHTQN Approved as to style and content by...

Huchton, Roger Lynn

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Alanine-EPR dosimetry for measurements of ionizing radiation absorbed doses in the range 0.5-10 kGy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The usefulness of two, easy accessible alanine dosimeters (ALANPOL from IChTJ and foil dosimeter from Gamma Service, Radeberg, Germany) to radiation dose measurement in the range of 0.5-10 kGy, were investigated. In both cases, the result of the test was positive. The foil dosemeter from Gamma Service is recommended for dose distribution measurements in fantoms or products, ALANPOL - for routine measurements. The EPR-alanine method based on the described dosimeters can be successfully used, among others, in the technology of radiation protection of food.

Peimel-Stuglik, Z

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

RADIATION RESEARCH 168, 741749 (2007) 0033-7587/08 $15.00  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

these effects may improve cancer risk estimation at radiation doses below the epidemiological detec- tion) These signals can convert cells to a long-lived epigenetically activated state, e.g. a state of oxida- tive. The molecular identities of the signals have not yet been deter- mined, but it is known that propagation

Brenner, David Jonathan

417

Low dose radiation effects of multipotent neural stem and progenitor cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

effects of multipotent neural stem and progenitor cells effects of multipotent neural stem and progenitor cells Charles L. Limoli, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Irvine 92697-2695 Multipotent neural cells (both stem cells and their precursor cell progeny) retain their capacity to proliferate and differentiate throughout the mammalian lifespan. High numbers of these cells are located within the dentate subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus and the subventricular (SVZ) zone adjacent to the lateral ventricles, where they produce cells that can migrate away and differentiate into neurons (neurogenesis) and glia (gliogenesis). The realization that the brain contains such cells has sparked intense interest and speculation regarding their potential function. While significant data

418

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 422 (1999) 756--760 Dose mapping of inhomogeneities positioned in radiosensitive  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 422 (1999) 756--760 Dose mapping reserved. Keywords: PAG; Dosimetry; Magnetic resonance imaging; Polyacrylamide gel; Gel dosimetry 1 0 3 1 - 6 #12;light attenuation have been proposed [4]. The ap- plications of gel dosimetry so far

Doran, Simon J.

419

Commemoration of the 60th Annniversary of The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission/Radiation Effects Research Foundation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Commemoration of the 60th Annniversary of The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission/Radiation Effects Research Foundation (ABCC/RERF)

420

Community Surveys: Low Dose Radiation. Fernald, Ohio and Rocky Flats, Colorado  

SciTech Connect

This report is intended to present a basic description of the data from the two community surveys and to document the text of the questions; the methods used for the survey data collection; and a brief overview of the results. Completed surveys were conducted at local communities near the Rocky Flats, Colorado and the Fernald, Ohio sites; no survey was conducted for the Brookhaven, New York site. Fernald. The Fernald sample was randomly selected from 98% of all potential residential telephones in the townships of Ross, Morgan, and Crosby. The only telephone exchanges not used for the Fernald study had 4%, or fewer, of the holders of the telephone numbers actually living in either of the three target townships. Surveying started on July 24, 2001 and finished on August 30, 2001. A total of 399 completed interviews were obtained resulting in a CASRO response rate of 41.8%. The average length of an interview was 16.5 minutes. Rocky Flats. The sample was randomly selected from all potential residential telephones in Arvada and from 99% of the potential telephones in Westminster. Surveying started on August 10, 2001 and finished on September 25, 2001. A total of 401 completed interviews were obtained with a CASRO response rate of 32.5%. The average length of an interview was 15.7 minutes. Overall, respondents hold favorable views of science. They indicate an interest in developments in science and technology, feel that the world is better off because of science, and that science makes our lives healthier, easier, and more comfortable. However, respondents are divided on whether science should decide what is safe or not safe for themselves and their families. The majority of the respondents think that standards for exposure to radiation should be based on what science knows about health effects of radiation and on what is possible with today's technology. Although few respondents had visited the sites, most had heard or read something about Fernald or Rocky Flat s in the media. Impressions of the sites tend to be negative. Most respondents feel that overall their community would be better off without the site. However, when asked about the economic future of their community after cleanup and closure of the site, only 31-43% thought that it will be better, 47-56% thought their local economy will be about the same.

C. K. Mertz; James Flynn; Donald G. MacGregor; Theresa Satterfield; Stephen M. Johnson; Seth Tuler; Thomas Webler

2002-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose radiation research" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

An Update on Radiative Transfer Model Development at Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc.  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Update on Radiative Transfer Model Development at Update on Radiative Transfer Model Development at Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. J. S. Delamere, S. A. Clough, E. J. Mlawer, Sid-Ahmed Boukabara, K. Cady-Pereira, and M. Shepard Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Lexington, Maine Introduction Over the last decade, a suite of radiative transfer models has been developed at Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) with support from the Atmospheric and Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program. These models span the full spectral regime from the microwave to the ultraviolet, and range from monochromatic to band calculations. Each model combines the latest spectroscopic advancements with radiative transfer algorithms to efficiently compute radiances, fluxes, and cooling

422

A Phase I/II Trial of Intensity Modulated Radiation (IMRT) Dose Escalation With Concurrent Fixed-dose Rate Gemcitabine (FDR-G) in Patients With Unresectable Pancreatic Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Local failure in unresectable pancreatic cancer may contribute to death. We hypothesized that intensification of local therapy would improve local control and survival. The objectives were to determine the maximum tolerated radiation dose delivered by intensity modulated radiation with fixed-dose rate gemcitabine (FDR-G), freedom from local progression (FFLP), and overall survival (OS). Methods and Materials: Eligibility included pathologic confirmation of adenocarcinoma, radiographically unresectable, performance status of 0-2, absolute neutrophil count of {>=}1500/mm{sup 3}, platelets {>=}100,000/mm{sup 3}, creatinine <2 mg/dL, bilirubin <3 mg/dL, and alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase {<=}2.5 Multiplication-Sign upper limit of normal. FDR-G (1000 mg/m{sup 2}/100 min intravenously) was given on days -22 and -15, 1, 8, 22, and 29. Intensity modulated radiation started on day 1. Dose levels were escalated from 50-60 Gy in 25 fractions. Dose-limiting toxicity was defined as gastrointestinal toxicity grade (G) {>=}3, neutropenic fever, or deterioration in performance status to {>=}3 between day 1 and 126. Dose level was assigned using TITE-CRM (Time-to-Event Continual Reassessment Method) with the target dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) rate set to 0.25. Results: Fifty patients were accrued. DLTs were observed in 11 patients: G3/4 anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and/or dehydration (7); duodenal bleed (3); duodenal perforation (1). The recommended dose is 55 Gy, producing a probability of DLT of 0.24. The 2-year FFLP is 59% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 32-79). Median and 2-year overall survival are 14.8 months (95% CI: 12.6-22.2) and 30% (95% CI 17-45). Twelve patients underwent resection (10 R0, 2 R1) and survived a median of 32 months. Conclusions: High-dose radiation therapy with concurrent FDR-G can be delivered safely. The encouraging efficacy data suggest that outcome may be improved in unresectable patients through intensification of local therapy.

Ben-Josef, Edgar, E-mail: edgar.ben-josef@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Schipper, Mathew [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Francis, Isaac R. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Hadley, Scott; Ten-Haken, Randall; Lawrence, Theodore; Normolle, Daniel [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Simeone, Diane M.; Sonnenday, Christopher [Department of Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Abrams, Ross [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Leslie, William [Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Rush Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States)] [Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Rush Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Khan, Gazala; Zalupski, Mark M. [Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Mutation Research 504 (2002) 91100 Bystander effects in radiation-induced genomic instability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Mutation Research 504 (2002) 91­100 Bystander effects in radiation-induced genomic instability recombination and other phenotypes associated with genomic instability. © 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Bystander effects; Genomic instability; Ionizing radiation 1. Introduction Exposure

424

SURFRADA National Surface Radiation Budget Network for Atmospheric Research  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A surface radiation budget observing network (SURFRAD) has been established for the United States to support satellite retrieval validation, modeling, and climate, hydrology, and weather research. The primary measurements are the downwelling ...

John A. Augustine; John J. DeLuisi; Charles N. Long

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Standard Practice for Application of Thermoluminescence-Dosimetry (TLD) Systems for Determining Absorbed Dose in Radiation-Hardness Testing of Electronic Devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 This practice covers procedures for the use of thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) to determine the absorbed dose in a material irradiated by ionizing radiation. Although some elements of the procedures have broader application, the specific area of concern is radiation-hardness testing of electronic devices. This practice is applicable to the measurement of absorbed dose in materials irradiated by gamma rays, X rays, and electrons of energies from 12 to 60 MeV. Specific energy limits are covered in appropriate sections describing specific applications of the procedures. The range of absorbed dose covered is approximately from 10?2 to 104 Gy (1 to 106 rad), and the range of absorbed dose rates is approximately from 10?2 to 1010 Gy/s (1 to 1012 rad/s). Absorbed dose and absorbed dose-rate measurements in materials subjected to neutron irradiation are not covered in this practice. Further, the portion of these procedures that deal with electron irradiation are primarily intended for use in parts testin...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Primate polonium metabolic models and their use in estimation of systemic radiation doses from bioassay data. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A Polonium metabolic model was derived and incorporated into a Fortran algorithm which estimates the systemic radiation dose from {sup 210}Po when applied to occupational urine bioassay data. The significance of the doses estimated are examined by defining the degree of uncertainty attached to them through comprehensive statistical testing procedures. Many parameters necessary for dosimetry calculations (such as organ partition coefficients and excretion fractions), were evaluated from metabolic studies of {sup 210}Po in non-human primates. Two tamarins and six baboons were injected intravenously with {sup 210}Po citrate. Excreta and blood samples were collected. Five of the baboons were sacrificed at times ranging from 1 day to 3 months post exposure. Complete necropsies were performed and all excreta and the majority of all skeletal and tissue samples were analyzed radiochemically for their {sup 210}Po content. The {sup 210}Po excretion rate in the baboon was more rapid than in the tamarin. The biological half-time of {sup 210}Po excretion in the baboon was approximately 15 days while in the tamarin, the {sup 210}Po excretion rate was in close agreement with the 50 day biological half-time predicted by ICRP 30. Excretion fractions of {sup 210}Po in the non-human primates were found to be markedly different from data reported elsewhere in other species, including man. A thorough review of the Po urinalysis procedure showed that significant recovery losses resulted when metabolized {sup 210}Po was deposited out of raw urine. Polonium-210 was found throughout the soft tissues of the baboon but not with the partition coefficients for liver, kidneys, and spleen that are predicted by the ICRP 30 metabolic model. A fractional distribution of 0.29 for liver, 0.07 for kidneys, and 0.006 for spleen was determined. Retention times for {sup 210}Po in tissues are described by single exponential functions with biological half-times ranging from 15 to 50 days.

Cohen, N. [New York Univ. Medical Center, Tuxedo, NY (United States). Dept. of Environmental Medicine

1989-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

427

Radiation Imaging Detectors for Plant Photosynthesis Research | U.S. DOE  

Office of Science (SC) Website

» Radiation Imaging Detectors for Plant Photosynthesis Research » Radiation Imaging Detectors for Plant Photosynthesis Research Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) News & Resources Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-26/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3613 F: (301) 903-3833 E: sc.np@science.doe.gov More Information » June 2012 Radiation Imaging Detectors for Plant Photosynthesis Research Imaging tools aid research in global climate change, plant genetics, biofuels, agriculture, and carbon sequestration. Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page Click to enlarge photo. Enlarge Photo Image courtesy of Jefferson Lab The PhytoPET plant imaging system.

428

Verification of radiation dose calculations during paediatric cystourethrography examinations using MCNP5 and PCXMC 2.0 Monte Carlo codes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Cranley et al.) software code(21). For...Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety STUK). PCXMC is...Georgiou E. Radiation risk assessment...Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. STUK-A231......

E. Yakoumakis; A. Dimitriadis; T. Makri; M. Karlatira; E. Karavasilis; G. Gialousis

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Mitigation Effect of an FGF-2 Peptide on Acute Gastrointestinal Syndrome After High-Dose Ionizing Radiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Acute gastrointestinal syndrome (AGS) resulting from ionizing radiation causes death within 7 days. Currently, no satisfactory agent exists for mitigation of AGS. A peptide derived from the receptor binding domain of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-P) was synthesized and its mitigation effect on AGS was examined. Methods and Materials: A subtotal body irradiation (sub-TBI) model was created to induce gastrointestinal (GI) death while avoiding bone marrow death. After 10.5 to 16 Gy sub-TBI, mice received an intramuscular injection of FGF-P (10 mg/kg/day) or saline (0.2 ml/day) for 5 days; survival (frequency and duration) was measured. Crypt cells and their proliferation were assessed by hematoxylin, eosin, and BrdU staining. In addition, GI hemoccult score, stool formation, and plasma levels of endotoxin, insulin, amylase, interleukin (IL)-6, keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were evaluated. Results: Treatment with FGF-P rescued a significant fraction of four strains of mice (33-50%) exposed to a lethal dose of sub-TBI. Use of FGF-P improved crypt survival and repopulation and partially preserved or restored GI function. Furthermore, whereas sub-TBI increased plasma endotoxin levels and several pro-inflammation cytokines (IL-6, KC, MCP-1, and TNF-alpha), FGF-P reduced these adverse responses. Conclusions: The study data support pursuing FGF-P as a mitigator for AGS.

Zhang Lurong [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Sun Weimin; Wang Jianjun [Second Military Medical College, Shanghai (China); Zhang Mei; Yang Shanmin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Tian Yeping [Second Military Medical College, Shanghai (China); Vidyasagar, Sadasivan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Pena, Louis A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Medical Department, Upton, NY (United States); Zhang Kunzhong [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Cao Yongbing [Second Military Medical College, Shanghai (China); Yin Liangjie [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Wang Wei [Department of Surgery, Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian (China); Zhang Lei [Department of Laboratory Medicine, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Schaefer, Katherine L.; Saubermann, Lawrence J. [Department of Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Swarts, Steven G.; Fenton, Bruce M.; Keng, Peter C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Okunieff, Paul, E-mail: Paul_Okunieff@URMC.Rochester.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States)

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

An investigation of radon exhalation rate and estimation of radiation doses in coal and fly ash samples  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal is a technologically important material used for power generation. Its cinder (fly ash) is used in the manufacturing of bricks, sheets, cement, land filling etc. Coal and its by-products often contain significant amounts of radionuclides, including uranium which is the ultimate source of the radioactive gas radon. Burning of coal and the subsequent atmospheric emission cause the redistribution of toxic radioactive trace elements in the environment. In the present study, radon exhalation rates in coal and fly ash samples from the thermal power plants at Kolaghat (W.B.) and Kasimpur (U.P.) have been measured using sealed Can technique having LR-115 type II detectors. The activity concentrations of 238U, 232Th, and 40K in the samples of Kolaghat power station are also measured. It is observed that the radon exhalation rate from fly ash samples from Kolaghat is higher than from coal samples and activity concentration of radionuclides in fly ash is enhanced after the combustion of coal. Fly ash samples from Kasimpur show no appreciable change in radon exhalation. Radiation doses from the fly ash samples have been estimated from radon exhalation rate and radionuclide concentrations.

A.K. Mahur; Rajesh Kumar; Meena Mishra; D. Sengupta; Rajendra Prasad

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

RADIATION DOSE ASSESSMENT FOR THE BIOTA OF TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS IN THE SHORELINE ZONE OF THE CHERNOBYL NUCLEAR POWER PLANT COOLING POND  

SciTech Connect

Radiation exposure of the biota in the shoreline area of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Cooling Pond was assessed to evaluate radiological consequences from the decommissioning of the Cooling Pond. The