Sample records for dose radiation exposure

  1. Assessment of the Technologies for Molecular Biodosimetry for Human Low-Dose Radiation Exposure Symposium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthew A. Coleman Ph.D.; Narayani Ramakrishnan, Ph.D.; Sally A. Amundson; James D. Tucker, Ph.D.; Stephen D. Dertinger, Ph.D.; Natalia I. Ossetrova, Ph.D.; Tao Chen

    2009-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Exposure to ionizing radiation produces few immediate outwardly-visible clinical signs, yet, depending on dose, can severely damage vital physiological functions within days to weeks and produce long-lasting health consequences among survivors. In the event of a radiological accident, the rapid evaluation of the individual absorbed dose is paramount to discriminate the worried but unharmed from those individuals who must receive medical attention. Physical, clinical and biological dosimetry are usually combined for the best dose assessment. However, because of the practical limits of physical and clinical dosimetry, many attempts have been made to develop a dosimetry system based on changes in biological parameters, including techniques for hematology, biochemistry, immunology, cytogenetics, etc. Lymphocyte counts and chromosome aberrations analyses are among the methods that have been routinely used for estimating radiation dose. However, these assays require several days to a week to be completed and therefore cannot be used to obtain a fast estimate of the dose during the first few days after exposure when the information would be most critical for identifying victims of radiation accidents who could benefit the most by medical intervention. The steadily increasing sophistication in our understanding of the early biochemical responses of irradiated cells and tissues provides the opportunity for developing mechanism-based biosignatures of exposure. Compelling breakthroughs have been made in the technologies for genome-scale analysis of cellular transcriptional and proteomic profiles. There have also been major strides in the mechanistic understanding of the early events in DNA damage and radiation damage products, as well as in the cellular pathways that lead to radiation injury. New research with genomic- and proteomic-wide tools is showing that within minutes to hours after exposure to ionizing radiation protein machines are modified and activated, and large-scale changes occur in the gene expression profile involving a broad variety of cell-process pathways after a wide range of both low (<10 cGy) and high dose (>10 cGy) exposures. Evaluation of these potential gene and protein biomarkers for early and late diagnostic information will be critical for determining the efficacy of the signatures to both low and high dose IR exposures. Also needed are approaches that enable rapid handling and processing for mass-casualty and population triage scenarios. Development of in vivo model system will be crucial for validating both the biological and the instrumentation for biodosimetry. Such studies will also help further understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the biological effects of radiation and the differences of responses due to individual genetic variation.

  2. Electronic dose conversion technique using a NaI(Tl) detector for assessment of exposure dose rate from environmental radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, G.; Kim, H.K. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)] [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Woo, H.; Oh, G. [Korea Electric Power Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)] [Korea Electric Power Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Ha, D.K. [Samchang Enterprise Co., Anyang (Korea, Republic of)] [Samchang Enterprise Co., Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electronic dose conversion technique to assess the exposure dose rate due to environmental radiation especially from terrestrial sources was developed. For a 2 x 2 inch cylindrical NaI(Tl) scintillation detector, pulse-height spectra were obtained for gamma-rays of energy up to 3 MeV by Monte Carlo simulation. Based on the simulation results and the experimentally fitted energy resolution, dose conversion factors were calculated by a numerical decomposition method. These calculated dose conversion factors were, then, electronically implemented to a developed dose conversion unit (DCU) which is a microprocessor-controlled single channel analyzer (SCA) with variable discrimination levels. The simulated spectra were confirmed by measurement of several monoenergetic gamma spectra with a multichannel analyzer (MCA). The converted exposure dose rates from the implemented dose conversion algorithm in the DCU were also evaluated for a field test in the vicinity of the nuclear power plant at Kori as well as for several standard sources, and the results were in good agreement with separate measurement by a high pressure ionization chamber (HPIC) within a 6.4% deviation.

  3. An evaluation of theories concerning the health effects of low-dose radiation exposures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, Elizabeth J. (Elizabeth Jay)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The danger of high, acute doses of radiation is well documented, but the effects of low-dose radiation below 100 mSv is still heavily debated. Four theories concerning the effects of lowdose radiation are presented here: ...

  4. Estimation of Internal Radiation Dose from both Immediate Releases and Continued Exposures to Contaminated Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napier, Bruce A.

    2012-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A brief description is provided of the basic concepts related to 'internal dose' and how it differs from doses that result from radioactive materials and direct radiation outside of the body. The principles of radiation dose reconstruction, as applied to both internal and external doses, is discussed based upon a recent publication prepared by the US National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Finally, ideas are introduced related to residual radioactive contamination in the environment that has resulted from the releases from the damaged reactors and also to the management of wastes that may be generated in both regional cleanup and NPP decommissioning.

  5. Experimental and Simulation of Gamma Radiation Dose Rate for High Exposure Building Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abbasi, Akbar

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural radioactivity concentrations in high exposure building materials are commonly used in Iran, which is measured a direct exposure by using {\\gamma}-ray spectrometry. The values for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were in the ranges 3.8 - 94.2, 6.5 - 172.2 and 556.9 - 1539.2 Bqkg-1, respectively. The absorbed dose rates in the standard dwelling room due to 238U, 232Th series and 40K were calculated with MCNPX code. The simulation and experimental results were between 7.95 - 41.74 and 8.36 - 39.99 nGy h-1, respectively. These results were compared with experimental outing and there was overlap closely. The simulation results are able to develop for any kind of dwelling places.

  6. Experimental and Simulation of Gamma Radiation Dose Rate for High Exposure Building Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akbar Abbasi; Mustfa Hassanzadeh

    2014-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural radioactivity concentrations in high exposure building materials are commonly used in Iran, which is measured a direct exposure by using {\\gamma}-ray spectrometry. The values for 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were in the ranges 3.8 - 94.2, 6.5 - 172.2 and 556.9 - 1539.2 Bqkg-1, respectively. The absorbed dose rates in the standard dwelling room due to 238U, 232Th series and 40K were calculated with MCNPX code. The simulation and experimental results were between 7.95 - 41.74 and 8.36 - 39.99 nGy h-1, respectively. These results were compared with experimental outing and there was overlap closely. The simulation results are able to develop for any kind of dwelling places.

  7. Early Brain Response to Low-Dose Radiation Exposure Involves Molecular Networks and Pathways Associated with Cognitive Functions, Advanced Aging and Alzheimer's Disease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowe, Xiu R; Bhattacharya, Sanchita; Marchetti, Francesco; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    2008-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding the cognitive and behavioral consequences of brain exposures to low-dose ionizing radiation has broad relevance for health risks from medical radiation diagnostic procedures, radiotherapy, environmental nuclear contamination, as well as earth orbit and space missions. Analyses of transcriptome profiles of murine brain tissue after whole-body radiation showed that low-dose exposures (10 cGy) induced genes not affected by high dose (2 Gy), and low-dose genes were associated with unique pathways and functions. The low-dose response had two major components: pathways that are consistently seen across tissues, and pathways that were brain tissue specific. Low-dose genes clustered into a saturated network (p < 10{sup -53}) containing mostly down-regulated genes involving ion channels, long-term potentiation and depression, vascular damage, etc. We identified 9 neural signaling pathways that showed a high degree of concordance in their transcriptional response in mouse brain tissue after low-dose radiation, in the aging human brain (unirradiated), and in brain tissue from patients with Alzheimer's disease. Mice exposed to high-dose radiation did not show these effects and associations. Our findings indicate that the molecular response of the mouse brain within a few hours after low-dose irradiation involves the down-regulation of neural pathways associated with cognitive dysfunctions that are also down regulated in normal human aging and Alzheimer's disease.

  8. Radiation Leukemogenesis at Low Dose Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weil, Michael; Ullrich, Robert

    2013-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The major goals of this program were to study the efficacy of low dose rate radiation exposures for the induction of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and to characterize the leukemias that are caused by radiation exposures at low dose rate. An irradiator facility was designed and constructed that allows large numbers of mice to be irradiated at low dose rates for protracted periods (up to their life span). To the best of our knowledge this facility is unique in the US and it was subsequently used to study radioprotectors being developed for radiological defense (PLoS One. 7(3), e33044, 2012) and is currently being used to study the role of genetic background in susceptibility to radiation-induced lung cancer. One result of the irradiation was expected; low dose rate exposures are ineffective in inducing AML. However, another result was completely unexpected; the irradiated mice had a very high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), approximately 50%. It was unexpected because acute exposures are ineffective in increasing HCC incidence above background. This is a potential important finding for setting exposure limits because it supports the concept of an 'inverse dose rate effect' for some tumor types. That is, for the development of some tumor types low dose rate exposures carry greater risks than acute exposures.

  9. DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2012-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. As an indicator of the overall amount of radiation dose received during the conduct of operations at DOE, the report includes information on collective total effective dose (TED). The TED is comprised of the effective dose (ED) from external sources, which includes neutron and photon radiation, and the internal committed effective dose (CED), which results from the intake of radioactive material into the body. The collective ED from photon exposure decreased by 23% between 2011 and 2012, while the neutron dose increased by 5%. The internal dose components of the collective TED decreased by 7%. Over the past 5-year period, 99.99% of the individuals receiving measurable TED have received doses below the 2 roentgen equivalent in man (rems) (20 millisievert [mSv]) TED administrative control level (ACL), which is well below the DOE regulatory limit of 5 rems (50 mSv) TED annually. The occupational radiation exposure records show that in 2012, DOE facilities continued to comply with DOE dose limits and ACLs and worked to minimize exposure to individuals. The DOE collective TED decreased 17.1% from 2011 to 2012. The collective TED decreased at three of the five sites with the largest collective TED. u Idaho Site – Collective dose reductions were achieved as a result of continuing improvements at the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) through the planning of drum movements that reduced the number of times a container is handled; placement of waste containers that created highradiation areas in a centralized location; and increased worker awareness of high-dose rate areas. In addition, Idaho had the largest decrease in the total number of workers with measurable TED (1,143 fewer workers). u Hanford Site (Hanford) – An overall reduction of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and Transuranic (TRU) retrieval activities resulted in collective dose reductions. u Savannah River Site (SRS) – Reductions were achieved through ALARA initiatives employed site wide. The Solid Waste Management Facility used extended specialty tools, cameras and lead shield walls to facilitate removal of drums. These tools and techniques reduce exposure time through improved efficiency, increase distance from the source of radiation by remote monitoring, shield the workers to lower the dose rate, and reduce the potential for contamination and release of material through repacking of waste. Overall, from 2011 to 2012, there was a 19% decrease in the number of workers with measurable dose. Furthermore, due to a slight decrease in both the DOE workforce (7%) and monitored workers (10%), the ratio of workers with measurable doses to monitored workers decreased to 13%. Another primary indicator of the level of radiation exposure covered in this report is the average measurable dose, which normalizes the collective dose over the population of workers who actually received a measurable dose. The average measurable TED in

  10. Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Data Reporting Guide

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Instructions for preparing occupational exposure data for submittal to the Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS) repository.

  11. SCIENTIFIC CORRESPONDENCE Radiation doses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shlyakhter, Ilya

    -- ation doses and cancer rates to the workers m the first Soviet atom-bomb facility, near 2 Chelyabinsk

  12. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1974 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Seventh Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for AEC & AEC Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and its contractor employees during 1974.

  13. A Reanalysis of Curvature in the Dose Response for Cancer and Modifications by Age at Exposure Following Radiation Therapy for Benign Disease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Little, Mark P., E-mail: mark.little@nih.gov [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland (United States); Stovall, Marilyn; Smith, Susan A. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kleinerman, Ruth A. [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland (United States)] [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Institute, Rockville, Maryland (United States)

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To assess the shape of the dose response for various cancer endpoints and modifiers by age and time. Methods and Materials: Reanalysis of the US peptic ulcer data testing for heterogeneity of radiogenic risk by cancer endpoint (stomach, pancreas, lung, leukemia, all other). Results: There are statistically significant (P<.05) excess risks for all cancer and for lung cancer and borderline statistically significant risks for stomach cancer (P=.07), and leukemia (P=.06), with excess relative risks Gy{sup -1} of 0.024 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.011, 0.039), 0.559 (95% CI 0.221, 1.021), 0.042 (95% CI -0.002, 0.119), and 1.087 (95% CI -0.018, 4.925), respectively. There is statistically significant (P=.007) excess risk of pancreatic cancer when adjusted for dose-response curvature. General downward curvature is apparent in the dose response, statistically significant (P<.05) for all cancers, pancreatic cancer, and all other cancers (ie, other than stomach, pancreas, lung, leukemia). There are indications of reduction in relative risk with increasing age at exposure (for all cancers, pancreatic cancer), but no evidence for quadratic variations in relative risk with age at exposure. If a linear-exponential dose response is used, there is no significant heterogeneity in the dose response among the 5 endpoints considered or in the speed of variation of relative risk with age at exposure. The risks are generally consistent with those observed in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and in groups of nuclear workers. Conclusions: There are excess risks for various malignancies in this data set. Generally there is a marked downward curvature in the dose response and significant reduction in relative risk with increasing age at exposure. The consistency of risks with those observed in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and in groups of nuclear workers implies that there may be little sparing effect of fractionation of dose or low-dose-rate exposure.

  14. DOE Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS) Data Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, Nimi; Hagemeyer, Derek

    2012-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This slide show presents the 2011 draft data for DOE occupational radiation exposure.Clarification is given on Reporting Data regarding: reporting Total Organ Dose (TOD); reporting Total Skin Dose (TSD), and Total Extremity Dose (TExD) ; and Special individuals reporting.

  15. Advanced Computational Approaches for Characterizing Stochastic Cellular Responses to Low Dose, Low Dose Rate Exposures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, Bobby, R., Ph.D.

    2003-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    OAK - B135 This project final report summarizes modeling research conducted in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Low Dose Radiation Research Program at the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute from October 1998 through June 2003. The modeling research described involves critically evaluating the validity of the linear nonthreshold (LNT) risk model as it relates to stochastic effects induced in cells by low doses of ionizing radiation and genotoxic chemicals. The LNT model plays a central role in low-dose risk assessment for humans. With the LNT model, any radiation (or genotoxic chemical) exposure is assumed to increase one¡¯s risk of cancer. Based on the LNT model, others have predicted tens of thousands of cancer deaths related to environmental exposure to radioactive material from nuclear accidents (e.g., Chernobyl) and fallout from nuclear weapons testing. Our research has focused on developing biologically based models that explain the shape of dose-response curves for low-dose radiation and genotoxic chemical-induced stochastic effects in cells. Understanding the shape of the dose-response curve for radiation and genotoxic chemical-induced stochastic effects in cells helps to better understand the shape of the dose-response curve for cancer induction in humans. We have used a modeling approach that facilitated model revisions over time, allowing for timely incorporation of new knowledge gained related to the biological basis for low-dose-induced stochastic effects in cells. Both deleterious (e.g., genomic instability, mutations, and neoplastic transformation) and protective (e.g., DNA repair and apoptosis) effects have been included in our modeling. Our most advanced model, NEOTRANS2, involves differing levels of genomic instability. Persistent genomic instability is presumed to be associated with nonspecific, nonlethal mutations and to increase both the risk for neoplastic transformation and for cancer occurrence. Our research results, based on applications of NEOTRANS2, indicate that nonlinear threshold-type, dose-response relationships for excess stochastic effects (problematic nonlethal mutations, neoplastic transformation) should be expected after exposure to low linear energy transfer (LET) gamma rays or gamma rays in combination with high-LET alpha radiation. Similar thresholds are expected for low-dose-rate low-LET beta irradiation. We attribute the thresholds to low-dose, low-LET radiation induced protection against spontaneous mutations and neoplastic transformations. The protection is presumed mainly to involve selective elimination of problematic cells via apoptosis. Low-dose, low-LET radiation is presumed to trigger wide-area cell signaling, which in turn leads to problematic bystander cells (e.g., mutants, neoplastically transformed cells) selectively undergoing apoptosis. Thus, this protective bystander effect leads to selective elimination of problematic cells (a tissue cleansing process in vivo). However, this protective bystander effects is a different process from low-dose stimulation of the immune system. Low-dose, low-LET radiation stimulation of the immune system may explain why thresholds for inducing excess cancer appear much larger (possibly more than 100-fold larger) than thresholds for inducing excess mutations and neoplastic transformations, when the dose rate is low. For ionizing radiation, the current risk assessment paradigm is such that the relative risk (RR) is always ¡Ý 1, no matter how small the dose. Our research results indicate that for low-dose or low-dose-rate, low-LET irradiation, RR < 1 may be more the rule than the exception. Directly tied to the current RR paradigm are the billion-dollar cleanup costs for radionuclide-contaminated DOE sites. Our research results suggest that continued use of the current RR paradigm for which RR ¡Ý 1 could cause more harm than benefit to society (e.g., by spreading unwarranted fear about phantom excess risks associated with low-dose low-LET radiation). Such phantom risks also may arise from risk assessments conducted for com

  16. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1977 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Tenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1977.

  17. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1978 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Eleventh Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1978.

  18. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1984 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Seventeenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1984.

  19. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1976 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Ninth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1976.

  20. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1975 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Eighth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for ERDA & ERDA Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and its contractor employees during 1975.

  1. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1985 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Eighteenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1985.

  2. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1981 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Fourteenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1981.

  3. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1986 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Nineteenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1986.

  4. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1980 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Thirteenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1980.

  5. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1979 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Twelfth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1979.

  6. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1982 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Fifteenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1982.

  7. Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 1983 Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Sixteenth Annual Report of Radiation Exposures for DOE & DOE Contractor Employees analyzes occupational radiation exposures at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractor employees during 1983.

  8. DOE 2010 Occupational Radiation Exposure November 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security, Office of Analysis

    2011-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses radiation protection and dose reporting requirements, presents the 2010 occupational radiation dose data trended over the past 5 years, and includes instructions to submit successful ALARA projects.

  9. Low-Dose Radiation Cataract and Genetic Determinants of Radiosensitivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleiman, Norman Jay [Columbia University] [Columbia University

    2013-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The lens of the eye is one of the most radiosensitive tissues in the body. Ocular ionizing radiation exposure results in characteristic, dose related, progressive lens changes leading to cataract formation. While initial, early stages of lens opacification may not cause visual disability, the severity of such changes progressively increases with dose until vision is impaired and cataract extraction surgery may be required. Because of the transparency of the eye, radiation induced lens changes can easily be followed non-invasively over time. Thus, the lens provides a unique model system in which to study the effects of low dose ionizing radiation exposure in a complex, highly organized tissue. Despite this observation, considerable uncertainties remain surrounding the relationship between dose and risk of developing radiation cataract. For example, a growing number of human epidemiological findings suggest significant risk among various groups of occupationally and accidentally exposed individuals and confidence intervals that include zero dose. Nevertheless, questions remain concerning the relationship between lens opacities, visual disability, clinical cataract, threshold dose and/or the role of genetics in determining radiosensitivity. Experimentally, the response of the rodent eye to radiation is quite similar to that in humans and thus animal studies are well suited to examine the relationship between radiation exposure, genetic determinants of radiosensitivity and cataractogenesis. The current work has expanded our knowledge of the low-dose effects of X-irradiation or high-LET heavy ion exposure on timing and progression of radiation cataract and has provided new information on the genetic, molecular, biochemical and cell biological features which contribute to this pathology. Furthermore, findings have indicated that single and/or multiple haploinsufficiency for various genes involved in DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint control, such as Atm, Brca1 or Rad9, influence cataract development and thus radiosensitivity. These observations have direct applicability to various human populations including accidentally exposed individuals, interventional medical workers, astronauts and nuclear plant workers.

  10. DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure, 2001 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2001-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to conduct its operations, including radiological, to ensure the safety and health of all DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The DOE strives to maintain radiation exposures to its workers below administrative control levels and DOE limits and to further reduce these exposures to levels that are “As Low As Reasonably Achievable” (ALARA). The 2001 DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides a summary and analysis of the occupational radiation exposure received by individuals associated with DOE activities. The DOE mission includes stewardship of the nuclear weapons stockpile and the associated facilities, environmental restoration of DOE, and energy research.

  11. Low-dose radiation impacts skin sensitivity | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low-dose radiation impacts skin sensitivity Low-dose radiation impacts skin sensitivity Released: April 06, 2015 Systems approach suggests alterations in stability of cells and...

  12. Pamphlet, A Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Pamphlet, A Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure Monitoring, Analysis & Reporting Pamphlet, A Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure Monitoring, Analysis &...

  13. Second Solid Cancers After Radiation Therapy: A Systematic Review of the Epidemiologic Studies of the Radiation Dose-Response Relationship

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berrington de Gonzalez, Amy, E-mail: berringtona@mail.nih.gov [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Gilbert, Ethel; Curtis, Rochelle; Inskip, Peter; Kleinerman, Ruth; Morton, Lindsay; Rajaraman, Preetha; Little, Mark P. [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)] [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Rapid innovations in radiation therapy techniques have resulted in an urgent need for risk projection models for second cancer risks from high-dose radiation exposure, because direct observation of the late effects of newer treatments will require patient follow-up for a decade or more. However, the patterns of cancer risk after fractionated high-dose radiation are much less well understood than those after lower-dose exposures (0.1-5 Gy). In particular, there is uncertainty about the shape of the dose-response curve at high doses and about the magnitude of the second cancer risk per unit dose. We reviewed the available evidence from epidemiologic studies of second solid cancers in organs that received high-dose exposure (>5 Gy) from radiation therapy where dose-response curves were estimated from individual organ-specific doses. We included 28 eligible studies with 3434 second cancer patients across 11 second solid cancers. Overall, there was little evidence that the dose-response curve was nonlinear in the direction of a downturn in risk, even at organ doses of ?60 Gy. Thyroid cancer was the only exception, with evidence of a downturn after 20 Gy. Generally the excess relative risk per Gray, taking account of age and sex, was 5 to 10 times lower than the risk from acute exposures of <2 Gy among the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. However, the magnitude of the reduction in risk varied according to the second cancer. The results of our review provide insights into radiation carcinogenesis from fractionated high-dose exposures and are generally consistent with current theoretical models. The results can be used to refine the development of second solid cancer risk projection models for novel radiation therapy techniques.

  14. Savannah River Plant/Savannah River Laboratory radiation exposure report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogers, C.D.; Hyman, S.D.; Keisler, L.L. (Du Pont de Nemours (E.I.) and Co., Aiken, SC (USA). Savannah River Plant); Reeder, D.F.; Jolly, L.; Spoerner, M.T.; Schramm, G.R. (Du Pont de Nemours (E.I.) and Co., Aiken, SC (USA). Savannah River Lab.)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The protection of worker health and safety is of paramount concern at the Savannah River Site. Since the site is one of the largest nuclear sites in the nation, radiation safety is a key element in the protection program. This report is a compendium of the results in 1988 of the programs at the Savannah River Plant and the Savannah River Laboratory to protect the radiological health of employees. By any measure, the radiation protection performance at this site in 1988 was the best since the beginning of operations. This accomplishment was made possible by the commitment and support at all levels of the organizations to reduce radiation exposures to ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable). The report provides detailed information about the radiation doses received by departments and work groups within these organizations. It also includes exposure data for recent years to allow Plant and Laboratory units to track the effectiveness of their ALARA efforts. Many of the successful practices and methods that reduced radiation exposure are described. A new goal for personnel contamination cases has been established for 1989. Only through continual and innovative efforts to minimize exposures can the goals be met. The radiation protection goals for 1989 and previous years are included in the report. 27 figs., 58 tabs.

  15. Health Impacts from Acute Radiation Exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Absorbed doses above1-2 Gy (100-200 rads) received over a period of a day or less lead to one or another of the acute radiation syndromes. These are the hematopoietic syndrome, the gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome, the cerebrovascular (CV) syndrome, the pulmonary syndrome, or the cutaneous syndrome. The dose that will kill about 50% of the exposed people within 60 days with minimal medical care, LD50-60, is around 4.5 Gy (450 rads) of low-LET radiation measured free in air. The GI syndrome may not be fatal with supportive medical care and growth factors below about 10 Gy (1000 rads), but above this is likely to be fatal. Pulmonary and cutaneous syndromes may or may not be fatal, depending on many factors. The CV syndrome is invariably fatal. Lower acute doses, or protracted doses delivered over days or weeks, may lead to many other health outcomes than death. These include loss of pregnancy, cataract, impaired fertility or temporary or permanent sterility, hair loss, skin ulceration, local tissue necrosis, developmental abnormalities including mental and growth retardation in persons irradiated as children or fetuses, radiation dermatitis, and other symptoms listed in Table 2 on page 12. Children of parents irradiated prior to conception may experience heritable ill-health, that is, genetic changes from their parents. These effects are less strongly expressed than previously thought. Populations irradiated to high doses at high dose rates have increased risk of cancer incidence and mortality, taken as about 10-20% incidence and perhaps 5-10% mortality per sievert of effective dose of any radiation or per gray of whole-body absorbed dose low-LET radiation. Cancer risks for non-uniform irradiation will be less.

  16. Agriculture-related radiation dose calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furr, J.M.; Mayberry, J.J.; Waite, D.A.

    1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Estimates of radiation dose to the public must be made at each stage in the identification and qualification process leading to siting a high-level nuclear waste repository. Specifically considering the ingestion pathway, this paper examines questions of reliability and adequacy of dose calculations in relation to five stages of data availability (geologic province, region, area, location, and mass balance) and three methods of calculation (population, population/food production, and food production driven). Calculations were done using the model PABLM with data for the Permian and Palo Duro Basins and the Deaf Smith County area. Extra effort expended in gathering agricultural data at succeeding environmental characterization levels does not appear justified, since dose estimates do not differ greatly; that effort would be better spent determining usage of food types that contribute most to the total dose; and that consumption rate and the air dispersion factor are critical to assessment of radiation dose via the ingestion pathway. 17 refs., 9 figs., 32 tabs.

  17. Evaluation of Radiation Dose Effects on Rat Bones Using Synchrotron Radiation Computed Microtomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nogueira, Liebert Parreiras; Braz, Delson [Nuclear Instrumentation Laboratory / COPPE / UFRJ, P.O. Box 68509, 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Barroso, Regina Cely [Physics Institute / State University of Rio de Janeiro, 20550-900, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Almeida, Carlos Eduardo de; Andrade, Cherley Borba [Laboratory of Radiological Sciences / State University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Tromba, Giuliana [Sincrotrone Trieste SCpA, Strada Statale S.S. 14 km 163.5, 34012 Basovizza, Trieste (Italy)

    2011-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, we investigated the consequences of irradiation in the femora and ribs of rats submitted to radiation doses of 5 Gy. Three different sites in femur specimens (head, distal metaphysis and distal epiphysis) and one in ribs (ventral) were imaged using synchrotron radiation microcomputed tomography to assess trabecular bone microarchitecture. Histomorphometric quantification was calculated directly from the 3D microtomographic images using synchrotron radiation. The 3D microtomographic images were obtained at the SYRMEP (SYnchrotron Radiation for MEdical Physics) beamline at the Elettra Synchrotron Laboratory in Trieste, Italy. A better understanding of the biological interactions that occur after exposure to photon radiation is needed in order to optimize therapeutic regimens and facilitate development and strategies that decrease radiation-induced side effects in humans. Results showed significant differences between irradiated and non-irradiated specimens, mostly in head and distal metaphysis bone sites.

  18. acute radiation exposure: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    plant species. Search method: In nature, most alpha radiation exposure is caused by radon progeny. Exposure is particularly high below ground, and is also elevated on plant...

  19. aircrew radiation exposure: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    plant species. Search method: In nature, most alpha radiation exposure is caused by radon progeny. Exposure is particularly high below ground, and is also elevated on plant...

  20. EXTRAPOLATING RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER RISKS FROM LOW DOSES TO VERY LOW DOSES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenner, David Jonathan

    risk; National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements INTRODUCTION THERE IS considerablePaper EXTRAPOLATING RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER RISKS FROM LOW DOSES TO VERY LOW DOSES David J. Brenner* Abstract--There is strong evidence that ionizing radiation increases cancer risks at high doses

  1. Environmental radiation exposure: Regulation, monitoring, and assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, S.Y.; Yu, C.; Hong, K.J.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive releases to the environment from nuclear facilities constitute a public health concern. Protecting the public from such releases can be achieved through the establishment and enforcement of regulatory standards. In the United States, numerous standards have been promulgated to regulate release control at nuclear facilities. Most recent standards are more restrictive than those in the past and require that radioactivity levels be as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). Environmental monitoring programs and radiological dose assessment are means of ensuring compliance with regulations. Environmental monitoring programs provide empirical information on releases, such as the concentrations of released radioactivity in environmental media, while radiological dose assessment provides the analytical means of quantifying dose exposures for demonstrating compliance.

  2. A Basic Overview of the Occupational Radiation Exposure Monitoring...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Operating Experience Program, requires collection, analysis, and dissemination of performance indicators, such as occupational radiation exposure information. DOE System of...

  3. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES ON RADIATION CARCINOGENESIS IN HUMAN POPULATIONS FOLLOWING ACUTE EXPOSURE: NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS AND MEDICAL RADIATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EXPOSURE: NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS AND MEDICAL RADIATION . Jacobexposed to nuclear explosions and medical radiation. Sinceto nuclear explo ions or medical radiation, describes the

  4. Occupational Radiation Exposure Analysis of US ITER DCLL TBM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merrill, Brad J; Cadwallader, Lee C; Dagher, Mohamad

    2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents an Occupational Radiation Exposure (ORE) analysis that was performed for the US International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Dual Coolant Lead Lithium (DCLL) Test Blanket Module (TBM). This analysis was performed with the QADMOD dose code for anticipated maintenance activities for this TBM concept and its ancillary systems. The QADMOD code was used to model the PbLi cooling loop of this TBM concept by specifying gamma ray source terms that simulated radioactive material within the piping, valves, heat exchanger, permeator, pump, drain tank, and cold trap of this cooling system. Estimates of the maintenance tasks that will have to be performed and the time required to perform these tasks where developed based on either expert opinion or on industrial maintenance experience for similar technologies. This report details the modeling activity and the calculated doses for the maintenance activities envisioned for the US DCLL TBM.

  5. Population exposure dose reconstruction for the Urals Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Degteva, M.O.; Kozheurov, V.P.; Vorobiova, M.I.; Burmistrov, D.S. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Khokhryakov, V.V. [Mayak Production Assn., Ozyorsk (Russian Federation); Suslova, K.G. [Moscow Biophysics Inst., Ozyorsk (Russian Federation); Anspaugh, L.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Napier, B.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bouville, A. [National Cancer Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation describes the first preliminary results of an ongoing joint Russian-US pilot feasibility study. Many people participated in workshops to determine what Russian and United States scientists could do together in the area of dose reconstruction in the Urals population. Most of the results presented here came from a joint work shop in St. Petersburg, Russia (11-13 July 1995). The Russians at the workshop represented the Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (URCRM), the Mayak Industrial Association, and Branch One of the Moscow Biophysics Institute. The US Collaborators were Dr. Anspaugh of LLNL, Dr. Nippier of PNL, and Dr. Bouville of the National Cancer Institute. The objective of the first year of collaboration was to look at the source term and levels of radiation contamination, the historical data available, and the results of previous work carried out by Russian scientists, and to determine a conceptual model for dose reconstruction.

  6. DOE 2008 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security

    2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A major priority of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is to ensure the health, safety, and security of DOE employees, contractors, and subcontractors. The Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) provides the corporate-level leadership and strategic vision necessary to better coordinate and integrate health, safety, environment, security, enforcement, and independent oversight programs. One function that supports this mission is the DOE Corporate Operating Experience Program that provides collection, analysis, and dissemination of performance indicators, such as occupational radiation exposure information. This analysis supports corporate decision-making and synthesizes operational information to support continuous environment, safety, and health improvement across the DOE complex.

  7. Implications of Intercellular Signaling for Radiation Therapy: A Theoretical Dose-Planning Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMahon, Stephen J., E-mail: stephen.mcmahon@qub.ac.uk [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); McGarry, Conor K. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Radiotherapy Physics, Northern Ireland Cancer Centre, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Butterworth, Karl T. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); O'Sullivan, Joe M. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Clinical Oncology, Northern Ireland Cancer Centre, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Hounsell, Alan R. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Radiotherapy Physics, Northern Ireland Cancer Centre, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Prise, Kevin M. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Recent in vitro results have shown significant contributions to cell killing from signaling effects at doses that are typically used in radiation therapy. This study investigates whether these in vitro observations can be reconciled with in vivo knowledge and how signaling may have an impact on future developments in radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Prostate cancer treatment plans were generated for a series of 10 patients using 3-dimensional conformal therapy, intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and volumetric modulated arc therapy techniques. These plans were evaluated using mathematical models of survival following modulated radiation exposures that were developed from in vitro observations and incorporate the effects of intercellular signaling. The impact on dose–volume histograms and mean doses were evaluated by converting these survival levels into “signaling-adjusted doses” for comparison. Results: Inclusion of intercellular communication leads to significant differences between the signalling-adjusted and physical doses across a large volume. Organs in low-dose regions near target volumes see the largest increases, with mean signaling-adjusted bladder doses increasing from 23 to 33 Gy in IMRT plans. By contrast, in high-dose regions, there is a small decrease in signaling-adjusted dose due to reduced contributions from neighboring cells, with planning target volume mean doses falling from 74 to 71 Gy in IMRT. Overall, however, the dose distributions remain broadly similar, and comparisons between the treatment modalities are largely unchanged whether physical or signaling-adjusted dose is compared. Conclusions: Although incorporating cellular signaling significantly affects cell killing in low-dose regions and suggests a different interpretation for many phenomena, their effect in high-dose regions for typical planning techniques is comparatively small. This indicates that the significant signaling effects observed in vitro are not contradicted by comparison with clinical observations. Future investigations are needed to validate these effects in vivo and to quantify their ranges and potential impact on more advanced radiation therapy techniques.

  8. Radiation exposure of air-carrier crew members. 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedberg, W.; Snyder, L.; Faulkner, D.N.; Darden, E.B.; O Brien, K.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The cosmic radiation environment at air carrier flight altitudes is described and estimates given of the amounts of galactic cosmic radiation received on a wide variety of routes to and from, and within the contiguous United States. Radiation exposure from radioactive air cargo is also considered. Methods are provided to assess health risks from exposure to galactic radiation. On the flights studied, the highest dose of galactic radiation received annually by a crewmember who worked as many as 1,000 block hours a year would be less than half the annual limit recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for a nonpregnant occupationally exposed adult. The radiation exposure of a pregnant crewmember who worked 70 block hours a month for 5 months would exceed the recommended 2-millisievert pregnancy limit on about one-third of the flights.

  9. Work to save dose: contrasting effective dose rates from radon exposure in workplaces and residences against the backdrop of public and occupational limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whicker, Jeffrey J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcnaughton, Michael W [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Office workers are exposed to radon while at work and at home. Though there has been a multitude of studies reporting the measurements of radon concentrations and potential lung and effective doses associated with radon and progeny exposure in homes, similar studies on the concentrations and subsequent effective dose rates in the non-mine workplaces are lacking. Additionally, there are few, if any, comparative analyses of radon exposures at more 'typical' workplace with residential exposures within the same county. The purposes of this study were to measure radon concentrations in office and residential spaces in the same county and explore the radiation dose implications. Sixty-five track-etch detectors were deployed in office spaces and 47 were deployed in residences, all within Los Alamos County, New Mexico, USA. The sampling periods for these measurements were generally about three months. The measured concentrations were used to calculate and compare effective dose rates resulting from exposure while at work and at home. Results showed that full-time office workers receive on average about 8 times greater exposure at home than while in the office (2.3 mSv yr-! versus 0.3 mSv yr-!). The estimated effective dose rate for a more homebound person was about 3 mSv yr-!. Estimating effective doses from background radon exposure in the same county as Los Alamos National Laboratory, with thousands of'radiological workers,' highlights interesting contrasts in radiation protection standards that span public and occupational settings. For example, the effective dose rate from background radon exposure in unregulated office spaces ranged up to 1.1 mSv yr-!, which is similar to the 1 mSv yr-! threshold for regulation ofa 'radiological worker,' as defined in the Department of Energy regulations for occupational exposure. Additionally, the estimated average effective dose total of> 3 mSv yf! from radon background exposure in homes stands in contrast to the 0.1 mSv yr-! air pathway effective public dose limit regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency for radioactive air emissions.

  10. Modeling proton intensity gradients and radiation dose equivalents in the inner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pringle, James "Jamie"

    Modeling proton intensity gradients and radiation dose equivalents in the inner heliosphere using exposure in IP space. In this paper, we utilize EMMREM to study the radial dependence of proton peak crossfield diffusion at large radial distances. Our results show that radial dependencies of proton peak

  11. On the use of age-specific effective dose coefficients in radiation protection of the public

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kocher, D.C.; Eckerman, K.F.

    1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Current radiation protection standards for the public include a limit on effective dose in any year for individuals in critical groups. This paper considers the question of how the annual dose limit should be applied in controlling routine exposures of populations consisting of individuals of all ages. The authors assume that the fundamental objective of radiation protection is limitation of lifetime risk and, therefore, that standards for controlling routine exposures of the public should provide a reasonable correspondence with lifetime risk, taking into account the age dependence of intakes and doses and the variety of radionuclides and exposure pathways of concern. Using new calculations of the per capita (population-averaged) risk of cancer mortality per unit activity inhaled or ingested in the US Environmental Protection Agency`s Federal Guidance Report No. 13, the authors show that applying a limit on annual effective dose only to adults, which was the usual practice in radiation protection of the public before the development of age-specific effective dose coefficients, provides a considerably better correspondence with lifetime risk than applying the annual dose limit to the critical group of any age.

  12. Biological dosimetry - the use of hematological variables in the estimation of radiation dose

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barranco, Samuel Christopher

    1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of 103 roentgens per hour by a Co" source, operated by the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas. They received doses ranging from 0 r to 685 r at graduated increments of 13'I r . A complete hematology picture was obtained on each rat... itself [Sheedy, 1962]. A survey of the literature concerning radiation accidents [Wald and Thoma, 1961] reveals that exposures to less than 100 r rarely result in clinical symptomology; hence, for our present purposes the radiation syndrome [certain...

  13. ORISE: Worker Health Studies - Radiation Exposure Data Collection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Overview Argonne Electronic Medical Records System Beryllium Testing and Surveillance Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS) U.S. Department of Energy...

  14. A Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure Monitoring...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Analysis & Reporting A Basic Overview of Occupational Radiation Exposure Monitoring, Analysis & Reporting September 2012 This pamphlet is intended to provide a short summary...

  15. Radiation dose rates from UF{sub 6} cylinders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friend, P.J. [Urenco, Capenhurst (United Kingdom)

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the results of many studies, both theoretical and experimental, which have been carried out by Urenco over the last 15 years into radiation dose rates from uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) cylinders. The contents of the cylinder, its history, and the geometry all affect the radiation dose rate. These factors are all examined in detail. Actual and predicted dose rates are compared with levels permitted by IAEA transport regulations.

  16. Dose profiles through the dermis for on and off-skin hot particle exposures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Kimberly Rochelle

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    reports measurements of depth-dose profiles for on- and off-skin hot particle exposures using radiochromic dye film. Dose profiles from both a "Co hot particle, and activated depleted uranium oxide microspheres were measured with the film. Exposures... Page Off-Contact of Film 13. ' Co Dose Profile Measured with 6 mm Thick Plexiglass Between Film and Hot Particle 48 14. Radial Dose Profile of Uranium Microsphere Measured at Various Depths Below the Sphere 51 15. Dose Profile of Uranium...

  17. Estimated effective dose rates from radon exposure in workplaces and residences within Los Alamos county in New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whicker, Jeffrey J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcnaughton, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many millions of office workers are exposed to radon while at work and at home. Though there has been a multitude of studies reporting the measurements of radon concentrations and potential lung and effective doses associated with radon and progeny exposure in homes, similar studies on the concentrations and subsequent effective dose rates in the workplace are lacking. The purposes of this study were to measure radon concentrations in office and residential spaces in the same county and explore the radiation dose implications. Sixty-five track-etch detectors were deployed in office spaces and 47 were deployed in residences, all within Los Alamos County, New Mexico, USA. The sampling periods for these measurements were generally about three months. The measured concentrations were then used to calculate and compare effective dose rates resulting from exposure while at work and at home. Results showed that full-time office workers receive on average about nine times greater exposure at home than while in the office (691 mrem yr{sup -1} versus 78 mrem yr{sup -1}). The estimated effective dose rate for a more homebound person was 896 mrem yr{sup -1}. These effective dose rates are contrasted against the 100 mrem yr{sup -1} threshold for regulation of a 'radiological worker' defined in the Department of Energy regulations occupational exposure and the 10 mrem yr{sup -1} air pathway effective public dose limit regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency.

  18. Combined methodology for estimating dose rates and health effects from exposure to radioactive pollutants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunning, D.E. Jr.; Leggett, R.W.; Yalcintas, M.G.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The work described in the report is basically a synthesis of two previously existing computer codes: INREM II, developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); and CAIRD, developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The INREM II code uses contemporary dosimetric methods to estimate doses to specified reference organs due to inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide. The CAIRD code employs actuarial life tables to account for competing risks in estimating numbers of health effects resulting from exposure of a cohort to some incremental risk. The combined computer code, referred to as RADRISK, estimates numbers of health effects in a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 persons due to continuous lifetime inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide. Also briefly discussed in this report is a method of estimating numbers of health effects in a hypothetical cohort due to continuous lifetime exposure to external radiation. This method employs the CAIRD methodology together with dose conversion factors generated by the computer code DOSFACTER, developed at ORNL; these dose conversion factors are used to estimate dose rates to persons due to radionuclides in the air or on the ground surface. The combination of the life table and dosimetric guidelines for the release of radioactive pollutants to the atmosphere, as required by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977.

  19. Intensity Modulated Beam Radiation Therapy Dose Optimization with Multiobjective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coello, Carlos A. Coello

    Intensity Modulated Beam Radiation Therapy Dose Optimization with Multiobjective Evolutionary will be di- agnosed with cancer. Half of these will be treated with radiation therapy [1]. In teletherapy or external radiotherapy beams of penetrating radiation are directed at the tumor. Along their path through

  20. Multi-level effects of low dose rate ionizing radiation on southern toad, Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stark, Karolina; Scott, David E.; Tsyusko, Olga; Coughlin, Daniel P.; Hinton, Thomas G.; Amendola, Roberto

    2015-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite their potential vulnerability to contaminants from exposure at multiple life stages, amphibians are one of the least studied groups of vertebrates in ecotoxicology, and research on radiation effects in amphibians is scarce. We used multiple endpoints to assess the radiosensitivity of the southern toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris) during its pre-terrestrial stages of development –embryonic, larval, and metamorphic. Toads were exposed, from several hours after oviposition through metamorphosis (up to 77 days later), to four low dose rates of ¹³?Cs at 0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d?¹, resulting in total doses up to 15.8 Gy. Radiation treatments did notmore »affect hatching success of embryos, larval survival, or the length of the larval period. The individual family variation in hatching success of embryos was larger than the radiation response. In contrast, newly metamorphosed individuals from the higher dose-rate treatments had higher mass and mass/length body indices, a measure which may relate to higher post-metamorphic survival. The increased mass and index at higher dose rates may indicate that the chronic, low dose rate radiation exposures triggered secondary responses. Additionally, the increases in growth were linked to a decrease in DNA damage (as measured by the Comet Assay) in red blood cells at a dose rate of 21mGy d?¹ and a total dose of 1.1 Gy. In conclusion, the complex effects of low dose rates of ionizing radiation may trigger growth and cellular repair mechanisms in amphibian larvae.« less

  1. Multi-level effects of low dose rate ionizing radiation on southern toad, Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stark, Karolina [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden); Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States); Scott, David E. [Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States); Tsyusko, Olga [Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States); Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Coughlin, Daniel P. [Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States); Hinton, Thomas G. [Univ. of Georgia, Aiken, SC (United States); Inst. of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, Cadarache (France); Amendola, Roberto [ENEA, (Italy)

    2015-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite their potential vulnerability to contaminants from exposure at multiple life stages, amphibians are one of the least studied groups of vertebrates in ecotoxicology, and research on radiation effects in amphibians is scarce. We used multiple endpoints to assess the radiosensitivity of the southern toad (Anaxyrus [Bufo] terrestris) during its pre-terrestrial stages of development –embryonic, larval, and metamorphic. Toads were exposed, from several hours after oviposition through metamorphosis (up to 77 days later), to four low dose rates of ¹³?Cs at 0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d?¹, resulting in total doses up to 15.8 Gy. Radiation treatments did not affect hatching success of embryos, larval survival, or the length of the larval period. The individual family variation in hatching success of embryos was larger than the radiation response. In contrast, newly metamorphosed individuals from the higher dose-rate treatments had higher mass and mass/length body indices, a measure which may relate to higher post-metamorphic survival. The increased mass and index at higher dose rates may indicate that the chronic, low dose rate radiation exposures triggered secondary responses. Additionally, the increases in growth were linked to a decrease in DNA damage (as measured by the Comet Assay) in red blood cells at a dose rate of 21mGy d?¹ and a total dose of 1.1 Gy. In conclusion, the complex effects of low dose rates of ionizing radiation may trigger growth and cellular repair mechanisms in amphibian larvae.

  2. Evaluation and Control of Radiation Dose to the Embryo/Fetus Guide for Use with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1999-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    This Guide provides an acceptable methodology for establishing and operating a program to control fetal exposure to ionizing radiation and evaluate the resultant dose that will comply with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements specified in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection (DOE 1998), hereinafter referred to as 10 CFR 835.

  3. Mammalian Tissue Response to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation: The Role of Oxidative Metabolism and Intercellular Communication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azzam, Edouard I

    2013-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the project was to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the biological effects of low dose/low dose rate ionizing radiation in organs/tissues of irradiated mice that differ in their susceptibility to ionizing radiation, and in human cells grown under conditions that mimic the natural in vivo environment. The focus was on the effects of sparsely ionizing cesium-137 gamma rays and the role of oxidative metabolism and intercellular communication in these effects. Four Specific Aims were proposed. The integrated outcome of the experiments performed to investigate these aims has been significant towards developing a scientific basis to more accurately estimate human health risks from exposures to low doses ionizing radiation. By understanding the biochemical and molecular changes induced by low dose radiation, several novel markers associated with mitochondrial functions were identified, which has opened new avenues to investigate metabolic processes that may be affected by such exposure. In particular, a sensitive biomarker that is differentially modulated by low and high dose gamma rays was discovered.

  4. Progress in high-dose radiation dosimetry. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ettinger, K.V.; Nam, J.W.; McLaughlin, W.L.; Chadwick, K.H.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The last decade has witnessed a deluge of new high-dose dosimetry techniques and expended applications of methods developed earlier. Many of the principal systems are calibrated by means of calorimetry, although production of heat is not always the final radiation effect of interest. Requirements for a stable and reliable transfer dose meters have led to further developments of several important high-dose systems: thermoluminescent materials, radiochromic dyes, ceric-cerous solutions analyzed by high-frequency oscillometry. A number of other prospective dosimeters are also treated in this review. In addition, an IAEA program of high-dose intercomparison and standardization for industrial radiation processing is described.

  5. Progress in high-dose radiation dosimetry. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ettinger, K.V.; Nam, J.W.; McLaughlin, W.L.; Chadwick, K.H.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The last decade has witnessed a deluge of new high-dose dosimetry techniques and expended applications of methods developed earlier. Many of the principal systems are calibrated by means of calorimetry, although production of heat is not always the final radiation effect of interest. Requirements for a stable and reliable transfer dose meters have led to further developments of several important high-dose systems: thermoluminescent materials, radiochromic dyes, ceric-cerous solutions analyzed by high-frequency oscillometry. A number of other prospective dosimeters also treated in this review. In addition, an IAEA programme of high-dose intercomparison and standardization for industrial radiation processing is described.

  6. Occupational Radiation Exposure at Commercial Nuclear Power Reactors and Other Facilities 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the occupational exposure data that are maintained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS). The bulk of the information contained in the report was compiled from the 2008 annual reports submitted by five of the seven categories1 of NRC licensees subject to the reporting requirements of 10 CFR 20.2206. The annual reports submitted by these licensees consist of radiation exposure records for each monitored individual. These records are analyzed for trends and presented in this report in terms of collective dose and the distribution of dose among the monitored individuals. Because there are no geologic repositories for high-level waste currently licensed and no low-level waste disposal facilities in operation, only five categories will be considered in this report.

  7. On-site radiation exposure in severe reactor accidents: Scoping study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warman, E.A.; Karahalios, P.; Celnick, J.; McInall, S.; Frank, S. (Stone and Webster Engineering Corp., Boston, MA (USA))

    1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of a scoping study of onsite radiation exposures which could take place in each of three types of postulated reactor accidents are presented. The accident types are (1) a fuel handling accident at a Mark III BWR; an interfacing system LOCA or V sequence at a PWR; and and Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS) at a Mark I BWR. Both external and internal dose pathways are considered. The results of the study indicate the prohibitively high radiation doses could be received in some plant areas if personnel were to remain there. However, times of the order of a few minutes to a few hours, depending on the type of accident, would be available before life-threatening doses would be accumulated assuming that the provided full face respiratory protection equipment were used promptly. Special attention was given radiation doses possibly received by control room personnel for several control room air in-leakage assumptions. For occupancy during severe accidents it would be advisable for control room personnel to use self-contained apparatus (SCBA) to limit exposure via inhalation. The results of this study will be useful to individuals responsible for accident management procedures. It is indicated that it will be important for each plant to develop estimates of the time of onset of prohibitively high radiation levels in various important plant areas. It is concluded that respiratory protection is a major factor owing to the large inhalation doses which might otherwise be encountered. 20 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Radiation protection instrumentation - ambient and/or directional dose equivalent (rate) meters and/or monitors for beta, X and gamma radiation part 2: high range beta and photon dose and dose rate portable instruments for emergency radiation protection purposes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Electrotechnical Commission. Geneva

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation protection instrumentation - ambient and/or directional dose equivalent (rate) meters and/or monitors for beta, X and gamma radiation

  9. Staff Radiation Doses in a Real-Time Display Inside the Angiography Room

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez, Roberto, E-mail: rmsanchez.hcsc@salud.madrid.org; Vano, E.; Fernandez, J. M. [Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Medical Physics Department (Spain); Gallego, J. J. [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Radiology Department (Spain)

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    MethodsThe evaluation of a new occupational Dose Aware System (DAS) showing staff radiation doses in real time has been carried out in several angiography rooms in our hospital. The system uses electronic solid-state detectors with high-capacity memory storage. Every second, it archives the dose and dose rate measured and is wirelessly linked to a base-station screen mounted close to the diagnostic monitors. An easy transfer of the values to a data sheet permits further analysis of the scatter dose profile measured during the procedure, compares it with patient doses, and seeks to find the most effective actions to reduce operator exposure to radiation.ResultsThe cumulative occupational doses measured per procedure (shoulder-over lead apron) ranged from 0.6 to 350 {mu}Sv when the ceiling-suspended screen was used, and DSA (Digital Subtraction Acquisition) runs were acquired while the personnel left the angiography room. When the suspended screen was not used and radiologists remained inside the angiography room during DSA acquisitions, the dose rates registered at the operator's position reached up to 1-5 mSv/h during fluoroscopy and 12-235 mSv/h during DSA acquisitions. In such case, the cumulative scatter dose could be more than 3 mSv per procedure.ConclusionReal-time display of doses to staff members warns interventionists whenever the scatter dose rates are too high or the radiation protection tools are not being properly used, providing an opportunity to improve personal protection accordingly.

  10. Radiation Exposures Associated with Shipments of Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MASSEY,CHARLES D.; MESSICK,C.E.; MUSTIN,T.

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Experience has shown that the analyses of marine transport of spent fuel in the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) were conservative. It is anticipated that for most shipments. The external dose rate for the loaded transportation cask will be more in line with recent shipments. At the radiation levels associated with these shipments, we would not expect any personnel to exceed radiation exposure limits for the public. Package dose rates usually well below the regulatory limits and personnel work practices following ALARA principles are keeping human exposures to minimal levels. However, the potential for Mure shipments with external dose rates closer to the exclusive-use regulatory limit suggests that DOE should continue to provide a means to assure that individual crew members do not receive doses in excess of the public dose limits. As a minimum, the program will monitor cask dose rates and continue to implement administrative procedures that will maintain records of the dose rates associated with each shipment, the vessel used, and the crew list for the vessel. DOE will continue to include a clause in the contract for shipment of the foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel requiring that the Mitigation Action Plan be followed.

  11. Th Cell Gene Expression and Function in Response to Low Dose and Acute Radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daila S. Gridley, PhD

    2012-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT Supported by the Low Dose Radiation Research Program, Office of Science U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64345 Project ID: 0012965 Award Register#: ER64345 Project Manager: Noelle F. Metting, Sc.D. Phone: 301-903-8309 Division SC-23.2 noelle.metting@science.doe.gov Submitted March 2012 To: https://www.osti.gov/elink/241.3.jsp Title: Th Cell Gene Expression and Function in Response to Low Dose and Acute Radiation PI: Daila S. Gridley, Ph.D. Human low dose radiation data have been derived primarily from studies of space and airline flight personnel, nuclear plant workers and others exposed occupationally, as well as victims in the vicinity of atomic bomb explosions. The findings remain inconclusive due to population inconsistencies and complex interactions among total dose, dose rate, radiation quality and age at exposure. Thus, safe limits for low dose occupational irradiation are currently based on data obtained with doses far exceeding the levels expected for the general population and health risks have been largely extrapolated using the linear-nonthreshold dose-response model. The overall working hypothesis of the present study is that priming with low dose, low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation can ameliorate the response to acute high-dose radiation exposure. We also propose that the efficacy of low-dose induced protection will be dependent upon the form and regimen of the high-dose exposure: photons versus protons versus simulated solar particle event protons (sSPE). The emphasis has been on gene expression and function of CD4+ T helper (Th) lymphocytes harvested from spleens of whole-body irradiated C57BL/6 mice, a strain that provides the genetic background for many genetically engineered strains. Evaluations of the responses of other selected cells, tissues such as skin, and organs such as lung, liver and brain were also initiated (partially funded by other sources). The long-term goal is to provide information that will be useful in estimating human health risks due to radiation that may occur during exposures in the work environment, nuclear/radiological catastrophes, as well as radiotherapy. Several papers have been published, accepted for publication or are in preparation. A number of poster and oral presentations have been made at scientific conferences and workshops. Archived tissues of various types will continue to be evaluated via funding from other sources (the DoE Low Dose Radiation Research Program, Office of Science and this specific grant will be appropriately included in the Acknowledgements of all subsequent publications/presentations). A post-doc and several students have participated in this study. More detailed description of the accomplishments is described in attached file.

  12. atm radiation exposure: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are more sensitive to both X-ray and heavy ion exposure than to high-LET radiation damage. Mice haplodeficient for the ATM gene and wildtypes were exposed to 325 m that not...

  13. Low dose radiation hypersensitivity and clustered DNA damages in human fibroblasts exposed to low dose and dose rate protons or 137CS y-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett P. V.; Bennett, P.V.; Keszenman, D.J.; Johnson, A.M.; Sutherland, B.M.; Wilson, P.F.

    2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Effective radioprotection for human space travelers hinges upon understanding the individual properties of charged particles. A significant fraction of particle radiation astronauts will encounter in space exploratory missions will come from high energy protons in galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) and/or possible exposures to lower energy proton flux from solar particle events (SPEs). These potential exposures present major concerns for NASA and others, in planning and executing long term space exploratory missions. We recently reported cell survival and transformation (acquisition of anchorage-independent growth in soft agar) frequencies in apparently normal NFF-28 primary human fibroblasts exposed to 0-30 cGy of 50MeV, 100MeV (SPE-like), or 1000 MeV (GCR-like) monoenergetic protons. These were modeled after 1989 SPE energies at an SPE-like low dose-rate (LDR) of 1.65 cGy/min or high dose rate (HDR) of 33.3 cGy/min delivered at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL.

  14. Method for detecting radiation dose utilizing thermoluminescent material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, S.D.; McDonald, J.C.; Eichner, F.N.; Durham, J.S.

    1992-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The amount of ionizing radiation to which a thermoluminescent material has been exposed is determined by first cooling the thermoluminescent material and then optically stimulating the thermoluminescent material by exposure to light. Visible light emitted by the thermoluminescent material as it is allowed to warm up to room temperature is detected and counted. The thermoluminescent material may be annealed by exposure to ultraviolet light. 5 figs.

  15. ORISE: Radiation Dose Estimates and Other Compendia

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated CodesTransparencyDOENurse Triage LinesCytogeneticHowResponseDose Estimates

  16. Effective gamma-ray doses due to natural radiation from soils of southeastern Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silveira, M. A. G.; Moreira, R. H.; Bellini, B. S. [Centro Universitario da FEI, Sao Bernardo do Campo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Medina, N. H.; Aguiar, V. A. P. [Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We have used gamma-ray spectrometry to study the distribution of natural radiation from soils of southeastern Brazil: Billings reservoir, Sao Bernardo do Campo Parks, Diadema Parks, Interlagos region, Sao Paulo, and soil from Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro beaches. In most of the regions studied we have found that the dose due the external exposure to gamma-rays, proceeding from natural terrestrial elements, are between the values 0.3 and 0.6 mSv/year, established by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation.

  17. Genetic Factors Affecting Susceptibility to Low Dose & Low Dose-Rate Radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bedford, Joel

    2014-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Our laboratory has, among other things, developed and used the gamma H2AX focus assay and other chromosomal and cell killing assays to show that differences in this DNA double strand break (dsb) related response can be clearly and distinctly demonstrated for cells which are mildly hyper-radiosensitive such as those associated with A-T heterozygosity. We have found this level of mild hypersensitivity for cells from some 20 to 30 % of apparently normal individuals and from apparently normal parents of Retinoblastoma patients. We found significant differences in gene expression in somatic cells from unaffected parents of Rb patients as compared with normal controls, suggesting that these parents may harbor some as yet unidentified genetic abnormality. In other experiments we sought to determine the extent of differences in normal human cellular reaponses to radiation depending on their irradiation in 2D monolayer vs 3D organized acinar growth conditions. We exmined cell reproductive death, chromosomal aberration induction, and the levels of ?-H2AX foci in cells after single acute gamma-ray doses and immediately after 20 hours of irradiation at a dose rate of 0.0017 Gy/min. We found no significant differences in the dose-responses of these cells under the 2D or 3D growth conditions. While this does not mean such differences cannot occur in other situations, it does mean that they do not generally or necessarily occur. In another series of studies in collaboration with Dr Chuan Li, with supprt from this current grant. We reported a role for apoptotic cell death in promoting wound healing and tissue regeneration in mice. Apoptotic cells released growth signals that stimulated the proliferation of progenitor or stem cells. In yet another collaboration with Dr, B. Chen with funds from this grant, the relative radiosensitivity to cell killing as well as chromosomal instability of 13 DNA-PKcs site-directed mutant cell lines (defective at phosphorylation sites or kinase activity) were examined after exposure of synchronized G1 cells to 137Cs c rays. DNA-PKcs mutant cells defective in phosphorylation at multiple sites withinthe T2609 cluster or within the PI3K domain displayed extreme radiosensitivity. Cells defective at the S2056 cluster or T2609 single site alone were only mildly radiosensitive, but cells defective at even one site in both the S2056 and T2609 clusters were maximally radiosensitive. Thus a synergism between the capacity for phosphorylation at the S2056 and T2609 clusterswas found to be critical for induction of radiosensitivity.

  18. Risk assessment and management of radiofrequency radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dabala, Dana [Railways Medical Clinic Cluj-Napoca, Occupational Medicine Department, 16-20 Bilascu Gheorghe St., 400015 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [Railways Medical Clinic Cluj-Napoca, Occupational Medicine Department, 16-20 Bilascu Gheorghe St., 400015 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Surducan, Emanoil; Surducan, Vasile; Neamtu, Camelia [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath St., 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)] [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath St., 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiofrequency radiation (RFR) industry managers, occupational physicians, security department, and other practitioners must be advised on the basic of biophysics and the health effects of RF electromagnetic fields so as to guide the management of exposure. Information on biophysics of RFR and biological/heath effects is derived from standard texts, literature and clinical experiences. Emergency treatment and ongoing care is outlined, with clinical approach integrating the circumstances of exposure and the patient's symptoms. Experimental risk assessment model in RFR chronic exposure is proposed. Planning for assessment and monitoring exposure, ongoing care, safety measures and work protection are outlining the proper management.

  19. High pressure argon ionization chamber systems for the measurement of environmental radiation exposure rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeCampo, J A; Raft, P D

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High pressure argon ionization chamber systems for the measurement of environmental radiation exposure rates

  20. A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF THE OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION EXPOSURE FROM MAINTAINING THE US ITER DCLL TBM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B. J. Merrill; L. C. Cadwallader; M. Dagher

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper details an Occupational Radiation Exposure (ORE) analysis performed for the US International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Dual Coolant Lead Lithium (DCLL) Test Blanket Module (TBM). This ORE analysis was performed with the QADMOD dose code for maintenance activities anticipated for the US DCLL TBM concept and its ancillary systems. Identification of the maintenance tasks that will have to be performed and estimates of the time required to perform these tasks were developed based on either expert opinion or on industrial maintenance experience for similar technologies. This paper details the modeling activity and the calculated doses for the maintenance activities envisioned for the US DCLL TBM.

  1. We can do better than effective dose for estimating or comparing low-dose radiation risks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenner, David Jonathan

    of the radiation risks they are trying to control. Ã? 2012 ICRP. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved Effective dose (ICRP, 1977) represents an attempt to provide a quantity which is proportional of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. 124 #12;and hereditary effects. Specifically, it is the sum

  2. Low dose ionizing radiation detection using conjugated polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silva, E.A.B.; Borin, J.F.; Nicolucci, P.; Graeff, C.F.O.; Netto, T. Ghilardi; Bianchi, R.F. [Departamento de Fisica e Matematica, FFCLRP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Centro de Cie circumflex ncias das Imagens e Fisica Medica, Hospital das Clinicas, FMRP, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Bandeirantes 3900, 14040-901 Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Engenharia de Sistemas Integraveis, Escola Politecnica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Luciano Gualberto, 158, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2005-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, the effect of gamma radiation on the optical properties of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2{sup '}-ethylhexyloxy)-p-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) is studied. The samples were irradiated at room temperature with different doses from 0 Gy to 152 Gy using a {sup 60}Co gamma ray source. For thin films, significant changes in the UV-visible spectra were only observed at high doses (>1 kGy). In solution, shifts in absorption peaks are observed at low doses (<10 Gy), linearly dependent on dose. The shifts are explained by conjugation reduction, and possible causes are discussed. Our results indicate that MEH-PPV solution can be used as a dosimeter adequate for medical applications.

  3. Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. ARRRG and FOOD: computer programs for calculating radiation dose to man from radionuclides in the environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napier, B.A.; Roswell, R.L.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Strenge, D.L.

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The computer programs ARRRG and FOOD were written to facilitate the calculation of internal radiation doses to man from the radionuclides in the environment and external radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment. Using ARRRG, radiation doses to man may be calculated for radionuclides released to bodies of water from which people might obtain fish, other aquatic foods, or drinking water, and in which they might fish, swim or boat. With the FOOD program, radiation doses to man may be calculated from deposition on farm or garden soil and crops during either an atmospheric or water release of radionuclides. Deposition may be either directly from the air or from irrigation water. Fifteen crop or animal product pathways may be chosen. ARRAG and FOOD doses may be calculated for either a maximum-exposed individual or for a population group. Doses calculated are a one-year dose and a committed dose from one year of exposure. The exposure is usually considered as chronic; however, equations are included to calculate dose and dose commitment from acute (one-time) exposure. The equations for calculating internal dose and dose commitment are derived from those given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for body burdens and Maximum Permissible Concentration (MPC) of each radionuclide. The radiation doses from external exposure to contaminated farm fields or shorelines are calculated assuming an infinite flat plane source of radionuclides. A factor of two is included for surface roughness. A modifying factor to compensate for finite extent is included in the shoreline calculations.

  4. Comparison of radiation exposure and associated radiation-induced cancer risks from mammography and molecular imaging of the breast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connor, Michael K.; Li Hua; Rhodes, Deborah J.; Hruska, Carrie B.; Clancy, Conor B.; Vetter, Richard J. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Department of Medical Physics, St. James's Hospital, Dublin (Ireland); Radiation Safety, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Recent studies have raised concerns about exposure to low-dose ionizing radiation from medical imaging procedures. Little has been published regarding the relative exposure and risks associated with breast imaging techniques such as breast specific gamma imaging (BSGI), molecular breast imaging (MBI), or positron emission mammography (PEM). The purpose of this article was to estimate and compare the risks of radiation-induced cancer from mammography and techniques such as PEM, BSGI, and MBI in a screening environment. Methods: The authors used a common scheme for all estimates of cancer incidence and mortality based on the excess absolute risk model from the BEIR VII report. The lifetime attributable risk model was used to estimate the lifetime risk of radiation-induced breast cancer incidence and mortality. All estimates of cancer incidence and mortality were based on a population of 100 000 females followed from birth to age 80 and adjusted for the fraction that survives to various ages between 0 and 80. Assuming annual screening from ages 40 to 80 and from ages 50 to 80, the cumulative cancer incidence and mortality attributed to digital mammography, screen-film mammography, MBI, BSGI, and PEM was calculated. The corresponding cancer incidence and mortality from natural background radiation was calculated as a useful reference. Assuming a 15%-32% reduction in mortality from screening, the benefit/risk ratio for the different imaging modalities was evaluated. Results: Using conventional doses of 925 MBq Tc-99m sestamibi for MBI and BSGI and 370 MBq F-18 FDG for PEM, the cumulative cancer incidence and mortality were found to be 15-30 times higher than digital mammography. The benefit/risk ratio for annual digital mammography was >50:1 for both the 40-80 and 50-80 screening groups, but dropped to 3:1 for the 40-49 age group. If the primary use of MBI, BSGI, and PEM is in women with dense breast tissue, then the administered doses need to be in the range 75-150 MBq for Tc-99m sestamibi and 35 MBq-70 MBq for F-18 FDG in order to obtain benefit/risk ratios comparable to those of mammography in these age groups. These dose ranges should be achievable with enhancements to current technology while maintaining a reasonable examination time. Conclusions: The results of the dose estimates in this study clearly indicate that if molecular imaging techniques are to be of value in screening for breast cancer, then the administered doses need to be substantially reduced to better match the effective doses of mammography.

  5. Irradiators for measuring the biological effects of low dose-rate ionizing radiation fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davidson, Matthew Allen

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biological response to ionizing radiation differs with radiation field. Particle type, energy spectrum, and dose-rate all affect biological response per unit dose. This thesis describes methods of spectral analysis, ...

  6. Low Dose Radiation Response Curves, Networks and Pathways in Human Lymphoblastoid Cells Exposed from 1 to 10 cGy of Acute Gamma Radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wyrobek, A. J.; Manohar, C. F.; Nelson, D. O.; Furtado, M. R.; Bhattacharya, M. S.; Marchetti, F.; Coleman, M.A.

    2011-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the low dose dependency of the transcriptional response of human cells to characterize the shape and biological functions associated with the dose response curve and to identify common and conserved functions of low dose expressed genes across cells and tissues. Human lymphoblastoid (HL) cells from two unrelated individuals were exposed to graded doses of radiation spanning the range of 1-10 cGy were analyzed by transcriptome profiling, qPCR and bioinformatics, in comparison to sham irradiated samples. A set of {approx}80 genes showed consistent responses in both cell lines; these genes were associated with homeostasis mechanisms (e.g., membrane signaling, molecule transport), subcellular locations (e.g., Golgi, and endoplasmic reticulum), and involved diverse signal transduction pathways. The majority of radiation-modulated genes had plateau-like responses across 1-10 cGy, some with suggestive evidence that transcription was modulated at doses below 1 cGy. MYC, FOS and TP53 were the major network nodes of the low-dose response in HL cells. Comparison our low dose expression findings in HL cells with those of prior studies in mouse brain after whole body exposure, in human keratinocyte cultures, and in endothelial cells cultures, indicates that certain components of the low dose radiation response are broadly conserved across cell types and tissues, independent of proliferation status.

  7. Estimated cumulative radiation dose from PET/CT in children with malignancies: reply to Gelfand et al

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chawla, Soni C.; Boechat, M. Ines; McNitt-Gray, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    radiation dose from PET/CT in children with malignancies.radiation dose from PET/CT in children with malig- nancies:radiation dose from PET/CT in children with malignancies:

  8. Cumulative arsenic exposure and lung cancer in smelter workers: a dose-response study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaerup, L.P.; Pershagen, G.; Wall, S.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The cause-specific mortality was followed through 1981 in a cohort of 3,916 male Swedish smelter workers employed for at least 3 months from 1928 through 1967. Arsenic levels in the air of all workplaces within the smelter were estimated for three different time periods. Using this exposure matrix and detailed information of the work history, cumulative arsenic exposure could be computed for each worker. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated for several dose categories using age-specific mortality rates from the county where the smelter was situated. A positive dose-response relationship was found between cumulative arsenic exposure and lung cancer mortality with an overall SMR of 372 (304-450, 95% confidence interval). The lung cancer mortality was related to the estimated average intensity of exposure to arsenic but not to the duration. No positive dose-response relationship was found between arsenic and ischemic heart disease or cerebrovascular disease. There was also no evident dose-response relationship between estimated exposure to sulfur dioxide and lung cancer.

  9. Determination of photon conversion factors relating exposure and dose for several extremity phantom designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberson, P.L.; Eichner, F.N.; Reece, W.D. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dosimetric measurements were performed to determine the exposure-to-dose conversion factors (Cx) for simple extremity phantoms suitable for extremity dosimeter performance testing. The phantoms studied represented the forearm or lower leg and the finger. Measurements were performed for solid plastic phantoms and for phantoms containing simulated bone material to determine the effect of backscattered radiations from the simulated bone to the phantom surface. Photon beam energies used for the measurements ranged from 16 keV to 1.25 MeV (average). The Cx factors for the finger phantoms did not vary significantly with phantom composition. The Cx factors in the arm/leg phantoms with the bone simulant material differed significantly from those for the solid plastic phantom over the energy range of 40-100 keV. This effect was attributed to the preferential absorption of the lower energy backscattered photons by the higher atomic number material that was contained in the bone-simulant insert. The position of the bone-simulating material below the surface of the phantom was more important than its size or level of bone equivalency. For calibrations and dosimeter testing, Al was found adequate as a bone-simulating material.

  10. Mesenchymal Stem Cells Retain Their Defining Stem Cell Characteristics After Exposure to Ionizing Radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nicolay, Nils H., E-mail: n.nicolay@dkfz.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Molecular and Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Sommer, Eva; Lopez, Ramon; Wirkner, Ute [Department of Molecular and Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Trinh, Thuy [Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Molecular and Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Sisombath, Sonevisay [Department of Molecular and Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Debus, Jürgen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany); Ho, Anthony D.; Saffrich, Rainer [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany); Huber, Peter E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Molecular and Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the ability to migrate to lesion sites and undergo differentiation into functional tissues. Although this function may be important for tissue regeneration after radiation therapy, the influence of ionizing radiation (IR) on cellular survival and the functional aspects of differentiation and stem cell characteristics of MSCs have remained largely unknown. Methods and Materials: Radiation sensitivity of human primary MSCs from healthy volunteers and primary human fibroblast cells was examined, and cellular morphology, cell cycle effects, apoptosis, and differentiation potential after exposure to IR were assessed. Stem cell gene expression patterns after exposure to IR were studied using gene arrays. Results: MSCs were not more radiosensitive than human primary fibroblasts, whereas there were considerable differences regarding radiation sensitivity within individual MSCs. Cellular morphology, cytoskeletal architecture, and cell motility were not markedly altered by IR. Even after high radiation doses up to 10 Gy, MSCs maintained their differentiation potential. Compared to primary fibroblast cells, MSCs did not show an increase in irradiation-induced apoptosis. Gene expression analyses revealed an upregulation of various genes involved in DNA damage response and DNA repair, but expression of established MSC surface markers appeared only marginally influenced by IR. Conclusions: These data suggest that human MSCs are not more radiosensitive than differentiated primary fibroblasts. In addition, upon photon irradiation, MSCs were able to retain their defining stem cell characteristics both on a functional level and regarding stem cell marker expression.

  11. Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With Dose Painting to Treat Rhabdomyosarcoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Joanna C.; Dharmarajan, Kavita V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Wexler, Leonard H. [Department of Pediatrics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Pediatrics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); La Quaglia, Michael P. [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Happersett, Laura [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Wolden, Suzanne L., E-mail: woldens@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To examine local control and patterns of failure in rhabdomyosarcoma patients treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (RT) with dose painting (DP-IMRT). Patients and Methods: A total of 41 patients underwent DP-IMRT with chemotherapy for definitive treatment. Nineteen also underwent surgery with or without intraoperative RT. Fifty-six percent had alveolar histologic features. The median interval from beginning chemotherapy to RT was 17 weeks (range, 4-25). Very young children who underwent second-look procedures with or without intraoperative RT received reduced doses of 24-36 Gy in 1.4-1.8-Gy fractions. Young adults received 50.4 Gy to the primary tumor and lower doses of 36 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions to at-risk lymph node chains. Results: With 22 months of median follow-up, the actuarial local control rate was 90%. Patients aged {<=}7 years who received reduced overall and fractional doses had 100% local control, and young adults had 79% (P=.07) local control. Three local failures were identified in young adults whose primary target volumes had received 50.4 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions. Conclusions: DP-IMRT with lower fractional and cumulative doses is feasible for very young children after second-look procedures with or without intraoperative RT. DP-IMRT is also feasible in adolescents and young adults with aggressive disease who would benefit from prophylactic RT to high-risk lymph node chains, although dose escalation might be warranted for improved local control. With limited follow-up, it appears that DP-IMRT produces local control rates comparable to those of sequential IMRT in patients with rhabdomyosarcoma.

  12. Environmental Radiation Dose Reconstruction for U.S. and Russian Weapons Production Facilities: Hanford and Mayak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ansbaugh, Lynn R.; Degteva, M. O.; Kozheurov, V. P.; Napier, Bruce A.; Tolstykh, E. I.; Vorobiova, M. I.

    2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Another way to look at Cold War legacies is to examine the major environmental releases that resulted from past operation of Cold War-related facilities for the manufacture of nuclear weapons. Examining these historical releases and the resultant radiation dose to individuals living near these facilities is called environmental dose reconstruction. Dose reconstructions have been performed or are underway at most large Cold War installations in the United States, such as the Hanford facility; several are also underway in other countries, such as at the Mayak facility in Russia. The efforts in the United States are mostly based on historical operating records and current conditions, which are used to estimate environmental releases, transport, and human exposure. The Russian efforts are largely based on environmental measurements and measurements of human subjects; environmental transport modelling, when conducted, is used to organize and validate the measurements. Past operation of Cold War-related facilities for the manufacture of nuclear weapons has resulted in major releases of radionuclides into the environment. Reconstruction of the historical releases and the resultant radiation dose to individuals in the public living near these facilities is called environmental dose reconstruction. Dose reconstructions have been performed or are underway at most large Cold War installations in the United States; several are also underway in other countries. The types of activity performed, the operating histories, and the radionuclide releases vary widely across the different facilities. The U.S. Hanford Site and the Russian Mayak Production Association are used here to illustrate the nature of the assessed problems and the range of approaches developed to solve them.

  13. Occupational radiation Exposure at Agreement State-Licensed Materials Facilities, 1997-2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research

    2012-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to examine occupational radiation exposures received under Agreement State licensees. As such, this report reflects the occupational radiation exposure data contained in the Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS) database, for 1997 through 2010, from Agreement State-licensed materials facilities.

  14. Radiation-Induced Rib Fractures After Hypofractionated Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy: Risk Factors and Dose-Volume Relationship

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asai, Kaori [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)] [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Shioyama, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: shioyama@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Heavy Particle Therapy and Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)] [Department of Heavy Particle Therapy and Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Nakamura, Katsumasa; Sasaki, Tomonari; Ohga, Saiji; Nonoshita, Takeshi [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)] [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Yoshitake, Tadamasa [Department of Heavy Particle Therapy and Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)] [Department of Heavy Particle Therapy and Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Ohnishi, Kayoko [Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Terashima, Kotaro; Matsumoto, Keiji [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)] [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Hirata, Hideki [Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)] [Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Honda, Hiroshi [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)] [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to clarify the incidence, the clinical risk factors, and the dose-volume relationship of radiation-induced rib fracture (RIRF) after hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: One hundred sixteen patients treated with SBRT for primary or metastatic lung cancer at our institution, with at least 6 months of follow-up and no previous overlapping radiation exposure, were included in this study. To determine the clinical risk factors associated with RIRF, correlations between the incidence of RIRF and the variables, including age, sex, diagnosis, gross tumor volume diameter, rib-tumor distance, and use of steroid administration, were analyzed. Dose-volume histogram analysis was also conducted. Regarding the maximum dose, V10, V20, V30, and V40 of the rib, and the incidences of RIRF were compared between the two groups divided by the cutoff value determined by the receiver operating characteristic curves. Results: One hundred sixteen patients and 374 ribs met the inclusion criteria. Among the 116 patients, 28 patients (46 ribs) experienced RIRF. The estimated incidence of rib fracture was 37.7% at 3 years. Limited distance from the rib to the tumor (<2.0 cm) was the only significant risk factor for RIRF (p = 0.0001). Among the dosimetric parameters used for receiver operating characteristic analysis, the maximum dose showed the highest area under the curve. The 3-year estimated risk of RIRF and the determined cutoff value were 45.8% vs. 1.4% (maximum dose, {>=}42.4 Gy or less), 51.6% vs. 2.0% (V40, {>=}0.29 cm{sup 3} or less), 45.8% vs. 2.2% (V30, {>=}1.35 cm{sup 3} or less), 42.0% vs. 8.5% (V20, {>=}3.62 cm{sup 3} or less), or 25.9% vs. 10.5% (V10, {>=}5.03 cm{sup 3} or less). Conclusions: The incidence of RIRF after hypofractionated SBRT is relatively high. The maximum dose and high-dose volume are strongly correlated with RIRF.

  15. SU-E-I-15: Comparison of Radiation Dose for Radiography and EOS in Adolescent Scoliosis Patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schueler, B; Walz-Flannigan, A [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To estimate patient radiation dose for whole spine imaging using EOS, a new biplanar slot-scanning radiographic system and compare with standard scoliosis radiography. Methods: The EOS imaging system (EOS Imaging, Paris, France) consists of two orthogonal x-ray fan beams which simultaneously acquire frontal and lateral projection images of a standing patient. The patient entrance skin air kerma was measured for each projection image using manufacturer-recommended exposure parameters for spine imaging. Organ and effective doses were estimated using a commercially-available Monte Carlo simulation program (PCXMC, STUK, Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki, Finland) for a 15 year old mathematical phantom model. These results were compared to organ and effective dose estimated for scoliosis radiography using computed radiography (CR) with standard exposure parameters obtained from a survey of pediatric radiographic projections. Results: The entrance skin air kerma for EOS was found to be 0.18 mGy and 0.33 mGy for posterior-anterior (PA) and lateral projections, respectively. This compares to 0.76 mGy and 1.4 mGy for CR, PA and lateral projections. Effective dose for EOS (PA and lateral projections combined) is 0.19 mSv compared to 0.51 mSv for CR. Conclusion: The EOS slot-scanning radiographic system allows for reduced patient radiation dose in scoliosis patients as compared to standard CR radiography.

  16. Hysterosalpingography using a flat panel unit: Evaluation and optimization of ovarian radiation dose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Messaris, Gerasimos A. T.; Abatzis, Ilias; Kagadis, George C.; Samartzis, Alexandros P.; Athanasopoulou, Panagiota; Christeas, Nikolaos; Katsanos, Konstantinos; Karnabatidis, Dimitrios; Nikiforidis, George C. [Department of Medical Physics, University Hospital of Patras, GR 265 04 Rion (Greece); Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, GR 265 04 Rion (Greece); Department of Medical Physics, University Hospital of Patras, GR 265 04 Rion, Greece and Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, GR 265 04 Rion (Greece); Department of Medical Physics, 'EVANGELISMOS' General Hospital, 45-47 Ypsilantou Street, GR 106 76 Athens (Greece); Philips Hellas, 44 Kifisias Avenue, GR 151 25 Marousi (Greece); Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Patras, GR 265 04 Rion (Greece); Department of Medical Physics, University Hospital of Patras, GR 265 04 Rion, Greece and Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, GR 265 04 Rion (Greece)

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was the evaluation and optimization of radiation dose to the ovaries (D) in hysterosalpingography (HSG). Methods: The study included a phantom study and a clinical one. In the phantom study, we evaluated imaging results for different geometrical setups and irradiation conditions. In the clinical study, 34 women were assigned into three different fluoroscopy modes and D was estimated with direct cervical TLD measurements. Results: In the phantom study, we used a source-to-image-distance (SID) of 110 cm and a field diagonal of 48 cm, and thus decreased air KERMA rate (KR) by 19% and 70%, respectively, for beam filtration: 4 mm Al and 0.9 mm Cu (Low dose). The least radiation exposure was accomplished by using the 3.75 pps fluoroscopy mode in conjunction with beam filtration: Low dose. In the clinical study, D normalized to 50 s of fluoroscopy time with a 3.75 pps fluoroscopy mode reached a value of 0.45 {+-} 0.04 mGy. Observers' evaluation of diagnostic image quality did not significantly differ for the three different modes of acquisition that were compared. Conclusions: Digital spot radiographs could be omitted in modern flat panel systems during HSG. Fluoroscopy image acquisitions in a modern flat panel unit at 3.75 pps and a beam filtration of 4 mm Al and 0.9 mm Cu demonstrate acceptable image quality with an average D equal to 0.45 mGy. This value is lower compared to the studied literature. For these reasons, the proposed method may be recommended for routine HSG examination in order to limit radiation exposure to the ovaries.

  17. Radiation Therapy Photon Beams Dose Conformation According to Dose Distribution Around Intracavitary-Applied Brachytherapy Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jurkovic, Slaven [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, University Hospital, Rijeka (Croatia)], E-mail: slaven.jurkovic@ri.htnet.hr; Zauhar, Gordana [Department of Physics, School of Medicine, Rijeka (Croatia); Faj, Dario [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, University Hospital, Osijek (Croatia); Radojcic, Deni Smilovic; Svabic, Manda [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, University Hospital, Rijeka (Croatia)

    2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Intracavitary application of brachytherapy sources followed by external beam radiation is essential for the local treatment of carcinoma of the cervix. Due to very high doses to the central portion of the target volume delivered by brachytherapy sources, this part of the target volume must be shielded while being irradiated by photon beams. Several shielding techniques are available, from rectangular block and standard cervix wedge to more precise, customized step wedge filters. Because the calculation of a step wedge filter's shape was usually based on effective attenuation coefficient, an approach that accounts, in a more precise way, for the scattered radiation, is suggested. The method was verified under simulated clinical conditions using film dosimetry. Measured data for various compensators were compared to the numerically determined sum of the dose distribution around brachytherapy sources and one of compensated beam. Improvements in total dose distribution are demonstrated, using our method. Agreement between calculation and measurements were within 3%. Sensitivity of the method on sources displacement during treatment has also been investigated.

  18. A Systems Genetic Approach to Identify Low Dose Radiation-Induced Lymphoma Susceptibility/DOE2013FinalReport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balmain, Allan [University of California, San Francisco; Song, Ihn Young [University of California, San Francisco

    2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The ultimate goal of this project is to identify the combinations of genetic variants that confer an individual's susceptibility to the effects of low dose (0.1 Gy) gamma-radiation, in particular with regard to tumor development. In contrast to the known effects of high dose radiation in cancer induction, the responses to low dose radiation (defined as 0.1 Gy or less) are much less well understood, and have been proposed to involve a protective anti-tumor effect in some in vivo scientific models. These conflicting results confound attempts to develop predictive models of the risk of exposure to low dose radiation, particularly when combined with the strong effects of inherited genetic variants on both radiation effects and cancer susceptibility. We have used a Â?Â?Systems Genetics approach in mice that combines genetic background analysis with responses to low and high dose radiation, in order to develop insights that will allow us to reconcile these disparate observations. Using this comprehensive approach we have analyzed normal tissue gene expression (in this case the skin and thymus), together with the changes that take place in this gene expression architecture a) in response to low or high- dose radiation and b) during tumor development. Additionally, we have demonstrated that using our expression analysis approach in our genetically heterogeneous/defined radiation-induced tumor mouse models can uniquely identify genes and pathways relevant to human T-ALL, and uncover interactions between common genetic variants of genes which may lead to tumor susceptibility.

  19. Radiation Environments and Exposure Considerations for the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, William M.; Low, Nora M.; Zillmer, Andrew; Johnson, Gregory A. [Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne, 6633 Canoga Avenue, Canoga Park, CA 91309 (United States); Normand, Eugene [Boeing Radiation Effects Laboratory, P.O. Box 3707, M/S 2T-50, Seattle, WA 98124-22079 (United States)

    2006-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG) is the next generation (RTG) being developed by DOE to provide reliable, long-life electric power for NASA's planetary exploration programs. The MMRTG is being developed by Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne and Teledyne Energy Systems Incorporated (TESI) for use on currently planned and projected flyby, orbital and planet landing missions. This is a significant departure from the design philosophy of the past which was to match specific mission requirements to RTG design capabilities. Undefined mission requirements provide a challenge to system designers by forcing them to put a design envelope around 'all possible missions'. These multi-mission requirements include internal and external radiation sources. Internal sources include the particles ejected by decaying Pu-238 and its daughters plus particles resulting from the interaction of these particles with other MMRTG materials. External sources include the full spectrum of charged particle radiation surrounding planets with magnetic fields and the surfaces of extraterrestrial objects not shielded by magnetic fields. The paper presents the results of investigations into the environments outlined above and the impact of radiation exposure on potential materials to be used on MMRTG and ground support personnel. Mission requirements were also reviewed to evaluate total integrated dose and to project potential shielding requirements for materials. Much of the information on mission shielding requirements was provided by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The primary result is an ionizing radiation design curve which indicates the limits to which a particular mission can take the MMRTG in terms of ionizing radiation exposure. Estimates of personnel radiation exposure during ground handling are also provided.

  20. absorbed radiation dose: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

  1. Occupational radiation exposure at commercial nuclear power reactors and other facilities 1994. Twenty-seventh annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, M.L.; Hagemeyer, D. [Science Applications International Corporation, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the occupational exposure data that are maintained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS). Annual reports for 1994 were received from a total of 303 NRC licensees, of which 109 were operators of nuclear power reactors in commercial operation. Compilations of the reports submitted by the 303 licensees indicated that 152,028 individuals were monitored, 79,780 of whom received a measurable dose. The collective dose incurred by these individuals was 24,740 person-cSv (person-rem){sup 2} which represents a 15% decrease from the 1993 value. The number of workers receiving a measurable dose also decreased, resulting in the average measurable dose of 0.31 cSv (rem) for 1994. The average measurable dose is defined to be the total collective dose (TEDE) divided by the number of workers receiving a measurable dose. These figures have been adjusted to account for transient reactor workers. In 1994, the annual collective dose per reactor for light water reactor licensees (LWRs) was 198 person-cSv (person-rem). This represents a 18% decrease from the 1993 value of 242 person-cSv (person-rem). The annual collective dose per reactor for boiling water reactors (BWRs) was 327 person-cSv (person-rem) and, for pressurized water reactors (PWRs), it was 131 person-cSv (person-rem). Analyses of transient worker data indicate that 18,178 individuals completed work assignments at two or more licensees during the monitoring year. The dose distributions are adjusted each year to account for the duplicate reporting of transient workers by multiple licensees. In 1994, the average measurable dose calculated from reported data was 0.28 cSv (rem). The corrected dose distribution resulted in an average measurable dose of 0.31 cSv (rem).

  2. Low dose radiation interations with the transformation growth factor (TGF)-beta pathway 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maslowski, Amy Jesse

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A major limiting factor for long-term, deep-space missions is the radiation dose to astronauts. Because the dose to the astronauts is a mixed field of low- and high-LET radiation, there is a need to understand the effects of both radiation types...

  3. Whole-Body Biodistribution and Estimation of Radiation-Absorbed Doses of the Dopamine D1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Jun

    Whole-Body Biodistribution and Estimation of Radiation-Absorbed Doses of the Dopamine D1 Receptor and Behaviour, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia The present study estimated radiation of interest were drawn on compressed planar images of source organs that could be iden- tified. Radiation dose

  4. CY 1995 radiation dose reconciliation report and resulting CY 1996 dose estimate for the 324 nuclear facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landsman, S.D.; Thornhill, R.E.; Peterson, C.A.

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, the dose estimate for CY 1995 is reconciled by month wih actual doses received. Results of the reconciliation were used to revise estimates of worker dose for CY 1996. Resulting dose estimate for the facility is also included. Support for two major programs (B-Cell Cleanout and Surveillance and Maintenance) accounts for most of the exposure received by workers in the faility. Most of the expousre received by workers comes from work in the Radiochemical Engineering Complex airlock. In spite of schedule and work scope changes during CY 1995, dose estimates were close to actual exposures received. A number of ALARA measures were taken throughout the year; exposure reduction due to those was 20.6 Man-Rem, a 28% reduction from the CY 1995 estimate. Baseline estimates for various tasks in the facility were used to compile the CY 1996 dose estimate of 45.4 Man-Rem; facility goal for CY 1996 is to reduce worker dose by 20%, to 36.3 Man-Rem.

  5. Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Residual Radiation Exposure: Recent Research and Suggestions for Future Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a need for accurate dosimetry for studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors because of the important role that these studies play in worldwide radiation protection standards. International experts have developed dosimetry systems, such as the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), which assess the initial radiation exposure to gamma rays and neutrons but only briefly consider the possibility of some minimal contribution to the total body dose by residual radiation exposure. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of the topic of residual radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, recently reported studies were reviewed at a technical session at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Health Physics Society in Sacramento, California, 22-26 July 2012. A one-day workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of these newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposures to the atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Suggestions for possible future studies are also included in this workshop report.

  6. Use of international data sets to evaluate and validate pathway assessment models applicable to exposure and dose reconstruction at DOE facilities. Progress report, August 1993--January 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendrickson, S.M. [ed.] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [ed.; Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hoffman, F.O. [Senes Oak Ridge, Inc., TN (United States). Center for Risk Analysis] [Senes Oak Ridge, Inc., TN (United States). Center for Risk Analysis

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project, ``Use of International Data Sets to Evaluate and Validate Pathway Assessment Models Applicable to Exposure and Dose Reconstruction at DOE Facilities,`` grew out of several activities being conducted by the Principal Investigator Dr. F Owen Hoffman. One activity was originally part of the Chernobyl Studies Project and began as Task 7.1D, ``Internal Dose From Direct Contamination of Terrestrial Food Sources.`` The objective of Task 7.1D was to (1) establish a collaborative US USSR effort to improve and validate our methods of forecasting doses and dose commitments from the direct contamination of food sources, and (2) perform experiments and validation studies to improve our ability to predict rapidly and accurately the long-term internal dose from the contamination of agricultural soil. The latter was to include the consideration of remedial measures to block contamination of food grown on contaminated soil. The current objective of this project is to evaluate and validate pathway-assessment models applicable to exposure and dose reconstruction at DOE facilities through use of international data sets. This project incorporates the activity of Task 7.1D into a multinational effort to evaluate data used for the prediction of radionuclide transfer through agricultural and aquatic systems to humans. It also includes participation in two multinational studies, BIOMOVS (BIOspheric MOdel Validation Study) with the Swedish National Institute for Radiation Protection and VAMP (VAlidation of Model Predictions) with the International Atomic Energy Agency, that address testing the performance of models of radionuclide transport through foodchains.

  7. Dose profiles through the dermis for on and off-skin hot particle exposures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Kimberly Rochelle

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    compared to gamma-rays. Gamma-rays are monoenergetic photons with energies ranging from a few keV to several MeV. Unlike beta particles, gamma-rays are indirectly ionizing radiation. Because a gamma-ray is uncharged, it undergoes no direct ionization... detailed data on dose profiles This thesis follows the format of Radiation Protection Dosimetry. through the dermis from fuel fragments or from mixed beta-gamma activation products. The effects of beta-emitting hot particles suspended above skin without...

  8. Cancer risks attributable to low doses of ionizing radiation: Assessing what we really know

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenner, David Jonathan

    Triangle Park, NC 27711; jOffice of Radiation and Indoor Air, Environmental Protection Agency, WashingtonCancer risks attributable to low doses of ionizing radiation: Assessing what we really know David J Infirmary, Oxford OX2 6ME, United Kingdom; dRadiation and Genome Stability Unit, Medical Research Council

  9. Applied Radiation and Isotopes 64 (2006) 6062 Weak energy dependence of EBT gafchromic film dose

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, K.N.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , radiation-sensi- tive, polymer between two protective layers of polyester, which allows the filmApplied Radiation and Isotopes 64 (2006) 60­62 Weak energy dependence of EBT gafchromic film dose are common in radiation therapy. r 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Radiochromic film

  10. Radiation Exposure Information Reporting System (REIRS) Update, 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of graphs gives data through the year 2012 for annual collective doses, collective dose per reactor, number of individuals with measurable doses both in total and per reactor, number of reactors, electricity generated, measurable doses per individual and per megawatt-year, and collective outage hours. Reactors considered include BWR, PWR, and LWR. Also, the total effective dose equivalent for the period 2010-2012 is tabulated for each nuclear power plant considered, and the change over 2009-2011.

  11. Radiation dose assessments to support evaluations of radiological control levels for recycling or reuse of materials and equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, R.L.; Aaberg, R.L.; Baker, D.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory is providing Environmental Protection Support and Assistance to the USDOE, Office of Environmental Guidance. Air, Water, and Radiation Division. As part of this effort, PNL is collecting data and conducting technical evaluations to support DOE analyses of the feasibility of developing radiological control levels for recycling or reuse of metals, concrete, or equipment containing residual radioactive contamination from DOE operations. The radiological control levels will be risk-based, as developed through a radiation exposure scenario and pathway analysis. The analysis will include evaluation of relevant radionuclides, potential mechanisms of exposure, and both health and non-health-related impacts. The main objective of this report is to develop a methodology for establishing radiological control levels for recycle or reuse. This report provides the results of the radiation exposure scenario and pathway analyses for 42 key radionuclides generated during DOE operations that may be contained in metals or equipment considered for either recycling or reuse. The scenarios and information developed by the IAEA. Application of Exemption Principles to the Recycle and Reuse of Materials from Nuclear Facilities, are used as the initial basis for this study. The analyses were performed for both selected worker populations at metal smelters and for the public downwind of a smelter facility. Doses to the public downwind were estimated using the US (EPA) CAP88-PC computer code with generic data on atmospheric dispersion and population density. Potential non-health-related effects of residual activity on electronics and on film were also analyzed.

  12. Integral radiation dose to normal structures with conformal external beam radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aoyama, Hidefumi [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States) and Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)]. E-mail: hao@radi.med.hokudai.ac.jp; Westerly, David Clark [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Mackie, Thomas Rockwell [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); TomoTherapy Inc., Madison, WI (United States); Olivera, Gustavo H. [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); TomoTherapy Inc., Madison, WI (United States); Bentzen, Soren M. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Patel, Rakesh R. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Jaradat, Hazim [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Tome, Wolfgang A. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Ritter, Mark A. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Mehta, Minesh P. [Department of Human Oncology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Background: This study was designed to evaluate the integral dose (ID) received by normal tissue from intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Twenty-five radiation treatment plans including IMRT using a conventional linac with both 6 MV (6MV-IMRT) and 20 MV (20MV-IMRT), as well as three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) using 6 MV (6MV-3DCRT) and 20 MV (20MV-3DCRT) and IMRT using tomotherapy (6MV) (Tomo-IMRT), were created for 5 patients with localized prostate cancer. The ID (mean dose x tissue volume) received by normal tissue (NTID) was calculated from dose-volume histograms. Results: The 6MV-IMRT resulted in 5.0% lower NTID than 6MV-3DCRT; 20 MV beam plans resulted in 7.7%-11.2% lower NTID than 6MV-3DCRT. Tomo-IMRT NTID was comparable to 6MV-IMRT. Compared with 6MV-3DCRT, 6MV-IMRT reduced IDs to the rectal wall and penile bulb by 6.1% and 2.7%, respectively. Tomo-IMRT further reduced these IDs by 11.9% and 16.5%, respectively. The 20 MV did not reduce IDs to those structures. Conclusions: The difference in NTID between 3DCRT and IMRT is small. The 20 MV plans somewhat reduced NTID compared with 6 MV plans. The advantage of tomotherapy over conventional IMRT and 3DCRT for localized prostate cancer was demonstrated in regard to dose sparing of rectal wall and penile bulb while slightly decreasing NTID as compared with 6MV-3DCRT.

  13. Total dose radiation response of plasma-damaged NMOS devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yue, J.; Lo, E.; Flanery, M. [Honeywell Solid-State Electronic Center, Plymouth, MN (United States)] [Honeywell Solid-State Electronic Center, Plymouth, MN (United States)

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plasma-damaged NMOS devices were subjected to the X-ray total dose irradiation. Unlike the traditional hot-carrier or Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) stress where the hole trap generation is less pronounced, this study shows enhanced hole trap and interface trap generation on plasma-damaged devices after total dose irradiation.

  14. Metabolomic Response of Human Skin Tissue to Low Dose Ionizing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for IR exposure at low doses can help provide a scientific basis for establishing radiation protection standards. Little is known regarding the physiological responses to...

  15. Dose, exposure time, and resolution in Serial X-ray Crystallography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starodub, D; Rez, P; Hembree, G; Howells, M; Shapiro, D; Chapman, H N; Fromme, P; Schmidt, K; Weierstall, U; Doak, R B; Spence, J C

    2007-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Using detailed simulation and analytical models, the exposure time is estimated for serial crystallography, where hydrated laser-aligned proteins are sprayed across a continuous synchrotron beam. The resolution of X-ray diffraction microscopy is limited by the maximum dose that can be delivered prior to sample damage. In the proposed Serial Crystallography method, the damage problem is addressed by distributing the total dose over many identical hydrated macromolecules running continuously in a single-file train across a continuous X-ray beam, and resolution is then limited only by the available fluxes of molecules and X-rays. Orientation of the diffracting molecules is achieved by laser alignment. We evaluate the incident X-ray fluence (energy/area) required to obtain a given resolution from (1) an analytical model, giving the count rate at the maximum scattering angle for a model protein, (2) explicit simulation of diffraction patterns for a GroEL-GroES protein complex, and (3) the frequency cut off of the transfer function following iterative solution of the phase problem, and reconstruction of a density map in the projection approximation. These calculations include counting shot noise and multiple starts of the phasing algorithm. The results indicate the number of proteins needed within the beam at any instant for a given resolution and X-ray flux. We confirm an inverse fourth power dependence of exposure time on resolution, with important implications for all coherent X-ray imaging. We find that multiple single-file protein beams will be needed for sub-nanometer resolution on current third generation synchrotrons, but not on fourth generation designs, where reconstruction of secondary protein structure at a resolution of 7 {angstrom} should be possible with short (below 100 s) exposures.

  16. Natural radiation exposure in a municipality of the Brazilian Sertao

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malanca, A. [UFRN, Natal (Brazil)] [UFRN, Natal (Brazil); Gaidolfi, L. [Settore Fisico-Ambientale, Piacenza (Italy)] [Settore Fisico-Ambientale, Piacenza (Italy)

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sixty-seven thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) were distributed to the inhabitants of a Brazilian municipality located in the semi-arid inland (Sertao) of the state of Rio Grande do Norte. All the TLDs were exposed for 180 d in bedrooms or in living areas of the selected buildings and eventually returned to the authors` laboratory in italy. Radiological measurements gave a range of 32-330 nGy h{sup -1}, an arithmetic mean of 107 {+-} 47 nGy h{sup -1}, and a geometric mean of 99 nGy h{sup -1}. This last value corresponds to an annual indoor effective dose equivalent of 425 {mu}Sv. Concentrations of primordial radionuclides in some samples of building material, soil, and rock collected in the aformentioned territory were analytically determined by gamma spectrometer. The relatively high content of {sup 226}Ra (98.5 {+-} 12 Bq kg{sup -1}), {sup 232}Th (252.5 {+-} 47 Bq kg{sup -1}), and {sup 40}K (1533 {+-} 169 Bq kg{sup -1}) in bedrock is probably responsible for the elevated {lambda}-radiation environment of that municipality. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tab.

  17. Reduction of radiation dose to radiosensitive organs and its tradeoff with image quality in Computed Tomography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Di

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    helical multislice computed tomography examination. MedicalRadiation Dose in X-Ray Computed Tomography. AAPM report NO.of X-ray equipment for computed tomography. (2002). American

  18. assessing radiation dose: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    doses and cancer rates to the workers m the first Soviet atom-bomb facility, near 2 Chelyabinsk and 4,600 at the plutonium sep- aration plant. If we allow for an average work...

  19. accumulated radiation dose: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    doses and cancer rates to the workers m the first Soviet atom-bomb facility, near 2 Chelyabinsk and 4,600 at the plutonium sep- aration plant. If we allow for an average work...

  20. annual radiation dose: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    doses and cancer rates to the workers m the first Soviet atom-bomb facility, near 2 Chelyabinsk and 4,600 at the plutonium sep- aration plant. If we allow for an average work...

  1. Radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations at different dose-rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDaniel, Jackson Dean

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and sincere gratitude to Dr. G. M. Krise, for his advice and generosity, and to Dr. S. 0. Brown, for his vigilance throughout the course of this investigaticn. To Dr. H. R. Crookshank, I would like to acknowledge my indebtedness for serving as a sember... testicular cells eight hours postirradiation in animals given a total-body dose of 300 r at various dose rates . ; . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . 17 II. Percentage of cells with aberrations per total dividing cells in the rat testes eight...

  2. Page 1 of 3 RADIATION DOSE IS MORE THAN A NUMBER!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perkins, Richard A.

    , Former Director of Radiological Physics Center, MD Anderson Cancer Center #12;Page 2 of 3 RADIATION DOSE of Radiation Larry Dewerd, University of Wisconsin Will Hanson, Former Director of Radiological Physics Center for solicited research Service ­ NIH-based facility (RPC-like) or fee for service or private non-profit (AAALAC

  3. Analysis of radiation doses from operation of postulated commercial spent fuel transportation systems: Main report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, K.J.; Hostick, C.J.; Ross, W.A.; Peterson, R.W.; Smith, R.I.; Stiles, D.L.; Daling, P.M.; Weakley, S.A.; Grinde, R.B.; Young, J.R.

    1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report contains a system study of estimated radiation doses to the public and workers resulting from the transport of spent fuel from commercial nuclear power reactors to a geologic repository. The report contains a detailed breakdown of activities and a description of time/distance/dose-rate estimates for each activity within the system. Collective doses are estimated for each of the major activities at the reactor site, in transit, and at the repository receiving facility. Annual individual doses to the maximally exposed individuals or groups of individuals are also estimated. A total of 17 alternatives and subalternatives to the postulated reference transportation system are identified, conceptualized, and their dose-reduction potentials and costs estimated. Resulting ratios of ..delta..cost/..delta..collective system dose for each alternative relative to the postulated reference transportation system are given. Most of the alternatives evaluated are estimated to provide both cost and dose reductions. Major reductions in transportation system dose and cost are estimated to result from using higher-capacity rail and truck casks, and particularly when replacing legalweight truck casks with ''advanced design'' overweight truck casks. The greatest annual dose reduction to the highest exposed individual workers (i.e., at the repository) is estimated to be achieved by using remote handling equipment for the cask handling operations at the repository. Additional shielding is also effective in reducing doses to both radiation workers at the reactor and repository and to transport workers. 69 refs., 36 figs., 156 tabs.

  4. Radiation Dose-Volume Effects and the Penile Bulb

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roach, Mack, E-mail: mroach@radonc.ucsf.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Nam, Jiho [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Gagliardi, Giovanna [Department of Medical Physics, Karolinska University Hospital and Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); El Naqa, Issam; Deasy, Joseph O. [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO (United States); Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dose, volume, and clinical outcome data for penile bulb are reviewed for patients treated with external-beam radiotherapy. Most, but not all, studies find an association between impotence and dosimetric parameters (e.g., threshold doses) and clinical factors (e.g., age, comorbid diseases). According to the data available, it is prudent to keep the mean dose to 95% of the penile bulb volume to <50 Gy. It may also be prudent to limit the D70 and D90 to 70 Gy and 50 Gy, respectively, but coverage of the planning target volume should not be compromised. It is acknowledged that the penile bulb may not be the critical component of the erectile apparatus, but it seems to be a surrogate for yet to be determined structure(s) critical for erectile function for at least some techniques.

  5. Spatially resolved measurement of high doses in microbeam radiation therapy using samarium doped fluorophosphate glasses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okada, Go; Morrell, Brian; Koughia, Cyril; Kasap, Safa [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A9 (Canada); Edgar, Andy; Varoy, Chris [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences and MacDiarmid Institute, Victoria University of Wellington, Kelburn Parade (New Zealand); Belev, George; Wysokinski, Tomasz [Canadian Light Source Inc., University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 0X4 (Canada); Chapman, Dean [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5E5 (Canada)

    2011-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The measurement of spatially resolved high doses in microbeam radiation therapy has always been a challenging task, where a combination of high dose response and high spatial resolution (microns) is required for synchrotron radiation peaked around 50 keV. The x-ray induced Sm{sup 3+}{yields} Sm{sup 2+} valence conversion in Sm{sup 3+} doped fluorophosphates glasses has been tested for use in x-ray dosimetry for microbeam radiation therapy. The conversion efficiency depends almost linearly on the dose of irradiation up to {approx}5 Gy and saturates at doses exceeding {approx}80 Gy. The conversion shows strong correlation with x-ray induced absorbance of the glass which is related to the formation of phosphorus-oxygen hole centers. When irradiated through a microslit collimator, a good spatial resolution and high ''peak-to-valley'' contrast have been observed by means of confocal photoluminescence microscopy.

  6. Standard Guide for Absorbed-Dose Mapping in Radiation Processing Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1.1 This document provides guidance in determining absorbed-dose distributions in products, materials or substances irradiated in gamma, X-ray (bremsstrahlung) and electron beam facilities. Note 1—For irradiation of food and the radiation sterilization of health care products, other specific ISO and ISO/ASTM standards containing dose mapping requirements exist. For food irradiation, see ISO/ASTM 51204, Practice for Dosimetry in Gamma Irradiation Facilities for Food Processing and ISO/ASTM 51431, Practice for Dosimetry in Electron and Bremsstrahlung Irradiation Facilities for Food Processing. For the radiation sterilization of health care products, see ISO 11137: 1995, Sterilization of Health Care Products Requirements for Validation and Routine Control Radiation Sterilization. In those areas covered by ISO 11137, that standard takes precedence. ISO/ASTM Practice 51608, ISO/ASTM Practice 51649, and ISO/ASTM Practice 51702 also contain dose mapping requirements. 1.2 Methods of analyzing the dose map data ar...

  7. Radiation and litigation : analyses of the ALARA principle and low dose radiation in the courts, and the future of radiation in court cases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esparza, Enrique

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently there are a growing number of radiation workers. In order to ensure the safety of the employees, regulations have been established by the federal government and state governments to limit the dose equivalent to ...

  8. 75Radiation Dose and Distance This iconic photo was

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on March 15, a few days after the Japan 2011 earthquake, which caused severe damage to the Fukushima Press/Kyodo News) The devastating Japan 2011 earthquake damaged the nuclear reactors in Fukushima, which: Date Distance (km) Location Dose Rate (microSeiverts/hr) March 15 1 km Fukushima #2 plant 8,200 March

  9. New Easy-to-Use Medical Field Guide for Radiation Emergencies...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    radiation dose Delayed effects of radiation exposure, and Psychological considerations "Health care providers are expected to treat patients injured in a multitude of possible...

  10. accidental radiation exposures: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    particles or black holes. Jiri Bicak 2002-01-03 147 Debris and Radiation-Induced Damage Effects on EUV Nanolithography Source Collector Mirror Optics Performance Plasma...

  11. Radiation doses in cone-beam breast computed tomography: A Monte Carlo simulation study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi Ying; Lai, Chao-Jen; Han Tao; Zhong Yuncheng; Shen Youtao; Liu Xinming; Ge Shuaiping; You Zhicheng; Wang Tianpeng; Shaw, Chris C. [Department of Imaging Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: In this article, we describe a method to estimate the spatial dose variation, average dose and mean glandular dose (MGD) for a real breast using Monte Carlo simulation based on cone beam breast computed tomography (CBBCT) images. We present and discuss the dose estimation results for 19 mastectomy breast specimens, 4 homogeneous breast models, 6 ellipsoidal phantoms, and 6 cylindrical phantoms. Methods: To validate the Monte Carlo method for dose estimation in CBBCT, we compared the Monte Carlo dose estimates with the thermoluminescent dosimeter measurements at various radial positions in two polycarbonate cylinders (11- and 15-cm in diameter). Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of 19 mastectomy breast specimens, obtained with a bench-top experimental scanner, were segmented and used to construct 19 structured breast models. Monte Carlo simulation of CBBCT with these models was performed and used to estimate the point doses, average doses, and mean glandular doses for unit open air exposure at the iso-center. Mass based glandularity values were computed and used to investigate their effects on the average doses as well as the mean glandular doses. Average doses for 4 homogeneous breast models were estimated and compared to those of the corresponding structured breast models to investigate the effect of tissue structures. Average doses for ellipsoidal and cylindrical digital phantoms of identical diameter and height were also estimated for various glandularity values and compared with those for the structured breast models. Results: The absorbed dose maps for structured breast models show that doses in the glandular tissue were higher than those in the nearby adipose tissue. Estimated average doses for the homogeneous breast models were almost identical to those for the structured breast models (p=1). Normalized average doses estimated for the ellipsoidal phantoms were similar to those for the structured breast models (root mean square (rms) percentage difference=1.7%; p=0.01), whereas those for the cylindrical phantoms were significantly lower (rms percentage difference=7.7%; p<0.01). Normalized MGDs were found to decrease with increasing glandularity. Conclusions: Our results indicate that it is sufficient to use homogeneous breast models derived from CBCT generated structured breast models to estimate the average dose. This investigation also shows that ellipsoidal digital phantoms of similar dimensions (diameter and height) and glandularity to actual breasts may be used to represent a real breast to estimate the average breast dose with Monte Carlo simulation. We have also successfully demonstrated the use of structured breast models to estimate the true MGDs and shown that the normalized MGDs decreased with the glandularity as previously reported by other researchers for CBBCT or mammography.

  12. Calculation of radiation therapy dose using all particle Monte Carlo transport

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chandler, William P. (Tracy, CA); Hartmann-Siantar, Christine L. (San Ramon, CA); Rathkopf, James A. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The actual radiation dose absorbed in the body is calculated using three-dimensional Monte Carlo transport. Neutrons, protons, deuterons, tritons, helium-3, alpha particles, photons, electrons, and positrons are transported in a completely coupled manner, using this Monte Carlo All-Particle Method (MCAPM). The major elements of the invention include: computer hardware, user description of the patient, description of the radiation source, physical databases, Monte Carlo transport, and output of dose distributions. This facilitated the estimation of dose distributions on a Cartesian grid for neutrons, photons, electrons, positrons, and heavy charged-particles incident on any biological target, with resolutions ranging from microns to centimeters. Calculations can be extended to estimate dose distributions on general-geometry (non-Cartesian) grids for biological and/or non-biological media.

  13. Calculation of radiation therapy dose using all particle Monte Carlo transport

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chandler, W.P.; Hartmann-Siantar, C.L.; Rathkopf, J.A.

    1999-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The actual radiation dose absorbed in the body is calculated using three-dimensional Monte Carlo transport. Neutrons, protons, deuterons, tritons, helium-3, alpha particles, photons, electrons, and positrons are transported in a completely coupled manner, using this Monte Carlo All-Particle Method (MCAPM). The major elements of the invention include: computer hardware, user description of the patient, description of the radiation source, physical databases, Monte Carlo transport, and output of dose distributions. This facilitated the estimation of dose distributions on a Cartesian grid for neutrons, photons, electrons, positrons, and heavy charged-particles incident on any biological target, with resolutions ranging from microns to centimeters. Calculations can be extended to estimate dose distributions on general-geometry (non-Cartesian) grids for biological and/or non-biological media. 57 figs.

  14. Occupational Radiation Exposure at Commercial Nuclear Power Reactors and Other Facilities 2010, Prepared for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research, May 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. E. Lewis D. A. Hagemeyer Y. U. McCormick

    2012-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the occupational exposure data that are maintained in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission’s (NRC) Radiation Exposure Information and Reporting System (REIRS). The bulk of the information contained in the report was compiled from the 2010 annual reports submitted by five of the seven categories of NRC licensees subject to the reporting requirements of 10 CFR 20.2206. Because there are no geologic repositories for high-level waste currently licensed and no NRC-licensed low-level waste disposal facilities currently in operation, only five categories will be considered in this report. The annual reports submitted by these licensees consist of radiation exposure records for each monitored individual. These records are analyzed for trends and presented in this report in terms of collective dose and the distribution of dose among the monitored individuals. Annual reports for 2010 were received from a total of 190 NRC licensees. The summation of reports submitted by the 190 licensees indicated that 192,424 individuals were monitored, 81,961 of whom received a measurable dose. When adjusted for transient workers who worked at more than one licensee during the year, there were actually 142,471 monitored individuals and 62,782 who received a measurable dose. The collective dose incurred by these individuals was 10,617 person-rem, which represents a 12% decrease from the 2009 value. This decrease was primarily due to the decrease in collective dose at commercial nuclear power reactors, as well as a decrease in the collective dose for most of the other categories of NRC licensees. The number of individuals receiving a measurable dose also decreased, resulting in an average measurable dose of 0.13 rem for 2010. The average measurable dose is defined as the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) divided by the number of individuals receiving a measurable dose. In calendar year 2010, the average annual collective dose per reactor for light water reactor (LWR) licensees was 83 person-rem. This represents a 14% decrease from the value reported for 2009 (96 person-rem). The decrease in collective dose for commercial nuclear power reactors was due to an 11% decrease in total outage hours in 2010. During outages, activities involving increased radiation exposure such as refueling and maintenance are performed while the reactor is not in operation. The average annual collective dose per reactor for boiling water reactors (BWRs) was 137 personrem for 35 BWRs, and 55 person-rem for 69 pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Analyses of transient individual data indicate that 29,333 individuals completed work assignments at two or more licensees during the monitoring year. The dose distributions are adjusted each year to account for the duplicate reporting of transient individuals by multiple licensees. The adjustment to account for transient individuals has been specifically noted in footnotes in the figures and tables for commercial nuclear power reactors. In 2010, the average measurable dose per individual for all licensees calculated from reported data was 0.13 rem. Although the average measurable dose per individual from data submitted by licensees was 0.13 rem, a corrected dose distribution resulted in an average measurable dose per individual of 0.17 rem.

  15. Tritium: a model for low level long-term ionizing radiation exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carsten, A.L.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The somatic, cytogenetic and genetic effects of single and chronic tritiated water (HTO) ingestion in mice was investigated. This study serves not only as an evaluation of tritium toxicity (TRITOX) but due to its design involving long-term low concentration ingestion of HTO may serve as a model for low level long-term ionizing radiation exposure in general. Long-term studies involved animals maintained on HTO at concentrations of 0.3 ..mu..Ci/ml, 1.0 ..mu..Ci/ml, 3.0 ..mu..Ci/ml or depth dose equivalent chronic external exposures to /sup 137/Cs gamma rays. Maintenance on 3.0 ..mu..Ci/ml resulted in no effect on growth, life-time shortening or bone marrow cellularity, but did result in a reduction of bone marrow stem cells, an increase in DLM's in second generation animals maintained on this regimen and cytogenetic effects as indicated by increased sister chromatid exchanges (SCE's) in bone marrow cells, increased chromosome aberrations in the regenerating liver and an increase in micronuclei in red blood cells. Biochemical and microdosimetry studies showed that animals placed on the HTO regimen reached tritium equilibrium in the body water in approximately 17 to 21 days with a more gradual increase in bound tritium. When animals maintained for 180 days on 3.0 ..mu..Ci/ml HTO were placed on a tap water regimen, the tritium level in tissue dropped from the equilibrium value of 2.02 ..mu..Ci/ml before withdrawal to 0.001 ..mu..Ci/ml at 28 days. 18 references.

  16. Static jaw collimation settings to minimize radiation dose to normal brain tissue during stereotactic radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Eun Young, E-mail: eyhan@uams.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Zhang Xin; Yan Yulong; Sharma, Sunil; Penagaricano, Jose [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Moros, Eduardo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States); Corry, Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is performed by using a linear accelerator with an add-on micromultileaf collimator (mMLC). In our clinical setting, static jaws are automatically adapted to the furthest edge of the mMLC-defined segments with 2-mm (X jaw) and 5-mm (Y jaw) margin and the same jaw values are applied for all beam angles in the treatment planning system. This additional field gap between the static jaws and the mMLC allows additional radiation dose to normal brain tissue. Because a radiosurgery procedure consists of a single high dose to the planning target volume (PTV), reduction of unnecessary dose to normal brain tissue near the PTV is important, particularly for pediatric patients whose brains are still developing or when a critical organ, such as the optic chiasm, is near the PTV. The purpose of this study was to minimize dose to normal brain tissue by allowing minimal static jaw margin around the mMLC-defined fields and different static jaw values for each beam angle or arc. Dose output factors were measured with various static jaw margins and the results were compared with calculated doses in the treatment planning system. Ten patient plans were randomly selected and recalculated with zero static jaw margins without changing other parameters. Changes of PTV coverage, mean dose to predefined normal brain tissue volume adjacent to PTV, and monitor units were compared. It was found that the dose output percentage difference varied from 4.9-1.3% for the maximum static jaw opening vs. static jaw with zero margins. The mean dose to normal brain tissue at risk adjacent to the PTV was reduced by an average of 1.9%, with negligible PTV coverage loss. This dose reduction strategy may be meaningful in terms of late effects of radiation, particularly in pediatric patients. This study generated clinical knowledge and tools to consistently minimize dose to normal brain tissue.

  17. Radiation dose estimates for typical piloted NTR lunar and Mars mission engine operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schnitzler, B.G. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Borowski, S.K. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH (United States). Lewis Research Center)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The natural and manmade radiation environments to be encountered during lunar and Mars missions are qualitatively summarized. The computational methods available to characterize the radiation environment produced by an operating nuclear propulsion system are discussed. Mission profiles and vehicle configurations are presented for a typical all-propulsive, fully reusable lunar mission and for a typical all-propulsive Mars mission. Estimates of crew location biological doses are developed for all propulsive maneuvers. Post-shutdown dose rates near the nuclear engine are estimated at selected mission times. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  18. RADIATION DOSE ESTIMATES TO ADULTS AND CHILDREN FROM VARIOUS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah47,193.70COMMUNITYResponses: QuestionDaniel Hartsock CIMMS,RADIATION

  19. Radiation and Uranium Resources Exposure Control (South Dakota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The public policy of South Dakota is to encourage the constructive uses of radiation, the proper development of uranium resources, and the control of any associated harmful effects. The disposal of...

  20. Indoor exposure to radiation in the case of an outdoorrelease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Phillip N.; Jayaraman, Buvana

    2006-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report quantifies the effectiveness of ''sheltering in place'' in a commercial building in the event of an outdoor radiological release. The indoor exposure to airborne particles is calculated by solving the mass balance equation that accounts for the loss of particles due to deposition, filtration and exhaust. Quantitative estimates of shelter-inplace effectiveness are provided for typical commercial buildings.

  1. Radiation Dose to the Lens During Craniospinal Irradiation-An Improvement in Proton Radiotherapy Technique

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cochran, David M. [Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Yock, Torunn I.; Adams, Judith A. C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Tarbell, Nancy J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)], E-mail: ntarbell@partners.org

    2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of angle modification of cranial field proton beam therapy on the radiation dose delivered to the lens during craniospinal irradiation (CSI). Methods and Materials: Thirty-nine patients with central nervous system tumors who received CSI with a posterior fossa boost were analyzed for the radiation dose to the lens. Thirteen patients received cranial field treatment using standard opposed-lateral proton beams, and 26 patients received treatment with angled posterior-oblique proton beams. The lens dose in a test case also was evaluated by comparing conventional X-rays with the two proton beam planning methods by using a CMS/Xio three-dimensional planning system. Results: Substantial lens dose sparing was realized with the angling of the cranial proton beams 15{sup o}-20{sup o} to the posterior. In the 39 treated patients who were analyzed (median age, 7 years), average dose delivered to the lens was decreased by approximately 50% by angling of the proton beams, with the average maximum dose decreasing from 74% to 40% of the prescribed dose (p < 0.0001). Significant lens sparing was seen in patients 10 years and younger (median age, 6 years; p < 0.0001), whereas an insignificant decrease was seen in older patients (median age, 16 years; p = 0.14). With the opposed-lateral technique (median age, 6 years), the lens dose increased significantly with decreasing age (p = 0.002), whereas there was no effect of age on lens dose in the angled beam-treated group (median age, 8.5 years; p = 0.73). Conclusion: The present study clearly shows an advantage in sparing of the lens dose by angling the beams used during proton beam CSI. This effect is most pronounced in patients 10 years and younger because of anatomic effects of sinus development.

  2. Radiation Dose and Subsequent Risk for Stomach Cancer in Long-term Survivors of Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleinerman, Ruth A., E-mail: kleinerr@mail.nih.gov [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Maryland (United States); Smith, Susan A. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Holowaty, Eric [Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Hall, Per [Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Pukkala, Eero [Finnish Cancer Registry, Institute for Statistical and Epidemiological Cancer Research, Helsinki (Finland); Vaalavirta, Leila [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Stovall, Marilyn; Weathers, Rita [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gilbert, Ethel [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Maryland (United States); Aleman, Berthe M.P. [Department of Radiotherapy, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kaijser, Magnus [Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Andersson, Michael [Department of Oncology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark); Storm, Hans [Cancer Prevention and Documentation, Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen (Denmark); Joensuu, Heikki [Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Lynch, Charles F. [Department of Epidemiology, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa (United States); and others

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To assess the dose–response relationship for stomach cancer after radiation therapy for cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: We conducted a nested, matched case–control study of 201 cases and 378 controls among 53,547 5-year survivors of cervical cancer diagnosed from 1943 to 1995, from 5 international, population-based cancer registries. We estimated individual radiation doses to the site of the stomach cancer for all cases and to corresponding sites for the matched controls (overall mean stomach tumor dose, 2.56 Gy, range 0.03-46.1 and after parallel opposed pelvic fields, 1.63 Gy, range 0.12-6.3). Results: More than 90% of women received radiation therapy, mostly with external beam therapy in combination with brachytherapy. Stomach cancer risk was nonsignificantly increased (odds ratio 1.27-2.28) for women receiving between 0.5 and 4.9 Gy to the stomach cancer site and significantly increased at doses ?5 Gy (odds ratio 4.20, 95% confidence interval 1.41-13.4, P{sub trend}=.047) compared with nonirradiated women. A highly significant radiation dose–response relationship was evident when analyses were restricted to the 131 cases (251 controls) whose stomach cancer was located in the middle and lower portions of the stomach (P{sub trend}=.003), whereas there was no indication of increasing risk with increasing dose for 30 cases (57 controls) whose cancer was located in the upper stomach (P{sub trend}=.23). Conclusions: Our findings show for the first time a significant linear dose–response relationship for risk of stomach cancer in long-term survivors of cervical cancer.

  3. Light scattering apparatus and method for determining radiation exposure to plastic detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hermes, Robert E. (White Rock, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved system and method of analyzing cumulative radiation exposure registered as pits on track etch foils of radiation dosimeters. The light scattering apparatus and method of the present invention increases the speed of analysis while it also provides the ability to analyze exposure levels beyond that which may be properly measured with conventional techniques. Dosimeters often contain small plastic sheets that register accumulated damage when exposed to a radiation source. When the plastic sheet from the dosimeter is chemically etched, a track etch foil is produced wherein pits or holes are created in the plastic. The number of these pits, or holes, per unit of area (pit density) correspond to the amount of cumulative radiation exposure which is being optically measured by the apparatus. To measure the cumulative radiation exposure of a track etch foil a high intensity collimated beam is passed through foil such that the pits and holes within the track etch foil cause a portion of the impinging light beam to become scattered upon exit. The scattered light is focused with a lens, while the primary collimated light beam (unscattered light) is blocked. The scattered light is focused by the lens onto an optical detector capable of registering the optical power of the scattered light which corresponds to the cumulative radiation to which the track etch foil has been exposed.

  4. Subsequent Malignancies in Children Treated for Hodgkin's Disease: Associations With Gender and Radiation Dose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Constine, Louis S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Department of Pediatrics, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States)], E-mail: louis_constine@urmc.rochester.edu; Tarbell, Nancy [Department of Pediatric Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Hudson, Melissa M. [Department of Hematology-Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Schwartz, Cindy [Department of Hematology-Oncology, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD (United States); Fisher, Susan G. [Department of Community and Preventative Medicine, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Muhs, Ann G. B.A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Basu, Swati K. [Department of Community and Preventative Medicine, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Kun, Larry E. [Department of Radiological Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Ng, Andrea; Mauch, Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Sandhu, Ajay [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Medical Center-San Diego, San Diego, CA (United States); Culakova, Eva [Department of Community and Preventative Medicine, James P. Wilmot Cancer Center at University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Lyman, Gary [Department of Medicine, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Mendenhall, Nancy [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida Medical Center, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Subsequent malignant neoplasms (SMNs) are a dominant cause of morbidity and mortality in children treated for Hodgkin's disease (HD). We evaluated select demographic and therapeutic factors associated with SMNs, specifically gender and radiation dose. Methods and Materials: A total of 930 children treated for HD at five institutions between 1960 and 1990 were studied. Mean age at diagnosis was 13.6 years, and mean follow-up was 16.8 years (maximum, 39.4 years). Treatment included radiation alone (43%), chemotherapy alone (9%), or both (48%). Results: We found that SMNs occurred in 102 (11%) patients, with a 25-year actuarial rate of 19%. With 15,154 patient years of follow-up, only 7.18 cancers were expected (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] = 14.2; absolute excess risk [AER] = 63 cases/10,000 years). The SIR for female subjects, 19.93, was significantly greater than for males, 8.41 (p < 0.0001). After excluding breast cancer, the SIR for female patients was 15.4, still significantly greater than for male patients (p = 0.0012). Increasing radiation dose was associated with an increasing SIR (p = 0.0085). On univariate analysis, an increased risk was associated with female gender, increasing radiation dose, and age at treatment (12-16 years). Using logistic regression, mantle radiation dose increased risk, and this was 2.5-fold for female patients treated with more than 35 Gy primarily because of breast cancer. Conclusions: Survivors of childhood HD are at risk for SMNs, and this risk is greater for female individuals even after accounting for breast cancer. Although SMNs occur in the absence of radiation therapy, the risk increases with RT dose.

  5. Radiation bronchitis and stenosis secondary to high dose rate endobronchial irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Speiser, B.L. (St. Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ (United States)); Spratling, L.

    1993-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the study was to describe a new clinical entity observed in follow-up bronchoscopies in patients who were treated with high dose rate and medium dose rate remote afterloading brachytherapy of the tracheobronchial tree. Patients were treated by protocol with medium dose rate, 47 patients receiving 1000 cGy at a 5 mm depth times three fractions, high dose rate 144 patients receiving 1000 cGy at a 10 mm depth for three fractions and high dose rate 151 patients receiving cGy at a 10 mm depth for three fractions followed by bronchoscopy. Incidence of this entity was 9% for the first group, 12% for the second, and 13% for the third group. Reactions were grade 1 consisting of mild inflammatory response with a partial whitish circumferential membrane in an asymptomatic patient; grade 2, thicker complete white circumferential membrane with cough and/or obstructive problems requiring intervention; grade 3, severe inflammatory response with marked membranous exudate and mild fibrotic reaction; and grade 4 a predominant fibrotic reaction with progressive stenosis. Variables associated with a slightly increased incidence of radiation bronchitis and stenosis included: large cell carcinoma histology, curative intent, prior laser photoresection, and/or concurrent external radiation. Survival was the strongest predictor of the reaction. Radiation bronchitis and stenosis is a new clinical entity that must be identified in bronchial brachytherapy patients and treated appropriately. 23 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Page 1 of 3 RADIATION DOSE IS MORE THAN A NUMBER!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Magee, Joseph W.

    Page 1 of 3 RADIATION DOSE IS MORE THAN A NUMBER! Agenda National Institute of Standards Metting, DOE Janice Huff, NASA 12:00 PM Important Concepts in Radiobiology Dosimetry David Followill, MD.m. Dosimetry Larry Dewerd, University of Wisconsin Current Calibration and Standardization Methods 4:15 p

  7. Occupational radiation exposure history of Idaho Field Office Operations at the INEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horan, J.R.; Braun, J.B.

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An extensive review has been made of the occupational radiation exposure records of workers at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) over the period of 1951 through 1990. The focus has been on workers employed by contractors and employees of the Idaho Field Operations Office (ID) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) and does not include the Naval Reactors Facility (NRF), the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), or other operations field offices at the INEL. The radiation protection guides have decreased from 15 rem/year to 5 rem/year in 1990 for whole body penetrating radiation exposure. During these 40 years of nuclear operations (in excess of 200,000 man-years of work), a total of twelve individuals involved in four accidents exceeded the annual guidelines for exposure; nine of these exposures were received during life saving efforts on January 3, 1961 following the SL-1 reactor accident which killed three military personnel. These exposures ranged from 8 to 27 rem. Only one individual has exceeded the annual whole body penetrating radiation protection guidelines in the last 29 years.

  8. Dose reconstruction for the Urals population. Joint Coordinating Committee on Radiation Effects Research, Project 1.1 -- Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Degteva, M.O. [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation)] [Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine, Chelyabinsk (Russian Federation); Drozhko, E. [Branch 1 of Moscow Biophysics Inst., Ozersk (Russian Federation)] [Branch 1 of Moscow Biophysics Inst., Ozersk (Russian Federation); Anspaugh, L.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Napier, B.A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)] [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Bouville, A.C. [National Cancer Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States)] [National Cancer Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States); Miller, C.W. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States)] [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work is being carried out as a feasibility study to determine if a long-term course of work can be implemented to assess the long-term risks of radiation exposure delivered at low to moderate dose rates to the populations living in the vicinity of the Mayak Industrial Association (MIA). This work was authorized and conducted under the auspices of the US-Russian Joint Coordinating Committee on Radiation Effects Research (JCCRER) and its Executive Committee (EC). The MIA was the first Russian site for the production and separation of plutonium. This plant began operation in 1948, and during its early days there were technological failures that resulted in the release of large amounts of waste into the rather small Techa River. There were also gaseous releases of radioiodines and other radionuclides during the early days of operation. In addition, there was an accidental explosion in a waste storage tank in 1957 that resulted in a significant release. The Techa River Cohort has been studied for several years by scientists from the Urals Research Centre for Radiation Medicine and an increase in both leukemia and solid tumors has been noted.

  9. Radiation dose fractionation studies with hypoxic cell radiosensitizers using a murine tumor. [X-ray; mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, R.P.

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability of five nitroimidazoles, metronidazole (MET), misonidazole (MISO), desmethymisonidazole (DMM), SR 2508 and SR 2555, to sensitize the KHT sarcoma to radiation treatment has been compared for drug doses in the range 0-1.5 g/Kg. Single radiation doses or two different daily fractionation schedules (4 fractions of 5 Gy each or 7 fraction of 3 Gy each) were used; the tumor cell survival was determined using either an in vivo or in vitro colony assay. Each radiation (100 kVp X rays at 11 Gy/min) treatment was given locally, 60-70 min (MET) or 30-40 min (other drugs) after either intraperitoneal (MET, MISO, DMM) or intraveous (SR 2508, SR 2555) injection of the drugs; these times have been shown to be optimum for this tumor. For the single doses and both fractionation schedules the tumor cell survival, following the irradiation treatment, declined as the drug dose increased in the range 0 to 0.75 g/Kg for all the drugs, but above this dose level a plateau was reached and the amount of sensitization remained essentially constant. In this plateau region the reduction in survival achieved was similar for single doses and 5 Gy fraction but was less for 3 Gy fractions, indicating that sensitization was smaller for the smaller dose fractions. For the 4 x 5 Gy fractionation schedule the plateau level of survival was lowest for MISO, DMM and SR 2508, slightly higher for SR 2555 and much higher for MET. For the 3 Gy fractions SR 2508 appeared slightly less effective than MISO and DMM.

  10. Parotid Glands Dose–Effect Relationships Based on Their Actually Delivered Doses: Implications for Adaptive Replanning in Radiation Therapy of Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunter, Klaudia U. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Fernandes, Laura L. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Vineberg, Karen A.; McShan, Daniel; Antonuk, Alan E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Cornwall, Craig [Department of Hospital Dentistry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Feng, Mary [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Schipper, Mathew J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Biostatistics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Balter, James M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Eisbruch, Avraham, E-mail: eisbruch@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Doses actually delivered to the parotid glands during radiation therapy often exceed planned doses. We hypothesized that the delivered doses correlate better with parotid salivary output than the planned doses, used in all previous studies, and that determining these correlations will help make decisions regarding adaptive radiation therapy (ART) aimed at reducing the delivered doses. Methods and Materials: In this prospective study, oropharyngeal cancer patients treated definitively with chemoirradiation underwent daily cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) with clinical setup alignment based on the C2 posterior edge. Parotid glands in the CBCTs were aligned by deformable registration to calculate cumulative delivered doses. Stimulated salivary flow rates were measured separately from each parotid gland pretherapy and periodically posttherapy. Results: Thirty-six parotid glands of 18 patients were analyzed. Average mean planned doses was 32 Gy, and differences from planned to delivered mean gland doses were ?4.9 to +8.4 Gy, median difference +2.2 Gy in glands in which delivered doses increased relative to planned. Both planned and delivered mean doses were significantly correlated with posttreatment salivary outputs at almost all posttherapy time points, without statistically significant differences in the correlations. Large dispersions (on average, SD 3.6 Gy) characterized the dose–effect relationships for both. The differences between the cumulative delivered doses and planned doses were evident at first fraction (r=.92, P<.0001) because of complex setup deviations (eg, rotations and neck articulations), uncorrected by the translational clinical alignments. Conclusions: After daily translational setup corrections, differences between planned and delivered doses in most glands were small relative to the SDs of the dose–saliva data, suggesting that ART is not likely to gain measurable salivary output improvement in most cases. These differences were observed at first treatment, indicating potential benefit for more complex setup corrections or adaptive interventions in the minority of patients with large deviations detected early by CBCT.

  11. Nominal effective radiation doses delivered during clinical trials of boron neutron capture therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Capala, J.; Diaz, A.Z.; Chanana, A.D.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a binary system that, in theory, should selectively deliver lethal, high linear energy transfer (LET) radiation to tumor cells dispersed within normal tissues. It is based on the nuclear reaction 10-B(n, {alpha})7-Li, which occurs when the stable nucleus of boron-10 captures a thermal neutron. Due to the relatively high cross-section of the 10-B nucleus for thermal neutron capture and short ranges of the products of this reaction, tumor cells in the volume exposed to thermal neutrons and containing sufficiently high concentration of 10-B would receive a much higher radiation dose than the normal cells contained within the exposed volume. Nevertheless, radiation dose deposited in normal tissue by gamma and fast neutron contamination of the neutron beam, as well as neutron capture in nitrogen, 14-N(n,p)14-C, hydrogen, 1-H(n,{gamma})2-H, and in boron present in blood and normal cells, limits the dose that can be delivered to tumor cells. It is, therefore, imperative for the success of the BNCT the dosed delivered to normal tissues be accurately determined in order to optimize the irradiation geometry and to limit the volume of normal tissue exposed to thermal neutrons. These are the major objectives of BNCT treatment planning.

  12. Request For Report Of Radiation Exposure History Form | Department of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection Technical s o Freiberge s 3 % A PB 2 7 7 2 x>1 ReportsEnergy

  13. Radiation leukaemogenesis at low doses DE-FG02-05 ER 63947 Final Technical Report 15 May 2005 â?? 14 May 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simon Bouffler; Christophe Badie; Natalie Brown; Rosemary Finnon

    2010-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a full summary of the results obtained under grant DE-FG02-05ER63947, Radiation Leukaemogenesis at low doses. The studies employed an experimental model of radiation leukaemogenesis with the main aim of identifying key events that convert normal cells into leukaemic cells follwoing exposure to radiation. Important aspect of the work was to understand dose-response relationships and time course relationships for leakaemogenis events. The studies performed provided evidence for direct radiation-induced losses of the Sfpi1/PU.1 gene being critical for induction of the disease. No threshold below 0.1 Gy in the induction of the gene losses was observed. The critical cell type in which the myeloid lekaemias arise has been identified and point mutations in the Sfpi1/PU.1 gene are common in leukaemias. The consequences of the genetic losses and mutation have been examined and these provide evidence of a disruption of differentiation in leukaemic cells. Additional pathways to leukaemogenesis have been identified also. Overall the study provides quantitiative data suitable for testing approaches to modelling of leukaemia rosk at low doses.

  14. ASSESSMENT OF UNCERTAINTY IN THE RADIATION DOSES FOR THE TECHA RIVER DOSIMETRY SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Degteva, M. O.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Shagina, N. B.

    2009-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to provide more accurate and precise estimates of individual dose (and thus more precise estimates of radiation risk) for the members of the ETRC, a new dosimetric calculation system, the Techa River Dosimetry System-2009 (TRDS-2009) has been prepared. The deterministic version of the improved dosimetry system TRDS-2009D was basically completed in April 2009. Recent developments in evaluation of dose-response models in light of uncertain dose have highlighted the importance of different types of uncertainties in the development of individual dose estimates. These include uncertain parameters that may be either shared or unshared within the dosimetric cohort, and also the nature of the type of uncertainty as aleatory or epistemic and either classical or Berkson. This report identifies the nature of the various input parameters and calculational methods incorporated in the Techa River Dosimetry System (based on the TRDS-2009D implementation), with the intention of preparing a stochastic version to estimate the uncertainties in the dose estimates. This report reviews the equations, databases, and input parameters, and then identifies the author’s interpretations of their general nature. It presents the approach selected so that the stochastic, Monte-Carlo, implementation of the dosimetry System - TRDS-2009MC - will provide useful information regarding the uncertainties of the doses.

  15. Radiation Exposure to Patient and Staff in Hepatic Chemoembolization: Risk Estimation of Cancer and Deterministic Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hidajat, Nico, E-mail: nico.hidajat@gmx.de; Wust, Peter; Felix, Roland; Schroeder, Ralf Juergen [Charite Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Humboldt-University of Berlin, Department of Radiology (Germany)

    2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the study was to determine the risks of radiation-induced cancer and deterministic effects for the patient and staff in transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Sixty-five patients with HCC underwent the first cycle of TACE. Thermoluminescence dosemeters and conversion factors were used to measure surface doses and to calculate organ doses and effective dose. For the patient, the risk of fatal cancer and severe genetic defect was in the magnitude of 10{sup -4} and 10{sup -5}, respectively. Five patients showed surface doses over the first lumbar vertebra exceeding 2000 mSv and 45 patients showed doses over the spine or the liver region above 500 mSv. The risk of fatal cancer and severe genetic defect for the radiologist and assistant was in the magnitude of 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -8}. They could exceed the threshold for lens opacity in the case of more than 490 and 1613 TACE yearly for a period of many years, respectively. Radiation dose could lead to local transient erythema and/or local depression of hematopoiesis in many patients after TACE. For the radiologist and assistant, risk of fatal cancer and genetic defect and lens opacity might arise when they perform interventions such as TACE intensively.

  16. A revised model of the kidney for medical internal radiation dose calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patel, Jyoti Shivabhai

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are frequently the organs receiving the highest level of radioactivity and, therefore, the largest radiation dose. Short lived radiopharmaceuticals, that are now injected in millicurie quantities in nuclear medicine for rapid-sequence imaging of the brain... radionuclides (Appendix B). 17 These include the following radionuclides presently used in nuclear medicine: P-32, Cr-51, Co-57, Ga-67, Tc-99m, In-ill, I-123, Xe-127, I-131, Xe-133, and T1-201. If the radionuclide emits penetrating radiation, the code...

  17. Nuclear Decay Data in the MIRD (Medical Internal Radiation Dose) Format

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    MIRD is a database of evaluated nuclear decay data for over 2,100 radioactive nuclei. Data are extracted from ENSDF, processed by the program RadList, and used for medical internal radiation dose calculations. When using the MIRD interface, tables of nuclear and atomic radiations from nuclear decay and decay scheme drawings will be produced in the MIRD format from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) for the specified nuclide. Output may be either HTML-formatted tables and JPEG drawings, PostScript tables and drawings, or PDF tables and drawings.

  18. Radiation dose reduction in medical CT through equally sloped tomography Benjamin P. Fahimian1,2,6

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soatto, Stefano

    Council on Radiation Protection & Measurements10 , CT accounts for about 15% of the total radiological50Radiation dose reduction in medical CT through equally sloped tomography Benjamin P. Fahimian1 Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 3 Biomedical Physics

  19. Short CommunicationJ. Radiat. Res., 53, 475481 (2012) Triphasic Low-dose Response in Zebrafish Embryos Irradiated by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, K.N.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the linear no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis for radiation protection considerations, which assumes that the riskShort CommunicationJ. Radiat. Res., 53, 475­481 (2012) Triphasic Low-dose Response in Zebrafish, the experimental data were in line with induc- tion of radiation-induced bystander effect as well as rescue effect

  20. High-dose MVCT image guidance for stereotactic body radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westerly, David C.; Schefter, Tracey E.; Kavanagh, Brian D.; Chao, Edward; Lucas, Dan; Flynn, Ryan T.; Miften, Moyed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States); Accuray Inc., Madison, Wisconsin 53717 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States)

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is a potent treatment for early stage primary and limited metastatic disease. Accurate tumor localization is essential to administer SBRT safely and effectively. Tomotherapy combines helical IMRT with onboard megavoltage CT (MVCT) imaging and is well suited for SBRT; however, MVCT results in reduced soft tissue contrast and increased image noise compared with kilovoltage CT. The goal of this work was to investigate the use of increased imaging doses on a clinical tomotherapy machine to improve image quality for SBRT image guidance. Methods: Two nonstandard, high-dose imaging modes were created on a tomotherapy machine by increasing the linear accelerator (LINAC) pulse rate from the nominal setting of 80 Hz, to 160 Hz and 300 Hz, respectively. Weighted CT dose indexes (wCTDIs) were measured for the standard, medium, and high-dose modes in a 30 cm solid water phantom using a calibrated A1SL ion chamber. Image quality was assessed from scans of a customized image quality phantom. Metrics evaluated include: contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs), high-contrast spatial resolution, image uniformity, and percent image noise. In addition, two patients receiving SBRT were localized using high-dose MVCT scans. Raw detector data collected after each scan were used to reconstruct standard-dose images for comparison. Results: MVCT scans acquired using a pitch of 1.0 resulted in wCTDI values of 2.2, 4.7, and 8.5 cGy for the standard, medium, and high-dose modes respectively. CNR values for both low and high-contrast materials were found to increase with the square root of dose. Axial high-contrast spatial resolution was comparable for all imaging modes at 0.5 lp/mm. Image uniformity was improved and percent noise decreased as the imaging dose increased. Similar improvements in image quality were observed in patient images, with decreases in image noise being the most notable. Conclusions: High-dose imaging modes are made possible on a clinical tomotherapy machine by increasing the LINAC pulse rate. Increasing the imaging dose results in increased CNRs; making it easier to distinguish the boundaries of low contrast objects. The imaging dose levels observed in this work are considered acceptable at our institution for SBRT treatments delivered in 3-5 fractions.

  1. Optically erasable samarium-doped fluorophosphate glasses for high-dose measurements in microbeam radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrell, B.; Okada, G.; Vahedi, S.; Koughia, C., E-mail: cyril.koughia@usask.ca; Kasap, S. O. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5C9 (Canada); Edgar, A.; Varoy, C. [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences and MacDiarmid Institute, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington 6140 (New Zealand); Belev, G.; Wysokinski, T.; Chapman, D. [Canadian Light Source, Inc., University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5C9 (Canada); Sammynaiken, R. [Saskatchewan Structural Sciences Centre, University of Saskatchewan, 110 Science Place, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5C9 (Canada)

    2014-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous work has demonstrated that fluorophosphate (FP) glasses doped with trivalent samarium (Sm{sup 3+}) can be used as a dosimetric detector in microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) to measure high radiation doses and large dose variations with a resolution in the micrometer range. The present work addresses the use of intense optical radiation at 405?nm to erase the recorded dose information in Sm{sup 3+}-doped FP glass plates and examines the underlying physics. We have evaluated both the conversion and optical erasure of Sm{sup 3+}-doped FP glasses using synchrotron-generated high-dose x-rays at the Canadian Light Source. The Sm-ion valency conversion is accompanied by the appearance of x-ray induced optical absorbance due to the trapping of holes and electrons into phosphorus-oxygen hole (POHC) and electron (POEC) capture centers. Nearly complete Sm{sup 2+} to Sm{sup 3+} reconversion (erasure) may be achieved by intense optical illumination. Combined analysis of absorbance and electron spin resonance measurements indicates that the optical illumination causes partial disappearance of the POHC and the appearance of new POEC. The suggested model for the observed phenomena is based on the release of electrons during the Sm{sup 2+} to Sm{sup 3+} reconversion process, the capture of these electrons by POHC (and hence their disappearance), or by PO groups, with the appearance of new and/or additional POEC. Optical erasure may be used as a practical means to erase the recorded data and permits the reuse of these Sm-doped FP glasses in monitoring dose in MRT.

  2. Radiation Dose-Volume Effects in the Stomach and Small Bowel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kavanagh, Brian D., E-mail: Brian.Kavanagh@ucdenver.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado-Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, CO (United States); Pan, Charlie C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Dawson, Laura A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Margaret Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON (Canada); Das, Shiva K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Li, X. Allen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Ten Haken, Randall K.; Miften, Moyed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado-Denver School of Medicine, Aurora, CO (United States)

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Published data suggest that the risk of moderately severe (>=Grade 3) radiation-induced acute small-bowel toxicity can be predicted with a threshold model whereby for a given dose level, D, if the volume receiving that dose or greater (VD) exceeds a threshold quantity, the risk of toxicity escalates. Estimates of VD depend on the means of structure segmenting (e.g., V15 = 120 cc if individual bowel loops are outlined or V45 = 195 cc if entire peritoneal potential space of bowel is outlined). A similar predictive model of acute toxicity is not available for stomach. Late small-bowel/stomach toxicity is likely related to maximum dose and/or volume threshold parameters qualitatively similar to those related to acute toxicity risk. Concurrent chemotherapy has been associated with a higher risk of acute toxicity, and a history of abdominal surgery has been associated with a higher risk of late toxicity.

  3. Automated systems for measuring dose and radiation quality as a function of time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braby, L.A.; Conroy, T.J.; Elegy, D.C.; Brackenbush, L.W. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Badhwar, G.D. [Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact, modular, tissue equivalent proportional counter system has been developed for use in space. The data acquisition system consists of a microcomputer, multi channel analyzer, memory, and power converter on individual circuit cards which can be used in various combinations for specific measurement requirements. The system uses separate, interchangeable detectors, each with its preamplifier and shaping amplifier connected directly to the detector. The microprocessor provides the computing power of a personal computer, and utilizes an operating system which is compatible with a subset of MSDOS. Experiment procedures can be programmed in high level languages and down loaded to the microprocessor. A typical application, used to characterize the dose rates due to trapped radiations in space, monitors the dose rate and records energy deposition spectra frequently when the dose rate is high. The microprocessor also measures and records system operation characteristics such as MCA linearity, proportional counter gain, and power supply voltages on a periodic basis.

  4. Osteoradionecrosis and Radiation Dose to the Mandible in Patients With Oropharyngeal Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, Chiaojung Jillian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hofstede, Theresa M. [Department of Dental Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Dental Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Sturgis, Erich M. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Garden, Adam S., E-mail: agarden@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Lindberg, Mary E. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wei Qingyi [Department of Epidemiology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Epidemiology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Tucker, Susan L. [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dong Lei [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To determine the association between radiation doses delivered to the mandible and the occurrence of osteoradionecrosis (ORN). Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of 402 oropharyngeal cancer patients with stage T1 or T2 disease treated with definitive radiation between January 2000 and October 2008 for the occurrence of ORN. Demographic and treatment variables were compared between patients with ORN and those without. To examine the dosimetric relationship further, a nested case-control comparison was performed. One to 2 ORN-free patients were selected to match each ORN patient by age, sex, radiation type, treatment year, and cancer subsite. Detailed radiation treatment plans for the ORN cases and matched controls were reviewed. Mann-Whitney test and conditional logistic regression were used to compare relative volumes of the mandible exposed to doses ranging from 10 Gy-60 Gy in 10-Gy increments. Results: In 30 patients (7.5%), ORN developed during a median follow-up time of 31 months, including 6 patients with grade 4 ORN that required major surgery. The median time to develop ORN was 8 months (range, 0-71 months). Detailed radiation treatment plans were available for 25 of the 30 ORN patients and 40 matched ORN-free patients. In the matched case-control analysis, there was a statistically significant difference between the volumes of mandible in the 2 groups receiving doses between 50 Gy (V50) and 60 Gy (V60). The most notable difference was seen at V50, with a P value of .02 in the multivariate model after adjustment for the matching variables and dental status (dentate or with extraction). Conclusions: V50 and V60 saw the most significant differences between the ORN group and the comparison group. Minimizing the percent mandibular volume exposed to 50 Gy may reduce ORN risk.

  5. Correlation of radiation absorbed dose to the human thyroid using the FBX dosimeter and external probe techniques 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bateman, Sarah Caroline Louisa

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    calculational dose response. 25 9 Counts per minute of "'I as obtained using a 1" x 1" Nal external probe bioassay system as a function of '"I activity present. 26 INTRODUCTION The objective of this research is to measure the radiation absorbed dose from... dosimeter system, the energy imparted by radiation causes the ferrous ions present in the solution to be converted to ferric ions, so that the number of iona converted is proportional to the radiation absorbed dose (Gu78a). However in the FBX dosimeter...

  6. Decision Regret in Men Undergoing Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steer, Anna N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, North Coast Cancer Institute, Coffs Harbour (Australia)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, North Coast Cancer Institute, Coffs Harbour (Australia); Aherne, Noel J., E-mail: noel.aherne@ncahs.health.nsw.gov.au [Department of Radiation Oncology, North Coast Cancer Institute, Coffs Harbour (Australia); Rural Clinical School Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Coffs Harbour (Australia); Gorzynska, Karen; Hoffman, Matthew; Last, Andrew; Hill, Jacques [Department of Radiation Oncology, North Coast Cancer Institute, Coffs Harbour (Australia)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, North Coast Cancer Institute, Coffs Harbour (Australia); Shakespeare, Thomas P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, North Coast Cancer Institute, Coffs Harbour (Australia) [Department of Radiation Oncology, North Coast Cancer Institute, Coffs Harbour (Australia); Rural Clinical School Faculty of Medicine, University of New South Wales, Coffs Harbour (Australia)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Decision regret (DR) is a negative emotion associated with medical treatment decisions, and it is an important patient-centered outcome after therapy for localized prostate cancer. DR has been found to occur in up to 53% of patients treated for localized prostate cancer, and it may vary depending on treatment modality. DR after modern dose-escalated radiation therapy (DE-RT) has not been investigated previously, to our knowledge. Our primary aim was to evaluate DR in a cohort of patients treated with DE-RT. Methods and Materials: We surveyed 257 consecutive patients with localized prostate cancer who had previously received DE-RT, by means of a validated questionnaire. Results: There were 220 responses (85.6% response rate). Image-guided intensity modulated radiation therapy was given in 85.0% of patients and 3-dimensional conformal radiation therapy in 15.0%. Doses received included 73.8 Gy (34.5% patients), 74 Gy (53.6%), and 76 Gy (10.9%). Neoadjuvant androgen deprivation (AD) was given in 51.8% of patients and both neoadjuvant and adjuvant AD in 34.5%. The median follow-up time was 23 months (range, 12-67 months). In all, 3.8% of patients expressed DR for their choice of treatment. When asked whether they would choose DE-RT or AD again, only 0.5% probably or definitely would not choose DE-RT again, compared with 8.4% for AD (P<.01). Conclusion: Few patients treated with modern DE-RT express DR, with regret appearing to be lower than in previously published reports of patients treated with radical prostatectomy or older radiation therapy techniques. Patients experienced more regret with the AD component of treatment than with the radiation therapy component, with implications for informed consent. Further research should investigate regret associated with individual components of modern therapy, including AD, radiation therapy and surgery.

  7. Spatial and dose–response analysis of fibrotic lung changes after stereotactic body radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinogradskiy, Yevegeniy; Diot, Quentin; Kavanagh, Brian; Schefter, Tracey; Gaspar, Laurie; Miften, Moyed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is becoming the standard of care for early stage nonoperable lung cancers. Accurate dose–response modeling is challenging for SBRT because of the decreased number of clinical toxicity events. As a surrogate for a clinical toxicity endpoint, studies have proposed to use radiographic changes in follow up computed tomography (CT) scans to evaluate lung SBRT normal tissue effects. The purpose of the current study was to use local fibrotic lung regions to spatially and dosimetrically evaluate lung changes in patients that underwent SBRT.Methods: Forty seven SBRT patients treated at our institution from 2003 to 2009 were used for the current study. Our patient cohort had a total of 148 follow up CT scans ranging from 3 to 48 months post-therapy. Post-treatment scans were binned into intervals of 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months after the completion of treatment. Deformable image registration was used to align the follow up CT scans with the pretreatment CT and dose distribution. Areas of visible fibrotic changes were contoured. The centroid of each gross tumor volume (GTV) and contoured fibrosis volume was calculated and the fibrosis volume location and movement (magnitude and direction) relative to the GTV and 30 Gy isodose centroid were analyzed. To perform a dose–response analysis, each voxel in the fibrosis volume was sorted into 10 Gy dose bins and the average CT number value for each dose bin was calculated. Dose–response curves were generated by plotting the CT number as a function of dose bin and time posttherapy.Results: Both fibrosis and GTV centroids were concentrated in the upper third of the lung. The average radial movement of fibrosis centroids relative to the GTV centroids was 2.6 cm with movement greater than 5 cm occurring in 11% of patients. Evaluating dose–response curves revealed an overall trend of increasing CT number as a function of dose. The authors observed a CT number plateau at doses ranging from 30 to 50 Gy for the 3, 6, and 12 months posttherapy time points. There was no evident plateau for the dose–response curves generated using data from the 18, 24, 30, and 36 months posttherapy time points.Conclusions: Regions of local fibrotic lung changes in patients that underwent SBRT were evaluated spatially and dosimetrically. The authors found that the average fibrosis movement was 2.6 cm with movement greater than 5 cm possible. Evaluating dose–response curves revealed an overall trend of increasing CT number as a function of dose. Furthermore, our dose–response data also suggest that one of the possible explanations of the CT number plateau effect may be the time posttherapy of the acquired data. Understanding normal tissue dose–response is important for reducing toxicity after SBRT, especially in cases where larger tumors are treated. The methods presented in the current work build on prior quantitative studies and further enhance the understanding of normal lung dose–response after SBRT.

  8. Technology Assessment and Roadmap for the Emergency Radiation Dose Assessment Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turteltaub, K W; Hartman-Siantar, C; Easterly, C; Blakely, W

    2005-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A Joint Interagency Working Group (JIWG) under the auspices of the Department of Homeland Security Office of Research and Development conducted a technology assessment of emergency radiological dose assessment capabilities as part of the overall need for rapid emergency medical response in the event of a radiological terrorist event in the United States. The goal of the evaluation is to identify gaps and recommend general research and development needs to better prepare the Country for mitigating the effects of such an event. Given the capabilities and roles for responding to a radiological event extend across many agencies, a consensus of gaps and suggested development plans was a major goal of this evaluation and road-mapping effort. The working group consisted of experts representing the Departments of Homeland Security, Health and Human Services (Centers for Disease Control and the National Institutes of Health), Food and Drug Administration, Department of Defense and the Department of Energy's National Laboratories (see appendix A for participants). The specific goals of this Technology Assessment and Roadmap were to: (1) Describe the general context for deployment of emergency radiation dose assessment tools following terrorist use of a radiological or nuclear device; (2) Assess current and emerging dose assessment technologies; and (3) Put forward a consensus high-level technology roadmap for interagency research and development in this area. This report provides a summary of the consensus of needs, gaps and recommendations for a research program in the area of radiation dosimetry for early response, followed by a summary of the technologies available and on the near-term horizon. We then present a roadmap for a research program to bring present and emerging near-term technologies to bear on the gaps in radiation dose assessment and triage. Finally we present detailed supporting discussion on the nature of the threats we considered, the status of technology today, promising emerging technologies and references for further reading.

  9. DOE 2011 Occupational Radiation Exposure report, _Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Health, Safety and Security. December 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derek Hagemeyer, Yolanda McCormick

    2012-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses radiation protection and dose reporting requirements, presents the 2011 occupational radiation dose data along with trends over the past 5 years, and provides instructions to submit successful as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) projects.

  10. Effects of gamma radiation on Serratia marcescens; a comparison of effects of two different exposure rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Christy Annette

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EFFECTS OF GAMMA RADIATION ON SL'RNATIA MARCESCENS A COMPARISON OF EFFECTS OF TWO DIFFERENT EXPOSURE RATES A Thesis by CHRISTY ANNETTE MOORE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1972 Major Subject: Biophysics (Health Physics) EFFECTS OF GAMF'K RADIATION ON O'Eccrid?2;!, 'i&Lo"", C, . ij, ", A COMFARISON OF EFFECTS OF TNO DIFFERENT EYPO s KE RATES A Thea's CHRISTi ANNETTE MOORE Approved...

  11. Electronic equilibrium as a function of depth in tissue from Cobalt-60 point source exposures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myrick, Jo Ann

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Skin exposure can arise from both the beta and gamma components of radioactive particles and gamma radiation can contribute significantly to skin doses. The gamma component of dose increases dramatically when layers of protective clothing are interposed...

  12. MOLECULAR MECHANISM OF SUPPRESSION OF NEOPLASTIC TRANSFORMATION BY LOW DOSES OF LOW LET RADIATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.LESIE REDPATH, PH.D.

    2011-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We are currently funded (9/01-8/04) by the DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Program to examine mechanisms underlying the suppression of neoplastic transformation in vitro by low doses of low LET radiation. For the new studies proposed under Notice 04-21, we intend to follow up on our observation that upregulation of DNA repair may be an important factor and that its importance is dose-dependent. The experimental system will be the human hybrid cell neoplastic transformation assay that we are currently using. We propose to test the following hypothesis: Down-regulation of DNA dsb repair will abrogate the low dose suppression of neoplastic transformation. Using the technique of RNA silencing, it is proposed to test the effect of down-regulation of the two major DNA dsb repair pathways, homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), on the dose response relationship for neoplastic transformation. Based on prior studies, we predict that this will result in abrogation of the suppressive effect at doses in the range 1 to 10 cGy, but not at lower doses. The proposed experiments will also help address the question as to which of the two DNA repair pathways may be the most important in causing suppression of transformation. HR is a pathway that is predominant in S and G2 phase cells and is known to be less error-prone than the NHEJ pathway that is predominant in G1 phase. We hypothesize that down-regulation of HR will result in the most effective abrogation of suppression. An important component of this study will be the determination of the how abrogation of DNA dsb repair impacts the spontaneous transformation frequency, presumably a consequence of endogeneous DNA damage. Experiments will be carried out using partially synchronized populations of cells enriched for G1 and S/G2 respectively. In addition to the endpoint of neoplastic transformation the impact of down-regulation of HR and NHEJ on the formation and disappearance of the DNA dsb marker, gamma-H2AX, will be studied.

  13. Medical imaging using ionizing radiation: Optimization of dose and image quality in fluoroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, A. Kyle, E-mail: kyle.jones@mdanderson.org [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Balter, Stephen [Departments of Radiology and Medicine, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032 (United States)] [Departments of Radiology and Medicine, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032 (United States); Rauch, Phillip [Retired-Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States)] [Retired-Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Wagner, Louis K. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)] [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging, The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2012 Summer School of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) focused on optimization of the use of ionizing radiation in medical imaging. Day 2 of the Summer School was devoted to fluoroscopy and interventional radiology and featured seven lectures. These lectures have been distilled into a single review paper covering equipment specification and siting, equipment acceptance testing and quality control, fluoroscope configuration, radiation effects, dose estimation and measurement, and principles of flat panel computed tomography. This review focuses on modern fluoroscopic equipment and is comprised in large part of information not found in textbooks on the subject. While this review does discuss technical aspects of modern fluoroscopic equipment, it focuses mainly on the clinical use and support of such equipment, from initial installation through estimation of patient dose and management of radiation effects. This review will be of interest to those learning about fluoroscopy, to those wishing to update their knowledge of modern fluoroscopic equipment, to those wishing to deepen their knowledge of particular topics, such as flat panel computed tomography, and to those who support fluoroscopic equipment in the clinic.

  14. Radiation Therapy With Full-Dose Gemcitabine and Oxaliplatin for Unresectable Pancreatic Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunter, Klaudia U.; Feng, Felix Y. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Griffith, Kent A. [Comprehensive Cancer Center Biostatistics Unit, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Francis, Isaac R. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Desai, Sameer [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Murphy, James D. [School of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Zalupski, Mark M. [Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Ben-Josef, Edgar, E-mail: edgarb@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: We completed a Phase I trial of gemcitabine and oxaliplatin with concurrent radiotherapy in patients with previously untreated pancreatic cancer. The results of a subset of patients with unresectable disease who went on to receive planned additional therapy are reported here. Methods and Materials: All patients received two 28-day cycles of gemcitabine (1,000 mg/m{sup 2} on Days 1, 8, and 15) and oxaliplatin (40-85 mg/m{sup 2} on Days 1 and 15, per a dose-escalation schema). Radiation therapy was delivered concurrently with Cycle 1 (27 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions). At 9 weeks, patients were reassessed for resectability. Those deemed to have unresectable disease were offered a second round of treatment consisting of 2 cycles of gemcitabine and oxaliplatin and 27 Gy of radiation therapy (total, 54 Gy). Radiation was delivered to the gross tumor volume plus 1 cm by use of a three-dimensional conformal technique. We used the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events to assess acute toxicity. Late toxicity was scored per the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group scale. Computed tomography scans were reviewed to determine pattern of failure, local response, and disease progression. Kaplan-Meier methodology and Cox regression models were used to evaluate survival and freedom from failure. Results: Thirty-two patients from the Phase I dose-escalation study had unresectable disease, three of whom had low-volume metastatic disease. Of this group, 16 patients went on to receive additional therapy to complete a total of 4 cycles of chemotherapy and 54 Gy of concurrent radiation. For this subset, 38% had at least a partial tumor response at a median of 3.2 months. Median survival was 11.8 months (range, 4.4-26.3 months). The 1-year freedom from local progression rate was 93.8% (95% confidence interval, 63.2-99.1). Conclusions: Radiation therapy to 54 Gy with concurrent full-dose gemcitabine and oxaliplatin is well tolerated and results in favorable rates of local tumor response and 1-year freedom from local progression.

  15. Radiation Doses to the Public From the Transport of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Best, R. E.; Maheras, S. J.; Ross, S. S.; Weiner, R.

    2003-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews issues that have been raised concerning radiological risks and safety of the public exposed to shipments of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste to a Yucca Mountain repository. It presents and analyzes the contrasting viewpoints of opponents and proponents, presents facts about radiological exposures and risks, and provides perspective from which to observe the degree of risk that would devolve from the shipments. The paper concludes that the risks to the public's health and safety from being exposed to radiation from the shipments will not be discernable.

  16. The Radiation Dose Measurement System for the BaBar Electromagnetic Calorimeter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, A.; /Brunel U.; Meyer, W.T.; /Iowa State U.; Stelzer, J.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Yi, Jong; /Manchester U.

    2006-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An array of 116 p-channel radiation sensitive MOSFET transistors (RadFETs) has been operational for the past 6 years at the BaBar experiment at the PEP-II asymmetric B-Factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). This system maps the integrated dose absorbed by different regions of the Electromagnetic Calorimeter (EMC) during the running of the experiment. We report on the design and implementation of the system and finally, the performance of the monitoring system during the last 6 years of BaBar data-taking.

  17. R1S-M-2322 TABLE OF EXPOSURE RATE CONSTANTS AND DOSE EQUIVALENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a point source . 4 5. DOSE BUILD-UP FACTORS 7 6. MASS ENERGY ABSORPTION COEFFICIENTS AND LINEAR in units of MeV/photon , (pen/p)air in cm2 /g gives r in R»m2 /Ci«h if the following conversion factors, the contributions from photon energies below 30 keV and X-rays are omitted. (Continue on next page) December 1982

  18. Radiation Dose to the Esophagus From Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy, 1943-1996: An International Population-Based Study of 414 Patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamart, Stephanie, E-mail: stephanie.lamart@nih.gov [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)] [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Stovall, Marilyn [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Simon, Steven L. [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)] [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita E.; Howell, Rebecca M. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Curtis, Rochelle E. [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)] [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Aleman, Berthe M.P. [Department of Radiotherapy, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)] [Department of Radiotherapy, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Travis, Lois [Rubin Center for Cancer Survivorship and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States)] [Rubin Center for Cancer Survivorship and Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York (United States); Kwon, Deukwoo [Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami, Miami, Florida (United States)] [Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami, Miami, Florida (United States); Morton, Lindsay M. [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)] [Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To provide dosimetric data for an epidemiologic study on the risk of second primary esophageal cancer among breast cancer survivors, by reconstructing the radiation dose incidentally delivered to the esophagus of 414 women treated with radiation therapy for breast cancer during 1943-1996 in North America and Europe. Methods and Materials: We abstracted the radiation therapy treatment parameters from each patient’s radiation therapy record. Treatment fields included direct chest wall (37% of patients), medial and lateral tangentials (45%), supraclavicular (SCV, 64%), internal mammary (IM, 44%), SCV and IM together (16%), axillary (52%), and breast/chest wall boosts (7%). The beam types used were {sup 60}Co (45% of fields), orthovoltage (33%), megavoltage photons (11%), and electrons (10%). The population median prescribed dose to the target volume ranged from 21 Gy to 40 Gy. We reconstructed the doses over the length of the esophagus using abstracted patient data, water phantom measurements, and a computational model of the human body. Results: Fields that treated the SCV and/or IM lymph nodes were used for 85% of the patients and delivered the highest doses within 3 regions of the esophagus: cervical (population median 38 Gy), upper thoracic (32 Gy), and middle thoracic (25 Gy). Other fields (direct chest wall, tangential, and axillary) contributed substantially lower doses (approximately 2 Gy). The cervical to middle thoracic esophagus received the highest dose because of its close proximity to the SCV and IM fields and less overlying tissue in that part of the chest. The location of the SCV field border relative to the midline was one of the most important determinants of the dose to the esophagus. Conclusions: Breast cancer patients in this study received relatively high incidental radiation therapy doses to the esophagus when the SCV and/or IM lymph nodes were treated, whereas direct chest wall, tangentials, and axillary fields contributed lower doses.

  19. Primate polonium metabolic models and their use in estimation of systemic radiation doses from bioassay data. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, N. [New York Univ. Medical Center, Tuxedo, NY (United States). Dept. of Environmental Medicine

    1989-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A Polonium metabolic model was derived and incorporated into a Fortran algorithm which estimates the systemic radiation dose from {sup 210}Po when applied to occupational urine bioassay data. The significance of the doses estimated are examined by defining the degree of uncertainty attached to them through comprehensive statistical testing procedures. Many parameters necessary for dosimetry calculations (such as organ partition coefficients and excretion fractions), were evaluated from metabolic studies of {sup 210}Po in non-human primates. Two tamarins and six baboons were injected intravenously with {sup 210}Po citrate. Excreta and blood samples were collected. Five of the baboons were sacrificed at times ranging from 1 day to 3 months post exposure. Complete necropsies were performed and all excreta and the majority of all skeletal and tissue samples were analyzed radiochemically for their {sup 210}Po content. The {sup 210}Po excretion rate in the baboon was more rapid than in the tamarin. The biological half-time of {sup 210}Po excretion in the baboon was approximately 15 days while in the tamarin, the {sup 210}Po excretion rate was in close agreement with the 50 day biological half-time predicted by ICRP 30. Excretion fractions of {sup 210}Po in the non-human primates were found to be markedly different from data reported elsewhere in other species, including man. A thorough review of the Po urinalysis procedure showed that significant recovery losses resulted when metabolized {sup 210}Po was deposited out of raw urine. Polonium-210 was found throughout the soft tissues of the baboon but not with the partition coefficients for liver, kidneys, and spleen that are predicted by the ICRP 30 metabolic model. A fractional distribution of 0.29 for liver, 0.07 for kidneys, and 0.006 for spleen was determined. Retention times for {sup 210}Po in tissues are described by single exponential functions with biological half-times ranging from 15 to 50 days.

  20. Animal mortality resulting from uniform exposures to photon radiations: Calculated LD/sub 50/s and a compilation of experimental data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, T.D.; Morris, M.D.; Wells, S.M.; Young, R.W.

    1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Studies conducted during the 1950s and 1960s of radiation-induced mortality to diverse animal species under various exposure protocols were compiled into a mortality data base. Some 24 variables were extracted and recomputed from each of the published studies, which were collected from a variety of available sources, primarily journal articles. Two features of this compilation effort are (1) an attempt to give an estimate of the uniform dose received by the bone marrow in each treatment so that interspecies differences due to body size were minimized and (2) a recomputation of the LD/sub 50/ where sufficient experimental data are available. Exposure rates varied in magnitude from about 10/sup -2/ to 10/sup 3/ R/min. This report describes the data base, the sources of data, and the data-handling techniques; presents a bibliography of studies compiled; and tabulates data from each study. 103 refs., 44 tabs.

  1. Review of exposure limits and experimental data for corneal and lenticular damage from short pulsed UV and IR laser radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    duration. The thermal UV damage data are compared with levels inferred from CO2 radiation thresholds exposure limits appear to be unnecessarily high. The lack of data for nanosecond exposures for wavelengths. The wavelength dependence of photochemical interac- tions and of the optical absorption properties

  2. MicroShield analysis to calculate external radiation dose rates for several spent fuel casks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marincel, M.K. [Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States); Weiner, R.F.; Osborn, D.M. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this MicroShield analysis is to calculate the external radiation, primarily gamma, dose rate for spent fuel casks. The reason for making this calculation is that currently all analyses of transportation risk assume that this external dose rate is the maximum allowed by regulation, 10 mrem/hr at 2 m from the casks, and the risks of incident-free transportation are thus always overestimated to an unknown extent. In order to do this, the program by Grove Software, MicroShield 7.01, was used to model three Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approved casks: HI-STAR 100, GA-4, and NAC-STC, loaded with specific source material. Dimensions were obtained from NUREG/CR-6672 and the Certificates of Compliance for each respective cask. Detectors were placed at the axial point at 1 m and 2 m from the outer gamma shielding of the casks. In the April 8, 2004 publication of the Federal Register, a notice of intent to prepare a Supplemental Yucca Mountain Environmental Impact Statement (DOE/EIS-0250F-S1) was published by the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) in order to consider design, construction, operation, and transportation of spent nuclear fuel to the Yucca Mountain repository [1]. These more accurate estimates of the external dose rates could be used in order to provide a more risk-informed analysis. (authors)

  3. Radiation and Reason Why radiation at modest dose rates is quite harmless and current radiation safety regulations are flawed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Data on the impact of ionising radiation on life are examined in the light of evolutionary biology. This comparison confirms that fear of nuclear radiation is not justified by science itself; rather it originates in a failure of public trust in nuclear science, a relic of the international politics of the Cold War era. Current ionisation safety regulations appease this fear but without scientific support and they need fundamental reformulation. This should change the reaction to accidents like Fukushima, the cost of nuclear energy and the application of nuclear technology to the supply of food and fresh water. Such a boost to the world economy would require that more citizens study and appreciate the science involved – and then tell others -- not as much fun as the Higgs, perhaps, but no less important! www.radiationandreason.com

  4. Simultaneous reduction of radiation dose and scatter for CBCT by using collimators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Tianfang; Li, Xiang; Yang, Yong; Zhang, Yongqian; Heron, Dwight E.; Huq, M. Saiful [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15232 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15232 (United States)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: On-board cone-beam CT (CBCT) imaging has been widely available in radiotherapy clinic for target localization. However, the extra radiation dose from CBCT is always a concern for its frequent use. Additionally, the relatively large scatter in CBCT often degrades the image quality. By using collimators, some of the X-rays can be stopped from reaching the patient and the detectors, hence both the scatter and the patient doses are simultaneously reduced. The authors show in this work that the collimated CBCT data can be reconstructed without any noticeable artifacts for certain collimator blocking ratios and blocking patterns, and the focus of this work is to study the relationship between the image quality and these two collimator factors.Methods: A CBCT system with collimators was simulated following the typical geometry used in clinic. Different collimator designs were tested by varying the size and the number of the collimator slits, and at the same time, the ratio of transmitted beams to total beams was varied from 100% to 10%, resulting in hundreds of different simulation scenarios. Lung and pelvis phantoms created from patients CT images were used in the simulations, and an iterative reconstruction algorithm using the compressed sensing technique was adopted. The image quality was examined by root mean square errors (RMSEs) and compared with the conventional CBCT images.Results: The CBCT image quality increases as the amount of beams passing through the collimators increases, and decreases as the size of the collimator slits increases. With ultra-high resolution collimators, the RMSEs were comparable to the conventional CBCT image quality until the beam transmission rate is reduced below 25%.Conclusions: Collimators can reduce the scatters and radiation dose, however, the collimated CBCT image quality is strongly dependent on both the collimator blocking ratio and the blocking pattern. To achieve image quality comparable to the conventional CBCT, the amount of information and data format must be adequate.

  5. The prediction of radiation-induced liver dysfunction using a local dose and regional venous perfusion model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao Yue; Platt, Joel F.; Francis, Isaac R; Balter, James M.; Pan, Charlie; Normolle, Daniel; Ben-Josef, Edgar; Haken, Randall K. ten; Lawrence, Theodore S. [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-0010 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-0010 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-0010 (United States)

    2007-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We have shown that high dose conformal radiation combined with chemotherapy appears to prolong the survival of patients with unresectable intrahepatic cancers. The ability to safely deliver higher doses is primarily limited by the development of radiation-induced liver disease, characterized by venous occlusion. In this study, we investigated whether portal venous perfusion measured prior to the end of radiation therapy (RT) together with dose could predict liver venous perfusion dysfunction after treatment. Ten patients with unresectable intrahepatic cancer participated in an IRB-approved computer tomography (CT) perfusion study. Hepatic arterial and portal vein perfusion distributions were estimated by using dynamic contrast enhanced CT and the single compartmental model. Scans were obtained at four time points: prior to treatment, after 15 and 30 fractions of 1.5 Gy treatments, and one month following the completion of RT. Multivariant linear regression was used to determine covariances among the first three time point measurements plus dose for prediction of the post RT measurement. The reduction in the regional venous perfusion one month following RT was predicted by the local accumulated dose and the change in the regional venous perfusion after {approx}30 fractions (F=90.6,p<0.000 01). Each Gy produced an approximately 1.2% of reduction in the venous perfusion. This local dose and venous perfusion model has the potential to predict individual sensitivity to radiation. This is the first step toward developing a method to deliver higher and potentially more curative radiation doses to the patients who can safely receive these higher doses.

  6. Long-Term Outcomes After High-Dose Postprostatectomy Salvage Radiation Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goenka, Anuj; Magsanoc, Juan Martin; Pei Xin; Schechter, Michael; Kollmeier, Marisa; Cox, Brett [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Scardino, Peter T.; Eastham, James A. [Urology Service, Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)] [Urology Service, Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Zelefsky, Michael J., E-mail: zelefskm@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To review the impact of high-dose radiotherapy (RT) in the postprostatectomy salvage setting on long-term biochemical control and distant metastases-free survival, and to identify clinical and pathologic predictors of outcomes. Methods and Materials: During 1988-2007, 285 consecutive patients were treated with salvage RT (SRT) after radical prostatectomy. All patients were treated with either three-dimensional conformal RT or intensity-modulated RT. Two hundred seventy patients (95%) were treated to a dose {>=}66 Gy, of whom 205 (72%) received doses {>=}70 Gy. Eighty-seven patients (31%) received androgen-deprivation therapy as a component of their salvage treatment. All clinical and pathologic records were reviewed to identify treatment risk factors and response. Results: The median follow-up time after SRT was 60 months. Seven-year actuarial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) relapse-free survival and distant metastases-free survival were 37% and 77%, respectively. Independent predictors of biochemical recurrence were vascular invasion (p < 0.01), negative surgical margins (p < 0.01), presalvage PSA level >0.4 ng/mL (p < 0.01), androgen-deprivation therapy (p = 0.03), Gleason score {>=}7 (p = 0.02), and seminal vesicle involvement (p = 0.05). Salvage RT dose {>=}70 Gy was not associated with improvement in biochemical control. A doubling time <3 months was the only independent predictor of metastatic disease (p < 0.01). There was a trend suggesting benefit of SRT dose {>=}70 Gy in preventing clinical local failure in patients with radiographically visible local disease at time of SRT (7 years: 90% vs. 79.1%, p = 0.07). Conclusion: Salvage RT provides effective long-term biochemical control and freedom from metastasis in selected patients presenting with detectable PSA after prostatectomy. Androgen-deprivation therapy was associated with improvement in biochemical progression-free survival. Clinical local failures were rare but occurred most commonly in patients with greater burden of disease at time of SRT as reflected by either radiographic imaging or a greater PSA level. Salvage radiation doses {>=}70 Gy may ultimately be most beneficial in these patients, but this needs to be further studied.

  7. Use of international data sets to evaluate and validate pathway assessment models applicable to exposure and dose reconstruction at DOE facilities. Progress report, March--May 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anspaugh, L.R.; Hendrickson, S.M. [eds.] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hoffman, F.O. [Senes Oak Ridge, Inc., TN (United States). Center for Risk Analysis

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The project described in this report was the result of a Memorandum of Cooperation between the US and the former-USSR following the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Unit 4. A joint program was established to improve the safety of nuclear power plants and to understand the implications of environmental releases. The task of Working Group 7 was ``to develop jointly methods to project rapidly the health effects of any future nuclear reactor accident.`` The current objective of this project is to evaluate and validate pathway-assessment models applicable to exposure and dose reconstruction at DOE facilities through use of international data sets. This project incorporates data used for the prediction of radionuclide transfer through agricultural and aquatic systems to humans. It also includes participation in two multinational studies, BIOMOVS (Biospheric Model Validation Study) with the Swedish National Institute for Radiation Protection and VAMP (Validation of Model Predictions) with the International Atomic Energy Agency, that address testing the performance of models of radionuclide transport through foodchains. In the future, this project will be considered separately from the Chernobyl Studies Project and the essential activities of former Task 7.1D will be folded within the broader umbrella of the BIOMOVS and VAMP projects. The Working Group Leader of Task 7.1D will continue to provide oversight for this project.

  8. Normal Liver Tissue Density Dose Response in Patients Treated With Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Liver Metastases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howells, Christopher C.; Stinauer, Michelle A.; Diot, Quentin; Westerly, David C.; Schefter, Tracey E.; Kavanagh, Brian D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States); Miften, Moyed, E-mail: Moyed.Miften@ucdenver.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, Colorado (United States)

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To evaluate the temporal dose response of normal liver tissue for patients with liver metastases treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: Ninety-nine noncontrast follow-up computed tomography (CT) scans of 34 patients who received SBRT between 2004 and 2011 were retrospectively analyzed at a median of 8 months post-SBRT (range, 0.7-36 months). SBRT-induced normal liver tissue density changes in follow-up CT scans were evaluated at 2, 6, 10, 15, and 27 months. The dose distributions from planning CTs were mapped to follow-up CTs to relate the mean Hounsfield unit change ({Delta}HU) to dose received over the range 0-55 Gy in 3-5 fractions. An absolute density change of 7 HU was considered a significant radiographic change in normal liver tissue. Results: Increasing radiation dose was linearly correlated with lower post-SBRT liver tissue density (slope, -0.65 {Delta}HU/5 Gy). The threshold for significant change (-7 {Delta}HU) was observed in the range of 30-35 Gy. This effect did not vary significantly over the time intervals evaluated. Conclusions: SBRT induces a dose-dependent and relatively time-independent hypodense radiation reaction within normal liver tissue that is characterized by a decrease of >7 HU in liver density for doses >30-35 Gy.

  9. System and method for radiation dose calculation within sub-volumes of a monte carlo based particle transport grid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bergstrom, Paul M. (Livermore, CA); Daly, Thomas P. (Livermore, CA); Moses, Edward I. (Livermore, CA); Patterson, Jr., Ralph W. (Livermore, CA); Schach von Wittenau, Alexis E. (Livermore, CA); Garrett, Dewey N. (Livermore, CA); House, Ronald K. (Tracy, CA); Hartmann-Siantar, Christine L. (Livermore, CA); Cox, Lawrence J. (Los Alamos, NM); Fujino, Donald H. (San Leandro, CA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method is disclosed for radiation dose calculation within sub-volumes of a particle transport grid. In a first step of the method voxel volumes enclosing a first portion of the target mass are received. A second step in the method defines dosel volumes which enclose a second portion of the target mass and overlap the first portion. A third step in the method calculates common volumes between the dosel volumes and the voxel volumes. A fourth step in the method identifies locations in the target mass of energy deposits. And, a fifth step in the method calculates radiation doses received by the target mass within the dosel volumes. A common volume calculation module inputs voxel volumes enclosing a first portion of the target mass, inputs voxel mass densities corresponding to a density of the target mass within each of the voxel volumes, defines dosel volumes which enclose a second portion of the target mass and overlap the first portion, and calculates common volumes between the dosel volumes and the voxel volumes. A dosel mass module, multiplies the common volumes by corresponding voxel mass densities to obtain incremental dosel masses, and adds the incremental dosel masses corresponding to the dosel volumes to obtain dosel masses. A radiation transport module identifies locations in the target mass of energy deposits. And, a dose calculation module, coupled to the common volume calculation module and the radiation transport module, for calculating radiation doses received by the target mass within the dosel volumes.

  10. A Phase I Clinical and Pharmacology Study Using Amifostine as a Radioprotector in Dose-escalated Whole Liver Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Mary, E-mail: maryfeng@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Smith, David E. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Normolle, Daniel P. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Knol, James A. [Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Pan, Charlie C.; Ben-Josef, Edgar [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Lu Zheng; Feng, Meihua R.; Chen Jun [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Ensminger, William [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Diffuse intrahepatic tumors are difficult to control. Whole-liver radiotherapy has been limited by toxicity, most notably radiation-induced liver disease. Amifostine is a prodrug free-radical scavenger that selectively protects normal tissues and, in a preclinical model of intrahepatic cancer, systemic amifostine reduced normal liver radiation damage without compromising tumor effect. We hypothesized that amifostine would permit escalation of whole-liver radiation dose to potentially control microscopic disease. We also aimed to characterize the pharmacokinetics of amifostine and its active metabolite WR-1065 to optimize timing of radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: We conducted a radiation dose-escalation trial for patients with diffuse, intrahepatic cancer treated with whole-liver radiation and intravenous amifostine. Radiation dose was assigned using the time-to-event continual reassessment method. A companion pharmacokinetic study was performed. Results: Twenty-three patients were treated, with a maximum dose of 40 Gy. Using a logistical regression model, compared with our previously treated patients, amifostine increased liver tolerance by 3.3 {+-} 1.1 Gy (p = 0.007) (approximately 10%) with similar response rates. Peak concentrations of WR-1065 were 25 {mu}M with an elimination half-life of 1.5 h; these levels are consistent with radioprotective effects of amifostine in patients. Conclusion: These findings demonstrate for the first time that amifostine is a normal liver radioprotector. They further suggest that it may be useful to combine amifostine with fractionated or stereotactic body radiation therapy for patients with focal intrahepatic cancer.

  11. Method for microbeam radiation therapy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slatkin, D.N.; Dilmanian, F.A.; Spanne, P.O.

    1994-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed of performing radiation therapy on a patient, involving exposing a target, usually a tumor, to a therapeutic dose of high energy electromagnetic radiation, preferably X-ray radiation. The dose is in the form of at least two non-overlapping microbeams of radiation, each microbeam having a width of less than about 1 millimeter. Target tissue exposed to the microbeams receives a radiation dose during the exposure that exceeds the maximum dose that such tissue can survive. Non-target tissue between the microbeams receives a dose of radiation below the threshold amount of radiation that can be survived by the tissue, and thereby permits the non-target tissue to regenerate. The microbeams may be directed at the target from one direction, or from more than one direction in which case the microbeams overlap within the target tissue enhancing the lethal effect of the irradiation while sparing the surrounding healthy tissue. No Drawings

  12. An Overview of the Regulation of Low Dose Radiation in the Nuclear and Non-nuclear Industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menon, Shankar; Valencia, Luis; Teunckens, Lucien

    2003-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Now that increasing numbers of nuclear power stations are reaching the end of their commercially useful lives, the management of the large quantities of very low level radioactive material that arises during their decommissioning has become a major subject of discussion, with very significant economic implications. Much of this material can, in an environmentally advantageous manner, be recycled for reuse without radiological restrictions. Much larger quantities--2-3 orders of magnitude larger--of material, radiologically similar to the candidate material for recycling from the nuclear industry, arise in non-nuclear industries like coal, fertilizer, oil and gas, mining, etc. In such industries, naturally occurring radioactivity is artificially concentrated in products, by-products or waste to form TENORM (Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material). It is only in the last decade that the international community has become aware of the prevalence of TENORM, specially the activity levels and quantities arising in so many non-nuclear industries. The first reaction of international organizations seems to have been to propose different standards for the nuclear and non-nuclear industries, with very stringent release criteria for radioactive material from the regulated nuclear industry and up to thirty to a hundred times more liberal criteria for the release/exemption of TENORM from the as yet unregulated non-nuclear industries. There are significant strategic issues that need to be discussed and resolved. Some examples of these are: - Disposal aspects of long-lived nuclides, - The use of radioactive residues in building materials, - Commercial aspects of differing and discriminating criteria in competing power industries in a world of deregulated electric power production. Of even greater importance is the need for the discussion of certain basic issues, such as - The quantitative risk levels of exposure to ionizing radiation, - The need for in-depth studies on populations of the naturally high background dose level areas of the world, - The validity of the various calculation codes currently used to arrive at mass specific clearance levels for redundant material. The paper discusses these and other strategic issues regarding the management of redundant low radiation material from both the nuclear and non-nuclear industries, underlining the need for consistency in regulatory treatment.

  13. Identification and Characterization of Soluble Factors Involved in Delayed Effects of Low Dose Radiation. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baulch, Janet

    2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a 'glue grant' that was part of a DOE Low Dose project entitled 'Identification and Characterization of Soluble Factors Involved in Delayed Effects of Low Dose Radiation'. This collaborative program has involved Drs. David L. Springer from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), John H. Miller from Washington State University, Tri-cities (WSU) and William F. Morgan then from the University of Maryland, Baltimore (UMB). In July 2008, Dr. Morgan moved to PNNL and Dr. Janet E. Baulch became PI for this project at University of Maryland. In November of 2008, a one year extension with no new funds was requested to complete the proteomic analyses. The project stemmed from studies in the Morgan laboratory demonstrating that genomically unstable cells secret a soluble factor or factors into the culture medium, that cause cytogenetic aberrations and apoptosis in normal parental GM10115 cells. The purpose of this project was to identify the death inducing effect (DIE) factor or factors, estimate their relative abundance, identify the cell signaling pathways involved and finally recapitulate DIE in normal cells by exogenous manipulation of putative DIE factors in culture medium. As reported in detail in the previous progress report, analysis of culture medium from the parental cell line, and stable and unstable clones demonstrated inconsistent proteomic profiles as relate to candidate DIE factors. While the proposed proteomic analyses did not provide information that would allow DIE factors to be identified, the analyses provided another important set of observations. Proteomic analysis suggested that proteins associated with the cellular response to oxidative stress and mitochondrial function were elevated in the medium from unstable clones in a manner consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction. These findings correlate with previous studies of these clones that demonstrated functional differences between the mitochondria of stable and unstable clones. These mitochondrial abnormalities in the unstable clones contributes to oxidative stress.

  14. Signal-to-noise and radiation exposure considerations in conventional and diffraction x-ray microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Xiaojing; Miao, Huijie; Steinbrener, Jan; Nelson, Johanna; Shapiro, David; Stewart, Andrew; Turner, Joshua; Jacobsen, Chris

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a signal-to-noise ratio estimation based on correlations between multiple simulated images, we compare the dose efficiency of two soft x-ray imaging systems: incoherent brightfield imaging using zone plate optics in a transmission x-ray microscope (TXM), and x-ray diffraction microscopy (XDM) where an image is reconstructed from the far-field coherent diffraction pattern. In XDM one must computationally phase weak diffraction signals; in TXM one suffers signal losses due to the finite numerical aperture and efficiency of the optics. In simulations with objects representing isolated cells such as yeast, we find that XDM has the potential for delivering equivalent resolution imagesmore »using fewer photons. This can be an important advantage for studying radiation-sensitive biological and soft matter specimens.« less

  15. Signal-to-noise and radiation exposure considerations in conventional and diffraction x-ray microscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Xiaojing; Miao, Huijie; Steinbrener, Jan; Nelson, Johanna; Shapiro, David; Stewart, Andrew; Turner, Joshua; Jacobsen, Chris

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a signal-to-noise ratio estimation based on correlations between multiple simulated images, we compare the dose efficiency of two soft x-ray imaging systems: incoherent brightfield imaging using zone plate optics in a transmission x-ray microscope (TXM), and x-ray diffraction microscopy (XDM) where an image is reconstructed from the far-field coherent diffraction pattern. In XDM one must computationally phase weak diffraction signals; in TXM one suffers signal losses due to the finite numerical aperture and efficiency of the optics. In simulations with objects representing isolated cells such as yeast, we find that XDM has the potential for delivering equivalent resolution images using fewer photons. This can be an important advantage for studying radiation-sensitive biological and soft matter specimens.

  16. Comparative assessment of standards development for radiation and other hazardous exposures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, J.J. [Jerry J. Cohen, Walnut Creek, CA (United States); Kathren, R.L. [Washington State Univ.-Tri Cities, Richland, WA (United States); Smith, C.F. [Booz-Allen & Hamilton, Germantown, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A fundamental question in development of standards for allowable exposure is, {open_quotes}What levels of safety are the standards intended to achieve?{close_quotes} This question has clearly not received the attention it deserves. A comparative assessment of standards for radiation and other physical and chemical hazards indicates that differing concerns may have motivated their developmental process. In most cases, the organization formulating the standards stated their objective in general terms such as, {open_quotes}to ensure safety,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}to protect worker`s health,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}to cause no undue stress,{close_quotes} {open_quotes}to avoid adverse health effects,{close_quotes} or to {open_quotes}maintain exposure levels as low as reasonably achievable.{close_quotes} It was generally recognized that absolute safety was unachievable, and therefore, some {open_quotes}reasonable{close_quotes} level of safety would need to be determined. The problem is made even more complex with the understanding that there can be a wide range in individual sensitivity to various harmful agents.

  17. Quantifying the Impact of Immediate Reconstruction in Postmastectomy Radiation: A Large, Dose-Volume Histogram-Based Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohri, Nisha [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Cordeiro, Peter G. [Department of Plastic Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Plastic Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Keam, Jennifer [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Ballangrud, Ase [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Shi Weiji; Zhang Zhigang [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Nerbun, Claire T.; Woch, Katherine M.; Stein, Nicholas F.; Zhou Ying [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); McCormick, Beryl; Powell, Simon N. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Ho, Alice Y., E-mail: HoA1234@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To assess the impact of immediate breast reconstruction on postmastectomy radiation (PMRT) using dose-volume histogram (DVH) data. Methods and Materials: Two hundred forty-seven women underwent PMRT at our center, 196 with implant reconstruction and 51 without reconstruction. Patients with reconstruction were treated with tangential photons, and patients without reconstruction were treated with en-face electron fields and customized bolus. Twenty percent of patients received internal mammary node (IMN) treatment. The DVH data were compared between groups. Ipsilateral lung parameters included V20 (% volume receiving 20 Gy), V40 (% volume receiving 40 Gy), mean dose, and maximum dose. Heart parameters included V25 (% volume receiving 25 Gy), mean dose, and maximum dose. IMN coverage was assessed when applicable. Chest wall coverage was assessed in patients with reconstruction. Propensity-matched analysis adjusted for potential confounders of laterality and IMN treatment. Results: Reconstruction was associated with lower lung V20, mean dose, and maximum dose compared with no reconstruction (all P<.0001). These associations persisted on propensity-matched analysis (all P<.0001). Heart doses were similar between groups (P=NS). Ninety percent of patients with reconstruction had excellent chest wall coverage (D95 >98%). IMN coverage was superior in patients with reconstruction (D95 >92.0 vs 75.7%, P<.001). IMN treatment significantly increased lung and heart parameters in patients with reconstruction (all P<.05) but minimally affected those without reconstruction (all P>.05). Among IMN-treated patients, only lower lung V20 in those without reconstruction persisted (P=.022), and mean and maximum heart doses were higher than in patients without reconstruction (P=.006, P=.015, respectively). Conclusions: Implant reconstruction does not compromise the technical quality of PMRT when the IMNs are untreated. Treatment technique, not reconstruction, is the primary determinant of target coverage and normal tissue doses.

  18. Increased Radiation Dose to Overweight and Obese Patients from Radiographic Examinations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanch, Jacquelyn C.

    Purpose: To estimate the increase in effective dose from diagnostic x-rays for overweight and obese adult patients compared with „lean? reference phantoms. Materials and Methods: Relative effective doses, E/E[subscript 0], ...

  19. Observation of a Dose-Control Relationship for Lung and Liver Tumors After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCammon, Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO (United States)], E-mail: Robert.mccammon@uchsc.edu; Schefter, Tracey E.; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Zaemisch, Rebekah; Gravdahl, Daniel; Kavanagh, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO (United States)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To determine prognostic factors for local control of primary or metastatic tumors within the lung or liver treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) within a single institution. Methods and Materials: The records of 141 consecutive patients with 246 lesions treated with three-fraction SBRT from Oct 1999 through Aug 2005 were reviewed. Local control was assessed radiographically. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the influence of the following factors on local control: total dose, expressed as either nominal prescription dose or equivalent uniform dose (EUD); gross tumor volume; primary site; treatment site (lung vs. other); histologic characteristics (adenocarcinoma vs. other); gender; age; and primary vs. metastatic tumor. Results: On univariate analysis, increased dose (either nominal or EUD) and smaller gross tumor volume were significant predictors of higher local control. Lesions treated to a nominal dose of 54 Gy or greater had a 3-year actuarial local control rate of 89.3% compared with 59.0% and 8.1% for those treated to 36-53.9 Gy and less than 36 Gy. On multivariate analysis, only increased nominal dose and EUD retained statistical significance. Treatment was well tolerated; 5.7% of patients experienced Grade 3 or higher toxicity. Conclusions: This large single-institution series suggests a dose-control relationship within the range of SBRT doses applied. Excellent local control rates are achieved with a nominal dose of 54 Gy or greater, corresponding to an EUD greater than 65.3 Gy. These results support the use of aggressive SBRT regimens when durable tumor control is the primary objective.

  20. Comparison of Kodak EDR2 and Gafchromic EBT film for intensity-modulated radiation therapy dose distribution verification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sankar, A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Apollo Specialty Hospital, Chennai (India) and Department of Physics, Anna University, Chennai (India)]. E-mail: asankar_phy@yahoo.co.in; Ayyangar, Komanduri M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Nehru, R. Mothilal [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Gopalakrishna Kurup, P.G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Apollo Specialty Hospital, Chennai (India); Murali, V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Apollo Specialty Hospital, Chennai (India); Enke, Charles A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE (United States); Velmurugan, J. [Department of Physics, Anna University, Chennai (India)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The quantitative dose validation of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans require 2-dimensional (2D) high-resolution dosimetry systems with uniform response over its sensitive region. The present work deals with clinical use of commercially available self-developing Radio Chromic Film, Gafchromic EBT film, for IMRT dose verification. Dose response curves were generated for the films using a VXR-16 film scanner. The results obtained with EBT films were compared with the results of Kodak extended dose range 2 (EDR2) films. The EBT film had a linear response between the dose range of 0 to 600 cGy. The dose-related characteristics of the EBT film, such as post irradiation color growth with time, film uniformity, and effect of scanning orientation, were studied. There was up to 8.6% increase in the color density between 2 to 40 hours after irradiation. There was a considerable variation, up to 8.5%, in the film uniformity over its sensitive region. The quantitative differences between calculated and measured dose distributions were analyzed using DTA and Gamma index with the tolerance of 3% dose difference and 3-mm distance agreement. The EDR2 films showed consistent results with the calculated dose distributions, whereas the results obtained using EBT were inconsistent. The variation in the film uniformity limits the use of EBT film for conventional large-field IMRT verification. For IMRT of smaller field sizes (4.5 x 4.5 cm), the results obtained with EBT were comparable with results of EDR2 films.

  1. Relevance of biotic pathways to the long-term regulation of nuclear waste disposal. Estimation of radiation dose to man resulting from biotic transport: the BIOPORT/MAXI1 software package. Volume 5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKenzie, D.H.; Cadwell, L.L.; Gano, K.A.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Napier, B.A.; Peloquin, R.A.; Prohammer, L.A.; Simmons, M.A.

    1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BIOPORT/MAXI1 is a collection of five computer codes designed to estimate the potential magnitude of the radiation dose to man resulting from biotic transport processes. Dose to man is calculated for ingestion of agricultural crops grown in contaminated soil, inhalation of resuspended radionuclides, and direct exposure to penetrating radiation resulting from the radionuclide concentrations established in the available soil surface by the biotic transport model. This document is designed as both an instructional and reference document for the BIOPORT/MAXI1 computer software package and has been written for two major audiences. The first audience includes persons concerned with the mathematical models of biological transport of commercial low-level radioactive wastes and the computer algorithms used to implement those models. The second audience includes persons concerned with exercising the computer program and exposure scenarios to obtain results for specific applications. The report contains sections describing the mathematical models, user operation of the computer programs, and program structure. Input and output for five sample problems are included. In addition, listings of the computer programs, data libraries, and dose conversion factors are provided in appendices.

  2. Lack of benefit of pelvic radiation in prostate cancer patients with a high risk of positive pelvic lymph nodes treated with high-dose radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vargas, Carlos Enrique [William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Galalae, Razavan [Kiel University Hospital, Kiel (Germany); Demanes, Jeffrey [California Endocuritherapy Cancer Center, Oakland, CA (United States); Harsolia, Asif [William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Meldolesi, Elisa [William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States); Nuernberg, Nils [Municipal Hospital Kiel, Kiel (Germany); Schour, Lionel [California Endocuritherapy Cancer Center, Oakland, CA (United States); Martinez, Alvaro [William Beaumont Hospital, Royal Oak, MI (United States)]. E-mail: amartinez@beaumont.edu

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The use of pelvic radiation for patients with a high risk of lymph node (LN) metastasis (>15%) remains controversial. We reviewed the data at three institutions treating patients with a combination of external-beam radiation therapy and high-dose-rate brachytherapy to address the prognostic implications of the use of the Roach formula and the benefit of pelvic treatment. Methods and Materials: From 1986 to 2003, 1,491 patients were treated with external-beam radiation therapy and high-dose-rate brachytherapy. The Roach formula [2/3 prostate-specific antigen + (Gleason score -6) x 10] could be calculated for 1,357 patients. Group I consisted of patients having a risk of positive LN {<=}15% (n = 761), Group II had a risk >15% and {<=}30% (n = 422), and Group III had a risk of LN disease >30% (n 174). A >15% risk of having positive LN was found in 596 patients and was used to determine the benefit of pelvic radiation. The pelvis was treated at two of the cancer centers (n = 312), whereas at the third center (n = 284) radiation therapy was delivered to the prostate and seminal vesicles alone. Average biologic effective dose was {>=}100 Gy ({alpha}{beta} = 1.2). Biochemical failure was as per the American Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology definition. Statistics included the log-rank test as well as Cox univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: For all 596 patients with a positive LN risk >15%, median follow-up was 4.3 years, with a mean of 4.8 years. For all cases, median follow-up was 4 years and mean follow-up was 4.4 years. Five-year results for the three groups based on their risk of positive LN were significantly different in terms of biochemical failure (p < 0.001), clinical control (p < 0.001), disease-free survival excluding biochemical failure (p < 0.001), cause-specific survival (p < 0.001), and overall survival (p < 0.001). For all patients with a risk of positive LN >15% (n 596), Group II (>15-30% risk), or Group III (>30% risk), no benefit was seen in the 5-year rates of clinical failure, cause-specific survival, or overall survival with pelvic radiation. In the Cox multivariate analysis for cause-specific survival, Gleason score (p = 0.009, hazard ratio [HR] 3.1), T stage (p = 0.03, HR 1.8), and year of treatment (p = 0.05, HR 1.1) were significant. A log-rank test for cause-specific survival for all patients (n = 577) by the use of pelvic radiation was not significant (p = 0.99) accounting for high-dose-rate brachytherapy dose, neoadjuvant hormones, Gleason score, prostate-specific antigen, T stage, and year of treatment as covariates. Conclusions: The use of the Roach formula to stratify patients for clinical and biochemical outcomes is excellent. Pelvic radiation added to high prostate radiation doses did not show a clinical benefit for patients at a high risk of pelvic LN disease (>15%) selected using the Roach formula.

  3. SU-C-12A-03: The Impact of Contrast Medium On Radiation Dose in CT: A Systematic Evaluation Across 58 Patient Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sahbaee, P [NC State University, Raleigh, NC (United States); Samei, E [Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Segars, W [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To assess the effect of contrast medium on radiation dose as a function of time via Monte Carlo simulation from the liver CT scan across a library of 5D XCAT models Methods: A validated Monte Carlo simulation package (PENELOPE) was employed to model a CT system (LightSpeed 64 VCT, GE Healthcare). The radiation dose was estimated from a common abdomen CT examination. The dose estimation was performed on a library of adult extended cardiac-torso (5D XCAT) phantoms (35 male, 23 female, mean age 51.5 years, mean weight 80.2 kg). The 5D XCAT models were created based on patient-specific iodine concentration-time results from our computational contrast medium propagation model for different intravenous injection protocols. To enable a dynamic estimation of radiation dose, each organ in the model was assigned to its own time-concentration curve via the PENELOPE package, material.exe. Using the Monte Carlo, for each scan time point after the injection, 80 million photons were initiated and tracked through the phantoms. Finally, the dose to the liver was tallied from the deposited energy. Results: Monte Carlo simulation results of radiation dose delivered to the liver from the XCAT models indicated up to 30% increase in dose for different time after the administration of contrast medium. Conclusion: The contrast enhancement is employed in over 60% of imaging modalities, which not only remarkably affects the CT image quality, but also increases the radiation dose by as much as 70%. The postinjection multiple acquisition in several enhanced CT protocols, makes the radiation dose increment through the use of contrast medium, an inevitable factor in optimization of these protocols. The relationship between radiation dose and injected contrast medium as a function of time studied in this work allows optimization of contrast administration for vulnerable individuals.

  4. P.A. Nelson S.M. Kajiura G.S. Losey Exposure to solar radiation may increase ocular UV-filtering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kajiura, Stephen

    P.A. Nelson Ã? S.M. Kajiura Ã? G.S. Losey Exposure to solar radiation may increase ocular UV levels of solar radiation than they had previously experienced in the source habitat in the turbid waters spectrum, but sharks exposed to greater solar radiation showed increased UV blocking in their corneal

  5. Biological in situ Dose Painting for Image-Guided Radiation Therapy Using Drug-Loaded Implantable Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cormack, Robert A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Sridhar, Srinivas [Electronics Materials Research Institute, Northeastern University, and Department of Physics, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Suh, W. Warren; D'Amico, Anthony V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Makrigiorgos, G. Mike, E-mail: mmakrigiorgos@lroc.harvard.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Implantable devices routinely used for increasing spatial accuracy in modern image-guided radiation treatments (IGRT), such as fiducials or brachytherapy spacers, encompass the potential for in situ release of biologically active drugs, providing an opportunity to enhance the therapeutic ratio. We model this new approach for two types of treatment. Methods and Materials: Radiopaque fiducials used in IGRT, or prostate brachytherapy spacers ('eluters'), were assumed to be loaded with radiosensitizer for in situ drug slow release. An analytic function describing the concentration of radiosensitizer versus distance from eluters, depending on diffusion-elimination properties of the drug in tissue, was developed. Tumor coverage by the drug was modeled for tumors typical of lung stereotactic body radiation therapy treatments for various eluter dimensions and drug properties. Six prostate {sup 125}I brachytherapy cases were analyzed by assuming implantation of drug-loaded spacers. Radiosensitizer-induced subvolume boost was simulated from which biologically effective doses for typical radiosensitizers were calculated in one example. Results: Drug distributions from three-dimensional arrangements of drug eluters versus eluter size and drug properties were tabulated. Four radiosensitizer-loaded fiducials provide adequate radiosensitization for {approx}4-cm-diameter lung tumors, thus potentially boosting biologically equivalent doses in centrally located stereotactic body treated lesions. Similarly, multiple drug-loaded spacers provide prostate brachytherapy with flexible shaping of 'biologically equivalent doses' to fit requirements difficult to meet by using radiation alone, e.g., boosting a high-risk region juxtaposed to the urethra while respecting normal tissue tolerance of both the urethra and the rectum. Conclusions: Drug loading of implantable devices routinely used in IGRT provides new opportunities for therapy modulation via biological in situ dose painting.

  6. Use of international data sets to evaluate and validate pathway assessment models applicable to exposure and dose reconstruction at DOE facilities. Monthly progress reports and final report, October--December 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, F.O. [Senes Oak Ridge, Inc., TN (United States). Center for Risk Analysis

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of Task 7.lD was to (1) establish a collaborative US-USSR effort to improve and validate our methods of forecasting doses and dose commitments from the direct contamination of food sources, and (2) perform experiments and validation studies to improve our ability to predict rapidly and accurately the long-term internal dose from the contamination of agricultural soil. At early times following an accident, the direct contamination of pasture and food stuffs, particularly leafy vegetation and grain, can be of great importance. This situation has been modeled extensively. However, models employed then to predict the deposition, retention and transport of radionuclides in terrestrial environments employed concepts and data bases that were more than a decade old. The extent to which these models have been tested with independent data sets was limited. The data gathered in the former-USSR (and elsewhere throughout the Northern Hemisphere) offered a unique opportunity to test model predictions of wet and dry deposition, agricultural foodchain bioaccumulation, and short- and long-term retention, redistribution, and resuspension of radionuclides from a variety of natural and artificial surfaces. The current objective of this project is to evaluate and validate pathway-assessment models applicable to exposure and dose reconstruction at DOE facilities through use of international data sets. This project incorporates the activity of Task 7.lD into a multinational effort to evaluate models and data used for the prediction of radionuclide transfer through agricultural and aquatic systems to humans. It also includes participation in two studies, BIOMOVS (BIOspheric MOdel Validation Study) with the Swedish National Institute for Radiation Protection and VAMP (VAlidation of Model Predictions) with the International Atomic Energy Agency, that address testing the performance of models of radionuclide transport through foodchains.

  7. U.S. Department of Energy Summary of 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2012-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This poster provides graphic data for 2010-2012 of collective total effective dose (TED) by site, and graphical data for 2008-2012 of components of TED, average measurable TED, percentage of collective TED above dose, collective dose and average measurable dose (1974-2012), and numbers of individuals in the DOE workforce, total number of records of monitored individuals, and number of individuals with a measurable dose. Also, there is a table of the number of individuals receiving >2 rems administrative control level and >5 rems annual limit for 2008-2012.

  8. Evaluation of Radiation Dose Reduction during CT Scans Using Oxide Bismuth and Nano-Barium Sulfate Shields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seoung, Youl-Hun

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate radiation dose reduction and image quality during CT scanning by using a new dose reduction fiber sheet (DRFS) with commercially available bismuth shields. These DRFS were composed of nano-barium sulfate (BaSO4), filling the gaps left by the large oxide bismuth (Bi2O3) particle sizes. The radiation dose was measured five times at directionss of 12 o'clock from the center of the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) head phantom to calculate an average value using a CT ionization chamber. The image quality measured CT transverse images of the PMMA head phantom depending on X-ray tube voltages and the type of shielding. Two regions of interest in CT transverse images were chosen from the right and left areas under the surface of the PMMA head phantom and from ion chamber holes located at directions of 12 o'clock from the center of the PMMA head phantom. The results of this study showed that the new DRFS shields could reduce dosages to 15.61%, 23.05%, and 22.71% more in ...

  9. Randomized, Multicenter Trial on the Effect of Radiation Therapy on Plantar Fasciitis (Painful Heel Spur) Comparing a Standard Dose With a Very Low Dose: Mature Results After 12 Months' Follow-Up

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niewald, Marcus, E-mail: marcus.niewald@uks.eu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg/Saar (Germany)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Seegenschmiedt, M. Heinrich [Radiotherapy Center, Hamburg (Germany)] [Radiotherapy Center, Hamburg (Germany); Micke, Oliver [Franziskus Hospital, Bielefeld (Germany)] [Franziskus Hospital, Bielefeld (Germany); Graeber, Stefan [Institute for Medical Biometry, Epidemiology and Medical Informatics, Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg/Saar (Germany)] [Institute for Medical Biometry, Epidemiology and Medical Informatics, Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Muecke, Ralf [Lippe Hospital, Lemgo (Germany)] [Lippe Hospital, Lemgo (Germany); Schaefer, Vera; Scheid, Christine; Fleckenstein, Jochen; Licht, Norbert; Ruebe, Christian [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg/Saar (Germany)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Saarland University Medical Center, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To conduct a randomized trial of radiation therapy for painful heel spur, comparing a standard dose with a very low dose. Methods and Materials: Sixty-six patients were randomized to receive radiation therapy either with a total dose of 6.0 Gy applied in 6 fractions of 1.0 Gy twice weekly (standard dose) or with a total dose of 0.6 Gy applied in 6 fractions of 0.1 Gy twice weekly (low dose). In all patients lateral opposing 4- to 6-MV photon beams were used. The results were measured using a visual analogue scale, the Calcaneodynia score, and the SF12 health survey. The fundamental phase of the study ended after 3 months, and the follow-up was continued up to 1 year. Patients with insufficient pain relief after 3 months were offered reirradiation with the standard dosage at any time afterward. Results: Of 66 patients, 4 were excluded because of withdrawal of consent or screening failures. After 3 months the results in the standard arm were highly significantly superior compared with those in the low-dose arm (visual analogue scale, P=.001; Calcaneodynia score, P=.027; SF12, P=.045). The accrual of patients was stopped at this point. Further evaluation after 12 months' follow-up showed the following results: (1) highly significant fewer patients were reirradiated in the standard arm compared with the low-dose arm (P<.001); (2) the results of patients in the low-dose arm who were reirradiated were identical to those in the standard arm not reirradiated (reirradiation as a salvage therapy if the lower dose was ineffective); (3) patients experiencing a favorable result after 3 months showed this even after 12 months, and some results even improved further between 3 and 12 months. Conclusions: This study confirms the superior analgesic effect of radiation therapy with 6-Gy doses on painful heel spur even for a longer time period of at least 1 year.

  10. Determination of radionuclides and pathways contributing to cumulative dose. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project: Dose code recovery activities, Calculation 004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napier, B.A.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of scoping calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the absolute and relative contributions of different radionuclides and exposure pathways to doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. This scoping calculation (Calculation 004) examined the contributions of numerous radionuclides to cumulative dose via environmental exposures and accumulation in foods. Addressed in this calculation were the contributions to organ and effective dose of infants and adults from (1) air submersion and groundshine external dose, (2) inhalation, (3) ingestion of soil by humans, (4) ingestion of leafy vegetables, (5) ingestion of other vegetables and fruits, (6) ingestion of meat, (7) ingestion of eggs, and (8) ingestion of cows` milk from Feeding Regime 1, as described in calculation 002. This calculation specifically addresses cumulative radiation doses to infants and adults resulting from releases occurring over the period 1945 through 1972.

  11. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, S.G.; Khan, T.A.; Xie, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in a continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This volume 8 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected form proceedings of technical meetings and conference journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to the many aspects of radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges form use of robotics, to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 8 contains 232 abstracts, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 8. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes.

  12. Occupational dose reduction at nuclear power plants: Annotated bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA. Volume 7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaurin, D.G.; Khan, T.A.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ALARA Center at Brookhaven National Laboratory publishes a series of bibliographies of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA in the continuing effort to collect and disseminate information on radiation dose reduction at nuclear power plants. This is volume 7 of the series. The abstracts in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings and conferences, journals, research reports, and searches of the Energy Science and Technology database of the US Department of Energy. The subject material of these abstracts relates to radiation protection and dose reduction, and ranges from use of robotics to operational health physics, to water chemistry. Material on the design, planning, and management of nuclear power stations is included, as well as information on decommissioning and safe storage efforts. Volume 7 contains 293 abstract, an author index, and a subject index. The author index is specific for this volume. The subject index is cumulative and lists all abstract numbers from volumes 1 to 7. The numbers in boldface indicate the abstracts in this volume; the numbers not in boldface represent abstracts in previous volumes.

  13. Threshold sensor for high-doses of radiation I. Augustyniak, P. Knapkiewicz, J. Dziuban

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    radiation, HDPE degrades and releases atomic hydrogen. The resulting pressure of hydrogen destroys thin are also observed in experimental infrastructures for example LHC where level of radiation is low but long by family of passive thermo- and photoluminescence indicators or hydrogen pressure dosimeters. In situ

  14. Measurement and Analysis of Radio-frequency Radiation Exposure Level from Different Mobile Base Transceiver Stations in Ajaokuta and Environs, Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ushie, P O; Bolaji, Ayinmode; Osahun, O D

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the result of a preliminary assessment of radio-frequency radiation exposure from selected mobile base stations in Ajaokuta environs. The Power density of RF radiation within a radial distance of 125m was measured. Although values fluctuated due to the influence of other factors, including wave interference from other electromagnetic sources around reference base stations, we show from analysis that radiation exposure level is below the standard limit (4.5W/sqm for 900MHz and 9W/sqm for 18000MHz) set by the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) and other regulatory agencies.

  15. Preliminary analysis of important site-specific dose assessment parameters and exposure pathways applicable to a groundwater release scenario at Yucca Mountain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laplante, P.A. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, Rockville, MD (United States); Maheras, S.J. [Maheras (S.J.), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Jarzemba, M.S. [Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses, San Antonio, TX (United States)

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To develop capabilities for compliance determination, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) conducts total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain (YM) in an iterative manner. Because the new Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard for YM may set a dose or risk limit, an auxiliary study was conducted to develop estimates of site-specific dose assessment parameters for future TSPAS. YM site-relevant data was obtained for irrigation, agriculture, resuspension, crop interception, and soil. A Monte Carlo based importance analysis was used to identify predominant parameters for the groundwater pathway. In this analysis, the GENII-S code generated individual annual total effective dose equivalents (TEDEs) for 20 nuclides and 43 sampled parameters based upon unit groundwater concentrations. Scatter plots and correlation results indicate the crop interception fraction, food transfer factors, consumption rates, and irrigation rate are correlated with TEDEs for specific nuclides. Influential parameter groups correspond to expected pathway readily to plants, such as {sup 99}Tc, indicate crop ingestion pathway parameters are most highly correlated with the TEDE, and those that transfer to milk ({sup 59}Ni) or beef ({sup 79}Se, {sup 129}I, {sup 135}Cs, {sup 137}Cs) show predominant correlations with animal product ingestion pathway parameters. Such relationships provide useful insight to important parameters and exposure pathways applicable to doses from specific nuclides.

  16. Predictive Models for Regional Hepatic Function Based on 99mTc-IDA SPECT and Local Radiation Dose for Physiologic Adaptive Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hesheng, E-mail: hesheng@umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Feng, Mary [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Frey, Kirk A. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Ten Haken, Randall K.; Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Cao, Yue [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: High-dose radiation therapy (RT) for intrahepatic cancer is limited by the development of liver injury. This study investigated whether regional hepatic function assessed before and during the course of RT using 99mTc-labeled iminodiacetic acid (IDA) single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) could predict regional liver function reserve after RT. Methods and Materials: Fourteen patients treated with RT for intrahepatic cancers underwent dynamic 99mTc-IDA SPECT scans before RT, during, and 1 month after completion of RT. Indocyanine green (ICG) tests, a measure of overall liver function, were performed within 1 day of each scan. Three-dimensional volumetric hepatic extraction fraction (HEF) images of the liver were estimated by deconvolution analysis. After coregistration of the CT/SPECT and the treatment planning CT, HEF dose–response functions during and after RT were generated. The volumetric mean of the HEFs in the whole liver was correlated with ICG clearance time. Three models, dose, priori, and adaptive models, were developed using multivariate linear regression to assess whether the regional HEFs measured before and during RT helped predict regional hepatic function after RT. Results: The mean of the volumetric liver HEFs was significantly correlated with ICG clearance half-life time (r=?0.80, P<.0001), for all time points. Linear correlations between local doses and regional HEFs 1 month after RT were significant in 12 patients. In the priori model, regional HEF after RT was predicted by the planned dose and regional HEF assessed before RT (R=0.71, P<.0001). In the adaptive model, regional HEF after RT was predicted by regional HEF reassessed during RT and the remaining planned local dose (R=0.83, P<.0001). Conclusions: 99mTc-IDA SPECT obtained during RT could be used to assess regional hepatic function and helped predict post-RT regional liver function reserve. This could support individualized adaptive radiation treatment strategies to maximize tumor control and minimize the risk of liver damage.

  17. DOE Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS) Data Update Presented at the 32nd Annual International Dosimetry and Records Symposium, June 3-6, Scottsdale, AZ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This slide-show presents the 2012 draft data for DOE occupational radiation exposure, compares those data with last year and the last five years, and clarifies reporting data.

  18. Correlation of radiation absorbed dose to the human thyroid using the FBX dosimeter and external probe techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bateman, Sarah Caroline Louisa

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Nuclear Regulatory Commission provides the criteria under which an in-vivo external probe bioassay program for those occupationally exposed to '- I and '" I should be implemented (USNRC79). This is the basis for the Texas A&M University bioassay program... present in the thyroid. Determination of the radiation absorbed dose to the thyroid gland from a known activity of radioiodine present in the thyroid is necessary from both a safety and regulatory standpoint. Regulatory Guide 8. 20, issued by the U. S...

  19. Predicting the radiation exposure of terrestrial wildlife in the Chernobyl exclusion zone : an international comparison of approaches.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beresford, N. A.; Barnett, C. L.; Brown, J. E.; Cheng, J.-J.; Copplestone, D.; Gaschak, S.; Hosseini, A.; Howard, B. J.; Kamboj, S.; Nedveckaite, T.; Olyslaegers, G.; Smith, J. T.; Vives i Batlle, J.; Vives-Lynch, S.; Yu, C.; Environmental Science Division; Centre for Ecology and Hydrology; Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority; England and Wales Environment Agency; International Radioecology Lab.; Inst. of Physics, Radiation Protection,; Belgian Nuclear Research Centre; Univ. of Portsmouth; Westlakes Research Inst.

    2010-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    There is now general acknowledgement that there is a requirement to demonstrate that species other than humans are protected from anthropogenic releases of radioactivity. A number of approaches have been developed for estimating the exposure of wildlife and some of these are being used to conduct regulatory assessments. There is a requirement to compare the outputs of such approaches against available data sets to ensure that they are robust and fit for purpose. In this paper we describe the application of seven approaches for predicting the whole-body ({sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 241}Am and Pu isotope) activity concentrations and absorbed dose rates for a range of terrestrial species within the Chernobyl exclusion zone. Predictions are compared against available measurement data, including estimates of external dose rate recorded by thermoluminescent dosimeters attached to rodent species. Potential reasons for differences between predictions between the various approaches and the available data are explored.

  20. Prediction of human observer performance in a 2-alternative forced choice low-contrast detection task using channelized Hotelling observer: Impact of radiation dose and reconstruction algorithms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu Lifeng; Leng Shuai; Chen Lingyun; Kofler, James M.; McCollough, Cynthia H. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Carter, Rickey E. [Division of Biomedical Statistics and Informatics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Efficient optimization of CT protocols demands a quantitative approach to predicting human observer performance on specific tasks at various scan and reconstruction settings. The goal of this work was to investigate how well a channelized Hotelling observer (CHO) can predict human observer performance on 2-alternative forced choice (2AFC) lesion-detection tasks at various dose levels and two different reconstruction algorithms: a filtered-backprojection (FBP) and an iterative reconstruction (IR) method. Methods: A 35 Multiplication-Sign 26 cm{sup 2} torso-shaped phantom filled with water was used to simulate an average-sized patient. Three rods with different diameters (small: 3 mm; medium: 5 mm; large: 9 mm) were placed in the center region of the phantom to simulate small, medium, and large lesions. The contrast relative to background was -15 HU at 120 kV. The phantom was scanned 100 times using automatic exposure control each at 60, 120, 240, 360, and 480 quality reference mAs on a 128-slice scanner. After removing the three rods, the water phantom was again scanned 100 times to provide signal-absent background images at the exact same locations. By extracting regions of interest around the three rods and on the signal-absent images, the authors generated 21 2AFC studies. Each 2AFC study had 100 trials, with each trial consisting of a signal-present image and a signal-absent image side-by-side in randomized order. In total, 2100 trials were presented to both the model and human observers. Four medical physicists acted as human observers. For the model observer, the authors used a CHO with Gabor channels, which involves six channel passbands, five orientations, and two phases, leading to a total of 60 channels. The performance predicted by the CHO was compared with that obtained by four medical physicists at each 2AFC study. Results: The human and model observers were highly correlated at each dose level for each lesion size for both FBP and IR. The Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficients were 0.986 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.958-0.996] for FBP and 0.985 (95% CI: 0.863-0.998) for IR. Bland-Altman plots showed excellent agreement for all dose levels and lesions sizes with a mean absolute difference of 1.0%{+-} 1.1% for FBP and 2.1%{+-} 3.3% for IR. Conclusions: Human observer performance on a 2AFC lesion detection task in CT with a uniform background can be accurately predicted by a CHO model observer at different radiation dose levels and for both FBP and IR methods.

  1. Radiation Dose Is More Than A Number Workshop 15-16 September 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    or Water Contamination Nuclear detonation Accident ­ Power Plant Release ­ Sealed radiological sources;Radiation Countermeasure Mission Space Radionuclide Threats ­ Am-241 ­ Co-60 ­ Cs-137 ­ I-131 ­ Ir-192 ­ Po

  2. MEASUREMENT OF THE HIGH GAMMA RADIATION DOSE USING THE MEMS BASED DOSIMETER AND RADIOLISYS EFFECT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Power Plants (NPP) and high energy physics facilities as Large Hadron Collider (LHC). All in the world and about 50 under construction, we are all concern about the safety operation of these facilities due to the cumulative absorbed dose. Needless to say that the typical NPP of 3rd generation

  3. Basis for radiation protection of the nuclear worker

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guevara, F.A.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A description is given of the standards for protection of persons who work in areas that have a potential for radiation exposure. A review is given of the units of radiation exposure and dose equivalent and of the value of the maximum permissible dose limits for occupational exposure. Federal Regulations and Regulatory Guides for radiation protection are discussed. Average occupational equivalent doses experienced in several operations typical of the United States Nuclear Industry are presented and shown to be significantly lower than the maximum permissible. The concept of maintaining radiation doses to As-Low-As-Reasonably-Achievable is discussed and the practice of imposing engineering and administrative controls to provide effective radiation protection for the nuclear worker is described.

  4. Mechanisms of Low Dose Radio-Suppression of Genomic Instability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engelward, Bevin P

    2009-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The major goal of this project is to contribute toward the elucidation of the impact of long term low dose radiation on genomic stability. We have created and characterized novel technologies for delivering long term low dose radiation to animals, and we have studied genomic stability by applying cutting edge molecular analysis technologies. Remarkably, we have found that a dose rate that is 300X higher than background radiation does not lead to any detectable genomic damage, nor is there any significant change in gene expression for genes pertinent to the DNA damage response. These results point to the critical importance of dose rate, rather than just total dose, when evaluating public health risks and when creating regulatory guidelines. In addition to these studies, we have also further developed a mouse model for quantifying cells that have undergone a large scale DNA sequence rearrangement via homologous recombination, and we have applied these mice in studies of both low dose radiation and space radiation. In addition to more traditional approaches for assessing genomic stability, we have also explored radiation and possible beneficial effects (adaptive response), long term effects (persistent effects) and effects on communication among cells (bystander effects), both in vitro and in vivo. In terms of the adaptive response, we have not observed any significant induction of an adaptive response following long term low dose radiation in vivo, delivered at 300X background. In terms of persistent and bystander effects, we have revealed evidence of a bystander effect in vivo and with researchers at and demonstrated for the first time the molecular mechanism by which cells “remember” radiation exposure. Understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms by which radiation can induce genomic instability is fundamental to our ability to assess the biological impact of low dose radiation. Finally, in a parallel set of studies we have explored the effects of heavy iron particle radiation on large scale sequence rearrangements and we have discovered tissue specific differences in sensitivity to homologous recombination. DOE support has given rise to critical new knowledge about the biological impact of low dose rate radiation and about the underlying mechanisms that govern genomic stability in response to radiation exposure. This work has spurred interest in radiation among MIT scientists, and has fostered ongoing research projects that will continue to contribute toward our understanding of the biological effects of low dose radiation exposure.

  5. Dose-dependent misrejoining of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks in human fibroblasts: Experimental and theoretical study for high and low LET radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rydberg, Bjorn; Cooper, Brian; Cooper, Priscilla K.; Holley, William; Chatterjee, Aloke

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    S. Kim, and R. M. Myers. Radiation hybrid mapping: a somaticformulation of dual radiation action. Radiat. Res. 75: 471-High-Linear Energy Transfer Radiation in Human Fibroblasts.

  6. Radiation exposure in X-ray-based imaging techniques used in osteoporosis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Damilakis, John; Adams, Judith E.; Guglielmi, Giuseppe; Link, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and nonradiologists in dual-energy X-ray absorptiometrymorphometry studies using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.dose measurements in dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).

  7. Health physics manual of good practices for reducing radiation exposure to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrington, W.N.; Higby, D.P.; Kathren,., R.L.; Merwin, S.E.; Stoetzel, G.A.

    1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A primary objective of the US Department of Energy (DOE) health physics and radiation protection program has been to limit radiation exposures to those levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). As a result, the ALARA concept developed into a program and a set of operational principles to ensure that the objective was consistently met. Implementation of these principles required that a guide be produced. The original ALARA guide was issued by DOE in 1980 to promote improved understanding of ALARA concepts within the DOE community and to assist those responsible for operational ALARA activities in attaining their goals. Since 1980, additional guidance has been published by national and international organizations to provide further definition and clarification to ALARA concepts. As basic ALARA experience increased, the value and role of the original guide prompted the DOE Office of Nuclear Safety (ONS) to support a current revision. The revised manual of good practices includes six sections: 1.0 Introduction, 2.0 Administration, 3.0 Optimization, 4.0 Setting and Evaluating ALARA Goals, 5.0 Radiological Design, and 6.0 Conduct of Operations. The manual is directed primarily to contractor and DOE staff who are responsible for conduct and overview of radiation protection and ALARA programs at DOE facilities. The intent is to provide sufficient guidance such that the manual, if followed, will ensure that radiation exposures are maintained as low as reasonably achievable and will establish the basis for a formally structured and auditable program. 118 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Lead exposure among small-scale battery recyclers, automobile radiator mechanics, and their children in Manila, the Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suplido, M.L.; Ong, C.N.

    2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Blood lead (PbB) and hemoglobin levels (Hb) were determined in 40 battery repair/recycling shop workers, 16 radiator repair shop workers, and 20 children living in the immediate vicinity of these shops. Unexposed residents with similar socio-economic status were also investigated. Mean PbB level was significantly higher for battery workers when compared to radiator workers and unexposed adults. Among battery workers, 94% had PbB levels above the WHO permissible exposure limit of 40 {micro}g/dL for males and 30 {micro}g/dL for females. There was no demarcation between workplace and living quarters; therefore, workers' families were similarly exposed to hazards. Children living in the immediate vicinity of battery shops also had significantly higher mean PbB levels compared to radiator shop children and unexposed children. For workers with PbB > 40 {micro}g/dL, 90% were anemic. Linear regression showed a correlation between Hb level and log{sub 10}PbB. There was no significant relationship between anemia and blood lead in children. The authors conclude that radiator repair activities appeared to increase the body burden of lead, although not up to a level significantly different from unexposed counterparts. Battery recycling/repair activities, however, significantly increased blood lead levels in workers and their children.

  9. Assessment of Radio-Frequency Radiation Exposure Level from Selected Mobile Base Stations (MBS) in Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victor, U J Nwankwo; Dada, S S; Onugba, A A; Ushie, P

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The acquisition and use of mobile phone is tremendously increasing especially in developing countries, but not without a concern. The greater concern among the public is principally over the proximity of mobile base stations (MBS) to residential areas rather than the use of handsets. In this paper, we present an assessment of Radio-Frequency (RF) radiation exposure level measurements and analysis of radiation power density (in \\mu W/sq m) from mobile base stations relative to radial distance (in metre). The minimum average power density from individual base station in the town was about 47\\mu W/sq m while the average maximum was about 1.5mW/sq m. Our result showed that average power density of a base station decreases with increase in distance (from base station) and that radiation intensity varies from one base station to another even at the same distance away. Our result (obtained signature of power density variation) was also compared with the 'expected' signature. It was found that radiation from external...

  10. Causes of Mortality After Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy and Androgen Deprivation for High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tendulkar, Rahul D., E-mail: tendulr@ccf.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Hunter, Grant K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Intermountain Healthcare, Salt Lake City, Utah (United States); Reddy, Chandana A.; Stephans, Kevin L.; Ciezki, Jay P.; Abdel-Wahab, May [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Stephenson, Andrew J.; Klein, Eric A. [Department of Urology, Glickman Urological Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Mahadevan, Arul [Seacoast Cancer Center New Hampshire, Dover, New Hampshire (United States); Kupelian, Patrick A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Los Angeles Health System, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Men with high-risk prostate cancer have other competing causes of mortality; however, current risk stratification schema do not account for comorbidities. We aim to identify the causes of death and factors predictive for mortality in this population. Methods and Materials: A total of 660 patients with high-risk prostate cancer were treated with definitive high-dose external beam radiation therapy (?74 Gy) and androgen deprivation (AD) between 1996 and 2009 at a single institution. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was conducted to determine factors predictive of survival. Results: The median radiation dose was 78 Gy, median duration of AD was 6 months, and median follow-up was 74 months. The 10-year overall survival (OS) was 60.6%. Prostate cancer was the leading single cause of death, with 10-year mortality of 14.1% (95% CI 10.7-17.6), compared with other cancers (8.4%, 95% CI 5.7-11.1), cardiovascular disease (7.3%, 95% CI 4.7-9.9), and all other causes (10.4%, 95% CI 7.2-13.6). On multivariate analysis, older age (HR 1.55, P=.002) and Charlson comorbidity index score (CS) ?1 (HR 2.20, P<.0001) were significant factors predictive of OS, whereas Gleason score, T stage, prostate-specific antigen, duration of AD, radiation dose, smoking history, and body mass index were not. Men younger than 70 years of age with CS = 0 were more likely to die of prostate cancer than any other cause, whereas older men or those with CS ?1 more commonly suffered non-prostate cancer death. The cumulative incidences of prostate cancer-specific mortality were similar regardless of age or comorbidities (P=.60). Conclusions: Men with high-risk prostate cancer are more likely to die of causes other than prostate cancer, except for the subgroup of men younger than 70 years of age without comorbidities. Only older age and presence of comorbidities significantly predicted for OS, whereas prostate cancer- and treatment-related factors did not.

  11. A preliminary model of the circulating blood for use in radiation dose calculations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hui, Tsz-Yik Edmond

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . , 1968) "Distribution of Dose in the Body for a Source of Gamma Rays Distributed Uniformly in an Organ, " Oak Rdige National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, ORNL-4168. Folkow B ~ and Neil E ~ g 1971' Circulation (New York: Oxford University Press... Phantom, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, ORNL-TM-2250. Wa84 Watson E. E. , Stabin M. G. and Bolch W. E. , 1984, HIRDOSE, Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge/ TN. 53 Va80 van Reenen O. R. , Lotter M. G. , Minnaar P. C. , Heyns A...

  12. Custom Device for Low-Dose Gamma Irradiation of Biological Samples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bi, Ruoming

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    , the structural material is efficient to absorb most of the cosmic-ray energy and reduce the interior dose rate to below 1.2 mGy per day. However, the biological effects of prolonged exposure to low-dose radiation are not well understood. The purpose...

  13. Acute radiation syndrones and their management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation syndromes produced by large doses of ionizing radiation are divided into three general groups depending on dose of radiation and time after exposure. The CNS syndrome requires many thousands of rad, appears in minutes to hours, and kills within hours to days. The GIS appears after doses of a few hundred to 2000 rad. It is characterized by nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and disturbances of water and electrolyte metabolism. It has a high mortality in the first week after exposure. Survivors will then experience the HS as a result of marrow aplasia. Depending on dose, survival is possible with antibiotic and transfusion therapy. The relationship of granulocyte depression to mortality in dogs and human beings is illustrated. The role of depth dose pattern of mortality of radiation exposure is described and used as an indication of why air exposure doses may be misleading. The therapy of radiation injury is described based on antibiotics, transfusion therapy, and use of molecular regulators. The limited role of matched allogenic bone marrow transplants is discussed. 52 refs., 13 figs.

  14. Radiation dose delivered to the proximal penis as a predictor of the risk of erectile dysfunction after three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wernicke, A. Gabriella [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College and Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Valicenti, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College and Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)]. E-mail: richard.valicenti@mail.tju.edu; DiEva, Kelly [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College and Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Houser, Christopher [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jefferson Medical College and Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Pequignot, Ed [Department of Medicine, Jefferson Medical College and Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2004-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose/objective: In this study, we evaluated in a serial manner whether radiation dose to the bulb of the penis is predictive of erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory difficulty (EJ), and overall satisfaction with sex life (quality of life) by using serial validated self-administered questionnaires. Methods and materials: Twenty-nine potent men with AJCC Stage II prostate cancer treated with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy alone to a median dose 72.0 Gy (range: 66.6-79.2 Gy) were evaluated by determining the doses received by the penile bulb. The penile bulb was delineated volumetrically, and the dose-volume histogram was obtained on each patient. Results: The median follow-up time was 35 months (range, 16-43 months). We found that for D{sub 30}, D{sub 45}, D{sub 60}, and D{sub 75} (doses to a percent volume of PB: 30%, 45%, 60%, and 75%), higher than the corresponding median dose (defined as high-dose group) correlated with an increased risk of impotence (erectile dysfunction firmness score = 0) (odds ratio [OR] = 7.5, p = 0.02; OR = 7.5, p = 0.02; OR = 8.6, p = 0.008; and OR = 6.9, p = 0.015, respectively). Similarly, for EJD D{sub 30}, D{sub 45}, D{sub 60}, and D{sub 75}, doses higher than the corresponding median ones correlated with worsening ejaculatory function score (EJ = 0 or 1) (OR = 8, p = 0.013; OR = 8, p 0.013; OR = 9.2, p = 0.015; and OR = 8, p = 0.026, respectively). For quality of life, low ({<=}median dose) dose groups of patients improve over time, whereas high-dose groups of patients worsen. Conclusions: This study supports the existence of a penile bulb dose-volume relationship underlying the development of radiation-induced erectile dysfunction. Our data may guide the use of inverse treatment planning to maximize the probability of maintaining sexual potency after radiation therapy.

  15. Effect of prolonged high dose misonidazole on tumor response to radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNally, N.J.; de Ronde, J.; Hinchliffe, M.

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    WHFIB and SA F tumors were exposed to misonidazole (MISO) concentrations of 2.5 mM or more for up to 4 hours (SA F) or 6 hours (WHFIB). There was no increase in the MISO enhancement ratio (SER) in the SA F for a 4 hour exposure to MISO relative to that following a single injection. In the WHFIB tumor, the ER increased from 2.2 for a single MISO injection to 2.5 for a 4 hour contact with MISO for tumor growth delay, and from 2.1 to 2.3 for a cloning assay. Prolonged contact with MISO was toxic and reduced the body temperature by 4 to 5/sup 0/C. For WHFIB cells in vitro, when the contact time (in hypoxia) with 2.5 mM MISO was increased from 0.5 to 2.5 hours, the ER increased from 2.1 to 2.9 at 37/sup 0/C and from 1.9 to 2.5 at 33/sup 0/C.

  16. Assessment of inhalation and ingestion doses from exposure to radon gas using passive and active detecting techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ismail, A. H.; Jafaar, M. S. [Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia)

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this study was to assess an environmental hazard of radon exhalation rate from the samples of soil and drinking water in selected locations in Iraqi Kurdistan, passive (CR-39NTDs) and active (RAD7) detecting techniques has been employed. Long and short term measurements of emitted radon concentrations were estimated for 124 houses. High and lower radon concentration in soil samples was in the cities of Hajyawa and Er. Tyrawa, respectively. Moreover, for drinking water, high and low radon concentration was in the cities of Similan and Kelak, respectively. A comparison between our results with that mentioned in international reports had been done. Average annual dose equivalent to the bronchial epithelium, stomach and whole body in the cities of Kelak and Similan are estimated, and it was varied from 0.04{+-}0.01 mSv to 0.547{+-}0.018 mSv, (2.832{+-}0.22)x10{sup -5} to (11.972{+-}2.09)x10{sup -5} mSv, and (0.056 {+-}0.01) x10{sup -5} to (0.239{+-}0.01)x10{sup -5} mSv, respectively. This indicated that the effects of dissolved radon on the bronchial epithelium are much than on the stomach and whole body. (authors)

  17. Stable Intrachromosomal Biomarkers of Past Exposure to Densely Ionizing Radiation in Several Chromosomes of Exposed Individuals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenner, David Jonathan

    , researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Radiation Research. http://www.jstor.org #12. Brennera aCenterfor Radiological Research, Columbia University, 630 West 168th Street, New York,New York

  18. A Phase I/II Trial of Intensity Modulated Radiation (IMRT) Dose Escalation With Concurrent Fixed-dose Rate Gemcitabine (FDR-G) in Patients With Unresectable Pancreatic Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben-Josef, Edgar, E-mail: edgar.ben-josef@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Schipper, Mathew [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Francis, Isaac R. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Hadley, Scott; Ten-Haken, Randall; Lawrence, Theodore; Normolle, Daniel [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Simeone, Diane M.; Sonnenday, Christopher [Department of Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Surgery, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Abrams, Ross [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Leslie, William [Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Rush Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States)] [Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Rush Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Khan, Gazala; Zalupski, Mark M. [Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Local failure in unresectable pancreatic cancer may contribute to death. We hypothesized that intensification of local therapy would improve local control and survival. The objectives were to determine the maximum tolerated radiation dose delivered by intensity modulated radiation with fixed-dose rate gemcitabine (FDR-G), freedom from local progression (FFLP), and overall survival (OS). Methods and Materials: Eligibility included pathologic confirmation of adenocarcinoma, radiographically unresectable, performance status of 0-2, absolute neutrophil count of {>=}1500/mm{sup 3}, platelets {>=}100,000/mm{sup 3}, creatinine <2 mg/dL, bilirubin <3 mg/dL, and alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase {<=}2.5 Multiplication-Sign upper limit of normal. FDR-G (1000 mg/m{sup 2}/100 min intravenously) was given on days -22 and -15, 1, 8, 22, and 29. Intensity modulated radiation started on day 1. Dose levels were escalated from 50-60 Gy in 25 fractions. Dose-limiting toxicity was defined as gastrointestinal toxicity grade (G) {>=}3, neutropenic fever, or deterioration in performance status to {>=}3 between day 1 and 126. Dose level was assigned using TITE-CRM (Time-to-Event Continual Reassessment Method) with the target dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) rate set to 0.25. Results: Fifty patients were accrued. DLTs were observed in 11 patients: G3/4 anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and/or dehydration (7); duodenal bleed (3); duodenal perforation (1). The recommended dose is 55 Gy, producing a probability of DLT of 0.24. The 2-year FFLP is 59% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 32-79). Median and 2-year overall survival are 14.8 months (95% CI: 12.6-22.2) and 30% (95% CI 17-45). Twelve patients underwent resection (10 R0, 2 R1) and survived a median of 32 months. Conclusions: High-dose radiation therapy with concurrent FDR-G can be delivered safely. The encouraging efficacy data suggest that outcome may be improved in unresectable patients through intensification of local therapy.

  19. Variations of the hypoxic fraction in the SCC VII tumors after single dose and during fractionated radiation therapy: Assessment without anesthesia or physical restraint of mice

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kitakabu, Y.; Shibamoto, Y.; Sasai, K.; Ono, K.; Abe, M. (Kyoto Univ. (Japan))

    1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Variations of the hypoxic fraction (HF) after single dose (13 Gy or 4 Gy) and during fractionated (5 fractions of 4 Gy, 1 or 2 fractions per day) radiation therapy were studied in SCC VII tumors implanted subcutaneously in the hind legs of C3H/He/Jms mice using the paired survival curve method. Whole-body irradiation was delivered to tumor-bearing mice without anesthesia or physical restraint, because both are known to increase the HF artificially. The HF decreased after a single 13 Gy dose in a biphasic fashion: extremely rapidly within 1 hr and comparatively slowly during the following 12-72 hr. On the other hand, nearly no fall of HF was observed in 24 hr following a single 4 Gy dose. Also, reoxygenation was found to occur more rapidly in the interfraction period as the number of fractions of 4 Gy increased irrespective of differences of interfraction time. However, the HF just before each radiation fraction was significantly higher than the pretreatment level for both fractionated regimens. Thus, the reoxygenation patterns observed after single low and high doses of irradiation were different from each other, and reoxygenation in each interfraction period did not always proceed in a similar manner to that after single low dose irradiation. Reoxygenation was facilitated as fractionated radiation therapy proceeded, but it was not sufficient for the HF to remain at a level comparable to that before irradiation.

  20. Evaluation of offsite dose assessment methodologies used in the nuclear industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berry, Robert Orwell

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    power plant, special studies have been done to estimate the doses due to releases from these facilities. To establish a consistent methodology to be used in the determination of the radiation doses from nuclear power plants the U. S. Nuclear..., Part 20, "Standards for Protection Against Radiation" (10CFR20). Specific design objectives for light-water-cooled nuclear power reactors on exposure levels in unrestricted areas outside these facilities are presented in 10CFR50. Some of the newly...

  1. Shared Dosimetry Error in Epidemiological Dose-Response Analyses

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stram, Daniel O.; Preston, Dale L.; Sokolnikov, Mikhail; Napier, Bruce; Kopecky, Kenneth J.; Boice, John; Beck, Harold; Till, John; Bouville, Andre; Zeeb, Hajo

    2015-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation dose reconstruction systems for large-scale epidemiological studies are sophisticated both in providing estimates of dose and in representing dosimetry uncertainty. For example, a computer program was used by the Hanford Thyroid Disease Study to provide 100 realizations of possible dose to study participants. The variation in realizations reflected the range of possible dose for each cohort member consistent with the data on dose determinates in the cohort. Another example is the Mayak Worker Dosimetry System 2013 which estimates both external and internal exposures and provides multiple realizations of "possible" dose history to workers given dose determinants. This paper takesmore »up the problem of dealing with complex dosimetry systems that provide multiple realizations of dose in an epidemiologic analysis. In this paper we derive expected scores and the information matrix for a model used widely in radiation epidemiology, namely the linear excess relative risk (ERR) model that allows for a linear dose response (risk in relation to radiation) and distinguishes between modifiers of background rates and of the excess risk due to exposure. We show that treating the mean dose for each individual (calculated by averaging over the realizations) as if it was true dose (ignoring both shared and unshared dosimetry errors) gives asymptotically unbiased estimates (i.e. the score has expectation zero) and valid tests of the null hypothesis that the ERR slope ? is zero. Although the score is unbiased the information matrix (and hence the standard errors of the estimate of ?) is biased for ?6¼0 when ignoring errors in dose estimates, and we show how to adjust the information matrix to remove this bias, using the multiple realizations of dose. The use of these methods in the context of several studies including, the MayakWorker Cohort, and the U.S. Atomic Veterans Study, is discussed.« less

  2. Prognostic Significance of Carbohydrate Antigen 19-9 in Unresectable Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Treated With Dose-Escalated Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy and Concurrent Full-Dose Gemcitabine: Analysis of a Prospective Phase 1/2 Dose Escalation Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vainshtein, Jeffrey M., E-mail: jvainsh@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Schipper, Matthew [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Zalupski, Mark M. [Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Lawrence, Theodore S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Abrams, Ross [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Rush Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Francis, Isaac R. [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Khan, Gazala [Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Leslie, William [Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Rush Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States)] [Division of Hematology Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, Rush Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Ben-Josef, Edgar [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Although established in the postresection setting, the prognostic value of carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9) in unresectable locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC) is less clear. We examined the prognostic utility of CA19-9 in patients with unresectable LAPC treated on a prospective trial of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) dose escalation with concurrent gemcitabine. Methods and Materials: Forty-six patients with unresectable LAPC were treated at the University of Michigan on a phase 1/2 trial of IMRT dose escalation with concurrent gemcitabine. CA19-9 was obtained at baseline and during routine follow-up. Cox models were used to assess the effect of baseline factors on freedom from local progression (FFLP), distant progression (FFDP), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Stepwise forward regression was used to build multivariate predictive models for each endpoint. Results: Thirty-eight patients were eligible for the present analysis. On univariate analysis, baseline CA19-9 and age predicted OS, CA19-9 at baseline and 3 months predicted PFS, gross tumor volume (GTV) and black race predicted FFLP, and CA19-9 at 3 months predicted FFDP. On stepwise multivariate regression modeling, baseline CA19-9, age, and female sex predicted OS; baseline CA19-9 and female sex predicted both PFS and FFDP; and GTV predicted FFLP. Patients with baseline CA19-9 ?90 U/mL had improved OS (median 23.0 vs 11.1 months, HR 2.88, P<.01) and PFS (14.4 vs 7.0 months, HR 3.61, P=.001). CA19-9 progression over 90 U/mL was prognostic for both OS (HR 3.65, P=.001) and PFS (HR 3.04, P=.001), and it was a stronger predictor of death than either local progression (HR 1.46, P=.42) or distant progression (HR 3.31, P=.004). Conclusions: In patients with unresectable LAPC undergoing definitive chemoradiation therapy, baseline CA19-9 was independently prognostic even after established prognostic factors were controlled for, whereas CA19-9 progression strongly predicted disease progression and death. Future trials should stratify by baseline CA19-9 and incorporate CA19-9 progression as a criterion for progressive disease.

  3. Determination of radionuclides and pathways contributing to cumulative dose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napier, B.A.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of scoping calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the absolute and relative contributions of different radionuclides and exposure pathways to doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. This scoping calculation (Calculation 004) examined the contributions of numerous radionuclides to cumulative dose via environmental exposures and accumulation in foods. Addressed in this calculation were the contributions to organ and effective dose of infants and adults from (1) air submersion and groundshine external dose, (2) inhalation, (3) ingestion of soil by humans, (4) ingestion of leafy vegetables, (5) ingestion of other vegetables and fruits, (6) ingestion of meat, (7) ingestion of eggs, and (8) ingestion of cows' milk from Feeding Regime 1, as described in calculation 002. This calculation specifically addresses cumulative radiation doses to infants and adults resulting from releases occurring over the period 1945 through 1972.

  4. assessing inhalation exposure: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Total- Body Radiation Exposure Dosimetry CiteSeer Summary: The risk of radiation exposure, due to accidental or malicious release of ionizing radiation, is a major public...

  5. Method and apparatus for reducing radiation exposure through the use of infrared data transmission

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Austin, Frank S. (Schaghticoke, NY); Hance, Albert B. (Schenectady, NY)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus is described for transmitting information, for exae, dosimetry data from a hazardous environment such as a radioactive area to a remote relatively safe location. A radiation detector senses the radiation and generates an electrical signal which is fed as a binary coded decimal signal to an infrared transmitter having a microprocessor. The microprocessor formats the detected information into digits of data and modulates a 40 kHz oscillator, the output of which is fed to and intensity modulates one or more infrared emitting diodes. The infrared signal from the diodes is transmitted to a portable hand-held infrared receiver remote from the hazardous environment. The receiver includes an infrared sensitive diode which decodes the data and generates an electrical signal which is coupled to a microcomputer. The microcomputer synchronizes itself to the transmitter, reads the digits of data as they are received, sums the digits and compares the sum with a checksum signal generated and transmitted from the transmitter. If a match of the checksum signals exists, the received data is displayed, otherwise it is described and the receiver conditions itself for the next transmission of data.

  6. Tissue responses to low protracted doses of high let radiations or photons: Early and late damage relevant to radio-protective countermeasures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ainsworth, E.J.; Afzal, S.M.J.; Crouse, D.A.; Hanson, W.R.; Fry, R.J.M.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Early and late murine tissue responses to single or fractionated low doses of heavy charged particles, fission-spectrum neutrons or gamma rays are considered. Damage to the hematopoietic system is emphasized, but results on acute lethality, host response to challenge with transplanted leukemia cells and life-shortening are presented. Low dose rates per fraction were used in some neutron experiments. Split-dose lethality studies (LD 50/30) with fission neutrons indicated greater accumulation of injury during a 9 fraction course (over 17 days) than was the case for ..gamma..-radiation. When total doses of 96 or 247 cGy of neutrons or ..gamma.. rays were given as a single dose or in 9 fractions, a significant sparing effect on femur CFU-S depression was observed for both radiation qualities during the first 11 days, but there was not an earlier return to normal with dose fractionation. During the 9 fraction sequence, a significant sparing effect of low dose rate on CFU-S depression was observed in both neutron and ..gamma..-irradiated mice. CFU-S content at the end of the fractionation sequence did not correlate with measured LD 50/30. Sustained depression of femur and spleen CFU-S and a significant thrombocytopenia were observed when a total neutron dose of 240 cGy was given in 72 fractions over 24 weeks at low dose rates. The temporal aspects of CFU-S repopulation were different after a single versus fractionated neutron doses. The sustained reduction in the size of the CFU-S population was accompanied by an increase in the fraction in DNA synthesis. The proliferation characteristics and effects of age were different for radial CFU-S population closely associated with bone, compared with the axial population that can be readily aspirated from the femur. In aged irradiated animals, the CFU-S proliferation/redistribution response to typhoid vaccine showed both an age and radiation effect. 63 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Patterns of Local Recurrence and Dose Fractionation of Adjuvant Radiation Therapy in 462 Patients With Soft Tissue Sarcoma of Extremity and Trunk Wall

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jebsen, Nina L., E-mail: nina.louise.jebsen@helse-bergen.no [Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Department of Oncology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Engellau, Jacob [Department of Oncology, Skåne University Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Engström, Katarina [Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Bauer, Henrik C. [Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section for Orthopaedics and Sports Medicine, Karolinska University Hospital, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Monge, Odd R. [Department of Oncology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Muren, Ludvig P. [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Department of Medical Physics, Aarhus University and Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Eide, Geir E. [Centre for Clinical Research, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Department of Public Health and Primary Health Care, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Trovik, Clement S. [Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Bergen, Bergen (Norway); Department of Oncology, Haukeland University Hospital, Bergen (Norway); Bruland, Øyvind S. [Department of Oncology, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo (Norway); Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo (Norway)

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To study the impact of dose fractionation of adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) on local recurrence (LR) and the relation of LR to radiation fields. Methods and Materials: LR rates were analyzed in 462 adult patients with soft tissue sarcoma who underwent surgical excision and adjuvant RT at five Scandinavian sarcoma centers from 1998 to 2009. Medical records were reviewed for dose fractionation parameters and to determine the location of the LR relative to the radiation portals. Results: Fifty-five of 462 patients developed a LR (11.9%). Negative prognostic factors included intralesional surgical margin (hazard ratio [HR]: 7.83, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.08-20.0), high malignancy grade (HR: 5.82, 95% CI: 1.31-25.8), age at diagnosis (HR per 10 years: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.03-1.56), and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor histological subtype (HR: 6.66, 95% CI: 2.56-17.3). RT dose was tailored to margin status. No correlation between RT dose and LR rate was found in multiple Cox regression analysis. The majority (65%) of LRs occurred within the primary RT volume. Conclusions: No significant dose–response effect of adjuvant RT was demonstrated. Interestingly, patients given 45-Gy accelerated RT (1.8 Gy twice daily/2.5 weeks) had the best local outcome. A total dose of 50 Gy in 25 fractions seemed adequate following wide margin surgery. The risk of LR was associated with histopathologic subtype, which should be included in the treatment algorithm of adjuvant RT in soft tissue sarcoma.

  8. Radiation Protection Policy for Pregnant Workers Procedure: 7.40 Created: 02/03/2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Songtao

    Radiation Protection Policy for Pregnant Workers Procedure: 7.40 Created: 02/03/2005 Version: 1 of the Columbia University to limit the radiation dose to the embryo/fetus of a declared pregnant occupationally to the risks of radiation exposure and to consult with her regarding recommendations for maintaining

  9. Human Brain Imaging and Radiation Dosimetry of 11C-N-Desmethyl-Loperamide,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Jun

    Human Brain Imaging and Radiation Dosimetry of 11C-N-Desmethyl-Loperamide, a PET Radiotracer- tion of radioactivity in the entire body to estimate radiation expo- sure. Methods: Brain PET scans-body imaging, as a measure of radiation exposure to the entire body the effective dose of 11C-dLop was 7.8 6 0

  10. Historical Evaluation of Film Badge Dosimetry Y-12 Plant: Part 2–Neutron Radiation ORAUT-OTIB-0045

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerr GD, Frome EL, Watkins JP, Tankersley WG

    2009-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A summary of the major neutron sources involved in radiation exposures to Y-12 workers is presented in this TIB. Graphical methods are used to evaluate available neutron dose data from quarterly exposures to Y-12 workers and to determine how the data could be used to derive neutron-to-gamma dose ratios for dose reconstruction purposes. This TIB provides estimates of neutron-to-gamma dose ratios for specific departments and a default value for the neutron-to-gamma dose ratio based on the pooled neutron dose data for all Y-12 departments.

  11. Low Dose Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5LetLooking5investsLouisPrepared:Stability

  12. RADIATION SENSITIVITY & PROCESSING OF DNA DAMAGE FOLLOWING LOW DOSES OF GAMMA-RAY ALPHA PARTICLES & HZE IRRADIATION OF NORMAL DSB REPAIR DEFICIENT CELLS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Neil, Peter

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) predominates in the repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSB) over homologous recombination (HR). NHEJ occurs throughout the cell cycle whereas HR occurs in late S/G2 due to the requirement of a sister chromatid (Rothkamm et al, Mol Cell Biol 23 5706-15 [2003]). To date evidence obtained with DSB repair deficient cells using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis has revealed the major pathway throughout all phases of the cell cycle for processing high dose induced DSBs is NHEJ (Wang et al, Oncogene 20 2212-24 (2001); Pluth et al, Cancer Res. 61 2649-55 [2001]). These findings however were obtained at high doses when on average >> 20-30 DSBs are formed per cell. The contribution of the repair pathways (NHEJ and HR) induced in response to DNA damage during the various phases of the cell cycle may depend upon the dose (the level of initial DSBs) especially since low levels of DSBs are induced at low dose. To date, low dose studies using NHEJ and HR deficient mutants have not been carried out to address this important question with radiations of different quality. The work presented here leads us to suggest that HR plays a relatively minor role in the repair of radiation-induced prompt DSBs. SSBs lead to the induction of DSBs which are associated specifically with S-phase cells consistent with the idea that they are formed at stalled replication forks in which HR plays a major role in repair. That DNA-PKcs is in some way involved in the repair of the precursors to replication-induced DSB remains an open question. Persistent non-DSB oxidative damage also leads to an increase in RAD51 positive DSBs. Both simple and complex non-DSB DNA damage may therefore contribute to indirect DSBs induced by ionising radiation at replication forks.

  13. Determining the effective dose equivalent and effective dose for anthropomorphic phantoms with different torso thicknesses for broad parallel beams of external photon radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chichkov, Igor

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for broad parallel beams of external photon radiation. The mathematical model of the human body that was used for this study was a hermaphroditic phantom developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Eckerman et at. 1996). Adding a layer of soft tissue...

  14. Determining the effective dose equivalent and effective dose for anthropomorphic phantoms with different torso thicknesses for broad parallel beams of external photon radiation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chichkov, Igor

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for broad parallel beams of external photon radiation. The mathematical model of the human body that was used for this study was a hermaphroditic phantom developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Eckerman et at. 1996). Adding a layer of soft tissue...

  15. American Society for Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) and American College of Radiology (ACR) Practice Guideline for the Performance of High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erickson, Beth A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); Demanes, D. Jeffrey [Department of Radiation Oncology , University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ibbott, Geoffrey S. [Radiological Physics Center, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Hayes, John K. [Gamma West Brachytherapy, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Hsu, I-Chow J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Morris, David E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Rabinovitch, Rachel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); Tward, Jonathan D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Huntsman Cancer Institute, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Rosenthal, Seth A. [Radiation Oncology Centers, Radiological Associates of Sacramento, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-Dose-Rate (HDR) brachytherapy is a safe and efficacious treatment option for patients with a variety of different malignancies. Careful adherence to established standards has been shown to improve the likelihood of procedural success and reduce the incidence of treatment-related morbidity. A collaborative effort of the American College of Radiology (ACR) and American Society for Therapeutic Radiation Oncology (ASTRO) has produced a practice guideline for HDR brachytherapy. The guideline defines the qualifications and responsibilities of all the involved personnel, including the radiation oncologist, physicist and dosimetrists. Review of the leading indications for HDR brachytherapy in the management of gynecologic, thoracic, gastrointestinal, breast, urologic, head and neck, and soft tissue tumors is presented. Logistics with respect to the brachytherapy implant procedures and attention to radiation safety procedures and documentation are presented. Adherence to these practice guidelines can be part of ensuring quality and safety in a successful HDR brachytherapy program.

  16. Occupational dose estimates for a monitored retrievable storage facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harty, R.; Stoetzel, G.A.

    1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Occupational doses were estimated for radiation workers at the monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. This study provides an estimate of the occupational dose based on the current MRS facility design, examines the extent that various design parameters and assumptions affect the dose estimates, and identifies the areas and activities where exposures can be reduced most effectively. Occupational doses were estimated for both the primary storage concept and the alternate storage concept. The dose estimates indicate the annual dose to all radiation workers will be below the 5 rem/yr federal dose equivalent limit. However, the estimated dose to most of the receiving and storage crew (the workers responsible for the receipt, storage, and surveillance of the spent fuel and its subsequent retrieval), to the crane maintenance technicians, and to the cold and remote maintenance technicians is above the design objective of 1 rem/yr. The highest annual dose is received by the riggers (4.7 rem) in the receiving and storage crew. An indication of the extent to which various design parameters and assumptions affect the dose estimates was obtained by changing various design-based assumptions such as work procedures, background dose rates in radiation zones, and the amount of fuel received and stored annually. The study indicated that a combination of remote operations, increased shielding, and additional personnel (for specific jobs) or changes in operating procedures will be necessary to reduce worker doses below 1.0 rem/yr. Operations that could be made at least partially remote include the removal and replacement of the tiedowns, impact limiters, and personnel barriers from the shipping casks and the removal or installation of the inner closure bolts. Reductions of the background dose rates in the receiving/shipping and the transfer/discharge areas may be accomplished with additional shielding.

  17. GENII. Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Suite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napier, B.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA, (United States)

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GENII was developed to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) into the environmental pathway analysis models used at Hanford. GENII is a coupled system of seven programs and the associated data libraries that comprise the Hanford Dosimetry System (Generation II) to estimate potential radiation doses to individuals or populations from both routine and accidental releases of radionuclides to air or water and residual contamination from spills or decontamination operations. The GENII system includes interactive menu-driven programs to assist the user with scenario generation and data input,internal and external dose factor generators, and environmental dosimetry programs. The programs analyze environmental contamination resulting from both far-field and near-field scenarios. A far-field scenario focuses outward from a source, while a near-field scenario focuses in toward a receptor. GENII can calculate annual dose, committed dose, and accumulated dose from acute and chronic releases from ground or elevated sources to air or water and from initial contamination of soil or surfaces and can evaluate exposure pathways including direct exposure via water, soil, air, inhalation pathways, and ingestion pathways. In addition, GENII can perform 10,000 years migration analyses and can be used for retrospective calculations of potential radiation doses resulting from routine emissions and for prospective dose calculations for purposes such as siting facilities, environmental impact statements, and safety analysis reports.

  18. Types of Radiation Exposure

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2,EHSS A-Zandofpoint motional StarkFuel Cells »

  19. A phase I/II trial of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung metastases: Initial report of dose escalation and early toxicity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schefter, Tracey E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO (United States)]. E-mail: Tracey.Schefter@uchsc.edu; Kavanagh, Brian D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO (United States); Raben, David [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO (United States); Kane, Madeleine [Division of Medical Oncology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO (United States); Chen Changhu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO (United States); Stuhr, Kelly [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO (United States); Kelly, Karen [Division of Medical Oncology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO (United States); Mitchell, John D. [Section of Thoracic Surgery, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO (United States); Bunn, Paul A. [Division of Medical Oncology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO (United States); Gaspar, Laurie E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO (United States)

    2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for lung metastases. Methods and Materials: A Phase I clinical trial was conducted. Eligible patients had one to three pulmonary metastases from a solid tumor, cumulative tumor diameter <7 cm, and adequate pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s {>=}1.0 L). The planning target volume (PTV) was typically constructed from the gross tumor volume (GTV) by adding a 5-mm radial and 10-mm craniocaudal margin. The first cohort received 48 Gy to the PTV in three fractions (F). SBRT dose was escalated in subsequent cohorts up to a preselected maximum of 60 Gy/3 F. The percent of normal lung receiving more than 15 Gy (V{sub 15}) was restricted to less than 35%. Respiratory control and a dynamic conformal arc SBRT technique were used. Dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) included acute Grade 3 lung or esophageal toxicity or any acute Grade 4 toxicity within 3 months. After the Phase I dose escalation, the trial continued as a Phase II study, and patients in this cohort are included to increase the number of patients evaluable for early toxicity assessment. Results: Twenty-five eligible patients have been enrolled to date. In the Phase I component of the trial, there were 12 patients (7 male, 5 female): median age, 55 years (range, 31-83 years); the most common primary site was colorectal (4 patients). Seven patients had two lung lesions, and 1 patient had three lesions. The median aggregate volume of all GTVs was 18.7 mL (range, 2-40 mL). No patient experienced a DLT, and dose was escalated to 60 Gy/3 F without reaching the MTD; including the additional Phase II cohort patients, 16 patients have been treated to a dose of 60 Gy/3F without experiencing a DLT in the first 3 months. The equivalent uniform dose to the GTV in the highest dose group ranged from 66 to 77 Gy in 3 F. Conclusions: In patients with limited pulmonary metastases, radiobiologically potent doses of SBRT are well tolerated with minimal early toxicity. A Phase II SBRT study of 60 Gy/3 F for lung metastases is ongoing to evaluate local tumor control rates with this regimen and continue surveillance for any late effects.

  20. Effect of ultraviolet radiation exposure on room-temperature hydrogen sensitivity of nanocrystalline doped tin oxide sensor incorporated into microelectromechanical systems device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shukla, Satyajit; Agrawal, Rajnikant; Cho, Hyoung J.; Seal, Sudipta; Ludwig, Lawrence; Parish, Clyde [Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center (AMPAC) and Mechanical Materials Aerospace Engineering (MMAE) Department, Engineering 381, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Boulevard, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), John F. Kennedy Space Center, Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida 32899 (United States)

    2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effect of ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure on the room-temperature hydrogen (H{sub 2}) sensitivity of nanocrystalline indium oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3})-doped tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}) thin-film gas sensor is investigated in this article. The present sensor is incorporated into microelectromechanical systems device using sol-gel dip-coating technique. The present sensor exhibits a very high sensitivity, as high as 65 000-110 000, at room temperature, for 900 ppm of H{sub 2} under the dynamic test condition without UV exposure. The H{sub 2} sensitivity is, however, observed to reduce to 200 under UV radiation, which is contrary to the literature data, where an enhanced room-temperature gas sensitivity has been reported under UV radiation. The observed phenomenon is attributed to the reduced surface coverage by the chemisorbed oxygen ions under UV radiation, which is in consonance with the prediction of the constitutive equation, proposed recently by the authors, for the gas sensitivity of nanocrystalline semiconductor oxide thin-film sensors.

  1. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a multidisciplenary blend of physics, chemistry and biology aimed at understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. The focus is increased on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights of the program from the past year are described. A mathematical model describing the production of single-strand and double-strand breaks in DNA as a function radiation quality has been completed. For the first time Monte Carlo techniques have been used to obtain directly the spatial distribution of DNA moieties altered by radiation. This information was obtained by including the transport codes a realistic description of the electronic structure of DNA. We have investigated structure activity relationships for the potential oncogenicity of a new generation of bioreductive drugs that function as hypoxic cytotoxins. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the inverse dose rate effect, whereby medium LET radiations actually produce an c effect when the dose is protracted, is now at a point where the basic mechanisms are reasonably understood and the complex interplay between dose, dose rate and radiation quality which is necessary for the effect to be present can now be predicted at least in vitro. In terms of early radiobiological damage, a quantitative link has been established between basic energy deposition and locally multiply damaged sites, the radiochemical precursor of DNA double strand breaks; specifically, the spatial and energy deposition requirements necessary to form LMDs have been evaluated. For the first time, a mechanically understood biological fingerprint'' of high-LET radiation has been established. Specifically measurement of the ratio of inter-to intra-chromosomal aberrations produces a unique signature from alpha-particles or neutrons.

  2. Postoperative Nomogram Predicting the 9-Year Probability of Prostate Cancer Recurrence After Permanent Prostate Brachytherapy Using Radiation Dose as a Prognostic Variable

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potters, Louis, E-mail: LPotters@nshs.ed [Department of Radiation Medicine, North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System, New Hyde Park, NY (United States); Roach, Mack [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Urology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Davis, Brian J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Stock, Richard G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Ciezki, Jay P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Zelefsky, Michael J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Stone, Nelson N. [Department of Urology, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY (United States); Fearn, Paul A. [Department of Urology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY (United States); Yu Changhong [Glickman Urological Institute and the Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States); Shinohara, Katsuto [Departments of Radiation Oncology and Urology, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Kattan, Michael W. [Glickman Urological Institute and the Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To report a multi-institutional outcomes study on permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB) to 9 years that includes postimplant dosimetry, to develop a postimplant nomogram predicting biochemical freedom from recurrence. Methods and Materials: Cox regression analysis was used to model the clinical information for 5,931 patients who underwent PPB for clinically localized prostate cancer from six centers. The model was validated against the dataset using bootstrapping. Disease progression was determined using the Phoenix definition. The biological equivalent dose was calculated from the minimum dose to 90% of the prostate volume (D90) and external-beam radiotherapy dose using an alpha/beta of 2. Results: The 9-year biochemical freedom from recurrence probability for the modeling set was 77% (95% confidence interval, 73-81%). In the model, prostate-specific antigen, Gleason sum, isotope, external beam radiation, year of treatment, and D90 were associated with recurrence (each p < 0.05), whereas clinical stage was not. The concordance index of the model was 0.710. Conclusion: A predictive model for a postimplant nomogram for prostate cancer recurrence at 9-years after PPB has been developed and validated from a large multi-institutional database. This study also demonstrates the significance of implant dosimetry for predicting outcome. Unique to predictive models, these nomograms may be used a priori to calculate a D90 that likely achieves a desired outcome with further validation. Thus, a personalized dose prescription can potentially be calculated for each patient.

  3. Regulation Of Nf=kb And Mnsod In Low Dose Radiation Induced Adaptive Protection Of Mouse And Human Skin Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jian Li

    2012-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A sampling of publications resulting from this grant is provided. One is on the subject of NF-κB-Mediated HER2 Overexpression in Radiation-Adaptive Resistance. Another is on NF-κB-mediated adaptive resistance to ionizing radiation.

  4. Phase 1 of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    For more than 40 years, the US government made plutonium for nuclear weapons at the Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. Radioactive materials were released to both the air and water from Hanford. People could have been exposed to these materials, called radionuclides. The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is a multi-year scientific study to estimate the radiation doses the public may have received as a results of these releases. The study began in 1988. During the first phase, scientists began to develop and test methods for reconstructing the radiation doses. To do this, scientists found or reconstructed information about the amount and type of radionuclides that were released from Hadford facilities, where they traveled in environment, and how they reached people. Information about the people who could have been exposed was also found or reconstructed. Scientists then developed a computer model that can estimate doses from radiation exposure received many years ago. All the information that had been gathered was fed into the computer model. Then scientists did a test run'' to see whether the model was working properly. As part of its test run,'' scientists asked the computer model to generate two types of preliminary results: amounts of radionuclides in the environment (air, soil, pasture grass, food, and milk) and preliminary doses people could have received from all the routes of radiation exposure, called exposure pathways. Preliminary dose estimates were made for categories of people who shared certain characteristics and for the Phase 1 population as a whole. 26 refs., 48 figs.

  5. SU-E-I-82: Improving CT Image Quality for Radiation Therapy Using Iterative Reconstruction Algorithms and Slightly Increasing Imaging Doses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noid, G; Chen, G; Tai, A; Li, X [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Iterative reconstruction (IR) algorithms are developed to improve CT image quality (IQ) by reducing noise without diminishing spatial resolution or contrast. For CT in radiation therapy (RT), slightly increasing imaging dose to improve IQ may be justified if it can substantially enhance structure delineation. The purpose of this study is to investigate and to quantify the IQ enhancement as a result of increasing imaging doses and using IR algorithms. Methods: CT images were acquired for phantoms, built to evaluate IQ metrics including spatial resolution, contrast and noise, with a variety of imaging protocols using a CT scanner (Definition AS Open, Siemens) installed inside a Linac room. Representative patients were scanned once the protocols were optimized. Both phantom and patient scans were reconstructed using the Sinogram Affirmed Iterative Reconstruction (SAFIRE) and the Filtered Back Projection (FBP) methods. IQ metrics of the obtained CTs were compared. Results: IR techniques are demonstrated to preserve spatial resolution as measured by the point spread function and reduce noise in comparison to traditional FBP. Driven by the reduction in noise, the contrast to noise ratio is doubled by adopting the highest SAFIRE strength. As expected, increasing imaging dose reduces noise for both SAFIRE and FBP reconstructions. The contrast to noise increases from 3 to 5 by increasing the dose by a factor of 4. Similar IQ improvement was observed on the CTs for selected patients with pancreas and prostrate cancers. Conclusion: The IR techniques produce a measurable enhancement to CT IQ by reducing the noise. Increasing imaging dose further reduces noise independent of the IR techniques. The improved CT enables more accurate delineation of tumors and/or organs at risk during RT planning and delivery guidance.

  6. Relative Biologic Effects of Low-Dose-Rate {alpha}-Emitting {sup 227}Th-Rituximab and {beta}-Emitting {sup 90}Y-Tiuexetan-Ibritumomab Versus External Beam X-Radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahle, Jostein [Department of Radiation Biology, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Montebello, Oslo (Norway)], E-mail: jostein.dahle@rr-research.no; Bruland, Oyvind S. [University of Oslo and Department of Oncology, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Montebello, Oslo (Norway); Larsen, Roy H. [Department of Radiation Biology, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Montebello, Oslo (Norway)

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To determine the relative biologic effects (RBE) of {alpha}-particle radiation from {sup 227}Th-rituximab and of {beta}-radiation from {sup 90}Y-tiuexetan-ibritumomab (Zevalin) compared with external beam X-radiation in the Raji lymphoma xenograft model. Methods and Materials: Radioimmunoconjugates were administered intravenously in nude mice with Raji lymphoma xenografts at different levels of activity. Absorbed dose to tumor was estimated by separate biodistribution experiments for {sup 227}Th-rituximab and Zevalin. Tumor growth was measured two to three times per week after injection or X-radiation. Treatment-induced increase in growth delay to reach tumor volumes of 500 and 1,000 mm{sup 3}, respectively, was used as an end point. Results: The absorbed radiation dose-rate in tumor was slightly more than 0.1 Gy/d for the first week following injection of {sup 227}Th-rituximab, and thereafter gradually decreased to 0.03 Gy/d at 21 days after injection. For treatment with Zevalin the maximum dose-rate in tumor was achieved already 6 h after injection (0.2 Gy/d), and thereafter decreased to 0.01 Gy/d after 7 days. The relative biologic effect was between 2.5 and 7.2 for {sup 227}Th-rituximab and between 1 and 1.3 for Zevalin. Conclusions: Both at low doses and low-dose-rates, the {sup 227}Th-rituximab treatment was more effective per absorbed radiation dose unit than the two other treatments. The considerable effect at low doses suggests that the best way to administer low-dose-rates, {alpha}-emitting radioimmunoconjugates is via multiple injections.

  7. SPECIAL REPORTS AND REVIEWS Mass Screening With CT Colonography: Should the Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenner, David Jonathan

    SPECIAL REPORTS AND REVIEWS Mass Screening With CT Colonography: Should the Radiation Exposure is highly advantageous, it can be performed with lower radiation doses than almost any other CT examination market in the United States would soon be over 100 million people. Therefore, it is pertinent to consider

  8. SU-E-I-89: Assessment of CT Radiation Dose and Image Quality for An Automated Tube Potential Selection Algorithm Using Pediatric Anthropomorphic and ACR Phantoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahmood, U; Erdi, Y; Wang, W [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, NY, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To assess the impact of General Electrics automated tube potential algorithm, kV assist (kVa) on radiation dose and image quality, with an emphasis on optimizing protocols based on noise texture. Methods: Radiation dose was assessed by inserting optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLs) throughout the body of a pediatric anthropomorphic phantom (CIRS). The baseline protocol was: 120 kVp, 80 mA, 0.7s rotation time. Image quality was assessed by calculating the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) and noise power spectrum (NPS) from the ACR CT accreditation phantom. CNRs were calculated according to the steps described in ACR CT phantom testing document. NPS was determined by taking the 3D FFT of the uniformity section of the ACR phantom. NPS and CNR were evaluated with and without kVa and for all available adaptive iterative statistical reconstruction (ASiR) settings, ranging from 0 to 100%. Each NPS was also evaluated for its peak frequency difference (PFD) with respect to the baseline protocol. Results: For the baseline protocol, CNR was found to decrease from 0.460 ± 0.182 to 0.420 ± 0.057 when kVa was activated. When compared against the baseline protocol, the PFD at ASiR of 40% yielded a decrease in noise magnitude as realized by the increase in CNR = 0.620 ± 0.040. The liver dose decreased by 30% with kVa activation. Conclusion: Application of kVa reduces the liver dose up to 30%. However, reduction in image quality for abdominal scans occurs when using the automated tube voltage selection feature at the baseline protocol. As demonstrated by the CNR and NPS analysis, the texture and magnitude of the noise in reconstructed images at ASiR 40% was found to be the same as our baseline images. We have demonstrated that 30% dose reduction is possible when using 40% ASiR with kVa in pediatric patients.

  9. PSA Response to Neoadjuvant Androgen Deprivation Therapy Is a Strong Independent Predictor of Survival in High-Risk Prostate Cancer in the Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy Era

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGuire, Sean E., E-mail: semcguir@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (United States); Lee, Andrew K. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Cerne, Jasmina Z. [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas (United States); Munsell, Mark F. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Levy, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kudchadker, Rajat J. [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Choi, Seungtaek L.; Nguyen, Quynh N.; Hoffman, Karen E.; Pugh, Thomas J.; Frank, Steven J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Corn, Paul G.; Logothetis, Christopher J. [Department of Genitourinary Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Genitourinary Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kuban, Deborah A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the prognostic value of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response to neoadjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) prior to dose-escalated radiation therapy (RT) and long-term ADT in high-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the charts of all patients diagnosed with high-risk prostate cancer and treated with a combination of long-term ADT (median, 24 months) and dose-escalated (median, 75.6 Gy) RT between 1990 and 2007. The associations among patient, tumor, and treatment characteristics with biochemical response to neoadjuvant ADT and their effects on failure-free survival (FFS), time to distant metastasis (TDM), prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) and overall survival (OS) were examined. Results: A total of 196 patients met criteria for inclusion. Median follow-up time for patients alive at last contact was 7.0 years (range, 0.5-18.1 years). Multivariate analysis identified the pre-RT PSA concentration (<0.5 vs {>=}0.5 ng/mL) as a significant independent predictor of FFS (P=.021), TDM (P=.009), PCSM (P=.039), and OS (P=.037). On multivariate analysis, pretreatment PSA (iPSA) and African-American race were significantly associated with failure to achieve a pre-RT PSA of <0.5 ng/mL. Conclusions: For high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with long-term ADT and dose-escalated RT, a pre-RT PSA level {>=}0.5 ng/mL after neoadjuvant ADT predicts for worse survival measures. Both elevated iPSA and African-American race are associated with increased risk of having a pre-RT PSA level {>=}0.5 ng/mL. These patients should be considered for clinical trials that test newer, more potent androgen-depleting therapies such as abiraterone and MDV3100 in combination with radiation.

  10. Randomized Noninferiority Trial of Reduced High-Dose Volume Versus Standard Volume Radiation Therapy for Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer: Results of the BC2001 Trial (CRUK/01/004)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huddart, Robert A., E-mail: robert.huddart@icr.ac.uk [Institute of Cancer Research, Royal Marsden NHSFT (National Health Service Foundation Trust) (United Kingdom); Hall, Emma [Institute of Cancer Research (United Kingdom); Hussain, Syed A. [University of Liverpool (United Kingdom); Jenkins, Peter [Gloucestershire Hospitals NHSFT (United Kingdom); Rawlings, Christine [South Devon Healthcare NHSFT (United Kingdom); Tremlett, Jean [Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals (United Kingdom); Crundwell, Malcolm [Royal Devon and Exeter NHSFT (United Kingdom); Adab, Fawzi A. [University Hospital of North Staffordshire NHS Trust (United Kingdom); Sheehan, Denise [Royal Devon and Exeter NHSFT (United Kingdom); Syndikus, Isabel [Clatterbridge Cancer Centre NHSFT (United Kingdom); Hendron, Carey [University of Birmingham (United Kingdom); Lewis, Rebecca; Waters, Rachel [Institute of Cancer Research (United Kingdom); James, Nicholas D. [University of Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To test whether reducing radiation dose to uninvolved bladder while maintaining dose to the tumor would reduce side effects without impairing local control in the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer. Methods and Materials: In this phase III multicenter trial, 219 patients were randomized to standard whole-bladder radiation therapy (sRT) or reduced high-dose volume radiation therapy (RHDVRT) that aimed to deliver full radiation dose to the tumor and 80% of maximum dose to the uninvolved bladder. Participants were also randomly assigned to receive radiation therapy alone or radiation therapy plus chemotherapy in a partial 2 × 2 factorial design. The primary endpoints for the radiation therapy volume comparison were late toxicity and time to locoregional recurrence (with a noninferiority margin of 10% at 2 years). Results: Overall incidence of late toxicity was less than predicted, with a cumulative 2-year Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grade 3/4 toxicity rate of 13% (95% confidence interval 8%, 20%) and no statistically significant differences between groups. The difference in 2-year locoregional recurrence free rate (RHDVRT ? sRT) was 6.4% (95% confidence interval ?7.3%, 16.8%) under an intention to treat analysis and 2.6% (?12.8%, 14.6%) in the “per-protocol” population. Conclusions: In this study RHDVRT did not result in a statistically significant reduction in late side effects compared with sRT, and noninferiority of locoregional control could not be concluded formally. However, overall low rates of clinically significant toxicity combined with low rates of invasive bladder cancer relapse confirm that (chemo)radiation therapy is a valid option for the treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

  11. Radiation- and Depleted Uranium-Induced Carcinogenesis Studies: Characterization of the Carcinogenic Process and Development of Medical Countermeasures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. C. Miller; D. Beltran; R. Rivas; M. Stewart; R. J. Merlot; P. B. Lison

    External or internal contamination from radioactive elements during military operations or a terrorist attack is a serious threat to military and civilian populations. External radiation exposure could result from conventional military scenarios including nuclear weapons use and low-dose exposures during radiation accidents or terrorist attacks. Alternatively, internal radiation exposure could result from depleted uranium exposure via DU shrapnel wounds or inhalation. The long-term health effects of these types of radiation exposures are not well known. Furthermore, development of pharmacological countermeasures to low-dose external and internal radiological contamination is essential to the health and safety of both military and civilian populations. The purpose of these studies is to evaluate low-dose radiation or DU-induced carcinogenesis using in vitro and in vivo models, and to test safe and efficacious medical countermeasures. A third goal of these studies is to identify biomarkers of both exposure and disease development. Initially, we used a human cell model (human osteoblast cells, HOS) to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of DU in vitro by assessing morphological transformation, genotoxicity (chromosomal aberrations), mutagenic (HPRT loci), and genomic instability. As a comparison, low-dose cobalt radiation, broad-beam alpha particles, and other military-projectile metals, i.e., tungsten mixtures, are being examined. Published data from

  12. Hypofractionated High-Dose Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer: Long-Term Results of a Multi-Institutional Phase II Trial

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fonteyne, Valerie, E-mail: valerie.fonteyne@uzgent.be [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)] [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Soete, Guy [Department of Radiotherapy, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussels, Jette (Belgium)] [Department of Radiotherapy, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussels, Jette (Belgium); Arcangeli, Stefano [Department of Radiotherapy, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy)] [Department of Radiotherapy, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); De Neve, Wilfried [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)] [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Rappe, Bernard [Department of Urology, Algemeen Stedelijk Ziekenhuis, Aalst (Belgium)] [Department of Urology, Algemeen Stedelijk Ziekenhuis, Aalst (Belgium); Storme, Guy [Department of Radiotherapy, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussels, Jette (Belgium)] [Department of Radiotherapy, Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussels, Jette (Belgium); Strigari, Lidia [Laboratory of Medical Physics and Expert Systems, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy)] [Laboratory of Medical Physics and Expert Systems, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Arcangeli, Giorgio [Department of Radiotherapy, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy)] [Department of Radiotherapy, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); De Meerleer, Gert [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)] [Department of Radiotherapy, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)

    2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To report late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity, biochemical and clinical outcomes, and overall survival after hypofractionated radiation therapy for prostate cancer (PC). Methods and Materials: Three institutions included 113 patients with T1 to T3N0M0 PC in a phase II study. Patients were treated with 56 Gy in 16 fractions over 4 weeks. Late toxicity was scored using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer criteria extended with additional symptoms. Biochemical outcome was reported according to the Phoenix definition for biochemical failure. Results: The incidence of late GI and GU toxicity was low. The 3-year actuarial risk of developing late GU and GI toxicity of grade {>=}2 was 13% and 8% respectively. Five-year biochemical non-evidence of disease (bNED) was 94%. Risk group, T stage, and deviation from planned hormone treatment were significant predictive factors for bNED. Deviation from hormone treatment remained significant in multivariate analysis. Five-year clinical non evidence of disease and overall survival was 95% and 91% respectively. No patient died from PC. Conclusions: Hypofractionated high-dose radiation therapy is a valuable treatment option for patients with PC, with excellent biochemical and clinical outcome and low toxicity.

  13. Outcome of Patients Treated With a Single-Fraction Dose of Palliative Radiation for Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, Tarita O.; Agrawal, Priya [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northwestern University, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northwestern University, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Guitart, Joan [Department of Dermatology, Northwestern University, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States)] [Department of Dermatology, Northwestern University, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Rosen, Steven T. [Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Northwestern University, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States)] [Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Northwestern University, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Rademaker, Alfred W. [Department of Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States)] [Department of Preventive Medicine, Northwestern University, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Querfeld, Christiane [Department of Medicine/Dermatology Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Medicine/Dermatology Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Hayes, John P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northwestern University, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northwestern University, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Kuzel, Timothy M. [Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Northwestern University, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States)] [Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Northwestern University, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Mittal, Bharat B., E-mail: bmittal@nmh.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northwestern University, Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) is a radiosensitive tumor. Presently, treatment with radiation is given in multiple fractions. The current literature lacks data that support single-fraction treatment for CTCL. This retrospective review assesses the clinical response in patients treated with a single fraction of radiation. Methods and Materials: This study reviewed the records of 58 patients with CTCL, primarily mycosis fungoides, treated with a single fraction of palliative radiation therapy (RT) between October 1991 and January 2011. Patient and tumor characteristics were reviewed. Response rates were compared using Fisher's exact test and multiple logistic regressions. Survival rates were determined using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cost-effectiveness analysis was performed to assess the cost of a single vs a multifractionated treatment regimen. Results: Two hundred seventy individual lesions were treated, with the majority (97%) treated with ?700 cGy; mean follow-up was 41.3 months (range, 3-180 months). Response rate by lesion was assessed, with a complete response (CR) in 255 (94.4%) lesions, a partial response in 10 (3.7%) lesions, a partial response converted to a CR after a second treatment in 4 (1.5%) lesions, and no response in 1 (0.4%) lesion. The CR in lower extremity lesions was lower than in other sites (P=.0016). Lesions treated with photons had lower CR than those treated with electrons (P=.017). Patients with lesions exhibiting large cell transformation and tumor morphology had lower CR (P=.04 and P=.035, respectively). Immunophenotype did not impact response rate (P=.23). Overall survival was significantly lower for patients with Sézary syndrome (P=.0003) and erythroderma (P<.0001). The cost of multifractionated radiation was >200% higher than that for single-fraction radiation. Conclusions: A single fraction of 700 cGy-800 cGy provides excellent palliation for CTCL lesions and is cost effective and convenient for the patient.

  14. Calculation of external dose from distributed source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses a relatively simple calculational method, called the point kernel method (Fo68), for estimating external dose from distributed sources that emit photon or electron radiations. The principles of the point kernel method are emphasized, rather than the presentation of extensive sets of calculations or tables of numerical results. A few calculations are presented for simple source geometries as illustrations of the method, and references and descriptions are provided for other caluclations in the literature. This paper also describes exposure situations for which the point kernel method is not appropriate and other, more complex, methods must be used, but these methods are not discussed in any detail.

  15. Radiation Protection Guidance Hospital Staff

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kay, Mark A.

    Page 1 Radiation Protection Guidance For Hospital Staff Prepared for Stanford ..................................................................................................................... 17 The Basic Principles of Radiation Protection........................................................... 17 Protection against Radiation Exposure

  16. Dose reduction improvements in storage basins of spent nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Fan-Hsiung F.

    1997-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Spent nuclear fuel in storage basins at the Hanford Site has corroded and contaminated basin water, which has leaked into the soil; the fuel also had deposited a layer of radioactive sludge on basin floors. The SNF is to be removed from the basins to protect the nearby Columbia River. Because the radiation level is high, measures have been taken to reduce the background dose rate to as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) to prevent radiation doses from becoming the limiting factor for removal of the SW in the basins to long-term dry storage. All activities of the SNF Project require application of ALARA principles for the workers. On the basis of these principles dose reduction improvements have been made by first identifying radiological sources. Principal radiological sources in the basin are basin walls, basin water, recirculation piping and equipment. Dose reduction activities focus on cleaning and coating basin walls to permit raising the water level, hydrolasing piping, and placing lead plates. In addition, the transfer bay floor will be refinished to make decontamination easier and reduce worker exposures in the radiation field. The background dose rates in the basin will be estimated before each task commences and after it is completed; these dose reduction data will provide the basis for cost benefit analysis.

  17. SU-E-I-81: Assessment of CT Radiation Dose and Image Quality for An Automated Tube Potential Selection Algorithm Using Adult Anthropomorphic and ACR Phantoms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahmood, U; Erdi, Y; Wang, W [Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, NY, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To assess the impact of General Electrics (GE) automated tube potential algorithm, kV assist (kVa) on radiation dose and image quality, with an emphasis on optimizing protocols based on noise texture. Methods: Radiation dose was assessed by inserting optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters (OSLs) throughout the body of an adult anthropomorphic phantom (CIRS). The baseline protocol was: 120 kVp, Auto mA (180 to 380 mA), noise index (NI) = 14, adaptive iterative statistical reconstruction (ASiR) of 20%, 0.8s rotation time. Image quality was evaluated by calculating the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) and noise power spectrum (NPS) from the ACR CT accreditation phantom. CNRs were calculated according to the steps described in ACR CT phantom testing document. NPS was determined by taking the 3D FFT of the uniformity section of the ACR phantom. NPS and CNR were evaluated with and without kVa and for all available adaptive iterative statistical reconstruction (ASiR) settings, ranging from 0 to 100%. Each NPS was also evaluated for its peak frequency difference (PFD) with respect to the baseline protocol. Results: The CNR for the adult male was found to decrease from CNR = 0.912 ± 0.045 for the baseline protocol without kVa to a CNR = 0.756 ± 0.049 with kVa activated. When compared against the baseline protocol, the PFD at ASiR of 40% yielded a decrease in noise magnitude as realized by the increase in CNR = 0.903 ± 0.023. The difference in the central liver dose with and without kVa was found to be 0.07%. Conclusion: Dose reduction was insignificant in the adult phantom. As determined by NPS analysis, ASiR of 40% produced images with similar noise texture to the baseline protocol. However, the CNR at ASiR of 40% with kVa fails to meet the current ACR CNR passing requirement of 1.0.

  18. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA; Volume 5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dionne, B.J.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Promoting the exchange of information related to implementation of the As Low as Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) philosophy is a continuing objective for the Department of Energy (DOE). This report was prepared by the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) ALARA Center for the DOE Office of Health. It contains the fifth in a series of bibliographies on dose reduction at DOE facilities. The BNL ALARA Center was originally established in 1983 under the sponsorship of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to monitor dose-reduction research and ALARA activities at nuclear power plants. This effort was expanded in 1988 by the DOE`s Office of Environment, Safety and Health, to include DOE nuclear facilities. This bibliography contains abstracts relating to various aspects of ALARA program implementation and dose-reduction activities, with a specific focus on DOE facilities. Abstracts included in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches of the DOE Energy, Science and Technology Database (in general, the citation and abstract information is presented as obtained from this database), and reprints of published articles provided by the authors. Facility types and activities covered in the scope of this report include: radioactive waste, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel storage and reprocessing, facility decommissioning, hot laboratories, tritium production, research, test and production reactors, weapons fabrication and testing, fusion, uranium and plutonium processing, radiography, and accelerators. Information on improved shielding design, decontamination, containments, robotics, source prevention and control, job planning, improved operational and design techniques, as well as on other topics, has been included. In addition, DOE/EH reports not included in previous volumes of the bibliography are in this volume (abstracts 611 to 684). This volume (Volume 5 of the series) contains 217 abstracts.

  19. Radiation dosimeters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoelsher, James W. (Pullman, WA); Hegland, Joel E. (Pullman, WA); Braunlich, Peter F. (Pullman, WA); Tetzlaff, Wolfgang (Pullman, WA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation dosimeters and dosimeter badges. The dosimeter badges include first and second parts which are connected to join using a securement to produce a sealed area in which at least one dosimeter is held and protected. The badge parts are separated to expose the dosimeters to a stimulating laser beam used to read dose exposure information therefrom. The badge is constructed to allow automated disassembly and reassembly in a uniquely fitting relationship. An electronic memory is included to provide calibration and identification information used during reading of the dosimeter. Dosimeter mounts which reduce thermal heating requirements are shown. Dosimeter constructions and production methods using thin substrates and phosphor binder-layers applied thereto are also taught.

  20. Radiation-induced Genomic Instability and Radiation Sensitivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varnum, Susan M.; Sowa, Marianne B.; Kim, Grace J.; Morgan, William F.

    2013-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The obvious relationships between reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, mitochondrial dysfunction, inflammatory type responses and reactive chemokines and cytokines suggests a general stress response induced by ionizing radiation most likely leads to the non-targeted effects described after radiation exposure. We argue that true bystander effects do not occur in the radiation therapy clinic. But there is no question that effects outside the target volume do occur. These “out of field effects” are considered very low dose effects in the context of therapy. So what are the implications of non-targeted effects on radiation sensitivity? The primary goal of therapy is to eradicate the tumor. Given the genetic diversity of the human population, lifestyle and environment factors it is likely some combination of these will influence patient outcome. Non-targeted effects may contribute to a greater or lesser extent. But consider the potential situation involving a partial body exposure due to a radiation accident or radiological terrorism. Non-targeted effects suggest that the tissue at risk for demonstrating possible detrimental effects of radiation exposure might be greater than the volume actually irradiated.

  1. Real-time Molecular Study of Bystander Effects of Low dose Low LET radiation Using Living Cell Imaging and Nanoparticale Optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natarajan, Mohan [UT Health Science Center at San Antonio; Xu, Nancy R [Old Dominion University; Mohan, Sumathy [UT Health Science Center at San Antonio

    2013-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study two novel approaches are proposed to investigate precisely the low dose low LET radiation damage and its effect on bystander cells in real time. First, a flow shear model system, which would provide us a near in vivo situation where endothelial cells in the presence of extra cellular matrix experiencing continuous flow shear stress, will be used. Endothelial cells on matri-gel (simulated extra cellular matrix) will be subjected to physiological flow shear (that occurs in normal blood vessels). Second, a unique tool (Single nano particle/single live cell/single molecule microscopy and spectroscopy; Figure A) will be used to track the molecular trafficking by single live cell imaging. Single molecule chemical microscopy allows one to single out and study rare events that otherwise might be lost in assembled average measurement, and monitor many target single molecules simultaneously in real-time. Multi color single novel metal nanoparticle probes allow one to prepare multicolor probes (Figure B) to monitor many single components (events) simultaneously and perform multi-complex analysis in real-time. These nano-particles resist to photo bleaching and hence serve as probes for unlimited timeframe of analysis. Single live cell microscopy allows one to image many single cells simultaneously in real-time. With the combination of these unique tools, we will be able to study under near-physiological conditions the cellular and sub-cellular responses (even subtle changes at one molecule level) to low and very low doses of low LET radiation in real time (milli-second or nano-second) at sub-10 nanometer spatial resolution. This would allow us to precisely identify, at least in part, the molecular mediators that are responsible of radiation damage in the irradiated cells and the mediators that are responsible for initiating the signaling in the neighboring cells. Endothelial cells subjected to flow shear (2 dynes/cm2 or 16 dynes/cm2) and exposed to 0.1, 1 and 10 cGy on coverslips will be examined for (a) low LET radiation-induced alterations of cellular function and its physiological relevance in real time; and (b) radiation damage triggered bystander effect on the neighboring unirradiated cells. First, to determine the low LET radiation induced alteration of cellular function we will examine: (i) the real time transformation of single membrane transporters in single living cells; (ii) the pump efficiency of membrane efflux pump of live cells in real time at the molecular level; (iii) the kinetics of single-ligand receptor interaction on single live cell surface (Figure C); and (iv) alteration in chromosome replication in living cell. Second, to study the radiation triggered bystander responses, we will examine one of the key signaling pathway i.e. TNF- alpha/NF-kappa B mediated signaling. TNF-alpha specific nano particle sensors (green) will be developed to detect the releasing dynamics, transport mechanisms and ligand-receptor binding on live cell surface in real time. A second sensor (blue) will be developed to simultaneously monitor the track of NF-kB inside the cell. The proposed nano-particle optics approach would complement our DOE funded study on biochemical mechanisms of TNF-alpha- NF-kappa B-mediated bystander effect.

  2. Methods for analyzing occupational cohort data with application to lung cancer in US uranium miners: Techniques for fitting and checking exposure-time-response models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halpern, J.; Whittemore, A.S.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two methods were used to examine how lung cancer death rates vary with cumulative exposures to radiation and tobacco among uranium miners. The two methods produced similar results when death rate ratios were taken to be the product of radiation and tobacco effects. The estimates were discrepant when death rate ratios were taken to be the sum of radiation and tobacco effects. Both methods indicated better fit for the multiplicative model. It may be that cumulative exposures are inappropriate measures of the effects of radiation and tobacco on lung cancer death rates, as well as for other pollutants where the assumption of cumulative dose is the basis for risk assessments.

  3. Nuclear apoJ: A low dose radiation inducible regulator of cell death. Final report for period September 15, 1998 - September 14, 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aronow, Bruce J.

    2002-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was based on preliminary data that was published by Dr. Boothman (Yang et al. 2000) which indicated a strong induction of apoJ gene expression, increased secretion of the protein, and accumulation of an apparently somewhat different form of the apoJ protein in the nucleus of MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells undergoing response to DNA damage. A clone expressing apoJ protein was isolated that was capable of interacting with Ku80, a component of the double strand break repair complex that is essential for the successful repair of rearranging immunoglobulin and T-cell receptor genes as evidenced by failure to produce mature B and T cells in the absence of Ku70. ApoJ clones isolated and characterized by Dr. Boothman bound strongly to a Ku-70 ''bait'' protein. Over-expression of these same clones in a cell line was capable of killing the cell. ApoJ is very strongly induced in many instances of programmed cell death and has been proposed repeatedly to play some sort of effector role in the process. Our principle hypothesis for this study was that the strong induction of the apoJ gene and the particular expression of a nuclear form of the protein was potentially a causal factor in the decision point made by the cell as it attempts to repair double-strand breakage based DNA damage. The hypothesis was that if sufficiently high damage occurred, it would be deleterious to maintain the cell's viability through continued DNA repair. One method to inhibit DNA repair might be by inhibiting proteins such as Ku-70 that are necessary for double-strand break repair. If apoJ does play a critical role in tipping the decision balance over to cell death, we reasoned that deficiency of apoJ would cause increased accumulation of cells with DNA damage and that this might decrease cell death in response to DNA damage and increase tumor occurrence rates. To test this hypothesis and its potential implications, we exposed wildtype and apoJ deficient animals that we constructed through gene targeting to increasing levels of ionizing radiation from a Cesium source. Data gathered under the support of this grant application initially indicated that apoJ deficient animals were more resistant to radiation, but as we accumulated more and more data points and covered a tighter exposure range, the genotype-based differences became insignificant. However, the possibility existed that because mortality based radiation-resistance could be attributable to mechanism for which nuclear apoJ was not rate determining, we maintained a very large of colony of apoJ knockout and wildtype animals in both the C57/B16 and Cv129 strain backgrounds that were exposed to sub-lethal levels of ionizing radiation to monitor for the occurrence of tumors. These animals were allowed to fully recover and age normally in either germ free or normal animal housing. Our results demonstrated no significant differences between wildtype and apoJ knockout animals over a period that extended up to 30 months for individual animals. We recorded similar weight gain, a relatively low mortality rate, and a similar mixture and rate of sarcoma and adenocarcinomas after surviving the initial ionizing radiation exposures. Thus we conclude that apoJ gene function, which was totally eliminated by our gene targeting, did not influence radiation sensitivity or serve as a tumor suppressor in response to DNA damage.

  4. A Multi-institutional Clinical Trial of Rectal Dose Reduction via Injected Polyethylene-Glycol Hydrogel During Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer: Analysis of Dosimetric Outcomes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Danny Y., E-mail: dsong2@jhmi.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Herfarth, Klaus K.; Uhl, Matthias [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Eble, Michael J.; Pinkawa, Michael [Department of Radiation Oncology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen (Germany); Triest, Baukelien van; Kalisvaart, Robin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute/Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Ziekenhuis, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Weber, Damien C.; Miralbell, Raymond [Department of Radiation Oncology, Geneva University, Geneva (Switzerland); DeWeese, Theodore L. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland (United States); Ford, Eric C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington (United States)

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To characterize the effect of a prostate-rectum spacer on dose to rectum during external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer and to assess for factors correlated with rectal dose reduction. Methods and Materials: Fifty-two patients at 4 institutions were enrolled into a prospective pilot clinical trial. Patients underwent baseline scans and then were injected with perirectal spacing hydrogel and rescanned. Intensity modulated radiation therapy plans were created on both scans for comparison. The objectives were to establish rates of creation of ?7.5 mm of prostate-rectal separation, and decrease in rectal V70 of ?25%. Multiple regression analysis was performed to evaluate the associations between preinjection and postinjection changes in rectal V70 and changes in plan conformity, rectal volume, bladder volume, bladder V70, planning target volume (PTV), and postinjection midgland separation, gel volume, gel thickness, length of PTV/gel contact, and gel left-to-right symmetry. Results: Hydrogel resulted in ?7.5-mm prostate-rectal separation in 95.8% of patients; 95.7% had decreased rectal V70 of ?25%, with a mean reduction of 8.0 Gy. There were no significant differences in preinjection and postinjection prostate, PTV, rectal, and bladder volumes. Plan conformities were significantly different before versus after injection (P=.02); plans with worse conformity indexes after injection compared with before injection (n=13) still had improvements in rectal V70. In multiple regression analysis, greater postinjection reduction in V70 was associated with decreased relative postinjection plan conformity (P=.01). Reductions in V70 did not significantly vary by institution, despite significant interinstitutional variations in plan conformity. There were no significant relationships between reduction in V70 and the other characteristics analyzed. Conclusions: Injection of hydrogel into the prostate-rectal interface resulted in dose reductions to rectum for >90% of patients treated. Rectal sparing was statistically significant across a range of 10 to 75 Gy and was demonstrated within the presence of significant interinstitutional variability in plan conformity, target definitions, and injection results.

  5. Long-term Survival and Toxicity in Patients Treated With High-Dose Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spratt, Daniel E.; Pei, Xin; Yamada, Josh; Kollmeier, Marisa A.; Cox, Brett [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Zelefsky, Michael J., E-mail: zelefskm@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To report long-term survival and toxicity outcomes with the use of high-dose intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) to 86.4 Gy for patients with localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between August 1997 and December 2008, 1002 patients were treated to a dose of 86.4 Gy using a 5-7 field IMRT technique. Patients were stratified by prognostic risk group based on National Comprehensive Cancer Network risk classification criteria. A total of 587 patients (59%) were treated with neoadjuvant and concurrent androgen deprivation therapy. The median follow-up for the entire cohort was 5.5 years (range, 1-14 years). Results: For low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups, 7-year biochemical relapse-free survival outcomes were 98.8%, 85.6%, and 67.9%, respectively (P<.001), and distant metastasis-free survival rates were 99.4%, 94.1%, and 82.0% (P<.001), respectively. On multivariate analysis, T stage (P<.001), Gleason score (P<.001), and >50% of initial biopsy positive core (P=.001) were predictive for distant mestastases. No prostate cancer-related deaths were observed in the low-risk group. The 7-year prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) rates, using competing risk analysis for intermediate- and high-risk groups, were 3.3% and 8.1%, respectively (P=.008). On multivariate analysis, Gleason score (P=.004), percentage of biopsy core positivity (P=.003), and T-stage (P=.033) were predictive for PCSM. Actuarial 7-year grade 2 or higher late gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicities were 4.4% and 21.1%, respectively. Late grade 3 gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity was experienced by 7 patients (0.7%) and 22 patients (2.2%), respectively. Of the 427 men with full potency at baseline, 317 men (74%) retained sexual function at time of last follow-up. Conclusions: This study represents the largest cohort of patients treated with high-dose radiation to 86.4 Gy, using IMRT for localized prostate cancer, with the longest follow-up to date. Our findings indicate that this treatment results in excellent clinical outcomes with acceptable toxicity.

  6. Biotransformation of 2,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf) in male, pregnant and non-pregnant female rabbits after single high dose inhalation exposure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmidt, Tobias [Institut für Toxikologie, Universität Würzburg, Versbacher Str. 9, 97078 Würzburg (Germany)] [Institut für Toxikologie, Universität Würzburg, Versbacher Str. 9, 97078 Würzburg (Germany); Bertermann, Rüdiger [Institut für Anorganische Chemie, Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany)] [Institut für Anorganische Chemie, Universität Würzburg, Am Hubland, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Rusch, George M. [Honeywell, P.O. Box 1057, Morristown, NJ 07962–1057 (United States)] [Honeywell, P.O. Box 1057, Morristown, NJ 07962–1057 (United States); Hoffman, Gary M. [Huntingdon Life Sciences., East Millstone, NJ (United States)] [Huntingdon Life Sciences., East Millstone, NJ (United States); Dekant, Wolfgang, E-mail: dekant@toxi.uni-wuerzburg.de [Institut für Toxikologie, Universität Würzburg, Versbacher Str. 9, 97078 Würzburg (Germany)] [Institut für Toxikologie, Universität Würzburg, Versbacher Str. 9, 97078 Würzburg (Germany)

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    2,3,3,3-Tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234yf) is a novel refrigerant intended for use in mobile air conditioning. It showed a low potential for toxicity in rodents studies with most NOAELs well above 10,000 ppm in guideline compliant toxicity studies. However, a developmental toxicity study in rabbits showed mortality at exposure levels of 5,500 ppm and above. No lethality was observed at exposure levels of 2,500 and 4,000 ppm. Nevertheless, increased subacute inflammatory heart lesions were observed in rabbits at all exposure levels. Since the lethality in pregnant animals may be due to altered biotransformation of HFO-1234yf and to evaluate the potential risk to pregnant women facing a car crash, this study compared the acute toxicity and biotransformation of HFO-1234yf in male, female and pregnant female rabbits. Animals were exposed to 50,000 ppm and 100,000 ppm for 1 h. For metabolite identification by {sup 19}F NMR and LC/MS-MS, urine was collected for 48 h after inhalation exposure. In all samples, the predominant metabolites were S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanyl)-mercaptolactic acid and N-acetyl-S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanyl)-L-cysteine. Since no major differences in urinary metabolite pattern were observed between the groups, only N-acetyl-S-(3,3,3-trifluoro-2-hydroxypropanyl)-L-cysteine excretion was quantified. No significant differences in recovery between non-pregnant (43.10 ± 22.35 ?mol) and pregnant female (50.47 ± 19.72 ?mol) rabbits were observed, male rabbits exposed to 100,000 ppm for one hour excreted 86.40 ± 38.87 ?mol. Lethality and clinical signs of toxicity were not observed in any group. The results suggest that the lethality of HFO-1234yf in pregnant rabbits unlikely is due to changes in biotransformation patterns or capacity in pregnant rabbits. -- Highlights: ? No lethality and clinical signs were observed. ? No differences in metabolic pattern between pregnant and non-pregnant rabbits. ? Rapid and similar metabolite excretion in all groups. ? Very low amount of biotransformation in all groups (< 0.1%).

  7. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Bibliography of selected readings in radiation protection and ALARA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dionne, B.J.; Sullivan, S.G.; Baum, J.W.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This bibliography contains abstracts relating to various aspects of ALARA program implementation and dose reduction activities, with a focus on DOE facilities. Abstracts included in this bibliography were selected from proceedings of technical meetings, journals, research reports, searches of the DOE Energy, Science and Technology Database (in general, the citation and abstract information is presented as obtained from this database), and reprints of published articles provided by the authors. Facility types and activities covered in the scope of this report include: radioactive waste, uranium enrichment, fuel fabrication, spent fuel storage and reprocessing, facility decommissioning, hot laboratories, tritium production, research, test and production reactors, weapons fabrication and testing, fusion, uranium and plutonium processing, radiography, and aocelerators. Information on improved shielding design, decontamination, containments, robotics, source prevention and control, job planning, improved operational and design techniques, as well as on other topics, has been included. In addition, DOE/EH reports not included in previous volumes of the bibliography are in this volume (abstracts 611 to 684). This volume (Volume 5 of the series) contains 217 abstracts. An author index and a subject index are provided to facilitate use. Both indices contain the abstract numbers from previous volumes, as well as the current volume. Information that the reader feels might be included in the next volume of this bibliography should be submitted to the BNL ALARA Center.

  8. Lead Exposure Alters the Development of Agonistic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delville, Yvon

    Lead Exposure Alters the Development of Agonistic Behavior in Golden Hamsters M. Catalina Cervantes@mail.utexas.edu ABSTRACT: We tested the effects of exposure to different doses of lead acetate (either 0, 25, 100, or 400-specific effect of lead exposure on the development of aggression during puberty at doses resulting in blood

  9. Accelerated alpha-decay of 232U isotope achieved by exposure of its aqueous solution with gold nanoparticles to laser radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. V. Simakin; G. A. Shafeev

    2011-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Experimental results are presented on laser-induced accelerated alpha-decay of Uranium-232 nuclei under laser exposure of Au nanoparticles in aqueous solutions of its salt. It is demonstrated that the decrease of alpha-activity strongly depends on the peak intensity of the laser radiation in the liquid and is highest at several terawatt per square centimeter. The decrease of alpha-activity of the exposed solutions is accompanied by the deviation of gamma-activities of daughter nuclides of Uranium-232 from their equilibrium values. Possible mechanisms of the laser influence on the alpha-activity are discussed on the basis of the amplification of the electric field of laser wave on metallic nanoparticles.

  10. Effects of p60 sCo gamma radiation on Sarcina lutea: A comparison of effects at two different exposure rates and a study of the radiosensitizing properties of prodigiosin.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blair, George Washington

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of pigmented and nonpigmented cells. Radiation Res. 48, 40-52 (1971). 8. R. P. Williams, Biosynthesis of Prodigiosin, a Secondary Metabolite of Serratia marcescens, ~A 1. Microbiol. 25, 396-402 (1973). 9. M. M. Matthews, and N. I. Krinsky, The relatioship... Radiation on Sarcina ]utes: A Comparison of Effects at Two Different Exposure Rates and A Study of the Radiosensitizing Properties of. Prodigiosin (August 1973) George W. Blair, Jr. , B. S, , University of Chattanooga Directed by: Dr. R. D. Neff...

  11. Dose optimization with first-order total-variation minimization for dense angularly sampled and sparse intensity modulated radiation therapy (DASSIM-RT)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Hojin; Li Ruijiang; Lee, Rena; Goldstein, Thomas; Boyd, Stephen; Candes, Emmanuel; Xing Lei [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-9505 (United States) and Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-5847 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-5847 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Ehwa University, Seoul 158-710 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-9505 (United States); Department of Statistics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-4065 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-5304 (United States)

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: A new treatment scheme coined as dense angularly sampled and sparse intensity modulated radiation therapy (DASSIM-RT) has recently been proposed to bridge the gap between IMRT and VMAT. By increasing the angular sampling of radiation beams while eliminating dispensable segments of the incident fields, DASSIM-RT is capable of providing improved conformity in dose distributions while maintaining high delivery efficiency. The fact that DASSIM-RT utilizes a large number of incident beams represents a major computational challenge for the clinical applications of this powerful treatment scheme. The purpose of this work is to provide a practical solution to the DASSIM-RT inverse planning problem. Methods: The inverse planning problem is formulated as a fluence-map optimization problem with total-variation (TV) minimization. A newly released L1-solver, template for first-order conic solver (TFOCS), was adopted in this work. TFOCS achieves faster convergence with less memory usage as compared with conventional quadratic programming (QP) for the TV form through the effective use of conic forms, dual-variable updates, and optimal first-order approaches. As such, it is tailored to specifically address the computational challenges of large-scale optimization in DASSIM-RT inverse planning. Two clinical cases (a prostate and a head and neck case) are used to evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed planning technique. DASSIM-RT plans with 15 and 30 beams are compared with conventional IMRT plans with 7 beams in terms of plan quality and delivery efficiency, which are quantified by conformation number (CN), the total number of segments and modulation index, respectively. For optimization efficiency, the QP-based approach was compared with the proposed algorithm for the DASSIM-RT plans with 15 beams for both cases. Results: Plan quality improves with an increasing number of incident beams, while the total number of segments is maintained to be about the same in both cases. For the prostate patient, the conformation number to the target was 0.7509, 0.7565, and 0.7611 with 80 segments for IMRT with 7 beams, and DASSIM-RT with 15 and 30 beams, respectively. For the head and neck (HN) patient with a complicated target shape, conformation numbers of the three treatment plans were 0.7554, 0.7758, and 0.7819 with 75 segments for all beam configurations. With respect to the dose sparing to the critical structures, the organs such as the femoral heads in the prostate case and the brainstem and spinal cord in the HN case were better protected with DASSIM-RT. For both cases, the delivery efficiency has been greatly improved as the beam angular sampling increases with the similar or better conformal dose distribution. Compared with conventional quadratic programming approaches, first-order TFOCS-based optimization achieves far faster convergence and smaller memory requirements in DASSIM-RT. Conclusions: The new optimization algorithm TFOCS provides a practical and timely solution to the DASSIM-RT or other inverse planning problem requiring large memory space. The new treatment scheme is shown to outperform conventional IMRT in terms of dose conformity to both the targetand the critical structures, while maintaining high delivery efficiency.

  12. Radiation Impact of Very Low Level Radioactive Steel Reused in Building Industry with Emphasis on External Exposure Pathway - 12569

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panik, Michal; Hrncir, Tomas; Necas, Vladimir [Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Considerable quantities of various materials are accumulated during the decommissioning process of nuclear installations. Some of arising materials are activated or contaminated. However, many of them continue to have an economic value and exist in a form that can be recycled or reused for special purposes. Furthermore much of the material generated during decommissioning process will contain only small amounts of radionuclides. For these materials there exist environmental and economic incentives to maximize the use of the concept of clearance from further regulatory control. This impact analysis is devoted to mentioned incentives. The aim is to conditionally clear maximum amount of the scrap steel and consequently recycle and reuse it in form of reinforcing components in tunnel and bridge building scenarios. Recent calculations relevant for external exposure pathway indicate that concept of conditional clearance represent a feasible option for the management of radioactive materials. Even in chosen specific industrial applications it is possible to justify new, approximately one order of magnitude higher, clearance levels. However analysis of other possible exposure pathways relevant for particular scenario of reuse of conditionally cleared materials has to be performed in order to confirm indications from partially obtained results. Basically, the concept of conditional clearance can bring two basic benefits. Firstly it is saving of considerable funds, which would be otherwise used for treatment, conditioning and disposal of materials at appropriate radioactive waste repository. Moreover materials with intrinsic value (particularly metals) can be recycled and reused in industrial applications instead of investing resources on mining and production process in order to obtain new, 'fresh' materials. (authors)

  13. Sexual Functioning Among Endometrial Cancer Patients Treated With Adjuvant High-Dose-Rate Intra-Vaginal Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Damast, Shari, E-mail: shari.damast@yale.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Alektiar, Kaled M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Goldfarb, Shari [Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Eaton, Anne; Patil, Sujata [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Mosenkis, Jeffrey [Department of Comparative Human Development, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States)] [Department of Comparative Human Development, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Bennett, Antonia [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Atkinson, Thomas [Department of Psychiatry, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Psychiatry, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Jewell, Elizabeth; Leitao, Mario; Barakat, Richard; Carter, Jeanne [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Basch, Ethan [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: We used the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) to investigate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction (SD) and factors associated with diminished sexual functioning in early stage endometrial cancer (EC) patients treated with simple hysterectomy and adjuvant brachytherapy. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 104 patients followed in a radiation oncology clinic completed questionnaires to quantify current levels of sexual functioning. The time interval between hysterectomy and questionnaire completion ranged from <6 months to >5 years. Multivariate regression was performed using the FSFI as a continuous variable (score range, 1.2-35.4). SD was defined as an FSFI score of <26, based on the published validation study. Results: SD was reported by 81% of respondents. The mean ({+-} standard deviation) domain scores in order of highest-to-lowest functioning were: satisfaction, 2.9 ({+-}2.0); orgasm, 2.5 ({+-}2.4); desire, 2.4 ({+-}1.3); arousal, 2.2 ({+-}2.0); dryness, 2.1 ({+-}2.1); and pain, 1.9 ({+-}2.3). Compared to the index population in which the FSFI cut-score was validated (healthy women ages 18-74), all scores were low. Compared to published scores of a postmenopausal population, scores were not statistically different. Multivariate analysis isolated factors associated with lower FSFI scores, including having laparotomy as opposed to minimally invasive surgery (effect size, -7.1 points; 95% CI, -11.2 to -3.1; P<.001), lack of vaginal lubricant use (effect size, -4.4 points; 95% CI, -8.7 to -0.2, P=.040), and short time interval (<6 months) from hysterectomy to questionnaire completion (effect size, -4.6 points; 95% CI, -9.3-0.2; P=.059). Conclusions: The rate of SD, as defined by an FSFI score <26, was prevalent. The postmenopausal status of EC patients alone is a known risk factor for SD. Additional factors associated with poor sexual functioning following treatment for EC included receipt of laparotomy and lack of vaginal lubricant use.

  14. Age and Comorbid Illness Are Associated With Late Rectal Toxicity Following Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamstra, Daniel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Stenmark, Matt H.; Ritter, Tim [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Litzenberg, Dale; Jackson, William; Johnson, Skyler; Albrecht-Unger, Liesel; Donaghy, Alex; Phelps, Laura; Blas, Kevin; Halverson, Schuyler; Marsh, Robin; Olson, Karin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Feng, Felix Y., E-mail: ffeng@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To assess the impacts of patient age and comorbid illness on rectal toxicity following external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer and to assess the Qualitative Analysis of Normal Tissue Effects in the Clinic (QUANTEC) normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model in this context. Methods and Materials: Rectal toxicity was analyzed in 718 men previously treated for prostate cancer with EBRT (?75 Gy). Comorbid illness was scored using the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCMI), and the NTCP was evaluated with the QUANTEC model. The influence of clinical and treatment-related parameters on rectal toxicity was assessed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models. Results: The cumulative incidence of rectal toxicity grade ?2 was 9.5% and 11.6% at 3 and 5 years and 3.3% and 3.9% at 3 and 5 years for grade ?3 toxicity, respectively. Each year of age predicted an increasing relative risk of grade ?2 (P<.03; hazard ratio [HR], 1.04 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.01-1.06]) and ?3 rectal toxicity (P<.0001; HR, 1.14 [95% CI,1.07-1.22]). Increasing CCMI predicted rectal toxicity where a history of either myocardial infarction (MI) (P<.0001; HR, 5.1 [95% CI, 1.9-13.7]) or congestive heart failure (CHF) (P<.0006; HR, 5.4 [95% CI, 0.6-47.5]) predicted grade ?3 rectal toxicity, with lesser correlation with grade ?2 toxicity (P<.02 for MI, and P<.09 for CHF). An age comorbidity model to predict rectal toxicity was developed and confirmed in a validation cohort. The use of anticoagulants increased toxicity independent of age and comorbidity. NTCP was prognostic for grade ?3 (P=.015) but not grade ?2 (P=.49) toxicity. On multivariate analysis, age, MI, CHF, and an NTCP >20% all correlated with late rectal toxicity. Conclusions: Patient age and a history of MI or CHF significantly impact rectal toxicity following EBRT for the treatment of prostate cancer, even after controlling for NTCP.

  15. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H. (comps.)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source terms; environmental transport environmental monitoring data; demographics, agriculture, food habits; environmental pathways and dose estimates.

  16. Biomarkers of exposure to complex environmental mixtures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naufal, Ziad Sami

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Maternal exposure to genotoxic chemicals may produce a variety of adverse birth outcomes. Depending on the dose and duration of exposure, adverse birth outcomes can range from premature or low-birth weight, to congenital ...

  17. Analysis of radiation doses from operation of postulated commercial spent fuel transportation systems: Analysis of a system containing a monitored retrievable storage facility. Addendum 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R.I.; Daling, P.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Faletti, D.W. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This addendum report extends the original study of the estimated radiation doses to the public and to workers resulting from transporting spent nuclear fuel from commercial nuclear power reactor stations through the federal waste management system (FWMS), to a system that contains a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. The system concepts and designs utilized herein are consistent with those used in the original study (circa 1985--1987). Because the FWMS design is still evolving, the results of these analyses may no longer apply to the design for casks and cask handling systems that are currently being considered. Four system scenarios are examined and compared with the reference No-MRS scenario (all spent fuel transported directly from the reactors to the western repository in standard-capacity truck and rail casks). In Scenarios 1 and 2, an MRS facility is located in eastern United States and ships either intact fuel assemblies or consolidated fuel rods and compacted assembly hardware in canisters. In Scenarios 3 and 4, an MRS facility is located in the western United States and ship either intact fuel assemblies or consolidated fuel rods and compacted assembly hardware in canisters.

  18. GROUND-WATER CONTRIBUTION TO DOSE FROM PAST HANFORD OPERATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freshley, M. D.; Thorne, P. D.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEOR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides originating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: 1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; 2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; 3) through wells that draw some or all of their water from the Columbia River (riparian wells); and 4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in the contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring. These four pathways make up the "ground-water pathway ," which is the subject of this study. The objective of the study was to assess the extent to which the groundwater pathway contributed to radiation doses that populations or individuals may have received from past operations at Hanford. The assessment presented in this report was performed by 1) reviewing the extensive ?literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and 2) performing simple calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations in ground water and the Columbia River resulting from ground-water discharge. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to this ground water and surface water were calculated. The study conclusion is that the ground-water pathways did not contribute significantly to dose. Compared with background radiation in the TriCities {300 mrem/yr), estimated doses are small: 0.02 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from discharge of contaminated ground water to the Columbia River; 1 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from Hanford Site wells; 11 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from riparian wells; and 1 mrem/yr effective dose equivalent from the watershed. Because the estimated doses are so small, the recommendation is that further work on the ground-water pathway be limited to tracking ongoing ground-water studies at the Hanford Site.

  19. Prediction of proton and neutron absorbed-dose distributions in proton beam radiation therapy using Monte Carlo n-particle transport code (MCNPX)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massingill, Brian Edward

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research was to develop a complex MCNPX model of the human head to predict absorbed dose distributions during proton therapy of ocular tumors. Absorbed dose distributions using the complex geometry were compared to a simple...

  20. Prediction of proton and neutron absorbed-dose distributions in proton beam radiation therapy using Monte Carlo n-particle transport code (MCNPX) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massingill, Brian Edward

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research was to develop a complex MCNPX model of the human head to predict absorbed dose distributions during proton therapy of ocular tumors. Absorbed dose distributions using the complex geometry were compared to a simple...

  1. Real time chemical exposure and risk monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thrall, Karla D. (3804 Alder Lake Ct., West Richland, WA 99353); Kenny, Donald V. (6947 Sparrow La., Worthington, OH 43235); Endres, George W. R. (2112 Briarwood Ct., Richland, WA 99352); Sisk, Daniel R. (1211 Marshall Ave., Richland, WA 99352)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The apparatus of the present invention is a combination of a breath interface and an external exposure dosimeter interface to a chemical analysis device, all controlled by an electronic processor for quantitatively analyzing chemical analysis data from both the breath interface and the external exposure dosimeter for determining internal tissue dose. The method of the present invention is a combination of steps of measuring an external dose, measuring breath content, then analyzing the external dose and breath content and determining internal tissue dose.

  2. Laser-based irradiation apparatus and methods for monitoring the dose-rate response of semiconductor devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horn, Kevin M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A scanned, pulsed, focused laser irradiation apparatus can measure and image the photocurrent collection resulting from a dose-rate equivalent exposure to infrared laser light across an entire silicon die. Comparisons of dose-rate response images or time-delay images from before, during, and after accelerated aging of a device, or from periodic sampling of devices from fielded operational systems allows precise identification of those specific age-affected circuit structures within a device that merit further quantitative analysis with targeted materials or electrical testing techniques. Another embodiment of the invention comprises a broad-beam, dose rate-equivalent exposure apparatus. The broad-beam laser irradiation apparatus can determine if aging has affected the device's overall functionality. This embodiment can be combined with the synchronized introduction of external electrical transients into a device under test to simulate the electrical effects of the surrounding circuitry's response to a radiation exposure.

  3. Radiation Exposure Information Reporting System (REIRS) Update, 2012, Presented at the 32nd Annual International Dosimetry and Records Symposium, June 2-6, 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of graphs gives data through the year 2012 for annual collective doses, collective dose per reactor, number of individuals with measurable doses both in total and per reactor, number of reactors, electricity generated, measurable doses per individual and per megawatt-year, and collective outage hours. Reactors considered include BWR, PWR, and LWR. Also, the total effective dose equivalent for the period 2010-2012 is tabulated for each nuclear power plant considered, and the change over 2009-2011.

  4. Direct 2-Arm Comparison Shows Benefit of High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Boost vs External Beam Radiation Therapy Alone for Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khor, Richard [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, and University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia)] [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, and University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Duchesne, Gillian [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, and University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia) [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, and University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Monash University, Melbourne (Australia); Tai, Keen-Hun; Foroudi, Farshad; Chander, Sarat; Van Dyk, Sylvia; Garth, Margaret [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, and University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia)] [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, and University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Williams, Scott, E-mail: Scott.Williams@petermac.org [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, and University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia)] [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, and University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia)

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes of patients treated for intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer with a single schedule of either external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB) boost or EBRT alone. Methods and Materials: From 2001-2006, 344 patients received EBRT with HDRB boost for definitive treatment of intermediate- or high-risk prostate cancer. The prescribed EBRT dose was 46 Gy in 23 fractions, with a HDR boost of 19.5 Gy in 3 fractions. This cohort was compared to a contemporaneously treated cohort who received EBRT to 74 Gy in 37 fractions, using a matched pair analysis. Three-dimensional conformal EBRT was used. Matching was performed using a propensity score matching technique. High-risk patients constituted 41% of the matched cohorts. Five-year clinical and biochemical outcomes were analyzed. Results: Initial significant differences in prognostic indicators between the unmatched treatment cohorts were rendered negligible after matching, providing a total of 688 patients. Median biochemical follow-up was 60.5 months. The 5-year freedom from biochemical failure was 79.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 74.3%-85.0%) and 70.9% (95% CI, 65.4%-76.0%) for the HDRB and EBRT groups, respectively, equating to a hazard ratio of 0.59 (95% CI, 0.43-0.81, P=.0011). Interaction analyses showed no alteration in HDR efficacy when planned androgen deprivation therapy was administered (P=.95), but a strong trend toward reduced efficacy was shown compared to EBRT in high-risk cases (P=.06). Rates of grade 3 urethral stricture were 0.3% (95% CI, 0%-0.9%) and 11.8% (95% CI, 8.1%-16.5%) for EBRT and HDRB, respectively (P<.0001). No differences in clinical outcomes were observed. Conclusions: This comparison of 2 individual contemporaneously treated HDRB and EBRT approaches showed improved freedom from biochemical progression with the HDR approach. The benefit was more pronounced in intermediate- risk patients but needs to be weighed against an increased risk of urethral toxicity.

  5. Gleason Pattern 5 Is the Greatest Risk Factor for Clinical Failure and Death From Prostate Cancer After Dose-Escalated Radiation Therapy and Hormonal Ablation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabolch, Aaron [University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Feng, Felix Y. [University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Veterans Administration Medical Center, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Daignault-Newton, Stephanie [University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Division of Biostatistics, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Halverson, Schuyler; Blas, Kevin; Phelps, Laura [University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Olson, Karin B. [University of Michigan Medical School, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Sandler, Howard M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Hamstra, Daniel A., E-mail: dhamm@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The division of Gleason score (GS) into three categories (2-6, 7, 8-10) may not fully use its prognostic power, as revealed by recent reports demonstrating the presence of Gleason Pattern 5 (GP5) as a strong predictor for biochemical recurrence. Therefore, we analyzed the clinical outcomes in patients treated with dose-escalated radiation therapy (RT) based on the presence or absence of GP5. Methods and Materials: Outcomes were analyzed for 718 men treated for localized prostate cancer with external-beam RT to a minimum planning target volume dose of at least 75 Gy. We assessed the impact of GP5 and that of pretreatment- and treatment-related factors on freedom from biochemical failure, freedom from metastasis (FFM), cause-specific survival (CSS), and overall survival (OS). Results: At biopsy, 89% of patients had no GP5, and 11% (76/718) had GP5. There were no differences in age, comorbid illness, T stage, prostate-specific antigen, or the use or duration of androgen deprivation therapy between GS8 without GP5 and GS8-10 with GP5. The presence of GP5 predicted lower FFM (p < 0.002; hazard ratio [HR] 3.4 [1.7-7.1]); CSS (p < 0.0001; HR 12.9 [5.4-31]); and OS (p < 0.0001; HR 3.6 [2.0-6.5]) in comparison with GS8 (without GP5). The 8-year FFM, CSS, and OS were 89%, 98%, and 57%, respectively, for those with Gleason 8 prostate cancer without GP5 in comparison with 61%, 55%, and 31%, respectively, for those with GP5. In addition, both FFM and CSS were strongly influenced by androgen deprivation therapy given concurrently with RT. On multivariate analysis, GP5 was the strongest prognostic factor for all clinical endpoints, including OS. Conclusion: The presence of GP5 predicts for worse clinical behavior, which therefore needs to be accounted for by risk stratification schemes. Further intensification of local and/or systemic therapy may be appropriate for such patients.

  6. Laser-based irradiation apparatus and method to measure the functional dose-rate response of semiconductor devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horn, Kevin M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A broad-beam laser irradiation apparatus can measure the parametric or functional response of a semiconductor device to exposure to dose-rate equivalent infrared laser light. Comparisons of dose-rate response from before, during, and after accelerated aging of a device, or from periodic sampling of devices from fielded operational systems can determine if aging has affected the device's overall functionality. The dependence of these changes on equivalent dose-rate pulse intensity and/or duration can be measured with the apparatus. The synchronized introduction of external electrical transients into the device under test can be used to simulate the electrical effects of the surrounding circuitry's response to a radiation exposure while exposing the device to dose-rate equivalent infrared laser light.

  7. High-Dose Hypofractionated Proton Beam Radiation Therapy Is Safe and Effective for Central and Peripheral Early-Stage Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Results of a 12-Year Experience at Loma Linda University Medical Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bush, David A., E-mail: dbush@llu.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Cheek, Gregory [Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Zaheer, Salman; Wallen, Jason [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Mirshahidi, Hamid [Department of Medical Oncology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States); Katerelos, Ari; Grove, Roger; Slater, Jerry D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California (United States)

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: We update our previous reports on the use of hypofractionated proton beam radiation therapy for early-stage lung cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Eligible subjects had biopsy-proven non-small cell carcinoma of the lung and were medically inoperable or refused surgery. Clinical workup required staging of T1 or T2, N0, M0. Subjects received hypofractionated proton beam therapy to the primary tumor only. The dose delivered was sequentially escalated from 51 to 60 Gy, then to 70 Gy in 10 fractions over 2 weeks. Endpoints included toxicity, pulmonary function, overall survival (OS), disease-specific survival (DSS), and local control (LC). Results: One hundred eleven subjects were analyzed for treatment outcomes. The patient population had the following average characteristics; age 73.2 years, tumor size 3.6 cm, and 1.33 L forced expiratory volume in 1 second. The entire group showed improved OS with increasing dose level (51, 60, and 70 Gy) with a 4-year OS of 18%, 32%, and 51%, respectively (P=.006). Peripheral T1 tumors exhibited LC of 96%, DSS of 88%, and OS of 60% at 4 years. Patients with T2 tumors showed a trend toward improved LC and survival with the 70-Gy dose level. On multivariate analysis, larger tumor size was strongly associated with increased local recurrence and decreased survival. Central versus peripheral location did not correlate with any outcome measures. Clinical radiation pneumonitis was not found to be a significant complication, and no patient required steroid therapy after treatment for radiation pneumonitis. Pulmonary function was well maintained 1 year after treatment. Conclusions: High-dose hypofractionated proton therapy achieves excellent outcomes for lung carcinomas that are peripherally or centrally located. The 70-Gy regimen has been adopted as standard therapy for T1 tumors at our institution. Larger T2 tumors show a trend toward improved outcomes with higher doses, suggesting that better results could be seen with intensified treatment.

  8. United States-Russian workshop on the stochastic health effects of radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In August 1988, two years after the Chernobyle accident, the United States and the Soviet Union signed an agreement to sponsor a Joint coordinating Committee on Civilian Nuclear Reactor Safety, (JCCCNRS). The Soviet Union agreed to provide some information on late effects of radiation exposures and to attempt to add some new insights into low dose and low dose rate radiation consequences. At that time, it had just been revealed that significant radiation exposures had occurred in the South Ural Mountains, associated with the early years of operation of the MAYAK nuclear complex. The need to be able to better predict the long term consequences of overexposures, such as occurred with the Chernobyl accident, was a major factor in organizing this workshop. We decided to invite a small number of experts from the Soviet Union, who had direct knowledge of the situation. A small group of American experts was invited to help in a discussion of the state of knowledge of continual low level exposure. The experts and expertise included: Aspects of bask theoretical radiobiological models, studies on experimental animals exposed to chronic or fractionated external or internal radiation, studies on populations exposed to chronic intake and continual exposures, workers exposed to low or high continual levels of radiation. The intent was to begin a dialog on the issue of a better understanding of the dose rate effect in humans. No detailed conclusions could be reached at this first interaction between out two countries, but a model was prepared which seems to support a range of what are known as low dose and dose rate effectiveness factors. A beginning of an evaluation of the role of radiation dose rate on leukemia risk was also accomplished.

  9. Radiation-Detection Instrument Registration RSO Form 51 (11/04)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilcock, William

    GM Based Exposure Rate (EXP) instrument ­ e.g. Xetex, GM Dose Rate Moveable Plug-In Ion Chamber (IC radiation-detection instrument - e.g. MCA, gas-flow ion chamber, MDH 3. Instrument Data Readout Unit LSC, GC only): Detector Unit: Type (Check One): GM NaI ZnS LSC Ion Chamber Other Manufacturer: Serial

  10. Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ``ground-water pathway,`` which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated.

  11. DOE Radiation Records Contacts List

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE radiation records contact list for individuals to obtain records of occupational exposure directly from a DOE site.

  12. Dose Reduction Techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2000-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program.

  13. Biological doses with template distribution patterns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrop, R. (Simon Fraer Univ., Burnaby, British Columbia); Haymond, H.R.; Nisar, A.; Syed, A.N.M.; Feder, B.H.; Neblett, D.L.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Consideration of radiation dose rate effects emphasizes advantages of the template method for lateral distribution of multiple sources in treatment of laterally infiltrating gynecologic cancer, when compared to a conventional technique with colpostats. Biological doses in time dose fractionation (TDF), ret and reu units are calculated for the two treatment methods. With the template method the lateral dose (point B) is raised without significantly increasing the doses to the rectum and bladder, that is, relatively, the calculated biological doses at point A and B are more nearly equivalent and the doses to the rectum and bladder are significantly lower than the dose to point B.

  14. PRELIMINARY REPORT: EFFECTS OF IRRADIATION AND THERMAL EXPOSURE ON ELASTOMERIC SEALS FOR CASK TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verst, C.; Skidmore, E.; Daugherty, W.

    2014-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A testing and analysis approach to predict the sealing behavior of elastomeric seal materials in dry storage casks and evaluate their ability to maintain a seal under thermal and radiation exposure conditions of extended storage and beyond was developed, and initial tests have been conducted. The initial tests evaluate the aging response of EPDM elastomer O-ring seals. The thermal and radiation exposure conditions of the CASTOR® V/21 casks were selected for testing as this cask design is of interest due to its widespread use, and close proximity of the seals to the fuel compared to other cask designs leading to a relatively high temperature and dose under storage conditions. A novel test fixture was developed to enable compression stress relaxation measurements for the seal material at the thermal and radiation exposure conditions. A loss of compression stress of 90% is suggested as the threshold at which sealing ability of an elastomeric seal would be lost. Previous studies have shown this value to be conservative to actual leakage failure for most aging conditions. These initial results indicate that the seal would be expected to retain sealing ability throughout extended storage at the cask design conditions, though longer exposure times are needed to validate this assumption. The high constant dose rate used in the testing is not prototypic of the decreasingly low dose rate that would occur under extended storage. The primary degradation mechanism of oxidation of polymeric compounds is highly dependent on temperature and time of exposure, and with radiation expected to exacerbate the oxidation.

  15. Nuclear radiation-warning detector that measures impedance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Savignac, Noel Felix; Gomez, Leo S; Yelton, William Graham; Robinson, Alex; Limmer, Steven

    2013-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a nuclear radiation-warning detector that measures impedance of silver-silver halide on an interdigitated electrode to detect light or radiation comprised of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, X rays, and/or neutrons. The detector is comprised of an interdigitated electrode covered by a layer of silver halide. After exposure to alpha particles, beta particles, X rays, gamma rays, neutron radiation, or light, the silver halide is reduced to silver in the presence of a reducing solution. The change from the high electrical resistance (impedance) of silver halide to the low resistance of silver provides the radiation warning that detected radiation levels exceed a predetermined radiation dose threshold.

  16. The change of radiation doses to the patient when switching from conventional technique to digital technique without films in barium enema and IVU examinations. Final report SSI research project P933

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sjöholm, B

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray examinations of the colon (barium enema) and the kidneys (IVU) are combined with rather high radiation doses to the patients when using analogue technique with film-screen systems. It is therefore of great interest to see if the change from analogue to digital technique involves a reduction of doses. Barium enema and IVU examinations were monitored with DAP-meters before and after the X-ray department changed to digital techniques. For IVU also the change from storage phosphor plates to a Direct Digital detector is included. The study comprises between 53 and 87 patients for each modality of the two examinations. A considerable dose reduction was observed. In barium enema the overview images with large field sizes were omitted when using digital technique. On the other hand the number of spot images was increased from 6 to 22. The fluoroscopy time was increased from 4 minutes to 6 minutes. The DAP value was reduced from 54,3 Gy cm sup 2 to 21,9 Gy cm sup 2. For IVU a dose reduction from 44,5 Gy cm sup 2...

  17. Chapter 16: Log-linear regression for Poisson counts Exposure to ionizing radiation is recognized as a cancer risk. In the United States, EPA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bardsley, John

    as a cancer risk. In the United States, EPA sets guidelines specifying upper limits on the amount of exposure groups than low exposure. The objective of regression analysis is to estimate the rate of cancer deaths cases or deaths attributable to cancer) using a number of explanatory variables believed to be related

  18. WI Radiation Protection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute seeks to regulate radioactive materials, to encourage the constructive uses of radiation, and to prohibit and prevent exposure to radiation in amounts which are or may be detrimental...

  19. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H. (comps.)

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories under contract with the Centers for Disease Control. The independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP) provides technical direction. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demography, food consumption, and agriculture; environmental pathways and dose estimates.

  20. Investigation of Radiation and Chemical Resistance of Flexible HLW Transfer Hose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. Skidmore; Billings, K.; Hubbard, M.

    2010-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A chemical transfer hose constructed of an EPDM (ethylene-propylene diene monomer) outer covering with a modified cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) lining was evaluated for use in high level radioactive waste transfer applications. Laboratory analysis involved characterization of the hose liner after irradiation to doses of 50 to 300 Mrad and subsequent exposure to 25% NaOH solution at 93 C for 30 days, simulating 6 months intermittent service. The XLPE liner mechanical and structural properties were characterized at varying dose levels. Burst testing of irradiated hose assemblies was also performed. Literature review and test results suggest that radiation effects below doses of 100 kGy are minimal, with acceptable property changes to 500 kGy. Higher doses may be feasible. At a bounding dose of 2.5 MGy, the burst pressure is reduced to the working pressure (1.38 MPa) at room temperature. Radiation exposure slightly reduces liner tensile strength, with more significant decrease in liner elongation. Subsequent exposure to caustic solutions at elevated temperature slightly increases elongation, suggesting an immersion/hydrolytic effect or possible thermal annealing of radiation damage. This paper summarizes the laboratory results and recommendations for field deployment.

  1. Development of an optimal anisotropic responding (OAR) dosimeter for two-dosimeter dosimetry for better estimation of effective dose equivalent (He) and the impact of dosimeter misposition on estimating effective dose equivalent using isotropic dosimeters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Hsiang-Jung

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    exposure, the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) added the "whole body" as an organ in the table of organ dose weighting factors. The statement, published in the Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 20 (10 CFR20), was as follows: "For...). This report, ICRP Publication 26, initiated a major change from the Commission's recommendations in the past. ICRP Publication 26 indicated that radiation protection is concerned with the protection of individuals, their pregnancy and mankind as a whole...

  2. EFFECTS OF TRITIUM GAS EXPOSURE ON ELECTRICALLY CONDUCTING POLYMERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kane, M.; Clark, E.; Lascola, R.

    2009-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Effects of beta (tritium) and gamma irradiation on the surface electrical conductivity of two types of conducting polymer films are documented to determine their potential use as a sensing and surveillance device for the tritium facility. It was shown that surface conductivity was significantly reduced by irradiation with both gamma and tritium gas. In order to compare the results from the two radiation sources, an approximate dose equivalence was calculated. The materials were also sensitive to small radiation doses (<10{sup 5} rad), showing that there is a measurable response to relatively small total doses of tritium gas. Spectroscopy was also used to confirm the mechanism by which this sensing device would operate in order to calibrate this sensor for potential use. It was determined that one material (polyaniline) was very sensitive to oxidation while the other material (PEDOT-PSS) was not. However, polyaniline provided the best response as a sensing material, and it is suggested that an oxygen-impermeable, radiation-transparent coating be applied to this material for future device prototype fabrication. A great deal of interest has developed in recent years in the area of conducting polymers due to the high levels of conductivity that can be achieved, some comparable to that of metals [Gerard 2002]. Additionally, the desirable physical and chemical properties of a polymer are retained and can be exploited for various applications, including light emitting diodes (LED), anti-static packaging, electronic coatings, and sensors. The electron transfer mechanism is generally accepted as one of electron 'hopping' through delocalized electrons in the conjugated backbone, although other mechanisms have been proposed based on the type of polymer and dopant [Inzelt 2000, Gerard 2002]. The conducting polymer polyaniline (PANi) is of particular interest because there are extensive studies on the modulation of the conductivity by changing either the oxidation state of the main backbone chain, or by protonation of the imine groups [de Acevedo, 1999]. There are several types of radiation sensors commercially available, including ionization chambers, geiger counters, proportional counters, scintillators and solid state detectors. Each type has advantages, although many of these sensors require expensive electronics for signal amplification, are large and bulky, have limited battery life or require expensive materials for fabrication. A radiation sensor constructed of a polymeric material could be flexible, light, and the geometry designed to suit the application. Very simple and inexpensive electronics would be necessary to measure the change in conductivity with exposure to radiation and provide an alarm system when a set change of conductivity occurs in the sensor that corresponds to a predetermined radiation dose having been absorbed by the polymer. The advantages of using a polymeric sensor of this type rather than those currently in use are the flexibility of sensor geometry and relatively low cost. It is anticipated that these sensors can be made small enough for glovebox applications or have the ability to monitor the air tritium levels in places where a traditional monitor cannot be placed. There have been a few studies on the changes in conductivity of polyaniline specifically for radiation detection [de Acevedo, 1999; Lima Pacheco, 2003], but there have been no reports on the effects of tritium (beta radiation) on conducting polymers, such as polyaniline or polythiophene. The direct implementation of conducting polymers as radiation sensor materials has not yet been commercialized due to differing responses with total dose, dose rate, etc. Some have reported a large increase in the surface conductivity with radiation dose while others report a marked decrease in conductive properties; these differing observations may reflect the competing mechanisms of chain scission and cross-linking. However, it is clear that the radiation dose effects on conducting polymers must be fully understood before these materials can be used

  3. A mm-Scale Dosimetry System Based on Optically Stimulated Luminescence of Beryllium Oxide for Investigation of Dose Rate Profiles in Constricted Environments - 12219

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sommer, Marian; Jahn, Axel; Sommer, Dora; Henniger, Juergen [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Institute for Nuclear and Particle Physics, Radiation Physics Group, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Praetorius, Reiner M. [Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe Rueckbau- und Entsorgungs- GmbH, POB 1263, D-76339 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The dismantling of the former German fuel reprocessing research center Wiederaufbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe requires extensive investigations of contamination and dose rate inside of the shielded areas. Particularly for first the exploration of radiation field existing thermo-element pipes may offer access to the tanks and to other interesting points without the risk of contamination. Because of their small dimension, almost no active dosimetry systems are able to measure inside the pipes. New mm-scale luminescence dosimeters in combination with a packing and transport technique are presented. The dosimeters could measure doses from 0.1 mGy up to more than 100 Gy. Hence, over the possible exposure time durations, dose rates from ?Gyh{sup -1} up to 1000 Gyh{sup -1} are ascertainable. For potential users the system opens the opportunity for investigation of dose rates inside of shielding and in contaminated environments. Particularly in constricted environments the technique is a unique solution for dose and dose rate measurement tasks. Within the linear dose range up to several ten Gy, the uncertainty of the results is less than 5%. 100 Gy-doses can be specified within 20%, with individual high dose calibration of the detectors even better. For WAK and other potential users the system offers the opportunity to investigate dose rates inside of shieldings and in contaminated environments. Particularly in constricted environments the technique is an unique solution for dose and dose rate measurements. (authors)

  4. Population Dose Commitments Due to Radioactive Releases from Nuclear Power Plant Sites in 1977

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, D. A.

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1977. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each site. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ, Also included for each site is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitment from both liquid and airborne pathways ranged from a high of 220 person-rem to a low of 0.003 person-rem with an arithmetic mean of 16 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 700 person-rem for the 92 million people considered at risk. The average individual dose commitment from all pathways on a site basis ranged from a low of 2 x 10{sup -5} mrem to a high of 0.1 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites.

  5. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from Nuclear-Power-Plant Sites in 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, D.A.; Peloquin, R.A.

    1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1979. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each site. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each site is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitment from both liquid and airborne pathways ranged from a high of 1300 person-rem to a low of 0.0002 person-rem with an arithmetic mean of 38 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 1800 person-rem for the 94 million people considered at risk. The average individual dose commitment from all pathways on a site basis ranged from a low of 2 x 10/sup -6/ mrem to a high of 0.7 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites.

  6. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear-power-plant sites in 1978

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peloquin, R.A.; Schwab, J.D.; Baker, D.A.

    1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1978. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each site. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each site is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitment from both liquid and airborne pathways ranged from a high of 200 person-rem to a low of 0.0004 person-rem with an arithmetic mean of 14 person-rem. The total population dose for allsites was estimated at 660 person-rem for the 93 million people considered at risk. The average individual dose commitment from all pathways on a site basis ranged from a low of 3 x 10/sup -6/ mrem to a high of 0.08 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites.

  7. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, D.A.

    1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commericial power reactors operating during 1985. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 61 sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 73 person-rem to a low of 0.011 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 3 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 200 person-rem for the 110 million people considered at risk. The site average individual dose commitment from all pathways ranged from a low of 5 /times/ 10/sup /minus/6/ mrem to a high of 0.02 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites.

  8. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, D.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1986. Fifty-year dose commitments for a one-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 66 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 31 person-rem to a low of 0.0007 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 1.7 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 110 person-rem for the 140 million people considered at risk. The site average individual dose commitment from all pathways ranged from a low of 2 {times} 10{sup -6} mrem to a high of 0.02 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites. 12 refs.

  9. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, D.A.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1984. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 56 sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 110 person-rem to a low of 0.002 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 5 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 280 person-rem for the 100 million people considered at risk. The site average individual dose commitment from all pathways ranged from a low of 6 x 10/sup -6/ mrem to a high of 0.04 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites.

  10. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, D.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1987. Fifty-year dose commitments for a one-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 70 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for reach of the sites is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The site average individual dose commitment from all pathways ranged from a low of 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} mrem to a high of 0.009 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites. However, licensee calculation of doses to the maximally exposed individual at some sites indicated values of up to approximately 100 times average individual doses (on the order of a few millirem per year). 2 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. Integer Programs for High Dose Rate Brachytherapy Needle and Dose Planning that Directly Optimize Clinical Objectives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siauw, Ko-Ay Timmy

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    radiation received by the bulb of the penis correlates withof radiation dose to the bulb of the penis in men with andavoided puncturing the penile bulb; the average number of

  12. Anastomotic Complications After Ivor Lewis Esophagectomy in Patients Treated With Neoadjuvant Chemoradiation Are Related to Radiation Dose to the Gastric Fundus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vande Walle, Caroline [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Ceelen, Wim P., E-mail: wim.ceelen@ugent.be [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Boterberg, Tom [Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium); Vande Putte, Dirk; Van Nieuwenhove, Yves; Varin, Oswald; Pattyn, Piet [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, University Hospital, Ghent (Belgium)

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) is increasingly used in locally advanced esophageal cancer. Some studies have suggested that CRT results in increased surgical morbidity. We assessed the influence of CRT on anastomotic complications in a cohort of patients who underwent CRT followed by Ivor Lewis esophagectomy. Patients and Methods: Clinical and pathologic data were collected from all patients treated with neoadjuvant CRT (36 Gy combined with 5-fluorouracil and cisplatin) followed by Ivor Lewis esophagectomy. On the radiotherapy (RT) planning computed tomography scans, normal tissue volumes were drawn encompassing the proximal esophageal region and the gastric fundus. Within these volumes, dose-volume histograms were analyzed to generate the total dose to 50% of the volume (D{sub 50}). We studied the ability of the D{sub 50} to predict anastomotic complications (leakage, ischemia, or stenosis). Dose limits were derived using receiver operating characteristics analysis. Results: Fifty-four patients were available for analysis. RT resulted in either T or N downstaging in 51% of patients; complete pathologic response was achieved in 11%. In-hospital mortality was 5.4%, and major morbidity occurred in 36% of patients. Anastomotic complications (AC) developed in 7 patients (13%). No significant influence of the D{sub 50} on the proximal esophagus was noted on the anastomotic complication rate. The median D{sub 50} on the gastric fundus, however, was 33 Gy in patients with AC and 18 Gy in patients without AC (p = 0.024). Using receiver operating characteristics analysis, the D{sub 50} limit on the gastric fundus was defined as 29 Gy. Conclusions: In patients undergoing neoadjuvant CRT followed by Ivor Lewis esophagectomy, the incidence of AC is related to the RT dose on the gastric fundus but not to the dose received by the proximal esophagus. When planning preoperative RT, efforts should be made to limit the median dose on the gastric fundus to 29 Gy with a V{sub 30} below 40%.

  13. RADIATION EFFECTS ON EPOXY/CARBON FIBER COMPOSITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, E; Eric Skidmore, E

    2008-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy Savannah River Site vitrifies nuclear waste incident to defense programs through its Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The piping in the DWPF seal pot jumper configuration must withstand the stresses during an unlikely but potential deflagration event, and maintain its safety function for a 20-year service life. Carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy composites (CFR) were proposed for protection and reinforcement of piping during such an event. The proposed CFR materials have been ASME-approved (Section XI, Code Case N-589-1) for post-construction maintenance and is DOT-compliant per 49CFR 192 and 195. The proposed carbon fiber/epoxy composite reinforcement system was originally developed for pipeline rehabilitation and post-construction maintenance in petrochemical, refineries, DOT applications and other industries. The effects of ionizing radiation on polymers and organic materials have been studied for many years. The majority of available data are based on traditional exposures to gamma irradiation at high dose rates ({approx}10,000 Gy/hr) allowing high total dose within reasonable test periods and general comparison of different materials exposed at such conditions. However, studies in recent years have shown that degradation of many polymers are sensitive to dose rate, with more severe degradation often observed at similar or even lower total doses when exposed to lower dose rates. This behavior has been primarily attributed to diffusion-limited oxidation which is minimized during very high dose rate exposures. Most test standards for accelerated aging and nuclear qualification of components acknowledge these limitations. The results of testing to determine the radiation resistance and microstructural effects of gamma irradiation exposure on a bisphenol-A based epoxy matrix composite reinforced with carbon fibers are presented. This work provides a foundation for a more extensive evaluation of dose rate effects on advanced epoxy reinforced composites.

  14. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy improves lymph node coverage and dose to critical structures compared with three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy in clinically localized prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang-Chesebro, Alice [Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)]. E-mail: awang@radonc17.ucsf.edu; Xia Ping [Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Coleman, Joy [Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Akazawa, Clayton C. [Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Roach, Mack [Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to quantify gains in lymph node coverage and critical structure dose reduction for whole-pelvis (WP) and extended-field (EF) radiotherapy in prostate cancer using intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) compared with three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) for the first treatment phase of 45 Gy in the concurrent treatment of lymph nodes and prostate. Methods and Materials: From January to August 2005, 35 patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with pelvic IMRT; 7 had nodes defined up to L5-S1 (Group 1), and 28 had nodes defined above L5-S1 (Group 2). Each patient had 2 plans retrospectively generated: 1 WP 3DCRT plan using bony landmarks, and 1 EF 3DCRT plan to cover the vascular defined volumes. Dose-volume histograms for the lymph nodes, rectum, bladder, small bowel, and penile bulb were compared by group. Results: For Group 1, WP 3DCRT missed 25% of pelvic nodes with the prescribed dose 45 Gy and missed 18% with the 95% prescribed dose 42.75 Gy, whereas WP IMRT achieved V{sub 45Gy} = 98% and V{sub 42.75Gy} = 100%. Compared with WP 3DCRT, IMRT reduced bladder V{sub 45Gy} by 78%, rectum V{sub 45Gy} by 48%, and small bowel V{sub 45Gy} by 232 cm{sup 3}. EF 3DCRT achieved 95% coverage of nodes for all patients at high cost to critical structures. For Group 2, IMRT decreased bladder V{sub 45Gy} by 90%, rectum V{sub 45Gy} by 54% and small bowel V{sub 45Gy} by 455 cm{sup 3} compared with EF 3DCRT. Conclusion: In this study WP 3DCRT missed a significant percentage of pelvic nodes. Although EF 3DCRT achieved 95% pelvic nodal coverage, it increased critical structure doses. IMRT improved pelvic nodal coverage while decreasing dose to bladder, rectum, small bowel, and penile bulb. For patients with extended node involvement, IMRT especially decreases small bowel dose.

  15. Does dual-energy CT of lower-extremity tendons incur penalties in patient radiation exposure or reduced multiplanar reconstruction image quality?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    diagnostic value of dual-energy CT and MRI in the detectionusing dual-source dual-energy MDCT: Results of JAFROCfor dose reduction in dual energy hepatic CT using non-

  16. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology. Progress report, December 1, 1992--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a multidisciplenary blend of physics, chemistry and biology aimed at understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. The focus is increased on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights of the program from the past year are described. A mathematical model describing the production of single-strand and double-strand breaks in DNA as a function radiation quality has been completed. For the first time Monte Carlo techniques have been used to obtain directly the spatial distribution of DNA moieties altered by radiation. This information was obtained by including the transport codes a realistic description of the electronic structure of DNA. We have investigated structure activity relationships for the potential oncogenicity of a new generation of bioreductive drugs that function as hypoxic cytotoxins. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the inverse dose rate effect, whereby medium LET radiations actually produce an c effect when the dose is protracted, is now at a point where the basic mechanisms are reasonably understood and the complex interplay between dose, dose rate and radiation quality which is necessary for the effect to be present can now be predicted at least in vitro. In terms of early radiobiological damage, a quantitative link has been established between basic energy deposition and locally multiply damaged sites, the radiochemical precursor of DNA double strand breaks; specifically, the spatial and energy deposition requirements necessary to form LMDs have been evaluated. For the first time, a mechanically understood ``biological fingerprint`` of high-LET radiation has been established. Specifically measurement of the ratio of inter-to intra-chromosomal aberrations produces a unique signature from alpha-particles or neutrons.

  17. ORISE: REAC/TS Radiation Treatment Medications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Treatment Medications The Radiation Emergency Assistance CenterTraining Site (REACTS) is a valuable resource in the use of drug therapies to treat radiation exposure. REACTS...

  18. Ground-water contribution to dose from past Hanford Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freshley, M.D.; Thorne, P.D.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is being conducted to estimate radiation doses that populations and individuals could have received from Hanford Site operations from 1944 to the present. Four possible pathways by which radionuclides migrating in ground water on the Hanford Site could have reached the public have been identified: (1) through contaminated ground water migrating to the Columbia River; (2) through wells on or adjacent to the Hanford Site; (3) through wells next to the Columbia River downstream of Hanford that draw some or all of their water from the river (riparian wells); and (4) through atmospheric deposition resulting in contamination of a small watershed that, in turn, results in contamination of a shallow well or spring by transport in the ground water. These four pathways make up the ground-water pathway,'' which is the subject of this study. Assessment of the ground-water pathway was performed by (1) reviewing the existing extensive literature on ground water and ground-water monitoring at Hanford and (2) performing calculations to estimate radionuclide concentrations where no monitoring data were collected. Radiation doses that would result from exposure to these radionuclides were calculated.

  19. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project. Monthly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cannon, S.D.; Finch, S.M. [comps.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP) provides technical direction. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed from release to impact on humans (dose estimates):Source Terms, Environmental Transport, Environmental Monitoring Data, Demography, Food Consumption, and Agriculture, and Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates.

  20. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project Monthly Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H. (comps.)

    1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source Terms, Environmental Transport, Environmental Monitoring Data, Demography, Food Consumption, and Agriculture, and Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates.

  1. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project. Monthly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H. [comps.

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source terms, environmental transport, environmental monitoring data, demography, food consumption, and agriculture, and environmental pathways and dose estimates.

  2. Non-Targeted Effects Induced by Ionizing Radiation: Mechanisms and Potential Impact on Radiation Induced Health Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, William F.; Sowa, Marianne B.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Not-targeted effects represent a paradigm shift from the "DNA centric" view that ionizing radiation only elicits biological effects and subsequent health consequences as a result of an energy deposition event in the cell nucleus. While this is likely true at higher radiation doses (> 1Gy), at low doses (< 100mGy) non-targeted effects associated with radiation exposure might play a significant role. Here definitions of non-targeted effects are presented, the potential mechanisms for the communication of signals and signaling networks from irradiated cells/tissues are proposed, and the various effects of this intra- and intercellular signaling are described. We conclude with speculation on how these observations might lead to and impact long-term human health outcomes.

  3. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMakin, A.H.; Cannon, S.D.; Finch, S.M. (comps.)

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The TSP consists of experts in environmental pathways, epidemiology, surface-water transport, ground-water transport, statistics, demography, agriculture, meteorology, nuclear engineering, radiation dosimetry, and cultural anthropology. Included are appointed technical members representing the states of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, a representative of Native American tribes, and an individual representing the public. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source terms, environmental transport, environmental monitoring data, demography, food consumption, and agriculture, and environmental pathways and dose estimates. Progress is discussed.

  4. Real time chemical exposure and risk monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thrall, K.D.; Kenny, D.V.; Endres, G.W.R.; Sisk, D.R.

    1997-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The apparatus of the present invention is a combination of a breath interface and an external exposure dosimeter interface to a chemical analysis device, all controlled by an electronic processor for quantitatively analyzing chemical analysis data from both the breath interface and the external exposure dosimeter for determining internal tissue dose. The method of the present invention is a combination of steps of measuring an external dose, measuring breath content, then analyzing the external dose and breath content and determining internal tissue dose. 7 figs.

  5. A Monte Carlo Study of the Relationship between the Time Structures of Prompt Gammas and in vivo Radiation Dose in Proton Therapy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shin, Wook-Geun; Shin, Jae-Ik; Jeong, Jong Hwi; Lee, Se Byeong

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For the in vivo range verification in proton therapy, it has been tried to measure the spatial distribution of the prompt gammas generated by the proton-induced interactions with the close relationship with the proton dose distribution. However, the high energy of the prompt gammas and background gammas are still problematic in measuring the distribution. In this study, we suggested a new method determining the in vivo range by utilizing the time structure of the prompt gammas formed with the rotation of a range modulation wheel (RMW) in the passive scattering proton therapy. To validate the Monte Carlo code simulating the proton beam nozzle, axial percent depth doses (PDDs) were compared with the measured PDDs with the varying beam range of 4.73-24.01 cm. And the relationship between the proton dose rate and the time structure of the prompt gammas was assessed and compared in the water phantom. The results of the PDD showed accurate agreement within the relative errors of 1.1% in the distal range and 2.9% in...

  6. Retrospective Evaluation Reveals That Long-term Androgen Deprivation Therapy Improves Cause-Specific and Overall Survival in the Setting of Dose-Escalated Radiation for High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Felix Y., E-mail: ffeng@med.umich.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Blas, Kevin; Olson, Karin; Stenmark, Matthew [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States); Sandler, Howard [Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States)] [Cedars Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California (United States); Hamstra, Daniel A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan (United States)

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and duration for high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with dose-escalated radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis of high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with dose-escalated RT (minimum 75 Gy) with or without ADT was performed. The relationship between ADT use and duration with biochemical failure (BF), metastatic failure (MF), prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM), non-prostate cancer death (NPCD), and overall survival (OS) was assessed as a function of pretreatment characteristics, comorbid medical illness, and treatment using Fine and Gray's cumulative incidence methodology. Results: The median follow-up time was 64 months. In men with National Comprehensive Cancer Network defined high-risk prostate cancer treated with dose-escalated RT, on univariate analysis, both metastasis (P<.0001; hazard ratio 0.34; 95% confidence interval 0.18-0.67; cumulative incidence at 60 months 13% vs 35%) and PCSM (P=.015; hazard ratio 0.41; 95% confidence interval 0.2-1.0; cumulative incidence at 60 months 6% vs 11%) were improved with the use of ADT. On multivariate analysis for all high-risk patients, Gleason score was the strongest negative prognostic factor, and long-term ADT (LTAD) improved MF (P=.002), PCSM (P=.034), and OS (P=.001). In men with prostate cancer and Gleason scores 8 to 10, on multivariate analysis after adjustment for other risk features, there was a duration-dependent improvement in BF, metastasis, PCSM, and OS, all favoring LTAD in comparison with STAD or RT alone. Conclusion: For men with high-risk prostate cancer treated with dose-escalated EBRT, this retrospective study suggests that the combination of LTAD and RT provided a significant improvement in clinical outcome, which was especially true for those with Gleason scores of 8 to 10.

  7. Revisions to US EPA Superfund Risk and Dose Assessment Models and Guidance - 13403

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Stuart A. [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. 20460 (United States)] [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. 20460 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund program's six Preliminary Remediation Goal (PRG) and Dose Compliance Concentration (DCC) internet based calculators for risk and dose assessment at Superfund sites are being revised to reflect better science, revisions to existing exposure scenarios and new scenarios, and changes to match up more closely with the EPA chemical regional screening level calculator. A revised version of the 1999 guidance document that provides an overview for the Superfund risk assessment process at radioactively contaminated sites, 'Radiation Risk Assessment At CERCLA Sites: Q and A', is being completed that will reflect Superfund recommended guidance and other technical documents issued over the past 13 years. EPA is also issuing a series of fact sheets in the document 'Superfund Radiation Risk Assessment: A Community Tool-kit'. This presentation would go over those changes that are expected to be finished by this spring. (authors)

  8. Dosimetric Benefit of a New Ophthalmic Radiation Plaque

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marwaha, Gaurav, E-mail: marwahg2@ccf.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Wilkinson, Allan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Bena, James [Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States) [Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Macklis, Roger [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Singh, Arun D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States) [Department of Radiation Oncology, Taussig Cancer Center, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Department of Ophthalmic Oncology, Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States); Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To determine whether the computed dosimetry of a new ophthalmic plaque, EP917, when compared with the standard Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) plaques, could reduce radiation exposure to vision critical structures of the eye. Methods and Materials: One hundred consecutive patients with uveal melanoma treated with COMS radiation plaques between 2007 and 2010 were included in this study. These treatment plans were generated with the use of Bebig Plaque Simulator treatment-planning software, both for COMS plaques and for EP917 plaques using I-125. Dose distributions were calculated for a prescription of 85 Gy to the tumor apex. Doses to the optic disc, opposite retina, lens, and macula were obtained, and differences between the 2 groups were analyzed by standard parametric methods. Results: When compared with the COMS plaques, the EP917 plaques used fewer radiation seeds by an average difference of 1.94 (P<.001; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.8 to -1.06) and required less total strength of radiation sources by an average of 17.74 U (air kerma units) (P<.001; 95% CI, -20.16 to -15.32). The total radiation doses delivered to the optic disc, opposite retina, and macula were significantly less by 4.57 Gy, 0.50 Gy, and 11.18 Gy, respectively, with the EP917 plaques vs the COMS plaques. Conclusion: EP917 plaques deliver less overall radiation exposure to critical vision structures than COMS treatment plaques while still delivering the same total therapeutic dose to the tumor.

  9. Dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1991. Volume 13

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, D.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Population and individual radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1991. Fifty-year dose commitments for a one-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teenager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 72 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is an estimate of individual doses which are compared with 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix 1 design objectives. The total collective dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 22 person-rem to a low of 0.002 person-rem for the sites with plants in operation and producing power during the year. The arithmetic mean was 1.2 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 88 person-rem for the 130 million people considered at risk. The individual dose commitments estimated for all sites were below the Appendix 1 design objectives.

  10. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, D.A.; Peloquin, R.A.

    1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1980. In addition doses derived from the shutdown reactors at the Three Mile Island site were included. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each site. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each site is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitment from both liquid and airborne pathways ranged from a high of 40 person-rem to a low of 0.02 person-rem with an arithmetic mean of 4 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 180 person-rem for the 96 million people considered at risk.

  11. Dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, D.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Population and individual radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1989. Fifty-year dose commitments for a one-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 72 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is an estimate of individual doses which are compared with 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix I design objectives. The total collective dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 14 person-rem to a low of 0.005 person-rem for the sites with plants in operation and producing power during the year. The arithmetic mean was 1.2 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 84 person-rem for the 140 million people considered at risk. The individual dose commitments estimated for all sites were below the Appendix I design objectives.

  12. Dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1992. Volume 14

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaberg, R.L.; Baker, D.A.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Population and individual radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1992. Fifty-year dose commitments for a 1-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teenager, and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 72 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is an estimate of individual doses, which are compared with 10 CFR Part 50, Appendix I, design objectives. The total collective dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 3.7 person-rem to a low of 0.0015 person-rem for the sites with plants in operation and producing power during the year. The arithmetic mean was 0.66 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 47 person-rem for the 130-million people considered at risk. The individual dose commitments estimated for all sites were below the 10 CFR 50, Appendix I, design objectives.

  13. What is the probability that radiation caused a particular cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voelz, G.L.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Courts, lawyers, health physicists, physicians, and others are searching for a credible answer to the question posed in the title of this paper. The cases in which the question arises frequently stem from an individual that has cancer and they, or their next-of-kin, are convinced that a past radiation exposure - usually small - is responsible for causing it. An arithmetic expression of this problem is simple: the probability of causation by the radiation dose in question is equal to the risk of cancer from the radiation dose divided by the risk of cancer from all causes. The application of risk factors to this equation is not so simple. It must involve careful evaluation of the reliability of and variations in risk coefficients for development of cancer due to radiation exposure, other carcinogenic agents, and natural causes for the particular individual. Examination of our knowledge of these various factors indicates that a large range in the answers can result due to the variability and imprecision of the data. Nevertheless, the attempts to calculate and the probability that radiation caused the cancer is extremely useful to provide a gross perspective on the probability of causation. It will likely rule in or out a significant number of cases despite the limitations in our understandings of the etiology of cancer and the risks from various factors. For the remaining cases, a thoughtful and educated judgment based on selected data and circumstances of the case will also be needed before the expert can develop and support his opinion.

  14. COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia, Songtao

    for increased protection from ionizing radiation for declared pregnant radiation workers. The radiation doseCOLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program Medical Center - T: 212-305-0303 F: 212 regulations of the Rules of the City of New York, Article 175, Radiation Control, there is a requirement

  15. Fundamentals of health physics for the radiation-protection officer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, B.L.; Traub, R.J.; Gilchrist, R.L.; Mann, J.C.; Munson, L.H.; Carbaugh, E.H.; Baer, J.L.

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The contents of this book on health physics include chapters on properties of radioactive materials, radiation instrumentation, radiation protection programs, radiation survey programs, internal exposure, external exposure, decontamination, selection and design of radiation facilities, transportation of radioactive materials, radioactive waste management, radiation accidents and emergency preparedness, training, record keeping, quality assurance, and appraisal of radiation protection programs. (ACR)

  16. The effect of thymosin on the survival of CBA/J mice exposed to lethal and acute doses of ionizing radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huchton, Roger Lynn

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and after 875 R whole-body X-radiatron to two groups of 15 mice. Control groups recexved equivalent amounts of sterile saline in corresponding treatment regimens. Though a slight decrease zn the mean time-to-death for the thymosin-in7ected au. ce... was noted, the difference in the mean time-to-deaths for the two groups was not significantly different. For the second investigation, two groups of 18 mice were exposed to 700 R whole-body X-radiation. Daily subcutaneous injections of thymosrn were...

  17. Radiation Processing -an overview

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of radiation · Facilities ­ Gamma ­ electrons ­ X-ray ­ Safety · Sterilisation of medical devices · Food irradiation · Material modification #12;3 Content ­ Part 2 · Environmental applications · Other applications Radiation · Energy in the form of waves or moving subatomic particles Irradiation · Exposure to radiation

  18. X-ray induced Sm{sup 3+} to Sm{sup 2+} conversion in fluorophosphate and fluoroaluminate glasses for the monitoring of high-doses in microbeam radiation therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vahedi, Shahrzad; Okada, Go; Morrell, Brian; Muzar, Edward; Koughia, Cyril; Kasap, Safa [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5A9 (Canada); Edgar, Andy; Varoy, Chris [School of Chemical and Physical Sciences and MacDiarmid Institute, Victoria University of Wellington, Kelburn Parade (New Zealand); Belev, George; Wysokinski, Tomasz [Canadian Light Source, Inc., University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 0X4 (Canada); Chapman, Dean [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E5 (Canada)

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluorophosphate and fluoroaluminate glasses doped with trivalent samarium were evaluated as sensors of x-ray radiation for microbeam radiation therapy at the Canadian Light Source using the conversion of trivalent Sm{sup 3+} to the divalent form Sm{sup 2+}. Both types of glasses show similar conversion rates and may be used as a linear sensor up to {approx}150 Gy and as a nonlinear sensor up to {approx}2400 Gy, where saturation is reached. Experiments with a multi-slit collimator show high spatial resolution of the conversion pattern; the pattern was acquired by a confocal fluorescence microscopy technique. The effects of previous x-ray exposure may be erased by annealing at temperatures exceeding the glass transition temperature T{sub g} while annealing at T{sub A} < T{sub g} enhances the Sm conversion. This enhancement is explained by a thermally stimulated relaxation of host glass ionic matrix surrounding x-ray induced Sm{sup 2+} ions. In addition, some of the Sm{sup 3+}-doped glasses were codoped with Eu{sup 2+}-ions but the results show that there is no marked improvement in the conversion efficiency by the introduction of Eu{sup 2+}.

  19. Reduction in radiation-induced brain injury by use of pentobarbital or lidocaine protection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldfield, E.H.; Friedman, R.; Kinsella, T.; Moquin, R.; Olson, J.J.; Orr, K.; DeLuca, A.M. (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (USA))

    1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To determine if barbiturates would protect brain at high doses of radiation, survival rates in rats that received whole-brain x-irradiation during pentobarbital- or lidocaine-induced anesthesia were compared with those of control animals that received no medication and of animals anesthetized with ketamine. The animals were shielded so that respiratory and digestive tissues would not be damaged by the radiation. Survival rates in rats that received whole-brain irradiation as a single 7500-rad dose under pentobarbital- or lidocaine-induced anesthesia was increased from between from 0% and 20% to between 45% and 69% over the 40 days of observation compared with the other two groups (p less than 0.007). Ketamine anesthesia provided no protection. There were no notable differential effects upon non-neural tissues, suggesting that pentobarbital afforded protection through modulation of ambient neural activity during radiation exposure. Neural suppression during high-dose cranial irradiation protects brain from acute and early delayed radiation injury. Further development and application of this knowledge may reduce the incidence of radiation toxicity of the central nervous system (CNS) and may permit the safe use of otherwise unsafe doses of radiation in patients with CNS neoplasms.

  20. Improved Radiation Dosimetry/Risk Estimates to Facilitate Environmental Management of Plutonium-Contaminated Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott, Bobby R.; Tokarskaya, Zoya B.; Zhuntova, Galina V.; Osovets, Sergey V.; Syrchikov, Victor A., Belyaeva, Zinaida D.

    2007-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes 4 years of research achievements in this Office of Science (BER), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project. The research described was conducted by scientists and supporting staff at Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute (LRRI)/Lovelace Biomedical and Environmental Research Institute (LBERI) and the Southern Urals Biophysics Institute (SUBI). All project objectives and goals were achieved. A major focus was on obtaining improved cancer risk estimates for exposure via inhalation to plutonium (Pu) isotopes in the workplace (DOE radiation workers) and environment (public exposures to Pu-contaminated soil). A major finding was that low doses and dose rates of gamma rays can significantly suppress cancer induction by alpha radiation from inhaled Pu isotopes. The suppression relates to stimulation of the body's natural defenses, including immunity against cancer cells and selective apoptosis which removes precancerous and other aberrant cells.

  1. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1981. Volume 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, D.A.; Peloquin, R.A.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1981. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teenager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each site. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each site is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitment from both liquid and airborne pathways from 48 sites ranged from a high of 20 person-rem to a low of 0.008 person-rem with an arithmetic mean of 3 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 160 person-rem for the 98 million people considered at risk.

  2. RADTRAD: A simplified model for RADionuclide Transport and Removal And Dose estimation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humphreys, S.L.; Miller, L.A.; Monroe, D.K. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Heames, T.J. [ITSC, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the RADTRAD computer code developed for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR) to estimate transport and removal of radionuclides and dose at selected receptors. The document includes a users` guide to the code, a description of the technical basis for the code, the quality assurance and code acceptance testing documentation, and a programmers` guide. The RADTRAD code can be used to estimate the containment release using either the NRC TID-14844 or NUREG-1465 source terms and assumptions, or a user-specified table. In addition, the code can account for a reduction in the quantity of radioactive material due to containment sprays, natural deposition, filters, and other natural and engineered safety features. The RADTRAD code uses a combination of tables and/or numerical models of source term reduction phenomena to determine the time-dependent dose at user-specified locations for a given accident scenario. The code system also provides the inventory, decay chain, and dose conversion factor tables needed for the dose calculation. The RADTRAD code can be used to assess occupational radiation exposures, typically in the control room; to estimate site boundary doses; and to estimate dose attenuation due to modification of a facility or accident sequence.

  3. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, D.A.; Peloquin, R.A.

    1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1983. Fifty-year dose commitments from a one-year exposure were calculated from both liquid and atmospheric releases for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 52 sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both liquid and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 45 person-rem to a low of 0.002 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 3 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 170 person-rem for the 100 million people considered at risk.

  4. SM22{alpha}-induced activation of p16{sup INK4a}/retinoblastoma pathway promotes cellular senescence caused by a subclinical dose of {gamma}-radiation and doxorubicin in HepG2 cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Tae Rim; Lee, Hee Min; Lee, So Yong; Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Kug Chan [Department of Radiation Biology, Environmental Radiation Research Group, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Biology, Environmental Radiation Research Group, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Paik, Sang Gi [Department of Biology, School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Biology, School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Eun Wie, E-mail: ewcho@kribb.re.kr [Daejeon-KRIBB-FHCRC Cooperation Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, In Gyu, E-mail: igkim@kaeri.re.kr [Department of Radiation Biology, Environmental Radiation Research Group, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Research highlights: {yields} SM22{alpha} overexpression in HepG2 cells leads cells to a growth arrest state, and the treatment of a subclinical dose of {gamma}-radiation or doxorubicin promotes cellular senescence. {yields} SM22{alpha} overexpression elevates p16{sup INK4a} followed by pRB activation, but there are no effects on p53/p21{sup WAF1/Cip1} pathway. {yields} SM22{alpha}-induced MT-1G activates p16{sup INK4a}/pRB pathway, which promotes cellular senescence by damaging agents. -- Abstract: Smooth muscle protein 22-alpha (SM22{alpha}) is known as a transformation- and shape change-sensitive actin cross-linking protein found in smooth muscle tissue and fibroblasts; however, its functional role remains uncertain. We reported previously that SM22{alpha} overexpression confers resistance against anti-cancer drugs or radiation via induction of metallothionein (MT) isozymes in HepG2 cells. In this study, we demonstrate that SM22{alpha} overexpression leads cells to a growth arrest state and promotes cellular senescence caused by treatment with a subclinical dose of {gamma}-radiation (0.05 and 0.1 Gy) or doxorubicin (0.01 and 0.05 {mu}g/ml), compared to control cells. Senescence growth arrest is known to be controlled by p53 phosphorylation/p21{sup WAF1/Cip1} induction or p16{sup INK4a}/retinoblastoma protein (pRB) activation. SM22{alpha} overexpression in HepG2 cells elevated p16{sup INK4a} followed by pRB activation, but did not activate the p53/p21{sup WAF1/Cip1} pathway. Moreover, MT-1G, which is induced by SM22{alpha} overexpression, was involved in the activation of the p16{sup INK4a}/pRB pathway, which led to a growth arrest state and promoted cellular senescence caused by damaging agents. Our findings provide the first demonstration that SM22{alpha} modulates cellular senescence caused by damaging agents via regulation of the p16{sup INK4a}/pRB pathway in HepG2 cells and that these effects of SM22{alpha} are partially mediated by MT-1G.

  5. External dose-rate conversion factors for calculation of dose to the public

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents a tabulation of dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photons and electrons emitted by radionuclides in the environment. This report was prepared in conjunction with criteria for limiting dose equivalents to members of the public from operations of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The dose-rate conversion factors are provided for use by the DOE and its contractors in performing calculations of external dose equivalents to members of the public. The dose-rate conversion factors for external exposure to photons and electrons presented in this report are based on a methodology developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. However, some adjustments of the previously documented methodology have been made in obtaining the dose-rate conversion factors in this report. 42 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  6. Dose assessment for various coals in the coal-fired power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antic, D.; Sokcic-Kostic, M. (Institute of Nuclear Sciences Vinca, Belgrade (Yugoslavia))

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The radiation exposure of the public in the vicinity of a coal-fired power plant has been studied. The experimental data on uranium, thorium, and potassium content in selected coals from Serbia and Bosnia have been used to calculate the release rates of natural radionuclides from the power plant. A generalized model for analysis of radiological impact of an energy source that includes the two-dimensional version of the cloud model simulates the transport of radionuclides released to the atmosphere. The inhalation dose rates are assessed for various meteorological conditions.

  7. alpha radiation influencia: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    plant species. Search method: In nature, most alpha radiation exposure is caused by radon progeny. Exposure is particularly high below ground, and is also elevated on plant...

  8. alpha radiation detection: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    plant species. Search method: In nature, most alpha radiation exposure is caused by radon progeny. Exposure is particularly high below ground, and is also elevated on plant...

  9. alpha radiation measuring: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    plant species. Search method: In nature, most alpha radiation exposure is caused by radon progeny. Exposure is particularly high below ground, and is also elevated on plant...

  10. RADIATION EFFECTS ON EPOXY CARBON FIBER COMPOSITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, E

    2008-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon fiber-reinforced bisphenol-A epoxy matrix composite was evaluated for gamma radiation resistance. The composite was exposed to total gamma doses of 50, 100, and 200 Mrad. Irradiated and baseline samples were tested for tensile strength, hardness and evaluated using FTIR (Fourier transform infrared) spectroscopy and DSC (differential scanning calorimetry) for structural changes. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate microstructural behavior. Mechanical testing of the composite bars revealed no apparent change in modulus, strain to failure, or fracture strength after exposures. However, testing of only the epoxy matrix revealed changes in hardness, thermal properties, and FTIR results with increasing gamma irradiation. The results suggest the epoxy within the composite can be affected by exposure to gamma irradiation.

  11. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, D.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1988. Fifty-year commitments for a one-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 71 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total collective dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 16 person-rem to a low of 0.0011 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 1.1 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 75 person-rem for the 150 million people considered at risk. The site average individual dose commitment from all pathways ranged from a low of 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} mrem to a high of 0.02 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites. However, licensee calculation of doses to the maximally exposed individual at some sites indicated values of up to approximately 100 times average individual doses (on the order of a few millirem per year).

  12. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1988. Volume 10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, D.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1988. Fifty-year commitments for a one-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 71 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for each of the sites is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The total collective dose commitments (from both liquid and airborne pathways) for each site ranged from a high of 16 person-rem to a low of 0.0011 person-rem for the sites with plants operating throughout the year with an arithmetic mean of 1.1 person-rem. The total population dose for all sites was estimated at 75 person-rem for the 150 million people considered at risk. The site average individual dose commitment from all pathways ranged from a low of 3 {times} 10{sup {minus}7} mrem to a high of 0.02 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites. However, licensee calculation of doses to the maximally exposed individual at some sites indicated values of up to approximately 100 times average individual doses (on the order of a few millirem per year).

  13. Dosimetry in Mammography: Average Glandular Dose Based on Homogeneous Phantom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benevides, Luis A. [Naval Sea Systems Command,1333 Isaac Hull Avenue, Washington Navy Yard, DC 20376 (United States); Hintenlang, David E. [University of Florida, 202 Nuclear Sciences Center, P.O. Box 1183, Gainesville Florida 32611 (United States)

    2011-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate that a clinical dosimetry protocol that utilizes a dosimetric breast phantom series based on population anthropometric measurements can reliably predict the average glandular dose (AGD) imparted to the patient during a routine screening mammogram. AGD was calculated using entrance skin exposure and dose conversion factors based on fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness, mammography unit parameters and modifying parameters for homogeneous phantom (phantom factor), compressed breast lateral dimensions (volume factor) and anatomical features (anatomical factor). The patient fibroglandular content was evaluated using a calibrated modified breast tissue equivalent homogeneous phantom series (BRTES-MOD) designed from anthropomorphic measurements of a screening mammography population and whose elemental composition was referenced to International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 44 and 46 tissues. The patient fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness along with unit parameters and spectrum half-value layer were used to derive the currently used dose conversion factor (DgN). The study showed that the use of a homogeneous phantom, patient compressed breast lateral dimensions and patient anatomical features can affect AGD by as much as 12%, 3% and 1%, respectively. The protocol was found to be superior to existing methodologies. The clinical dosimetry protocol developed in this study can reliably predict the AGD imparted to an individual patient during a routine screening mammogram.

  14. Recommended environmental dose calculation methods and Hanford-specific parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schreckhise, R.G.; Rhoads, K.; Napier, B.A.; Ramsdell, J.V. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Davis, J.S. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States))

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document was developed to support the Hanford Environmental Dose overview Panel (HEDOP). The Panel is responsible for reviewing all assessments of potential doses received by humans and other biota resulting from the actual or possible environmental releases of radioactive and other hazardous materials from facilities and/or operations belonging to the US Department of Energy on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington. This document serves as a guide to be used for developing estimates of potential radiation doses, or other measures of risk or health impacts, to people and other biota in the environs on and around the Hanford Site. It provides information to develop technically sound estimates of exposure (i.e., potential or actual) to humans or other biotic receptors that could result from the environmental transport of potentially harmful materials that have been, or could be, released from Hanford operations or facilities. Parameter values and information that are specific to the Hanford environs as well as other supporting material are included in this document.

  15. THE CONTRIBUTION OF MODERN MEDICAL IMAGING TECHNOLOGY TO RADIATION HEALTH EFFECTS IN EXPOSED POPULATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    than for radiation and nuclear energy. Furthermore, unlessof ionizing radiation: Implications for nuclear energy andby radiation as a result of exposure from nuclear power

  16. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, L.H.

    1994-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

  17. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

  18. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, L.H.

    1995-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

  19. Gamma radiation field intensity meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

  20. Occupational dose reduction at Department of Energy contractor facilities: Study of ALARA programs. Status 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dionne, B.J.; Meinhold, C.B.; Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides the US Department of Energy (DOE) and its contractors with information that will be useful for reducing occupational radiation doses at DOE`s nuclear facilities. In 1989 and 1990, health physicists from the Brookhaven National Laboratory`s (BNL) ALARA Center visited twelve DOE contractor facilities with annual collective dose equivalents greater than 100 person-rem (100 person-cSv). The health physicists interviewed radiological safety staff, engineers, and training personnel who were responsible for dose control. The status of ALARA practices at the major contractor facilities was compared with the requirements and recommendation in DOE Order 5480.11 ``Radiation Protection for Occupational Workers`` and PNL-6577 ``Health Physics Manual of Good Practices for Reducing Radiation Exposure to Levels that are as Low as Reasonably Achievable.`` The information and data collected are described and examples of successful practices are presented. The findings on the status of the DOE Contractor ALARA Programs are summarized and evaluated. In addition, the supplement to this report contains examples of good-practice documents associated with implementing the major elements of a formally documented ALARA program for a major DOE contractor facility.

  1. Radiation Safety Manual Dec 2012 Page 1 RADIATION SAFETY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grishok, Alla

    of External and Internal Doses E. Reports and Notices to Workers Chapter VII: Radiation ProtectionRadiation Safety Manual ­ Dec 2012 Page 1 RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL For Columbia University NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital New York State Psychiatric Institute Barnard College December 2012 #12;Radiation Safety Manual

  2. Operational Radiation Protection in High-Energy Physics Accelerators: Implementation of ALARA in Design and Operation of Accelerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fasso, A.; Rokni, S.; /SLAC

    2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    It used to happen often, to us accelerator radiation protection staff, to be asked by a new radiation worker: ?How much dose am I still allowed?? And we smiled looking at the shocked reaction to our answer: ?You are not allowed any dose?. Nowadays, also thanks to improved training programs, this kind of question has become less frequent, but it is still not always easy to convince workers that staying below the exposure limits is not sufficient. After all, radiation is still the only harmful agent for which this is true: for all other risks in everyday life, from road speed limits to concentration of hazardous chemicals in air and water, compliance to regulations is ensured by keeping below a certain value. It appears that a tendency is starting to develop to extend the radiation approach to other pollutants (1), but it will take some time before the new attitude makes it way into national legislations.

  3. Organ doses, effective doses, and risk indices in adult CT: Comparison of four types of reference phantoms across different examination protocols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang Yakun; Li Xiang; Paul Segars, W.; Samei, Ehsan [Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Department of Radiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States) and Department of Radiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Radiology, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States) and Departments of Physics, Biomedical Engineering, and Electrical and Computer Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States)

    2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Radiation exposure from computed tomography (CT) to the public has increased the concern among radiation protection professionals. Being able to accurately assess the radiation dose patients receive during CT procedures is a crucial step in the management of CT dose. Currently, various computational anthropomorphic phantoms are used to assess radiation dose by different research groups. It is desirable to better understand how the dose results are affected by different choices of phantoms. In this study, the authors assessed the uncertainties in CT dose and risk estimation associated with different types of computational phantoms for a selected group of representative CT protocols. Methods: Routinely used CT examinations were categorized into ten body and three neurological examination categories. Organ doses, effective doses, risk indices, and conversion coefficients to effective dose and risk index (k and q factors, respectively) were estimated for these examinations for a clinical CT system (LightSpeed VCT, GE Healthcare). Four methods were used, each employing a different type of reference phantoms. The first and second methods employed a Monte Carlo program previously developed and validated in our laboratory. In the first method, the reference male and female extended cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantoms were used, which were initially created from the Visible Human data and later adjusted to match organ masses defined in ICRP publication 89. In the second method, the reference male and female phantoms described in ICRP publication 110 were used, which were initially developed from tomographic data of two patients and later modified to match ICRP 89 organ masses. The third method employed a commercial dosimetry spreadsheet (ImPACT group, London, England) with its own hermaphrodite stylized phantom. In the fourth method, another widely used dosimetry spreadsheet (CT-Expo, Medizinische Hochschule, Hannover, Germany) was employed together with its associated male and female stylized phantoms. Results: For fully irradiated organs, average coefficients of variation (COV) ranged from 0.07 to 0.22 across the four male phantoms and from 0.06 to 0.18 across the four female phantoms; for partially irradiated organs, average COV ranged from 0.13 to 0.30 across the four male phantoms and from 0.15 to 0.30 across the four female phantoms. Doses to the testes, breasts, and esophagus showed large variations between phantoms. COV for gender-averaged effective dose and k factor ranged from 0.03 to 0.23 and from 0.06 to 0.30, respectively. COV for male risk index and q factor ranged from 0.06 to 0.30 and from 0.05 to 0.36, respectively; COV for female risk index and q factor ranged from 0.06 to 0.49 and from 0.07 to 0.54, respectively. Conclusions: Despite closely matched organ mass, total body weight, and height, large differences in organ dose exist due to variation in organ location, spatial distribution, and dose approximation method. Dose differences for fully irradiated radiosensitive organs were much smaller than those for partially irradiated organs. Weighted dosimetry quantities including effective dose, male risk indices, k factors, and male q factors agreed well across phantoms. The female risk indices and q factors varied considerably across phantoms.

  4. AGING FACILITY WORKER DOSE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.L. Thacker

    2005-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate radiation doses received by personnel working in the Aging Facility performing operations to transfer aging casks to the aging pads for thermal and logistical management, stage empty aging casks, and retrieve aging casks from the aging pads for further processing in other site facilities. Doses received by workers due to aging cask surveillance and maintenance operations are also included. The specific scope of work contained in this calculation covers both collective doses and individual worker group doses on an annual basis, and includes the contributions due to external and internal radiation from normal operation. There are no Category 1 event sequences associated with the Aging Facility (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167268], Section 7.2.1). The results of this calculation will be used to support the design of the Aging Facility and to provide occupational dose estimates for the License Application. The calculations contained in this document were developed by Environmental and Nuclear Engineering of the Design and Engineering Organization and are intended solely for the use of the Design and Engineering Organization in its work regarding facility operation. Yucca Mountain Project personnel from the Environmental and Nuclear Engineering should be consulted before use of the calculations for purposes other than those stated herein or use by individuals other than authorized personnel in Environmental and Nuclear Engineering.

  5. University of Texas at Dallas Radiation Safety Manual

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Toole, Alice J.

    Principles of Radiation Protection E. Exposure Limits for Radiation Workers F. Types of Radiation Exposure G. Biological Effects of Radiation H. Personnel Monitoring I. Bioassays J. ProtectiveUniversity of Texas at Dallas Radiation Safety Manual Table of Contents Introduction Emergency

  6. Residual radioactive contamination from decommissioning: Technical basis for translating contamination levels to annual dose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Peloquin, R.A. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the generic modeling of the total effective dose equivalent (TEDE) to an individual in a population from a unit concentration of residual radioactive contamination. Radioactive contamination inside buildings and soil contamination are considered. Unit concentration TEDE factors by radionuclide, exposure pathway, and exposure scenario are calculated. Reference radiation exposure scenarios are used to derive unit concentration TEDE factors for about 200 individual radionuclides and parent-daughter mixtures. For buildings, these unit concentration factors list the annual TEDE for volume and surface contamination situations. For soil, annual TEDE factors are presented for unit concentrations of radionuclides in soil during residential use of contaminated land and the TEDE per unit total inventory for potential use of drinking water from a ground-water source. Because of the generic treatment of potentially complex ground-water systems, the annual TEDE factors for drinking water for a given inventory may only indicate when additional site data or modeling sophistication are warranted. Descriptions are provided of the models, exposure pathways, exposure scenarios, parameter values, and assumptions used. An analysis of the potential annual TEDE resulting from reference mixtures of residual radionuclides is provided to demonstrate application of the TEDE factors. 62 refs., 5 figs., 66 tabs.

  7. X-band EPR imaging as a tool for gradient dose reconstruction in irradiated bones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leveque, Philippe; Godechal, Quentin; Bol, Anne; Trompier, Francois; Gallez, Bernard [Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Unit, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1200 Brussels (Belgium); Molecular Imaging and Experimental Radiotherapy Unit, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1200 Brussels (Belgium); Institut de Surete Nucleaire et de Radioprotection, F-92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Unit, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1200 Brussels (Belgium)

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Various tools are currently available for dose reconstruction in individuals after accidental exposure to ionizing radiation. Among the available biological analyses, Monte Carlo simulations, and biophysical methods, such as electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), the latter has proved its usefulness for retrospective dosimetry. Although EPR spectroscopy is probably the most sensitive technique, it does not provide spatial dosimetric data. This information is, however, highly desirable when steep dose gradient irradiations are involved. The purpose of this work was to explore the possibilities of EPR imaging (EPRI) for spatial dose reconstruction in irradiated biological material. Methods: X-band EPRI was used to reconstruct ex vivo the relative dose distribution in human bone samples and hydroxyapatite phantoms after irradiation with brachytherapy seeds or x rays. Three situations were investigated: Homogeneous, stepwise gradient, and continuous gradient irradiation. Results: EPRI gave a faithful relative spin density distribution in bone samples and in hydroxyapatite phantoms. Measured dose ratios were in close agreement with the actual delivered dose ratios. EPRI was able to distinguish the dose gradients induced by two different sources ({sup 125}I and {sup 192}Ir). However, the measured spatial resolution of the system was 1.9 mm and this appeared to be a limiting factor. The method could be improved by using new signal postprocessing strategies. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that EPRI can be used to assess the regional relative dose distribution in irradiated bone samples. The method is currently applicable to ex vivo measurements of small size samples with low variation in tissue density but is likely to be adapted for in vivo application using L-band EPRI.

  8. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project Monthly Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finch, S.M. (comp.)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demographics; agriculture; food habits; and environmental pathways and dose estimates. 3 figs.

  9. Weldon Spring historical dose estimate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meshkov, N.; Benioff, P.; Wang, J.; Yuan, Y.

    1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was conducted to determine the estimated radiation doses that individuals in five nearby population groups and the general population in the surrounding area may have received as a consequence of activities at a uranium processing plant in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The study is retrospective and encompasses plant operations (1957-1966), cleanup (1967-1969), and maintenance (1969-1982). The dose estimates for members of the nearby population groups are as follows. Of the three periods considered, the largest doses to the general population in the surrounding area would have occurred during the plant operations period (1957-1966). Dose estimates for the cleanup (1967-1969) and maintenance (1969-1982) periods are negligible in comparison. Based on the monitoring data, if there was a person residing continually in a dwelling 1.2 km (0.75 mi) north of the plant, this person is estimated to have received an average of about 96 mrem/yr (ranging from 50 to 160 mrem/yr) above background during plant operations, whereas the dose to a nearby resident during later years is estimated to have been about 0.4 mrem/yr during cleanup and about 0.2 mrem/yr during the maintenance period. These values may be compared with the background dose in Missouri of 120 mrem/yr.

  10. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watkins, W. Tyler, E-mail: watkinswt@virginia.edu; Siebers, Jeffrey V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Moore, Joseph A. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Gordon, James [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan 48202 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Hugo, Geoffrey D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States)

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. Methods: MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. Results: By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. Conclusions: MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated.

  11. Low Dose Suppression of Neoplastic Transformation in Vitro

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Leslie Redpath

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This grant was to study the low dose suppression of neoplastic transformation in vitro and the shape of the dose-response curve at low doses and dose-rates of ionizing radiation. Previous findings had indicated a suppression of transformation at dose <10cGy of low-LET radiation when delivered at high dose-rate. The present study indicates that such suppression extends out to doses in excess of 100cGy when the dose (from I-125 photons) is delivered at dose-rates as low as 0.2 mGy/min and out to in excess of {approx}25cGy the highest dose studied at the very low dose-rate of 0.5 mGy/day. We also examined dose-rate effects for high energy protons (which are a low-LET radiation) and suppression was evident below {approx}10cGy for high dose-rate delivery and at least out to 50cGy for low dose-rate (20cGy/h) delivery. Finally, we also examined the effect of low doses of 1 GeV/n iron ions (a high-LET radiation) delivered at high dose-rate on transformation at low doses and found a suppression below {approx}10cGy that could be attributable to an adaptive response in bystander cells induced by the associated low-LET delta rays. These results have implications for cancer risk assessment at low doses.

  12. ORISE: Health Physics in Radiation Emergencies | REAC/TS Continuing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (HP), Medical Physicists (MP), Radiation Safety Officers (RSO) and others who have radiation dose assessment andor radiological control responsibilities. The course...

  13. An assessment of potential health impacts on Utrok Atoll from exposure to cesium-137 (137Cs) and plutonium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, T

    2007-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Residual fallout contamination from the nuclear test program in the Marshall Islands is a concern to Marshall Islanders because of the potential health risks associated with exposure to residual fallout contamination in the environment. Scientists from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have been monitoring the amount of fallout radiation delivered to Utrok Atoll residents over the past 4 years. This briefing document gives an outline of our findings from the whole body counting and plutonium bioassay monitoring programs. Additional information can be found on the Marshall Islands web site (http://eed.lnl.gov/mi/). Cesium-137 is an important radioactive isotope produced in nuclear detonations and can be taken up from coral soils into locally grown food crop products that form an important part of the Marshallese diet. The Marshall Islands whole body counting program has clearly demonstrated that the majority of Utrok Atoll residents acquire a very small but measurable quantity of cesium-137 in their bodies (Hamilton et al., 2006; Hamilton et. al., 2007a; 2007b;). During 2006, a typical resident of Utrok Atoll received about 3 mrem of radiation from internally deposited cesium-137 (Hamilton et al., 2007a). The population-average dose contribution from cesium-137 is around 2% of the total radiation dose that people normally experience from naturally occurring radiation sources in the Marshall Islands and is thousands of times lower than the level where radiation exposure is known to produce measurable health effects. The existing dose estimates from the whole body counting and plutonium bioassay programs are also well below radiological protection standards for protection of the public as prescribed by U.S. regulators and international agencies including the Marshall Islands Nuclear Claim Tribunal (NCT). Similarly, the level of internally deposited plutonium found in Utrok Atoll residents is well within the range normally expected for people living in the Northern Hemisphere. In addition, the preliminary results of the bioassay program on Utrok Atoll (Hamilton et al., 2007b) provide clear evidence that residents of Utrok Atoll have never acquired a significant uptake of plutonium either through an acute exposure event or from long-term chronic exposure to plutonium in the environment. This information and data should provide a level of assurance to the Utrok Atoll population group and its leadership that the dose contribution from exposure to residual radioactive fallout contamination on Utrok Atoll is very low, and is not likely to have any discernible impact on human health. We also estimate that the dose contribution based on current radiological exposure conditions will not produce any additional cancer fatalities (or any other measurable health condition) above that normally expected to arise in a population group of similar size. The potential risks from any genetic illnesses caused by exposure to residual fallout contamination in the environment will be even lower still. In conclusion, the data and information developed from the radiological protection monitoring program on Utrok appear to support a consensus that it is safe to live on Utrok Atoll. The health risks from exposure to residual fallout contamination on the atoll are minimal when compared with other lifetime risks that people normally experience, and are very small when compared to the threshold where radiation health effects could be either medically diagnosed in an individual or epidemiologically discerned in a group of people.

  14. Environmental Radioactivity 56 (2001) 327340 Radon progeny dose conversion coefficients for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, K.N.

    Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 56 (2001) 327­340 Radon progeny dose conversion coefficients; Dose conversion coefficients; Scaling factors; Radon progeny 1. Introduction Epidemiological studies cancer associated with exposure to radon progeny (Lubin, 1988). More recently, Lubin et al (1994

  15. Total ionizing dose effects of domestic SiGe HBTs under different dose rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mo-Han, Liu; Wu-Ying, Ma; Xin, Wang; Qi, Guo; Cheng-Fa, He; Ke, Jiang; Xiao-Long, Li; Ming-Zhu, Xiong

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The total ionizing radiation (TID) response of commercial NPN silicon germanium hetero-junction bipolar transistors (SiGe HBTs) produced domestic were investigated under the dose rate of 800mGy(Si)/s and 1.3mGy(Si)/s with Co-60 gamma irradiation source, respectively. The changes of the transistor parameter such as Gummel characteristics, excess base current before and after irradiation are investigated. The results of the experiments shows that for the KT1151, the radiation damage have slightly difference under the different dose rate after the prolonged annealing, shows an time dependent effect(TDE). But for the KT9041, the degradations of low dose rate irradiation are more higher than the high dose rate, demonstrate that there have potential enhanced low dose rate sensitive(ELDRS) effect exist on KT9041. The underlying physical mechanisms of the different dose rates response induced by the gamma ray are detailed discussed.

  16. DNA Damage-inducible Genes as Biomarkers for Exposures to Environmental Agents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neil F. Johnson; Thomas R. Carpenter; Richard J. Jaramillo; Teresa A. Liberati

    A biodosimetric approach to determine alpha-particle dose to the respiratory tract epithelium from known exposures to radon has been developed in the rat. Cytotoxicity assays have been used to obtain dose-conversion factors for cumulative exposures typical of those encountered by underground uranium miners. However, this approach is not sensitive enough to derive doseconversion factors for indoor radon exposures. The expression of DNA damage-inducible genes is being investigated as a biomarker of exposure to radon progeny. Exposure of cultures of A549 cells to alpha particles resulted in an increase in the protein levels of the DNA damage-inducible genes, p53, Cip1, and Gadd45. These protein changes were associated with a transient arrest of cells passing through the cell cycle. This arrest was typified by an increase in the number of cells in the G, and G2 phases and a decrease in the number of cells in the S phase. The effect of inhaled alpha particles (radon progeny) in rats was examined in the epithelial cells of the lateral wall of the anterior nasal cavity. Exposures to radon progeny resulted in a significant increase in the number of cells in the G, phase and a decrease in the number of cells in the S phase. These cell-cycle changes were concomitant with an increase in the number of cells containing DNA strand breaks. These results suggest a commonality between cell-cycle events in vitro and in vivo following exposure to ionizing radiation. In addition to ionizing radiation, A549 cells were exposed to 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide, methyl methanesulphonate, crocidolite asbestos, and glass microfiber. These studies showed that physical and chemical agents induce different expression patterns of p53, Cipl, and Gaddl 53 proteins and they could be used to discriminate between toxic and nontoxic materials such as asbestos and glass microfiber. The measurement of gene expression in A549 cells may provide a means to identify a broad spectrum of physical and chemical toxicants encountered in the environment. Environ Health Perspect 1 05(Suppl 4):913-918 (1997) Key words: radiation, fibers, chemicals, DNA damage-inducible genes

  17. Optical Measurement Technologies for High Temperature, Radiation Exposure, and Corrosive Environments—Significant Activities and Findings: In-vessel Optical Measurements for Advanced SMRs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Qiao, Hong (Amy) [Amy; Suter, Jonathan D.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Development of advanced Small Modular Reactors (aSMRs) is key to providing the United States with a sustainable, economically viable, and carbon-neutral energy source. The aSMR designs have attractive economic factors that should compensate for the economies of scale that have driven development of large commercial nuclear power plants to date. For example, aSMRs can be manufactured at reduced capital costs in a factory and potentially shorter lead times and then be shipped to a site to provide power away from large grid systems. The integral, self-contained nature of aSMR designs is fundamentally different than conventional reactor designs. Future aSMR deployment will require new instrumentation and control (I&C) architectures to accommodate the integral design and withstand the extreme in-vessel environmental conditions. Operators will depend on sophisticated sensing and machine vision technologies that provide efficient human-machine interface for in-vessel telepresence, telerobotic control, and remote process operations. The future viability of aSMRs is dependent on understanding and overcoming the significant technical challenges involving in-vessel reactor sensing and monitoring under extreme temperatures, pressures, corrosive environments, and radiation fluxes

  18. Proton radiation damage in P-channel CCDs fabricated on high-resistivity silicon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proton Radiation Damage in P-Channel CCDs Fabricated onmeasured as a function of radiation dose. These CCDs werecurrent vs. 1/kT after a radiation dose of 5 × 10 9 protons/

  19. WON EXPOSURE AND LUNG CANCER RISK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    As information on indoor air quality accumulated * it became apparent that radon and its progeny are invariably present in indoor environments and that concentrations may reach unacceptably high levels. The lung cancer excess anong miners exposed to radon progeny raised concern that exposure to radon progeny might also cause lung cancer in the general population. This presentation first provides an ovemiew of radon daughter carcinogenesis, and then reviews the recent BEIR IV report. The report described a statistical model * based on analysis of data from four studies of miners, for estimating the lung cancer risk associated with exposure to radon progeny. Tbe analyses showed that the risk of radon exposure declines with time since exposure and with increasing age. The BEIR IV committee concluded that radon progeny and cigarette smoking interact in a multiplicative fashion and that exposure-dose relationships are similar for exposure in homes and in mines.

  20. accumulated dose measurement: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This work describes a pilot study to calculate lung dose from the deposition of radon progeny, via estimates of cumulative exposure derived from in vivo measurements of sup 2...

  1. adults measuring dose: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This work describes a pilot study to calculate lung dose from the deposition of radon progeny, via estimates of cumulative exposure derived from in vivo measurements of sup 2...

  2. The Relationship between Organ Dose and Patients Size in Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT) Scans Utilizing Tube Current Modulation (TCM)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khatonabadi, Maryam

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and radiation dose using Siemens Care Dose 4D. Radiation2 Adj. R 2 Adj. R 2 Predictors WED R 2 Siemens Toshiba PedsKidneys WED Siemens Spleen WED GE Liver WED Interaction WED

  3. Dose reduction at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baum, J.W.; Dionne, B.J.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The collective dose equivalent at nuclear power plants increased from 1250 rem in 1969 to nearly 54,000 rem in 1980. This rise is attributable primarily to an increase in nuclear generated power from 1289 MW-y to 29,155 MW-y; and secondly, to increased average plant age. However, considerable variation in exposure occurs from plant to plant depending on plant type, refueling, maintenance, etc. In order to understand the factors influencing these differences, an investigation was initiated to study dose-reduction techniques and effectiveness of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) planning at light water plants. Objectives are to: identify high-dose maintenance tasks and related dose-reduction techniques; investigate utilization of high-reliability, low-maintenance equipment; recommend improved radioactive waste handling equipment and procedures; examine incentives for dose reduction; and compile an ALARA handbook.

  4. Non-Invasive Early Detection and Molecular Analysis of Low X-ray Dose Effects in the Lens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstein, Lee [Boston University] [Boston University

    2014-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the Final Progress Report for DOE-funded research project DE-PS02-08ER08-01 titled “Non-Invasive Early Detection and Molecular Analysis of Low X-ray Dose Effects in the Lens”. The project focuses on the effects of low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation on the ocular lens. The lens is an exquisitely radiosensitive tissue with a highly-ordered molecular structure that is amenable to non-invasive optical study from the periphery. These merits point to the lens as an ideal target for laser-based molecular biodosimetry (MBD). Following exposure to different types of ionizing radiations, the lens demonstrates molecular changes (e.g., oxidation, racemization, crosslinkage, truncation, aggregation, etc.) that impact the structure and function of the long-lived proteins in the cytosol of lens fiber cells. The vast majority of proteins in the lens comprise the highly-ordered crystallins. These highly conserved lens proteins are amongst the most concentrated and stable in the body. Once synthesized, the crystallins are retained in the fiber cell cytoplasm for life. Taken together, these properties point to the lens as an ideal system for quantitative in vivo MBD assessment using quasi-elastic light scattering (QLS) analysis. In this project, we deploy a purpose-designed non-invasive infrared laser QLS instrument as a quantitative tool for longitudinal assessment of pre-cataractous molecular changes in the lenses of living mice exposed to low-dose low-LET radiation compared to non-irradiated sham controls. We hypothesize that radiation exposure will induce dose-dependent changes in the molecular structure of matrix proteins in the lens. Mechanistic assays to ascertain radiation-induced molecular changes in the lens focus on protein aggregation and gene/protein expression patterns. We anticipate that this study will contribute to our understanding of early molecular changes associated with radiation-induced tissue pathology. This study also affords potential for translational development of molecular biodosimetry instrumentation to assess human exposure to mixed radiation fields.

  5. Updated mortality analysis of radiation workers at Rocketdyne (Atomics International), 1948-2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boice, John [Vanderbilt University; Cohen, Sarah [IEI; Mumma, Michael [IEI; Ellis, Elizabeth D [ORNL; Eckerman, Keith F [ORNL; Leggett, Richard Wayne [ORNL; Boecker, Bruce [LRRI; Brill, Bertrand [Vanderbilt University; Henderson, Brian [University of Southern California, Los Angeles

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Updated analyses of mortality data are presented on 5,801 radiation workers, including 2,232 monitored for radionuclide intakes, and 41,169 non-radiation workers employed 1948-1999 at Rocketdyne (Atomics International). The worker population is unique in that lifetime occupational doses from all places of employment were sought and incorporated into the analyses. Further, radiation doses from intakes of 14 different radionuclides were calculated for 16 organs or tissues using biokinetic models of the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP). The mean dose from external radiation was 13.5 mSv (maximum 1 Sv), and the mean lung dose from external and internal radiation combined was 19.0 mSv (maximum 3.6 Sv). An additional nine years of follow-up, from December 31,1999 through 2008, increased the person-years of observation by 21.7% to 196,674 (mean 33.9 years) and the number of cancer deaths by 50% to 684. Analyses included comparisons with the general population and the computation of standardized mortality ratios (SMRs), and internal comparisons using proportional hazards models. All cancers taken together (SMR 0.88; 95% CI 0.81-0.95), lung cancer (SMR 0.87; 95% CI 0.76-1.00) and leukemia other than chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (SMR 1.04; 95% 0.67-1.53) were not significantly elevated. Cox regression analyses revealed no significant dose-response trends for any cancer. For all cancers excluding leukemia, the relative risk (RR) at 100 mSv was estimated as 0.98 (95% CI 0.82-1.17) and for all leukemia other than CLL it was 1.06 (95% CI 0.50-2.23). Uranium was the primary radionuclide contributing to internal exposures, but significant increases in lung and kidney disease were not seen. The extended follow-up re-enforces the findings in the previous study in failing to observe a detectable increase in cancer deaths associated with radiation, but strong conclusions still cannot be drawn because of small numbers and relatively low career doses. Larger combined studies of early workers in the United States following similar methodologies are warranted to refine and clarify radiation risks following protracted exposures.

  6. ORISE Video: What is radiation dose?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy:Nanowire3627 FederalTransformers1 DIRECTORJoe Lake One-Timemeasuring

  7. Radiation delivery system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sorensen, Scott A. (Overland Park, KS); Robison, Thomas W. (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Craig M. V. (Jemez Springs, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radiation delivery system and method are described. The system includes a treatment configuration such as a stent, balloon catheter, wire, ribbon, or the like, a portion of which is covered with a gold layer. Chemisorbed to the gold layer is a radiation-emitting self-assembled monolayer or a radiation-emitting polymer. The radiation delivery system is compatible with medical catheter-based technologies to provide a therapeutic dose of radiation to a lesion following an angioplasty procedure.

  8. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project monthly report, February 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cannon, S.D.; Finch, S.M. (comps.)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project Is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source Terms; Environmental Transport; Environmental Monitoring Data; Demography, Food Consumption, and Agriculture; and Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates.

  9. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project monthly report, February 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cannon, S.D.; Finch, S.M. [comps.

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project Is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source Terms; Environmental Transport; Environmental Monitoring Data; Demography, Food Consumption, and Agriculture; and Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates.

  10. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project. Monthly report, November 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H. [comps.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source terms; environmental transport environmental monitoring data; demographics, agriculture, food habits; environmental pathways and dose estimates.

  11. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project monthly report, May 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H. [comps.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These task correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source terms, environmental transport, environmental monitoring data, demography, food consumption, and agriculture, and environmental pathways and dose estimates.

  12. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project monthly report, May 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H. (comps.)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These task correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source terms, environmental transport, environmental monitoring data, demography, food consumption, and agriculture, and environmental pathways and dose estimates.

  13. Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hall, E.J.

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The following research programs from the Center for Radiological Research of Columbia University are described: Design and development of a new wall-less ultra miniature proportional counter for nanodosimetry; some recent measurements of ionization distributions for heavy ions at nanometer site sizes with a wall-less proportional counter; a calculation of exciton energies in periodic systems with helical symmetry: application to a hydrogen fluoride chain; electron energy-loss function in polynucleotide and the question of plasmon excitation; a non-parametric, microdosimetric-based approach to the evaluation of the biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation; high-LET radiation risk assessment at medium doses; high-LET radiobiological effects: increased lesion severity or increased lesion proximity; photoneutrons generated by high energy medical linacs; the biological effectiveness of neutrons; implications for radiation protection; molecular characterization of oncogenes induced by neutrons; and the inverse dose-rate effect for oncogenic transformation by charged particles is LET dependent.

  14. Pharmacological Protection From Radiation {+-} Cisplatin-Induced Oral Mucositis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cotrim, Ana P. [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Yoshikawa, Masanobu [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Tokai University School of Medicine, Kanagawa (Japan); Sunshine, Abraham N.; Zheng Changyu [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Sowers, Anastasia L.; Thetford, Angela D.; Cook, John A.; Mitchell, James B. [Radiation Biology Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Baum, Bruce J., E-mail: bbaum@dir.nidcr.nih.gov [Molecular Physiology and Therapeutics Branch, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To evaluate if two pharmacological agents, Tempol and D-methionine (D-met), are able to prevent oral mucositis in mice after exposure to ionizing radiation {+-} cisplatin. Methods and Materials: Female C3H mice, {approx}8 weeks old, were irradiated with five fractionated doses {+-} cisplatin to induce oral mucositis (lingual ulcers). Just before irradiation and chemotherapy, mice were treated, either alone or in combination, with different doses of Tempol (by intraperitoneal [ip] injection or topically, as an oral gel) and D-met (by gavage). Thereafter, mice were sacrificed and tongues were harvested and stained with a solution of Toluidine Blue. Ulcer size and tongue epithelial thickness were measured. Results: Significant lingual ulcers resulted from 5 Multiplication-Sign 8 Gy radiation fractions, which were enhanced with cisplatin treatment. D-met provided stereospecific partial protection from lingual ulceration after radiation. Tempol, via both routes of administration, provided nearly complete protection from lingual ulceration. D-met plus a suboptimal ip dose of Tempol also provided complete protection. Conclusions: Two fairly simple pharmacological treatments were able to markedly reduce chemoradiation-induced oral mucositis in mice. This proof of concept study suggests that Tempol, alone or in combination with D-met, may be a useful and convenient way to prevent the severe oral mucositis that results from head-and-neck cancer therapy.

  15. Neutrino Radiation Challenges and Proposed Solutions for Many-TeV Muon Colliders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. J. King

    2000-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Neutrino radiation is expected to impose major design and siting constraints on many-TeV muon colliders. Previous predictions for radiation doses at TeV energy scales are briefly reviewed and then modified for extension to the many-TeV energy regime. The energy-cubed dependence of lower energy colliders is found to soften to an increase of slightly less than quadratic when averaged over the plane of the collider ring and slightly less than linear for the radiation hot spots downstream from straight sections in the collider ring. Despite this, the numerical values are judged to be sufficiently high that any many-TeV muon colliders will likely be constructed on large isolated sites specifically chosen to minimize or eliminate human exposure to the neutrino radiation. It is pointed out that such sites would be of an appropriate size scale to also house future proton-proton and electron-positron colliders at the high energy frontier, which naturally leads to conjecture on the possibilities for a new world laboratory for high energy physics. Radiation dose predictions are also presented for the speculative possibility of linear muon colliders. These have greatly reduced radiation constraints relative to circular muon colliders because radiation is only emitted in two pencil beams directed along the axes of the opposing linacs.

  16. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project. Monthly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMakin, A.H.; Cannon, S.D.; Finch, S.M. [comps.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The TSP consists of experts in environmental pathways, epidemiology, surface-water transport, ground-water transport, statistics, demography, agriculture, meteorology, nuclear engineering, radiation dosimetry, and cultural anthropology. Included are appointed technical members representing the states of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, a representative of Native American tribes, and an individual representing the public. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source terms, environmental transport, environmental monitoring data, demography, food consumption, and agriculture, and environmental pathways and dose estimates. Progress is discussed.

  17. Hanford Site Annual Report Radiological Dose Calculation Upgrade Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, Sandra F.

    2010-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Operations at the Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, result in the release of radioactive materials to offsite residents. Site authorities are required to estimate the dose to the maximally exposed offsite resident. Due to the very low levels of exposure at the residence, computer models, rather than environmental samples, are used to estimate exposure, intake, and dose. A DOS-based model has been used in the past (GENII version 1.485). GENII v1.485 has been updated to a Windows®-based software (GENII version 2.08). Use of the updated software will facilitate future dose evaluations, but must be demonstrated to provide results comparable to those of GENII v1.485. This report describes the GENII v1.485 and GENII v2.08 dose exposure, intake, and dose estimates for the maximally exposed offsite resident reported for calendar year 2008. The GENII v2.08 results reflect updates to implemented algorithms. No two environmental models produce the same results, as was again demonstrated in this report. The aggregated dose results from 2008 Hanford Site airborne and surface water exposure scenarios provide comparable dose results. Therefore, the GENII v2.08 software is recommended for future offsite resident dose evaluations.

  18. Radiation Machines and Radioactive Materials (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These chapters describe general provisions and regulatory requirements; registration, licensure, and transportation of radioactive materials; and exposure standards for radiation protection.

  19. alpha inhalation exposure: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This work describes a pilot study to calculate lung dose from the deposition of radon progeny, via estimates of cumulative exposure derived from in vivo measurements of sup 2...

  20. ash inhalation exposure: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This work describes a pilot study to calculate lung dose from the deposition of radon progeny, via estimates of cumulative exposure derived from in vivo measurements of sup 2...

  1. acute inhalation exposure: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This work describes a pilot study to calculate lung dose from the deposition of radon progeny, via estimates of cumulative exposure derived from in vivo measurements of sup 2...

  2. RADIATION SAFETY OFFICE Campus Radiation Safety Manual UNIVERSITY OF NEW ORLEANS Previous Revision: May 1999

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, X. Rong

    SAFETY OFFICER AND RADIATION PROTECTION STAFF The Radiation Safety Officer has the responsibilityRADIATION SAFETY OFFICE Campus Radiation Safety Manual UNIVERSITY OF NEW ORLEANS Previous Revision radiation safety program will be conducted in such a manner that exposure to faculty, staff, students

  3. United States-assisted studies on dose reconstruction in the former Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anspaugh, L.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Bouville, A. [National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Following the Chernobyl accident, the US and the USSR entered into an agreement to work on the safety of civilian nuclear reactors; one aspect of that work was to study the environmental transport and health effects of radionuclides released by the accident. After the break-up of the USSR separate agreements were established between the US and Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia to continue work on dose reconstruction and epidemiologic studies of health effects from exposure to external radiation and the incorporation of radionuclides. Studies in Belarus and Ukraine related to the Chernobyl accident now emphasize epidemiologic: studies of childhood-thyroid cancer and leukemia, and eye-lens-cataract formation in liquidators. Supporting studies on dose reconstruction emphasize a variety of ecological, physical, and biological techniques. Studies being conducted in Russia currently emphasize health effects in the workers and the population around the Mayak Industrial Association. As this production complex is an analogue of the US Hanford Works, advantage is being taken of the US experience in conducting a similar, recently completed dose-reconstruction study. In all cases the primary work on dose reconstruction is being performed by scientists from the former Soviet Union. US assistance is in the form of expert consultation and participation, exchange visits, provision of supplies and equipment, and other forms of local assistance.

  4. Multicriteria optimization of the spatial dose distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlaefer, Alexander [Medical Robotics Group, Universität zu Lübeck, Lübeck 23562, Germany and Institute of Medical Technology, Hamburg University of Technology, Hamburg 21073 (Germany)] [Medical Robotics Group, Universität zu Lübeck, Lübeck 23562, Germany and Institute of Medical Technology, Hamburg University of Technology, Hamburg 21073 (Germany); Viulet, Tiberiu [Medical Robotics Group, Universität zu Lübeck, Lübeck 23562 (Germany)] [Medical Robotics Group, Universität zu Lübeck, Lübeck 23562 (Germany); Muacevic, Alexander; Fürweger, Christoph [European CyberKnife Center Munich, Munich 81377 (Germany)] [European CyberKnife Center Munich, Munich 81377 (Germany)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: Treatment planning for radiation therapy involves trade-offs with respect to different clinical goals. Typically, the dose distribution is evaluated based on few statistics and dose–volume histograms. Particularly for stereotactic treatments, the spatial dose distribution represents further criteria, e.g., when considering the gradient between subregions of volumes of interest. The authors have studied how to consider the spatial dose distribution using a multicriteria optimization approach.Methods: The authors have extended a stepwise multicriteria optimization approach to include criteria with respect to the local dose distribution. Based on a three-dimensional visualization of the dose the authors use a software tool allowing interaction with the dose distribution to map objectives with respect to its shape to a constrained optimization problem. Similarly, conflicting criteria are highlighted and the planner decides if and where to relax the shape of the dose distribution.Results: To demonstrate the potential of spatial multicriteria optimization, the tool was applied to a prostate and meningioma case. For the prostate case, local sparing of the rectal wall and shaping of a boost volume are achieved through local relaxations and while maintaining the remaining dose distribution. For the meningioma, target coverage is improved by compromising low dose conformality toward noncritical structures. A comparison of dose–volume histograms illustrates the importance of spatial information for achieving the trade-offs.Conclusions: The results show that it is possible to consider the location of conflicting criteria during treatment planning. Particularly, it is possible to conserve already achieved goals with respect to the dose distribution, to visualize potential trade-offs, and to relax constraints locally. Hence, the proposed approach facilitates a systematic exploration of the optimal shape of the dose distribution.

  5. Exposure chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moss, Owen R. (Kennewick, WA)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A chamber for exposing animals, plants, or materials to air containing gases or aerosols is so constructed that catch pans for animal excrement, for example, serve to aid the uniform distribution of air throughout the chamber instead of constituting obstacles as has been the case in prior animal exposure chambers. The chamber comprises the usual imperforate top, bottom and side walls. Within the chamber, cages and their associated pans are arranged in two columns. The pans are spaced horizontally from the walls of the chamber in all directions. Corresponding pans of the two columns are also spaced horizontally from each other. Preferably the pans of one column are also spaced vertically from corresponding pans of the other column. Air is introduced into the top of the chamber and withdrawn from the bottom. The general flow of air is therefore vertical. The effect of the horizontal pans is based on the fact that a gas flowing past the edge of a flat plate that is perpendicular to the flow forms a wave on the upstream side of the plate. Air flows downwardly between the chamber walls and the outer edges of the pan. It also flows downwardly between the inner edges of the pans of the two columns. It has been found that when the air carries aerosol particles, these particles are substantially uniformly distributed throughout the chamber.

  6. alpha-radiation construction calibration: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    plant species. Search method: In nature, most alpha radiation exposure is caused by radon progeny. Exposure is particularly high below ground, and is also elevated on plant...

  7. antibody-guided alpha radiation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    plant species. Search method: In nature, most alpha radiation exposure is caused by radon progeny. Exposure is particularly high below ground, and is also elevated on plant...

  8. An updated dose assessment for Rongelap Island

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Bogen, K.T.

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have updated the radiological dose assessment for Rongelap Island at Rongelap Atoll using data generated from field trips to the atoll during 1986 through 1993. The data base used for this dose assessment is ten fold greater than that available for the 1982 assessment. Details of each data base are presented along with details about the methods used to calculate the dose from each exposure pathway. The doses are calculated for a resettlement date of January 1, 1995. The maximum annual effective dose is 0.26 mSv y{sup {minus}1} (26 mrem y{sup {minus}1}). The estimated 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral effective doses are 0.0059 Sv (0.59 rem), 0.0082 Sv (0.82 rem), and 0.0097 Sv (0.97 rem), respectively. More than 95% of these estimated doses are due to 137-Cesium ({sup 137}Cs). About 1.5% of the estimated dose is contributed by 90-Strontium ({sup 90}Sr), and about the same amount each by 239+240-Plutonium ({sup 239+240}PU), and 241-Americium ({sup 241}Am).

  9. Out-of-field organ doses and associated radiogenic risks from para-aortic radiotherapy for testicular seminoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazonakis, Michalis, E-mail: mazonak@med.uoc.gr; Berris, Theocharis; Damilakis, John [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, P. O. Box 2208, 71003 Iraklion, Crete (Greece)] [Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Crete, P. O. Box 2208, 71003 Iraklion, Crete (Greece); Varveris, Charalambos; Lyraraki, Efrossyni [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, University Hospital of Iraklion, 71110 Iraklion, Crete (Greece)] [Department of Radiotherapy and Oncology, University Hospital of Iraklion, 71110 Iraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to (a) calculate the radiation dose to out-of-field organs from radiotherapy for stage I testicular seminoma and (b) estimate the associated radiogenic risks. Methods: Monte Carlo methodology was employed to model radiation therapy with typical anteroposterior and posteroanterior para-aortic fields on an anthropomorphic phantom simulating an average adult. The radiation dose received by all main and remaining organs that defined by the ICRP publication 103 and excluded from the treatment volume was calculated. The effect of field dimensions on each organ dose was determined. Additional therapy simulations were generated by introducing shielding blocks to protect the kidneys from primary radiation. The gonadal dose was employed to assess the risk of heritable effects for irradiated male patients of reproductive potential. The lifetime attributable risks (LAR) of radiotherapy-induced cancer were estimated using gender- and organ-specific risk coefficients for patient ages of 20, 30, 40, and 50 years old. The risk values were compared with the respective nominal risks. Results: Para-aortic irradiation to 20 Gy resulted in out-of-field organ doses of 5.0–538.6 mGy. Blocked field treatment led to a dose change up to 28%. The mean organ dose variation by increasing or decreasing the applied field dimensions was 18.7% ± 3.9% and 20.8% ± 4.5%, respectively. The out-of-field photon doses increased the lifetime intrinsic risk of developing thyroid, lung, bladder, prostate, and esophageal cancer by (0.1–1.4)%, (0.4–1.1)%, (2.5–5.4)%, (0.2–0.4)%, and (6.4–9.2)%, respectively, depending upon the patient age at exposure and the field size employed. A low risk for heritable effects of less than 0.029% was found compared with the natural incidence of these defects. Conclusions: Testicular cancer survivors are subjected to an increased risk for the induction of bladder and esophageal cancer following para-aortic radiotherapy. The probability for the appearance of any other malignant disease to out-of-field organs was slightly elevated in respect to the nominal cancer incidence rates.

  10. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project Monthly Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finch, S.M. (comp.)

    1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This monthly report summarizes the technical progress and project status for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project being conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of a Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The TSP is composed of experts in numerous technical fields related to this project and represents the interests of the public. The US Department of Energy (DOE) funds the project. The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks address each of the primary steps in the path from radioactive releases to dose estimates source terms, environmental transport, environmental monitoring data, demographics, agriculture, and food habits, and environmental pathways and dose estimates.

  11. Internal dose following a major nuclear war

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, K.R.; Shapiro, C.S. (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (Unites States))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The PATHWAY model results were used, in conjunction with a hypothetical major nuclear attack on the U.S., to arrive at the ratio of internal to external dose for humans from early (48 h) fallout. Considered were the four nuclides (137Cs, 89Sr, 90Sr, 131I) that account for most of the reconstructed whole-body committed equivalent dose from internal radiation in people who lived downwind of the Nevada Test Site during atmospheric tests. Effects of climate perturbations (the 'nuclear winter' effect) on food crops were considered. These could increase internal dose estimates, depending on the severity of the climate perturbations. Internal and external doses to humans for 10 locations within the U.S. have been calculated, with varying local conditions and varying assumption about their shelters. The estimated 50-y internal dose commitment ranged from 0.0-0.17 Sv, the 48-h external dose from 0.15-4.6 Sv. The resultant ratios of internal to external committed dose received in the first months (until food transport was restored) varied from less than 0.01 to about 0.2. In all cases examined, the total dose from early fallout was found to be dominated by the external dose.

  12. Revised analyses of decommissioning for the reference boiling water reactor power station. Effects of current regulatory and other considerations on the financial assurance requirements of the decommissioning rule and on estimates of occupational radiation exposure - appendices. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, R.I.; Bierschbach, M.C.; Konzek, G.J.; McDuffie, P.N.

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The NRC staff is in need of decommissioning bases documentation that will assist them in assessing the adequacy of the licensee submittals, from the viewpoint of both the planned actions, including occupational radiation exposure, and the probable costs. The purpose of this reevaluation study is to update the needed bases documentation. This report presents the results of a review and reevaluation of the PNL 1980 decommissioning study of the Washington Public Power Supply System`s Washington Nuclear Plant Two (WNP-2) located at Richland, Washington, including all identifiable factors and cost assumptions which contribute significantly to the total cost of decommissioning the plant for the DECON, SAFSTOR, and ENTOMB decommissioning alternatives. These alternatives now include an initial 5-7 year period during which time the spent fuel is stored in the spent fuel pool prior to beginning major disassembly or extended safe storage of the plant. Included for information (but not presently part of the license termination cost) is an estimate of the cost to demolish the decontaminated and clear structures on the site and to restore the site to a {open_quotes}green field{close_quotes} condition. This report also includes consideration of the NRC requirement that decontamination and decommissioning activities leading to termination of the nuclear license be completed within 60 years of final reactor shutdown, consideration of packaging and disposal requirements for materials whose radionuclide concentrations exceed the limits for Class C low-level waste (i.e., Greater-Than-Class C), and reflects 1993 costs for labor, materials, transport, and disposal activities. Sensitivity of the total license termination cost to the disposal costs at different low-level radioactive waste disposal sites, to different depths of contaminated concrete surface removal within the facilities, and to different transport distances is also examined.

  13. Revised analyses of decommissioning for the reference pressurized Water Reactor Power Station. Volume 2, Effects of current regulatory and other considerations on the financial assurance requirements of the decommissioning rule and on estimates of occupational radiation exposure: Appendices, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konzek, G.J.; Smith, R.I.; Bierschbach, M.C.; McDuffie, P.N.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the issuance of the final Decommissioning Rule (July 27, 1998), owners and operators of licensed nuclear power plants are required to prepare, and submit to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for review, decommissioning plans and cost estimates. The NRC staff is in need of bases documentation that will assist them in assessing the adequacy of the licensee submittals, from the viewpoint of both the planned actions, including occupational radiation exposure, and the probable costs. The purpose of this reevaluation study is to provide some of the needed bases documentation. This report contains the results of a review and reevaluation of the 1978 PNL decommissioning study of the Trojan nuclear power plant (NUREG/CR-0130), including all identifiable factors and cost assumptions which contribute significantly to the total cost of decommissioning the nuclear power plant for the DECON, SAFSTOR, and ENTOMB decommissioning alternatives. These alternatives now include an initial 5--7 year period during which time the spent fuel is stored in the spent fuel pool, prior to beginning major disassembly or extended safe storage of the plant. Included for information (but not presently part of the license termination cost) is an estimate of the cost to demolish the decontaminated and clean structures on the site and to restore the site to a ``green field`` condition. This report also includes consideration of the NRC requirement that decontamination and decommissioning activities leading to termination of the nuclear license be completed within 60 years of final reactor shutdown, consideration of packaging and disposal requirements for materials whose radionuclide concentrations exceed the limits for Class C low-level waste (i.e., Greater-Than-Class C), and reflects 1993 costs for labor, materials, transport, and disposal activities.

  14. DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Annual Report 2004

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    comments are important to us to make this report meet your needs. Frank E. Tooper Deputy Assistant Secretary (Acting) Office of Corporate Performance Assessment iv DOE...

  15. DOE 2013 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T,Office of Policy, OAPM | DepartmentI Office of ENERGY ScienceDNSComments by HoweT

  16. Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Data Submittal Notification |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011 Strategic2 OPAM615_CostNSAR - TProcuring SolarNo.Frequency |Department of Energy

  17. Occupational Radiation Exposure | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122Commercial602 1,39732onMake YourDepartment ofC T O B E REnergy

  18. 2013 DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report Appendices

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015ofDepartment ofCBFO-13-3322(EE) |2Department of EnergyofThe 2013Labor

  19. DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure, 1998 Report

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T,Office of Policy, OAPM |TRU WasteAdministrator | Department of5-26,BY 2017

  20. ORISE: DOE's Radiation Exposure Monitoring System (REMS)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated CodesTransparencyDOE ProjectCrisis and Risk Communication Crisis

  1. 2007 Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of BadTHE U.S. DEPARTMENT OFDecember| Department ofResearch: This

  2. 2007 DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report Appendices

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The Future of BadTHE U.S. DEPARTMENT OFDecember| Department ofResearch:

  3. Radiation Exposure Monitoring Systems Data Submittal Notification |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently AskedEnergy Small Team OversightDepartmentof EnergyDepartment of Energy

  4. Dose-equivalent neutron dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griffith, R.V.; Hankins, D.E.; Tomasino, L.; Gomaa, M.A.M.

    1981-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A neutron dosimeter is disclosed which provides a single measurement indicating the amount of potential biological damage resulting from the neutron exposure of the wearer, for a wide range of neutron energies. The dosimeter includes a detecting sheet of track etch detecting material such as a carbonate plastic, for detecting higher energy neutrons, and a radiator layer contaning conversion material such as /sup 6/Li and /sup 10/B lying adjacent to the detecting sheet for converting moderate energy neutrons to alpha particles that produce tracks in the adjacent detecting sheet.

  5. Long-term Evaluation of Radiation-Induced Optic Neuropathy After Single-Fraction Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leavitt, Jacqueline A., E-mail: leavitt.jacqueline@mayo.edu [Department of Ophthalmology, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Stafford, Scott L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Link, Michael J. [Department of Neurosurgery, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Pollock, Bruce E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota (United States)

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To determine the long-term risk of radiation-induced optic neuropathy (RION) in patients having single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for benign skull base tumors. Methods and Materials: Retrospective review of 222 patients having Gamma Knife radiosurgery for benign tumors adjacent to the anterior visual pathway (AVP) between 1991 and 1999. Excluded were patients with prior or concurrent external beam radiation therapy or SRS. One hundred twenty-nine patients (58%) had undergone previous surgery. Tumor types included confirmed World Health Organization grade 1 or presumed cavernous sinus meningioma (n=143), pituitary adenoma (n=72), and craniopharyngioma (n=7). The maximum dose to the AVP was ?8.0 Gy (n=126), 8.1-10.0 Gy (n=39), 10.1-12.0 Gy (n=47), and >12 Gy (n=10). Results: The mean clinical and imaging follow-up periods were 83 and 123 months, respectively. One patient (0.5%) who received a maximum radiation dose of 12.8 Gy to the AVP developed unilateral blindness 18 months after SRS. The chance of RION according to the maximum radiation dose received by the AVP was 0 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0-3.6%), 0 (95% CI 0-10.7%), 0 (95% CI 0-9.0%), and 10% (95% CI 0-43.0%) for patients receiving ?8 Gy, 8.1-10.0 Gy, 10.1-12.0 Gy, and >12 Gy, respectively. The overall risk of RION in patients receiving >8 Gy to the AVP was 1.0% (95% CI 0-6.2%). Conclusions: The risk of RION after single-fraction SRS in patients with benign skull base tumors who have no prior radiation exposure is very low if the maximum dose to the AVP is ?12 Gy. Physicians performing single-fraction SRS should remain cautious when treating lesions adjacent to the AVP, especially when the maximum dose exceeds 10 Gy.

  6. EFFECTS OF RADIATION ON ESTABLISHED FORENSIC EVIDENCE CONTAINMENT METHODS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferguson, C.; Duff, M.; Clark, E.; Chapman, G.

    2010-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Laboratory is currently exploring needs and protocols for the storage of evidentiary items contaminated with radioactive material. While a large body of knowledge on the behavior of storage polymers in radiation fields exists, this knowledge has not been applied to the field of forensics and maintaining evidentiary integrity. The focus of this research was to evaluate the behavior of several traditional evidentiary containment polymers when exposed to significant alpha, beta, gamma, neutron and mixed radiation sources. Doses were designed to simulate exposures possible during storage of materials. Several products were found to be poorly suited for use in this specific application based on standardized mechanical testing results. Remaining products were determined to warrant further investigation for the storage of radiologically contaminated evidence.

  7. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project. Monthly report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finch, S. M.; McMakin, A. H.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into five technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (i.e., dose estimates). The Source Terms Task develops estimates of radioactive emissions from Hanford facilities since 1944. The Environmental Transport Task reconstructs the movements of radioactive particles from the areas of release to populations. The Environmental Monitoring Data Task assemblies, evaluates and reports historical environmental monitoring data. The Demographics, Agriculture and Food Habits Task develops the data needed to identify the populations that could have been affected by the releases. The Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates Task used the information derived from the other Tasks to estimate the radiation doses individuals could have received from Hanford radiation. This document lists the progress on this project as of September 1991. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. In-vivo measurements of Pb-210 to determine cumulative exposure to radon daughters: A pilot study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laurer, G.R.; Cohen, N. (New York Univ. Medical Center, Tuxedo, NY (United States). Dept. of Environmental Medicine); Stark, A.; Ju, C. (New York State Dept. of Health, Albany, NY (United States). Bureau of Environmental and Occupational Epidemiology)

    1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of estimating cumulative exposure of individuals to low concentrations of radon by measuring the amount of Pb-A-10 in their skeletons. This report presents progress to date establishing the validity of an vivo technique to measure skeletal burdens of Pb-210, accumulated from exposure to radon and radon progeny. With the skeletal content of Pb--210 and a model for Pb metabolism, cumulative exposure to radon and its short-lived daughters (radon/daughters) may be calculated for use in deriving a dose-response relationship between lung cancer and exposure to radon/daughters. Data are presented for 29 subjects exposed to above-average'' radon concentrations in their homes, showing the correlation between measured Pb--210 burdens, and measured pCi/l and WLM exposure estimates. Their results are compared to measurements of a population of 24 subject's presumed exposed to average concentrations. Measurements of a Pennsylvania family exposed for a year in a home with an extremely high radon content are also presented. Update of results of an ongoing study of the biological half-time of Pb--210 in man involving measurements, of a retired radiation worker with a 40 year old skeletal burden of Pb-210.

  9. Topographic Effects on Ambient Dose Equivalent Rates from Radiocesium Fallout

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malins, Alex; Machida, Masahiko; Saito, Kimiaki

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Land topography can affect air radiation dose rates by locating radiation sources closer to, or further, from detector locations when compared to perfectly flat terrain. Hills and slopes can also shield against the propagation of gamma rays. To understand the possible magnitude of topographic effects on air dose rates, this study presents calculations for ambient dose equivalent rates at a range of heights above the ground for varying land topographies. The geometries considered were angled ground at the intersection of two planar surfaces, which is a model for slopes neighboring flat land, and a simple conical geometry, representing settings from hilltops to valley bottoms. In each case the radiation source was radioactive cesium fallout, and the slope angle was varied systematically to determine the effect of topography on the air dose rate. Under the assumption of homogeneous fallout across the land surface, and for these geometries and detector locations, the dose rates at high altitudes are more strongly...

  10. Scintillator Waveguide For Sensing Radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bliss, Mary (West Richland, WA); Craig, Richard A. (West Richland, WA); Reeder; Paul L. (Richland, WA)

    2003-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is an apparatus for detecting ionizing radiation, having: a waveguide having a first end and a second end, the waveguide formed of a scintillator material wherein the therapeutic ionizing radiation isotropically generates scintillation light signals within the waveguide. This apparatus provides a measure of radiation dose. The apparatus may be modified to permit making a measure of location of radiation dose. Specifically, the scintillation material is segmented into a plurality of segments; and a connecting cable for each of the plurality of segments is used for conducting scintillation signals to a scintillation detector.

  11. Development of the town data base: Estimates of exposure rates and times of fallout arrival near the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, C.B.; McArthur, R.D. [Univ. and Community College System of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Hutchinson, S.W. [Mead Johnson Nutritional Group, Evansville, IN (United States)

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Off-Site Radiation Exposure Review Project, the time of fallout arrival and the H+12 exposure rate were estimated for populated locations in Arizona, California, Nevada, and Utah that were affected by fallout from one or more nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. Estimates of exposure rate were derived from measured values recorded before and after each test by fallout monitors in the field. The estimate for a given location was obtained by retrieving from a data base all measurements made in the vicinity, decay-correcting them to H+12, and calculating an average. Estimates were also derived from maps produced after most events that show isopleths of exposure rate and time of fallout arrival. Both sets of isopleths on these maps were digitized, and kriging was used to interpolate values at the nodes of a 10-km grid covering the pattern. The values at any location within the grid were then estimated from the values at the surrounding grid nodes. Estimates of dispersion (standard deviation) were also calculated. The Town Data Base contains the estimates for all combinations of location and nuclear event for which the estimated mean H+12 exposure rate was greater than three times background. A listing of the data base is included as an appendix. The information was used by other project task groups to estimate the radiation dose that off-site populations and individuals may have received as a result of exposure to fallout from Nevada nuclear tests.

  12. Track 3: Exposure Hazards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    ISM Workshop Presentations Knoxville Convention Center, Knoxville, TN August 2009 Track 3: Exposure Hazards

  13. Gamma Radiation Dose Rate in Air due to Terrestrial Radionuclides in Southern Brazil: Synthesis by Geological Units and Lithotypes Covered by the Serra do Mar Sul Aero-Geophysical Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bastos, Rodrigo O.; Appoloni, Carlos R. [Applied Nuclear Physics Laboratory-Department of Physics-CCE State University of Londrina Campus Universitario-Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid s/n, Cx. Postal 6001, CEP 86051-990, Londrina, PR (Brazil); Pinese, Jose P. P. [Department of Geosciences-CCE State University of Londrina Campus Universitario-Rodovia Celso Garcia Cid s/n, Cx. Postal 6001, CEP 86051-990, Londrina, PR (Brazil)

    2008-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The absorbed dose rates in air due to terrestrial radionuclides were estimated from aerial gamma spectrometric data for an area of 48,600 km{sup 2} in Southern Brazil. The source data was the Serra do Mar Sul Aero-Geophysical Project back-calibrated in a cooperative work among the Geological Survey of Brazil, the Geological Survey of Canada, and Paterson, Grant and Watson Ltd. The concentrations of eU (ppm), eTh (ppm) and K (%) were converted to dose rates in air (nGy{center_dot}h{sup -1}) by accounting for the contribution of each element's concentration. Regional variation was interpreted according to lithotypes and a synthesis was performed according to the basic geological units present in the area. Higher values of total dose were estimated for felsic igneous and metamorphic rocks, with average values varying up to 119{+-}24 nGy{center_dot}h{sup -1}, obtained by Anitapolis syenite body. Sedimentary, metasedimentary and metamafic rocks presented the lower dose levels, and some beach deposits reached the lowest average total dose, 18.5{+-}8.2 nGy{center_dot}h{sup -1}. Thorium gives the main average contribution in all geological units, the highest value being reached by the nebulitic gneisses of Atuba Complex, 71{+-}23 nGy{center_dot}h{sup -1}. Potassium presents the lowest average contribution to dose rate in 53 of the 72 units analyzed, the highest contribution being obtained by intrusive alkaline bodies (28{+-}12 nGy{center_dot}h{sup -1}). The general pattern of geographic dose distribution respects well the hypotheses on geo-physicochemical behavior of radioactive elements.

  14. Updated Mortality Analysis of Radiation Workers at Rocketdyne (Atomics International), 1948-2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boice Jr JD, Colen SS, Mumma MT, Ellis ED, Eckerman DF, Leggett RW, Boecker BB, Brill B, Henderson BE

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Updated analyses of mortality data are presented on 46,970 workers employed 1948-1999 at Rocketdyne (Atomics International). Overall, 5,801 workers were involved in radiation activities, including 2,232 who were monitored for intakes of radionuclides, and 41,169 workers were engaged in rocket testing or other non-radiation activities. The worker population is unique in that lifetime occupational doses from all places of employment were sought, updated and incorporated into the analyses. Further, radiation doses from intakes of 14 different radionuclides were calculated for 16 organs or tissues using biokinetic models of the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP). Because only negligible exposures were received by the 247 workers monitored for radiation activities after 1999, the mean dose from external radiation remained essentially the same at 13.5 mSv (maximum 1 Sv) as reported previously, as did the mean lung dose from external and internal radiation combined at 19.0 mSv (maximum 3.6 Sv). An additional 9 years of follow-up, from December 31,1999 through 2008, increased the person-years of observation for the radiation workers by 21.7% to 196,674 (mean 33.9 years) and the number of cancer deaths by 50% to 684. Analyses included external comparisons with the general population and the computation of standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and internal comparisons using proportional hazards models and the computation of relative risks (RRs). A low SMR for all causes of death (SMR 0.82; 95% CI 0.78-0.85) continued to indicate that the Rocketdyne radiation workers were healthier than the general population and were less likely to die. The SMRs for all cancers taken together (SMR 0.88; 95% CI 0.81-0.95), lung cancer (SMR 0.87; 95% CI 0.76-1.00) and leukemia other than chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (SMR 1.04; 95% 0.67-1.53) were not significantly elevated. Cox regression analyses revealed no significant dose-response trends for any cancer. For all cancers excluding leukemia, the RR at 100 mSv was estimated as 0.98 (95% CI 0.82-1.17), and for all leukemia other than CLL it was 1.06 (95% CI 0.50-2.23). Uranium was the primary radionuclide contributing to internal exposures, but no significant increases in lung and kidney disease were seen. The extended follow-up reinforces the findings in the previous study in failing to observe a detectable increase in cancer deaths associated with radiation, but strong conclusions still cannot be drawn because of small numbers and relatively low career doses. Larger combined studies of early workers in the United States using similar methodologies are warranted to refine and clarify radiation risks after protracted exposures.

  15. Determination of radionuclides and pathways contributing to dose in 1945. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project: Dose code recovery activities, Calculation 003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napier, B.A.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of scoping calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the absolute and relative contributions of different radionuclides and exposure pathways to doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. This scoping calculation (Calculation 003) examined the contributions of numerous radionuclides to dose via environmental exposures and accumulation in foods. This study builds on the work initiated in the first scoping study of iodine in cow`s milk (calculation 001). Addressed in this calculation were the contributions to organ and effective dose of infants and adults from (1) air submersion and groundshine external dose, (2) inhalation, (3) ingestion of soil by humans, (4) ingestion of leafy vegetables, (5) ingestion of other vegetables and fruits, (6) ingestion of meat, (7) ingestion of eggs, and (8) ingestion of cows` milk from Feeding Regime 1, as described in Calculation 001.

  16. DOE/OR-1066R5/02-03 6-1 6. DOSE CALCULATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    receive external radiation doses through direct external irradiation by radiations emanating from mechanisms that apply to emissions from ORR. Sections 6.3 and 6.4 discuss the environmental transport, food

  17. Total dose and dose rate models for bipolar transistors in circuit simulation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, Phillip Montgomery; Wix, Steven D.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this work is to develop a model for total dose effects in bipolar junction transistors for use in circuit simulation. The components of the model are an electrical model of device performance that includes the effects of trapped charge on device behavior, and a model that calculates the trapped charge densities in a specific device structure as a function of radiation dose and dose rate. Simulations based on this model are found to agree well with measurements on a number of devices for which data are available.

  18. Tolerance doses for treatment planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lyman, J.T.

    1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Data for the tolerance of normal tissues or organs to (low-LET) radiation has been compiled from a number of sources which are referenced at the end of this document. This tolerance dose data are ostensibly for uniform irradiation of all or part of an organ, and are for either 5% (TD/sub 5/) or 50% (TD/sub 50/) complication probability. The ''size'' of the irradiated organ is variously stated in terms of the absolute volume or the fraction of the organ volume irradiated, or the area or the length of the treatment field. The accuracy of these data is questionable. Much of the data represents doses that one or several experienced therapists have estimated could be safely given rather than quantitative analyses of clinical observations. Because these data have been obtained from multiple sources with possible different criteria for the definition of a complication, there are sometimes different values for what is apparently the same endpoint. The data from some sources shows a tendancy to be quantized in 5 Gy increments. This reflects the size of possible round off errors. It is believed that all these data have been accumulated without the benefit of 3-D dose distributions and therefore the estimates of the size of the volume and/or the uniformity of the irradiation may be less accurate than is now possible. 19 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Recommended environmental dose calculation methods and Hanford-specific parameters. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schreckhise, R.G.; Rhoads, K.; Napier, B.A.; Ramsdell, J.V. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Davis, J.S. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document was developed to support the Hanford Environmental Dose overview Panel (HEDOP). The Panel is responsible for reviewing all assessments of potential doses received by humans and other biota resulting from the actual or possible environmental releases of radioactive and other hazardous materials from facilities and/or operations belonging to the US Department of Energy on the Hanford Site in south-central Washington. This document serves as a guide to be used for developing estimates of potential radiation doses, or other measures of risk or health impacts, to people and other biota in the environs on and around the Hanford Site. It provides information to develop technically sound estimates of exposure (i.e., potential or actual) to humans or other biotic receptors that could result from the environmental transport of potentially harmful materials that have been, or could be, released from Hanford operations or facilities. Parameter values and information that are specific to the Hanford environs as well as other supporting material are included in this document.

  20. Offsite environmental monitoring report: Radiation monitoring around United States nuclear test areas, calendar year 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, M.G.; Flotard, R.D.; Fontana, C.A.; Hennessey, P.A.; Maunu, H.K.; Mouck, T.L.; Mullen, A.A.; Sells, M.D.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the Offsite Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program (OREMP) conducted during 1997 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPAs), Radiation and Indoor Environments National Laboratory, Las Vegas, Nevada. This laboratory operated an environmental radiation monitoring program in the region surrounding the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and at former test sites in Alaska, Colorado, Mississippi, Nevada, and New Mexico. The surveillance program is designed to measure levels and trends of radioactivity, if present, in the environment surrounding testing areas to ascertain whether current radiation levels and associated doses to the general public are in compliance with existing radiation protection standards. The surveillance program additionally has the responsibility to take action to protect the health and well being of the public in the event of any accidental release of radioactive contaminants. Offsite levels of radiation and radioactivity are assessed by sampling and analyzing milk, water, and air; by deploying and reading thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs); and using pressurized ionization chambers (PICs) to measure ambient gamma exposure rates with a sensitivity capable of detecting low level exposures not detected by other monitoring methods.

  1. Absorbed Dose Rate Due to Intake of Natural Radionuclides by Tilapia Fish (Tilapia nilotica,Linnaeus, 1758) Estimated Near Uranium Mining at Caetite, Bahia, Brazil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pereira, Wagner de S [Coordenacao de Protecao Radiologica, Unidade de Tratamento de Minerios, Caixa Postal 961, CEP 37701-970, Pocos de Caldas, MG, BR Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (Brazil); Universidade Federal Fluminense, Programa de Pos-graduacao em Biologia Marinha (Brazil); Kelecom, Alphonse [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Programa de Pos-graduacao em Biologia Marinha (Brazil); Universidade Federal Fluminense, Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencia Ambiental, Instituto de Geociencias, av. Litoranea s/no, Boa Viagem, 24210-340 Niteroi, RJ Caixa Postal 107.092, CEP 24360-970, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Azevedo Py Junior, Delcy de [Coordenacao de Protecao Radiologica, Unidade de Concentrado de Uranio. Caixa Postal 7, CEP 46.400-000 Caetite, Bahia, Brasil Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (Brazil)

    2008-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The uranium mining at Caetite (Uranium Concentrate Unit--URA) is in its operational phase. Aiming to estimate the radiological environmental impact of the URA, a monitoring program is underway. In order to preserve the biota of the deleterious effects from radiation and to act in a pro-active way as expected from a licensing body, the present work aims to use an environmental protection methodology based on the calculation of absorbed dose rate in biota. Thus, selected target organism was the Tilapia fish (Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1758) and the radionuclides were: uranium (U-238), thorium (Th-232), radium (Ra-226 and Ra-228) and lead (Pb-210). As, in Brazil there are no radiation exposure limits adopted for biota the value proposed by the Department of Energy (DOE) of the United States of 3.5x10{sup 3} {mu}Gy y{sup -1} has been used. The derived absorbed dose rate calculated for Tilapia was 2.51x10{sup 0} {mu}Gy y{sup -1}, that is less than 0.1% of the dose limit established by DOE. The critical radionuclide was Ra-226, with 56% of the absorbed dose rate, followed by U-238 with 34% and Th-232 with 9%. This value of 0.1% of the limit allows to state that, in the operational conditions analyzed, natural radionuclides do not represent a radiological problem to biota.

  2. Radiation Segmentectomy: A Novel Approach to Increase Safety and Efficacy of Radioembolization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riaz, Ahsun; Gates, Vanessa L.; Atassi, Bassel; Lewandowski, Robert J. [Department of Radiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Mulcahy, Mary F. [Department of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Ryu, Robert K.; Sato, Kent T. [Department of Radiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Baker, Talia [Department of Transplant Surgery, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Kulik, Laura [Department of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Gupta, Ramona [Department of Radiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Abecassis, Michael [Department of Transplant Surgery, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Benson, Al B. [Department of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Omary, Reed [Department of Radiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Millender, Laura [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Kennedy, Andrew [Department of Radiation Oncology, Wake Radiology Oncology, Cary, NC (United States); Salem, Riad, E-mail: r-salem@northwestern.ed [Department of Radiology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States); Department of Transplant Surgery, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To describe a technique of segmental radioembolization for the treatment of patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Radiation segmentectomy was defined as radioembolization of two or fewer hepatic segments. We sought to (1) calculate dose when activity is delivered segmentally assuming uniform and nonuniform distribution and, (2) determine safety and efficacy of this novel technique. Methods and Materials: A total of 84 patients with HCC who were treated with {sup 90}Y radioembolization using a segmental approach were included in this analysis. The dose delivered to the segment was calculated assuming uniform and nonuniform microsphere distribution within the treatment volume. To calculate dose assuming nonuniform distribution, a tumor hypervascularity ratio was assigned. Posttreatment response (using size and necrosis guidelines), toxicity, time to progression, and survival were determined. Results: The median treatment volume was 110 cm{sup 3}. The median radiation-naive liver volume was 1403 cm{sup 3}. The median dose delivered to the segment(s) assuming uniform distribution was 521 Gy. Taking into account tumor hypervascularity (nonuniform distribution), the median dose delivered to the tumor and normal infused hepatic volume was 1214 Gy and 210 Gy, respectively. Response by size and necrosis guidelines was seen in 59% and 81% of patients. Grade 3/4 biochemical toxicities were observed in 8 patients (9%). Median time to progression was 13.6 months (95% confidence interval, 9.3-18.7 months); median survival was 26.9 months (95% confidence interval, 20.5-30.2 months). Conclusions: Radiation segmentectomy is a safe and efficacious method of selectively delivering high dose to the tumor with minimal exposure of normal parenchyma.

  3. SAR Assessment and Analysis of Cumulative Body Exposure to Multi Transmitters from a Mobile Phone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    against possible negative health effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation. Basic restriction evaluated ones from each transmitter separately. Index Terms -- SAR, Multiple exposure, Radiofrequency I Commission on Non Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) [1] and the Institute of Electronics and Electrical

  4. SU-E-I-22: Dependence On Calibration Phantom and Field Area of the Conversion Factor Used to Calculate Skin Dose During Neuro-Interventional Fluoroscopic Procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rana, V K; Vijayan, S [Physiology and Biophysics, Toshiba Stroke and Vascular Research Center, University at Buffalo (State University of New York), Buffalo, NY (United States); Rudin, S R; Bednarek, D R [Department of Radiology, Physiology and Biophysics, Toshiba Stroke and Vascular Research Center, University at Buffalo (State University of New York), Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To determine the appropriate calibration factor to use when calculating skin dose with our real-time dose-tracking system (DTS) during neuro-interventional fluoroscopic procedures by evaluating the difference in backscatter from different phantoms and as a function of entrance-skin field area. Methods: We developed a dose-tracking system to calculate and graphically display the cumulative skin-dose distribution in real time. To calibrate the DTS for neuro-interventional procedures, a phantom is needed that closely approximates the scattering properties of the head. We compared the x-ray backscatter from eight phantoms: 20-cm-thick solid water, 16-cm diameter water-filled container, 16-cm CTDI phantom, modified-ANSI head phantom, 20-cm-thick PMMA, Kyoto-Kagaku PBU- 50 head, Phantom-Labs SK-150 head, and RSD RS-240T head. The phantoms were placed on the patient table with the entrance surface at 15 cm tube-side from the isocenter of a Toshiba Infinix C-arm, and the entrance-skin exposure was measured with a calibrated 6-cc PTW ionization chamber. The measurement included primary radiation, backscatter from the phantom and forward scatter from the table and pad. The variation in entrance-skin exposure was also measured as a function of the skin-entrance area for a 30x30 cm by 20-cm-thick PMMA phantom and the SK-150 head phantom using four different added beam filters. Results: The entranceskin exposure values measured for eight different phantoms differed by up to 12%, while the ratio of entrance exposure of all phantoms relative to solid water showed less than 3% variation with kVp. The change in entrance-skin exposure with entrance-skin area was found to differ for the SK-150 head compared to the 20-cm PMMA phantom and the variation with field area was dependent on the added beam filtration. Conclusion: To accurately calculate skin dose for neuro-interventional procedures with the DTS, the phantom for calibration should be carefully chosen since different phantoms can contribute different backscatter for identical exposure parameters. Research supported in part by Toshiba Medical Systems and NIH Grants R43FD0158401, R44FD0158402 and R01EB002873.

  5. Neutron dose equivalent meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Olsher, Richard H. (Los Alamos, NM); Hsu, Hsiao-Hua (Los Alamos, NM); Casson, William H. (Los Alamos, NM); Vasilik, Dennis G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kleck, Jeffrey H. (Menlo Park, CA); Beverding, Anthony (Foster City, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A neutron dose equivalent detector for measuring neutron dose capable of accurately responding to neutron energies according to published fluence to dose curves. The neutron dose equivalent meter has an inner sphere of polyethylene, with a middle shell overlying the inner sphere, the middle shell comprising RTV.RTM. silicone (organosiloxane) loaded with boron. An outer shell overlies the middle shell and comprises polyethylene loaded with tungsten. The neutron dose equivalent meter defines a channel through the outer shell, the middle shell, and the inner sphere for accepting a neutron counter tube. The outer shell is loaded with tungsten to provide neutron generation, increasing the neutron dose equivalent meter's response sensitivity above 8 MeV.

  6. DRY TRANSFER FACILITY WORKER DOSE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.S. Tang

    2004-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate radiation doses received by personnel working in the Dry Transfer Facility No.1 (DTF-1) performing operations to receive transportation casks, transfer wastes, prepare waste packages, and ship out loaded waste packages and empty casks. Doses received by workers due to maintenance operations are also included in this revision. The specific scope of work contained in this calculation covers both collective doses and individual worker group doses on an annual basis, and includes the contributions due to external and internal radiation from normal operation, excluding the remediation area of the building. The results of this calculation will be used to support the design of the DTF-1 and to provide occupational dose estimates for the License Application. The calculations contained in this document were developed by Environmental and Nuclear Engineering of the Design and Engineering Organization and are intended solely for the use of the Design and Engineering Organization in its work regarding facility operation. Yucca Mountain Project personnel from the Environmental and Nuclear Engineering should be consulted before use of the calculations for purposes other than those stated herein or use by individuals other than authorized personnel in the Environmental and Nuclear Engineering.

  7. Evaluation of offsite dose assessment methodologies used in the nuclear industry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berry, Robert Orwell

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF CPSES . . . . . IV EXPOSURE PATHWAYS TO MAN Page VI V I I IX 15 21 V DESCRIPTION OF DOSE ASSESSMENT METHODS . . . . 28 NCRP COMMENTARY No. 3 COMPLY AIRDOS-PC ODCM . REGULATORY GUIDE 1. 109 . . . VI COMPARISONS OF DOSE CALCULATION RESULTS...) Commentary No. 3, the Offsite Dose Calculation Manual (ODCM) from CPSES and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1. 109 were utilized as dose assessment tools during this study The amount of site-specific information entered...

  8. Miniaturized radiation chirper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Umbarger, C. John (Los Alamos, NM); Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure relates to a miniaturized radiation chirper for use with a small battery supplying on the order of 5 volts. A poor quality CdTe crystal which is not necessarily suitable for high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy is incorporated with appropriate electronics so that the chirper emits an audible noise at a rate that is proportional to radiation exposure level. The chirper is intended to serve as a personnel radiation warning device that utilizes new and novel electronics with a novel detector, a CdTe crystal. The resultant device is much smaller and has much longer battery life than existing chirpers.

  9. Misonidazole with dexamethasone rescue: an escalating dose toxicity study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanasichuk, H.; Urtasun, R.C.; Fulton, D.S.; Raleigh, J.

    1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Neurotoxicity induced by misonidazole (MISO) and desmethylmisonidazole (DMM) has become the dose limiting factor in clinical work. In 1981, the authors reported a preliminary study suggestive that Dexamethasone (DEXA) does have a protective effect against peripheral neuropathies (PN) resulting from toxicity of misonidazole. The authors are presently investigating the use of DEXA, with escalating doses of MISO in an attempt to modify its neurotoxicity. To date, 16 patients have been registered to receive total doses of MISO given in 9 equally divided doses over 3 weeks. DEXA is given 3 days prior to the first dose and continues for the duration of therapy. All patients receive palliative radiation. No toxicity was seen at the total dose of 13.5 gm/M/sub 2/. One grade I PN occurred in the first four patients receiving 15.5 gm/M/sub 2/. Six additional patients were entered at this dose level and no further incidence of PN was observed.

  10. In-vacuum exposure shutter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Terry A.; Replogle, William C.; Bernardez, Luis J.

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An in-vacuum radiation exposure shutter device can be employed to regulate a large footprint light beam. The shutter device includes (a) a source of radiation that generates an energy beam; (2) a shutter that includes (i) a frame defining an aperture toward which the energy beam is directed and (ii) a plurality of blades that are secured to the frame; and (3) device that rotates the shutter to cause the plurality of blades to intercept or allow the energy beam to travel through the aperture. Each blade can have a substantially planar surface and the plurality of blades are secured to the frame such that the planar surfaces of the plurality of blades are substantially parallel to each other. The shutter device is particularly suited for operation in a vacuum environment and can achieve shuttering speeds from about 0.1 second to 0.001 second or faster.

  11. Determination of radionuclides and pathways contributing to dose in 1945

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Napier, B.A.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of scoping calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the absolute and relative contributions of different radionuclides and exposure pathways to doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. This scoping calculation (Calculation 003) examined the contributions of numerous radionuclides to dose via environmental exposures and accumulation in foods. This study builds on the work initiated in the first scoping study of iodine in cow's milk (calculation 001). Addressed in this calculation were the contributions to organ and effective dose of infants and adults from (1) air submersion and groundshine external dose, (2) inhalation, (3) ingestion of soil by humans, (4) ingestion of leafy vegetables, (5) ingestion of other vegetables and fruits, (6) ingestion of meat, (7) ingestion of eggs, and (8) ingestion of cows' milk from Feeding Regime 1, as described in Calculation 001.

  12. Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Wasiolek

    2006-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This analysis is one of the technical reports that support the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), referred to in this report as the biosphere model. ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the conceptual model as well as the mathematical model and its input parameters. This report documents development of input parameters for the biosphere model that are related to atmospheric mass loading and supports the use of the model to develop biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs). The biosphere model is one of a series of process models supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for a Yucca Mountain repository. ''Inhalation Exposure Input Parameters for the Biosphere Model'' is one of five reports that develop input parameters for the biosphere model. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the biosphere model is presented in Figure 1-1 (based on BSC 2006 [DIRS 176938]). This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This analysis report defines and justifies values of atmospheric mass loading for the biosphere model. Mass loading is the total mass concentration of resuspended particles (e.g., dust, ash) in a volume of air. Mass loading values are used in the air submodel of the biosphere model to calculate concentrations of radionuclides in air inhaled by a receptor and concentrations in air surrounding crops. Concentrations in air to which the receptor is exposed are then used in the inhalation submodel to calculate the dose contribution to the receptor from inhalation of contaminated airborne particles. Concentrations in air surrounding plants are used in the plant submodel to calculate the concentrations of radionuclides in foodstuffs contributed from uptake by foliar interception. This report is concerned primarily with the physical attributes of airborne particulate matter, such as the airborne concentrations of particles and their sizes. The conditions of receptor exposure (duration of exposure in various microenvironments), breathing rates, and dosimetry of inhaled particulates are discussed in more detail in ''Characteristics of the Receptor for the Biosphere Model'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172827]).

  13. SU-E-T-79: Comparison of Doses Received by the Hippocampus in Patients Treated with Single Vs Multiple Isocenter Based Stereotactic Radiation Therapy to the Brain for Multiple Brain Metastases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Algan, O; Giem, J; Young, J; Ali, I; Ahmad, S; Hossain, S [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK (United States)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To investigate the doses received by the hippocampus and normal brain tissue during a course of stereotactic radiotherapy utilizing a single isocenter (SI) versus multiple isocenter (MI) in patients with multiple intracranial metastases. Methods: Seven patients imaged with MRI including SPGR sequence and diagnosed with 2–3 brain metastases were included in this retrospective study. Two sets of stereotactic IMRT treatment plans, (MI vs SI), were generated. The hippocampus was contoured on SPGR sequences and doses received by the hippocampus and whole brain were calculated. The prescribed dose was 25Gy in 5 fractions. The two groups were compared using t-test analysis. Results: There were 17 lesions in 7 patients. The median tumor, right hippocampus, left hippocampus and brain volumes were: 3.37cc, 2.56cc, 3.28cc, and 1417cc respectively. In comparing the two treatment plans, there was no difference in the PTV coverage except in the tail of the DVH curve. All tumors had V95 > 99.5%. The only statistically significant parameter was the V100 (72% vs 45%, p=0.002, favoring MI). All other evaluated parameters including the V95 and V98 did not reveal any statistically significant differences. None of the evaluated dosimetric parameters for the hippocampus (V100, V80, V60, V40, V20, V10, D100, D90, D70, D50, D30, D10) revealed any statistically significant differences (all p-values > 0.31) between MI and SI plans. The total brain dose was slightly higher in the SI plans, especially in the lower dose regions, although this difference was not statistically significant. Utilizing brain-sub-PTV volumes did not change these results. Conclusion: The use of SI treatment planning for patients with up to 3 brain metastases produces similar PTV coverage and similar normal tissue doses to the hippocampus and the brain compared to MI plans. SI treatment planning should be considered in patients with multiple brain metastases undergoing stereotactic treatment.

  14. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project. Monthly report, June 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H. [comps.

    1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories under contract with the Centers for Disease Control. The independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP) provides technical direction. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demography, food consumption, and agriculture; environmental pathways and dose estimates.

  15. Interplanetary particle transport simulation for warning system for aviation exposure to solar energetic particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kubo, Yûki; Sato, Tatsuhiko

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar energetic particles (SEPs) are one of the extreme space weather phenomena. A huge SEP event increases the radiation dose received by aircrews, who should be warned of such events as early as possible. We developed a warning system for aviation exposure to SEPs. This article describes one component of the system, which calculates the temporal evolution of the SEP intensity and the spectrum immediately outside the terrestrial magnetosphere. To achieve this, we performed numerical simulations of SEP transport in interplanetary space, in which interplanetary SEP transport is described by the focused transport equation. We developed a new simulation code to solve the equation using a set of stochastic differential equations. In the code, the focused transport equation is expressed in a magnetic field line coordinate system, which is a non-orthogonal curvilinear coordinate system. An inverse Gaussian distribution is employed as the injection profile of SEPs at an inner boundary located near the Sun. We applie...

  16. Activity concentrations and dose rates from decorative granite countertops W.J. Llope*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Llope, William J.

    Activity concentrations and dose rates from decorative granite countertops W.J. Llope* Rice 19 April 2011 Keywords: Granite Gamma radiation Dose Human phantom a b s t r a c t The gamma radiation emitted from a variety of commercial decorative granites available for use in U.S. homes has been

  17. acute radiation syndrones: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Apoptosis MIT - DSpace Summary: Acute exposure to ionizing radiation can cause lethal damage to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, a condition called the GI syndrome. Whether the...

  18. arrbod acute radiation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Apoptosis MIT - DSpace Summary: Acute exposure to ionizing radiation can cause lethal damage to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, a condition called the GI syndrome. Whether the...

  19. Radiation Safety Edward O'Connell

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    /Bureau of Environmental Radiation Protection (BERP) · Regulatory Compliance ­ State Sanitary 16 · Required Radiation to cause ionization depends on the energy #12;Radiation Can Cause Ionization #12;Units of Measurements millirem per year. · At 50,000 feet, the dose rate is about 1 millirem per hour. · There are areas

  20. Technical Reports Ultra-low Dose Lung CT Perfusion Regularized by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    Technical Reports Ultra-low Dose Lung CT Perfusion Regularized by a Previous Scan1 Hengyong Yu, Ph­regularized reconstruction (PSRR) method was proposed to reduce radiation dose and applied to lung perfusion studies. Normal and ultra-low-dose lung computed tomographic perfusion studies were compared in terms of the estimation

  1. Military use of depleted uranium assessment of prolonged population exposure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giannardi, C

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work is an exposure assessment for a population living in an area contaminated by use of depleted uranium (DU) weapons. RESRAD 5.91 code is used to evaluate the average effective dose delivered from 1, 10, 20 cm depths of contaminated soil, in a residential farmer scenario. Critical pathway and group are identified in soil inhalation or ingestion and children playing with the soil, respectively. From available information on DU released on targeted sites, both critical and average exposure can leave to toxicological hazards; annual dose limit for population can be exceeded on short-term period (years) for soil inhalation. As a consequence, in targeted sites cleaning up must be planned on the basis of measured concentration, when available, while special cautions have to be adopted altogether to reduce unaware exposures, taking into account the amount of the avertable dose.

  2. In-vivo measurements of Pb-210 to determine cumulative exposure to radon daughters: A pilot study. Final report, 1 March, 1990--May 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laurer, G.R.; Cohen, N. [New York Univ. Medical Center, Tuxedo, NY (United States). Dept. of Environmental Medicine; Stark, A.; Ju, C. [New York State Dept. of Health, Albany, NY (United States). Bureau of Environmental and Occupational Epidemiology

    1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of estimating cumulative exposure of individuals to low concentrations of radon by measuring the amount of Pb-A-10 in their skeletons. This report presents progress to date establishing the validity of an vivo technique to measure skeletal burdens of Pb-210, accumulated from exposure to radon and radon progeny. With the skeletal content of Pb--210 and a model for Pb metabolism, cumulative exposure to radon and its short-lived daughters (radon/daughters) may be calculated for use in deriving a dose-response relationship between lung cancer and exposure to radon/daughters. Data are presented for 29 subjects exposed to ``above-average`` radon concentrations in their homes, showing the correlation between measured Pb--210 burdens, and measured pCi/l and WLM exposure estimates. Their results are compared to measurements of a population of 24 subject`s presumed exposed to average concentrations. Measurements of a Pennsylvania family exposed for a year in a home with an extremely high radon content are also presented. Update of results of an ongoing study of the biological half-time of Pb--210 in man involving measurements, of a retired radiation worker with a 40 year old skeletal burden of Pb-210.

  3. Radiation tolerance of piezoelectric bulk single-crystal aluminum nitride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Parks; Bernhard R. Tittmann

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For practical use in harsh radiation environments, we pose selection criteria for piezoelectric materials for nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and material characterization. Using these criteria, piezoelectric aluminum nitride is shown to be an excellent candidate. The results of tests on an aluminumnitride-based transducer operating in a nuclear reactor are also presented. We demonstrate the tolerance of single-crystal piezoelectric aluminum nitride after fast and thermal neutron fluences of 1.85 × 1018 neutron/cm2 and 5.8 × 1018 neutron/cm2, respectively, and a gamma dose of 26.8 MGy. The radiation hardness of AlN is most evident from the unaltered piezoelectric coefficient d33, which measured 5.5 pC/N after a fast and thermal neutron exposure in a nuclear reactor core for over 120 MWh, in agreement with the published literature value. The results offer potential for improving reactor safety and furthering the understanding of radiation effects on materials by enabling structural health monitoring and NDE in spite of the high levels of radiation and high temperatures, which are known to destroy typical commercial ultrasonic transducers.

  4. Ultra-accelerated natural sunlight