Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose ionizing radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Oligonucleotide microarray analysis of low-dose ionizing radiation exposure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...health risk due to low-dose ionizing radiation is still debated. Functional...pathways that are induced by ionizing irradiation (IR...transcriptionally regulated by low-dose IR in occupationally...and showed different ranges of accumulated doses...

Paola Silingardi; Elena Morandi; Cinzia Severini; Daniele Quercioli; Monica Vaccari; Wolfango Horn; Maria Concetta Nucci; Vittorio Lodi; Francesco Violante; Sandro Grilli; and Annmaria Colacci

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Cell cycle responses to low-dose ionizing radiation.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...47, 2006] 5178 Low-dose hyper-radiosensitivity...radiosensitivity of cells to doses of ionizing radiation less than 0.5 Gy...connection between low-dose HRS survival, Ataxia...the low dose radiation range (0-1 Gy). MR4 cells...

Sarah A. Krueger; George D. Wilson; Michael C. Joiner; and Brian Marples

2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

3

Oxidative Stress and Skeletal Health with Low Dose, Ionizing Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oxidative Stress and Skeletal Health with Low Dose, Ionizing Radiation Oxidative Stress and Skeletal Health with Low Dose, Ionizing Radiation Globus Ruth NASA Ames Research Center Abstract Osteoporosis profoundly affects the aging U.S. population and exposure to high doses of radiation causes bone loss similar to age-related osteoporosis, although the influence of low dose radiation exposures is not known. The central hypothesis of our DOE project (NASA supplement) is that low doses of radiation modulate subsequent skeletal degeneration via oxidative pathways. Our working hypothesis is that a prior exposure to low dose radiation regulates oxidative metabolism within bone and contributes to bone loss caused either by subsequent high, challenge doses of radiation or by aging. HZE source: Because astronauts are exposed to radiation from GCR and solar

4

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Low Dose Ionizing Radiation-Induced  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low Dose Ionizing Radiation-Induced Effects in Irradiated and Low Dose Ionizing Radiation-Induced Effects in Irradiated and Unirradiated cells: Pathways Analysis in Support of Risk Assessment. Authors: B.E. Lehnert, R. Cary, D. Gadbois, and G. Gupta. Institutions: Bioscience Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory. The scientific literature presents a confusing picture concerning health risks due to low dose ionizing radiation (LDIR), e.g., <1-10 cGy. Some effects of LDIR such as enhanced rates of cell proliferation and the induction of radioadaptation may be benign under some circumstances. Other evidence suggests LDIR can be hazardous and that a threshold for potentially detrimental responses, e.g., increases in intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), increases in sister chromatid exchanges (SCE), alterations in gene or protein expression profiles, and increased

5

Extremely Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Up-regulates CXC Chemokines in Normal Human Fibroblasts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...with radiation exposure (1). Ionizing radiation at moderate and higher doses (0.1-10 Gy) can produce DNA strand...death. Studies of mutants sensitive to ionizing radiation at this range of doses have revealed that the responsible genes...

Akira Fujimori; Ryuichi Okayasu; Hiroshi Ishihara; Satoshi Yoshida; Kiyomi Eguchi-Kasai; Kumie Nojima; Satoru Ebisawa; and Sentaro Takahashi

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

6

Low dose ionizing radiation induces tumor growth promoting factors in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ionizing radiation induces tumor growth promoting factors in ionizing radiation induces tumor growth promoting factors in stress-induced premature senescent fibroblasts David Boothman University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas Abstract Recent evidence suggest that the causes of cancer development are not limited to mutations within cancer cells, but also involve in alterations of cancer microenvironment. Senescent cells are irreversibly growth arrested, but remain metabolically active. Senescent cells, especially senescent fibroblasts in the stroma may provide a beneficial environment for tumor growth through secretion of certain factors. Accumulation of senescent cells in the stroma of patients repeatedly exposed to low doses of IR or low dose rates of IR, could be an important factor, causing alteration of the microenvironment that ultimately benefits tumor

7

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Research Highlights - Ionizing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Affects Cancer Frequency and Characteristics by Acting Affects Cancer Frequency and Characteristics by Acting on the Microenvironment Background: For more than a quarter century the scientific rationale for extrapolating radiation health effects has been underpinned by biophysical target theory. Fundamental to target theory is that the effect (e.g., DNA damage, mutation, cancer) is proportional to dose based on interaction of energy with biological targets, specifically DNA. However, the biology following ionizing radiation is more than just DNA damage, repair, or misrepair. Cellular responses to ionizing radiation can affect phenotype, cell interactions, lineage commitment, differentiation and genomic stability, all of which have been widely documented in cultured cells and many observed in vivo. This class of non-targeted effects induced

8

Functional proteomic pattern identification under low dose ionizing radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Objective: High dose radiation has been well known for increasing the risk of carcinogenesis. However, the understanding of biological effects of low dose radiation is limited. Low dose radiation is reported to affect several signaling pathways including ... Keywords: Feature selection, Jumping emerging identification, Low dose radiation, Proteomic signaling patterns

Young Bun Kim; Chin-Rang Yang; Jean Gao

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Modulates Immune Function New Project Overview  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Modulates Immune Function New Project Overview Modulates Immune Function New Project Overview Gregory Nelson Loma Linda University Abstract The immune system provides the first line of defense for exposures to environmental hazards. Protective immunity mechanisms using innate or adaptive responses are employed to mitigate acute challenges or amplify the readiness of the system to respond to future challenges. Some stimuli lead to amplified inflammatory reactions such as delayed hypersensitivity which is required for immunity to parasites and can also lead to adverse consequences such as contact dermatitis. Radiation exposure has the potential to aggravate hypersensitivity reactions as well as to suppress protective immunity. Ionizing radiation at high doses has long been recognized as highly effective in destroying cells of the immune system,

10

extremely low-dose ionizing radiation upregulates CXC chemokines in normal human fibroblasts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...2006 Abstract Tumor Biology 32: Radiation Biology 2 Proc Amer Assoc Cancer...Volume 47, 2006 extremely low-dose ionizing radiation upregulates CXC chemokines in...biological effects of this low dose range have not been established. We...

Akira Fujimori; Katsutoshi Suetomi; Keiji Kinoshita; Ayako Kojima; Yaqun Fang; Ayako Egusa; and Ryuichi Okayasu

2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

11

Human In vivo Dose-Response to Controlled, Low-Dose Low Linear Energy Transfer Ionizing Radiation Exposure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...biotinylated nucleotide analogue/ribonucleotide mix. The biotinylated cRNA targets were then...dose-response to controlled, low-dose low linear energy transfer ionizing radiation exposure. | The effect of low doses of low-linear energy transfer (photon) ionizing radiation...

Zelanna Goldberg; David M. Rocke; Chad Schwietert; Susanne R. Berglund; Alison Santana; Angela Jones; Jrg Lehmann; Robin Stern; Ruixiao Lu; and Christine Hartmann Siantar

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

12

Human In vivo Dose-Response to Controlled, Low-Dose Low Linear Energy Transfer Ionizing Radiation Exposure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...effects of low-dose low-linear energy transfer ionizing radiation (LDIR) in humans...direct evidence that doses in the range of 1 to 10 cGy...the intentional radiation of healthy tissue...the response to ionizing radiation. Attempts...

Zelanna Goldberg; David M. Rocke; Chad Schwietert; Susanne R. Berglund; Alison Santana; Angela Jones; Jrg Lehmann; Robin Stern; Ruixiao Lu; and Christine Hartmann Siantar

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

13

The Effects of High Dose Rates of Ionizing Radiations on Solutions of Iron and Cerium Salts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article The Effects of High Dose Rates of Ionizing Radiations on Solutions of Iron and Cerium...of 1.3 duration and over a range of dose rates from 0.5 to 20 000 rads/pulse. Radiation yields at constant dose rate...

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Quantitative estimation of UV light dose concomitant to irradiation with ionizing radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A simple mathematical model for biological estimation of UV light dose concomitant to ionizing radiation was suggested. This approach was applied to determine the dependency of equivalent UV light dose accompanied by 100Gy of ionizing radiation on energy of sparsely ionizing radiation and on volume of the exposed cell suspension. It was revealed that the relative excitation contribution to the total lethal effect and the value of UV dose was greatly increased with an increase in energy of ionizing radiation and volume of irradiated suspensions. It is concluded that these observations are in agreement with the supposition that ?erenkov emission is responsible for the production of UV light damage and the phenomenon of photoreactivation observed after ionizing exposure of bacterial and yeast cells hypersensitive to UV light. A possible synergistic interaction of the damages produced by ionizations and excitations as well as a probable participation of UV component of ionizing radiation in the mechanism of hormesis and adaptive response observed after ionizing radiation exposure is discussed.

Vladislav G. Petin; Ivan I. Morozov; Jin Kyu Kim; Maria A. Semkina

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Extremely Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Up-regulates CXC Chemokines in Normal Human Fibroblasts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Research Center for Radiation Safety, National...263-8555 Chiba, Japan. Phone: 81-43-206-3159...doses of ionizing radiation (5). A recent...study showed that Japan has the worlds highest...Research Center for Radiation Safety, National...Inage, Chiba, Japan. fujimora@nirs...

Akira Fujimori; Ryuichi Okayasu; Hiroshi Ishihara; Satoshi Yoshida; Kiyomi Eguchi-Kasai; Kumie Nojima; Satoru Ebisawa; and Sentaro Takahashi

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

16

Proteasome Structures Affected by Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Effect of ionizing radiation on 26S but...radiation doses, and immediately...the dose range 1 to 20 Gy...ionizing radiation induced a...38), ionizing radiation (39...over a wide range of radiation doses and further...

Milena Pervan; Keisuke S. Iwamoto; and William H. McBride

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Exposure to Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation from Medical Imaging Procedures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...did not use measures of radiation dose that are specific to the subjects we studied but instead relied on estimates of effective doses, which are neither precisely measured nor subject-specific. The effective dose is a calculated estimate designed to provide a sex-averaged dose for a reference subject... Experimental and epidemiologic evidence has linked exposure to low-dose, ionizing radiation with the development of solid cancers and leukemia.1 As a result, persons at risk for repeated radiation exposure, such as workers in health care and the nuclear ...

Fazel R.; Krumholz H.M.; Wang Y.

2009-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

18

Mechanisms Underlying Cellular Responses to Low Doses/Low LET Ionizing Radiation in Primary Haemopoietic Cells.  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mechanisms Underlying Cellular Responses to Low Doses/Low LET Ionizing Radiation Mechanisms Underlying Cellular Responses to Low Doses/Low LET Ionizing Radiation in Primary Haemopoietic Cells. Munira Kadhim 1 , Stefania Militi 1 , Debbie Bowler 1 , Denise Macdonald 1 and Kevin Prise 2 1 Radiation and Genome Stability Unit, MRC, Harwell, Didcot, Oxon, OX11 0RD, UK 2 Gray Cancer Institute ,PO Box 100, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, HA6 2JR, UK Because the human population is genetically heterogeneous, it is important to understand the role that heterogeneity may play in radiation response. Exposure to ionizing radiation can lead to a suite of changes, including increased mutation rate, delayed reproductive cell death, and delayed chromosomal aberrations, all of which are manifestations of the complex genomic instability (GI) phenotype. Following exposure to either high LET

19

Low dose ionizing radiation produces too few reactive oxygen species to directly affect antioxidant concentrations in cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Radiolysis products and internal dose distribution - Calculation of...products and internal distribution of doses Low dose ionizing radiation produces too few reactive oxygen...stress is the mechanism for a wide range of negative impacts on biota living...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Investigation of non-targeted effects of low dose ionizing radiation on the mammary gland  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

non-targeted effects of low dose ionizing radiation on the mammary gland non-targeted effects of low dose ionizing radiation on the mammary gland utilizing three-dimensional culture models of mammary cells derived from mouse strains that differ in susceptibility to tumorigenesis Joni D. Mott, Antoine M. Snijders, Alvin Lo, Dinah Levy-Groesser, Bahram Parvin, Andrew J. Wyrobek, Jian-Hua Mao, and Mina J. Bissell Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA 94720 Goal: Within the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's SFA, Project 2, our studies focus on utilizing three dimensional (3D) cell culture models as surrogates for in vivo studies to determine how low doses of ionizing radiation influence mammary gland tissue architecture and how this may relate both to tumor progression and/or adaptive response.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose ionizing radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Genetic susceptibility to low-dose ionizing radiation in the mouse mammary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Genetic susceptibility to low-dose ionizing radiation in the mouse mammary Genetic susceptibility to low-dose ionizing radiation in the mouse mammary gland as a means of understanding human risk for breast cancer Antoine M. Snijders Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract Goal: Our goal is to develop an in vivo mechanistic model of genetic variation in the low-dose damage responses of mammary glands using inbred mice known to vary in their sensitivity to low-dose induced mammary gland cancer, and to develop molecular predictors for susceptibility or resistance to low-dose induced breast cancer. Background and Significance: It is increasingly believed that individuals differ in their genetic susceptibilities to environmental insults for diseases such as cancer. This concern is especially important for the large numbers of individuals receiving low-dose exposures in the nuclear energy

22

Targeted and Nontargeted Effects of Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation on Delayed Genomic Instability in Human Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...humans receive some radiation exposure, mostly...risks associated with radiation exposure come from populations exposed to ionizing radiation, primarily from epidemiologic...However, those doses, in the range of 0.2 to 2.5...

Lei Huang; Perry M. Kim; Jac A. Nickoloff; and William F. Morgan

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Extremely Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation Causes Activation of Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Pathway and Enhances Proliferation of Normal Human Diploid Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...stimulative effect of low-dose irradiation. These results indicate that a limited range of low-dose ionizing radiation differentially activates...indicate that a limited range of low-dose ionizing radiation differentially activates...

Keiji Suzuki; Seiji Kodama; and Masami Watanabe

2001-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

24

Mammalian Tissue Response to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation: The Role of Oxidative Metabolism and Intercellular Communication  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the project was to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the biological effects of low dose/low dose rate ionizing radiation in organs/tissues of irradiated mice that differ in their susceptibility to ionizing radiation, and in human cells grown under conditions that mimic the natural in vivo environment. The focus was on the effects of sparsely ionizing cesium-137 gamma rays and the role of oxidative metabolism and intercellular communication in these effects. Four Specific Aims were proposed. The integrated outcome of the experiments performed to investigate these aims has been significant towards developing a scientific basis to more accurately estimate human health risks from exposures to low doses ionizing radiation. By understanding the biochemical and molecular changes induced by low dose radiation, several novel markers associated with mitochondrial functions were identified, which has opened new avenues to investigate metabolic processes that may be affected by such exposure. In particular, a sensitive biomarker that is differentially modulated by low and high dose gamma rays was discovered.

Azzam, Edouard I

2013-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

25

Low-Dose Ionizing Radiation Alters the Epigenome of the Avy Mouse  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ionizing Radiation Alters the Epigenome of the A Ionizing Radiation Alters the Epigenome of the A vy Mouse Autumn Bernal 1,2,3 , Dale Huang 1 , Yue Li 4 , Dana Dolinoy 5 , and Randy Jirtle 1 Department of Radiation Oncology 1 , University Program in Genetics and Genomic 2 , Integrated Toxicology & Environmental Health Program 3 , Department of Community and Family Medicine 4 , Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA, Department of Environmental and Health Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA 4 Background: Humans have evolved and thrived amidst constant low-dose (0-10 cGy) background radiation exposure from natural sources. Currently, however, the frequency of exposures to low doses of radiation is increasing due to man-made sources such as diagnostic imaging and nuclear power. This increased exposure has led to concerns amongst the general public and the government about the

26

Proteomic and Biochemical Studies of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Response to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Proteomic and Biochemical Studies of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells Proteomic and Biochemical Studies of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Response to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation Deok-Jin Jang 1 , Mingquan Guo 1 , Julia S.F.Chu 2 , Kyle T. Kurpinski 2 , Bjorn Rydberg 1 , Song Li 2 , and Daojing Wang 1 1. Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Lab, Berkeley, CA 94720 2. Department of Bioengineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 We will present data obtained during the first year of our DOE/NASA Low Dose Radiation Research program. We utilized a comprehensive approach including transcriptomics, proteomics, phosphoproteomics, and biochemistry to characterize human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in response to low dose ionizing radiation. We first determined the cell survival, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of

27

Alteration of cytokine profiles in mice exposed to chronic low-dose ionizing radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

While a high-dose of ionizing radiation is generally harmful and causes damage to living organisms, a low-dose of radiation has been shown to be beneficial in a variety of animal models. To understand the basis for the effect of low-dose radiation in vivo, we examined the cellular and immunological changes evoked in mice exposed to low-dose radiation at very low (0.7mGy/h) and low (3.95mGy/h) dose rate for the total dose of 0.2 and 2Gy, respectively. Mice exposed to low-dose radiation, either at very low- or low-dose rate, demonstrated normal range of body weight and complete blood counts. Likewise, the number and percentage of peripheral lymphocyte populations, CD4+ T, CD8+ T, B, or NK cells, stayed unchanged following irradiation. Nonetheless, the sera from these mice exhibited elevated levels of IL-3, IL-4, leptin, MCP-1, MCP-5, MIP-1?, thrombopoietin, and VEGF along with slight reduction of IL-12p70, IL-13, IL-17, and IFN-?. This pattern of cytokine release suggests the stimulation of innate immunity facilitating myeloid differentiation and activation while suppressing pro-inflammatory responses and promoting differentiation of nave T cells into T-helper 2, not T-helper 1, types. Collectively, our data highlight the subtle changes of cytokine milieu by chronic low-dose ?-radiation, which may be associated with the functional benefits observed in various experimental models.

Suk Chul Shin; Kyung-Mi Lee; Yu Mi Kang; Kwanghee Kim; Cha Soon Kim; Kwang Hee Yang; Young-Woo Jin; Chong Soon Kim; Hee Sun Kim

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Hypothesis regarding a membrane-associated mechanism of biological action due to low-dose ionizing radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel theory is proposed regarding the action of ionizing radiation in the range of very low doses. The basic premise of the theory presented is that the low-dose effect cannot be explained by direct damage ......

Lazar Kh. Eidus

2000-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

The similar effects of low-dose ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation from background environmental levels of exposure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The meltdown and release of radioactivity (ionizing radiation) from four damaged nuclear reactors at the Fukushima Nuclear Facility in Japan in March 2011 continues to contaminate air and ocean water even 1year ...

Cindy Sage

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway by extremely low-dose ionizing radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

X-ray irradiation at very low doses, between 2 and 5 cGy, stimulated activity of a member of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 in normal human diploid cells. Higher doses of irradiation at more than 1 Gy induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and accumulated p53 protein. Phosphorylation of ERK1/2 decreased with doses down to 50 cGy, however, doses of between 2 and 5 cGy phosphorylated ERK1/2 as efficiently as higher doses of X-rays, while the p53 protein level was no longer changed by doses below 50 cGy. Ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM)-dependent phosphorylation of p53 protein at Ser15 and histone H2AX at Ser139 was only observed at higher doses of more than 10 cGy of X-rays. We found that the MEK1 inhibitor, PD98059, and the specific epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, AG1478, decreased phosphorylation of the ERK1/2 proteins induced by 2 cGy or 6 Gy of X-rays. These results indicate that a limited range of low-dose ionizing radiation differentially activates ERK1/2 kinases via activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor and MAP kinaseERK kinase, which mediates various effects of cells receiving very low doses of ionizing radiation.

Keiji Suzuki; Seiji Kodama; Masami Watanabe

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Ionizing Radiation Causes a Dose-Dependent Release of Transforming Growth Factor ? In vitro from Irradiated Xenografts and during Palliative Treatment of Hormone-Refractory Prostate Carcinoma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Preclinical Pharmacology Ionizing Radiation Causes a Dose-Dependent Release of...linear function of the radiation dose over the range 0-10 Gy with r2 0...20: 91-5, 2000. Ionizing radiation causes a dose-dependent release of...

Michael Hagan; Adly Yacoub; and Paul Dent

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

PARP-1, PARP-2, and the cellular response to low doses of ionizing radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Purpose Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is rapidly and directly activated by single-strand breaks and is required for efficient base excision repair. These properties indicate that inhibition of PARP-1 might enhance the cellular response to low doses of radiation. We tested the effect of chemical inhibition of PARP-1 on low-dose clonogenic survival in a number of cell lines and the low-dose radiation response of a PARP-1 knockout murine cell line. Methods and materials Clonogenic cell survival of V79-379A and CHO-K1 hamster fibroblasts, T98G and U373-MG human glioma cells, and 3T3 mouse embryo fibroblast PARP-1 knockout cells was measured using a precise flow cytometry-based plating assay. Chemical inhibitors of PARP enzymes were tested for their effect on clonogenic survival after a range of ionizing radiation doses. Results Chemical inhibition of PARP activity induced marked radiosensitization of V79, CHO, and exponentially growing T98G cells in the 0.050.3-Gy range. This effect was not seen in U373 cells or in confluent T98G populations. Low-dose radiosensitization was not apparent in PARP-1 knockout cells. Conclusion Low-dose radiosensitization of actively dividing tumor cells by PARP-1 inhibitors suggests that they may have a role in enhancing the efficacy of ultrafractionated or low-dose-rate radiotherapy regimens. We hypothesize that PARP-2 compensates for the absence of PARP-1 in the knockout cell line.

Anthony Chalmers; Peter Johnston; Mick Woodcock; Michael Joiner; Brian Marples

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Whole Genome Analysis of Functional Protein Binding Sites and DNA Methylation: Application to p53 and Low Dose Ionizing Radiation.  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Whole Genome Analysis of Functional Protein Binding Sites and DNA Methylation: Whole Genome Analysis of Functional Protein Binding Sites and DNA Methylation: Application to p53 and Low Dose Ionizing Radiation. Krassimira Botcheva, John J. Dunn and Carl W. Anderson Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973, USA The effects of exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation on humans results largely from changes in gene expression mediated by the activation of sequence-specific DNA binding proteins (transcription factors) as well as changes to other chromosomal proteins and perhaps to DNA. To develop a molecular understanding of the consequences of exposures to low doses of ionizing radiation, it will be necessary to understanding where radiation-activated transcription factors bind in whole genomes and how

34

End group characterization in DNA of thymocytes after low doses of ionizing radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Investigations into the configuration of the radiation induced strand breaks in the low dose range are presented. DNA sections containing the radiation induced strand breaks were separated from the undamaged s...

Th. Coquerelle; C. Sexauer

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Detoxification of Salmonella typhimurium Lipopolysaccharide by Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...efficiency of ionizing radiation in detoxifying...decreased with doses above 1 Mrad...efficiency of ionizing radiation in detoxifying...decreased with doses above 1 Mrad...the visible range. After radiation, the general...radiation doses through 20...

Joseph J. Previte; Y. Chang; H. M. El-Bisi

1967-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Specific gene expression by extremely low-dose ionizing radiation which related to enhance proliferation of normal human diploid cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We demonstrated that X-ray irradiation at low doses of between 2 and 5 cGy stimulated proliferation of a normal human diploid. At low doses of between 2 and 5 cGy, ERK1/2 was phosphorylated as efficiently as at higher doses between 50 and 100 cGy of X-rays, while the p53 protein level was not increased by doses below 50 cGy. On the other hand, the p53 protein was efficiently accumulated at higher doses of X-ray more than 100 cGy. ERK1/2 was phosphorylated by doses over 50 cGy with increasing doses. We found that activated ERK1/2 augmented phosphorylation of the Elk-1 protein. Furthermore, over expression of ERK2 in NCI-H1299, and human lung carcinoma cells, potentiated enhanced proliferation, while down-regulation of ERK2 using the anti-sense ERK2 gene abrogated the stimulative effect of low-dose irradiation. These results indicate that a limited range of low-dose ionizing radiation differentially activate ERK1/2 kinases, which causes enhanced proliferation of cells receiving very low doses of ionizing radiation.

Masami Watanabe; Keiji Suzuki; Seiji Kodama

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Lesson 4 - Ionizing Radiation | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4 - Ionizing Radiation 4 - Ionizing Radiation Lesson 4 - Ionizing Radiation Lesson Three showed that unstable isotopes emit energy as they become more stable. This energy is known as radiation. This lesson explores forms of radiation, where radiation is found, how we detect and measure radiation, what sources of radiation people are exposed to, whether radiation is harmful, and how we can limit our exposure. Specific topics covered in this lesson include: Types of radiation Non-ionizing Ionizing Forms of ionizing radiation Alpha particles Beta particles Gamma rays Radiation Decay chain Half-life Dose Radiation measurements Sources of radiation Average annual exposure Lesson 4 - Ionizing Radiation.pptx More Documents & Publications DOE-HDBK-1130-2008 DOE-HDBK-1130-2008 DOE-HDBK-1130-2007

38

Epidemiological Studies of Leukemia in Persons Exposed to Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...exposed to ionizing radiation, the author...the higher dose range regardless...low dose range, it is emphasized...possibility of radiation hazards existing at low doses should not...exposed to ionizing radiation...exposed to ionizing radiation, the author...the higher dose range regardless...

L. H. Hempelmann

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Ionizing Radiation Activates the Nrf2 Antioxidant Response  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Scientific). Results Ionizing radiation does not activate ARE-reporter...determine if exposure to varying doses of ionizing radiation would activate the Nrf2-ARE pathway. The radiation dose range was extended below that used...

J. Tyson McDonald; Kwanghee Kim; Andrew J. Norris; Erina Vlashi; Tiffany M. Phillips; Chann Lagadec; Lorenza Della Donna; Josephine Ratikan; Heather Szelag; Lynn Hlatky; and William H. McBride

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Low Dose Ionizing Radiation and HZE Particle Effects on Adult Hippocampal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and HZE Particle Effects on Adult Hippocampal and HZE Particle Effects on Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis and mRNA Expression Kerry O'Banion University of Rochester School of Medicine & Dentistry Abstract Most of our knowledge about low dose radiation effects relates to DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations that result in cell death or alterations in genetic programs leading to malignancy. In addition To direct DNA damage, there is accumulating evidence that radiation induced alterations in the microenvironment can have significant effects on programs of cell replication and differentiation such as neurogenesis in adult mammalian brain. Adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus is postulated to play an important role in learning and memory and manipulations that alter neurogenesis, including inhibition following radiation exposure, have been

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose ionizing radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Escherichia coli Genes and Pathways Involved in Surviving Extreme Exposure to Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...doses of ionizing radiation does not depend on...the effects of high doses of ionizing radiation (IR). The repair...IR resistance. A range of modern screening...survive increasing doses of ionizing radiation in comparison to...

Rose T. Byrne; Stefanie H. Chen; Elizabeth A. Wood; Eric L. Cabot; Michael M. Cox

2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

42

Risks from ionizing radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... RADON indoors now accounts for nearly half of the average UK population exposure to ionizing radiation ... exposure to ionizing radiation. We believe that the extent of the variation in exposure to radon in the United Kingdom and else-where and its magnitude in relation to exposures from ...

R. H. Clarke; T. R. E. Southwood

1989-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

43

The effect of thymosin on the survival of CBA/J mice exposed to lethal and acute doses of ionizing radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THE EFFECT OF THYMOSIN ON THE SURVIVAL OF CBA/J MICE EXPOSED TO LETHAL AND ACUTE DOSES OF IONIZING RADIATION A Thesis ROGER LYNN HUCHTON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M Unrversrty in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1978 Major Subject: Biophysrcs THE EFFECT OF THYMQSIN ON THE SURVIVAL OF CBA/J MICE EXPOSED TO LETHAL AND ACUTE DOSES OF IONIZING RADIATION A Thesis by ROGER LYNN HUCHTQN Approved as to style and content by...

Huchton, Roger Lynn

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Genetic susceptibility to low-dose ionizing radiation in the mouse mammary glandas a means of understanding human risk for breast cancer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

susceptibility to low-dose ionizing radiation in the mouse mammary gland susceptibility to low-dose ionizing radiation in the mouse mammary gland as a means of understanding human risk for breast cancer Antoine M. Snijders 1 , Francesco Marchetti 1 , Ju Han 1 , Sandhya Bhatnagar 1 , Nadire Duru 1 , Zhi Hu 1 , Jian-Hua Mao 1 , Mina Bissell 1 , Joe Gray 1,2 , Gary H. Karpen 1 , Priscilla K. Cooper 1 and Andrew J. Wyrobek 1 1 Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 2 Current affiliation: Biomedical Engineering, Oregon Health Science Univ, Portland, OR Goal: Our goal is to develop an in vivo mechanistic model of genetic variation in the low-dose damage responses of mammary glands using inbred mice known to vary in their sensitivity to low-dose induced mammary gland cancer, and to develop molecular predictors for susceptibility or resistance to low-dose induced breast cancer.

45

Cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation: artificial neural networks inference from atomic bomb survivors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......with low linear energy transfer (LET...Obviously, the challenge of understanding...but the stable integration of viral DNA...activation should be sustainable for a long period...SA. Directed integration of viral DNA...adeno-associated virus DNA integration. Proc Natl...high linear energy transfer ionizing......

Masao S. Sasaki; Akira Tachibana; Shunichi Takeda

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

The Degradation of Solid Polymethylmethacrylate by Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Polymethylmethacrylate by Ionizing Radiation P. Alexander A. Charlesby...inversely proportional to the radiation dose (plus a small quantity of...of measuring high-energy radiation doses in the range of about 1 million rontgens...

1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Mitigation Effect of an FGF-2 Peptide on Acute Gastrointestinal Syndrome After High-Dose Ionizing Radiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Acute gastrointestinal syndrome (AGS) resulting from ionizing radiation causes death within 7 days. Currently, no satisfactory agent exists for mitigation of AGS. A peptide derived from the receptor binding domain of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF-P) was synthesized and its mitigation effect on AGS was examined. Methods and Materials: A subtotal body irradiation (sub-TBI) model was created to induce gastrointestinal (GI) death while avoiding bone marrow death. After 10.5 to 16 Gy sub-TBI, mice received an intramuscular injection of FGF-P (10 mg/kg/day) or saline (0.2 ml/day) for 5 days; survival (frequency and duration) was measured. Crypt cells and their proliferation were assessed by hematoxylin, eosin, and BrdU staining. In addition, GI hemoccult score, stool formation, and plasma levels of endotoxin, insulin, amylase, interleukin (IL)-6, keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC) monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were evaluated. Results: Treatment with FGF-P rescued a significant fraction of four strains of mice (33-50%) exposed to a lethal dose of sub-TBI. Use of FGF-P improved crypt survival and repopulation and partially preserved or restored GI function. Furthermore, whereas sub-TBI increased plasma endotoxin levels and several pro-inflammation cytokines (IL-6, KC, MCP-1, and TNF-alpha), FGF-P reduced these adverse responses. Conclusions: The study data support pursuing FGF-P as a mitigator for AGS.

Zhang Lurong [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Sun Weimin; Wang Jianjun [Second Military Medical College, Shanghai (China); Zhang Mei; Yang Shanmin [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Tian Yeping [Second Military Medical College, Shanghai (China); Vidyasagar, Sadasivan [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Pena, Louis A. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Medical Department, Upton, NY (United States); Zhang Kunzhong [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Cao Yongbing [Second Military Medical College, Shanghai (China); Yin Liangjie [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Wang Wei [Department of Surgery, Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Quanzhou, Fujian (China); Zhang Lei [Department of Laboratory Medicine, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan (China); Schaefer, Katherine L.; Saubermann, Lawrence J. [Department of Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Swarts, Steven G.; Fenton, Bruce M.; Keng, Peter C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Okunieff, Paul, E-mail: Paul_Okunieff@URMC.Rochester.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY (United States)

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Radiation Dose Estimates from  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Summary: Radiation Dose Estimates from Hanford Radioactive Material Releases to the Air- tantly, what radiation dose people may have received. An independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP, additionalProjectworkcouldresultin revisions of these dose estimates. April 21, 1994 Companion

49

Ionizing radiation detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ionizing radiation detector is provided which is based on the principle of analog electronic integration of radiation sensor currents in the sub-pico to nano ampere range between fixed voltage switching thresholds with automatic voltage reversal each time the appropriate threshold is reached. The thresholds are provided by a first NAND gate Schmitt trigger which is coupled with a second NAND gate Schmitt trigger operating in an alternate switching state from the first gate to turn either a visible or audible indicating device on and off in response to the gate switching rate which is indicative of the level of radiation being sensed. The detector can be configured as a small, personal radiation dosimeter which is simple to operate and responsive over a dynamic range of at least 0.01 to 1000 R/hr.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

1. Introduction Alanine-based ionizing radiation dosimetry is firmly  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1. Introduction Alanine-based ionizing radiation dosimetry is firmly woven into the fabric of high-dose System and Its Implications in High-Dose Ionizing Radiation Metrology Volume 113 Number 2 March.g., radiochromic dosimetry). From the NMI's perspective, the broad absorbed- dose range of the alanine system

51

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Image Gallery  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Image Gallery Image Gallery These are images, photographs, and charts presented or developed for Low Dose Radiation Research Investigators’ Meetings. They may be used for presentations or reports. To save, right click on the picture, then choose "Save picture as." U.S. annual per-capita effective radiation dose from various sources for 1980. various sources 1980 Enlarge Image. U.S. annual per-capita effective radiation dose from various sources for 2006. various sources 2006 Enlarge Image. U.S. annual per-capita effective radiation dose from man-made sources in the United States for 2006. man-made 2006 Enlarge Image. Ionizing Radiation Dose Ranges showing the wide range of radiation doses that humans experience (Rem) Enlarge Image. Ionizing Radiation Dose Ranges showing the wide range of radiation doses that humans experience

52

Assessment of retrospective dose estimation, with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), of six victims previously exposed to accidental ionizing radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The present study aims to evaluate the use of the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) translocation assay for retrospective dose estimation of acute accidental exposure to radiation in the past. Reciprocal translocation analysis by FISH with three whole-chromosome probes was performed on normal peripheral blood samples. Samples were irradiated with 05Gy 60Co ?-rays in vitro, and doseeffect curves were established. FISH-based translocation analyses for six accident victims were then performed, and biological doses were estimated retrospectively by comparison with the doseeffect curves. Reconstructed doses by FISH were compared with estimated doses obtained by analysis of di-centrics performed soon after exposure, or with dose estimates from tooth-enamel electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) data obtained at the same time as the FISH analysis. Follow-up FISH analyses for an adolescent victim were performed. Results showed that doseeffect curves established in the present study follow a linear-quadratic model, regardless of the background translocation frequency. Estimated doses according to two doseeffect curves for all six victims were similar. FISH dose estimations of three adult victims exposed to accidental radiation less than a decade prior to analysis (3, 6, or 7 years ago) were consistent with those estimated with tooth-enamel EPR measurements or analyses of di-centrics. Estimated doses of two other adult victims exposed to radiation over a decade prior to analysis (16 or 33 years ago) were underestimated and two to three times lower than the values obtained from analysis of di-centrics or tooth-enamel EPR. Follow-up analyses of the adolescent victim showed that doses estimated by FISH analysis decrease rapidly over time. Therefore, the accuracy of dose estimates by FISH is acceptable only when analysis is performed less than 7 years after exposure. Measurements carried out more than a decade after exposure through FISH analysis resulted in underestimation of the biological doses compared with values obtained through analysis of di-centrics and tooth-enamel EPR.

Qing-Jie Liu; Xue Lu; Xiao-Tao Zhao; Jiang-Bin Feng; Yu-Min L; En-Hai Jiang; Shu-Lan Zhang; De-Qing Chen; Ting-Zhen Jia; Li Liang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Discovering Clinical Biomarkers of Ionizing Radiation Exposure with Serum Proteomic Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...with a wide range of diagnoses and radiation treatment...and during ionizing radiation...from low dose-volume...of a wide range of diagnoses...volume, and dose of radiotherapy...exposed to ionizing radiation between the...with a wide range of diagnoses and radiation treatment...and during ionizing radiation...from low dose-volume...

Cynthia Mnard; Donald Johann; Mark Lowenthal; Thierry Muanza; Mary Sproull; Sally Ross; James Gulley; Emanuel Petricoin; C. Norman Coleman; Gordon Whiteley; Lance Liotta; and Kevin Camphausen

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Ionizing Radiation Induces Delayed Hyperrecombination in Mammalian Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...instability is critical to radiation risk assessment and for determining...the many delayed effects of radiation, chromosomal instability is...detrimental effects over a range of doses of ionizing radiation. Furthermore, a rapid and...

Lei Huang; Suzanne Grim; Leslie E. Smith; Perry M. Kim; Jac A. Nickoloff; Olga G. Goloubeva; William F. Morgan

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - Organizations Conducting Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Conducting Low Dose Radiation Research Conducting Low Dose Radiation Research DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Program DoReMi Integrating Low Dose Research High Level Expert Group (HLEG) on European Low Dose Risk Research Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Initiative (MELODI) RISC-RAD Radiosensitivity of Individuals and Susceptibility to Cancer induced by Ionizing Radiation United States Transuranium & Uranium Registries Organizations Conducting other Radiation Research Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Armed Forces Radiology Research Institute (AFRRI) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) Colorado State University Columbia University

56

Inference of Causal Networks from Time-course Transcription Data in Response to a2 Gy Challenge Dose of Ionizing Radiation with or without a 10 cGy Priming Dose  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Causal Networks from Time-course Transcription Data in Response to a Causal Networks from Time-course Transcription Data in Response to a 2 Gy Challenge Dose of Ionizing Radiation with or without a 10 cGy Priming Dose Kai Zhang, Ju Han, Torsten Groesser, Priscilla Cooper, and Bahram Parvin Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Goal: To elucidate temporal-dependent gene templates, causal networks, and underlying biological processes that can be inferred in response to a 10 cGy priming dose with or without a later higher challenged dose. Background and significance: Mechanistic inference of regulatory network can provide new insights into radiation systems biology. The main challenge continues to be high dimensionality of data, complex network architecture and limited knowledge of biological processes.

57

7 - Estimation of Radiation Doses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Radiation doses to the Japanese population from inhalation of contaminated air, external irradiation, terrestrial and marine food contamination are estimated and compared with other sources of anthropogenic (global fallout, Chernobyl accident), natural (radionuclides in food, cosmic radiation) and medical applications (X-ray tests, CT-tests, etc.) of ionizing radiation. The estimated doses from inhalation, ingestion of terrestrial and marine food, and radiation exposure from radioactive clouds and deposited radionuclides were generally below the levels which could cause health damage of the Japanese population, as well as of the world population. The estimated total radiation doses to fish and shellfish in coastal waters during the largest radionuclide releases were by a factor of 10 lower than the baseline safe level postulated for the marine organisms, therefore no harmful effects are expected for the marine ecosystem as well.

Pavel P. Povinec; Katsumi Hirose; Michio Aoyama

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Translocation analysis by the FISH-painting method for retrospective dose reconstruction in individuals exposed to ionizing radiation 10 years after exposure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is a powerful method largely used for detecting chromosomal rearrangements, translocations in particular, which are important biomarkers for dose assessment in case of human exposure to ionizing radiation. To test the possibility of using the translocation analysis by FISH-painting method in retrospective dose assessment, we carried out in vitro experiments in irradiated human lymphocytes, in parallel with the analysis of translocations in lymphocytes from 10 individuals, who were exposed to 137cesium in the Goinia (Brazil) accident (samples collected 10 years after exposure). The in vitro doseresponse curve for the genomic translocation frequencies (FGs) fits a linear quadratic model, according to the equation: Y=0.0243X2+0.0556X. The FG values were also calculated for the individuals exposed to 137cesium, ranging from 0.58 to 5.91 per 100 cells, and the doses were estimated and compared with the results obtained by dicentric analysis soon after the accident, taking the opportunity to test the validity of translocation analysis in retrospective biodosimetry. A tentative of retrospective dosimetry was performed, indicating that the method is feasible only for low level exposure (below 0.5Gy), while for higher doses there is a need to apply appropriate correction factors, which take into consideration mainly the persistence of chromosomal translocations along with time, and the influence of endogenous and exogenous factors determining the inter-individual variability in the cellular responses to radiation.

Marjori L. Camparoto; Adriana T. Ramalho; Adayapalam T. Natarajan; Maria P. Curado; Elza T. Sakamoto-Hojo

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

22.01 Introduction to Ionizing Radiation, Fall 2003  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction to basic properties of ionizing radiations and their uses in medicine, industry, science, and environmental studies. Discusses natural and man-made radiation sources, energy deposition and dose calculations, ...

Coderre, Jeffrey A.

60

Colour and lipid oxidation changes in dry-cured loins from free-range reared and intensively reared pigs as affected by ionizing radiation dose level  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of irradiation (0, 5 and 10 kGy) of vacuum-packaged Iberian dry-cured loin slices from pigs fed on concentrate (CON) or free-range reared (FRG) was studied in relation to colour changes, TBA-RS and hexanal content. Both, ionizing radiation and type of loin had a significant effect on the instrumental colour parameters of the samples. Irradiation resulted in significantly higher a*-values in both sets of loins, indicating a redder colour. Numerically calculated total colour difference (?E) changes were significantly less intense in CON vacuum-packaged dry-cured loin slices than in FRG samples and changed significantly at 10 kGy dose levels in both types of samples. TBA-RS numbers were significantly affected by irradiation dose and type of loin and increased linearly with dose in both types of slices. Increments in TBA-RS numbers in FRG loin slices was dose-dependent and was closely related to the type of dry-cured loin. Irradiation of dry-cured loin slices significantly increased hexanal contents in both groups of loins and the increases were dose-dependent and greater in FRG samples than in CON samples. Differences in the characteristics of the raw material and initial lipid oxidation level could play an important role in the irradiation-induced changes in vacuum-packaged dry-cured loin slices.

A. Carrasco; R. Trrega; M.R. Ramrez; F.J. Mingoarranz; R. Cava

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose ionizing radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Ionizing Radiation-induced, Mitochondria-dependent Generation of Reactive Oxygen/Nitrogen  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...exposing cells to ionizing radiation. In the 1-10 Gy dose range, the amount...demonstrated that ionizing radiation in the therapeutic dose range stimulates a...exposing cells to ionizing radiation. In the 1-10 Gy dose range, the amount...

J. Kevin Leach; Glenn Van Tuyle; Peck-Sun Lin; Rupert Schmidt-Ullrich; and Ross B. Mikkelsen

2001-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

62

Enhanced Sensitivity of the RET Proto-Oncogene to Ionizing Radiation In vitro  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the RET sensitivity to ionizing radiation exposure, and to elucidate...were first exposed to ionizing radiation, electrophoresed in...Table 1 Table 1. Range of tail moment in non...for comet Radiation dose Cell line Range of tail...

Claudia Bu Volpato; Minerva Martnez-Alfaro; Raffaella Corvi; Coralie Gabus; Sylvie Sauvaigo; Pietro Ferrari; Elena Bonora; Alessandro De Grandi; and Giovanni Romeo

2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

EXTRAPOLATING RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER RISKS FROM LOW DOSES TO VERY LOW DOSES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Brenner* Abstract--There is strong evidence that ionizing radiation increases cancer risks at high doses. There exists a range of high radiation doses which demonstra- bly increase cancer risks, and a lower dose rangePaper EXTRAPOLATING RADIATION-INDUCED CANCER RISKS FROM LOW DOSES TO VERY LOW DOSES David J

Brenner, David Jonathan

64

Physical and biological properties of U.S. standard endotoxin EC after exposure to ionizing radiation.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...in the UV range, radiation treatment...pattern. Dose-related...effects of the ionizing radiation...milligram-per-milliliter range) (13...in the UV range, we found...ioniz- ing radiation. Regarding...effective, dose- dependent...EXPOSED TO IONIZING RADIATION...

G Csako; R J Elin; H D Hochstein; C M Tsai

1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Ionizing Radiation Injury (South Carolina)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This legislation applies to employers that have more than one employee who engages in activities which involve the presence of ionizing radiation. Employers with less than three employees can...

66

Low Dose Radiation Program: Workshop VI Abstracts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Workshop VI Principal Investigator and Abstracts Workshop VI Principal Investigator and Abstracts Anderson, Carl Whole Genome Analysis of Functional Protein Binding Sites and DNA Methylation: Application to p53 and Low Dose Ionizing Radiation. Averbeck, Dietrich Cellular Responses at Low Doses of Ionizing Radiation. Azzam, Edouard Adaptive Responses to Low Dose/Low Dose-Rate ?-Rays in Normal Human Fibroblasts: The Role of Oxidative Metabolism. Bailey, Susan The Role of Telomere Dysfunction in Driving Genomic Instability. Balajee, Adayabalam Low Dose Radiation Induced DNA Damage Signaling and Repair Responses in Human 3-Dimensional Skin Model System. Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen Imaging Bioinformatics for Mapping Multidimensional Responses. Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen Biological Response to Radiation Mediated through the Microenvironment and

67

Low Dose Radiation Program: Radiation Biology and the Radiation Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biology and the Radiation Research Program Biology and the Radiation Research Program The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor organizations, Energy Research and Development Agency (ERDA) and Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), always have been concerned about the health effects of ionizing radiation. Extensive research has been conducted under their sponsorship at all levels of biological organization from molecules to man. Over the past 60 years, studies using every type of radiation source have included exposure to both external radiation sources and to internally deposited radioactive materials. These exposures used different dose patterns and distributions delivered over a wide range of experimental times. This extensive research provided the basis for the new Low Dose Radiation Research Program, linking

68

Characterization of Cell Cycle Checkpoint Responses after Ionizing Radiation in Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...events leading to G, and G2 arrests following ionizing radiation is abnormal in cells from AT patients. p53 protein up- regulation following low doses of ionizing radiation ranges from delayed and reduced to completely absent...

Vikky Yamazaki; Rolf-Dieter Wegner; and Cordula U. Kirchgessner

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Toxicity of Pasteurella tularensis Killed by Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...to 106 r of y-radiation. When injected...suspension. Lethal doses of newly prepared...by exposure to ionizing radia- tion induced...to 106 r of y-radiation from a 60Co source at a dose rate of approximately...only in a limited range of dilutions...

Marshall E. Landay; George G. Wright; James D. Pulliam; Milton J. Finegold

1968-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Sensitivity of aflatoxin b1 to ionizing radiation.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...activity with respective doses of 2.5, 5, 10...irradiation aflatoxin B1 dose of: in upper layediteionre...in foodstuffs may range from levels of 0...with an irradiation dose of10 kGy (the maximum...its sensitivity to ionizing radiation. When aflatoxin...

P J Van Dyck; P Tobback; M Feyes; H van de Voorde

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Low-Dose/Dose-Rate Low-LET Radiation Protects Us from Cancer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dose/Dose-Rate Low-LET Radiation Protects Us from Cancer Dose/Dose-Rate Low-LET Radiation Protects Us from Cancer Bobby R. Scott, Ph.D. and Jennifer D. Di Palma Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, 2425 Ridgecrest Drive SE Albuquerque, NM 87108 USA Life on earth evolved in a low-level ionizing radiation environment comprised of terrestrial radiation and cosmic rays. Today we all reside in an ionizing radiation environment comprised of both natural background radiation and radiation from human activities (e.g., Chernobyl accident). An evolutionary benefit of the interaction of low-level, low linear-energy-transfer (LET) ionizing radiation with mammalian life forms on earth is adapted protection. Adapted protection involves low-dose/dose-rate, low-LET radiation induced high-fidelity DNA repair in cooperation with normal apoptosis (presumed p53

72

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Bruce E. Lehnert  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

E. Lehnert E. Lehnert Los Alamos National Laboratory Past Project Low Dose Ionizing Radiation-Induced Effects in Irradiated and Unirradiated Cells: Pathways Analysis in Support of Risk Assessment. Technical Abstracts 2002 Workshop: Low Dose Ionizing Radiation-Induced Effects in Irradiated and Unirradiated cells: Pathways Analysis in Support of Risk Assessment. Lehnert, B.E., Cary, R., Gadbois, D. and Gupta G. 2001 Workshop: Low Dose, Low Dose Rate Effects of Ionizing Radiation in Irradiated and Unirradiated Cells. Lehnert, B.E. 1999 Workshop: Low Dose, Low Dose Rate Effects of Ionizing Radiation in Irradiated and Unirradiated Cells. Lehnert, B.E. Publications Lehnert, B.E., Radiation bystander effects. U.S.Department of Energy Research News (March 6 issue) Goldberg, Z. and Lehnert, B.E. (2002). Radiation-induced effects in

73

Polymorphisms in DNA Repair Genes, Medical Exposure to Ionizing Radiation, and Breast Cancer Risk  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the role of DSB repair in response to low-dose radiation, particularly the range experienced by women from mammograms and other...breast cancer associated with exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation. Although we specifically designed our questionnaire...

Robert C. Millikan; Jon S. Player; Allan Rene deCotret; Chiu-Kit Tse; and Temitope Keku

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Glossary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Glossary Glossary A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z We welcome updates to the glossary. Please send them to Low Dose. A α=β Ratio: A measure of the curvature of the cell survival curve and a measure of the sensitivity of a tissue or tumor to dose fractionation. The dose at which the linear and quadratic components of cell killing are equal. Abscopal Effect: The radiation response in tissue at a distance from the irradiated site invoked by local irradiation. Absorbed Dose Rate: Absorbed dose divided by the time it takes to deliver that dose. High dose rates are usually more damaging to humans and animals than low-dose rates. This is because repair of damage is more efficient when the dose rate is low. Absorbed Dose: The amount of energy deposited in any substance by ionizing

75

E-Print Network 3.0 - absorbed radiation dose Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

know Summary: . Absorbed dose is the physical quantity describing energy deposited per unit mass. For radiation protection... Cancer risks attributable to low doses of ionizing...

76

E-Print Network 3.0 - accumulated radiation dose Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

. At the end, this seminar concentrates on the dose contributions of naturally occurring ionizing radiation... particles. - The equivalent dose, HT, which takes into account...

77

Ionizing Radiation Effects on CMOS Imagers Manufactured in Deep Submicron Process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, ionizing radiation, total dose, dark current, STI, hardening by design, RHDB 1. INTRODUCTION IonizingIonizing Radiation Effects on CMOS Imagers Manufactured in Deep Submicron Process Vincent Goiffona a large dynamic range. This can significantly impact the radiation hardness of "in-pixel" devices which

Mailhes, Corinne

78

Retinal Degeneration and Ionizing Radiation Hypersensitivity in a Mouse Model for Cockayne Syndrome  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...sensitive to a single dose of ionizing radiation at doses up to 10 Gy. In marked...least within the age range investigated, the...photoreceptor cells for ionizing radiation. This finding underscores...experiment (cumulative dose, 35 kJ/m2). The...

Theo G. M. F. Gorgels; Ingrid van der Pluijm; Renata M. C. Brandt; George A. Garinis; Harry van Steeg; Gerard van den Aardweg; Gerard H. Jansen; Jan M. Ruijter; Arthur A. B. Bergen; Dirk van Norren; Jan H. J. Hoeijmakers; Gijsbertus T. J. van der Horst

2006-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

79

Use of the Tetrazolium Assay in Measuring the Response of Human Tumor Cells to Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...irradiation dose rate was...demonstrated a range of absorbance...RESPONSE TO IONIZING RADIATION with 1 mg...with graded doses of irradiation...each with a range of seeded...MGHU1 0 5 10 DOSE (Gy) RT112...RESPONSE TO IONIZING RADIATION 150000 FF...

Patricia Price and Trevor J. McMillan

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - Online Literature  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Online Literature Online Literature Journals, Books and other Publications Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute Chornobyl Center for Nuclear Safety Radioactive Waste and Radioecology "Insight" Magazine Central Research Institute of the Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) News: Aiming at an information center on low dose radiation research Health Physics International Journal of Radiation Biology Iranian Journal of Radiation Research Journal of Radiological Protection National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Radiation Research U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Information Bridge Reports Animal Cancer Tests and Human Cancer Risk Assessment: A Broad Perspective Effects of Ionizing Radiation: Atomic Bomb Survivors and Their Children (1945-1995) Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose ionizing radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Low Dose Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ancient Salt Beds Ancient Salt Beds Repository Science Renewable Energy The WIPP Underground may be ideal to study effects of Very Low Dose Rates on Biological Systems Low Background Radiation Experiment We're all bathing in it. It's in the food we eat, the water we drink, the soil we tread and even the air we breathe. It's background radiation, it's everywhere and we can't get away from it. But what would happen if you somehow "pulled the plug" on natural background radiation? Would organisms suffer or thrive if they grew up without their constant exposure to background radiation? That's what a consortium of scientists conducting an experiment at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant aim to find out. Despite being an underground repository for transuranic radioactive waste,

82

Physiological Responses of the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi to DNA Damage Caused by Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...before and after radiation and was in good...performed at a sublethal dose of 2,000 Gy to...our preliminary estimation reveals that 0...been observed for radiation-resistant Chroococcidiopsis...caused by ionizing radiation. | The mechanisms...furiosus, survive high doses of ionizing gamma...

Edmond Jolivet; Fujihiko Matsunaga; Yoshizumi Ishino; Patrick Forterre; Daniel Prieur; Hannu Myllykallio

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

The Inactivation of $\\alpha$-Chymotrypsin by Ionizing Radiations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Chymotrypsin by Ionizing Radiations J. A. V. Butler...studied over a range of concentrations...where D is the dose required to cause...air over a wide range of concentrations...by varying the dose rate of the electron...over a very wide range. An enhanced...

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Molecular signatures of low dose radiation exposure in human subjects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Molecular signatures of low dose radiation exposure in human subjects...Volume 46, 2005] 3096 Low dose ionizing radiation (LDIR) in the 1-10 cGy range has largely unknown biological...the effect and risk at low dose by extrapolation from measured...

Zelanna Goldberg; Chad W. Schwietert; Maggie Isbell; Joerg Lehmann; Robin Stern; Christine Hartmann Siantar; and David M. Rocke

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Device for detecting ionizing radiation  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to ionizing radiation sensors, and , more particularly, to semiconductor spectrometers with thermoelectric cooling, and can most advantageously be used in mineral raw material exploration and evaluation under field conditions. The spectrometer comprises a vacuum chamber with an entrance window for passing the radiation therethrough. The vacuum chamber accommodates a thermoelectric cooler formed by a set of peltier elements. A heat conducting plate is mounted on the cold side of the thermoelectric cooler, and its hot side is provided with a radiator. Mounted on the heat conducting plate are sets of peltier elements, integral with the thermoelectric cooler and independent of one another. The peltier elements of these sets are stacked so as to develop the minimum temperature conditions on one set carrying a semiconductor detector and to provide the maximum refrigeration capacity conditions on the other set provided with the field-effect transistor mounted thereon.

Anatychuk, L.I.; Kharitonov, J.P.; Kusniruk, V.F.; Meir, V.A.; Melnik, A.P.; Ponomarev, V.S.; Skakodub, V.A.; Sokolov, A.D.; Subbotin, V.G.; Zhukovsky, A.N.

1980-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

86

Alanine-EPR dosimetry for measurements of ionizing radiation absorbed doses in the range 0.5-10 kGy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The usefulness of two, easy accessible alanine dosimeters (ALANPOL from IChTJ and foil dosimeter from Gamma Service, Radeberg, Germany) to radiation dose measurement in the range of 0.5-10 kGy, were investigated. In both cases, the result of the test was positive. The foil dosemeter from Gamma Service is recommended for dose distribution measurements in fantoms or products, ALANPOL - for routine measurements. The EPR-alanine method based on the described dosimeters can be successfully used, among others, in the technology of radiation protection of food.

Peimel-Stuglik, Z

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Human Heterochromatin Protein 1 Isoforms HP1Hs? and HP1Hs? Interfere with hTERT-Telomere Interactions and Correlate with Changes in Cell Growth and Response to Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...subsequently exposed to ionizing radiation (IR). The...a particular dose of radiation. The cells...to IR in the dose range of 0 to 8 Gy...treatment. Dose response curves...treated with ionizing radiation while growing...

Girdhar G. Sharma; Kyu-kye Hwang; Raj K. Pandita; Arun Gupta; Sonu Dhar; Julie Parenteau; Manjula Agarwal; Howard J. Worman; Raymund J. Wellinger; Tej K. Pandita

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Total ionizing dose effect of ?-ray radiation on the switching characteristics and filament stability of HfOx resistive random access memory  

SciTech Connect

The total ionizing dose (TID) effect of gamma-ray (?-ray) irradiation on HfOx based resistive random access memory was investigated by electrical and material characterizations. The memory states can sustain TID level ?5.2 Mrad (HfO{sub 2}) without significant change in the functionality or the switching characteristics under pulse cycling. However, the stability of the filament is weakened after irradiation as memory states are more vulnerable to flipping under the electrical stress. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was performed to ascertain the physical mechanism of the stability degradation, which is attributed to the Hf-O bond breaking by the high-energy ?-ray exposure.

Fang, Runchen; Yu, Shimeng, E-mail: shimengy@asu.edu [School of Computing, Informatics, and Decision Systems Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85281 (United States); School of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States); Gonzalez Velo, Yago; Chen, Wenhao; Holbert, Keith E.; Kozicki, Michael N.; Barnaby, Hugh [School of Electrical, Computer, and Energy Engineering, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287 (United States)

2014-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

89

9.01 - Interaction of Ionizing Radiation with Matter  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The aim of this chapter is to give an overview and try to show how the different interaction probabilities will influence the transport of ionizing radiation through matter. This knowledge is important in different aspects of medical applications of radiation. It has an impact in designing an optimal treatment gantry, in the choice of radiation quality, and of course when determining the absorbed dose distribution in the body. It is also important in diagnostic radiology when optimizing the image quality. Knowledge of the interaction of radiation with matter is also fundamental for understanding the biological effect of radiation and its variation with ionization density. The focus will not be on the basic physics and deriving the different cross sections but on the impact of these cross sections on imaging and therapy in medical physics applications. Ionizing radiation is normally divided into charged particles (previously called directly ionizing radiation) such as leptons, ?-particles, protons and other light ions, and uncharged particles (previously called indirectly ionizing radiation) such as photons (x-rays or ?-rays) and neutrons. This chapter will concentrate on radiation qualities used in radiotherapy, and the main part will be dedicated to electrons and photons with energies up to around 50MeV and light ions with energies up to 900MeV per nucleon. The presentation is divided into two main sections, charged particles and photons.

B. Nilsson; A. Brahme

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Interaction of Ionizing Radiation with Paclitaxel (Taxol) and Docetaxel (Taxotere) in HeLa and SQ20B Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...drawn from survival to radiation alone. Therefore...large decrease of the radiation susceptibility among...fraction over the whole range of radiation doses investigated. Interestingly...1844 TAXOIDS AND IONIZING RADIATION 70 TAX or...

Christophe Hennequin; Nicole Giocanti; and Vincent Favaudon

1996-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

91

6 - Industrial Applications of Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The chapter summarizes the industrial applications of ionizing radiation. Ionizing radiation finds use in a variety of industrial applications such as wire and cable insulation, tire manufacturing, production of polymeric foams, heat-shrinkable films and tubings, curing of coatings, adhesives and composites, printing, and other technological development. It provides extensive information on EB process in wire and cable and tire technology. The chapter also provides discussion on EB process in the manufacture of polyolefin foams and heat-shrinkable materials. Detailed discussion on cross-linked PE pipes (PEX) including methods for production, irradiation, and its advantages, is presented. Other applications for ionizing radiation include sterilization of medical devices, hydrogels, radiation curing of polymeric composites, production of fluoroadditives, radiation-cured flexography, coatings, adhesives, paints, and printing inks. Keywords Ionizing radiation; tire manufacturing; wire and cable insulations; printing inks; polyolefin foams; heat-shrinkable materials; cross-linked PE pipes (PEX); hydrogels; flexography

Jiri George Drobny

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Ionizing radiation dosimetry in the absorbed dose range 0.0150 \\{MGy\\} based on resistance and ESR linewidth measurements of organic conducting crystals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The materials studied in the present work as high-dose dosimeters are members of a large class of molecular crystals which are organic conductors of electricity. Very different from each other in the details of their molecular and crystal structures, they all behave in the same way when subjected to increasing high doses of radiation, at least from the point of view of their electronic transport properties, because of the quasi-one-dimensional character of the conduction process. Their resistivities increase exponentially with the absorbed dose while their electron spin resonance (ESR) linewidths decrease exponentially. Very small single crystals less than 10 ?m thick can be used as dosimeters in the dose range 0.0150 \\{MGy\\} for ? rays as well as for electron irradiations, by applying four probe resistance measurements. Only a few compounds over a large number of candidates have been irradiated in the present work with ?-rays, low energy x-rays and electrons. In some favourable cases the energy and temperature dependences of the dosimeters have been checked experimentally. Their mass energy absorption coefficients and electron stopping powers have been also calculated. It is hoped to extend this kind of dosimetry to lower and higher doses by trying new compounds from the large family of organic conductors or by improving the resistivity and ESR measurement techniques.

L. Zuppiroli; S. Bouffard; J.J. Jacob

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Genetic Factors Affecting  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Affecting Susceptibility to Low-Dose Radiation Affecting Susceptibility to Low-Dose Radiation William F. Morgan Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Why This Project The short-term effects of high doses of ionizing radiation on cellular responses are relatively well understood. Less clear are the long-term consequences of exposure to low dose/low dose-rate radiation and the effects of radiation exposure on the progeny of surviving cells. If a cell survives radiation, it is generally thought to have repaired all the radiation-induced insults and be capable of a "normal healthy life". At a certain frequency, however, we have found that some cells surviving radiation grow normally, but will rearrange their genetic material during time in culture. We call this radiation-induced genomic instability. Many

94

Enhancement of natural background gamma-radiation dose around uranium microparticles in the human body  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...photoelectrons. For most ionizing radiations, a large proportion...the absorbed dose is deposited...having a shorter range and being more strongly ionizing close to the...in high local doses, causing damage...enhancement of the radiation dose in volumes...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Poly [1,1'-bis(ethynyl)-4,4'-biphenyl(bis-tributylphosphine)Pt(II)] solutions used as low dose ionizing radiation dosimeter  

SciTech Connect

In this work, the effect of gamma radiation on the optical properties of polymetallayne poly[1,1'-bis(ethynyl)-4,4'-biphenyl(bis-tributylphosphine)Pt(II)] (Pt-DEBP) in chloroform solution is studied. The samples were irradiated at room temperature with doses from 0.01 Gy to 1 Gy using a {sup 60}Co gamma ray source. A new band at 420 nm is observed in the emission spectra, in superposition to the emission maximum at 398 nm, linearly dependent on dose. We propose to use the ratio of the emission amplitude bands as the dosimetric parameter. This method proved to be robust, accurate, and can be used as a dosimeter in medical applications.

Bronze-Uhle, E. S.; Graeff, C. F. O. [Department of Physics, FC-UNESP, Av. Eng. Luiz Edmundo Carrijo Coube 14-01, 17033-360 Bauru (Brazil)] [Department of Physics, FC-UNESP, Av. Eng. Luiz Edmundo Carrijo Coube 14-01, 17033-360 Bauru (Brazil); Batagin-Neto, A.; Fernandes, D. M. [UNESP-Univ Estadual Paulista, POSMAT-Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Tecnologia de Materiais, Bauru, Sao Paulo (Brazil)] [UNESP-Univ Estadual Paulista, POSMAT-Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencia e Tecnologia de Materiais, Bauru, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Fratoddi, I.; Russo, M. V. [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome 'Sapienza,' P.le A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy)] [Department of Chemistry, University of Rome 'Sapienza,' P.le A. Moro 5, 00185 Rome (Italy)

2013-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

96

Roles of the Major, Small, Acid-Soluble Spore Proteins and Spore-Specific and Universal DNA Repair Mechanisms in Resistance of Bacillus subtilis Spores to Ionizing Radiation from X Rays and High-Energy Charged-Particle Bombardment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...mutagenic effects induced by ionizing radiation are thought to be the result...of DNA damage caused by given doses of ionizing radiation for different bacteria are very similar, although the range of ionizing-radiation resistance...

Ralf Moeller; Peter Setlow; Gerda Horneck; Thomas Berger; Gnther Reitz; Petra Rettberg; Aidan J. Doherty; Ryuichi Okayasu; Wayne L. Nicholson

2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

97

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Genetic Factors Affecting  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Genetic Factors Affecting Susceptibility to Low-Doses of Ionizing Genetic Factors Affecting Susceptibility to Low-Doses of Ionizing Radiation. Authors: William F. Morgan, Pat Concannon & John H.J. Petrini The goal of this program is to test the hypothesis that mice heterozygous for the NBS1 gene are genetically susceptible to low doses of ionizing radiation. Patients with Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome (NBS) are radiation sensitive, because of defects in cellular responses to radiation induced genetic damage. It is unclear whether humans heterozygous for the mutations associated with NBS are radiation sensitive and results from cell culture experiments give conflicting results. In collaboration with John Petrini at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York City we developed a mouse model of this disorder and are directly testing the hypothesis

98

p53-Mediated Regulation of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen Expression in Cells Exposed to Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...exposed to increasing doses of IR at 24 h posttransfection...cellular response to ionizing radiation in which p53-mediated...IR at 12 Gy, a dose that induced maximal...the 1- to 4-Gy range does not effectively...because a high radiation dose is used and the...

Jin Xu; Gilbert F. Morris

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Inactivation of 14-3-3? Influences Telomere Behavior and Ionizing Radiation-Induced Chromosomal Instability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...per dish was chosen to ensure that about 50 colonies would survive a particular radiation dose treatment. Cells were exposed to ionizing radiation in the dose range of 0 to 8 Gy at room temperature using a 137Cs ray at a dose rate of 1.1 Gy...

Sonu Dhar; Jeremy A. Squire; M. Prakash Hande; Raymund J. Wellinger; Tej K. Pandita

2000-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Low-Dose Dose-Response of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low-Dose Dose-Response of Proliferating Human Cells Exposed to Low Low-Dose Dose-Response of Proliferating Human Cells Exposed to Low Dose Rate g-Radiation. Authors: Louise Enns,1 Michael Weinfeld,1 Albert Murtha,1 and Kenneth Bogen2 Institutions: 1Cross Cancer Institute and 2Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Clinical and environmental exposure to ionizing radiation rarely exceeds 200 cGy. To examine cell proliferation at early times (up to 5 days) post-irradiation, we are utilizing an assay in which single cells encapsulated within ~30- to 70-µm-diameter agarose gel microdrops (GMDs) are exposed and cultured for 4 days at 37°C, then analyzed by flow cytometry (FC). Clonogenic proliferation is measured as the fraction of occupied GMDs containing multicellular microcolonies after 4 days in culture. This assay was applied to human A549 lung cells exposed to gamma

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose ionizing radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Low Dose Radiation Program: 2010 Low Dose Radiation Research Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low Dose Radiation Research Program Investigators' Workshop Low Dose Radiation Research Program Investigators' Workshop »» Event Slide Show More than 150 people attended this year's workshop, held April 12-14 at the Renaissance M Street Hotel in Washington, D.C. In addition to 34 plenary talks and more than 70 poster presentations made by the program investigators, participants heard guest speakers from the National Cancer Institute and from sister low-dose programs in Europe and Japan. Remarks from DOE Dr. Anna Palmisano, Associate Director, Office of Science, Director for Biological and Environmental Research (BER), welcomed the meeting participants, thanked Low Dose Radiation Research Program Manager Dr. Noelle Metting for her leadership, and acknowledged the importance of the Low Dose Program to DOE because of its unique focus and important role. She

102

Transcriptome Analysis Applied to Survival of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 Exposed to Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...radiation (IR) dose that yields 20...its response to UV radiation (254 nm), which...sensitivity to IR. Ionizing radiation (IR) is potentially...damage caused by given doses of IR for different...similar, although the range of IR resistance...

Xiaoyun Qiu; Michael J. Daly; Alexander Vasilenko; Marina V. Omelchenko; Elena K. Gaidamakova; Liyou Wu; Jizhong Zhou; George W. Sundin; James M. Tiedje

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Abstract #2302: NVP-BEZ235 a dual inhibitor of phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase (PI3 Kinase) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) potently enhances the effects of ionizing radiation.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...ionizing radiation. Benjamin...effects of ionizing radiation in vitro...BEZ235 at doses of 50 nM...radiation dose range from 0-8...NVP-BEZ235 doses of 1microM...damage after radiation.-H2AX...effect of ionizing radiation in a range of epithelial...

Benjamin Solomon; Anthony Natoli; Jim Hagekyriakou; Carleen Cullinane; and Grant McArthur

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Ionizing Radiation as an Initiator: Effects of Proliferation and Promotion Time on Tumor Incidence in Mice  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...portion of the dose-response curve these two doses reside, we cannot accu rately say that the...cell carcinomas did not appear to depend on dose. A wider range of doses of ionizing radiation needs to be studied. A representative basal...

Deborah Jaffe and G. Tim Bowden

1987-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

105

Chromosome translocations and cosmic sources of ionizing radiation: The NIOSH-NCI airline pilot biomarker study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and cosmic sources of ionizing radiation: The NIOSH-NCI airline...are exposed to cosmic ionizing radiation, an efficient inducer...bone marrow absorbed dose in cGy from personal...SD; 46.7 5.3, range 37-55 vs. 45.8...

Lee Yong; Alice Sigurdson; Elizabeth Ward; Martha Waters; Elizabeth Whelan; Martin Petersen; Elaine Ron; Marilyn Ramsey; Parveen Bhatti; and James Tucker

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Method to Improve Total Dose Radiation Hardness in a CMOS dc-dc Boost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in a wide range of radiation environment, with increasing total dose radiation, The efticieney also greatlyMethod to Improve Total Dose Radiation Hardness in a CMOS dc-dc Boost Converter Huadian Pan to natural radiation in space. Among the effects of ionizing radiation are shiftsin threshold voltageand

Wilamowski, Bogdan Maciej

107

Ionizing radiation and atherosclerosis: Current knowledge and future challenges  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The evaluation of the health effects of low-dose ionizing radiation has always been a focus of debate and investigation within the scientific community. During the last decade, epidemiological studies provided evidence that an excess risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) can be associated with moderate and low dose radiation. The precise quantification of CVD risk in the low-dose radiation range (dose below which there is no risk. A limited number of studies with imaging surrogate endpoints and cardiovascular biomarkers in asymptomatic patients revealed early signs of cardiovascular alterations, even at a low dose. Invitro studies have shown that several mechanisms, including endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, oxidative stress, alterations of coagulation and platelet activity may have a relevant role in radiation-induced cardiovascular effects. Exposure to high-dose data in experimental models accelerates the development of atherosclerosis, predisposing to the formation of an inflammatory, thrombotic plaque phenotype, especially in animals that are genetically predisposed to this disease. On the contrary, low dose exposure produced both protective and detrimental effects, suggesting that multiple mechanisms may influence radiation-induced atherosclerosis. However, only very limited and specific information can be obtained from cell cultures and animal models. Planned studies of radiation-exposed cohorts need to be conducted to explore biological mechanisms of low-dose radiation-associated cardiovascular disease. Further investigations with functional imaging to assess vascular function and cardiovascular biomarkers have great potential for providing new insights into low-dose radiation cardiovascular risk, especially in occupational exposure and modern medicine.

Andrea Borghini; Emilio Antonio Luca Gianicolo; Eugenio Picano; Maria Grazia Andreassi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Polymorphisms in Apoptosis- and Proliferation-Related Genes, Ionizing Radiation Exposure, and Risk of Breast Cancer among U.S. Radiologic Technologists  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...radiation and breast cancer dose-response relationship...controls and quantified radiation breast doses in the low-to-moderate range. (Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers...Breast Cancer|SNPs|Ionizing radiation|Interaction|Radiobiological...

Alice J. Sigurdson; Parveen Bhatti; Michele M. Doody; Michael Hauptmann; Laura Bowen; Steven L. Simon; Robert M. Weinstock; Martha S. Linet; Marvin Rosenstein; Marilyn Stovall; Bruce H. Alexander; Dale L. Preston; Jeffrey P. Struewing; and Preetha Rajaraman

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

MEASUREMENT OF THE HIGH GAMMA RADIATION DOSE USING THE MEMS BASED DOSIMETER AND RADIOLISYS EFFECT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

radiation dose. If we consider, that the average time of exploitation is estimated to be 40 years and veryMEASUREMENT OF THE HIGH GAMMA RADIATION DOSE USING THE MEMS BASED DOSIMETER AND RADIOLISYS EFFECT M of high and very high doses of ionizing radiation is crucial for the monitoring of the existing Nuclear

Boyer, Edmond

110

Molecular mechanisms and cellular consequences of low-dose exposure to ionizing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

mechanisms and cellular consequences of low-dose exposure to ionizing mechanisms and cellular consequences of low-dose exposure to ionizing radiation Andrew J. Wyrobek 1 , Francesco Marchetti 1 , Xiu Lowe 1 , Xiaochen Lu 2 , Terumi Kohwi- Shigematsu 1 , Brian Davy 1 , Thomas E. Schmid 1 , Sylvia Ahn 1 , Tarlochan Nijjar 1 Matthew A. Coleman 2 , Contact information: ajwyrobek@gmail.com 1 Life Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA, 2 BioSciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA. The objectives of this research are to characterize the genome-wide molecular responses to low-dose ionizing radiation (<10cGy), to identify tissue and cell-type specific differences in pathways responses, and to identify the pivotal molecular pathway responses that control risks to genome integrity and health. This project utilizes mouse in

111

Effects of Substerilization Doses of Co60 Gamma Radiation on the Cold-Storage Life Extension of Shucked Soft-Shelled Clams and Haddock Fillets  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...000 rad of ionizing radiation. In the dose range from 200,000...000 rad of ionizing radiation. In the dose range from 200,000...000 rad of ionizing radiation. Nevertheless...indicate that in the dose range from 400,000...

E. B. Masurovsky; S. A. Goldblith; J. T. R. Nickerson

1963-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Radiation Leukaemongenesis at Low Doses  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Leukaemongenesis at Low Doses Leukaemongenesis at Low Doses Simon Bouffler Health Protection Agency Abstract Myeloid leukaemias feature prominently among the cancers associated with human exposures to ionising radiation. The CBA mouse model of radiation-induced acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) has been used extensively for both quantitative and mechanistic studies. Loss of genetic material from chromosome 2 (chr2) is known to be associated with most radiation-induced AMLs. AML develops in CBA mice exposed to X- or γ-radiation, after a mean latency period of 18 months, with a maximal incidence of approximately 25% at 3Gy. A strong candidate AML-suppressor gene located within the commonly deleted region of chr2 has been identified, Sƒpil/PU.1. This gene suffers hemizygous loss and specific

113

Composite scintillators for detection of ionizing radiation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Applicant's present invention is a composite scintillator having enhanced transparency for detecting ionizing radiation comprising a material having optical transparency wherein said material comprises nano-sized objects having a size in at least one dimension that is less than the wavelength of light emitted by the composite scintillator wherein the composite scintillator is designed to have selected properties suitable for a particular application.

Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Stephan, Andrew Curtis (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Brown, Suree S. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Wallace, Steven A. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Rondinone, Adam J [Knoxville, TN

2010-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

114

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: DOE / NASA Joint Funded Projects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DOE/NASA Joint Funded Projects DOE/NASA Joint Funded Projects NASA Source Photo Space explorers are subject to exposure to low dose ionizing radiation. Research that helps determine health risks from this exposure is funded by NASA and DOE. Source: NASA DOE's Low Dose Program and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) jointly fund new research to develop a better scientific basis for understanding risks to humans from exposures to low doses or low fluences of ionizing radiation. Research must focus on elucidating molecular mechanisms and pathways involved in normal radiobiological responses to low dose exposure, and must have the potential to ultimately increase understanding of health outcomes from radiation exposures that are at or near current workplace exposure

115

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Current Funded Project Descriptions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Funded Project Descriptions Funded Project Descriptions Effects Of Low Doses of Radiation on DNA Repair Jointly funded by NASA and DOE Eric J Ackerman Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, WA 99352 Dr. Ackerman will study the effect of low doses of ionizing radiation on the repair of different types of damage to DNA, including damage from ionizing radiation and that produced by the normal internal operation of the cell. Using a very sensitive technique called host cell reactivation assay (HCR), he will quantitatively measure the repair of each type of DNA damage and thereby measure if the cellular repair system itself has been damaged. He will also determine if unique forms of DNA repair system damage are induced by low doses of cosmic radiation exposure present during space

116

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Project Descriptions-Archive  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Project Descriptions-Archive Project Descriptions-Archive Effects Of Low Doses of Radiation on DNA Repair Eric J Ackerman (former PNNL) (Jointly funded by NASA and DOE) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, WA Dr. Ackerman will study the effect of low doses of ionizing radiation on the repair of different types of damage to DNA, including damage from ionizing radiation and that produced by the normal internal operation of the cell. Using a very sensitive technique called host cell reactivation assay (HCR), he will quantitatively measure the repair of each type of DNA damage and thereby measure if the cellular repair system itself has been damaged. He will also determine if unique forms of DNA repair system damage are induced by low doses of cosmic radiation exposure present during space

117

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Induction of Genomic Instability in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Induction of Genomic Instability in vivo by Low Doses of 137Cs y Induction of Genomic Instability in vivo by Low Doses of 137Cs y rays, Authors: K. Rithidech1, E.B. Whorton2, M. Tungjai1, E. Ar-Bab1, S.R. Simon1, M. Tawde3 and C.W. Anderson3. Institutions: 1Pathology Department, Stony Brook University, NY 11794-8691, USA, 2University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, TX 77550-1047,3Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000. Information on potential health hazards of radiation at doses below or equal to the level traditionally requiring human radiation protection (less than or equal to 10 cGy) is currently lacking. It is therefore important to characterize early and subsequent in vivo biological response induced by low doses of ionizing radiation because such data should provide information that can help determine whether radiation at this dose level

118

IONIZING RADIATION RISKS TO SATELLITE POWER SYSTEMS (SPS) WORKERS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dose-Response Relationships for Radiation-Induced Cancer EstimationDose-Response Relationships for Radiation-Induced Cancer A general hypothesis for estimationof the total dose. Estimation of Space Radiation Induced

Lyman, J.T.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Extensive Diversity of Ionizing-Radiation-Resistant Bacteria Recovered from Sonoran Desert Soil and Description of Nine New Species of the Genus Deinococcus Obtained from a Single Soil Sample  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...ionizing radiation on Earth...the acute doses to which...damage of ionizing radiation but rather...from a wide range of environments...showing the range of morphological...to various doses of gamma ionizing radiation Dose (kGy...

Fred A. Rainey; Keren Ray; Margarida Ferreira; Bridget Z. Gatz; M. Fernanda Nobre; Danielle Bagaley; Brian A. Rash; Mie-Jung Park; Ashlee M. Earl; Nicole C. Shank; Alanna M. Small; Margaret C. Henk; John R. Battista; Peter Kmpfer; Milton S. da Costa

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Ionizing Radiation Damage to the Folded Chromosome of Escherichia coli K-12: Repair of Double-Strand Breaks in Deoxyribonucleic Acid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...cell survival Dose (krad) % Recovery...it is in the range of sedimentation...that direct, radiation-induced cross-linking...during repair of ionizing radiation damage (3...is within the range ofsedimentation...biologically significant dose range. Unfortu...

Kevin M. Ulmer; Reinaldo F. Gomez; Anthony J. Sinskey

1979-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose ionizing radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: 2003 Molecular Characterization of the  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Characterization of the Roles of SOD Genes in Mammalian Characterization of the Roles of SOD Genes in Mammalian Cellular Response to Low Dose Radiation Authors: Chuan-Yuan Li,1 Eric Chuang2 Institutions: 1Dept of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, 2Advanced Technology Center, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland The potential risks of exposure to low dose radiation are of major concerns to the DOE/OBER Low Dose Radiation Research Program. It has been long recognized that much of the radiation-induced genetic damage to cells are caused by secondary oxidative species. Therefore, internal cellular defense systems against oxidative stress play significant roles in countering genetic damage induced by ionizing radiation. The role of the detoxifying

122

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Molecular Characterization of the  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Molecular Characterization of the Roles of SOD Genes in Mammalian Molecular Characterization of the Roles of SOD Genes in Mammalian Cellular Response to Low Dose Radiation Authors: Chuan-Yuan Li, Zhanjun Guo, Zhonghui Yang, and Eric Chuang Institutions: Dept of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC Advanced Technology Center, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland Background The potential risks of exposure to low dose radiation are of major concerns to the DOE/OBER Low Dose Radiation Research Program. It has been long recognized that much of the radiation-induced genetic damage to cells are caused by secondary oxidative species. Therefore internal cellular defense systems against oxidative stress play significant roles in countering genetic damage induced by ionizing radiation. The role of the detoxifying

123

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Chaun-Yuan Li  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chaun-Yuan Li Chaun-Yuan Li Radiation Biology Research, Duke University Medical Center Funded Projects Molecular Characterization of the Role of SOD Genes in Mammalian Cellular Response to Low Dose Ionizing, abstract, description. Technical Abstracts 2006 Workshop: The Roles of Superoxide Dismutage (SOD) in Low Dose Radiation Induced Adaptive Response Yang, Z., Chuang, E., Batinic-Haberle, I., and Li, C.-Y. 2005 Workshop: Molecular Characterization of the Roles of SOD Genes in Mammalian Cellular Response to Low Dose Radiation Li, C.-Y., Guo, Z., Yang, Z., and Chuang, E. 2003 Workshop: Molecular Characterization of the Roles of SOD Genes in Mammalian Cellular Response to Low Dose Radiation Li, C.-Y. and Chuang, E. Publications Li, F., Sonveaux, P., Rabbani, Z.N., Liu, S., Yan, B., Huang, Q.,

124

Resistance of Bacillus subtilis Spore DNA to Lethal Ionizing Radiation Damage Relies Primarily on Spore Core Components and DNA Repair, with Minor Effects of Oxygen Radical Detoxification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...samples for radiation exposure has...different types of ionizing radiation: X rays...mum, and a range of 301 mm in...mum, and a range of 99 mm in...dosimetry, and dose calculations...the dose of ionizing radiation killing 90...

Ralf Moeller; Marina Raguse; Gnther Reitz; Ryuichi Okayasu; Zuofeng Li; Stuart Klein; Peter Setlow; Wayne L. Nicholson

2013-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

125

The Relative Effects of Direct and Indirect Actions of Ionizing Radiations on Deoxyribonucleic Acid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...determined over a range of concentrations...means that over this range of concentration...independent of the dose rate and of the hardness of the radiations within the ranges used and identical...indirect actions of ionizing radiations on deoxyribonucleic...

1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Altered Telomere Nuclear Matrix Interactions and Nucleosomal Periodicity in Ataxia Telangiectasia Cells before and after Ionizing Radiation Treatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...mean P/mean S Mean () Range () Mean () Range () RKO 71 67-75 29 25-33...significant. Influence of ionizing radiation on telomere-nuclear matrix...cells were treated with a dose of 5 Gy of ionizing radiation, and proportions of S...

Lubomir B. Smilenov; Sonu Dhar; Tej K. Pandita

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Low Dose Radiation Exposure: Exploring Bystander Effects In Vivo.  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Exposure: Exploring Bystander Effects Exposure: Exploring Bystander Effects In Vivo. 1 Blyth, B.J., 1 Sykes, P.J. 1 Department of Haematology and Genetic Pathology, Flinders University and Medical Centre, Bedford Park, South Australia, 5042, The general population is daily exposed to chronic, low doses of ionizing radiation from both natural and artificial sources. The shape of the radiation dose-response curve at these low doses is currently linearly extrapolated from data obtained after high dose exposure due to the low sensitivity of traditional biological assays after near-background exposures. At odds with this Linear No-Threshold model, are the phenomena collectively referred to as the radiation-induced bystander effect. The bystander effect describes a collection of in vitro

128

Estimated Ultraviolet Radiation Doses in Wetlands in  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Estimated Ultraviolet Radiation Doses in Wetlands in Six National Parks Stephen A. Diamond,1 ABSTRACT Ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B, 280­320-nm wave- lengths) doses were estimated for 1024 wetlands of vegetative features, and quantification of DOC concentration and spectral absorbance. UV-B dose estimates

Knapp, Roland

129

Low-Dose Radiation Cataract and Genetic Determinants of Radiosensitivity  

SciTech Connect

The lens of the eye is one of the most radiosensitive tissues in the body. Ocular ionizing radiation exposure results in characteristic, dose related, progressive lens changes leading to cataract formation. While initial, early stages of lens opacification may not cause visual disability, the severity of such changes progressively increases with dose until vision is impaired and cataract extraction surgery may be required. Because of the transparency of the eye, radiation induced lens changes can easily be followed non-invasively over time. Thus, the lens provides a unique model system in which to study the effects of low dose ionizing radiation exposure in a complex, highly organized tissue. Despite this observation, considerable uncertainties remain surrounding the relationship between dose and risk of developing radiation cataract. For example, a growing number of human epidemiological findings suggest significant risk among various groups of occupationally and accidentally exposed individuals and confidence intervals that include zero dose. Nevertheless, questions remain concerning the relationship between lens opacities, visual disability, clinical cataract, threshold dose and/or the role of genetics in determining radiosensitivity. Experimentally, the response of the rodent eye to radiation is quite similar to that in humans and thus animal studies are well suited to examine the relationship between radiation exposure, genetic determinants of radiosensitivity and cataractogenesis. The current work has expanded our knowledge of the low-dose effects of X-irradiation or high-LET heavy ion exposure on timing and progression of radiation cataract and has provided new information on the genetic, molecular, biochemical and cell biological features which contribute to this pathology. Furthermore, findings have indicated that single and/or multiple haploinsufficiency for various genes involved in DNA repair and cell cycle checkpoint control, such as Atm, Brca1 or Rad9, influence cataract development and thus radiosensitivity. These observations have direct applicability to various human populations including accidentally exposed individuals, interventional medical workers, astronauts and nuclear plant workers.

Kleiman, Norman Jay [Columbia University] [Columbia University

2013-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

130

Low dose radiation combines with the Src oncoprotein to transform  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

radiation combines with the Src oncoprotein to transform radiation combines with the Src oncoprotein to transform pre-malignant human breast cells Paul Yaswen Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Abstract Goal: Determine whether low dose radiation exerts persistent epigenetic effects that promote malignancy. Background and Significance: Some persistent carcinogenic effects of radiation may not be traceable to specific DNA sequence alterations and may not be linearly related to dose. Through the biochemical initiation of positive feedback loops, ionization-induced events may have heritable non-linear effects on cellular behavior. Inflammatory responses involving the transcription factor NFκB may be subject to such effects. Increased NFκB activity has been strongly linked to carcinogenesis in a number of published in vitro and in vivo studies (reviewed in [1]). Since radiation

131

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Computational Modeling of Biochemical  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Computational Modeling of Biochemical Pathways Linking Ionizing Computational Modeling of Biochemical Pathways Linking Ionizing Radiation to Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis, and Tumor Incidence Authors: Yuchao Maggie Zhao and Rory Conolly Institutions: Center for Computational Systems Biology CIIT Centers for Health Research Long-Range Goal: To develop an integrated, computational framework for the prediction of low-dose-response to ionizing radiation (IR) in people. Methodology: To provide a flexible framework to evaluate mechanisms of cellular adaptive responses after exposure to IR, three progressively more complicated descriptions of biochemical pathways linking DNA damage with cell-cycle checkpoint control and apoptosis were developed. These descriptions focus on p53-dependent checkpoint arrest and apoptosis, p73-dependent apoptosis, and Chk2-dependent checkpoint arrest,

132

Persistent DNA damage foci, cellular senescence and low dose radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Persistent DNA damage foci, cellular senescence and low dose radiation Persistent DNA damage foci, cellular senescence and low dose radiation Denise Munoz 1 , Albert Davalos 1 , Francis Rodier 1 , Misako Kawahara 1 , Judith Campisi 1,2 and Steven Yannone 1,3 1 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Mailstop 84-171, Berkeley CA 94720; 2 Buck Institute for Age Research, 8001 Redwood Boulevard, Novato CA 94945; 3 Corresponding author Ionizing radiation (IR) induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are cytologically detectable as large nuclear foci that contain phosphorylated histone H2AX (γH2AX), the adaptor protein 53BP1, and several other proteins that participate in the sensing and processing of DNA damage (DNA damage foci). In normal human cells, moderately high IR (0.5-1 Gy) doses cause the rapid appearance of these foci (acute DNA damage foci), which gradually disappear

133

Errors and Uncertainties in Dose Reconstruction for Radiation Effects Research  

SciTech Connect

Dose reconstruction for studies of the health effects of ionizing radiation have been carried out for many decades. Major studies have included Japanese bomb survivors, atomic veterans, downwinders of the Nevada Test Site and Hanford, underground uranium miners, and populations of nuclear workers. For such studies to be credible, significant effort must be put into applying the best science to reconstructing unbiased absorbed doses to tissues and organs as a function of time. In many cases, more and more sophisticated dose reconstruction methods have been developed as studies progressed. For the example of the Japanese bomb survivors, the dose surrogate distance from the hypocenter was replaced by slant range, and then by TD65 doses, DS86 doses, and more recently DS02 doses. Over the years, it has become increasingly clear that an equal level of effort must be expended on the quantitative assessment of uncertainty in such doses, and to reducing and managing uncertainty. In this context, this paper reviews difficulties in terminology, explores the nature of Berkson and classical uncertainties in dose reconstruction through examples, and proposes a path forward for Joint Coordinating Committee for Radiation Effects Research (JCCRER) Project 2.4 that requires a reasonably small level of effort for DOSES-2008.

Strom, Daniel J.

2008-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

134

Ionizing radiation damage to the folded chromosome of Escherichia coli K-12: sedimentation properties of irradiated nucleoids and chromosomal deoxyribonucleic acid.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...double-strand breaks by ionizing radiation listed in Table 2 were calculated...4, 5). For this reason, doses of ionizing radiation in excess of 10 krads were used...the biologically significant dose range of less than 10 krads suggested...

K M Ulmer; R F Gomez; A J Sinskey

1979-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Enhancement of Antitumor Activity of Ionizing Radiation by Combined Treatment with the Selective Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor-Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor ZD1839 (Iressa)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Table 1 Effect of ionizing radiation or of ZD1839 treatment on the...were calculated by performing dose-response experiments. Cancer cells were exposed to different doses of ionizing radiation (range, 10-250 cGy) or to different...

Cataldo Bianco; Giampaolo Tortora; Roberto Bianco; Roberta Caputo; Bianca Maria Veneziani; Rosa Caputo; Vincenzo Damiano; Teresa Troiani; Gabriella Fontanini; David Raben; Stefano Pepe; A. Raffaele Bianco; and Fortunato Ciardiello

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: About  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

About About Background. Extensive research on the health effects of radiation using standard epidemiological and toxicological approaches has been done for decades to characterize responses of populations and individuals to high radiation doses, and to set exposure standards to protect both the public and the workforce. These standards were set using models that extrapolated from the cancers observed following exposure to high doses of radiation to predicted, but not measurable, changes in cancer frequency at low radiation doses. The use of models was necessary because of our inability to detect changes in cancer incidence following low doses of radiation. Historically, the predominant approach has been the Linear-no-Threshold model (see Wikipedia entry) and collective dose concept that assumes each unit of radiation, no

137

Effects of Mn and Fe Levels on Bacillus subtilis Spore Resistance and Effects of Mn2+, Other Divalent Cations, Orthophosphate, and Dipicolinic Acid on Protein Resistance to Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...exposed to ionizing radiation in vitro display...response to dose, with increasing...doses of gamma radiation increase...within a narrow range of Mn concentrations...from gamma ray doses (15 kGy...resistance to ionizing radiation, desiccation...

Amanda C. Granger; Elena K. Gaidamakova; Vera Y. Matrosova; Michael J. Daly; Peter Setlow

2010-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

138

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Adaptive Response of Mouse Skin  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Adaptive Response of Mouse Skin Epithelial Cells to Low Dose Adaptive Response of Mouse Skin Epithelial Cells to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation: Induction of NF-κB, MnSOD, 14-3-3ζ and Cyclin B1 Authors: Jian Jian Li, Kazi M. Ahmed, Ming Fan, Shaozhong Dong, Douglas R. Spitz, and Cheng-Rong Yu Institutions: Division of Molecular Radiobiology, Purdue University School of Health Sciences, West Lafayette, Indiana; Free Radical and Radiation Biology Program, Department of Radiation Oncology, Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa; Molecular Immunology Section, Laboratory of Immunology, National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland Gene expression profiles demonstrate that a group of key stress-responsive genes are associated with radiation exposure and may contribute to cellular

139

Co-Regulation among genes and pathways that are responsive to low-dose ionizing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Regulation among genes and pathways that are responsive to low-dose ionizing Regulation among genes and pathways that are responsive to low-dose ionizing radiation. Matthew A. Coleman 1 , Anya Krefft 1 , Francesca Pearson 1 , Leif E. Peterson 2 , Jian Jian Li 3 , Xiaowen Xin 1 , Terrence Critchlow 1 , Ilkay Altintas 4 , Bertram Ludaescher 5 and Andrew J. Wyrobek 6 . 1 Biosciences, LLNL, Livermore, CA, 94550, 2 Departments of Molecular and Human Genetics and Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX, 77030, 3 School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, 47907. 4 San Diego Supercomputer Center, University of California, San Diego La Jolla, CA 92093. 5 Department of Computer Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616. 6 Life Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA. 94706. Contact information: coleman16@llnl.gov

140

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Earlier Events  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Earlier Events Earlier Events 2000 | 2001 | 2002 | 2003 | 2004 April 2000 Ionizing Radiation Science and Protection in the 21st Century, NCRP, April 5-6, Arlington, VA. RADIATION RESEARCH 2000, Association for Radiation Research, April 10-12, Bristol, UK. Florida Chapter of the Health Physics Society Spring 2000 Meeting, Gainesville, FL, April 13-14. 47th Annual Meeting of the Radiation Research Society, April 29-May 3, Albuquerque, NM. May 2000 IRPA-10 International Congress 2000, May 14-19, Hiroshima, Japan. IRPA-10 Secretariat, c/o Japan Convention Services, Inc., Nippon Press Center Building, 2-2-1, Uchisaiwai-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 100, Japan. Phone: 81-3-3508-1214. Fax: 81-3-3508-0820. irpa10@convention.jp. 4th International Non-Ionizing Radiation Workshop, May 22-25, Kyoto,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose ionizing radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Escherichia coli Genes and Pathways Involved in Surviving Extreme Exposure to Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...doses of ionizing radiation does not depend on a single mechanism...metabolism (2). This listing does not include a few gene products...from Deinococcus radiodurans R1 does not restore radioresistance...genetics: a laboratory manual and handbook for Escherichia coli and related...

Rose T. Byrne; Stefanie H. Chen; Elizabeth A. Wood; Eric L. Cabot; Michael M. Cox

2014-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

142

Chronic Low Dose Radiation Effects on Radiation Sensitivity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chronic Low Dose Radiation Effects on Radiation Sensitivity Chronic Low Dose Radiation Effects on Radiation Sensitivity and Chromosome Instability Induction in TK6 Cells Schwartz J.L. 1 , Jordan R. 1 , Slovic J. 1 , Moruzzi A. 1 , Kimmel R. 2 , and Liber, H.L. 3 1 University of Washington, Seattle, WA; 2 Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA; 3 Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado There are a number of cell responses that can be detected after low dose radiation exposures including the adaptive response, low dose hypersensitivity, and induced genomic instability. The relationship between these different phenomena is unknown. In this study, we measured adaptive responses, low dose hypersensitivity, and induced genomic instability in a human B-lymphoblastoid cell model, TK6, where we could genetically modify radiation responses by either over-expression of BCL-2 or deletion of TP53. TK6

143

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: National Laboratories  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

National Laboratories National Laboratories The Low Dose Radiation Program funding encompasses several Scientific Focus Areas (SFAs). The SFAs fund merit-reviewed research at DOE national laboratories. This management approach was created in 2008 by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research (BER) within the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Science. PNNL's Low Dose Radiation Research Program Scientific Focus Area Linear and Nonlinear Tissue-Signaling Mechanisms in Response to Low Dose and Low Dose-Rate Radiation This program is funded as a U.S. Department of Energy Scientific Focus Area (SFA), and is an integrated cooperative program to understand low dose radiation effects in a complex model system. Coordinating Multidisciplinary Expertise The SFAs are designed to take advantage of the multidisciplinary,

144

Identification of novel ionizing radiation signaling targets in reconstituted human skin  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of novel ionizing radiation signaling targets in reconstituted human skin of novel ionizing radiation signaling targets in reconstituted human skin Feng Yang, Katrina M. Waters, Bobbie-Jo Webb-Robertson, Lye-Meng Markillie, Rachel M. Wirgau, Shawna M. Hengel, Ljiljana Pasa-Tolic, and David L. Stenoien. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Our focus has been on identifying the early events that occur after low dose ionizing radiation exposure that precede and often regulate downstream events such as altered transcription, protein secretion and epigenetic regulation. Phosphorylation is one of the earliest detectible events that occurs following radiation exposure and plays important roles in multiple biological pathways including DNA damage repair, transcription, apoptosis, and cell cycle progression. Very robust

145

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Radiation-Induced Nuclear Factor kB  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation-Induced Nuclear Factor kB mediates survival advantage by Radiation-Induced Nuclear Factor kB mediates survival advantage by Telomerase Activation. Authors: Natarajan M.,1 Mohan S.,2 Pandeswara, S.L.,1 and Herman T.S.1 Institutions: Departments of 1Radiation Oncology and 2Pathology, The University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas Activation of NF-kB in response to low doses of ionizing radiation was first shown in our laboratory. Although studies have shown that NF-kB plays an important role in anti-apoptotic function, little has been done to understand the molecular link between the activation of NF-kB and cellular outcome such as enhanced cell survival after low dose low-linear transfer (LET) radiation. Because upregulation of telomerase activity is associated with longevity and allows cells to escape from senescence, we hypothesize

146

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Jian Jian Li  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Jian Jian Li Jian Jian Li School of Health Sciences, Purdue University Newly Funded Projects Regulation of NF-kB and Mn SOD in Low Dose Radiation-Induced Adaptive Responses in Mouse and Human Skin Cells, abstract, description. Technical Abstracts 2006 Workshops: NF-kB Mediated Signaling Network in Low Dose X-Ray Induced Adaptive Protection on Mouse and Human Skin Epithelial Cells Ahmed, K.M., Fan, M., Spitz, and Li, J.J. 2005 Workshops: Adaptive Response of Mouse Skin Epithelial Cells to Low Dose Ionizing Radiation: Induction of NF-κB, MnSOD, 14-3-3ζ and Cyclin B1. Li, J.J., Ahmed, K.M., Fan, M., Dong, S., Spitz, D.R., and Yu, C.-R. 2003 Workshops: Gene Expression Profiles of Human Skin Keratinocytes Exposed to Acute and Chronic Ionizing Radiation Li, J.J., Ozeki, M., Wang, T., Tamae, D., Nelson, D., Wyrobek, A., and

147

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Universities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Universities Universities | Duke University | Loma Linda University | Northwestern University | University of Chicago | University of California Davis | Northwestern University University of Chicago University of California Davis Effects of Low Dose Irradiation on NF-κB Signaling Networks and Mitochondria Principal Investigator: Dr. Gayle Woloschak DOE Low Dose Research Program Projects Low dose-low dose rate irradiation leads to long term changes in numbers of mitochondria and mitochondrial genomes - Principal Investigator: Gayle Woloschak, Professor, Department of Radiation Oncology, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, USA NF-κB-mediated pro-survival network in low dose radiation-induced adaptive protection - Principal Investigator: Jian Jian Li, Professor, Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California Davis, Davis,

148

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Low Dose Radiation Effects in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation Effects in Differentiating Human Lens Cells Radiation Effects in Differentiating Human Lens Cells E.A. Blakely1, M.P. McNamara1, P.Y. Chang1, K.A. Bjornstad1, D. Sudar1, and A.C. Thompson2 1Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California; 2Advanced Light Source Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California. Introduction The human lens is one of the most radiosensitive organs of the body. Cataract, the opacification of the lens, is a late-appearing response to radiation damage. There are few data available on the late radiation effects of exposure in space flight to charged particle beams, the most prevalent of which are protons. Basic research in this area is needed to integrate the responses of both critical and other representative tissues

149

Directed Evolution of Ionizing Radiation Resistance in Escherichia coli  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...repeated. The dose of radiation administered was adjusted...day at 37C, with the dose increasing as radioresistance...source until the desired dose was achieved. Irradiated...Genomic DNA from the radiation-sensitive E. coli...reads, respectively. Estimation of the level of sequencing...

Dennis R. Harris; Steve V. Pollock; Elizabeth A. Wood; Reece J. Goiffon; Audrey J. Klingele; Eric L. Cabot; Wendy Schackwitz; Joel Martin; Julie Eggington; Timothy J. Durfee; Christina M. Middle; Jason E. Norton; Michael C. Popelars; Hao Li; Sarit A. Klugman; Lindsay L. Hamilton; Lukas B. Bane; Len A. Pennacchio; Thomas J. Albert; Nicole T. Perna; Michael M. Cox; John R. Battista

2009-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

150

Rules and Regulations for Control of Ionizing Radiation (Arkansas) |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Rules and Regulations for Control of Ionizing Radiation (Arkansas) Rules and Regulations for Control of Ionizing Radiation (Arkansas) Rules and Regulations for Control of Ionizing Radiation (Arkansas) < Back Eligibility Utility Program Info State Arkansas Program Type Environmental Regulations Siting and Permitting Provider Department of Health The Rules and Regulations for Control of Ionizing Radiation are the Arkansas state laws made in accordance the federal Nuclear Regulatory Commission Rules. Any contractor with the US DOE or US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is exempt from the state laws. This set of rules and regulations basically restates the federal policy to ensure that Arkansas is in compliance with the federal standards governing nuclear energy. Specifically the State rules are equivalent to Nuclear Regulatory

151

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Research Institutions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Institutions Institutions Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute Biological Bases for Radiation Adaptive Responses in the Lung-Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, Albuquerque, NM USA Contact: Dr. Bobby R. Scott Program Objective Our research focuses on elucidating the biological bases for radiation adaptive responses in the lung and for suppressing lung cancer, and to use the knowledge gained to produce an improved systems-biology-based, risk model for lung cancer induction by low-dose, low linear-energy-transfer (LET) radiation. Research was initiated in October 2009. This research should help foster a new era of low-dose radiation risk/benefit assessment. It will have important implications for possible use of low-dose diagnostic radiation (e.g., X-rays) in cancer therapy. It

152

Estimating Radiation Risk from Total Effective Dose Equivalent...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

and UNSCEAR 1988 in Radiation Risk Assessment - Lifetime Total Cancer Mortality Risk Estimates at Low Doses and Low Dose Rates for Low-LET Radiation, Committee on Interagency...

153

Radiation dose in dental radiology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...The aim of this study was to compare radiation exposure in panoramic radiography (PR), dental CT, and digital volume tomography (DVT) ... at appropriate locations were exposed as in a dental examination. In PR...

M. Cohnen; J. Kemper; O. Mbes; J. Pawelzik; U. Mdder

2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

RADIATION DOSE FROM CIGARETTE TOBACCO  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The radioactivity in tobacco leaves collected from 15 different regions of Greece before cigarette production was studied in order to estimate the effective dose from cigarette tobacco due to the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides such as 226 Ra and 210 Pb of the uranium series and 228 Ra of the thorium series and/or man?made produced radionuclides such as 137 Cs of Chernobyl origin. Gamma?ray spectrometry was applied using Ge planar and coaxial type detectors of high resolution and high efficiency. It was concluded that the annual effective dose due to inhalation for adults (smokers) for 226 Ra varied from 42.5 to 178.6?? Sv ? y ?1 (average 79.7?? Sv ? y ?1 ) while for 228 Ra from 19.3 to 116.0?? Sv ? y ?1 (average 67.1?? Sv ? y ?1 ) and for 210 Pb from 47.0 to 134.9?? Sv ? y ?1 (average 104.7?? Sv ? y ?1 ) that is the same order of magnitude for each radionuclide. The sum of the effective dose of the three natural radionuclides varied from 151.9 to 401.3?? Sv ? y ?1 (average 251.5?? Sv ? y ?1 ). The annual effective dose from 137 Cs of Chernobyl origin was three orders of magnitude lower as it varied from 70.4 to 410.4? nSv ? y ?1 (average 199.3? nSv ? y ?1 ).

C. Papastefanou

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Radiation dose from cigarette tobacco  

SciTech Connect

The radioactivity in tobacco leaves collected from 15 different regions of Greece before cigarette production was studied in order to estimate the effective dose from cigarette tobacco due to the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides, such as {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb of the uranium series and {sup 228}Ra of the thorium series and/or man-made produced radionuclides, such as {sup 137}Cs of Chernobyl origin. Gamma-ray spectrometry was applied using Ge planar and coaxial type detectors of high resolution and high efficiency. It was concluded that the annual effective dose due to inhalation for adults (smokers) for {sup 226}Ra varied from 42.5 to 178.6 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} (average 79.7 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}), while for {sup 228}Ra from 19.3 to 116.0 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} (average 67.1 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}) and for {sup 210}Pb from 47.0 to 134.9 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} (average 104.7 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}), that is the same order of magnitude for each radionuclide. The sum of the effective dose of the three natural radionuclides varied from 151.9 to 401.3 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} (average 251.5 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}). The annual effective dose from {sup 137}Cs of Chernobyl origin was three orders of magnitude lower as it varied from 70.4 to 410.4 nSv y{sup -1} (average 199.3 nSv y{sup -1})

Papastefanou, C. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Atomic and Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece)

2008-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

156

INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT TREATMENT USING IONIZING RADIATION COMBINED TO TITANIUM DIOXIDE  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) with OH radicals are the most efficient to mineralize organic compounds, and there are various methods to generate OH radicals as the use of ozone, hydrogen peroxide and ultra-violet radiation and ionizing radiation. The irradiation of aqueous solutions with high-energy electrons results in the excitation and ionizing of the molecules and rapid (10{sup -14} - 10{sup -9} s) formation of reactive intermediates. These reactive species will react with organic compounds present in industrial effluent inducing their decomposition. Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) catalyzed photoreaction is used to remove a wide range of pollutants in air and water media, combined to UV/VIS light, FeO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, but as far as known there is no report on the combination with ionizing radiation. In some recent studies, the removal of organic pollutants in industrial effluent, such as Benzene, Toluene, and Xylene from petroleum production using ionizing radiation was investigated. It has been ob served that none of the methods can be used individually in wastewater treatment applications with good economics and high degree of energy efficiency. In the present work, the efficiency of ionizing radiation in presence of TiO{sub 2} to treat industrial effluent was evaluated. The main aim to combine these technologies is to improve the efficiency for very hard effluents and to reduce the processing cost for future implementation to large-scale design.

Duarte, C.L.; Oikawa, H.; Mori, M.N.; Sampa, M.H.O.

2004-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

157

Low dose diagnostic radiation exposure and cancer risk in Trp53+/- mice  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

diagnostic radiation exposure and cancer risk in Trp53+/- mice diagnostic radiation exposure and cancer risk in Trp53+/- mice K Taylor, N Phan, ME Cybulski, L Laframboise, DR Boreham Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton ON L8S 4K1 The cancer risk associated with exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation has traditionally been extrapolated from effects observed at high doses and high dose rates using a linear no threshold model. Based on this approach, it has been postulated that human exposure to medical imaging involving low doses of x-rays and gamma rays increase an individual's risk of developing cancer throughout their lifetime. Conversely, there is evidence that low doses of gamma radiation increase the latency period of cancer depending upon genotype, cancer type, and the magnitude of

158

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Impact of Genetic Factors on the  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Genetic Factors on the Heritable Effects of Paternal Exposure to Genetic Factors on the Heritable Effects of Paternal Exposure to Low-Dose Radiation Janet E. Baulch University of California, Davis Why This Project? There is concern about the possible genetic effects of low dose radiation exposure. As a result, much effort has gone towards understanding mutation of cells due to radiation exposure. While recognition of the potential for mutation from exposure to ionizing radiation has led to extensive research, less effort has been given to the possible delayed risk of radiation exposure transmitted to the offspring of the exposed parent. Data from animal models show that parental exposures to DNA-damaging agents, such as ionizing radiation, predispose the offspring to serious health effects, including cancer offspring. Additionally, data from both humans and animal

159

76Radiation Dose and Dose Rate Radiation is measured in two  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Seiverts per year. Hasty reports about the devastating Japan 2011 nuclear power plant radiation leakages have by Concorde, what are the total radiation doses for a passenger in each case? Problem 3 - The Japan 2011 earthquake damaged several nuclear reactors, causing radiation leakage across northern Japan. On March 22

160

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Assessing Biological Function of DNA  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Assessing Biological Function of DNA Damage Response Genes Assessing Biological Function of DNA Damage Response Genes Larry H. Thompson Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Why This Project To understand the relative importance of individual DNA repair and DNA-damage response pathways to the recovery of mammalian cells after exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation (IR). This understanding may lead to better ways of setting limits on human exposure to IR. In spite of the discovery of many mammalian DNA repair genes, our current knowledge of how many of these genes contribute to cellular recovery from IR exposure is quite limited. Project Goals Measure cellular responses at doses in the 5-100 cGy range, which generally cause changes too small to detect in normal, repair-proficient cells Focus on DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and DNA oxidative base

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose ionizing radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Low-Dose Radiation Cataract and Genetic Determinants of Radiosensitivity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cataract and Genetic Determinants of Radiosensitivity Cataract and Genetic Determinants of Radiosensitivity Kleiman, N.J. 1 , Smilenov, L.B. 2 , Brenner, D.J. 2 and Hall, E.J. 2 1 Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Mailman School of Public Health & 2 The Center for Radiological Research, College of Physicians & Surgeons, Columbia University, New York 10032 The lens of the eye is one of the most radiosensitive tissues in the body. Ocular ionizing radiation exposure results in characteristic, dose related, progressive lens changes leading to cataract formation. While initial, early stages of such opacification may not cause visual disability, the severity of such changes progressively increases with dose until vision is impaired and cataract extraction surgery may be required. The

162

Apoptosis as a Mechanism for Low Dose Radiation-and Amifostine-Mediated  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Apoptosis as a Mechanism for Low Dose Radiation- and Amifostine-Mediated Apoptosis as a Mechanism for Low Dose Radiation- and Amifostine-Mediated Chromosomal Inversion Responses Pam Sykes Flinders University and Medical Centre Abstract Low dose radiation and the chemical radioprotector amifostine have both been shown to protect cells from the immediate and delayed effects of radiation exposure. They display a number of distinct similarities including their ability to protect cells against radiation-induced DNA damage, radiation-induced cell death and metastases formation. Amifostine, which protects cells from the toxic effects of ionizing radiation, has a broad range of activities including free radical scavenging, polyamine-like DNA binding, and induction of hypoxia and redox-regulated genes. Amifostine’s ability to protect cells is often

163

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Cooperation Between Homologous  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cooperation Between Homologous Recombination and the Fanconi Anemia Cooperation Between Homologous Recombination and the Fanconi Anemia Cancer Suppressor Proteins in Minimizing Spontaneous and Radiation-Induced Chromosomal Instability Authors: Larry H. Thompson, John M. Hinz, Robert S. Tebbs, and N. Alice Yamada Institutions: Biosciences Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California Purpose and experimental approach. This study addresses the genetic basis of spontaneous mutagenesis as a means of understanding the DNA damage-response pathways that maintain chromosome stability. It is our view that knowledge of these processes is fundamental to understanding how low dose ionizing radiation (IR) produces chromosomal rearrangements that lead to carcinogenesis. Endogenous oxidative DNA damage is presumed to be a

164

Biological equivalent dose studies for dose escalation in the stereotactic synchrotron radiation therapy clinical trials  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility ESRF . To estimate the possible risks, the doses receivedBiological equivalent dose studies for dose escalation in the stereotactic synchrotron radiation technique a radiation dose enhancement specific to the tumor is obtained. The tumor is loaded with a high

Boyer, Edmond

165

Ionic Liquids and Ionizing Radiation: Reactivity of Highly Energetic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ionizing Radiation: Reactivity of Highly Energetic Ionizing Radiation: Reactivity of Highly Energetic Species James F. Wishart J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1, 3225-3231 (2010). [Find paper at ACS Publications] or use ACS Articles on Request View the video on this Perspective article at The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters (5:03) Selected for the ACS Special Virtual Issue on Ionic Liquids (March 2011). Abstract: Due to their unique properties, ionic liquids present many opportunities for basic research on the interactions of radiation with materials under conditions not previously available. At the same time, there are practical applied reasons for characterizing, understanding, and being able to predict how ionic-liquid-based devices and industrial-scale systems will perform under conditions of extreme reactivity, including radiation. This

166

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: DOE Lowdose Radiation Program Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Using a Low LET Electron Microbeam to Investigate Non-Targeted Using a Low LET Electron Microbeam to Investigate Non-Targeted Effects of Low Dose Radiation. Authors: William F. Morgan1 and Marianne B. Sowa2 Institutions: 1Radiation Oncology Research Laboratory, University of Maryland, Baltimore MD 21201 2 Chemical Structure and Dynamics, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 We have recently installed a low LET electron microbeam that generates energetic electrons to mimic radiation damage from gamma and x-ray sources. It has been designed such that high-energy electrons deposit energy in a pre-selected subset of cells leaving neighboring cells unirradiated (Figure 1). In this way it is possible to examine non-targeted effects associated with low dose radiation exposure including induced genomic instability and

167

production under ionizing radiation in aluminoborosilicate glasses by EPR spectroscopy.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Ti3+ production under ionizing radiation in aluminoborosilicate glasses by EPR spectroscopy. P irradiation of Ti4+ ions in aluminoborosilicate glasses have been studied by EPR spectroscopy at 20 K of the Ti3+ ion EPR spectra has shown three different Ti3+ environment attributed to one [VI] Ti3+ and two

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

168

Preservation of food by ionizing radiation  

SciTech Connect

This study is presented in three volumes. Vol. I: Presents a concise description of the philosophy of radiation, protection for people working with irradiation processes, including problems associated with the design and operation of a large facility and solutions to problems encountered. Radiation dosimetry and radiolytic effects in foods are also presented. Vol. II: Effects of radiation on bacteria and viruses are discussed as well as the lethal effect on microorganisms and insects. Also presented are the effects of irradiated food on packaging materials. Vol. III: The effects of radurization on meats, poultry, fish, shellfish, fruits, vegetables, and spices. Also included are the effects of irradiation for the use of shelf-life extension.

Josephson, E.S.; Peterson, M.S.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Extended range radiation dose-rate monitor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An extended range dose-rate monitor is provided which utilizes the pulse pileup phenomenon that occurs in conventional counting systems to alter the dynamic response of the system to extend the dose-rate counting range. The current pulses from a solid-state detector generated by radiation events are amplified and shaped prior to applying the pulses to the input of a comparator. The comparator generates one logic pulse for each input pulse which exceeds the comparator reference threshold. These pulses are integrated and applied to a meter calibrated to indicate the measured dose-rate in response to the integrator output. A portion of the output signal from the integrator is fed back to vary the comparator reference threshold in proportion to the output count rate to extend the sensitive dynamic detection range by delaying the asymptotic approach of the integrator output toward full scale as measured by the meter.

Valentine, Kenneth H. (Knoxville, TN)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Effects of Low Doses of Radiation on  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low Doses of Radiation on DNA Repair Low Doses of Radiation on DNA Repair Eric Ackerman Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Why this Project? Even low doses (0.1 Gy) exert measurable effects on DNA repair. The first-known oxidative lesion repaired only by nucleotide excision repair found in normal cells is cyclo-dA. This lesion is found in normal cells and thought to be a byproduct of oxidative metabolism. When this lesion occurs, it stimulates repair. If repair is stimulated by low dose radiation, there are some implications for human health. For example, do some individuals exhibit a greater, lower, or no stimulation to certain DNA lesions? If there are population polymorphism that influence DNA repair, then it would be possible to use our assay for screening individuals for repair sensitivity.

171

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Effects of Low Doses of Radiation on  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Abstract Abstract Title: Effects of Low Doses of Radiation on DNA Repair (PNNL Project # 42699) Authors: Eric J. Ackerman, Ph.D. Institutions: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, WA We developed a functional assay to measure the effects of LDR on repair of many different lesions representative of those found in cells as consequences of normal oxidative metabolism, as well as those caused by radiation. Currently only 1/10th attomole =105 damaged molecules/cell and 3000 cells/measurement are required. We have found that even low doses (10 rad) exert measurable effects on DNA repair. Interestingly, the amount of DNA repair increases at 10-50 rads, plateaus, and then increases even further at higher doses well below doses where radiation-induced lethality

172

Ionizing radiation effects on silicon test structures  

SciTech Connect

The effects of {sup 60}Co gamma irradiation on MOSCAPS and special junction diode detectors have been studied. The capacitors were used to ellicit the charge accumulation and anneal in two types of thermally grown oxides representative of those used in routine detector processing. Ion implanted, oxide passivated junction detectors having 0.25 and 1 cm{sup 2} areas and perimeter to area ratios of 1 (a square), 2 and 5 were designed and constructed to amplify the ionizing effects expected to largely affect junction edges through changes in fixed oxide charges. Detectors were exposed to over 4 Mrad and showed clear increases in leakage current in proportion to the junction edge length. Annealing schedules were determined to provide a continuous response to incremental irradiations and subsequent room temperature anneals of leakage current. Besides an increase in gate threshold, little effect on the C(V) response was found. PISCES simulation of the edge fields using different fixed oxide charge revealed regions of very high lateral fields near the junction edges for fixed charges in the 2 {times} 10{sup 12}/cm{sup 2} range expected from the capacitor studies which could be responsible for the observed leakage currents.

Kraner, H.W.; Beuttenmuller, R.; Chen, W.; Kierstead, J.A.; Li, Z.; Zhang, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Dou, L. [Wayne State Univ., Detroit, MI (United States); Fretwurst, E.; Lindstroem, G. [Univ. of Hamburg (Germany)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Wide Expression of LLIR and the  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Wide Expression of LLIR and the Biological Consequences Wide Expression of LLIR and the Biological Consequences David J. Chen Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Why This Project It is known that changes in gene expression alter biological effects. It is necessary to identify the specific genes that demonstrate altered expression after exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation and to determine pathways involved in DNA damage recognition, signaling, and repair that are associated with radiation-induced adaptive and bystander effects. Project Goals Identification of genes whose transcription is regulated in response to low levels of ionizing radiation Identification of the genes and communication pathways that control these responses to low dose radiation Identification of the cellular and molecular targets that influence

174

Physiological Responses of the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Pyrococcus abyssi to DNA Damage Caused by Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Damage Caused by Ionizing Radiation Edmond Jolivet 1 Corresponding...Fukuoka 812-8581, Japan The mechanisms by which...temperature and/or ionizing radiation. The hyperthermophilic...Matsunaga thanks the Japan Society for the Promotion...resistant to ionizing radiation? Trends Microbiol...

Edmond Jolivet; Fujihiko Matsunaga; Yoshizumi Ishino; Patrick Forterre; Daniel Prieur; Hannu Myllykallio

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

MACHINE LEARNING FOR IDENTIFICATION OF SOURCES OF IONIZING RADIATION DURING SPACE MISSIONS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

MACHINE LEARNING FOR IDENTIFICATION OF SOURCES OF IONIZING RADIATION DURING SPACE MISSIONS Ricardo for the automated identification and classification of tracks of ionizing radiation during space missions. The tracks of ionizing radiation are mea- sured by the hybrid semiconductor Medipix2 pixel de- tector system

Vilalta, Ricardo

176

Interactive visual intervention planning in particle accelerator environments with ionizing radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiation is omnipresent. It has many interesting applications: in medicine, where it allows curing and diagnosing patients; in communication, where modern communication systems make use of electromagnetic radiation; and in science, where it is used to discover the structure of materials; to name a few. Physically, radiation is a process in which particles or waves travel through any kind of material, usually air. Radiation can be very energetic, in which case it can break the atoms of ordinary matter (ionization). If this is the case, radiation is called ionizing. It is known that ionizing radiation can be far more harmful to living beings than non-ionizing radiation. In this dissertation, we are concerned with ionizing radiation. Naturally occurring ionizing radiation in the form of radioactivity is a most natural phenomenon. Almost everything is radioactive: there is radiation emerging from the soil, it is in the air, and the whole planet is constantly undergoing streams of energetic cosmic radiation. Sinc...

Fabry, Thomas

177

Reduction of radiation dose to radiosensitive organs and its tradeoff with image quality in Computed Tomography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Trimester Fetal Radiation Dose Estimation in 16-MDCT Withoutsimulations for radiation dose estimations discussed in thisspecific radiation dose and cancer risk estimation in CT:

Zhang, Di

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Using a Low LET Electron Microbeam to  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

a Low LET Electron Microbeam to Investigate Non-Targeted Effects of a Low LET Electron Microbeam to Investigate Non-Targeted Effects of Low Dose Radiation William F. Morgan Radiation Oncology Research Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Why this Project? To examine genomic instability and bystander effects as non-targeted effects associated with low dose radiation exposure. Project Goals To provides a robust, reliable, highly sensitive assay for detecting delayed events occurring in cells exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation. Experimental Approach To mimic radiation damage from gamma and x-ray sources, a low-LET electron microbeam that generates energetic electrons has been designed such that high-energy electrons deposit energy in a pre-selected subset of cells leaving neighboring cells unirradiated. Using a novel green fluorescence gene (GFP) reporter assay, a high through

179

We can do better than effective dose for estimating or comparing low-dose radiation risks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We can do better than effective dose for estimating or comparing low-dose radiation risks D of exposure to different radiation fields. More commonly these days, it is used to estimate or compare radi. Keywords: Low dose risk estimation; Effective dose; Flawed definition; Effective risk 1. INTRODUCTION

Brenner, David Jonathan

180

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Original Research Program Plan  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Original Research Program Plan Original Research Program Plan Biological Effects of Low Dose and Dose Rate Radiation Prepared for the Office of Biological and Environmental Research by The Low Dose Radiation Research Program Plan Subcommittee of the Biological and Environmental Research Advisory Committee. II. Table of Contents Face Page Table of Contents Executive Summary Introduction Program Outline Low Dose Radiation vs. Endogenous Oxidative Damage - The Same or Different? Key Question Description Decision Making Value Recommendations and Costs Understanding Biological Responses to Radiation And Endogenous Damage Key Question Description Decision Making Value Recommendations and Costs Thresholds for Low Dose Radiation - Fact or Fiction? Key Question Description Decision Making Value Recommendations and Costs

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose ionizing radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Evaluation and Control of Radiation Dose to the Embryo/Fetus Guide for Use with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This Guide provides an acceptable methodology for establishing and operating a program to control fetal exposure to ionizing radiation and evaluate the resultant dose that will comply with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) requirements specified in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection (DOE 1998), hereinafter referred to as 10 CFR 835.

1999-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

182

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: William F. Morgan  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

William F. Morgan William F. Morgan Pacific Northwest National Laboratory PO Box 999 Richland, Washington About this Project Projects Using a Low LET Electron Microbeam to Investigate Non-Targeted Effects of Low Dose Radiation. Optimizing the Scientific, Regulatory, and Societal Impact of the DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Program A Mechanistic Study of the Radiation Quality Dependence of Bystander Effects in Human Cells. Genetic Factors Affecting Susceptibility to Low-Dose Radiation Mechanisms of Adaptive Responses and Genomic Instability Induced by Low Dose/ Low Dose Rate Radiation Technical Abstracts 2006 Workshop: Using a Low-LET Electron Microbeam to Investigate Non-Targeted Effects of Low Dose Radiation Sowa, M.B., Goetz, W., Baulch, J., and Morgan, W.F. Genetic Factors Affecting Susceptibility to Low-Dose Radiation

183

RADIATION EXPOSURE DURING PAEDIATRIC CT IN SUDAN: CT DOSE, ORGAN AND EFFECTIVE DOSES  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......research-article Paper RADIATION EXPOSURE DURING PAEDIATRIC...Energy Commission, Radiation Safety Institute, PO Box 3001...assess the magnitude of radiation exposure during paediatric...CT-Expo 2.1 dosimetry software. Doses were evaluated......

I. I. Suliman; H. M. Khamis; T. H. Ombada; K. Alzimami; M. Alkhorayef; A. Sulieman

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Effects of low-dose radiation on immune cell function using genetic and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

low-dose radiation on immune cell function using genetic and low-dose radiation on immune cell function using genetic and metabolomics approaches Henghong Li Georgetown University Abstract The objectives of this study are to investigate acute and persistent effects of ionizing radiation and space radiation on immune cell subsets and function. The role(s) for p38 MAP kinase in such radiation responses is being investigated using a genetic approach where an engineered mouse line has had one wt p38α gene replaced with a dominantnegative mutant (p38α+/DN). T cells are one of the most radiosensitive cell types in vivo, and radiation is known to impact CD4 T cell function long term. T cells are normally activated by antigen, which triggers differentiation to specific subsets involving various cytokines. In addition, T cells have a

185

Effects of ionizing radiation on modern ion exchange materials  

SciTech Connect

We review published studies of the effects of ionizing radiation on ion exchange materials, emphasizing those published in recent years. A brief overview is followed by a more detailed examination of recent developments. Our review includes styrene/divinylbenzene copolymers with cation-exchange or anion-exchange functional groups, polyvinylpyridine anion exchangers, chelating resins, multifunctional resins, and inorganic exchangers. In general, strong-acid cation exchange resins are more resistant to radiation than are strong-base anion exchange resins, and polyvinylpyridine resins are more resistant than polystyrene resins. Cross-linkage, salt form, moisture content, and the surrounding medium all affect the radiation stability of a specific exchanger. Inorganic exchangers usually, but not always, exhibit high radiation resistance. Liquid ion exchangers, which have been used so extensively in nuclear processing applications, also are included.

Marsh, S.F.; Pillay, K.K.S.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff - 2003  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DOE Low Dose Radiation Program Workshop IV DOE Low Dose Radiation Program Workshop IV Abstract Title: TGF-β Protects Human Mammary Epithelial Cells from Radiation-Induced Centrosome Amplification Authors: Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff, Bahram Parvin, Anna C. Erickson and Rishi Gupta Institutions: Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Life Sciences Division, Ernest Orlando Lawrence, Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California In recent studies we have shown that ionizing radiation (IR), a known carcinogen of human and murine mammary gland, compromises human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) polarity and multicellular organization in a manner characteristic of neoplastic progression through a heritable, non-mutational mechanism (1). Thus, when all cells are irradiated with a significant dose (2 Gy), the daughters of irradiated cells lose their

187

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Research Program Workshop I Abstracts  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Genetic Factors Affecting Susceptibility to Low-Dose Radiation Genetic Factors Affecting Susceptibility to Low-Dose Radiation William F. Morgan and John H.J. Petrini Radiation Oncology Research Laboratory, University of Maryland at Baltimore, Baltimore, MD Summary: The goal of our application is to improve the scientific basis for understanding potential risks to the population from low dose radiation exposure based on potential genetic differences that may modulate an individual's sensitivity to low doses of radiation. Abstract: The goal of this application is to improve the scientific basis for understanding potential risks to the population from low dose radiation exposure. We propose to address specific genetic factors that affect individual susceptibility to low dose radiation and ask the question do genetic differences exist that make some individuals more sensitive to

188

Cumulative exposure to medical sources of ionizing radiation in the first year after pediatric heart transplantation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Background Pediatric heart transplant recipients undergo a variety of radiologic tests with the attendant risk of exposure to ionizing radiation. We sought to quantify and describe the cumulative exposure to all forms of medical radiation during the first year after pediatric heart transplantation and identify factors associated with higher exposure. Methods Pediatric patients who received a heart transplant between January 2009 and May 2012 with follow-up at our institution were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were included if they survived through 1 year and the first coronary angiography. All medical testing using ionizing radiation performed during follow-up was compiled, and exposures were converted to effective dose (mSv). Results Included were 31 patients who underwent heart transplantation at a median age of 13.6 years (range, 0.318.3 years). The median number of radiologic tests performed was 38 (range, 18154), including 8 catheterizations (range, 212), and 28 X-ray images (range, 11135). Median cumulative effective dose was 53.5 mSv (range, 10.6153.5 mSv), of which 91% (range, 34%98%) derived from catheterizations, 31% (range, 8%89%) of the exposure occurred during the transplant admission, 59% (range, 11%88%) during planned follow-up, and 3% (0%56%) during unplanned follow-up. Older age at transplant was a risk factor for increased exposure (p = 0.006). When adjusted for age, a trend toward increased exposure was shown for congenital heart disease as the indication for transplant (p = 0.08), pre-sensitization (p = 0.12), and positive crossmatch (p = 0.09). Conclusions Pediatric heart transplant patients are exposed to significant amounts of ionizing radiation during the first post-transplant year, most during scheduled catheterization. As survival improves, considering the long-term risks associated with these levels of exposure is important.

Alicia McDonnell; Tacy E. Downing; Xiaowei Zhu; Rachel Ryan; Joseph W. Rossano; Andrew C. Glatz

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

PP2A regulates ionizing radiationinduced apoptosis through Ser46 phosphorylation of p53  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Articles PP2A regulates ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis through Ser46...virginia.edu 1 Department of Radiation Oncology and 2 Center for Cell...and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan). Radiation Treatment Cell cultures were irradiated...

Jun Mi; Elzbieta Bolesta; David L. Brautigan; and James M. Larner

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Calicivirus Inactivation by Nonionizing (253.7-Nanometer-Wavelength [UV]) and Ionizing (Gamma) Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...7-nm-wavelength [UV]) radiation, inactivation by ionizing (gamma) radiation was studied as a process...constituents on inactivation by radiation. MATERIALS AND METHODS Viruses...Shoji Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) was propagated in MDCK...

Ana Maria de Roda Husman; Paul Bijkerk; Willemijn Lodder; Harold van den Berg; Walter Pribil; Alexander Cabaj; Peter Gehringer; Regina Sommer; Erwin Duizer

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Global methylation responses to low dose radiation exposure  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

methylation responses to low dose radiation exposure methylation responses to low dose radiation exposure Pamela J Sykes, Michelle R Newman, Benjamin J Blyth and Rebecca J Ormsby Haematology and Genetic Pathology, Flinders University and Medical Centre, Flinders Centre for Cancer Prevention and Control, Bedford Park, Adelaide, South Australia 5042 Australia. (pam.sykes@flinders.edu.au). Our goal is to study the mechanisms involved in biological responses to low doses of radiation in vivo in the dose range that is relevant to population and occupational exposures. At high radiation doses, DNA double-strand breaks are considered the critical lesion underlying the initiation of radiation-induced carcinogenesis. However, at the very low radiation doses relevant for the general public, the induction of DNA double-strand breaks

192

Optical remote diagnostics of atmospheric propagating beams of ionizing radiation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Data is obtained for use in diagnosing the characteristics of a beam of ionizing radiation, such as charged particle beams, neutral particle beams, and gamma ray beams. In one embodiment the beam is emitted through the atmosphere and produces nitrogen fluorescence during passage through air. The nitrogen fluorescence is detected along the beam path to provide an intensity from which various beam characteristics can be calculated from known tabulations. Optical detecting equipment is preferably located orthogonal to the beam path at a distance effective to include the entire beam path in the equipment field of view.

Karl, Jr., Robert R. (Los Alamos, NM)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Densely Ionizing Radiation Acts via the Microenvironment to Promote Aggressive Trp53-Null Mammary Carcinomas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Radiation Acts via the Microenvironment to Promote Aggressive Trp53-Null Mammary...changes from radiation contribute strongly to carcinogenic potential. Densely ionizing...radiation chimera in which mice were exposed to densely ionizing 350 MeV/amu Si-particles...

Irineu Illa-Bochaca; Haoxu Ouyang; Jonathan Tang; Christopher Sebastiano; Jian-Hua Mao; Sylvain V. Costes; Sandra Demaria; Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

ATM Requirement in Gene Expression Responses to Ionizing Radiation in Human Lymphoblasts and Fibroblasts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...St. Charles, MO) software program. A two-dimensional...analysis was done using software and methods as described...ATM kinase by ionizing radiation and phosphorylation...toxicology, and drug safety evaluation. Cancer...exposure to ionizing radiation. Radiat Res 2000...

Cynthia L. Innes; Alexandra N. Heinloth; Kristina G. Flores; Stella O. Sieber; Paula B. Deming; Pierre R. Bushel; William K. Kaufmann; and Richard S. Paules

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

The Mechanism of Low Dose Radiation Risk Associated with Diagnostic X-rays,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mechanism of Low Dose Radiation Risk Associated with Diagnostic X-rays, Mechanism of Low Dose Radiation Risk Associated with Diagnostic X-rays, PET, and Gamma-rays Douglas Boreham McMaster University Abstract The goal of this project was to investigate low dose ionizing radiation effects associated with exposure to diagnostic computed tomography (CT) or positron emission tomography (PET) scans. Biological effects were evaluated in wild type and Trp53+/- heterozygous females, following in vivo exposure to diagnostic CT (75kVp, 200µ) or PET (18F-FDG) scans. The short term biological effects following CT or PET scans were evaluated in order to understand biological modification of mechanisms, such as DNA repair processes and apoptosis, that might alter long term cancer risk. Corresponding life-time cancer risk studies are in progress. Short-term

196

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: The Role of the Number and Spacing of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Program Workshop I Program Workshop I November 10-12, 1999, Washington, D.C. The Role of the Number and Spacing of Electron Tracks on the Consequences of Low Dose Irradiation Leslie A. Braby and J. R. Ford Nuclear Engineering, Texas A&M University, 129 Zachry, College Station, Texas. Summary: Biological mechanisms, which may influence the health risks resulting from very low dose radiation exposures, will be investigated using a collimated beam of electrons to simulate the irradiation patterns occurring with low dose exposures. Abstract: Ionizing radiation produces a variety of free radicals and chemical products that react to produce the same types of oxidative damage in a mammalian cell as produced by the normal metabolic activity of the cell. However, the damage produced by radiation is distributed differently

197

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Linking Molecular Events to Cellular  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Linking Molecular Events to Cellular Responses at Low Dose Exposures Linking Molecular Events to Cellular Responses at Low Dose Exposures Thomas Weber Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Why This Project It currently costs billions of dollars to protect workers and the public from exposure to man-made radiation, despite exposure levels lower than the natural background levels of radiation. If it could be demonstrated that there is no increased cancer risk associated with these low dose exposures, these resources could be directed toward more critical societal issues. Defining low dose radiation cancer risks is limited by our ability to measure and directly correlate relevant cellular and molecular responses occurring at the low radiation dose and dose rate with tumor formation. This deficiency has led to conservative risk assessments based on low dose

198

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Role of TNF-α as a Potential  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Role of TNF-α as a Potential Signaling Mediator of Role of TNF-α as a Potential Signaling Mediator of Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect in Human Vascular Cells. Authors: Mohan Natarajan, Sumathy Mohan, Catherine Gibbons, Yan Bo and Munira A. Kadhim Institutions: Departments of Radiation Oncology and Pathology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas; Environmental Toxicology Graduate Program, University of California, Riverside; Radiation and Genomic Stability Unit, Medical research Council, Oxford, United Kingdom Identifying reliable and sensitive signaling pathways that are implicated in adverse health effects after exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation would allow us to understand the scientific basis of low dose-induced signaling pathways and their downstream phenotypic expression. This

199

Bikini Atoll ionizing radiation survey, May 1985-May 1986  

SciTech Connect

Between 1946 and 1958, the United States conducted 23 nuclear tests at the Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands, which resulted in extensive radioactive contamination of a number of islands in the atoll and prevented the timely resettlement of the native population. Although the external dose rates from beta and gamma radiation have been previously determined by aerial survey and a variety of ground measurement techniques, technical constraints limited the assessment of external beta dose rates that result from the /sup 137/Cs and /sup 90/Sr//sup 90/Y contamination on the islands. Now, because of the recent development of very thin thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), the external beta dose rates can be measured. 18 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

Shingleton, K.L.; Cate, J.L.; Trent, M.G.; Robison, W.L.

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Regulation of NF-kB and MnSOD in Low  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NF-kB and MnSOD in Low Dose Radiation-Induced Adaptive NF-kB and MnSOD in Low Dose Radiation-Induced Adaptive Responses in Mouse and Human Skin Cells Jian Jian Li School of Health Sciences, Purdue University West Lafayette, Indiana Why this Project? To determine if low dose ionizing radiation-induced adaptive responses in skin cells are mediated by activation of signaling networks. Project Goals To evaluate the signaling networks involving transcription factor NF-kB and the mitochondrial antioxidant protein MnSOD. To determine if NF-kB is activated by low dose radiation in vivo. To determine if NF-kB activation is critical in the pathways that produce adaptive responses. Experimental Approach Cells transfected with NF-kB luciferase responder genes will be used to define a dose-response relationship for activation of the NF-kB gene. NF-kB

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose ionizing radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Radiation dose rates from UF{sub 6} cylinders  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the results of many studies, both theoretical and experimental, which have been carried out by Urenco over the last 15 years into radiation dose rates from uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) cylinders. The contents of the cylinder, its history, and the geometry all affect the radiation dose rate. These factors are all examined in detail. Actual and predicted dose rates are compared with levels permitted by IAEA transport regulations.

Friend, P.J. [Urenco, Capenhurst (United Kingdom)

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

202

E-Print Network 3.0 - astrophysical ionizing radiation Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Perturbations and level splittings 8-3 Ionization and the Saha equation 2. Textbook Radiative processes... the following chapters: Chapter 1 Basic concepts 1-1 Radiative flux and...

203

The effect of different adaptation strengths on image quality and radiation dose using Siemens Care Dose 4D  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......undertaking strategies for CT radiation dose optimisation...supported by the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSI P 1579...4D new technique for radiation dose reduction. SOMATOM...Application Guide. Software Version syngo CT 2005A......

Marcus Sderberg; Mikael Gunnarsson

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Molecular Mechanisms of Low Dose Radiation Mediated Hormesis in C. elegans  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mechanisms of Low Dose Radiation Mediated Hormesis in C. Mechanisms of Low Dose Radiation Mediated Hormesis in C. elegans Anders Olsen, Maithili C. Vantipalli, Arnold Kahn, Judith Campisi and Gordon J. Lithgow. Buck Institute for Age Research, 8001 Redwood Boulevard, Novato CA 94945 Brief exposure to a mild stress causes induction of stress gene expression leading to enhanced stress responses, improved maintenance and repair and in some cases lifespan increase. This phenomenon is termed hormesis and has been observed in several species. For example, we previously demonstrated that short periods of mild heat stress in early life increase both mean and maximum lifespan of the soil nematode C. elegans. Similar hormetic responses have been described for many other stressors. Here we present data showing that treatment of the nematode with low-doses of ionizing

205

74Exploring Nuclear Decay and Radiation Dose The devastating earthquake  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

74Exploring Nuclear Decay and Radiation Dose The devastating earthquake that struck northern Japan vent radioactive gas and dust clouds into the environment. Although the initial radiation levels were extremely high, the natural decay of the radioactive compounds will cause the radiation levels at any given

206

Mesenchymal Stem Cells Retain Their Defining Stem Cell Characteristics After Exposure to Ionizing Radiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the ability to migrate to lesion sites and undergo differentiation into functional tissues. Although this function may be important for tissue regeneration after radiation therapy, the influence of ionizing radiation (IR) on cellular survival and the functional aspects of differentiation and stem cell characteristics of MSCs have remained largely unknown. Methods and Materials: Radiation sensitivity of human primary MSCs from healthy volunteers and primary human fibroblast cells was examined, and cellular morphology, cell cycle effects, apoptosis, and differentiation potential after exposure to IR were assessed. Stem cell gene expression patterns after exposure to IR were studied using gene arrays. Results: MSCs were not more radiosensitive than human primary fibroblasts, whereas there were considerable differences regarding radiation sensitivity within individual MSCs. Cellular morphology, cytoskeletal architecture, and cell motility were not markedly altered by IR. Even after high radiation doses up to 10 Gy, MSCs maintained their differentiation potential. Compared to primary fibroblast cells, MSCs did not show an increase in irradiation-induced apoptosis. Gene expression analyses revealed an upregulation of various genes involved in DNA damage response and DNA repair, but expression of established MSC surface markers appeared only marginally influenced by IR. Conclusions: These data suggest that human MSCs are not more radiosensitive than differentiated primary fibroblasts. In addition, upon photon irradiation, MSCs were able to retain their defining stem cell characteristics both on a functional level and regarding stem cell marker expression.

Nicolay, Nils H., E-mail: n.nicolay@dkfz.de [Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Molecular and Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Sommer, Eva; Lopez, Ramon; Wirkner, Ute [Department of Molecular and Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Trinh, Thuy [Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Molecular and Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Sisombath, Sonevisay [Department of Molecular and Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Debus, Jrgen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany); Ho, Anthony D.; Saffrich, Rainer [Department of Hematology and Oncology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany); Huber, Peter E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg (Germany); Department of Molecular and Radiation Oncology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany)

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Mechanisms of Tissue Response to Low  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tissue Response to Low Dose Radiation Tissue Response to Low Dose Radiation Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Why This Project? In the past, the effects of ionizing radiation on humans has been attributed in great part to its ability to damage DNA, which transmits information from cell to cell, and generation to generation. Damaged DNA can lead to cell death or perpetuate the damage to daughter cells and to future generations. In addition to the information contained with the genome (i.e., DNA sequence), information directing cell behavior and tissue function is also stored outside the DNA. The success in cloning sheep from the DNA contained in the nucleus of an adult cell shows how important signals from the outside are in defining how the genome is expressed. This

208

Molecular Mechanism Underlying Cellular Adaptive Response to Low Dose Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mechanism Underlying Cellular Adaptive Response to Low Dose Radiation Mechanism Underlying Cellular Adaptive Response to Low Dose Radiation Colette A. Sacksteder § , DJ Black ‡ , Heather Smallwood § , David G. Camp II † , and Thomas C. Squier § § Cell Biology and Biochemistry; † Biological Sciences Division Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA 99352 ‡ School of Biological Sciences, University of Missouri, Kansas City MO 64110 The goal of this research is to identify the molecular mechanisms by which cells adapt to low dose radiation exposure. Previously we have shown a radiation dependent increase of Calmodulin (CaM) in RAW 264.7 macrophages (RAW). Therefore we hypothesize that CaM and associated signaling complexes are sensors of low-dose radiation, resulting in alterations in energy metabolism and gene expression. The ultimate experimental goal

209

Release of Inorganic Phosphate from Irradiated Yeast: Radiation Biodosimetry and Evaluation of Radioprotective Compounds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...irradiated with ionizing radiation, inorganic...radiation dose and on the...somewhat limited range of the yeast...irradiated with ionizing radiation, inorganic...radiation dose and on the...somewhat limited range of the yeast...represent range ofvaluesfrom...but with dose plotted on...effect of ionizing radiation (27...

Hillel S. Levinson; Esther B. Garber

1967-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

UNSCEAR Report 2000: Sources and Effects of Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Since its inception in 1955 the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has periodically undertaken a broad review of the sources and the effects of ionising radiation. This latest report is in two concurrently published separate volumes. Volumes I and II provide updated reviews of sources and effects of ionising radiation respectively. A considerable amount of new material supports the review of sources. The review of biological effects takes on board various contemporary issues raised by the `linear-no-threshold' controversy. Particular emphasis has been given to the evaluation of exposures and health consequences of the Chernobyl accident. As usual the report has an extended summary (17 pages) backed up by a number of technical annexes (A-J). The annexes have a wealth of basic data, extensive tables and voluminous reference lists. The two volumes are available separately from the United Nations and cost 60 per volume. They are also available from the Stationery Office, but only as a two volume set. If you are interested only in `sources' then you should be aware that the source-related aspects of the Chernobyl accident are largely covered in volume II on effects. Annex A of volume I provides a description of the methodologies used for the assessment of doses from natural, man-made environmental, medical and occupational radiation exposures, which are presented in subsequent annexes B, C, D and E respectively. The components of natural radiation (cosmic rays, terrestrial gamma rays, inhalation and ingestion) have been evaluated and added to provide an estimate of the global average exposure. Since there are wide distributions of exposures from each source, the consequent effective doses combine in various ways at each location, depending on the specific concentration of radionuclides in the environment and in the body, the latitude and altitude of the location, and many other factors. The total annual global per caput effective dose due to natural radiation sources is 2.4 mSv. A typical range of individual doses is considered to be 1-10 mSv. In any large population about 65% would be expected to have annual effective doses between 1 and 3 mSv, about 25% of the population would have annual effective doses less than 1 mSv and 10% would have annual effective doses greater than 3 mSv. The main man-made contribution to the environmental exposure of the world's population has come from the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere that occurred mainly between 1945-1980. Since the previous UNSCEAR review of this topic in 1982 new information, previously classified, has become available on the numbers and yields of nuclear tests. An updated listing of atmospheric nuclear tests conducted at each of the test sites is included in this report. Although the total explosive yields of each test have been divulged, the fission and fusion yields are still mostly suppressed. Some general assumptions have been made to allow the evaluation of fission and fusion yields of each test in order to estimate the amounts of radionuclides produced in the explosions. The estimated total of fission yields of individual tests is in agreement with the global deposition of the main fission radionuclides 90Sr and 137Cs, as determined by worldwide monitoring networks. It has been calculated that the world average annual effective dose reached a peak of 150 ?Sv in 1963 and has since decreased to about 5 ?Sv in 2000, from residual radionuclides in the environment, mainly of 14C, 90Sr and 137Cs. The contribution to man-made exposures from the generation of electrical energy by nuclear power reactors has been estimated using a collective (100 year truncated) dose of 6 man-Sv per GW year. Assuming the present annual generation of 250 GW years continues, the truncated collective dose per year of practice is 1500 man-Sv to the world population, giving an estimated maximum per caput dose of less than 0.2 ?Sv per year. UNSCEAR has assessed the exposures from medical radiation procedures based on information obtaine

Monty Charles

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

E-Print Network 3.0 - assessing radiation dose Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of radiation; radiation measurement; and dose information. ATOMS... Assessments, DOETIC-11026. RADIATION Radiation, or radiant energy, is energy in the form of waves... )...

212

ORISE: Radiation Dose Estimates and Other Compendia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

downloaded free from the Adobe website. Early Internal and External Dose Magnitude Estimation (PDF) This article addresses methods that can be used to rapidly estimate internal...

213

Measurement of radiation dose in dental radiology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......product to effective dose and energy imparted to the patient. Phys...C. A. and Persliden, J. Energy imparted to the patient in diagnostic...factors for determining the energy imparted from measurements of...dental radiology. | Patient dose audit is an important tool for quality......

Ebba Helmrot; Gudrun Alm Carlsson

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Research Highlights - Health Physics  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Health Physics Special Issue Features Contributions by Low Dose Health Physics Special Issue Features Contributions by Low Dose Investigators Health Physics The March 2011 special issue of Health Physics highlights the Victor Bond Workshop held May 2-5, 2010, in Richland, Wash. The workshop honored the late Dr. Victor (Vic) Bond for his lifetime achievement in the radiation sciences. Dr. Bond's research resulted in numerous influential scientific papers that contributed greatly to the understanding of radiation effects in biological systems. The workshop attracted internationally recognized experts in biophysics, experimental radiation biology, epidemiology, and risk assessment to discuss issues of low-dose risk. Participants included current and previously funded U.S. Department of Energy Low Dose Radiation Research

215

Annual report shows potential INL radiation doses well below...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Annual report shows potential INL radiation doses well below safe regulatory limits July 21, 2010 Media contact: Tim Jackson (208) 526-8484 Idaho Falls, ID The U.S. Department...

216

Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - Agencies with Radiation Regulatory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Agencies with Radiation Regulatory Concerns and Involvement Agencies with Radiation Regulatory Concerns and Involvement Biological Effects of Low Level Exposures (BELLE) Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission Center for Risk Excellence Health Protection Agency The Health Risks of Extraterrestrial Environments International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, Inc. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) NASA Space Radiation Program National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) NASA OBRR Task Book Publication National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) National Toxicology Program (NTP) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

217

Cellular response to low dose radiation: Role of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase like kinases  

SciTech Connect

It is increasingly realized that human exposure either to an acute low dose or multiple chronic low doses of low LET radiation has the potential to cause different types of cancer. Therefore, the central theme of research for DOE and NASA is focused on understanding the molecular mechanisms and pathways responsible for the cellular response to low dose radiation which would not only improve the accuracy of estimating health risks but also help in the development of predictive assays for low dose radiation risks associated with tissue degeneration and cancer. The working hypothesis for this proposal is that the cellular mechanisms in terms of DNA damage signaling, repair and cell cycle checkpoint regulation are different for low and high doses of low LET radiation and that the mode of action of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase like kinases (PIKK: ATM, ATR and DNA-PK) determines the dose dependent cellular responses. The hypothesis will be tested at two levels: (I) Evaluation of the role of ATM, ATR and DNA-PK in cellular response to low and high doses of low LET radiation in simple in vitro human cell systems and (II) Determination of radiation responses in complex cell microenvironments such as human EpiDerm tissue constructs. Cellular responses to low and high doses of low LET radiation will be assessed from the view points of DNA damage signaling, DNA double strand break repair and cell cycle checkpoint regulation by analyzing the activities (i.e. post-translational modifications and kinetics of protein-protein interactions) of the key target proteins for PI-3 kinase like kinases both at the intra-cellular and molecular levels. The proteins chosen for this proposal are placed under three categories: (I) sensors/initiators include ATM ser1981, ATR, 53BP1, gamma-H2AX, MDC1, MRE11, Rad50 and Nbs1; (II) signal transducers include Chk1, Chk2, FANCD2 and SMC1; and (III) effectors include p53, CDC25A and CDC25C. The primary goal of this proposal is to elucidate the differences in cellular defense mechanisms between low and high doses of low LET radiation and to define the radiation doses where the cellular DNA damage signaling and repair mechanisms tend to shift. This information is critically important to address and advance some of the low dose research program objectives of DOE. The results of this proposed study will lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms for the cellular responses to low and high doses of low LET radiation. Further, systematic analysis of the role of PIKK signaling pathways as a function of radiation dose in tissue microenvironment will provide useful mechanistic information for improving the accuracy of radiation risk assessment for low doses. Knowledge of radiation responses in tissue microenvironment is important for the accurate prediction of ionizing radiation risks associated with cancer and tissue degeneration in humans.

Balajee, A.S.; Meador, J.A.; Su, Y.

2011-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

218

Assessment of the Technologies for Molecular Biodosimetry for Human Low-Dose Radiation Exposure Symposium  

SciTech Connect

Exposure to ionizing radiation produces few immediate outwardly-visible clinical signs, yet, depending on dose, can severely damage vital physiological functions within days to weeks and produce long-lasting health consequences among survivors. In the event of a radiological accident, the rapid evaluation of the individual absorbed dose is paramount to discriminate the worried but unharmed from those individuals who must receive medical attention. Physical, clinical and biological dosimetry are usually combined for the best dose assessment. However, because of the practical limits of physical and clinical dosimetry, many attempts have been made to develop a dosimetry system based on changes in biological parameters, including techniques for hematology, biochemistry, immunology, cytogenetics, etc. Lymphocyte counts and chromosome aberrations analyses are among the methods that have been routinely used for estimating radiation dose. However, these assays require several days to a week to be completed and therefore cannot be used to obtain a fast estimate of the dose during the first few days after exposure when the information would be most critical for identifying victims of radiation accidents who could benefit the most by medical intervention. The steadily increasing sophistication in our understanding of the early biochemical responses of irradiated cells and tissues provides the opportunity for developing mechanism-based biosignatures of exposure. Compelling breakthroughs have been made in the technologies for genome-scale analysis of cellular transcriptional and proteomic profiles. There have also been major strides in the mechanistic understanding of the early events in DNA damage and radiation damage products, as well as in the cellular pathways that lead to radiation injury. New research with genomic- and proteomic-wide tools is showing that within minutes to hours after exposure to ionizing radiation protein machines are modified and activated, and large-scale changes occur in the gene expression profile involving a broad variety of cell-process pathways after a wide range of both low (<10 cGy) and high dose (>10 cGy) exposures. Evaluation of these potential gene and protein biomarkers for early and late diagnostic information will be critical for determining the efficacy of the signatures to both low and high dose IR exposures. Also needed are approaches that enable rapid handling and processing for mass-casualty and population triage scenarios. Development of in vivo model system will be crucial for validating both the biological and the instrumentation for biodosimetry. Such studies will also help further understanding of the molecular mechanisms of the biological effects of radiation and the differences of responses due to individual genetic variation.

Matthew A. Coleman Ph.D.; Narayani Ramakrishnan, Ph.D.; Sally A. Amundson; James D. Tucker, Ph.D.; Stephen D. Dertinger, Ph.D.; Natalia I. Ossetrova, Ph.D.; Tao Chen

2009-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

219

Ionizing-Radiation Resistance in the Desiccation-Tolerant CyanobacteriumChroococcidiopsis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...differences between radiation-resistant and radiation-susceptible microorganisms...after exposure to high doses of X rays ranging...cultures used for radiation experiments were 3-month-old...Goleta, Calif.). Estimation of survival. To determine...

Daniela Billi; E. Imre Friedmann; Kurt G. Hofer; Maria Grilli Caiola; Roseli Ocampo-Friedmann

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Radiation dose modeling using IGRIP and Deneb/ERGO  

SciTech Connect

The Radiological Environment Modeling System (REMS) quantifies dose to humans in radiation environments using the IGRIP (Interactive Graphical Robot Instruction Program) and Deneb/ERGO (Ergonomics) simulation software products. These commercially available products are augmented with custom C code to provide the radiation exposure information to and collect the radiation dose information from the workcell simulations. The emphasis of this paper is on the IGRIP and Deneb/ERGO parts of REMS, since that represents the extension to existing capabilities developed by the authors. Through the use of any radiation transport code or measured data, a radiation exposure input database may be formulated. User-specified IGRIP simulations utilize these database files to compute and accumulate dose to human devices (Deneb`s ERGO human) during simulated operations around radiation sources. Timing, distances, shielding, and human activity may be modeled accurately in the simulations. The accumulated dose is recorded in output files, and the user is able to process and view this output. REMS was developed because the proposed reduction in the yearly radiation exposure limit will preclude or require changes in many of the manual operations currently being utilized in the Weapons Complex. This is particularly relevant in the area of dismantlement activities at the Pantex Plant in Amarillo, TX. Therefore, a capability was needed to be able to quantify the dose associated with certain manual processes so that the benefits of automation could be identified and understood.

Vickers, D.S.; Davis, K.R.; Breazeal, N.L.; Watson, R.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ford, M.S. [Battelle Pantex, Amarillo, TX (United States). Dept. of Radiation Safety

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose ionizing radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Mechanisms underlying cellular responses of cells from haemopoietic tissue to low dose/low LET radiation  

SciTech Connect

To accurately define the risks associated with human exposure to relevant environmental doses of low LET ionizing radiation, it is necessary to completely understand the biological effects at very low doses (i.e., less than 0.1 Gy), including the lowest possible dose, that of a single electron track traversal. At such low doses, a range of studies have shown responses in biological systems which are not related to the direct interaction of radiation tracks with DNA. The role of these non-targeted responses in critical tissues is poorly understood and little is known regarding the underlying mechanisms. Although critical for dosimetry and risk assessment, the role of individual genetic susceptibility in radiation risk is not satisfactorily defined at present. The aim of the proposed grant is to critically evaluate radiation-induced genomic instability and bystander responses in key stem cell populations from haemopoietic tissue. Using stem cells from two mouse strains (CBA/H and C57BL/6J) known to differ in their susceptibility to radiation effects, we plan to carefully dissect the role of genetic predisposition on two non-targeted radiation responses in these models; the bystander effect and genomic instability, which we believe are closely related. We will specifically focus on the effects of low doses of low LET radiation, down to doses approaching a single electron traversal. Using conventional X-ray and ?-ray sources, novel dish separation and targeted irradiation approaches, we will be able to assess the role of genetic variation under various bystander conditions at doses down to a few electron tracks. Irradiations will be carried out using facilities in routine operation for bystander targeted studies. Mechanistic studies of instability and the bystander response in different cell lineages will focus initially on the role of cytokines which have been shown to be involved in bystander signaling and the initiation of instability. These studies also aim to uncover protein mediators of the bystander responses using advanced proteomic screening of factors released from irradiated, bystander and unstable cells. Integral to these studies will be an assessment of the role of genetic susceptibility in these responses, using CBA/H and C57BL/6J mice. The relevance of in vivo interactions between stem cells and the stem cell niche will be explored in the future by re-implantation techniques of previously irradiated cells. The above studies will provide fundamental mechanistic information relating genetic predisposition to important low dose phenomena, and will aid in the development of Department of Energy policy, as well as radiation risk policy for the public and the workplace. We believe the proposed studies accurately reflect the goals of the DOE low dose program.

Munira A Kadhim

2010-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

222

Radiation Dose-Volume Effects in the Heart  

SciTech Connect

The literature is reviewed to identify the main clinical and dose-volume predictors for acute and late radiation-induced heart disease. A clear quantitative dose and/or volume dependence for most cardiac toxicity has not yet been shown, primarily because of the scarcity of the data. Several clinical factors, such as age, comorbidities and doxorubicin use, appear to increase the risk of injury. The existing dose-volume data is presented, as well as suggestions for future investigations to better define radiation-induced cardiac injury.

Gagliardi, Giovanna, E-mail: giovanna.gagliardi@karolinska.s [Department of Medical Physics, Karolinska University Hospital and Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Constine, Louis S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Cancer Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Moiseenko, Vitali [Vancouver Cancer Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Correa, Candace; Pierce, Lori J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Allen, Aaron M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana- Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Rabin Medical Center Petach Tikvah (Israel); Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Melvyn Folkard  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Melvyn Folkard Melvyn Folkard Gray Cancer Institute About this Project Currently Funded Projects A Variable Energy Soft X-ray Microprobe to Investigate Mechanisms of the Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect Technical Abstracts 2005 Workshop: A Variable-Energy Soft X-Ray Microprobe to Investiage Mechanisms of the Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect Folkard, M., Vojnovic, B., Schettiono, G., Atkinson, K., Prise, K.M., Michael, B.D. 2003 Workshop: A Variable-Energy Soft X-Ray Microprobe to Investigate Mechanisms of the Radiation -Induced Bystander Effect. Folkard, M., Vojnovic, B., Schettino, G., Atkinson, K., Prise, K.M., Michael, B.D. 2002 Workshop: A Variable-Energy Soft X-ray Microprobe to Investigate Mechanisms of the Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect. Folkard, M., Vojnovic, B., Schettino,

224

Radiation Dose Metrics in CT: Assessing Dose Using the National Quality Forum CT Patient Safety Measure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Purpose The National Quality Forum (NQF) is a nonprofit consensus organization that recently endorsed a measure focused on CT radiation doses. To comply, facilities must summarize the doses from consecutive scans within age and anatomic area strata and report the data in the medical record. Our purpose was to assess the time needed to assemble the data and to demonstrate how review of such data permits a facility to understand doses. Methods and Materials To assemble the data we used for analysis, we used the dose monitoring softwareeXposure to automatically export dose metrics from consecutive scans in 2010 and 2012. For a subset of 50exams, we also collected dose metrics manually, copying data directly from the PACS into an excel spreadsheet. Results Manual data collection for 50 scans required 2 hours and 15 minutes. eXposure compiled the data in under an hour. All dose metrics demonstrated a 30% to 50% reduction between 2010 and 2012. There was also a significant decline and a reduction in the variability of the doses over time. Conclusion The NQF measure facilitates an institution's capacity to assess the doses they are using for CT as part of routine practice. The necessary data can be collected within a reasonable amount of time either with automatic software or manually. The collection and review of these data will allow facilities to compare their radiation dose distributions with national distributions and allow assessment of temporal trends in the doses they are using.

Jillian Keegan; Diana L. Miglioretti; Robert Gould; Lane F. Donnelly; Nicole D. Wilson; Rebecca Smith-Bindman

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Detecting excess ionizing radiation by electromagnetic breakdown of air  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A scheme is proposed for detecting a concealed source of ionizing radiation by observing the occurrence of breakdown in atmospheric air by an electromagnetic wave whose electric field surpasses the breakdown field in a limited volume. The volume is chosen to be smaller than the reciprocal of the naturally occurring concentration of free electrons. The pulse duration of the electromagnetic wave must exceed the avalanchebreakdown time (10200 ns) and could profitably be as long as the statistical lag time in ambient air (typically microseconds). Candidate pulsed electromagnetic sources over a wavelength range 3 ? mm > ? > 10.6 ? ? m are evaluated. Suitable candidate sources are found to be a 670 GHz gyrotron oscillator with 200 kW 10 ? ? s output pulses and a Transversely Excited Atmospheric-Pressure (TEA) CO 2 laser with 30 MW 100 ns output pulses. A system based on 670 GHz gyrotron would have superior sensitivity. A system based on the TEA CO 2 laser could have a longer range > 100 ? m .

Victor L. Granatstein; Gregory S. Nusinovich

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Detecting excess ionizing radiation by electromagnetic breakdown of air  

SciTech Connect

A scheme is proposed for detecting a concealed source of ionizing radiation by observing the occurrence of breakdown in atmospheric air by an electromagnetic wave whose electric field surpasses the breakdown field in a limited volume. The volume is chosen to be smaller than the reciprocal of the naturally occurring concentration of free electrons. The pulse duration of the electromagnetic wave must exceed the avalanche breakdown time (10-200 ns) and could profitably be as long as the statistical lag time in ambient air (typically, microseconds). Candidate pulsed electromagnetic sources over a wavelength range, 3 mm>{lambda}>10.6 {mu}m, are evaluated. Suitable candidate sources are found to be a 670 GHz gyrotron oscillator with 200 kW, 10 {mu}s output pulses and a Transversely Excited Atmospheric-Pressure (TEA) CO{sub 2} laser with 30 MW, 100 ns output pulses. A system based on 670 GHz gyrotron would have superior sensitivity. A system based on the TEA CO{sub 2} laser could have a longer range >100 m.

Granatstein, Victor L.; Nusinovich, Gregory S. [Center for Applied Electromagnetics, Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

227

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Comparisons of IR and ROS for  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Comparisons of IR and ROS for Induction of Damage to Cells Comparisons of IR and ROS for Induction of Damage to Cells Kathryn D. Held1, Yvonne L. McCarey1, Laurence Tartier1, Elena V. Rusyn1, Giuseppe Schettino2, Melvyn Folkard2, Kevin M. Prise2, and Barry D. Michael2 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114; 2Gray Laboratory Cancer Research Trust, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, HA6 2JR, UK Accurate evaluation of the risks associated with exposure to low doses of ionizing radiation (IR) is a major challenge for environmental sciences. Studies on the mechanisms of the actions of low doses of IR are needed to help understand possible risks. IR exerts its effects on cells through production of reactive oxidizing species (ROS) such as ·OH, H2O2 and

228

Low Dose Radiation Program: Workshops, Proceedings, Abstracts and Programs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Workshops, Proceedings, Abstracts and Programs Workshops, Proceedings, Abstracts and Programs UPDATE: Investigators' Workshop Postponed The annual Low Dose Radiation Research Program Investigators' Workshop typically held in April or May has been postponed until next year. Please keep checking the website for updates. 2010 The 2010 DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Investigators' Workshop was held April 12-14, 2010, at the Renaissance M Street Hotel in Washington, D.C. In addition to 34 plenary talks and more than 70 poster presentations made by the program investigators, participants heard guest speakers from the National Cancer Institute and from sister low-dose programs in Europe and Japan. See link for investigators' abstracts. 2009 The DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Investigators' Workshop VIII was held

229

Dose-Rate Dependence of High-Dose Health Effects in Humans from Photon Radiation with Application to Radiological Terrorism  

SciTech Connect

In 1981, as part of a symposium entitled ''The Control of Exposure of the Public to Ionizing Radiation in the Event of Accident or Attack,'' Lushbaugh, H?bner, and Fry published a paper examining ''radiation tolerance'' of various human health endpoints as a function of dose rate. This paper may not have received the notice it warrants. The health endpoints examined by Lushbaugh et al. were the lethal dose that will kill 50% of people within 60 days of exposure without medical care (LD50/60); severe bone marrow damage in healthy men; severe bone marrow damage in leukemia patients; temporary sterility (azoospermia); reduced male fertility; and late effects such as cancer. Their analysis was grounded in extensive clinical experience and anchored to a few selected data points, and based on the 1968 dose-rate dependence theory of J.L. Bateman. The Lushbaugh et al. paper did not give predictive equations for the relationships, although they were implied in the text, and the relationships were presented in a non-intuitive way. This work derives the parameters needed in Bateman's equation for each health endpoint, tabulates the results, and plots them in a more conventional manner on logarithmic scales. The results give a quantitative indication of how the human organism can tolerate more radiation dose when it is delivered at lower dose rates. For example, the LD50/60 increases from about 3 grays (300 rads) when given at very high dose rates to over 10 grays (1,000 rads) when given at much lower dose rates over periods of several months. The latter figure is borne out by the case of an individual who survived for at least 19 years after receiving doses in the range of 9 to 17 grays (900-1700 rads) over 106 days. The Lushbaugh et al. work shows the importance of sheltering when confronted with long-term exposure to radiological contamination such as would be expected from a radiological dispersion event, reactor accident, or ground-level nuclear explosion.

Strom, Daniel J.

2005-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

230

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Marianne B. Sowa  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Marianne B. Sowa Marianne B. Sowa PNNL - Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Funded Projects A Mechanistic Study of the Radiation Quality Dependence of Bystander Effects in Human Cells Technical Abstracts 2006 Workshop: Using a Low-LET Electron Microbeam to Investigate Non-Targeted Effects of Low Dose Radiation. Sowa, M.B., Goetz, W., Baulch, J., and Morgan, W.F. Morphological Changes in a 3D Mammary Model Following Exposure to Low Dose, Low-LET Radiation Opresko, L.K., Chrisler, W., Emory, K., Arthurs, B., and Sowa, M.B. 2005 Workshops: Using a Low LET Electron Microbeam to Investigate Non-Targeted Effects of Low Dose Radiation Morgan, W.F. and Sowa, M.B. Publications Perrine, K.A., Lamarche, B.L., Hopkins, D.F., Budge, S.E., Opresko, L.K., Wiley, H.S., and Sowa, M.B. (2007). High speed method for in situ

231

Induction by ionizing radiation of the gadd45 gene in cultured human cells: lack of mediation by protein kinase C.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...coordinately induced by UV radiation and alkylating agents...rapidly after X rays at doses as low as 2 Gy. After...isolation & purification radiation effects DNA Damage Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation Genes radiation effects...

M A Papathanasiou; N C Kerr; J H Robbins; O W McBride; I Alamo Jr; S F Barrett; I D Hickson; A J Fornace Jr

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Low Dose Response of Respiratory Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Low Dose Response of Respiratory Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Low Dose Response of Respiratory Cells in Intact Tissues and Reconstituted Tissue Constructs Authors: John Ford, Amy Maslowski, Alex Redd and Les Braby Institutions: Texas A&M University, College Station, TX We are developing a model of respiratory tissue using a perfusion culture system. We are using this system to quantify the effects of normal tissue architecture, and the interaction of epithelial cells with other cell types, on radiation-induced bystander effects. Tracheal tissue taken from young adult Fischer 344 rats is imbedded in a growth factor enriched agarose matrix. The chamber is designed to allow growth medium to periodically wash the epithelial surface of the tracheal lumen while maintaining the air-interface that is necessary for the normal

233

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: What's New Archive  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

What's New What's New Tony Brooks Chosen As Lauriston S. Taylor Lecturer Congratulations to radiation biologist Dr. Antone "Tony" Brooks, a consultant to the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory's Low Dose Radiation Research Program, on his selection to give the 36th Lauriston S. Taylor Lecture at the Annual Meeting of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP). Brooks is former chief scientist for the U.S. Department of Energy's Low Dose Radiation Research Program. His lecture, titled "From the Field to the Laboratory and Back: The What Ifs, Wows, and Who Cares of Radiation Biology," will be a featured presentation at the meeting, which will be held March 12 and 13, 2012, at the Hyatt Regency Bethesda, Bethesda, Maryland.

234

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: DNA Damage in Acutely Irradiated F2  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DNA Damage in Acutely Irradiated F2 Mice with a History of Paternal DNA Damage in Acutely Irradiated F2 Mice with a History of Paternal F0 Germline Irradiation Authors: J.E. Baulch and O.G. Raabe Institutions: Center for Health and the Environment, University of California, Davis, CA. The main goal of this grant is to evaluate heritable, transgenerational effects of low dose, low-linear-energy-transfer (LET) radiation (0.1 Gy attenuated 137Cs gamma rays) on Type B spermatogonia in 129SVE mice; wild-type and heterozygous for Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT). The ATM heterozygotes are carriers for a genetic mutation (AT mutated, ATM) that is thought to predispose both humans and mice to radiation sensitivity. Experiments conducted in our laboratory have demonstrated heritable effects of paternal germline exposure to ionizing radiation in mice using 1.0 Gy of

235

A patient-specific quality assurance study on absolute dose verification using ionization chambers of different volumes in RapidArc treatments  

SciTech Connect

The recalculation of 1 fraction from a patient treatment plan on a phantom and subsequent measurements have become the norms for measurement-based verification, which combines the quality assurance recommendations that deal with the treatment planning system and the beam delivery system. This type of evaluation has prompted attention to measurement equipment and techniques. Ionization chambers are considered the gold standard because of their precision, availability, and relative ease of use. This study evaluates and compares 5 different ionization chambers: phantom combinations for verification in routine patient-specific quality assurance of RapidArc treatments. Fifteen different RapidArc plans conforming to the clinical standards were selected for the study. Verification plans were then created for each treatment plan with different chamber-phantom combinations scanned by computed tomography. This includes Medtec intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) phantom with micro-ionization chamber (0.007 cm{sup 3}) and pinpoint chamber (0.015 cm{sup 3}), PTW-Octavius phantom with semiflex chamber (0.125 cm{sup 3}) and 2D array (0.125 cm{sup 3}), and indigenously made Circular wax phantom with 0.6 cm{sup 3} chamber. The measured isocenter absolute dose was compared with the treatment planning system (TPS) plan. The micro-ionization chamber shows more deviations when compared with semiflex and 0.6 cm{sup 3} with a maximum variation of -4.76%, -1.49%, and 2.23% for micro-ionization, semiflex, and farmer chambers, respectively. The positive variations indicate that the chamber with larger volume overestimates. Farmer chamber shows higher deviation when compared with 0.125 cm{sup 3}. In general the deviation was found to be <1% with the semiflex and farmer chambers. A maximum variation of 2% was observed for the 0.007 cm{sup 3} ionization chamber, except in a few cases. Pinpoint chamber underestimates the calculated isocenter dose by a maximum of 4.8%. Absolute dose measurements using the semiflex ionization chamber with intermediate volume (0.125 cm{sup 3}) shows good agreement with the TPS calculated among the detectors used in this study. Positioning is very important when using smaller volume chambers because they are more sensitive to geometrical errors within the treatment fields. It is also suggested to average the dose over the sensitive volume for larger-volume chambers. The ionization chamber-phantom combinations used in this study can be used interchangeably for routine RapidArc patient-specific quality assurance with a satisfactory accuracy for clinical practice.

Syam Kumar, S.A., E-mail: skppm@rediffmail.com [Department of Medical Physics, Cancer Institute (WIA), Adyar, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India); Sukumar, Prabakar; Sriram, Padmanaban; Rajasekaran, Dhanabalan; Aketi, Srinu; Vivekanandan, Nagarajan [Department of Medical Physics, Cancer Institute (WIA), Adyar, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Do Heritable Differences in an  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Do Heritable Differences in an Individual's Immune System Predict Do Heritable Differences in an Individual's Immune System Predict Differential Sensitivity to Low Dose Radiation Exposure? Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping Enlarge Image Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping identifies two strong candidate genes, Ptprk (Chr 10) and Acp1 (Chr 12) that are linked to genetic variation in the relative abundance of peripheral Th and Tc cells, two cell populations that are sensitive to radiation exposure at low doses. Expression of each gene is significantly altered by exposure to low dose radiation in vivo. Genome-wide scans for the ratio of %CD4+ (Th) to %CD8+ (Tc) lymphocytes were performed using genenetwork.org. The solid horizontal line represents genome-wide significance at P < 0.05, based on 1,000 permutations. LOD indicates logarithm of odds scores.

237

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Biologically Based Analysis of Lung  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biologically Based Analysis of Lung Cancer Incidence in a Large Biologically Based Analysis of Lung Cancer Incidence in a Large Canadian Occupational Cohort with Low-LET Low-dose Radiation Exposure, and Comparison with Japanese Atomic Bomb Survivors. Authors: W.D. Hazelton, D. Krewski, S.H. Moolgavkar Lung cancer incidence is analyzed in a large Canadian National Dose Registry (CNDR) cohort with individual annual dosimetry for low-dose occupational exposure to gamma and tritium radiation using several types of multistage models. The primary analysis utilizes the two-stage clonal expansion model (TSCE), with sensitivity analyses using extensions of this model incorporating additional stages. Characteristic and distinct temporal patterns of risk are found for dose-response affecting early, middle, or late stages of carcinogenesis, e.g., initiation with one or more stages,

238

Concurrent Temozolomide and Dose-Escalated Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy in Newly Diagnosed Glioblastoma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...dose (MTD) of radiation (RT) with concurrent...We show the safety and tolerability...delivering higher radiation (RT) doses with...tools (FIAT), a software package developed...Development of image software tools for radiation therapy assessment...

Christina I. Tsien; Doris Brown; Daniel Normolle; Matthew Schipper; Morand Piert; Larry Junck; Jason Heth; Diana Gomez-Hassan; Randall K. Ten Haken; Thomas Chenevert; Yue Cao; and Theodore Lawrence

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Radiation dose distribution for workers in South Korean nuclear power plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......KHNP has implemented a radiation safety management system...dose registry of NPPs radiation workers, in order to...existing plants. From the software point of view, training...annual average individual radiation exposure dose is expected......

Byoung-il Lee; So-i Kim; Dong-hee Suh; Young-woo Jin; Jeong-in Kim; Hoon Choi; Young-khi Lim

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Radiation doses from some common paediatric X-ray examinations in Sudan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......and Technical Papers Radiation doses from some common...suliman@gmail.com Radiation Safety Institute, Sudan Atomic...3001, Khartoum, Sudan Radiation doses to patients from...settings using DosCal software. Totally, 459 patients......

I. I. Suliman; E. H. A. Elshiekh

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose ionizing radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Radiation dose management in CT, SPECT/CT and PET/CT techniques  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......report from the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority showed that...of the collective radiation dose in Sweden in 2005...more and more wasted radiation dose is delivered to...overscanning(37). Both a software solution(38) and......

Sren Mattsson; Marcus Sderberg

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Molecular Mechanisms of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability in Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability in Human Cells. Authors: Howard L. Liber1 and Jeffrey L. Schwartz2. Institutions: 1Colorado State University and 2University of Washington. Knowledge of the signal and target through which radiation induces genomic instability, which we propose to investigate herein, will allow us to model effects at low doses. Such knowledge will aid in understanding variations in the induction of this genomic instability, both among cells and among individuals. This information could also lead to more sensitive measures of instability that could yield accurate measures of instability induction at low doses. We have developed an in-vitro cell model, in which radiation-induced chromosome instability develops in a two-stage process.

243

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Molecular Characterization of Survival  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Survival Advantage, Bystander Effect, and Survival Advantage, Bystander Effect, and Genomic Instability after Low-LET Low Dose Radiation Exposure Mohan Natarajan University of Texas Health Science Center Why this Project? To understand the molecular link between the activation of NF-kB and cellular outcomes such as better cell survival after low-LET radiation and to determine whether low dose radiation-induced NF-kB signaling can mediate telomerase activation and thus confer enhanced cell survival of normal aortic endothelial cells. Project Goals To determine whether low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation can cause a positive feedback signal initiated by the activation of the NF-kB. To examine one of the mechanisms involving TNF-a as a signaling mediator, which could mediate the bystander effect through the generation

244

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Janet E. Baulch  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Janet E. Baulch Janet E. Baulch University of California, Davis Currently Funded Projects Impact of Genetic Factors on the Heritable Effects of Paternal Exposure to Low-Dose Radiation Technical Abstracts 2003 Workshop: DNA damage in acutely irradiated F2 mice with a history of paternal F0 germline irradiation Baulch, J.E. and Raabe, O G. 2002 Workshop Impact of Genetic Factors on the Heritable Effects of Paternal Exposure to Low-Dose Radiation, Baulch, J.E., Ph.D. and Raabe, O.G., Ph.D. Publications Kovalchuk, O. and Baulch, J.E. (2008). Epigenetic changes and nontargeted radiation effects - Is there a link? Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis 49(1):16-25 Laiakis, E.C., Baulch, J.E., and Morgan, W.F. (2008). Interleukin 8 exhibits a pro-mitogenic and pro-survival role in radiation induced

245

Telomerase-Dependent Oncolytic Adenovirus Sensitizes Human Cancer Cells to Ionizing Radiation via Inhibition of DNA Repair Machinery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...surgical resection, radiation, and cytotoxic...the threshold for radiation-induced tumor cell death; the safety and efficacy of...1-3). Ionizing radiation primarily targets...with the CalcuSyn software (BioSoft), and...

Shinji Kuroda; Toshiya Fujiwara; Yasuhiro Shirakawa; Yasumoto Yamasaki; Shuya Yano; Futoshi Uno; Hiroshi Tazawa; Yuuri Hashimoto; Yuichi Watanabe; Kazuhiro Noma; Yasuo Urata; Shunsuke Kagawa; and Toshiyoshi Fujiwara

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

246

E-Print Network 3.0 - astronaut absorbed dose Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

units of radiation dose. Absorbed (or "physical") dose D is the energy absorbed... by unit mass of matter due to ionizing radiation. The SI unit of absorbed dose is the Gray...

247

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Frequencies of Radiation-Induced  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Frequencies of Radiation-Induced Chromosome Interchanges and Frequencies of Radiation-Induced Chromosome Interchanges and Randomness of Chromosome Territory Locations Relative to One Another. Authors: RK Sachs,§ MN Cornforth,‡ KM Greulich-Bode,* L Hlatky, and DJ Brenner|| Institutions: §Department of Mathematics, University of California, ‡University of Texas Medical Branch, *Department of Skin Carcinogenesis, German Cancer Research Center DFCI, Harvard Medical School, ||Center for Radiological Research, Columbia University. Leukemogenesis, and perhaps carcinogenesis in general, often involves specific chromosome translocations. Radiation-induced chromosome translocation frequencies are strongly influenced by how close participating chromosomes are to one another in an interphase cell nucleus. We sought to determine whether chromosomes in human peripheral blood

248

United States Department of Energy Low Dose Radiation Research Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

History of the History of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Low Dose Radiation Research Program: 1998-2008 Dr. Antone L. Brooks tbrooks@tricity.wsu.edu September 2012 Review Draft i Contents Preface............................................................................................................................................. v Summary ........................................................................................................................................ vi Acronyms and Initialisms ............................................................................................................. vii Chapter 1 Introduction ................................................................................................................... 1

249

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DDE ESTIMATED DOSE FROM CONCEPTION TO DECLARATION: DDE Radiation Safety Officer Signature for increased protection from ionizing radiation for declared pregnant radiation workers. The radiation dose of the occupational dose limit of 50 mSv (5.0 rem). The CPMC Radiation Safety Office will provide education

Jia, Songtao

250

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Optimizing the Scientific, Regulatory,  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Optimizing the Scientific, Regulatory, and Societal Impact of the DOE Low Optimizing the Scientific, Regulatory, and Societal Impact of the DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Program Antone L. Brooks Why This Project? For maximum benefit, state-of-the-art research and new data from the Low Dose Radiation Research Program must be available to other scientists, regulatory agencies, and the public. This project stays abreast of scientific advances in the field, gathers, integrates, and summarizes the research within the program, and disseminates this information to appropriate scientific, regulatory, and public venues. Project Goals Provides a focal point for distribution of information generated in the program, to scientific committees, other governmental and regulatory agencies, and to the public Provides scientific support for the Low Dose Program website

251

PET/CT-guided Interventions: Personnel Radiation Dose  

SciTech Connect

PurposeTo quantify radiation exposure to the primary operator and staff during PET/CT-guided interventional procedures.MethodsIn this prospective study, 12 patients underwent PET/CT-guided interventions over a 6 month period. Radiation exposure was measured for the primary operator, the radiology technologist, and the nurse anesthetist by means of optically stimulated luminescence dosimeters. Radiation exposure was correlated with the procedure time and the use of in-room image guidance (CT fluoroscopy or ultrasound).ResultsThe median effective dose was 0.02 (range 0-0.13) mSv for the primary operator, 0.01 (range 0-0.05) mSv for the nurse anesthetist, and 0.02 (range 0-0.05) mSv for the radiology technologist. The median extremity dose equivalent for the operator was 0.05 (range 0-0.62) mSv. Radiation exposure correlated with procedure duration and with the use of in-room image guidance. The median operator effective dose for the procedure was 0.015 mSv when conventional biopsy mode CT was used, compared to 0.06 mSv for in-room image guidance, although this did not achieve statistical significance as a result of the small sample size (p = 0.06).ConclusionThe operator dose from PET/CT-guided procedures is not significantly different than typical doses from fluoroscopically guided procedures. The major determinant of radiation exposure to the operator from PET/CT-guided interventional procedures is time spent in close proximity to the patient.

Ryan, E. Ronan, E-mail: ronan@ronanryan.com; Thornton, Raymond; Sofocleous, Constantinos T.; Erinjeri, Joseph P. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology (United States); Hsu, Meier [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics (United States); Quinn, Brian; Dauer, Lawrence T. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medical Physics (United States); Solomon, Stephen B. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology (United States)

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Radiation exposure for 'caregivers' during high-dose outpatient radioiodine therapy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......designed to evaluate radiation safety issues and predict...to comply with radiation safety instructions...list of radiation safety instructions...record cumulative radiation dose for each...using EasyEPD2 software (version 1......

Christopher J. Marriott; Colin E. Webber; Karen Y. Gulenchyn

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

MMTF DISCOVERY OF GIANT IONIZATION CONES IN MR 2251-178: IMPLICATIONS FOR QUASAR RADIATIVE FEEDBACK  

SciTech Connect

We report the discovery of giant ionization cones in the 140 kpc nebula around quasar MR 2251-178 based on deep [O III] {lambda}5007/H{beta} and [N II] {lambda}6583/H{alpha} flux ratio maps obtained with the Maryland-Magellan Tunable Filter on the Baade-Magellan 6.5 m Telescope. These cones are aligned with the weak double-lobed radio source observed on smaller scale (<30 kpc). They have an opening angle {approx}120 Degree-Sign {+-} 10 Degree-Sign and subtend {approx}65%-90% of 4{pi} sr, where the uncertainty takes into account possible projection effects. The material in the outer ionization cones is matter-bounded, indicating that all ionizing photons emitted through the cones escape from the system. The quasar ionizing flux is {approx}2-3 times fainter outside of these cones, despite the largely symmetric geometry of the nebula in [O III]. Overall, adding up the contributions from both inside and outside the cones, we find that {approx}65%-95% of the quasar ionizing radiation makes its way out of the system. These results emphasize the need for line ratio maps to quantify the escape fraction of ionizing radiation from quasars and the importance of quasar radiative feedback on the intergalactic medium.

Kreimeyer, Kory; Veilleux, Sylvain, E-mail: kory@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: veilleux@astro.umd.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

2013-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

254

Solar irradiance changes and photobiological effects at Earth's surface following astrophysical ionizing radiation events  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Astrophysical ionizing radiation events have been recognized as a potential threat to life on Earth, primarily through depletion of stratospheric ozone and subsequent increase in surface-level solar ultraviolet radiation. Simulations of the atmospheric effects of a variety of events (such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and solar proton events) have been previously published, along with estimates of biological damage at Earth's surface. In this work, we employed the TUV radiative transfer model to expand and improve calculations of surface-level irradiance and biological impacts following an ionizing radiation event. We considered changes in surface-level UVB, UVA, and photosynthetically active radiation (visible light) for clear-sky conditions and fixed aerosol parameter values. We also considered a wide range of biological effects on organisms ranging from humans to phytoplankton. We found that past work overestimated UVB irradiance, but that relative estimates for increase in exposure to DNA damaging radi...

Thomas, Brian C; Snyder, Brock R

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Optimizing the Scientific, Regulatory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Optimizing the Scientific, Regulatory and Social Impact of the DOE Optimizing the Scientific, Regulatory and Social Impact of the DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Program. Authors: Antone L.Brooks, Richard J. Bull, Lezlie A. Couch. Institutions: Washington State University Tri-Cities The purpose of this project is to provide scientific, technical, and organizational support to optimize the impact of the DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Program. This project will serve as a focal point for collection and dissemination of scientific information from the scientists funded in the Program to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the regulatory agencies, and the public. The project will be responsible for analysis of the scientific information in the broader context of biomedical research and will provide this information to the Office of Biological Research

256

DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Workshop I November 1999  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low Dose Radiation Research Program Low Dose Radiation Research Program U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biological and Environmental Research David G. Thomassen, Ph.D. Program Coordinator Office of Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy, SC-72 19901 Germantown Road Germantown, MD 20874-1290 Phone: 301-903-9817 Fax: 301-903-8521 Email: david.thomassen@science.doe.gov Arthur Katz, Ph.D. Life Sciences Division Office of Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy, SC-72 19901 Germantown Road Germantown, MD 20874-1290 Phone: 301-903-4932 Fax: 301-903-8521 Email: arthur.katz@science.doe.gov Marvin E. Frazier, Ph.D. Director, Life Sciences Division Office of Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy, SC-72 19901 Germantown Road

257

Patient radiation dose audits for fluoroscopically guided interventional procedures  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Quality management for any use of medical x-ray imaging should include monitoring of radiation dose. Fluoroscopically guided interventional (FGI) procedures are inherently clinically variable and have the potential for inducing deterministic injuries in patients. The use of a conventional diagnostic reference level is not appropriate for FGI procedures. A similar but more detailed quality process for management of radiation dose in FGI procedures is described. Methods: A method that takes into account both the inherent variability of FGI procedures and the risk of deterministic injuries from these procedures is suggested. The substantial radiation dose level (SRDL) is an absolute action level (with regard to patient follow-up) below which skin injury is highly unlikely and above which skin injury is possible. The quality process for FGI procedures collects data from all instances of a given procedure from a number of facilities into an advisory data set (ADS). An individual facility collects a facility data set (FDS) comprised of all instances of the same procedure at that facility. The individual FDS is then compared to the multifacility ADS with regard to the overall shape of the dose distributions and the percent of instances in both the ADS and the FDS that exceed the SRDL. Results: Samples of an ADS and FDS for percutaneous coronary intervention, using the dose metric of reference air kerma (K{sub a,r}) (i.e., the cumulative air kerma at the reference point), are used to illustrate the proposed quality process for FGI procedures. Investigation is warranted whenever the FDS is noticeably different from the ADS for the specific FGI procedure and particularly in two circumstances: (1) When the facility's local median K{sub a,r} exceeds the 75th percentile of the ADS and (2) when the percent of instances where K{sub a,r} exceeds the facility-selected SRDL is greater for the FDS than for the ADS. Conclusions: Analysis of the two data sets (ADS and FDS) and of the percent of instances that exceed the SRDL provides a means for the facility to better manage radiation dose (and therefore both deterministic and stochastic radiation risk) to the patient during FGI procedures.

Balter, Stephen; Rosenstein, Marvin; Miller, Donald L.; Schueler, Beth; Spelic, David [Department of Radiology and Department of Medicine, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032 (United States); Clarksburg, Maryland 20871 (United States); Department of Radiology, F. Edward Hebert School of Medicine, Uniformed Services University, Bethesda, Maryland 20814 (United States); Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic and Foundation, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States); Division of Mammography Quality and Radiation Programs, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Avenue, Silver Spring, Maryland 20903 (United States)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

258

Radiation Dose Estimation from the Analysis of Radionuclides in Marine Fish of the Bay of Bengal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Radiation Protection Dosimetry Article Radiation Dose Estimation from the Analysis of Radionuclides in Marine Fish of the Bay of Bengal S. Ghose M.N. Alam M.N...respectively. The annual effective doses due to ingestion of radionuclides......

S. Ghose; M.N. Alam; M.N. Islam

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Radiation Dose-Volume Effects in the Brain  

SciTech Connect

We have reviewed the published data regarding radiotherapy (RT)-induced brain injury. Radiation necrosis appears a median of 1-2 years after RT; however, cognitive decline develops over many years. The incidence and severity is dose and volume dependent and can also be increased by chemotherapy, age, diabetes, and spatial factors. For fractionated RT with a fraction size of <2.5 Gy, an incidence of radiation necrosis of 5% and 10% is predicted to occur at a biologically effective dose of 120 Gy (range, 100-140) and 150 Gy (range, 140-170), respectively. For twice-daily fractionation, a steep increase in toxicity appears to occur when the biologically effective dose is >80 Gy. For large fraction sizes (>=2.5 Gy), the incidence and severity of toxicity is unpredictable. For single fraction radiosurgery, a clear correlation has been demonstrated between the target size and the risk of adverse events. Substantial variation among different centers' reported outcomes have prevented us from making toxicity-risk predictions. Cognitive dysfunction in children is largely seen for whole brain doses of >=18 Gy. No substantial evidence has shown that RT induces irreversible cognitive decline in adults within 4 years of RT.

Lawrence, Yaacov Richard, E-mail: richard.lawrence@jefferson.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Li, X. Allen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); El Naqa, Issam [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Hahn, Carol A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Merchant, Thomas E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Dicker, Adam P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Standard Test Method for Measuring Dose for Use in Linear Accelerator Pulsed Radiation Effects Tests  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 This test method covers a calorimetric measurement of the total dose delivered in a single pulse of electrons from an electron linear accelerator or a flash X-ray machine (FXR, e-beam mode) used as an ionizing source in radiation-effects testing. The test method is designed for use with pulses of electrons in the energy range from 10 to 50 MeV and is only valid for cases in which both the calorimeter and the test specimen to be irradiated arethin compared to the range of these electrons in the materials of which they are constructed. 1.2 The procedure described can be used in those cases in which (1) the dose delivered in a single pulse is 5 Gy (matl) (500 rd (matl)) or greater, or (2) multiple pulses of a lower dose can be delivered in a short time compared to the thermal time constant of the calorimeter. Matl refers to the material of the calorimeter. The minimum dose per pulse that can be acceptably monitored depends on the variables of the particular test, including pulse rate, pulse uniformity...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose ionizing radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Low Dose Response of Respiratory Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Response of Respiratory Cells in Intact Tissues and Reconstituted Response of Respiratory Cells in Intact Tissues and Reconstituted Tissue John Ford Department of Nuclear Engineering Texas A & M University Why this Project? Using the well-established rat trachea model to test the hypothesis that normal respiratory epithelial cells transmit signals to neighboring cells in response to very low dose radiation exposure. Project Goals By comparing the responses shown by cells in these normal rodent respiratory tissues to those seen for human respiratory epithelial cells in reconstituted tissue constructs, it will be possible to better understand the responds in human respiratory cells in vivo. These studies will characterize responses after exposure to a variety of radiation types and dose distributions. Experimental Approach

262

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Robert L. Ullrich  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Robert L. Ullrich Robert L. Ullrich Colorado State University Currently Funded Projects Radiation Leukemogenesis at Low Dose Rates (NSCOR) Genetic Mechanisms of Induced Chromosomal Instability and their Relationships with Radiation Tumorigenesis Technical Abstracts 2006 Workshop: The Role of Telomere Dysfunction in Driving Genomic Instability Bailey, S.M., Williams, E.S., and Ullrich, R.L. 2005 Workshop: Dsyfunctional Mammalian Telomeres in DNA-PKcs Deficient Backgrounds Bailey, S.M., Williams, E., Hagelstrom, T., and Ullrich, R.L. 2003 Workshop: Dysfunctional Mammalian Telomeres Join to Double-Strand Breaks Bailey, S.M., Goodwin, E.H., Williams, E., and Ullrich, R.L. 2002 Workshop: Dysfunctional Telomeres, Radiation-Induced Instability and Tumorigenesis Bailey, S.M., Goodwin, E.H., Cornforth, M.N., and Ullrich, R.L.

263

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Research Highlights - Collateral  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Collateral Damage Collateral Damage Using targeted irradiation to understand radiation-induced effects in bystander cells chromosomal A typical example of chromosomal instability induction measured by chromosome-type aberrations in primary human lymphocytes at delay time post-irradiation of a fraction of the cell population. Similar types of aberrations were observed in whole irradiated population but were not observed in untreated cells. Munira Kadhim Background: It has long been understood that radiation exposure can influence cellular changes. Studies indicate that even very low doses of high linear energy transfer (LET) alpha-particle irradiation, such as that from environmental radon, can affect cells. Radiation-induced genomic instability can be observed in the progeny of irradiated cells and as a

264

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Rainer K. Sachs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Rainer K. Sachs Rainer K. Sachs University of California, Berkeley Funded Projects BIO-BASED RISK MODELING 03-20: Modeling the Interrelations Among Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects, Genomic Instability and Cancer Cytogenetic Tests of Radiobiological Models Relating Epidemiologically Measurable Risks to Low-Dose Risks Technical Abstracts 2006 Workshop The Bystander Effect in Normal Human 3-D Tissue: Experiments, Models, and Implications Brenner, D., Ponnaiya, B., Shuryak, I., Sachs, R., and Geard, D. Radiation Carcinogenesis Risk as Influenced by Intercellular Interaction Hahnfeldt, P., Hlatky, L., and Sachs, R.K. 2005 Workshop: Modelling Intercellular Interactions During Radiation Carcinogenesis Sachs, R.K., Chan, M., Hlatky, L., and Hahnfeldt, P. 2003 Workshop: Chromosome Spatial Clustering Uncovered Through Radiogenic Aberrations

265

AN INTERNAL RADIATION DOSIMETRY COMPUTER PROGRAM, IDAC 2.0, FOR ESTIMATION OF PATIENT DOSES FROM RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......dose to estimate the radiation risk from a diagnostic...grant from the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority [grant number...second-generation personal computer software for internal dose assessment...Radiological Protection. Radiation dose to patients from......

M. Andersson; L. Johansson; D. Minarik; S. Mattsson; S. Leide-Svegborn

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Exposure assessment: implications for epidemiological studies of ionizing radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......et al. (4) used average doses to birth cohorts...were made in the homes of 58% of the interviewed...histories (e.g. consumption of milk) in order...exposure to radon in homes and lung cancer have...controls on radon in homes are often based on...exposure to high linear energy transfer (LET......

Colin R. Muirhead

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Densely Ionizing Radiation Acts via the Microenvironment to Promote Aggressive Trp53-Null Mammary Carcinomas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...charged particle species from protons through uranium at varying energies of up to tens of GeV/amu (7). Estimating the cancer risk...cancer than sparsely ionizing radiation. The unique pattern of energy deposition incurred by particle traversal is considered to...

Irineu Illa-Bochaca; Haoxu Ouyang; Jonathan Tang; Christopher Sebastiano; Jian-Hua Mao; Sylvain V. Costes; Sandra Demaria; Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Densely Ionizing Radiation Acts via the Microenvironment to Promote Aggressive Trp53-Null Mammary Carcinomas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...ionizing radiation. The unique pattern of energy deposition incurred by particle traversal...epithelial cells were positive for K18 (green).Nuclei were counterstained with DAPI...positive either for K18 or K14 (n = 20, green; D), K14+18 type with K14 and K18...

Irineu Illa-Bochaca; Haoxu Ouyang; Jonathan Tang; Christopher Sebastiano; Jian-Hua Mao; Sylvain V. Costes; Sandra Demaria; and Mary Helen Barcellos-Hoff

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

The effects of diet and ionizing radiation on azoxymethane induced colon carcinogenesis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cancer, by suppressing apoptosis and upregulating proliferation in colonocytes. Diets contained a combination of fish oil or corn oil and either pectin or cellulose. We exposed 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats to 1 Gy ionizing radiation (1 GeV Fe) 10 d prior...

Mann, John Clifford

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

270

The Escape of Ionizing Photons from OB Associations in Disk Galaxies Radiation Transfer Through Superbubbles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

By solving the time-dependent radiation transfer problem of stellar radiation through evolving superbubbles within a smoothly varying H I distribution, we have estimated the fraction of ionizing photons emitted by OB associations that escapes the H I disk of our Galaxy. We considered a coeval star-formation history and a Gaussian star-formation history with a time spread sigma_t = 2 Myr. We find that the shells of the expanding superbubbles quickly trap or attenuate the ionizing flux, such that most of the escaping radiation escapes shortly after the formation of the superbubble. Superbubbles of large associations can blowout of the H I disk and form dynamic chimneys, which allow the ionizing radiation directly to escape the H I disk. However, blowout occurs when the ionizing photon luminosity has dropped well below the association's maximum luminosity. For the coeval star-formation history, the fraction of photons that escape each side of the disk in the solar vicinity is f_esc approx 6% (the total fraction ...

Dove, J B; Ferrara, A; Dove, James B.; Ferrara, Andrea

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Research Highlights - Real-time  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Real-time imaging of repair processes possible with Nickel-63 Real-time imaging of repair processes possible with Nickel-63 microirradiator Microscope Microscope stage-mounted microirradiation system. (A) Overall system shown mounted on a micromanipulator housed within a heated, humidified, environmental chamber of a microscope. (B) Close-up showing attachment of device to the micromanipulator. (C) Detail showing the bend in the enclosing capillary, which allows positioning of the active surface directly above the target cell. (D) Microirradiator tip in dissecting microscope. (E) Close-up view through microscope optics (scale bar, 10 microns.) Background: Scientists know that mammalian cells begin a nucleoplasmic repair process within seconds after being exposed to ionizing radiation. Real-time imaging of this process could further understanding of the

272

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Quantitative Analysis of Connexin  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Quantitative Analysis of Connexin Expression in Cultured Colonies Quantitative Analysis of Connexin Expression in Cultured Colonies Authors: B. Parvin, Q. Yang, R. L. Henshall-Powell and M.H. Barcellos Hoff We are studying the effects of ionizing radiation on the signaling between human mammary epithelial cells and the extracellular microenvironment. To do so we use an assay based on the ability of the cells to organize into three-dimensional acini when embedded into an extracellular matrix. Although tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic mammary epithelial cells are nearly indistinguishable when cultured as monolayers, their biological character readily diverge when tissue-specific morphogenesis is analyzed. Non-malignant human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) cultured within a reconstituted basement membrane organize into acinar-like structures with

273

Polyamide woven fabrics with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride or nitro blue tetrazolium chloride as 2D ionizing radiation dosimeters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The development of flat woven fabric-based ionizing radiation 2D dosimeters is reported in this work. Polyamide fabric was surface modified with radiation-sensitive 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) or nitro blue tetrazolium chloride (NBT). These samples responded to gamma radiation of 60Co through a colour change: red and blue for TTC and NBT, respectively. The tinge intensity was observed to depend on the absorbed dose, which allowed for the reflectance of light (R) measurements and calculation of the calibration parameters: dose range, quasi-linear range, threshold dose and sensitivity. Oxygen was shown to be an important factor determining the dose response of the samples. For this reason, a range of additional modifications to the TTC- and NBT-polyamide fabric was proposed which lead to a decrease in the threshold dose and increase in the sensitivity to irradiation of the samples. For instance, a dosimeter made of polyamide fabric modified with 10g/dm3 TTC, 0.5mol/dm3 tert-butyl alcohol, 7.5% gelatine hydrogel at pH 10 (vacuum packed) showed the lowest dose threshold (50Gy), dose range up to 2.8kGy and the highest sensitivity to irradiation (?0.0396%/Gy) among the compositions studied. In consequence, this dosimeter was examined in terms of response to inhomogeneous irradiation from a 192Ir brachytherapy radiation source. The relative dose distribution profiles across the source's longitudinal axis were calculated. This showed potential of the textile dosimeters for 2D dose distribution measurements; however, further modifications towards improvement of the dosimeter's low dose response can be considered.

M. Kozicki; E. S?siadek

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Extreme resistance of bdelloid rotifers to ionizing radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...of IR or high-energy electrons required...that the measured efficiency of IR...where the decreased efficiency of repair is more...dilatata are free-swimming and may easily be...geothermalis: The pool of extreme radiation...International Atomic Energy Agency Final Research...

Eugene Gladyshev; Matthew Meselson

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Radiation doses to patients undergoing barium meal and barium enema examinations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......organ dose determination in radiation hygiene. STUK-A87 Raport, Finish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (1989). 14. Carroll, E...methods Greece Humans Middle Aged Radiation Dosage Radiometry methods Software...

M. G. Delichas; K. Hatziioannou; E. Papanastassiou; P. Albanopoulou; E. Chatzi; A. Sioundas; K. Psarrakos

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Patient-size-dependent radiation dose optimisation technique for abdominal CT examinations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......CT dosimetry and radiation safety. Radiol. Soc...Notification. Reducing radiation risk from computed...gov/cdrh/safety/110201-ct...McCollough C. H. Radiation dose in computed...region of interest software available in both......

J. E. Ngaile; P. Msaki; R. Kazema

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Radiation dose survey in a paediatric cardiac catheterisation laboratory equipped with flat-panel detectors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......investigate the radiation doses delivered...using the PCXMC software. For diagnostic...the E are the radiation field size at...DAP. The PCXMC software calculates organ...Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. Report No......

O. Dragusin; M. Gewillig; W. Desmet; K. Smans; L. Struelens; H. Bosmans

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy With Dose Painting to Treat Rhabdomyosarcoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To examine local control and patterns of failure in rhabdomyosarcoma patients treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (RT) with dose painting (DP-IMRT). Patients and Methods: A total of 41 patients underwent DP-IMRT with chemotherapy for definitive treatment. Nineteen also underwent surgery with or without intraoperative RT. Fifty-six percent had alveolar histologic features. The median interval from beginning chemotherapy to RT was 17 weeks (range, 4-25). Very young children who underwent second-look procedures with or without intraoperative RT received reduced doses of 24-36 Gy in 1.4-1.8-Gy fractions. Young adults received 50.4 Gy to the primary tumor and lower doses of 36 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions to at-risk lymph node chains. Results: With 22 months of median follow-up, the actuarial local control rate was 90%. Patients aged {<=}7 years who received reduced overall and fractional doses had 100% local control, and young adults had 79% (P=.07) local control. Three local failures were identified in young adults whose primary target volumes had received 50.4 Gy in 1.8-Gy fractions. Conclusions: DP-IMRT with lower fractional and cumulative doses is feasible for very young children after second-look procedures with or without intraoperative RT. DP-IMRT is also feasible in adolescents and young adults with aggressive disease who would benefit from prophylactic RT to high-risk lymph node chains, although dose escalation might be warranted for improved local control. With limited follow-up, it appears that DP-IMRT produces local control rates comparable to those of sequential IMRT in patients with rhabdomyosarcoma.

Yang, Joanna C.; Dharmarajan, Kavita V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Wexler, Leonard H. [Department of Pediatrics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Pediatrics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); La Quaglia, Michael P. [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Happersett, Laura [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)] [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Wolden, Suzanne L., E-mail: woldens@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Quantification of Repair of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Quantification of Repair of Low-Dose-Induced DNA Double-Strand Quantification of Repair of Low-Dose-Induced DNA Double-Strand Breaks in Diploid Human Cells Authors: David Schild,1 and Larry H. Thompson,2 Institutions: 1Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; and 2BBR Program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the biochemical lesions of primary concern in radiation related health effects. Compelling evidence from rodent and chicken model systems indicates that homologous recombinational repair (HRR) plays an essential role for cell viability in the repair of spontaneous DSBs arising during DNA replication and an important role in the repair of IR-induced DSBs. IR-induced DSBs are also repaired by error-prone nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ). Using hTERT-immortalized

280

Population doses from environmental gamma radiation in Iraq  

SciTech Connect

The exposure rates due to external gamma radiation were measured in 11 Iraqi governerates. Measurements were performed with an Environmental Monitoring System (RSS-111) in open air 1 m above the ground. The average absorbed dose rate in each governerate was as follows (number x 10(-2) microGy h-1): Babylon (6.0), Kerbala (5.3), Al-Najaf (5.4), Al-Kadysia (6.5), Wasit (6.5), Diala (6.5), Al-Anbar (6.5), Al-Muthana (6.6), Maisan (6.8), Thee-Kar (6.6), and Al-Basrah (6.5). The collective doses to the population living in these governerates were 499, 187, 239, 269, 262, 458, 384, 153, 250, 450, and 419 person-Sv, respectively.

Marouf, B.A.; Mohamad, A.S.; Taha, J.S.; al-Haddad, I.K. (Iraq Atomic Energy Commission, Nuclear Research Center, Tuwaitha, Baghdad, (Iraq))

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose ionizing radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Optimizing the Scientific, Regulatory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Optimizing the Scientific, Regulatory and Societal Impact of the DOE Optimizing the Scientific, Regulatory and Societal Impact of the DOE Low Dose Research Program Authors: Antone L. Brooks Institution: Washington State University Tri-Cities Richland, Washington The purpose of this project is to provide a focal point for communication of the research results from the DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Program. The major communication tool provided by this project is a Website at Washington State University. The website is being maintained to provide communication between the scientific advances generated by the research program and scientists both in and outside the program, policy makers, regulators and the public. The website also contains a number of presentations and illustrations that are written so that they will be easy

282

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Characterizing Bystander Effects  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Irradiation. Irradiation. Authors: L.A. Braby and J.R. Ford. Institutions: Texas A&M University. Bystander effects, which are typically seen as in increase in the cellular concentration of specific repair related molecules or as cytogenetic changes which appear to be the consequence of DNA damage, may be a significant factor in the risk of long-term health effects of low doses of radiation. These effects clearly increase the effective size of the target for radiation response, from the diameter of a single cell or cell nucleus to something significantly larger, by bringing additional cells into the process. It is unclear whether this larger target will result in an increase or a decrease in the probability of inducing a change which would be detrimental to the health of the organism, but it clearly reduces the

283

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Genetic Mechanisms of Induced  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mechanisms of Induced Chromosomal Instability and their Mechanisms of Induced Chromosomal Instability and their Relationships with Radiation Tumorigenesis Robert Ullrich Colorado State University Why This Project A combination of epidemiological, experimental, animal, and cellular molecular data is used in the estimation of tumor risk after low doses of low-LET radiation. Uncertainties are recognized in the interpretation of all these data sets, and recent findings concerning genomic instability in irradiated cells challenge the conventional view that induced DNA damage is expressed during the immediate post-irradiation cell cycle. These data on genomic instability are based largely upon studies of cell cultures the mechanisms involved and implications for tumor formation in living organisms remain unclear. Nevertheless, if induced genomic instability were

284

The Concentration Of Tritium In Urine And Internal Radiation Dose Estimation Of PTNBR Radiation Workers  

SciTech Connect

The operation of Triga 2000 reactor in Nuclear Technology Center for Materials and Radiometry (PTNBR BATAN) normally produce tritium radionuclide which is the activation product of deuterium atom in reactor primary cooling water. According to previous monitoring, tritium was detected with the concentration of 8.236{+-}0.677 kBq/L and 1.704{+-}0.046 Bq/L in the primary cooling water and in reactor hall air, respectively. The tritium in reactor hall air chronically can be inhaled by the workers. In this research, tritium content in radiation workers' urine was determined to estimate the internal radiation doses received by the workers. About 50-100 mL of urine samples were collected from 48 PTNBR workers that is classified as 24 radiation workers and 24 administration staffs as a control. Urine samples of 25 mL were then prepared by active charcoal and KMnO{sub 4} addition and followed with complete distillation. The 2 mL of distillate was added with 13 mL scintillator, shaked vigorously and remained in cool and dark condition for about 24 hours. The tritium in the samples was then measured using liquid scintillation counter (LSC) for 1 hour. From the measurement results it was obtained that the tritium concentration in the urine of radiation workers were in the range of not detected and 5.191 Bq/mL, whereas in the administration staffs the concentration were between not detected and 4.607 Bq/mL. Internally radiation doses were calculated using the tritium concentration data, and it was found the averages about 0.602 {mu}Sv/year and 0.532 {mu}Sv/year for radiation workers and administration staffs, respectively. The doses received by the workers were lower than that of the permissible doses from tritium, i.e. 40 {mu}Sv/year.

Tjahaja, Poppy Intan; Sukmabuana, Putu; Aisyah, Neneng Nur [PTNBR BATAN, Jl. Tamansari no. 71, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

2010-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

285

Molecular mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis and the linear, non-threshold dose response model of radiation risk estimation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recent research in molecular radiation carcinogenesis is reviewed with the specific aim of exploring the implications this research may have on the dose response relationship of radiation-induced cancer at low...

K. R. Trott; M. Rosemann

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Radiation dose-rate meter using an energy-sensitive counter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation dose-rate meter is provided which uses an energy-sensitive detector and combines charge quantization and pulse-rate measurement to monitor radiation dose rates. The charge from each detected photon is quantized by level-sensitive comparators so that the resulting total output pulse rate is proportional to the dose-rate.

Kopp, Manfred K. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Radiation dose and image quality in K-edge subtraction computed tomography of lung in vivo  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Radiation dose dependency of image quality was showed in in vivo rabbit lung images with and without a contrast agent using the synchrotron-radiation-based K-edge subtraction method. Consistency of the theoretical and measured radiation dose rate values was found.

Strengell, S.

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Current status of patient radiation doses from computed tomography examinations in Tanzania  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......the magnitude of radiation dose imparted to...and the CTDOSE software based on NRPB conversion...CT dosimetry and radiation safety. Radiol. Soc...requirements for the safety of X-ray equipment...Tingey, D. R. C. Radiation doses from computed......

J. E. Ngaile; P. Msaki; R. Kazema

2006-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Modeling proton intensity gradients and radiation dose equivalents in the inner  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Modeling proton intensity gradients and radiation dose equivalents in the inner heliosphere using a significant radiation hazard for manned and unmanned interplanetary (IP) space missions. In order to estimate intensities, event fluences, and radiation dose equivalents of 27­31 May 2003 SEP events at eight different

Pringle, James "Jamie"

290

Whole-Body Biodistribution and Estimation of Radiation-Absorbed Doses of the Dopamine D1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Whole-Body Biodistribution and Estimation of Radiation-Absorbed Doses of the Dopamine D1 Receptor-SCH-23390 (6,7), and is highly reliable for PET quantification (7). Radiation-absorbed dose estimates of 11C and Behaviour, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, Australia The present study estimated radiation

Shen, Jun

291

Cumulative radiation dose estimates from medical imaging in paediatric patients with non-oncologic chronic illnesses. A systematic review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Paediatric patients with non-oncologic chronic illnesses often require ongoing care that may result in repeated imaging and exposure to ionizing radiation from both diagnostic and interventional procedures. In this study the scientific literature on cumulative effective dose (CED) of radiation accrued from medical imaging among specific cohorts of paediatric, non-oncologic chronic patients (inflammatory bowel disease, cystic fibrosis, congenital heart disease, shunt-treated hydrocephalus, hemophilia, spinal dysraphism) was systematically reviewed. We conducted PubMed/Medline, Scopus and EMBASE searches of peer-reviewed papers on CED from diagnostic and therapeutic radiological examinations. No time restriction was introduced in the search. Only studies reporting \\{CEDs\\} accrued for a period >1 year were included. We found that the annual CED was relatively low (320mSv/year) in Crohn's patients. This extra yearly radiation exposure accrues over the lifetime and can reach high values (>100mSv) in selected cohorts of paediatric chronic patients.

Marco Brambilla; Andreana De Mauri; Domenico Lizio; Lucia Leva; Alessandro Carriero; Clara Carpeggiani; Eugenio Picano

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Effects of ionizing radiation on the response of certain photosensitive seeds to red light  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and molecular oxygen. Studies of phosphate metabolism (Surrey and Gordon, 1962) and phosphorylation (Gordon and Surrey, 1961) indicate that energy transfer through phosphate esterification plays an important role and may be the key enzymatic reaction in red... spectrum promoting the germination of light-sensitive lettuce seed. Smithsonian Inst. Pubis. Misc. Collections 96: 1-8 ~ 11. Gordon, S. A. , and K. Surrey. 1961. Phosphorylation and red-spectrum photomorphogenesis. ~n Effects of ionizing radiations...

Richardson, Billy

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

293

Estimation of radiation doses from 137Cs to frogs in a wetland ecosystem  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Currently, there is no established methodology to estimate radiation doses to non-human biota. Therefore, in this study, various dose models were used to estimate radiation doses to moor frogs (Rana arvalis) in a wetland ecosystem contaminated with 137Cs. External dose estimations were based on activity concentrations of 137Cs in soil and water, considering changes in habitat over a life-cycle. Internal doses were calculated from the activity concentrations of 137Cs measured in moor frogs. Depending on the dose model used, the results varied substantially. External dose rates ranged from 21 to 160 mGy/y, and internal dose rates varied between 1 and 14 mGy/y. Maximum total dose rates to frogs were below the expected safe level for terrestrial populations, but close to the suggested critical dose rate for amphibians. The results show that realistic assumptions in dose models are particularly important at high levels of contamination.

K. Stark; R. Avila; P. Wallberg

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Use of Computational Modeling to  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Use of Computational Modeling to Evaluate Hypotheses about the Use of Computational Modeling to Evaluate Hypotheses about the Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms of Bystander Effects Authors: Yuchao “Maggie” Zhao and Rory Conolly Institutions: CIIT Centers for Health Research, 6 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina A detailed understanding of the biological mechanisms of radiation-induced damage at the molecular and cellular levels is needed for accurate assessment of the shape of the dose-response curve for radiationinduced health effects in the intact organism. Computational models can contribute to the improved understanding of mechanisms through integration of data and quantitative evaluation of hypotheses. We propose to develop a novel computational model of bystander effects elicited by oxidative stress and a

295

Measurement of natural radioactivity and dose rate assessment of terrestrial gamma radiation in the soil of southern Punjab, Pakistan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......terrestrial background radiation mainly due to these...assess the population radiation doses(4-9). However...data are available on naturally occuring and artificial radionulides...order to assess the radiation doses for the general......

I. Fatima; J. H. Zaidi; M. Arif; M. Daud; S. A. Ahmad; S. N. A. Tahir

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Estimation of risk from medical radiation exposure based on effective and organ dose: how much difference is there?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Russian Basic Sanitary Radiation Protection Standards...Basic Sanitary Rules for Radiation Safety of 2010(3). It is...CT)(4). Although radiation dose is the primary...effective dose; this software is addressed to radiologists......

V. K. Ivanov; V. V. Kashcheev; S. Yu. Chekin; A. N. Menyaylo; E. A. Pryakhin; A. F. Tsyb; F. A. Mettler

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Effect of incremental doses of radiation on viability of the microbial population on synthetic operating room gowns.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...manufacturer and peri- 528 RADIATION DOSE AND MICROBIAL VIABILITY...used to calculate the radiation resistances because...SEM does allow an estimation of the number of cells...ENVIRON. MICROBIOL. RADIATION DOSE AND MICROBIAL VIABILITY...

J L Whitby; D G Storey

1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Estimation of the Radiation Dose to the Public Due to Atmospheric Emissions from the Rostov NPP  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The radiation dose to the public due to atmospheric emissions from the Rostov NPP is calculated using a point conservative approach and a complex of migration and dosimetric models. The radiation exposure path...

L. A. Sharpan; E. I. Karpenko; S. I. Spiridonov

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Exposure to Ionizing Radiation and Estimate of Secondary Cancers in the Era of High-Speed CT Scanning: Projections From the Medicare Population  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Purpose The aims of this study were to analyze the distribution and amount of ionizing radiation delivered by CT scans in the modern era of high-speed CT and to estimate cancer risk in the elderly, the patient group most frequently imaged using CT scanning. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted using Medicare claims spanning 8 years (1998-2005) to assess CT use. The data were analyzed in two 4-year cohorts, 1998 to 2001 (n = 5,267,230) and 2002 to 2005 (n = 5,555,345). The number and types of CT scans each patient received over the 4-year periods were analyzed to determine the percentage of patients exposed to threshold radiation of 50 to 100 mSv (defined as low) and >100 mSv (defined as high). The National Research Council's Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation VII models were used to estimate the number of radiation-induced cancers. Results CT scans of the head were the most common examinations in both Medicare cohorts, but abdominal imaging delivered the greatest proportion (43% in the first cohort and 40% in the second cohort) of radiation. In the 1998 to 2001 cohort, 42% of Medicare patients underwent CT scans, with 2.2% and 0.5% receiving radiation doses in the low and high ranges, respectively. In the 2002 to 2005 cohort, 50% of Medicare patients received CT scans, with 4.2% and 1.2% receiving doses in the low and high ranges. In the two populations, 1,659 (0.03%) and 2,185 (0.04%) cancers related to ionizing radiation were estimated, respectively. Conclusions Although radiation doses have been increasing along with the increasing reliance on CT scans for diagnosis and therapy, using conservative estimates with worst-case scenario methodology, the authors found that the risk for secondary cancers is low in older adults, the group subjected to the most frequent CT scanning. Trends showing increasing use, however, underscore the importance of monitoring CT utilization and its consequences.

Aabed B. Meer; Pat A. Basu; Laurence C. Baker; Scott W. Atlas

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

Thacker, L.H.

1995-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose ionizing radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

Thacker, L.H.

1994-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

302

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Typical Radiation Doses to Patients from Some Common X Ray Examinations in Tanzania  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Radiation Protection Dosimetry Article Typical Radiation Doses to Patients from Some Common X Ray Examinations in Tanzania W.E. Muhogora A.M. Nyanda U.S. Lema J.E. Ngaile The results of entrance surface dose measurements on adult patients......

W.E. Muhogora; A.M. Nyanda; U.S. Lema; J.E. Ngaile

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Improvement of the equivalent sphere model for better estimates of skin or eye dose in space radiation environments  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

sphere Radiation transport a b s t r a c t It is often useful to get a quick estimate of the dose or dose drastically improves the accuracy of the estimates of dose and dose equivalent in space radiation environmentsImprovement of the equivalent sphere model for better estimates of skin or eye dose in space

Lin, Zi-wei

306

Estimation of internal radiation dose from both immediate releases and continued  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A brief description is provided of the basic concepts related to 'internal dose' and how it differs from doses that result from radioactive materials and direct radiation outside of the body. The principles of radiation dose reconstruction, as applied to both internal and external doses, are discussed on the basis of a recent publication prepared by the US National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. Finally, ideas are introduced related to residual radioactive contamination in the environment that has resulted from the releases from damaged reactors and also to the management of wastes that may be generated in both regional cleanup and decommissioning of the Fukushima nuclear power plant.

Bruce Napier

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Comparison of DNA Damage Risk from  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Comparison of DNA Damage Risk from Low-Dose Radiation and Folate Comparison of DNA Damage Risk from Low-Dose Radiation and Folate Deficiency. Authors: Chantal Courtemanche, Arnold C. Huang, Nicole Kerry, Bernice Ng, and Bruce N. Ames. Institutions: Children’s Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, California. Our overall goal is to understand and quantify the real effects of low-dose radiation by measuring direct and specific cellular changes. However, since the background dose of radiation to which most individuals are exposed is well below the levels where significant biological effects, such as mutation or tumor induction, are observed, our novel approach is to compare the consequences of radiation to those of specific nutritional deficiencies. By determining which of these two common stresses at physiologically relevant doses leads to a greater amount of DNA damage, we

308

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Research Highlights - 2010  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DNA Double-Strand Break Repair Capacities Before and After Exposure to Low DNA Double-Strand Break Repair Capacities Before and After Exposure to Low Dose Radiation Immunochemical detection of DSB foci in the nuclei of human fibroblasts. (A) γ-H2AX phospho-serine 139 foci (chromatin marker of DSBs; green). (B) ataxia-telangiectasia mutated phospho-serine 1981 foci (ATM, DNA damage-responsive kinase; red). (C) Merge of images A and B. (White arrows mark large γ-H2AX foci and coincident γ-H2AX/pATM foci that were positively scored; yellow arrows mark small γ-H2AX foci that lack corresponding pATM foci that were not scored.) Enlarge Image Immunochemical detection of DSB foci in the nuclei of human fibroblasts. (A) γ-H2AX phospho-serine 139 foci (chromatin marker of DSBs; green). (B) ataxia-telangiectasia mutated phospho-serine 1981 foci (ATM,

309

Genetic Factors Affecting Susceptibility to Low Dose & Low Dose-Rate Radiation  

SciTech Connect

Our laboratory has, among other things, developed and used the gamma H2AX focus assay and other chromosomal and cell killing assays to show that differences in this DNA double strand break (dsb) related response can be clearly and distinctly demonstrated for cells which are mildly hyper-radiosensitive such as those associated with A-T heterozygosity. We have found this level of mild hypersensitivity for cells from some 20 to 30 % of apparently normal individuals and from apparently normal parents of Retinoblastoma patients. We found significant differences in gene expression in somatic cells from unaffected parents of Rb patients as compared with normal controls, suggesting that these parents may harbor some as yet unidentified genetic abnormality. In other experiments we sought to determine the extent of differences in normal human cellular reaponses to radiation depending on their irradiation in 2D monolayer vs 3D organized acinar growth conditions. We exmined cell reproductive death, chromosomal aberration induction, and the levels of ?-H2AX foci in cells after single acute gamma-ray doses and immediately after 20 hours of irradiation at a dose rate of 0.0017 Gy/min. We found no significant differences in the dose-responses of these cells under the 2D or 3D growth conditions. While this does not mean such differences cannot occur in other situations, it does mean that they do not generally or necessarily occur. In another series of studies in collaboration with Dr Chuan Li, with supprt from this current grant. We reported a role for apoptotic cell death in promoting wound healing and tissue regeneration in mice. Apoptotic cells released growth signals that stimulated the proliferation of progenitor or stem cells. In yet another collaboration with Dr, B. Chen with funds from this grant, the relative radiosensitivity to cell killing as well as chromosomal instability of 13 DNA-PKcs site-directed mutant cell lines (defective at phosphorylation sites or kinase activity) were examined after exposure of synchronized G1 cells to 137Cs c rays. DNA-PKcs mutant cells defective in phosphorylation at multiple sites withinthe T2609 cluster or within the PI3K domain displayed extreme radiosensitivity. Cells defective at the S2056 cluster or T2609 single site alone were only mildly radiosensitive, but cells defective at even one site in both the S2056 and T2609 clusters were maximally radiosensitive. Thus a synergism between the capacity for phosphorylation at the S2056 and T2609 clusterswas found to be critical for induction of radiosensitivity.

Bedford, Joel

2014-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

310

Resistance of Bacillus subtilis Spore DNA to Lethal Ionizing Radiation Damage Relies Primarily on Spore Core Components and DNA Repair, with Minor Effects of Oxygen Radical Detoxification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Spore DNA to Lethal Ionizing Radiation Damage Relies Primarily on...Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Radiation Biology Department, Cologne...Radiological Sciences, Chiba-shi, Japan c University of Florida, Proton...different types of ionizing radiation including X rays, protons...

Ralf Moeller; Marina Raguse; Gnther Reitz; Ryuichi Okayasu; Zuofeng Li; Stuart Klein; Peter Setlow; Wayne L. Nicholson

2013-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

311

Radionuclides in the adriatic sea and related dose-rate assessment for marine biota  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......radiation and dose rate investigations...Smodis B. Estimation of sedimentation...ionizing radiation on plants...the Great Bay. J. Environ...Norwegian Radiation Protection...water of the Bay of Bengal. Radiat...P. Gamma radiation measurements and dose rate in the......

Branko Petrinec; Marko Strok; Zdenko Franic; Borut Smodis; Dijana Pavicic-Hamer

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Influence of organs in the ICRP's remainder on effective dose equivalent computed for diagnostic radiation exposures  

SciTech Connect

The ICRP effective dose equivalent has been compared with a weighted dose equivalent, computed by treating the entire remainder instead of the sample of five remainder organs in the ICRP method as uniformly radiosensitive, for dose distributions from three common diagnostic exposures: chest, dental full-mouth and dental panoramic. Complete dose distributions were computed by a Monte Carlo model. In all three cases the effective dose equivalent was greater than the weighted dose equivalent. The difference was only 20% for the chest exam but was more than fivefold for both dental exposures. Dose distributions for the dental exposures were less homogeneous than for the chest examination. Selection of organs to be included in the remainder markedly affects the effective dose equivalent. In the case of highly inhomogeneous dose distributions, the effective dose equivalent probably significantly over-estimates radiation detriment.

Gibbs, S.J.

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Theory of Multiphoton Multielectron Ionization of Xenon under Strong 93-eV Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a theoretical interpretation of recent experimental results on multiphoton multiple ionization of xenon by soft-x-ray radiation of photon energy ?93??eV and intensity up to 1016??W/cm2 [A.?A Sorokin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 213002 (2007)]. The data are interpreted within multiphoton perturbation theory, taking into account the spatiotemporal distribution of the radiation. Multiphoton cross sections have been obtained through a technique of scaling, with occasional adjustment to the data, provided the two prove to be compatible. Whatever discrepancies between theory and experiment persist can be reasonably attributed to some uncertainty in the experimental conditions and possibly to the value of some cross sections, without, however, any evidence for nonperturbative behavior.

M. G. Makris; P. Lambropoulos; A. Miheli?

2009-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

314

Electron density and temperature measurement by continuum radiation emitted from weakly ionized atmospheric pressure plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The electron-atom neutral bremsstrahlung continuum radiation emitted from weakly ionized plasmas is investigated for electron density and temperature diagnostics. The continuum spectrum in 4501000?nm emitted from the argon atmospheric pressure plasma is found to be in excellent agreement with the neutral bremsstrahlung formula with the electron-atom momentum transfer cross-section given by Popovi?. In 280450?nm, however, a large discrepancy between the measured and the neutral bremsstrahlung emissivities is observed. We find that without accounting for the radiative H{sub 2} dissociation continuum, the temperature, and density measurements would be largely wrong, so that it should be taken into account for accurate measurement.

Park, Sanghoo; Choe, Wonho, E-mail: wchoe@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Youn Moon, Se [High-enthalpy Plasma Research Center, Chonbuk National University, 567 Baekje-daero, Deokjin-gu, Jeonju 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jaeyoung [5771 La Jolla Corona Drive, La Jolla, CA 92037 (United States)

2014-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

315

Implications of Intercellular Signaling for Radiation Therapy: A Theoretical Dose-Planning Study  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Recent in vitro results have shown significant contributions to cell killing from signaling effects at doses that are typically used in radiation therapy. This study investigates whether these in vitro observations can be reconciled with in vivo knowledge and how signaling may have an impact on future developments in radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Prostate cancer treatment plans were generated for a series of 10 patients using 3-dimensional conformal therapy, intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), and volumetric modulated arc therapy techniques. These plans were evaluated using mathematical models of survival following modulated radiation exposures that were developed from in vitro observations and incorporate the effects of intercellular signaling. The impact on dosevolume histograms and mean doses were evaluated by converting these survival levels into signaling-adjusted doses for comparison. Results: Inclusion of intercellular communication leads to significant differences between the signalling-adjusted and physical doses across a large volume. Organs in low-dose regions near target volumes see the largest increases, with mean signaling-adjusted bladder doses increasing from 23 to 33 Gy in IMRT plans. By contrast, in high-dose regions, there is a small decrease in signaling-adjusted dose due to reduced contributions from neighboring cells, with planning target volume mean doses falling from 74 to 71 Gy in IMRT. Overall, however, the dose distributions remain broadly similar, and comparisons between the treatment modalities are largely unchanged whether physical or signaling-adjusted dose is compared. Conclusions: Although incorporating cellular signaling significantly affects cell killing in low-dose regions and suggests a different interpretation for many phenomena, their effect in high-dose regions for typical planning techniques is comparatively small. This indicates that the significant signaling effects observed in vitro are not contradicted by comparison with clinical observations. Future investigations are needed to validate these effects in vivo and to quantify their ranges and potential impact on more advanced radiation therapy techniques.

McMahon, Stephen J., E-mail: stephen.mcmahon@qub.ac.uk [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); McGarry, Conor K. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Radiotherapy Physics, Northern Ireland Cancer Centre, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Butterworth, Karl T. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); O'Sullivan, Joe M. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Clinical Oncology, Northern Ireland Cancer Centre, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Hounsell, Alan R. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Radiotherapy Physics, Northern Ireland Cancer Centre, Belfast Health and Social Care Trust, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Prise, Kevin M. [Centre for Cancer Research and Cell Biology, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom)

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

The assessment of the absorbed dose of radiation around a nuclear fuel manufacturing plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The estimation of the absorbed dose of radiation by the public around a nuclear plant is a substantial issue for nuclear industries and serves as an essential factor in radiation protection. In this study, the absorbed dose of radiation by the individuals living around a nuclear fuel manufacturing plant was calculated. The Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) code, which is the generalised version of the AIREM program manual a computer code for calculating doses, population doses, and ground depositions due to atmospheric emissions of radionuclides was used to investigate the following pathways: cloud immersion, ground deposition, inhalation and ingestion. The study was carried out in 16 geographical directions over an 80 km radius. The experimental results demonstrate that the maximum dose is absorbed at 800 m distance from the nuclear plant stack in the east southeast (ESE) direction and is equal to 3.7 10 ?Sv, which is negligible in comparison with the background radiation.

Seyed Mahmoud Reza Aghamiri; Neda Bostani; Manuchehr Roshanzamir

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Examination system utilizing ionizing radiation and a flexible, miniature radiation detector probe  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An optimized examination system and method based on the Reverse Geometry X-Ray{trademark} (RGX{trademark}) radiography technique are presented. The examination system comprises a radiation source, at least one flexible, miniature radiation detector probe positioned in appropriate proximity to the object to be examined and to the radiation source with the object located between the source and the probe, a photodetector device attachable to an end of the miniature radiation probe, and a control unit integrated with a display device connected to the photodetector device. The miniature radiation detector probe comprises a scintillation element, a flexible light guide having a first end optically coupled to the scintillation element and having a second end attachable to the photodetector device, and an opaque, environmentally-resistant sheath surrounding the flexible light guide. The probe may be portable and insertable, or may be fixed in place within the object to be examined. An enclosed, flexible, liquid light guide is also presented, which comprises a thin-walled flexible tube, a liquid, preferably mineral oil, contained within the tube, a scintillation element located at a first end of the tube, closures located at both ends of the tube, and an opaque, environmentally-resistant sheath surrounding the flexible tube. The examination system and method have applications in non-destructive material testing for voids, cracks, and corrosion, and may be used in areas containing hazardous materials. In addition, the system and method have applications for medical and dental imaging. 5 figs.

Majewski, S.; Kross, B.J.; Zorn, C.J.; Majewski, L.A.

1996-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

318

Estimation of background radiation doses for the Peninsular Malaysias population by ESR dosimetry of tooth enamel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is worth mentioning that the background dose is required in evaluating a tooths excess dose of radiation workers or individuals accidentally exposed to radiation, by subtracting the background level of a give...

Mohd Rodzi; Kassym Zhumadilov; Megu Ohtaki

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Communicating the Science of the Low  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Communicating the Science of the Low Dose Radiation Research Program Communicating the Science of the Low Dose Radiation Research Program Authors: John S. Wassom, Elizabeth T. Owens, Sheryl A. Martin, Amy K. Wolfe, Margaret K. Lyday,* and Susan L. Dimmick** Institutions: Oak Ridge National Laboratory, *Keener Communications, and the **University of Tennessee Graduate School of Medicine. Summary The project team developed a communications plan based on an explicit communications strategy. The plan presents a set of strategic goals, identifies categories of stakeholders relevant to the program, and suggests methods that can be used to achieve strategic goals and reach targeted stakeholders. Context is key to the communication plan. Providing contextual information about low dose radiation, radiation biology, and Low Dose Radiation

320

Annual report shows potential INL radiation dose well below safe regulatory  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Annual report shows potential INL radiation dose well below safe Annual report shows potential INL radiation dose well below safe regulatory limits Annual report shows potential INL radiation dose well below safe regulatory limits August 9, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contact Tim Jackson, DOE-Idaho Operations Office 208-526-8484 The U.S. Department of Energy's Idaho Operations Office reported this month that radiation from the site falls well below limits established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The annual report's conclusions are supported by direct environmental monitoring data routinely taken during the year, and show that activities at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) site are protective of human health and the environment. Data shows that the INL site potential radiation dose is less than 1% of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose ionizing radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Benchmarking and validation of a Geant4-SHADOW Monte Carlo simulation for dose calculations in microbeam radiation therapy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Benchmarking and validation of a new Monte Carlo code for dose calculations in microbeam radiation therapy are described.

Cornelius, I.

2014-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

322

Low Dose Radiation | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Radiobiology: Low Dose Radiation Radiobiology: Low Dose Radiation Research Biological and Environmental Research (BER) BER Home About Research Research Abstracts Searchable Archive of BER Highlights External link Biological Systems Science Division (BSSD) Genomic Science DOE Bioenergy Research Centers Radiochemistry & Imaging Instrumentation Radiobiology: Low Dose Radiation Research DOE Human Subjects Protection Program Structural Biology DOE Joint Genome Institute Climate and Environmental Sciences Division (CESD) Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BER Funding Opportunities Biological & Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC) News & Resources Contact Information Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-23/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3251 F: (301)

323

Reduction of Eu{sup 3+} to Eu{sup 2+} in aluminoborosilicate glasses under ionizing radiation  

SciTech Connect

Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3}-doped aluminoborosilicate glasses were prepared by melting in air at high temperature ({approx}1500 {sup o}C). It was shown by luminescence and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) measurements that both Eu{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 2+} ions can exist simultaneously in the glass matrix studied after glass synthesis as well as after exposure to ionizing radiation. Increase of total Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration leads to the increase of Eu{sup 3+} luminescence intensity while the luminescence intensity of Eu{sup 2+} ions tends to decrease. In contrast the EPR indicates that the amount of Eu{sup 2+} ions in the glass increases with total Eu{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentration. The difference in the results of the two spectroscopies is explained in terms of energy transfer from Eu{sup 2+} to Eu{sup 3+} leading to an Eu{sup 2+} luminescence quenching. Irradiation results in the increase of reduced Eu{sup 2+} quantity detected by EPR measurements. It was shown that Eu{sup 2+} ions are located in both high (g {approx} 4.6) and low symmetry ('U' spectrum) sites in the structure of aluminoborosilicate glasses. The increase of Eu{sup 2+} content by the increase of the irradiation dose manifests the strong reduction process Eu{sup 3+} {yields} Eu{sup 2+}.

Malchukova, E., E-mail: genia@poly.polytechnique.fr [Laboratoire des Solides Irradies, UMR 7642 CEA-CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Boizot, B. [Laboratoire des Solides Irradies, UMR 7642 CEA-CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)] [Laboratoire des Solides Irradies, UMR 7642 CEA-CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

324

Total dose radiation response of plasma-damaged NMOS devices  

SciTech Connect

Plasma-damaged NMOS devices were subjected to the X-ray total dose irradiation. Unlike the traditional hot-carrier or Fowler-Nordheim (F-N) stress where the hole trap generation is less pronounced, this study shows enhanced hole trap and interface trap generation on plasma-damaged devices after total dose irradiation.

Yue, J.; Lo, E.; Flanery, M. [Honeywell Solid-State Electronic Center, Plymouth, MN (United States)] [Honeywell Solid-State Electronic Center, Plymouth, MN (United States)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

LOW DOSE PHOTON RADIATION-INDUCED CHANGES IN T HELPER LYMPHOCYTES  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

LOW DOSE PHOTON RADIATION-INDUCED CHANGES IN T HELPER LYMPHOCYTES LOW DOSE PHOTON RADIATION-INDUCED CHANGES IN T HELPER LYMPHOCYTES Daila S. Gridley 1,2 , Asma Rizvi 2 , Xian Luo 1 , Adeola Y. Makinde 2 , Steve Rightnar 1 , Jian Tian 1 , Melba L. Andres 1 , James M. Slater 1 , and Michael J. Pecaut 1,2 Departments of 1 Radiation Medicine and 2 Biochemistry & Microbiology Loma Linda University and Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA 92354 USA Health risks due to protracted low dose irradiation remain unclear. This project investigates T helper (Th) lymphocyte function and the cellular milieu in which they reside under conditions of low dose, low- linear energy transfer (LET) radiation exposure. The Th cells are important because they secrete cytokines essential for generating optimal immune defenses against tumor, virus-infected, and other

326

Radiation dose profile in 125I brachytherapy: an 8-year review  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......KFSHRC is well known in the Kingdom to specialise in cancer treatment using both radiation therapy and brachytherapy...using the IAEA rod phantom and an Eberline DNS-26 depleted uranium standard reference source with a known absorbed dose......

A. N. Al-Haj; A. M. Lobriguito; C. S. Lagarde

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Estimation of the committed radiation dose resulting from gamma radionuclides ingested with food  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The objective of the study was to estimate the value of the radiation dose absorbed in consequence of consumption of popular food products for individual age groups. Potatoes, corn and sugar beet were selected...

Piotr Gody?; Agnieszka Do?ha?czuk-?rdka

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Image Estimation from Marker Locations for Dose Calculation in Prostate Radiation Therapy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Tracking implanted markers in the prostate during each radiation treatment delivery provides an accurate approximation of prostate location, which enables the use of higher daily doses with tighter margins of ...

Huai-Ping Lee; Mark Foskey; Josh Levy

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Identification of Mouse Genetic  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mouse Genetic Susceptibility to Radiation Carcinogenesis Mouse Genetic Susceptibility to Radiation Carcinogenesis Allan Balmain University of California, San Francisco San Francisco, CA. (Jointly funded by NASA and DOE) Why this Project? To identify pathways that control genetic susceptibility to radiation-induced DNA damage and tumor development using novel developments in genomics together with mouse genetics. Project Goals To identify genetic loci that trigger rapid tumor development of mice after radiation. To characterize new genes at these loci that act as tumor suppressor genes or oncogenes. Experimental Approach New candidate-radiation susceptibility genes will be identified using a unique haplotyping approach. Using DNA from radiation-induced lymphoma, changes in the gene copy number can be detected using BAC microarrays. The

330

Radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations at different dose-rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of breakage. These breakages may be due to the physiochemical changes affecting the nucleic acid structure within one or more of the chromatin strands; this is in accordance with the "target theory. " Evans (21) states that after the initial breakage.... The somatic mutation theory purposes that ageing is caused by a gradual accumulation of mutations. Curtis has shown that chroaosomal aberrations of the liver cells increase steadily with age (19). Ionizing radiaticns shorten the lifespan and also increase...

McDaniel, Jackson Dean

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

331

Adaptive Response Against Spontaneous Neoplastic Transformation In Vitro Induced by Ionizing Radiation  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was to establish a dose response curve for radiation-induced neoplastic transformation of HeLa x skin fibroblast human hybrid cells in vitro under experimental conditions were an adaptive response, if it were induced, would have an opportunity to be expressed. During the first two years of the grant an exhaustive series of experiments were performed and the resulting data were reported at the 2000 Annual Meeting of the Radiation Research Society and then Subsequently published. The data showed that an adaptive response against spontaneous neoplastic transformation was seen up to doses of 10cGy of Cs-137 gamma rays. At dose of 30, 50 and 100 cGy the transformation frequencies were above background. This indicated that for this system, under the specific experimental conditions used, there was a threshold of somewhere between 10 and 30 cGy. The results also indicated some unexpected, though very interesting, correlations with relative risk estimates made from human epidemiologic studies.

J. Leslie Redpath, Ph.D.

2003-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

332

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: A Variable Energy Soft X-ray  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Variable Energy Soft X-ray Microprobe to Investigate Mechanisms of the Variable Energy Soft X-ray Microprobe to Investigate Mechanisms of the Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect Melvyn Folkard Gray Cancer Institute Why This Project The aim of this project is to determine the effects of low radiation doses using a machine that makes it possible to radiate one cell at a time. Our soft X-ray microprobe can irradiate individual cells, or locations within cells with defined doses and with sub-micron precision. We can use low doses approaching that of a single electron track, which is of relevance to environmental level exposures. Much of our work is concentrating on irradiating specified individual cells within cell populations to identify "bystander responses" where non-radiated cells respond to signals from nearby radiated cells. Higher energy x-rays are being generated to extend

333

Radiation dose reduction and image enhancement in biological imaging through equally-sloped tomography  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Iterative reconstruction algorithm Radiation dose reduction Image enhancement Computed tomography a b s t r-dose data acquisi- tion schemes have made it possible to record multiple projections quickly without-energy electrons (Henderson, 1995), which limits the number of projections that can be acquired. Furthermore

Miao, Jianwei "John"

334

TWO-DIMENSIONAL RADIATIVE MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF THE IMPORTANCE OF PARTIAL IONIZATION IN THE CHROMOSPHERE  

SciTech Connect

The bulk of the solar chromosphere is weakly ionized and interactions between ionized particles and neutral particles likely have significant consequences for the thermodynamics of the chromospheric plasma. We investigate the importance of introducing neutral particles into the MHD equations using numerical 2.5D radiative MHD simulations obtained with the Bifrost code. The models span the solar atmosphere from the upper layers of the convection zone to the low corona, and solve the full MHD equations with non-gray and non-LTE radiative transfer, and thermal conduction along the magnetic field. The effects of partial ionization are implemented using the generalized Ohm's law, i.e., we consider the effects of the Hall term and ambipolar diffusion in the induction equation. The approximations required in going from three fluids to the generalized Ohm's law are tested in our simulations. The Ohmic diffusion, Hall term, and ambipolar diffusion show strong variations in the chromosphere. These strong variations of the various magnetic diffusivities are absent or significantly underestimated when, as has been common for these types of studies, using the semi-empirical VAL-C model as a basis for estimates. In addition, we find that differences in estimating the magnitude of ambipolar diffusion arise depending on which method is used to calculate the ion-neutral collision frequency. These differences cause uncertainties in the different magnetic diffusivity terms. In the chromosphere, we find that the ambipolar diffusion is of the same order of magnitude or even larger than the numerical diffusion used to stabilize our code. As a consequence, ambipolar diffusion produces a strong impact on the modeled atmosphere. Perhaps more importantly, it suggests that at least in the chromospheric domain, self-consistent simulations of the solar atmosphere driven by magnetoconvection can accurately describe the impact of the dominant form of resistivity, i.e., ambipolar diffusion. This suggests that such simulations may be more realistic in their approach to the lower solar atmosphere (which directly drives the coronal volume) than previously assumed.

Martinez-Sykora, Juan; De Pontieu, Bart; Hansteen, Viggo, E-mail: j.m.sykora@astro.uio.no [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States)

2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

335

Nitric Acid Deposition following an Astrophysical Ionizing Radiation Event is below Critical Loads for Terrestrial and Freshwater Ecosystems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nitric acid rainout is one of the effects of an astrophysical ionizing radiation event. The predicted values of nitrate rainout from previous work for a typical gamma ray burst (GRB) within our galaxy serve as an extreme example and are shown to be below critical loads of eutrophication and acidification for ecoregions in Europe and the US.

Melott, Ben Neuenswander Adrian

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Excitational energy transfer enhancing ionization and spatial-temporal evolution of air breakdown with UV laser radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with UV laser radiation Jason S. Hummelta and John E. Scharer Department of Electrical and Computer of oxygen has on the ionization of nitrogen in laser air breakdown. Plasma is created by focusing a 193 nm ArF excimer laser using an 18 cm focal length lens, producing a cylindrical 540 m wide spot

Scharer, John E.

337

RIS-M-2308 HIGH-LET DOSE-RESPONSE CHARACTERISTICS DESCRIBED BY TRACK  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DOSEMETERS. CYANIDES, DOSE-RE- SPONSE RELATIONSHIPS, DYES, IONIZING RADIATIONS. LET. PARTICLE TRACKS by Katz and co- workers ascribes the effect of high-LET radiation to the highly inhomogeneous dose irradiation is used as a reference low-LET radiation, while high-LET radiation ranging from 16 MeV protons

338

The Polyamine Catabolic Enzyme SAT1 Modulates Tumorigenesis and Radiation Response in GBM  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Introduction Exposure to ionizing radiation is a well-established...moderate to high-dose radiation exposure. Examples include...atomic bomb survivors in Japan, women treated with repeated exposure to radiation from fluoroscopic chest...

Adina Brett-Morris; Bradley M. Wright; Yuji Seo; Vinay Pasupuleti; Junran Zhang; Jun Lu; Raffaella Spina; Eli E. Bar; Maneesh Gujrati; Rebecca Schur; Zheng-Rong Lu; and Scott M. Welford

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Gregory A. Kimmel  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Gregory A. Kimmel Gregory A. Kimmel Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Past Project A Novel Spatially Resolved Cell Irradiator to Study Bystander and Adaptive Responses to Low-LET Radiation. Technical Abstracts 2002 Workshop: Spatially Resolved Single Cell Irradiator to Study Bystander Responses to Low LET Radiation. Resat, M.S., Kimmel, G.A., Miller, J.H., McDonald, J.C., Murphy, M.K., Strom, D.J., Thrall, B.D., and Colson, S.D. 2001 Workshop: Spatially Resolved Single Cell Irradiator to Study Bystander Responses to Low LET Radiation. Resat, M.S., Kimmel, G.A., Miller, J.H., McDonald, J.C., Murphy, M.K., Strom, D.J., Thrall, B.D., Metting, N.F., and Colson, S.D 1999 Workshop: A Novel, Spatially Resolved Cell Irradiator to Study Bystander and Adaptive Responses to Low-LET Radiation.

340

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Howard L. Liber  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Howard L. Liber Howard L. Liber Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences Colorado State University Currently Funded Projects Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability in Human Cells Technical Abstracts 2003 Workshop: Delayed genomic instability in human lymphoblasts exposed to 137Cs y-rays radiation Schwartz, J.L., Jordan, R., Lenarczyk, M. and Liber, H.L. 2002 Workshop: Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability in Human Cells. Liber, H.L. and Schwartz, J.L. Publications Zhang, Y., Zhou, J., Held, K.D., Redmond, R.W., Prise, K.M., and Liber, H.L. (2008). Deficiencies of double-strand break repair factors and effects on mutagenesis in directly [gamma]-irradiated and medium-mediated bystander human lymphoblastoid cells. Radiation Research 169(2):197-206.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose ionizing radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Standard Practice for Application of Thermoluminescence-Dosimetry (TLD) Systems for Determining Absorbed Dose in Radiation-Hardness Testing of Electronic Devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 This practice covers procedures for the use of thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) to determine the absorbed dose in a material irradiated by ionizing radiation. Although some elements of the procedures have broader application, the specific area of concern is radiation-hardness testing of electronic devices. This practice is applicable to the measurement of absorbed dose in materials irradiated by gamma rays, X rays, and electrons of energies from 12 to 60 MeV. Specific energy limits are covered in appropriate sections describing specific applications of the procedures. The range of absorbed dose covered is approximately from 10?2 to 104 Gy (1 to 106 rad), and the range of absorbed dose rates is approximately from 10?2 to 1010 Gy/s (1 to 1012 rad/s). Absorbed dose and absorbed dose-rate measurements in materials subjected to neutron irradiation are not covered in this practice. Further, the portion of these procedures that deal with electron irradiation are primarily intended for use in parts testin...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Annexin A2 Regulates A Low Dose-Specific Stress Response To Radiation.  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Annexin A2 Regulates A Low Dose-Specific Stress Response To Radiation. Thomas J. Annexin A2 Regulates A Low Dose-Specific Stress Response To Radiation. Thomas J. Weber (PI), Greg J. Newton, Ryan D. Quesenberry, Janani I. Shutthanandan, Nikki Bollinger, Heather E. Engelmann and Lee K. Opresko. Cell Biology and Biochemistry Group, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354. Previous studies have demonstrated that JB6 cells release cell transforming paracrine factors following exposure to a low dose of radiation (10 cGy). Investigation of secreted proteins by SDS-Page and silver stain led to the identification of a 36 kDa band whose levels were increased in medium from irradiated cells, relative to sham controls. The 36 kDa band was identified as annexin A2 by mass spectrometry. Western blot analysis confirmed a dose-dependent increase in annexin A2 levels associated with medium from

343

Dose-Effect Relationship in Chemoradiotherapy for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer: A Randomized Trial Comparing Two Radiation Doses  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Locally advanced rectal cancer represents a major therapeutic challenge. Preoperative chemoradiation therapy is considered standard, but little is known about the dose-effect relationship. The present study represents a dose-escalation phase III trial comparing 2 doses of radiation. Methods and Materials: The inclusion criteria were resectable T3 and T4 tumors with a circumferential margin of {<=}5 mm on magnetic resonance imaging. The patients were randomized to receive 50.4 Gy in 28 fractions to the tumor and pelvic lymph nodes (arm A) or the same treatment supplemented with an endorectal boost given as high-dose-rate brachytherapy (10 Gy in 2 fractions; arm B). Concomitant chemotherapy, uftoral 300 mg/m{sup 2} and L-leucovorin 22.5 mg/d, was added to both arms on treatment days. The primary endpoint was complete pathologic remission. The secondary endpoints included tumor response and rate of complete resection (R0). Results: The study included 248 patients. No significant difference was found in toxicity or surgical complications between the 2 groups. Based on intention to treat, no significant difference was found in the complete pathologic remission rate between the 2 arms (18% and 18%). The rate of R0 resection was different in T3 tumors (90% and 99%; P=.03). The same applied to the rate of major response (tumor regression grade, 1+2), 29% and 44%, respectively (P=.04). Conclusions: This first randomized trial comparing 2 radiation doses indicated that the higher dose increased the rate of major response by 50% in T3 tumors. The endorectal boost is feasible, with no significant increase in toxicity or surgical complications.

Jakobsen, Anders, E-mail: anders.jakobsen@slb.regionsyddanmark.dk [Danish Colorectal Cancer Group South, Vejle Hospital, Vejle (Denmark) [Danish Colorectal Cancer Group South, Vejle Hospital, Vejle (Denmark); University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Ploen, John [University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark)] [University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Vuong, Te [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Appelt, Ane [Danish Colorectal Cancer Group South, Vejle Hospital, Vejle (Denmark) [Danish Colorectal Cancer Group South, Vejle Hospital, Vejle (Denmark); University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Lindebjerg, Jan; Rafaelsen, Soren R. [Danish Colorectal Cancer Group South, Vejle Hospital, Vejle (Denmark)] [Danish Colorectal Cancer Group South, Vejle Hospital, Vejle (Denmark)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

344

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Dual Regulation of JB6 Transformation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dual Regulation of JB6 Transformation by Low Dose Gamma Radiation. Dual Regulation of JB6 Transformation by Low Dose Gamma Radiation. Authors: Thomas J. Weber,1 Lye M. Markillie,1 William B. Chrisler,1 Xingye C. Lei,1 and Nancy H. Colburn2 Institutions: 1Molecular Biosciences, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. 2Gene Regulation Section, Basic Research Laboratory, National Cancer Institute JB6 mouse epidermal cells have been instrumental in defining the molecular mechanisms associated with neoplastic transformation in response to known tumor promoters. JB6 cells exhibit a clonal growth response to oxygen free radicals suggesting this model may also be useful for radiation research. Treatment of JB6 cells with 2 and 20 cGy gamma radiation resulted in a weak, but dose-dependent increase in anchorage-independent growth observed

345

Surgeon education decreases radiation dose in complex endovascular procedures and improves patient safety  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Objective Complex endovascular procedures such as fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair (FEVAR) are associated with higher radiation doses compared with other fluoroscopically guided interventions (FGIs). The purpose of this study was to determine whether surgeon education on radiation dose control can lead to lower reference air kerma (RAK) and peak skin dose (PSD) levels in high-dose procedures. Methods Radiation dose and operating factors were recorded for FGI performed in a hybrid room over a 16-month period. Cases exceeding 6 Gy RAK were investigated according to institutional policy. Information obtained from these investigations led to surgeon education focused on reducing patient dose. Points addressed included increasing table height, utilizing collimation and angulation, decreasing magnification modes, and maintaining minimal patient-to-detector distance. Procedural RAK doses and operating factors were compared 8 months pre- (group A) and 8 months post- (group B) educational intervention using analysis of variance with Tukey pairwise comparisons and t-tests. PSD distributions were calculated using custom software employing input data from fluoroscopic machine logs. Results Of 447 procedures performed, 300 \\{FGIs\\} had sufficient data to be included in the analysis (54% lower extremity, 11% thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair, 10% cerebral, 8% FEVAR, 7% endovascular aneurysm repair, 5% visceral, and 5% embolization). Twenty-one cases were investigated for exceeding 6 Gy RAK. FEVAR comprised 70% of the investigated cases and had a significantly higher median RAK dose compared with all other \\{FGIs\\} (Pradiation dose, and decreased the number of non-FEVAR cases that exceeded 6 Gy. It is essential thatvascular surgeons be educated in best operating practices to lower PSD; nonetheless, FEVAR remains a high-dose procedure.

Melissa L. Kirkwood; Gary M. Arbique; Jeffrey B. Guild; Carlos Timaran; Jayer Chung; Jon A. Anderson; R. James Valentine

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - Suggested Books and Literature for  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Suggested Books and Literature for Teachers about Radiation Suggested Books and Literature for Teachers about Radiation Popular Press News Articles Newspapers is an excellent portal or gateway to newspapers from all 50 states. To find a newspaper of interest, select a state and click Search. For a more specified search, fill in the Title of the newspaper and click Search. The newspapers available from that state are listed alphabetically. Hall, E., Radiation and Life Hall, E.J.Radiobiology for the Radiologist. 5th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, PA. 2000 Nagai, T.Atomic Bomb Rescue and Relief Report. Nagasaki Association for Hibakushas' Medical Care (NASHIM), Nagasaki, Japan. 2000 Nagataki, S.Nagasaki Symposium on Chernobyl: Update and Future, Proceedings of "Chernobyl Update" 3 June 1994 at the 67th Annual Meeting of

347

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Interaction between Tissue and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

between Tissue and Cellular Stress Responses: Effect of between Tissue and Cellular Stress Responses: Effect of TGF-ß Depletion on Radiation-Induced p53 Response M.H. Barcellos-Hoff, S.A. Ravani, R.L. Henshall, K.B. Ewan, R.L. Warters,* B. Parvin Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory *University of Utah One of the most widely studied cellular responses to radiation is the activation of the transcription factor, p53, whose abundance and action dictates individual cellular fate decisions regarding proliferation, differentiation and death. A cell's response to damage needs to be rapid. Thus, it is not surprising that the activation of the p53 stress response primarily involves post-translational changes in the p53 protein. Whereas intracellular radiation-induced mediators of p53 stability have been the subject of intense study, little is known about the extracellular factors

348

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Modeling Intercellular Interactions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Modeling Intercellular Interactions During Radiation Carcinogenesis Modeling Intercellular Interactions During Radiation Carcinogenesis Authors: Rainer K Sachs,1 Michael Chan,2 Lynn Hlatky,3 Philip Hahnfeldt3 Institutions: 1Departments of Mathematics and Physics, University of California Berkeley California; 2School of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla California; 3Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston Massachusetts Abstract By modulating the microenvironment of malignant or pre-malignant epithelial cells, inhibitory or stimulatory signals from nearby cells, including those in stromal and vascular tissues, can play a key role in carcinogenesis; cancer is ultimately a disease of a whole-cell community, not just of a single cell, clone, or cell lineage. However, current commonly used

349

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Low-LET Microdosimetry Calculations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low-LET Microdosimetry Calculations Low-LET Microdosimetry Calculations Authors: W.E. Wilson, J.H. Miller, D.J. Lynch, R.R. Lewis and M. Batdorf Institutions: Washington State University, Richland, WA, USA Liquid Model Calculations of low-linear-transfer (LET) microdosimetry have been extended to condensed phase by introducing new modules into the PITS code suite. Probability tables for inelastic interactions are constructed using the Dingfelder-GSF model for liquid-water cross-sections. Dingfelder et al. 1 re-evaluated low-energy electron interactions in liquid water in terms of five excitation and five ionization channels, and without assuming any collective interactions (plasmons). We use Dingfelder’s algorithms to calculate differential energy-loss distributions for the ten channels; by

350

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Interaction of Genome and Cellular  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Genome and Cellular Micronenvioronment of Genome and Cellular Micronenvioronment Mina Bissell Life Sciences Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Why this Project While normal stoma can delay or prevent tumorigenesis, abnormal stromal components can promote tumor growth. Acquired or inherited mutations that alter stromal cell function can release the context-suppressed malignant cells. Literature spanning more than a century has shown that inflammation associated with tissue wounding can produce tunors. Radiation produces changes in reactive oxygen that are similar to inflammation and may represent a mechanism for radiation-induced damage. Project Goals To determine the underlying role of stromal alterations in controling genomic instability accompanying epithelial-mesenchyumal transformation.

351

A method for estimating occupational radiation dose to individuals, using weekly dosimetry data  

SciTech Connect

Statistical analyses of data from epidemiologic studies of workers exposed to radiation have been based on recorded annual radiation doses. It is usually assumed that the annual dose values are known exactly, although it is generally recognized that the data contain uncertainty due to measurement error and bias. We propose the use of a probability distribution to describe an individual`s dose during a specific period of time. Statistical methods for estimating this dose distribution are developed. The methods take into account the ``measurement error`` that is produced by the dosimetry system, and the bias that was introduced by policies that lead to right censoring of small doses as zero. The method is applied to a sample of dose histories obtained from hard copy dosimetry records at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The result of this evaluation raises serious questions about the validity of the historical personnel dosimetry data that is currently being used in low-dose studies of nuclear industry workers. In particular, it appears that there was a systematic underestimation of doses for ORNL workers. This could result in biased estimates of dose-response coefficients and their standard errors.

Mitchell, T.J.; Ostrouchov, G.; Frome, E.L.; Kerr, G.D.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Estimates of Radiation Dose from Strontium-90 Due to Fallout  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...2412"` d., 74" h. 2" fiberglas insulation. 1 50() watts, 11 5, 208, or 230...gratings, electro-luminescence, thermal radiation backgrounds, infrared polarizers...chart. Write for complete data and specifications. SMALL ANIMAL BALANCE Model 4203B-TC-SA...

MERRIL EISENBUD

1959-09-18T23:59:59.000Z

353

Cell Cycle Disturbances and Mitotic Catastrophes in HeLa Hep2 Cells following 2.5 to 10 Gy of Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...death (2-5). Radiation is known to exert...molecules involved in this radiation-induced cellular safety machinery is p53...different doses of radiation at the molecular and...using the CellQuest software program, setting...

David Eriksson; Per-Olov Lfroth; Lennart Johansson; Katrine hlstrm Riklund; and Torgny Stigbrand

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

354

RADIATION CARCINOGENESIS IN MAN: INFLUENCE OF DOSE-RESPONSE MODELS AND RISK PROJECTION MODELS IN THE ESTIMATION OF RISK COEFFICIENTS FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO LOW-LEVEL RADIATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RADIATION CARCINOGENESIS IN MAN: INFLUENCE OF DOSE-RESPONSE MODELS AND RISK PROJECTION MODELS IN THE ESTIMATIONRADIATION CARCINOGENESIS IN HAN: INFLUENCE OF DOSE-RESPONSE MODELS AND RISK PROJECTION MODELS IN THE ESTIMATION

Fabrikant, J.I.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Molecular Mechanisms of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability in Human Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability in Human Cells Howard L. Liber Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences Colorado State University Why This Project This research will be to investigate the condition known as genomic instability. This can be defined as a state in which genetic alterations, including chromosome aberrations and gene mutations, occur at rates that are much higher than normal. In fact, genomic instability is what allows a normal cell to accumulate the multiple genetic alterations that are required to convert it into a cancer cell. The chromosomes of human cells have structures at their ends called telomeres. Telomeres normally function to prevent chromosomes from fusing together end-to-end. An important

356

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: The Progeny of Irradiated Mammary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Progeny of Irradiated Mammary Epithelial Cells Exhibit a Phenotype Progeny of Irradiated Mammary Epithelial Cells Exhibit a Phenotype Characteristic of Malignancy Mary H. Barcellos-Hoff, R.L. Henshall-Powell, M.J. Bissell, and B. Parvin Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Life Sciences Division We have proposed that the ability of radiation to induce altered microenvironments affects the frequency and features of neoplastic progression. Thus, we have sought to characterize the irradiated microenvironment and determine how these events contribute to mammary carcinogenesis. By using imaging bioinformatics to analyze mouse and human models of breast cancer we have now examined cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) critical for tissue-specific organization and function. We found that 1) radiation-induced microenvironments can contribute to neoplastic potential

357

The leaded apron revisited: does it reduce gonadal radiation dose in dental radiology  

SciTech Connect

A tissue-equivalent anthropomorphic human phantom was used with a lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimetry system to evaluate the radiation absorbed dose to the ovarian and testicular region during dental radiologic procedures. Measurements were made with and without personal lead shielding devices consisting of thyroid collar and apron of 0.25 mm lead thickness equivalence. The radiation absorbed dose with or without lead shielding did not differ significantly from control dosimeters in vertex occlusal and periapical views (p greater than 0.05). Personal lead shielding devices did reduce gonadal dose in the case of accidental exposure (p less than 0.05). A leaded apron of 0.25 mm lead thickness equivalent was permeable to radiation in direct exposure testing.

Wood, R.E.; Harris, A.M.; van der Merwe, E.J.; Nortje, C.J. (Ontario Cancer Institute, Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto (Canada))

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Using the Microsoft Kinect for Patient Size Estimation and Radiation Dose Normalization: Proof of Concept and Initial Validation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Monitoring patients' imaging-related radiation is currently a hot topic, but there ... are many obstacles to accurate, patient-specific dose estimation. While some, such as easier access to dose data and paramete...

Tessa S. Cook; Gregory Couch; Timothy J. Couch; Woojin Kim

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Calculation of radiation therapy dose using all particle Monte Carlo transport  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The actual radiation dose absorbed in the body is calculated using three-dimensional Monte Carlo transport. Neutrons, protons, deuterons, tritons, helium-3, alpha particles, photons, electrons, and positrons are transported in a completely coupled manner, using this Monte Carlo All-Particle Method (MCAPM). The major elements of the invention include: computer hardware, user description of the patient, description of the radiation source, physical databases, Monte Carlo transport, and output of dose distributions. This facilitated the estimation of dose distributions on a Cartesian grid for neutrons, photons, electrons, positrons, and heavy charged-particles incident on any biological target, with resolutions ranging from microns to centimeters. Calculations can be extended to estimate dose distributions on general-geometry (non-Cartesian) grids for biological and/or non-biological media.

Chandler, William P. (Tracy, CA); Hartmann-Siantar, Christine L. (San Ramon, CA); Rathkopf, James A. (Livermore, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Estimation of organs doses and radiation-induced secondary cancer risk from scattered photons for conventional radiation therapy of nasopharynx: a Monte Carlo study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We used Monte Carlo modeling to calculate the organs doses due to out-of field photons during radiation therapy of the nasopharynx.

Asghar Mesbahi; Farshad Seyednejad; Amir Gasemi-Jangjoo

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose ionizing radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Answers to questions about updated estimates of occupational radiation doses at Three Mile Island, Unit 2  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this question and answer report is to provide a clear, easy-to-understand explanation of revised radiation dose estimates which workers are likely to receive over the course of the cleanup at Three Mile Island, Unit 2, and of the possible health consequences to workers of these new estimates. We will focus primarily on occupational dose, although pertinent questions about public health and safety will also be answered.

Not Available

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Funded Project Descriptions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Funded Project Descriptions Funded Project Descriptions Non-Invasive Early Detection and Molecular Analysis of Low X-Ray Dose Effects in the Lens Jointly funded by NASA and DOE Principal Investigator: Lee Goldstein, M.D., Ph.D., Associate Professor in Psychiatry, Neurology, Ophthalmology, Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, & Biomedical Engineering, Boston University’s School Medicine, College of Engineering, and Photonics Center. Boston, Ma. The project includes a new DOE FWP (~$400 K over 3 years) to Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory with Eleanor Blakely as Project Leader. The work includes a subcontract to support the collaboration of Polly Chang of SRI, International, Menlo Park, CA. and is scheduled to begin as early as August 2009. This proposal was submitted in response to the joint DOE/NASA

363

An integrated genetics approach to systemic low-dose radiation responses  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

integrated genetics approach to systemic low-dose radiation responses integrated genetics approach to systemic low-dose radiation responses G. Huang 1 , Y. Huang 1 , D.H. Nguyen 1 , K. Bjornstad 1 , C. Rosen 1 , P. Chang 2 , R. DelRosario 3 , Do Yup Lee 1 , B. Bowen 1 , W. Reindl 1 , J. Mott 1 , A. Balmain 3 , M.H. Barcellos-Hoff 4 , Joe W Gray 1,5 , Mina Bissell 1 , Gary Karpen 1 , T. Northen 1 , E. A. Blakely 1 , J. H. Mao 1 1 Life Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 2 SRI International, Menlo Park, CA

364

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Using a Low LET Electron Microbeam to  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Using a Low LET Electron Microbeam to Investigate Non-Targeted Using a Low LET Electron Microbeam to Investigate Non-Targeted Effects of Low Dose Radiation Authors: William F. Morgan1 and Marianne B. Sowa2 Institutions: 1Radiation Oncology Research Laboratory, University of Maryland, Baltimore, Maryland; 2Chemical Structure and Dynamics, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington We have recently installed a low-linear energy transfer (LET) electron microbeam that generates energetic electrons to mimic radiation damage from gamma- and x-ray sources. It has been designed such that high-energy electrons deposit energy in a pre-selected subset of cells, leaving neighboring cells unirradiated (Figure 1). In this way it is possible to examine non-targeted effects associated with low dose radiation exposure,

365

Radiation Pneumonitis After Hypofractionated Radiotherapy: Evaluation of the LQ(L) Model and Different Dose Parameters  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the linear quadratic (LQ) model for hypofractionated radiotherapy within the context of predicting radiation pneumonitis (RP) and to investigate the effect if a linear (L) model in the high region (LQL model) is used. Methods and Materials: The radiation doses used for 128 patients treated with hypofractionated radiotherapy were converted to the equivalent doses given in fractions of 2 Gy for a range of {alpha}/{beta} ratios (1 Gy to infinity) according to the LQ(L) model. For the LQL model, different cut-off values between the LQ model and the linear component were used. The Lyman model parameters were fitted to the events of RP grade 2 or higher to derive the normal tissue complication probability (NTCP). The lung dose was calculated as the mean lung dose and the percentage of lung volume (V) receiving doses higher than a threshold dose of xGy (V{sub x}). Results: The best NTCP fit was found if the mean lung dose, or V{sub x}, was calculated with an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 3 Gy. The NTCP fit of other {alpha}/{beta} ratios and the LQL model were worse but within the 95% confidence interval of the NTCP fit of the LQ model with an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 3 Gy. The V{sub 50} NTCP fit was better than the NTCP fit of lower threshold doses. Conclusions: For high fraction doses, the LQ model with an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 3 Gy was the best method for converting the physical lung dose to predict RP.

Borst, Gerben R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ishikawa, Masayori [Department of Radiology, Hokkaido University School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Nijkamp, Jasper [Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute-Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Low dose radiation hypersensitivity and clustered DNA damages in human fibroblasts exposed to low dose and dose rate protons or 137CS y-rays  

SciTech Connect

Effective radioprotection for human space travelers hinges upon understanding the individual properties of charged particles. A significant fraction of particle radiation astronauts will encounter in space exploratory missions will come from high energy protons in galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) and/or possible exposures to lower energy proton flux from solar particle events (SPEs). These potential exposures present major concerns for NASA and others, in planning and executing long term space exploratory missions. We recently reported cell survival and transformation (acquisition of anchorage-independent growth in soft agar) frequencies in apparently normal NFF-28 primary human fibroblasts exposed to 0-30 cGy of 50MeV, 100MeV (SPE-like), or 1000 MeV (GCR-like) monoenergetic protons. These were modeled after 1989 SPE energies at an SPE-like low dose-rate (LDR) of 1.65 cGy/min or high dose rate (HDR) of 33.3 cGy/min delivered at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at BNL.

Bennett P. V.; Bennett, P.V.; Keszenman, D.J.; Johnson, A.M.; Sutherland, B.M.; Wilson, P.F.

2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

367

European Integrated Project RISC-RAD Radiosensitivity of Individuals and Susceptibility to Cancer induced by Ionizing Radiations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Integrated Project RISC-RAD Integrated Project RISC-RAD Radiosensitivity of Individuals and Susceptibility to Cancer induced by Ionizing Radiations Laure Sabatier 1 , L.H.F Mullenders 2 , Mike Atkinson 3 , Simon Bouffler 4 , Herwig Paretzke 5 1 Laboratory of Radiobiology and Oncology, CEA, 18 route du panorama BP6 92265 Fontenay-aux- Roses, France 2 LUMC, Department of Toxicogenetics, Postal Zone S-4-P, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands 3 GSF- Institute of Pathology, Ingolstädter Landstrasse 1, 85764 Neuherberg Germany 4 HPA Radiation Protection Division, Centre for Radiation Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Chilton, UK 5 GSF- Institute of Radiation Protection, Ingolstädter Landstrasse 1, Neuherberg, D-85764 Germany In radiological protection, the risks of inducing stochastic health effects (largely cancer) by a

368

Dose-Response Relations from Epidemiological Studies [and Discussion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article Dose-Response Relations...The paper discusses dose-response relations...available over a range wide enough to make...chrysotile asbestos and ionizing radiation. In both cases the...increases with the dose of asbestos (principally...

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

85Kr management trade-offs: a perspective to total radiation dose commitment  

SciTech Connect

Radiological consequences arising from the trade-offs for /sup 85/Kr waste management from possible nuclear fuel resource recovery activities have been investigated. The reference management technique is to release all the waste gas to the atmosphere where it is diluted and dispersed. A potential alternative is to collect, concentrate, package and submit the gas to long-term storage. This study compares the radiation dose commitment to the public and to the occupationally exposed work force from these alternatives. The results indicate that it makes little difference to the magnitude of the world population dose whether /sup 85/Kr is captured and stored or chronically released to the environment. Further, comparisons of radiation exposures (for the purpose of estimating health effects) at very low dose rates to very large populations with exposures to a small number of occupationally exposed workers who each receive much higher dose rates may be misleading. Finally, cost studies (EPA 1976 and DOE 1979a) show that inordinate amounts of money will be required to lower this already extremely small 80-year cumulative world population dose of 0.05 mrem/person (<0.001% of natural background radiation for the same time period).

Mellinger, P.J.; Hoenes, G.R.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Greenborg, J.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Modeling the Physics of Damage Cluster  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Modeling the Physics of Damage Cluster Formation in a Cellular Environment Modeling the Physics of Damage Cluster Formation in a Cellular Environment Larry Toburen East Carolina University Why This Project Modern tools of radiobiology are leading to many new discoveries regarding how cells and tissues respond to radiation exposure. We can now irradiate single cells and observe responses in adjacent cells. We can also measure clusters of radiation damage produced in DNA. The primary tools available to describe the initial spatial pattern of damage formed by the absorption of ionizing radiation are based on (MC) Monte Carlo simulations of the structure of charged particle tracks. Although many MC codes exist and considerable progress is being made in the incorporation of detailed macromolecular target structures into these codes, much of the interaction

371

CHIPLESS PASSIVE SENSOR FOR WIRELESS MONITORING OF HIGH RADIATION DOSES IN NUCLEAR INFRASTRUCTURES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CHIPLESS PASSIVE SENSOR FOR WIRELESS MONITORING OF HIGH RADIATION DOSES IN NUCLEAR INFRASTRUCTURES for Nuclear Research, Otwock, Poland 4 Wroclaw University of Technology, Wroclaw, Poland 5 TRAD, BP 47471, Labège, France ppons@laas.fr ABSTRACT The dosimetry is one of the crucial techniques that are needed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

372

Applied Radiation and Isotopes 64 (2006) 6062 Weak energy dependence of EBT gafchromic film dose  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is almost free of all these drawbacks. Its response is relatively energy-independent, and its sensitivityApplied Radiation and Isotopes 64 (2006) 60­62 Weak energy dependence of EBT gafchromic film dose of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Hong Kong b Department

Yu, K.N.

373

Molecular stress response in the CNS of mice after systemic exposureto interferon-alpha, ionizing radiation and ketamine  

SciTech Connect

We previously showed that the expression of troponin T1 (Tnnt 1) was induced in the central nervous system (CNS) of adultmice 30 min after treatment with ketamine, a glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor antagonist. We hypothesized that Tnnt 1 expression may be an early molecular biomarker of stress response in the CNS of mice. To further evaluate this hypothesis, we investigated the regional expression of Tnnt 1 in the mouse brain using RNA in situ hybridization 4 h after systemic exposure to interferon-a (IFN-a) and gamma ionizing radiation, both of which have be associated with wide ranges of neuropsychiatric complications. Adult B6C3F1 male mice were treated with either human IFN-a (a single i.p. injection at 1 x 105 IU/kg) or whole body gamma-radiation (10 cGy or 2 Gy). Patterns of Tnnt 1 transcript expression were compared in various CNS regions after IFN-a, radiation and ketamine treatments (previous study). Tnnt 1 expression was consistently induced in pyramidal neurons of cerebral cortex and hippocampus after all treatment regimens including 10 cGy of ionizing radiation. Regional expression of Tnnt 1 was induced in Purkinje cells of cerebellum after ionizing radiation and ketamine treatment; but not after IFN-a treatment. None of the three treatments induced Tnnt 1 expression in glial cells. The patterns of Tnnt 1 expression in pyramidal neurons of cerebral cortex andhippocampus, which are both known to play important roles in cognitive function, memory and emotion, suggest that the expression of Tnnt 1 may be an early molecular biomarker of induced CNS stress.

Lowe, Xiu R.; Marchetti, Francesco; Lu, Xiaochen; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

374

Ionizing Radiation Activates AMP-Activated Kinase (AMPK): A Target for Radiosensitization of Human Cancer Cells  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated kinase (AMPK) is a molecular energy sensor regulated by the tumor suppressor LKB1. Starvation and growth factors activate AMPK through the DNA damage sensor ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM). We explored the regulation of AMPK by ionizing radiation (IR) and its role as a target for radiosensitization of human cancer cells. Methods and Materials: Lung, prostate, and breast cancer cells were treated with IR (2-8 Gy) after incubation with either ATM or AMPK inhibitors or the AMPK activator metformin. Then, cells were subjected to either lysis and immunoblotting, immunofluorescence microscopy, clonogenic survival assays, or cell cycle analysis. Results: IR induced a robust phosphorylation and activation of AMPK in all tumor cells, independent of LKB1. IR activated AMPK first in the nucleus, and this extended later into cytoplasm. The ATM inhibitor KU-55933 blocked IR activation of AMPK. AMPK inhibition with Compound C or anti-AMPK {alpha} subunit small interfering RNA (siRNA) blocked IR induction of the cell cycle regulators p53 and p21{sup waf/cip} as well as the IR-induced G2/M arrest. Compound C caused resistance to IR, increasing the surviving fraction after 2 Gy, but the anti-diabetic drug metformin enhanced IR activation of AMPK and lowered the surviving fraction after 2 Gy further. Conclusions: We provide evidence that IR activates AMPK in human cancer cells in an LKB1-independent manner, leading to induction of p21{sup waf/cip} and regulation of the cell cycle and survival. AMPK appears to (1) participate in an ATM-AMPK-p21{sup waf/cip} pathway, (2) be involved in regulation of the IR-induced G2/M checkpoint, and (3) may be targeted by metformin to enhance IR responses.

Sanli, Toran; Rashid, Ayesha; Liu Caiqiong [Department of Oncology, Juravinski Cancer Center and McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Genetic Control of Repair and Adaptive  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Repair and Adaptive Responses to Low-level DNA Damage Repair and Adaptive Responses to Low-level DNA Damage James E. Haber Brandeis University Why This Project In order to fully understand mechanisms resulting in effects of low dose, whole system rather than cells must be examined. Although not identical to mammalian systems, simple systems usually have many similarities and give direction for further study of more complex systems. We use the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as a model system because it is easy to manipulate and its genome is simple and well characterized. Project Goals Examine mechanisms and effects of low dose radiation response for: Genetic recombination mechanisms that lead to genomic instability Genetic factors that affect individual susceptibility to low-dose radiation The adaptive response

376

Human In vivo Dose-Response to Controlled, Low-Dose Low Linear Energy Transfer Ionizing Radiation Exposure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...format from the National Center for Biotechnology Information...most peoples lives by industrial exposures and medical...California Davis Cancer Center, UCDHS. The authors...implications for risk assessment in both therapeutic...California Davis Cancer Center, Sacramento, 95817...

Zelanna Goldberg; David M. Rocke; Chad Schwietert; Susanne R. Berglund; Alison Santana; Angela Jones; Jrg Lehmann; Robin Stern; Ruixiao Lu; and Christine Hartmann Siantar

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

377

Biological effects in unirradiated human tissue induced by radiation damage up to 1 mm away  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in extrapolating radiation risk estimates from epidemi- ologically accessible doses down to very low doses where) and for assessing the risk from a low-dose exposure to a carcinogen such as ionizing radiation, where only a smallBiological effects in unirradiated human tissue induced by radiation damage up to 1 mm away Oleg V

378

Risk Estimation; Background Radiation (Natural and Artificial )  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-threshold mode estimate the response at lower doses. · The Committee on Biological Effects of Ionizing RadiationModule 9 Risk Estimation; Background Radiation (Natural and Artificial ) · sources of background radiation · various risk models. · estimating risk and on the sources of background radiation, both

Massey, Thomas N.

379

Radiation-Induced Rib Fractures After Hypofractionated Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy: Risk Factors and Dose-Volume Relationship  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to clarify the incidence, the clinical risk factors, and the dose-volume relationship of radiation-induced rib fracture (RIRF) after hypofractionated stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Methods and Materials: One hundred sixteen patients treated with SBRT for primary or metastatic lung cancer at our institution, with at least 6 months of follow-up and no previous overlapping radiation exposure, were included in this study. To determine the clinical risk factors associated with RIRF, correlations between the incidence of RIRF and the variables, including age, sex, diagnosis, gross tumor volume diameter, rib-tumor distance, and use of steroid administration, were analyzed. Dose-volume histogram analysis was also conducted. Regarding the maximum dose, V10, V20, V30, and V40 of the rib, and the incidences of RIRF were compared between the two groups divided by the cutoff value determined by the receiver operating characteristic curves. Results: One hundred sixteen patients and 374 ribs met the inclusion criteria. Among the 116 patients, 28 patients (46 ribs) experienced RIRF. The estimated incidence of rib fracture was 37.7% at 3 years. Limited distance from the rib to the tumor (<2.0 cm) was the only significant risk factor for RIRF (p = 0.0001). Among the dosimetric parameters used for receiver operating characteristic analysis, the maximum dose showed the highest area under the curve. The 3-year estimated risk of RIRF and the determined cutoff value were 45.8% vs. 1.4% (maximum dose, {>=}42.4 Gy or less), 51.6% vs. 2.0% (V40, {>=}0.29 cm{sup 3} or less), 45.8% vs. 2.2% (V30, {>=}1.35 cm{sup 3} or less), 42.0% vs. 8.5% (V20, {>=}3.62 cm{sup 3} or less), or 25.9% vs. 10.5% (V10, {>=}5.03 cm{sup 3} or less). Conclusions: The incidence of RIRF after hypofractionated SBRT is relatively high. The maximum dose and high-dose volume are strongly correlated with RIRF.

Asai, Kaori [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)] [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Shioyama, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: shioyama@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Heavy Particle Therapy and Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)] [Department of Heavy Particle Therapy and Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Nakamura, Katsumasa; Sasaki, Tomonari; Ohga, Saiji; Nonoshita, Takeshi [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)] [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Yoshitake, Tadamasa [Department of Heavy Particle Therapy and Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)] [Department of Heavy Particle Therapy and Radiation Oncology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Ohnishi, Kayoko [Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)] [Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Terashima, Kotaro; Matsumoto, Keiji [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)] [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Hirata, Hideki [Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)] [Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Honda, Hiroshi [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)] [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Estimation of children's radiation dose from cardiac catheterisations, performed for the  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Entrance surface radiation doses were measured with thermoluminescent dosimeters for 98 children who were referred to a cardiology department for the diagnosis or the treatment of a congenital heart disease. Additionally, all the radiographic parameters were recorded and Monte Carlo simulations were performed for the estimation of entrance surface dose to effective dose conversion factors, in order to further calculate the effective dose for each child. For diagnostic catheterisations the values ranged from 0.16 to 14.44mSv, with average 3.71mSv, and for therapeutic catheterisations the values ranged from 0.38 to 25.01mSv, with average value 5mSv. Effective doses were estimated for diagnostic procedures and interventional procedures performed for the treatment of five different heart diseases: (a)atrial septal defect (ASD), (b)ventricular septal defect (VSD), (c)patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), (d)aorta coarctation and (e)pulmonary stenosis. The high levels of radiation exposure are, however, balanced with the advantages of cardiac catheterisations such as the avoidance of surgical closure and the necessity of shorter or even nohospitalisation.

E N Yakoumakis; G I Gialousis; Despina Papadopoulou; Triantafillia Makri; Zografia Pappouli; Nikolaos Yakoumakis; Panayotis Papagiannis; Evangelos Georgiou

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose ionizing radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Uptake, depuration, and radiation dose estimation in zebrafish exposed to radionuclides via aqueous or dietary routes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Understanding uptake and depuration of radionuclides in organisms is necessary to relate exposure to radiation dose and ultimately to biological effects. We investigated uptake and depuration of a mixture of radionuclides to link bioaccumulation with radiation dose in zebrafish, Danio rerio. Adult zebrafish were exposed to radionuclides (54Mn, 60Co, 65Zn, 75Se, 109Cd, 110mAg, 134Cs and 241Am) at tracer levels (dose rates were modelled from activity concentrations in whole body and exposure medium (water or diet). After 14-day aqueous exposure, radionuclides were detected in decreasing activity concentrations: 75Se>65Zn>109Cd>110mAg>54Mn>60Co>241Am>134Cs (range: 1758Bqg1). After dietary exposure the order of radionuclide activity concentration in tissues (Bqg?1) was: 65Zn>60Co>75Se>109Cd>110mAg>241Am>54Mn>134Cs (range: 911Bqg?1). Aqueous exposure resulted in higher whole body activity concentrations for all radionuclides except 60Co. Route of exposure did not appear to influence activity concentrations in gonads, except for 54Mn, 65Zn, and 75Se, which had higher activity concentrations in gonads following aqueous exposure. Highest gonad activity concentrations (Bqg?1) were for 75Se (211), 109Cd (142), and 65Zn (117), and highest dose rates (?Gyh?1) were from 241Am (aqueous, 1050; diet 242). This study links radionuclide bioaccumulation data obtained in laboratory experiments with radiation dose determined by application of a dosimetry modelling tool, an approach that will enable better linkages to be made between exposure, dose, and effects of radionuclides in organisms.

Helena C. Reinardy; Jean-Louis Teyssie; Ross A. Jeffree; David Copplestone; Theodore B. Henry; Awadhesh N. Jha

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Measurement of absorbed dose-to-water for an HDR {sup 192}Ir source with ionization chambers in a sandwich setup  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: In this study, a dedicated device for ion chamber measurements of absorbed dose-to-water for a Nucletron microSelectron-v2 HDR {sup 192}Ir brachytherapy source is presented. The device uses two ionization chambers in a so-called sandwich assembly. Using this setup and by taking the average reading of the two chambers, any dose error due to difficulties in absolute positioning (centering) of the source in between the chambers is cancelled to first order. The method's accuracy was examined by comparing measurements with absorbed dose-to-water determination based on the AAPM TG-43 protocol.Methods: The optimal source-to-chamber distance (SCD) for {sup 192}Ir dosimetry was determined from ion chamber measurements in a water phantom. The {sup 192}Ir source was sandwiched between two Exradin A1SL chambers (0.057 cm{sup 3}) at the optimal SCD separation. The measured ionization was converted to the absorbed dose-to-water using a {sup 60}Co calibration factor and a Monte Carlo-calculated beam quality conversion factor, k{sub Q}, for {sup 60}Co to {sup 192}Ir. An uncertainty estimate of the proposed method was determined based on reproducibility of measurements at different institutions for the same type of source.Results: The optimal distance for the A1SL chamber measurements was determined to be 5 cm from the {sup 192}Ir source center, considering the depth dependency of k{sub Q} for {sup 60}Co to {sup 192}Ir and the chamber positioning. The absorbed dose to water measured at (5 cm, 90) on the transverse axis was 1.3% lower than TG-43 values and its reproducibility and overall uncertainty were 0.8% and 1.7%, respectively. The measurement doses at anisotropic points agreed within 1.5% with TG-43 values.Conclusions: The ion chamber measurement of absorbed dose-to-water with a sandwich method for the {sup 192}Ir source provides a more accurate, direct, and reference dose compared to the dose-to-water determination based on air-kerma strength in the TG-43 protocol. Due to the simple but accurate assembly, the sandwich measurement method is useful for daily dose management of {sup 192}Ir sources.

Araki, Fujio; Kouno, Tomohiro; Ohno, Takeshi [Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, 4-24-1 Kuhonji, Kumamoto 862-0976 (Japan)] [Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Life Sciences, Kumamoto University, 4-24-1 Kuhonji, Kumamoto 862-0976 (Japan); Kakei, Kiyotaka; Yoshiyama, Fumiaki [Department of Radiotherapy, Kumamoto University Hospital, 1-1-1 Honjyo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan)] [Department of Radiotherapy, Kumamoto University Hospital, 1-1-1 Honjyo, Kumamoto 860-8556 (Japan); Kawamura, Shinji [Department of Radiotherapy, Miyazaki University Hospital, 5200 Kihara Ohaza Kiyotake-Machi, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan)] [Department of Radiotherapy, Miyazaki University Hospital, 5200 Kihara Ohaza Kiyotake-Machi, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan)

2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

383

General situation of radiation accidents in China  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......never received any formal safety culture education, so...professionals, and during safety culture education, for...dose results, relevant software has been developed for...International basic safety standards for protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of......

Zhou Li; Zhang Wenyi; Zhang Liang'an

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Dose dependence and dose-rate dependence of the optically stimulated luminescence signal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

has been seen for a certain dose-rate range. The similarities and dissimilarities of OSL as compared of a solid sample, usually by ionizing radiation during which time, energy is absorbed in the sample. In TLDose dependence and dose-rate dependence of the optically stimulated luminescence signal R. Chena

Chen, Reuven

385

A modified Phase I trial of radiation dose escalation in 3D conformal radiation therapy with concurrent vinorelbine and carboplatin chemotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......system (VENUS 5014 software, Shanghai Tuoneng Co.) used to design the radiation plan. The convolution...stopped. Grade III radiation pneumonia was defined...DLT. To examine the safety of the 70 Gy dose level...Case Case Case (%) Radiation pneumonia 11 (61......

Qiang Lin; Yue'e Liu; Na Wang; Yuehua Huang; Xiaohui Ge; Xiaocang Ren; Xueji Chen; Jing Hu; Zhijun Guo; Yannan Zhao; Junichi Asaumi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Low Dose Radiation Induced DNA Damage Signaling and Repair Responses in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Induced DNA Damage Signaling and Repair Responses in Induced DNA Damage Signaling and Repair Responses in Human 3-Dimensional Skin Model System Yanrong Su, Jarah Meador and Adayabalam S. Balajee Center for Radiological Research, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, 630 West, 168th Street, New York, NY 10032. Exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) inflicts a wide variety of lesions in the genomic DNA. Among them, DNA double strand break (DSB) is considered to be the critical lesion for most of the deleterious radiation effects including carcinogenesis. Much of our knowledge on induction and repair kinetics of DSB has come from studies in two dimensional cell culture systems. However, the damage signaling and repair responses to DSB in tissue microenvironment are largely unknown. Knowledge of tissue responses to

387

Parallelization of Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning(RTTP) : A Case Study \\Lambda  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract Radiation therapy uses ionizing radiation to treat cancer­ ous tumors. This paper reports our, thereby concentrating radiation dose in the tumor. The maximum dose that can be delivered to the tumorParallelization of Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning(RTTP) : A Case Study \\Lambda V. Chaudhary

Xu, Cheng-Zhong

388

Nuclear Decay Data in the MIRD (Medical Internal Radiation Dose) Format  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

MIRD is a database of evaluated nuclear decay data for over 2,100 radioactive nuclei. Data are extracted from ENSDF, processed by the program RadList, and used for medical internal radiation dose calculations. When using the MIRD interface, tables of nuclear and atomic radiations from nuclear decay and decay scheme drawings will be produced in the MIRD format from the Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File (ENSDF) for the specified nuclide. Output may be either HTML-formatted tables and JPEG drawings, PostScript tables and drawings, or PDF tables and drawings.

389

A revised model of the kidney for medical internal radiation dose calculations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are frequently the organs receiving the highest level of radioactivity and, therefore, the largest radiation dose. Short lived radiopharmaceuticals, that are now injected in millicurie quantities in nuclear medicine for rapid-sequence imaging of the brain... radionuclides (Appendix B). 17 These include the following radionuclides presently used in nuclear medicine: P-32, Cr-51, Co-57, Ga-67, Tc-99m, In-ill, I-123, Xe-127, I-131, Xe-133, and T1-201. If the radionuclide emits penetrating radiation, the code...

Patel, Jyoti Shivabhai

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Radiation dose estimation in computed tomography examinations using NRPB-SR250 software in aretrospective analysis of a patient population  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......NRPB-SR250 software in aretrospective...fi 1 STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority...342:d947. RADIATION DOSE ESTIMATION...NRPB-SR250 SOFTWARE IN A RETROSPECTIVE...of medical radiation exposure...to patients safety, frequent......

E. Salminen; H. Niiniviita; J. Kulmala; H. Mttnen; H. Jrvinen

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Low Dose Radiation Stimulates Antioxidant Capacity in the Brain and Lessens  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Stimulates Antioxidant Capacity in the Brain and Lessens Stimulates Antioxidant Capacity in the Brain and Lessens Behavioral Symptoms in a 6-OHDA-Induced Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease Mohan Doss Fox Chase Cancer Center Abstract Background: Progressive degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) pars compacta results in motor deficits in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. Oxidative damage to the nigral dopaminergic neurons has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. Our hypothesis is that low dose radiation induces the production of antioxidants in the brain, which could provide protection to the dopaminergic neurons, potentially leading to prevention or stabilization of PD. The purpose of the study is (1) to determine the effect of low dose radiation on the total antioxidant capacity in SN in

392

TABLES OF RADIATION ABSORBED DOSE TO THE EMBRYO/FETUS FROM RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

TABLES OF RADIATION ABSORBED DOSE TO THE EMBRYO/FETUS TABLES OF RADIATION ABSORBED DOSE TO THE EMBRYO/FETUS FROM RADIOPHARMACEUTICALS LATEST REVISION DATE: 1/21/98 The material in this document is taken from the Master's thesis of Ms. Joy Russell (University of Tennessee, Master's Degree conferred August 1995). The data below, and the methods and assumptions used to derive them, are published in two documents in the Health Physics Journal (73(5):747-755, 1997 and 73(5):756-769, 1997) and also in the Proceedings of the Sixth International Radiopharmaceutical Dosimetry Symposium. Please contact the center with any questions or comments about the data. Richard E. Toohey, 423-576-3448 phone, 423-576-8673 fax, tooheyr@orau.gov e-mail Audrey T. Stelson, 423-576-3450 phone, 423-576-8673 fax, stelsona@orau.gov e-mail

393

148 IEEE PHOTONICS TECHNOLOGY LETTERS, VOL. 18, NO. 1, JANUARY 1, 2006 Radiation Resistance of Single-Frequency 1310-nm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

experiments, and for space and medical applications. Typical radiation doses in medical applications range to ionizing radiation using 200-MeV/c proton beams are reported. Twelve powered lasers survived a total radiation dose of up to 22.3 Mrad. One of the two not-powered lasers survived a total dose of 1.5 Mrad

Ye, Jingbo

394

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 476 (2002) 758764 Observation of radiation induced latchup in the readout  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to high levels of radiation resulting in an ionizing radiation dose of more than 200 krad and displacement with a radia- tion hard technology that can resist up to radiation dose levels greater than 1 Mrad. Both chips were fabricated according to almost identical designs. 2. Estimation of dose and fluence NA50

Ramello, Luciano

395

Radiation Dose and Radiation Protection for Patients and Physicians During Interventional Procedure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Radiation Injury in IVR 101 those in the left coronary artery (LCA, AHA #1115: 0.628, AHA #510: 0.694).40) Therefore...criphysicianfactsheet.asp. Published May 10, 2006. 58. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, International Atomic Energy......

Koichi Chida; Mamoru Kato; Yutaka Kagaya; Masayuki Zuguchi; Haruo Saito; Tadashi Ishibashi; Shoki Takahashi; Shogo Yamada; Yoshihiro Takai

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Polymorphisms in DNA Repair Genes, Medical Exposure to Ionizing Radiation, and Breast Cancer Risk  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Session Abstracts Treatment Radiation Therapy CTRC-AACR San...breast-conserving therapy in Japan: comparison of the treatment...Mitsumori 1 1 Department of Radiation Oncology and Image-Applied...Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan 2 Department of Radiology...

Robert C. Millikan; Jon S. Player; Allan Rene deCotret; Chiu-Kit Tse; and Temitope Keku

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Concepts of radiation safety and protection: Beyond BEIR V  

SciTech Connect

The publication of an updated report on the biological effects of ionizing radiation (BEIR V) has focused new attention on the potential hazards associated with the use of low doses of ionizing radiation for diagnostic purposes. This article reviews the BEIR V report findings and suggests methods for reducing the risks to dental patients and the operators of dental x-ray equipment.

Farman, A.G. (University of Louisville School of Dentistry, KY (USA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Zebrafish as a Biosensor? Effects of Ionizing Radiation and Amifostine on Embryonic Viability and Development  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Environmental Health and Radiation Safety at the University...LabSpectrum v2.0.1 software (Scanalytics...and exposed to radiation at 4 hpf. Immediately...minutes before radiation exposure. For...Molecular Imaging Software, version 4.0...

Geoffrey A. Geiger; Sharon E. Parker; Andrew P. Beothy; Jennifer A. Tucker; Mary C. Mullins; and Gary D. Kao

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

399

Discovering Clinical Biomarkers of Ionizing Radiation Exposure with Serum Proteomic Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...radiation treatment plans provided serum...long-established gold standard biomarker of radiation...Institutional Review Board-approved...using visual data mining techniques showed...exposure, gold standard lymphocyte assays...through visual data mining activities that...radiation treatment plans provided serum...

Cynthia Mnard; Donald Johann; Mark Lowenthal; Thierry Muanza; Mary Sproull; Sally Ross; James Gulley; Emanuel Petricoin; C. Norman Coleman; Gordon Whiteley; Lance Liotta; and Kevin Camphausen

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Radiation dose assessment methodology and preliminary dose estimates to support US Department of Energy radiation control criteria for regulated treatment and disposal of hazardous wastes and materials  

SciTech Connect

This report provides unit dose to concentration levels that may be used to develop control criteria for radionuclide activity in hazardous waste; if implemented, these criteria would be developed to provide an adequate level of public and worker health protection, for wastes regulated under U.S, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements (as derived from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act [RCRA] and/or the Toxic Substances Control Act [TSCA]). Thus, DOE and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission can fulfill their obligation to protect the public from radiation by ensuring that such wastes are appropriately managed, while simultaneously reducing the current level of dual regulation. In terms of health protection, dual regulation of very small quantities of radionuclides provides no benefit.

Aaberg, R.L.; Baker, D.A.; Rhoads, K.; Jarvis, M.F.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose ionizing radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Mechanisms underlying cellular responses of cells from haemopoeitic tissue to low dose-low LET radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

underlying cellular responses of cells from haemopoeitic underlying cellular responses of cells from haemopoeitic tissue to low dose-low LET radiation Munira Kadhim 1 , Sarah Irons 1 , Deborah Bowler 1 , Virginia Serra 1 , Stefania Militi 2 , Kim Chapman 1 1 Genomic Instability Research Group, School of Life Sciences, Oxford Brookes University, Gipsy Lane, Headington, Oxford, Oxfordshire, OX3 0BP, UK 2 Mammalian Genetics Unit, Medical Research Council Harwell, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Oxfordshire, OX11 0RD, UK Radiation-induced responses at the cellular and whole body levels are influenced by genetic predisposition, with implications for environmental and potentially, diagnostic exposures. Currently, the extent to which genetic background play a role in the mechanisms and signalling pathways involved in radiation-induced

402

Effects of non-lethal doses of ionising radiation on the instrumental behaviour of rats  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The dose-effect dependence of the instrumental behaviour of white rats after a single total ?-exposure (60Co) in the dosage range of 0.05 to 7.0 Gy was studied. Generalised results of seven years of our studies of post-radiation changes of operant behaviour in shuttle (active avoidance of shock ?? negative reinforcement) and in Skinner (drinking reward ?? positive reinforcement) boxes were evaluated weekly for a two-month period after exposure. The dose dependence, obtained using these two behavioural paradigms, displays a non-linear pattern. Three regions with different characteristic patterns of the observed effects were found: performance declines relative to control animals after exposure to doses up to 1.0 Gy; performance increases at doses in the range from 1.0 to 3.0 Gy; and again declines with dose increases up to 7.0 Gy. Possible underlying mechanisms, particularly the role of additional stress caused by animal testing, are discussed.

Eugene V. Tukalenko; Vyacheslav V. Varetsky; Olexander G. Rakochi; Inna R. Dmitrieva; Mikola U. Makarchuk

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Multi-cellular Crosstalk in Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

About this Project About this Project Multi-cellular Crosstalk in Radiation Damage Technical Abstracts 2006 Workshop: Low-LET Bystander Effects in Cells In Vitro Are Significantly Less Than Published For High-LET Radiation Blakely, E.A., Thompson, A.C., Chang, P., Schwarz, R.I., Bjornstad, K., Rosen, C., Wisnewski, C., and Mocherla, D. 2005 Workshop: X-ray Microbeam Bystander Studies with Human Mammary Epithelial Cells and Fibroblasts Blakely, E.A., Schwarz, R.I., Thompson, A.C., Bjornstad, K.A., Chang, P.Y., Rosen, C.J., Sudar, D., Romano, R., and Parvin, B. 2003 Workshop: 12.5 keV X-ray Microbeam Bystander Studies with Human Mammary Epithelial Cells and Fibroblasts Blakely, E.A., Schwarz, R.I., Thompson, A.C., Bjornstad, K.A., Chang, P.Y., Rosen, C.J., and Sudar, D. 2001 Workshop:

404

Ionizing Radiation-Induced DNA Damage and Its Repair in Human Cells  

SciTech Connect

DNA damage in mammalian chromatin in vitro and in cultured mammalian cells including human cells was studied. In the first phase of these studies, a cell culture laboratory was established. Necessary equipment including an incubator, a sterile laminar flow hood and several centrifuges was purchased. We have successfully grown several cell lines such as murine hybridoma cells, V79 cells and human K562 leukemia cells. This was followed by the establishment of a methodology for the isolation of chromatin from cells. This was a very important step, because a routine and successful isolation of chromatin was a prerequisite for the success of the further studies in this project, the aim of which was the measurement of DNA darnage in mammalian chromatin in vitro and in cultured cells. Chromatin isolation was accomplished using a slightly modified procedure of the one described by Mee & Adelstein (1981). For identification and quantitation of DNA damage in cells, analysis of chromatin was preferred over the analysis of "naked DNA" for the following reasons: i. DNA may not be extracted efficiently from nucleoprotein in exposed cells, due to formation of DNA-protein cross-links, ii. the extractability of DNA is well known to decrease with increasing doses of radiation, iii. portions of DNA may not be extracted due to fragmentation, iv. unextracted DNA may contain a significant portion of damaged DNA bases and DNA-protein cross-links. The technique of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), which was used in the present project, permits the identification and quantitation of modified DNA bases in chromatin in the presence of proteins without the necessity of first isolating DNA from chromatin. This has been demonstrated previously by the results from our laboratory and by the results obtained during the course of the present project. The quality of isolated chromatin was tested by measurement of its content of DNA, proteins, and RNA, by analysis of its protein components using gel electrophoresis, and by absorption spectral analysis. GeneraUy, the RNA content was <5% of the amount of DNA, and the ratio of the amount of protein to that of DNA was =1. 8-2 (w/w). Having developed a suitable methodology for routine isolation of chromatin from mammalian cells, studies of DNA damage in chromatin in vitro and in cultured human cells were pursued.

Dizdaroglu, Miral

1999-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

405

Monte Carlo estimation of radiation doses during paediatric barium meal and cystourethrography examinations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Organ doses are important quantities in assessing the radiation risk. In the case of children, estimation of this risk is of particular concern due to their significant radiosensitivity and the greater health detriment. The purpose of this study is to estimate the organ doses to paediatric patients undergoing barium meal and micturating cystourethrography examinations by clinical measurements and Monte Carlo simulation. In clinical measurements, dosearea products (DAPs) were assessed during examination of 50 patients undergoing barium meal and 90 patients undergoing cystourethrography examinations, separated equally within three age categories: namely newborn, 1 year and 5 years old. Monte Carlo simulation of photon transport in male and female mathematical phantoms was applied using the MCNP5 code in order to estimate the equivalent organ doses. Regarding the micturating cystourethrography examinations, the organs receiving considerable amounts of radiation doses were the urinary bladder (1.87, 2.43 and 4.7 mSv, the first, second and third value in the parentheses corresponds to neonatal, 1 year old and 5 year old patients, respectively), the large intestines (1.54, 1.8, 3.1 mSv), the small intestines (1.34, 1.56, 2.78 mSv), the stomach (1.46, 1.02, 2.01 mSv) and the gall bladder (1.46, 1.66, 2.18 mSv), depending upon the age of the child. Organs receiving considerable amounts of radiation during barium meal examinations were the stomach (9.81, 9.92, 11.5 mSv), the gall bladder (3.05, 5.74, 7.15 mSv), the rib bones (9.82, 10.1, 11.1 mSv) and the pancreas (5.8, 5.93, 6.65 mSv), depending upon the age of the child. DAPs to organ/effective doses conversion factors were derived for each age and examination in order to be compared with other studies.

A Dimitriadis; G Gialousis; T Makri; M Karlatira; P Karaiskos; E Georgiou; S Papaodysseas; E Yakoumakis

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Significance of certain rustler aquifer parameters for predicting long-term radiation doses from WIPP  

SciTech Connect

This report considers some aspects of the radionuclide transport modeling presented in documents published by the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) nuclear waste repository proposed for development in Southeastern New Mexico. The radionuclide transport modeling is used to predict worst possible consequences of a WIPP repository breach event in which waste enters groundwater. The aim of this report is to determine whether plausible changes in the parameters used by DOE to describe the flow of groundwater near the WIPP site could result in: (a) significantly faster radionuclide movement in groundwater; and (b) significantly higher concentrations of radionuclides in Pecos River water and correspondingly higher radiation doses than predicted by DOE. The conclusion reached is that while plausible changes in hydrologic conditions and waste-rock interactions might result in a significant reduction in the time it takes for radionuclides to reach the Pecos River, the shorter travel times do not result in significant increases in the estimated concentrations of radionuclides in the Pecos River nor in the radiation doses associated with the use of such water. Other ways in which parameter changes might affect these concentrations and doses are mentioned in the Conclusions section of the report, but are not the subject of this analysis.

Wofsy, C

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Retrospective Cohort Study of Bronchial Doses and Radiation-Induced Atelectasis After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy of Lung Tumors Located Close to the Bronchial Tree  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the doseresponse relationship between radiation-induced atelectasis after stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and bronchial dose. Methods and Materials: Seventy-four patients treated with SBRT for tumors close to main, lobar, or segmental bronchi were selected. The association between incidence of atelectasis and bronchial dose parameters (maximum point-dose and minimum dose to the high-dose bronchial volume [ranging from 0.1 cm{sup 3} up to 2.0 cm{sup 3}]) was statistically evaluated with survival analysis models. Results: Prescribed doses varied between 4 and 20 Gy per fraction in 2-5 fractions. Eighteen patients (24.3%) developed atelectasis considered to be radiation-induced. Statistical analysis showed a significant correlation between the incidence of radiation-induced atelectasis and minimum dose to the high-dose bronchial volumes, of which 0.1 cm{sup 3} (D{sub 0.1cm3}) was used for further analysis. The median value of D{sub 0.1cm3} (?/? = 3 Gy) was EQD{sub 2,LQ} = 147 Gy{sub 3} (range, 20-293 Gy{sub 3}). For patients who developed atelectasis the median value was EQD{sub 2,LQ} = 210 Gy{sub 3}, and for patients who did not develop atelectasis, EQD{sub 2,LQ} = 105 Gy{sub 3}. Median time from treatment to development of atelectasis was 8.0 months (range, 1.1-30.1 months). Conclusion: In this retrospective study a significant doseresponse relationship between the incidence of atelectasis and the dose to the high-dose volume of the bronchi is shown.

Karlsson, Kristin, E-mail: kristin.karlsson@karolinska.se [Department of Medical Physics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Nyman, Jan [Department of Oncology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Baumann, Pia; Wersll, Peter [Department of Oncology, Radiumhemmet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Drugge, Ninni [Department of Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Gagliardi, Giovanna [Department of Medical Physics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Johansson, Karl-Axel [Department of Radiation Physics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg (Sweden); Persson, Jan-Olov [Statistical Research Group, Mathematical Statistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm (Sweden); Rutkowska, Eva [Physics Department, Clatterbridge Cancer Centre, Wirral (United Kingdom); Tullgren, Owe [Department of Oncology, Radiumhemmet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Lax, Ingmar [Department of Medical Physics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Oncology-Pathology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden)

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Correlation of radiation absorbed dose to the human thyroid using the FBX dosimeter and external probe techniques  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Internal Radiaion Dose Reports (MIRD) of the Society of Nuclear Medicine. The dosimeter exhibited a similar response to that. obtained in the research of Benedetto who also correlated his results to ca)culat)ons made using MIRD techniques (Beg4k... that would be able to assess the radiation absorbed dose produced by radioisotopes in both nuclear medicine and due to accidental internal deposition of radionuclides to radiation workers or to members of the general public would have many desirable...

Bateman, Sarah Caroline Louisa

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

409

E-Print Network 3.0 - attenuates ionizing radiation-induced Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

silica optical Summary: measurements and the so-called radiation-induced attenuation (RIA) measured in dBm. TSL measurements have been... measurements. Connections between...

410

Impact of Internal Metallic Ports in Temporary Tissue Expanders on Postmastectomy Radiation Dose Distribution  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Temporary tissue expanders (TTE) with an internal magnetic metal port (IMP) have been increasingly used for breast reconstruction in post-mastectomy patients who receive radiation therapy (XRT). We evaluated XRT plans of patients with IMP to determine its effect on XRT dose distribution. Methods and Materials: Original treatment plans with CT simulation scans of 24 consecutive patients who received XRT (ORI), planned without heterogeneity corrections, to a reconstructed breast containing an IMP were used. Two additional treatment plans were then generated: one treatment plan with the IMP assigned the electron density of the rare earth magnet, nickel plated neodymium-iron-boron (HET), and a second treatment plan with the IMP assigned a CT value of 1 to simulate a homogeneous breast without an IMP (BRS). All plans were prescribed 50 Gy to the reconstructed breast (CTV). Results: CTV coverage by 50 Gy was significantly lower in the HET (mean 87.7% CTV) than in either the ORI (mean 99.7% CTV, P<.001) or BRS plans (mean 95.0% CTV, P<.001). The effect of the port was more pronounced on CT slices containing the IMP with prescription dose coverage of the CTV being less in the HET than in either ORI (mean difference 33.6%, P<.01) or BRS plans (mean difference 30.1%, P<.001). HET had a less homogeneous and conformal dose distribution than BRS or ORI. Conclusion: IMPs increase dose heterogeneity and reduce dose to the breast CTV through attenuation of the beam. For optimal XRT treatment, heterogeneity corrections should be used in XRT planning for patients with TTE with IMP, as the IMP impacts dose distribution.

Chen, Susie A.; Ogunleye, Tomiwa; Dhabbaan, Anees [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Huang, Eugene H. [North Coast Cancer Care, Sandusky, Ohio (United States)] [North Coast Cancer Care, Sandusky, Ohio (United States); Losken, Albert [Division of Plastic Surgery and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)] [Division of Plastic Surgery and Reconstructive Surgery, Department of Surgery, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Gabram, Sheryl [Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)] [Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Davis, Lawrence [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Torres, Mylin A., E-mail: matorre@emory.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States)

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

ON THE DETECTION OF IONIZING RADIATION ARISING FROM STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT REDSHIFT z {approx} 3-4: LOOKING FOR ANALOGS OF 'STELLAR RE-IONIZERS'  

SciTech Connect

We use the spatially resolved, multi-band photometry in the GOODS South field acquired by the CANDELS project to constrain the nature of candidate Lyman continuum (LyC) emitters at redshift z {approx} 3.7 identified using ultradeep imaging below the Lyman limit (1{sigma} limit of Almost-Equal-To 30 AB in a 2'' diameter aperture). In 19 candidates out of a sample of 20 with flux detected at >3{sigma} level, the light centroid of the candidate LyC emission is offset from that of the Lyman break galaxy (LBG) by up to 1.''5. We fit the spectral energy distribution of the LyC candidates to spectral population synthesis models to measure photometric redshifts and the stellar population parameters. We also discuss the differences in the UV colors between the LBG and the LyC candidates, and how to estimate the escape fraction of ionizing radiation (f{sub esc}) in cases, like in most of our galaxies, where the LyC emission is spatially offset from the host galaxy. In all but one case we conclude that the candidate LyC emission is most likely due to lower redshift interlopers. Based on these findings, we argue that the majority of similar measurements reported in the literature need further investigation before it can be firmly concluded that LyC emission is detected. Our only surviving LyC candidate is an LBG at z = 3.795, which shows the bluest (B - V) color among LBGs at similar redshift, a stellar mass of M {approx} 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }, weak interstellar absorption lines, and a flat UV spectral slope with no Ly{alpha} in emission. We estimate its f{sub esc} to be in the range 25%-100%, depending on the dust and intergalactic attenuation.

Vanzella, Eros; Cristiani, Stefano; Nonino, Mario [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G.B. Tiepolo 11, 34131 Trieste (Italy); Guo Yicheng; Giavalisco, Mauro [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, 710 North Pleasant Street, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Grazian, Andrea; Castellano, Marco; Fontana, Adriano; Giallongo, Emanuele; Pentericci, Laura; Galametz, Audrey [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, 00040 Monteporzio (RM) (Italy); Dickinson, Mark [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Faber, S. M. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman A.; Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Newman, Jeffrey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Siana, Brian D., E-mail: vanzella@oats.inaf.it [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521 (United States)

2012-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

412

Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Radiation-Absorbed Dose Estimation of 166Ho Microspheres in Liver Radioembolization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Purpose To investigate the potential of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for accurate assessment of the three-dimensional 166Ho activity distribution to estimate radiation-absorbed dose distributions in 166Ho-loaded poly (L-lactic acid) microsphere (166Ho-PLLA-MS) liver radioembolization. Methods and Materials MRI, computed tomography (CT), and single photon emission CT (SPECT) experiments were conducted on an anthropomorphic gel phantom with tumor-simulating gel samples and on an excised human tumor-bearing liver, both containing known amounts of 166Ho-PLLA-MS. Three-dimensional radiation-absorbed dose distributions were estimated at the voxel level by convolving the 166Ho activity distribution, derived from quantitative MRI data, with a 166Ho dose point-kernel generated by MCNP (Monte Carlo N-Particle transport code) and from Medical Internal Radiation Dose Pamphlet 17. MRI-based radiation-absorbed dose distributions were qualitatively compared with CT and autoradiography images and quantitatively compared with SPECT-based dose distributions. Both MRI- and SPECT-based activity estimations were validated against dose calibrator measurements. Results Evaluation on an anthropomorphic phantom showed that MRI enables accurate assessment of local 166Ho-PLLA-MS mass and activity distributions, as supported by a regression coefficient of 1.05 and a correlation coefficient of 0.99, relating local MRI-based mass and activity calculations to reference values obtained with a dose calibrator. Estimated MRI-based radiation-absorbed dose distributions of 166Ho-PLLA-MS in an exvivo human liver visually showed high correspondence to SPECT-based radiation-absorbed dose distributions. Quantitative analysis revealed that the differences in local and total amounts of 166Ho-PLLA-MS estimated by MRI, SPECT, and the dose calibrator were within 10%. Excellent agreement was observed between MRI- and SPECT-based dosevolume histograms. Conclusions Quantitative MRI was demonstrated to provide accurate three-dimensional 166Ho-PLLA-MS activity distributions, enabling localized intrahepatic radiation-absorbed dose estimation by convolution with a 166Ho dose point-kernel for liver radioembolization treatment optimization and evaluation.

Peter R. Seevinck; Gerrit H. van de Maat; Tim C. de Wit; Maarten A.D. Vente; Johannes F.W. Nijsen; Chris J.G. Bakker

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: A Variable Energy Soft X-ray  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Variable Energy Soft X-ray Microprobe to Investigate Mechanisms of Variable Energy Soft X-ray Microprobe to Investigate Mechanisms of the Radiation Induced Bystander Effect. Authors: Melvyn Folkard, Borivoj Vojnovic, Giuseppe Schettino, Kevin M Prise and Barry D Michael. Institutions: Gray Cancer Institute. We are currently engaged on two projects in the Low-dose Program: "Low dose studies with focused X-rays in cell and tissue models: mechanisms of bystander and genomic instability responses" (DE-FG07-99ER62877) and "Mechanistic modeling of bystander effects: An integrated theoretical and experimental approach" (DE-FG02-02ER63305). Central to both of these studies is a unique micro irradiation facility that uses ultrasoft X-rays focused to a sub micron beam for individual cell and sub cellular targeting. This facility allows us to selectively irradiate individual

414

Impact of Gastric Filling on Radiation Dose Delivered to Gastroesophageal Junction Tumors  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: This study examined the impact of gastric filling variation on target coverage of gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) tumors in three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (3DCRT), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), or IMRT with simultaneous integrated boost (IMRT-SIB) plans. Materials and Methods: Eight patients previously receiving radiation therapy for esophageal cancer had computed tomography (CT) datasets acquired with full stomach (FS) and empty stomach (ES). We generated treatment plans for 3DCRT, IMRT, or IMRT-SIB for each patient on the ES-CT and on the FS-CT datasets. The 3DCRT and IMRT plans were planned to 50.4 Gy to the clinical target volume (CTV), and the same for IMRT-SIB plus 63.0 Gy to the gross tumor volume (GTV). Target coverage was evaluated using dose-volume histogram data for patient treatments simulated with ES-CT sets, assuming treatment on an FS for the entire course, and vice versa. Results: FS volumes were a mean of 3.3 (range, 1.7-7.5) times greater than ES volumes. The volume of the GTV receiving >=50.4 Gy (V{sub 50.4Gy}) was 100% in all situations. The planning GTV V{sub 63Gy} became suboptimal when gastric filling varied, regardless of whether simulation was done on the ES-CT or the FS-CT set. Conclusions: Stomach filling has a negligible impact on prescribed dose delivered to the GEJ GTV, using either 3DCRT or IMRT planning. Thus, local relapses are not likely to be related to variations in gastric filling. Dose escalation for GEJ tumors with IMRT-SIB may require gastric filling monitoring.

Bouchard, Myriam, E-mail: mybouchard@gmail.co [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); McAleer, Mary Frances [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Starkschall, George, E-mail: gstarksc@mdanderson.or [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

HIV-1 Tat depresses DNA-PK{sub CS} expression and DNA repair, and sensitizes cells to ionizing radiation  

SciTech Connect

Purpose There is accumulating evidence that cancer patients with human immmunodeficiency virus-1/acquired immunodeficency syndrome (HIV-1/AIDS) have more severe tissue reactions and often develop cutaneous toxic effects when subjected to radiotherapy. Here we explored the effects of the HIV-1 Tat protein on cellular responses to ionizing radiation. Methods and Materials Two Tat-expressing cell lines, TT2 and TE671-Tat, were derived from human rhabdomyosarcoma cells by transfecting with the HIV-1 tat gene. Radiosensitivity was determined using colony-forming ability. Gene expression was assessed by cDNA microarray and immunohybridization. The Comet assay and {gamma}-H2AX foci were use to detect DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and repair. Radiation-induced cell cycle changes were detected by flow cytometry. Results The radiosensitivity of TT2 and TE671-Tat cells was significantly increased as compared with parental TE671 cells or the control TE671-pCI cells. Tat also increased proliferation activity. The comet assay and {gamma}H2AX foci detection revealed a decreased capacity to repair radiation-induced DNA DSBs in Tat-expressing cells. Microarray assay demonstrated that the DNA repair gene DNA-PKcs, and cell cycle-related genes Cdc20, Cdc25C, KIF2C and CTS1 were downregulated in Tat-expressing cells. Depression of DNA-PKcs in Tat-expressing cells was further confirmed by RT-PCR and immuno-hybridization analysis. Tat-expressing cells exhibited a prolonged S phase arrest after 4 Gy {gamma}-irradiation, and a noticeable delay in the initiation and elimination of radiation-induced G{sub 2}/M arrest as compared with parental cells. In addition, the G{sub 2}/M arrest was incomplete in TT2 cells. Moreover, HIV-1 Tat resulted in a constitutive overexpression of cyclin B1 protein. Conclusion HIV-1 Tat protein sensitizes cells to ionizing radiation via depressing DNA repair and dysregulating cell cycle checkpoints. These observations provide new insight into the increased tissue reactions of AIDS cancer patients to radiotherapy.

Sun Yi [Department of Radiation Toxicology and Oncology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing (China); Huang Yuechen [Department of Radiation Toxicology and Oncology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing (China); Xu Qinzhi [Department of Radiation Toxicology and Oncology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing (China); Wang Huiping [Department of Radiation Toxicology and Oncology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing (China); Bai Bei [Department of Radiation Toxicology and Oncology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing (China); Sui Jianli [Department of Radiation Toxicology and Oncology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing (China); Zhou Pingkun [Department of Radiation Toxicology and Oncology, Beijing Institute of Radiation Medicine, Beijing (China)]. E-mail: zhoupk@nic.bmi.ac.cn

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Radiation Physics and Chemistry 71 (2004) 363368 A study of the alanine dosimeter irradiation temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Puhla , Anna L. McBainb , Glenn W. Calvertb a Ionizing Radiation Division, Physics Laboratory, National. Since the temperature coefficient is known to be dose dependent [Radiat. Phys. Chem. 57 (2000) 1], a series of dose response studies were conducted over a dose range of 0.5­100 kGy. The study revealed

417

RIS-M-2243 THE RADIOCHROMIC DYE FILM DOSE METER AS A POSSIBLE TEST OF PARTICLE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RIS?-M-2243 THE RADIOCHROMIC DYE FILM DOSE METER AS A POSSIBLE TEST OF PARTICLE TRACK THEORY Johnny-film radlochromlc dye cyanide plastic dose meter to Ionizing radiation of electrons and heavy charged particles - 1. INTRODUCTION The radiochromic dye cyanide film dose meter has been investigated as a pos- sible

418

Radiation dose rates now and in the future for residents neighboring restricted areas of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...background radiation doses in Japan. Finally, health risk...recruited from 63 of 151 households (42%). In Minamisomas Haramachi...radon concentration in Japan . J Environ Radioact 65...indoor Rn concentration in Japan . J Environ Radioact 45...International Atomic Energy Agency (2011) Radiation...

Kouji H. Harada; Tamon Niisoe; Mie Imanaka; Tomoyuki Takahashi; Katsumi Amako; Yukiko Fujii; Masatoshi Kanameishi; Kenji Ohse; Yasumichi Nakai; Tamami Nishikawa; Yuuichi Saito; Hiroko Sakamoto; Keiko Ueyama; Kumiko Hisaki; Eiji Ohara; Tokiko Inoue; Kanako Yamamoto; Yukiyo Matsuoka; Hitomi Ohata; Kazue Toshima; Ayumi Okada; Hitomi Sato; Toyomi Kuwamori; Hiroko Tani; Reiko Suzuki; Mai Kashikura; Michiko Nezu; Yoko Miyachi; Fusako Arai; Masanori Kuwamori; Sumiko Harada; Akira Ohmori; Hirohiko Ishikawa; Akio Koizumi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: A Variable-Energy Soft X-Ray  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Variable-Energy Soft X-Ray Microprobe to Investigate Mechanisms of A Variable-Energy Soft X-Ray Microprobe to Investigate Mechanisms of the Radiation-Induced Bystander Effect. Authors: Melvyn Folkard, Borivoj Vojnovic, Giuseppe Schettino, Kirk Atkinson, Kevin M Prise, Barry D Michael Institutions: Gray Cancer Institute, PO BO Box100, Mount Vernon Hospital, Northwood, HA6 2JR, UK The Gray Cancer Institute (GCI) has pioneered the use of X-ray focussing techniques to develop systems for micro-irradiating individual cells and sub-cellular targets. Our prototype X-ray microprobe was developed alongside our existing charged-particle microbeam to address problems specific to low LET radiations, or where very precise targeting accuracy and dose delivery are required. This facility was optimised for focusing 278 eV CK X-rays; however there are a number of reasons for extending the

420

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: A Paracrine Signal Mediates The Cell  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Paracrine Signal Mediates The Cell Transformation Response To Low A Paracrine Signal Mediates The Cell Transformation Response To Low Dose Gamma Radiation in JB6 Cells. Authors: Thomas J. Weber,1 Robert W. Siegel,2 Lye M. Markillie,1 William B. Chrisler,1 Xingye C. Lei,3 and Nancy H. Colburn4 Institutions: 1Cell Biology and Biochemistry, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington. 2Protein Function, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington. 3Statistical and Mathematical Sciences, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington. 4Gene Regulation Section, Laboratory of Cancer Prevention, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, Maryland. The carcinogenic response to radiation is complex and may involve adaptive cellular responses as well as a bystander effect mediated by paracrine or

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose ionizing radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

A hybrid approach for rapid, accurate, and direct kilovoltage radiation dose calculations in CT voxel space  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To develop and validate a fast and accurate method that uses computed tomography (CT) voxel data to estimate absorbed radiation dose at a point of interest (POI) or series of POIs from a kilovoltage (kV) imaging procedure. Methods: The authors developed an approach that computes absorbed radiation dose at a POI by numerically evaluating the linear Boltzmann transport equation (LBTE) using a combination of deterministic and Monte Carlo (MC) techniques. This hybrid approach accounts for material heterogeneity with a level of accuracy comparable to the general MC algorithms. Also, the dose at a POI is computed within seconds using the Intel Core i7 CPU 920 2.67 GHz quad core architecture, and the calculations are performed using CT voxel data, making it flexible and feasible for clinical applications. To validate the method, the authors constructed and acquired a CT scan of a heterogeneous block phantom consisting of a succession of slab densities: Tissue (1.29 cm), bone (2.42 cm), lung (4.84 cm), bone (1.37 cm), and tissue (4.84 cm). Using the hybrid transport method, the authors computed the absorbed doses at a set of points along the central axis and x direction of the phantom for an isotropic 125 kVp photon spectral point source located along the central axis 92.7 cm above the phantom surface. The accuracy of the results was compared to those computed with MCNP, which was cross-validated with EGSnrc, and served as the benchmark for validation. Results: The error in the depth dose ranged from -1.45% to +1.39% with a mean and standard deviation of -0.12% and 0.66%, respectively. The error in the x profile ranged from -1.3% to +0.9%, with standard deviations of -0.3% and 0.5%, respectively. The number of photons required to achieve these results was 1x10{sup 6}. Conclusions: The voxel-based hybrid method evaluates the LBTE rapidly and accurately to estimate the absorbed x-ray dose at any POI or series of POIs from a kV imaging procedure.

Kouznetsov, Alexei; Tambasco, Mauro [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy and Department of Oncology, University of Calgary and Tom Baker Cancer Centre, 1331-29 Street NW Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2 (Canada)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

422

The effects of emitter-tied field plates on lateral PNP ionizing radiation response  

SciTech Connect

Radiation response comparisons of lateral PNP bipolar technologies reveal that device hardening may be achieved by extending the emitter contact over the active base. The emitter-tied field plate suppresses recombination of carriers with interface traps.

Barnaby, H.J.; Schrimpf, R.D.; Cirba, C.R. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States); Pease, R.L. [RLP Research, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fleetwood, D.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kosier, S.L. [VTC Inc., Bloomington, MN (United States)

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

int. j. radiat. biol 2002, vol. 78, no. 7, 593 604 Do low dose-rate bystander eVects in uence domestic radon risks?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

int. j. radiat. biol 2002, vol. 78, no. 7, 593± 604 Do low dose-rate bystander eVects in uence that bystander radon risk estimation. eVects can be induced by high-LET radiation even Conclusions : Bystander e of inverse dose-rate eVects by high- exposed to low doses of low-LET radiation (SawantLET radiation

Brenner, David Jonathan

424

A DSM-based 2.0 System for Human Intervention Planning and Scheduling in Facilities Emitting Ionizing Radiations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

To efficiently and safely plan, schedule and control its interventions in underground facilities, which are subject to ionizing radiations, CERN is currently developing a collaborative Web-based system. A similar project for maintenance management is also under way. On top of presenting their key requirements, this paper shows how the implementation of DSM can enhance a so-called Web 2.0 or collaborative dimension by bringing an intuitive and fair way of taking the dependencies between several activities into account. It is also discussed that the incoherencies brought in DSM by collaborative use (for instance regarding the time intervals) can be addressed by enlarging the binary DSM span of dependencies to ones of the Allens interval algebra or at least a subset of its dependencies.

Baudin, M; De Jonghe, J

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Ionization chamber  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ionization chamber has separate drift and detection regions electrically isolated from each other by a fine wire grid. A relatively weak electric field can be maintained in the drift region when the grid and another electrode in the chamber are connected to a high voltage source. A much stronger electric field can be provided in the detection region by connecting wire electrodes therein to another high voltage source. The detection region can thus be operated in a proportional mode when a suitable gas is contained in the chamber. High resolution output pulse waveforms are provided across a resistor connected to the detection region anode, after ionizing radiation enters the drift region and ionize the gas.

Walenta, Albert H. (Port Jefferson Station, NY)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Prevention of Low Dose Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability with Clinically Relevant Non-Protein Thiols and Vitamin E.  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Prevention of Low Dose Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability with Clinically Relevant Prevention of Low Dose Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability with Clinically Relevant Non-Protein Thiols and Vitamin E. J.S. Murley 1 , Y. Kataoka 1 , W.F. Morgan 2 , and D.J. Grdina 1 . The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 1 , The University of Maryland Medical School, Baltimore, MD 2 Induced or delayed radioprotection is a novel phenomenon that shares many similarities with the low dose radiation-induced radiobiological phenomenon referred to as the adaptive response. Induced or delayed radioprotection is defined as an enhancement in the radiation resistance of cells at long times following their exposure to non-protein thiols (NPT) such as WR1065, the free thiol form of amifostine. This effect is the result of the induction of a cascade of intracellular

427

Effect of low-dose, low-LET γ-radiation and BaP injection on pulmonary  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

low-dose, low-LET γ-radiation and BaP injection on pulmonary low-dose, low-LET γ-radiation and BaP injection on pulmonary immunity in A/J mice K. Gott Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute Abstract Introduction: Low-dose, low-linear-energy-transfer (LET) radiation (LDR; < 100 mGy) activates the immune response (Nowosielska et al., 2006), presumably via epigenetic pathways (Scott et al., 2009) and has been implicated as suppressing both alpha-radiation-induced and smoking-related lung cancer (Scott et al. 2009). One of the hypothesized adaptive-response mechanisms by which LDR does so is by activating immune cell function in the lung, which would then increase their anti-cancer surveillance function (Liu, 2007; Bogdandi et al., 2010). One measure of activated immune cell function is their expression of markers on their cell surface that are

428

Discovering Clinical Biomarkers of Ionizing Radiation Exposure with Serum Proteomic Analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...American Association for Cancer Research 1 May 2009...their ability to chelate uranium. Depleted uranium (DU) is used in military...nitrogen-containing BP, can chelate uranium at high doses. The...In: Proc Am Assoc Cancer Res; 2009 Apr 18-22...

Cynthia Mnard; Donald Johann; Mark Lowenthal; Thierry Muanza; Mary Sproull; Sally Ross; James Gulley; Emanuel Petricoin; C. Norman Coleman; Gordon Whiteley; Lance Liotta; and Kevin Camphausen

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Standard Test Method for Application of Ionization Chambers to Assess the Low Energy Gamma Component of Cobalt-60 Irradiators Used in Radiation-Hardness Testing of Silicon Electronic Devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1.1 Low energy components in the photon energy spectrum of Co-60 irradiators lead to absorbed dose enhancement effects in the radiation-hardness testing of silicon electronic devices. These low energy components may lead to errors in determining the absorbed dose in a specific device under test. This method covers procedures for the use of a specialized ionization chamber to determine a figure of merit for the relative importance of such effects. It also gives the design and instructions for assembling this chamber. 1.2 This method is applicable to measurements in Co-60 radiation fields where the range of exposure rates is 7 10 ?6 to 3 10?2 C kg ?1 s?1 (approximately 100 R/h to 100 R/s). For guidance in applying this method to radiation fields where the exposure rate is >100 R/s, see Appendix X1. Note 1See Terminology E170 for definition of exposure and its units. 1.3 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information onl...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

A Systems Genetic Approach to Identify Low Dose Radiation-Induced Lymphoma Susceptibility/DOE2013FinalReport  

SciTech Connect

The ultimate goal of this project is to identify the combinations of genetic variants that confer an individual's susceptibility to the effects of low dose (0.1 Gy) gamma-radiation, in particular with regard to tumor development. In contrast to the known effects of high dose radiation in cancer induction, the responses to low dose radiation (defined as 0.1 Gy or less) are much less well understood, and have been proposed to involve a protective anti-tumor effect in some in vivo scientific models. These conflicting results confound attempts to develop predictive models of the risk of exposure to low dose radiation, particularly when combined with the strong effects of inherited genetic variants on both radiation effects and cancer susceptibility. We have used a ??Systems Genetics approach in mice that combines genetic background analysis with responses to low and high dose radiation, in order to develop insights that will allow us to reconcile these disparate observations. Using this comprehensive approach we have analyzed normal tissue gene expression (in this case the skin and thymus), together with the changes that take place in this gene expression architecture a) in response to low or high- dose radiation and b) during tumor development. Additionally, we have demonstrated that using our expression analysis approach in our genetically heterogeneous/defined radiation-induced tumor mouse models can uniquely identify genes and pathways relevant to human T-ALL, and uncover interactions between common genetic variants of genes which may lead to tumor susceptibility.

Balmain, Allan [University of California, San Francisco; Song, Ihn Young [University of California, San Francisco

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

431

Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology  

SciTech Connect

The following research programs from the Center for Radiological Research of Columbia University are described: Design and development of a new wall-less ultra miniature proportional counter for nanodosimetry; some recent measurements of ionization distributions for heavy ions at nanometer site sizes with a wall-less proportional counter; a calculation of exciton energies in periodic systems with helical symmetry: application to a hydrogen fluoride chain; electron energy-loss function in polynucleotide and the question of plasmon excitation; a non-parametric, microdosimetric-based approach to the evaluation of the biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation; high-LET radiation risk assessment at medium doses; high-LET radiobiological effects: increased lesion severity or increased lesion proximity; photoneutrons generated by high energy medical linacs; the biological effectiveness of neutrons; implications for radiation protection; molecular characterization of oncogenes induced by neutrons; and the inverse dose-rate effect for oncogenic transformation by charged particles is LET dependent.

Hall, E.J.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Nuclear and Non-Ionizing Energy-Loss for Coulomb Scattered Particles from Low Energy up to Relativistic Regime in Space Radiation Environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the space environment, instruments onboard of spacecrafts can be affected by displacement damage due to radiation. The differential scattering cross section for screened nucleus--nucleus interactions - i.e., including the effects due to screened Coulomb nuclear fields -, nuclear stopping powers and non-ionization energy losses are treated from about 50\\,keV/nucleon up to relativistic energies.

Boschini, M J; Gervasi, M; Giani, S; Grandi, D; Ivantchenko, V; Pensotti, S; Rancoita, P G; Tacconi, M

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Estimation of radiation dose and risk to children undergoing cardiac catheterization for the treatment of a congenital heart disease using Monte Carlo simulations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Many mathematical models have been developed for estimating the cancer risk resulting from exposure to ionizing radiation. One such set of models has been...10...]. The BEIR VII committee has derived risk models ...

Emmanuel Yakoumakis; Helen Kostopoulou; Triantafilia Makri

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Reduced Kilovoltage in Computed TomographyGuided Intervention in a Community Hospital: Effect on the Radiation Dose  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

AbstractPurpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether low-kilovoltage (80 or 100 kV) computed tomography (CT)-guided interventions performed in a community-based hospital are feasible and to compare radiation exposure incurred with conventional 120 kV potential. Materials and Methods Effective doses (ED) received by patients who underwent CT-guided intervention were analysed before and after a low-dose kilovoltage protocol was instituted in our department. We performed CT-guided procedures of 93 consecutive patients by using conventional 120-kV tube voltage (50 patients) and a low voltage of 80 or 100 kV for the remainder of this cohort. Automatic tube current modulation was enabled to obtain the best image quality. Procedure details were prospectively recorded and included examination site and type, slice width, tube voltage and current, dose length product, volume CT dose index, and size-specific dose estimate. Dose length product was converted to ED to account for radiosensitivity of specific organs. Statistical comparisons with test differences in the ED, volume CT dose index, size-specific dose estimate, and effective diameter (patient size) were made by using the Student t test. Results All but 6 of the procedures performed at 80 kV were successful, for a success rate of 86%. At lower voltages, the ED was significantly (P dose radiation technique by using 80 or 100 kV results in a high technical success rate for pelvic, chest, and abdomen CT-guided interventional procedures, although dramatically decreasing radiation exposure. There was no significant difference in effective diameter (patient size) between the conventional and the low-dose groups, which would suggest that dose reduction was indeed a result of kVp change and not patient size.

Saman Rezazadeh; Steven J. Co; Simon Bicknell

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Effects of low levels of radiation on humans  

SciTech Connect

The state of knowledge on effects of low-level ionizing radiations on humans is reviewed. Several problems relating to dose thresholds or lack of thresholds for several types of cancer and high LET radiations and the effects of fractionation and dose protection are discussed. (ACR)

Auxier, J.A.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

EGFR Nuclear Translocation Modulates DNA Repair following Cisplatin and Ionizing Radiation Treatment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...results suggest that nuclear expression of EGFR plays...the mechanisms by which nuclear expression modulates...C2259/A9994). The costs of publication of this...DNA-PK kinase assay. The graph shows the percentage...radiation-induced EGFR nuclear import by C225 (cetuximab...

Gianmaria Liccardi; John A. Hartley; and Daniel Hochhauser

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Applied Radiation and Isotopes 57 (2002) 875882 Energy response of an imaging plate exposed to  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, TN 37232-5671, USA b Ionizing Radiation Division, National Institute of Standard and Technology, 100 when exposed to ionizing radiation, store a latent image that can be read out with a red laser beta emitters such as P-32 and Sr- 90 due to the advantages of short range dose delivery and suitable

Tolk, Norman H.

438

Studies on Induced Variation in the Rhizobia: II. Radiation Sensitivity and Induction of Antibiotic-resistance Markers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...0.I 0 1 2 DOSE (ergs/mm2...quantitative estimations, as in the...DISCUSSION Radiation dose-survival...an ionizing radiation, i.e...more accurate estimation of mutation...ergs/mm2XIO3 DOSE FIG. 3. Effect...

E. A. Schwinghamer; R. L. Dalmas

1961-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Impact of Dose to the Bladder Trigone on Long-Term Urinary Function After High-Dose Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine the potential association between genitourinary (GU) toxicity and planning dosevolume parameters for GU pelvic structures after high-dose intensity modulated radiation therapy in localized prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: A total of 268 patients who underwent intensity modulated radiation therapy to a prescribed dose of 86.4 Gy in 48 fractions during June 2004-December 2008 were evaluated with the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire. Dosevolume histograms of the whole bladder, bladder wall, urethra, and bladder trigone were analyzed. The primary endpoint for GU toxicity was an IPSS sum increase ?10 points over baseline. Univariate and multivariate analyses were done by the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazard models, respectively. Results: Median follow-up was 5 years (range, 3-7.7 years). Thirty-nine patients experienced an IPSS sum increase ?10 during follow-up; 84% remained event free at 5 years. After univariate analysis, lower baseline IPSS sum (P=.006), the V90 of the trigone (P=.006), and the maximal dose to the trigone (P=.003) were significantly associated with an IPSS sum increase ?10. After multivariate analysis, lower baseline IPSS sum (P=.009) and increased maximal dose to the trigone (P=.005) remained significantly associated. Seventy-two patients had both a lower baseline IPSS sum and a higher maximal dose to the trigone and were defined as high risk, and 68 patients had both a higher baseline IPSS sum and a lower maximal dose to the trigone and were defined as low risk for development of an IPSS sum increase ?10. Twenty-one of 72 high-risk patients (29%) and 5 of 68 low-risk patients (7%) experienced an IPSS sum increase ?10 (P=.001; odds ratio 5.19). Conclusions: The application of hot spots to the bladder trigone was significantly associated with relevant changes in IPSS during follow-up. Reduction of radiation dose to the lower bladder and specifically the bladder trigone seems to be associated with a reduction in late GU toxicity.

Ghadjar, Pirus; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Spratt, Daniel E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Munck af Rosenschld, Per; Oh, Jung Hun; Hunt, Margie [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Kollmeier, Marisa [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Happersett, Laura; Yorke, Ellen; Deasy, Joseph O. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Jackson, Andrew, E-mail: jacksona@mskcc.org [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Forbush decrease effects on radiation dose received on-board aeroplanes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......information provided by the US FAA to promote radiation safety for air carrier crew members. Radiat...Cosmic Radiation Humans Monte Carlo Method Radiation Dosage Radiation Monitoring methods Software Solar Activity...

P. Lantos

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose ionizing radiation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

A molecular dynamics simulation of DNA damage induction by ionizing radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a multi-scale simulation of early stage of DNA damages by the indirect action of hydroxyl ($^\\bullet$OH) free radicals generated by electrons and protons. The computational method comprises of interfacing the Geant4-DNA Monte Carlo with the ReaxFF molecular dynamics software. A clustering method was employed to map the coordinates of $^\\bullet$OH-radicals extracted from the ionization track-structures onto nano-meter simulation voxels filled with DNA and water molecules. The molecular dynamics simulation provides the time evolution and chemical reactions in individual simulation voxels as well as the energy-landscape accounted for the DNA-$^\\bullet$OH chemical reaction that is essential for the first principle enumeration of hydrogen abstractions, chemical bond breaks, and DNA-lesions induced by collection of ions in clusters less than the critical dimension which is approximately 2-3 \\AA. We show that the formation of broken bonds leads to DNA base and backbone damages that collectively propagate ...

Abolfath, Ramin M; Chen, Zhe J; Nath, Ravinder

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

BioDoser: Improved dose-estimation software for biological radiation dosimetry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper introduces a software program that was developed with the aims to improve the efficiency and veracity of calibration curve fitting and data processing in radiation biological dosimetry and other biological experiments, and which is termed BioDoser. BioDoser uses least squares and loop testing of monotonicity method and algorithm of non-uniformed confidence interval. In addition, this program enables integration of multiple different biomarkers typically used in biological dosimetry. These include partial body exposure, minimum number of cells to be analyzed, G function correction modules that are helpful in dose estimation when using chromosome aberration frequencies, micronucleus rate, comet assay and other biological methods. The software is freely available at http://bit.ly/kKBSNR.

Hong Wang; Qiang Liu; Dandan Wan; Jian Xiang; Liqing Du; Yan Wang; Jia Cao; Yue Fu; Feiyue Fan; Markus Hecker

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Modular Systems Biology applied to TGFbeta and DNA Damage Response Signaling following Low Dose Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Modular Systems Biology applied to TGFbeta and DNA Damage Response Signaling following Modular Systems Biology applied to TGFbeta and DNA Damage Response Signaling following Low Dose Radiation Francis A. Cucinotta 1 , Yongfeng Li 2 , Minli Wang 2 , Claudio Carra 2 , Janice Pluth 3 , and Peter O'Neill 4 1 NASA Johnson Space Center, Houston, TX 2 U.S.R.A. Division of Life Sciences, Houston TX 3 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley CA 4 Oxford University, Oxford UK Abstract: Modular systems biology (MSB) describes the complexity of biological systems using well defined modules that represent distinct biological response pathways or sub-systems within pathways. We review mathematical concepts from control theory that can be used to identify and construct well defined modules for describing complex biological processes. The DNA damage response and TGFbeta/Smad signaling are two important response pathways following

444

New dose-mortality data based on 3-D radiation shielding calculation for concrete buildings at Nagasaki  

SciTech Connect

The analysis of radiation doses received during the World War II attack on Nagasaki provides an important source of biochemical information. More than 40 years after the war, it has been possible to make a satisfactory calculation of the doses to personnel inside reinforced concrete buildings by use of a 3-dimensional discrete ordinates code, TORT. The results were used to deduce a new value of the LD50 parameter that is in good agre