Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose conversion factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater exposure scenario, and the development of conversion factors for assessing compliance with the groundwater protection standard. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop biosphere BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA-LA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' in Figure 1-1, contain detailed description of the model input parameters, their development, and the relationship between the parameters and specific features events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the groundwater exposure scenario. The objectives of this analysis are to develop BDCFs for the groundwater exposure scenario for the three climate states considered in the TSPA-LA as well as conversion factors for evaluating compliance with the groundwater protection standard. The BDCFs will be used in performance assessment for calculating all-pathway annual doses for a given concentration of radionuclides in groundwater. The conversion factors will be used for calculating gross alpha particle activity in groundwater and the annual dose from drinking water for beta- and photon-emitting radionuclides. Another objective of this analysis was to re-qualify the output of the previous revision (BSC 2003 [DIRS 164403]).

M. Wasiolek

2004-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

2

Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater exposure scenario, and the development of conversion factors for assessing compliance with the groundwater protection standards. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA-LA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' in Figure 1-1, contain detailed description of the model input parameters, their development, and the relationship between the parameters and specific features events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the groundwater exposure scenario. This analysis receives direct input from the outputs of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) and the five analyses that develop parameter values for the biosphere model (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172827]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169672]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169673]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169458]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169459]). The results of this report are further analyzed in the ''Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis'' (Figure 1-1). The objectives of this analysis are to develop BDCFs for the groundwater exposure scenario for the three climate states (present day, monsoon, and glacial transition) considered in the TSPA-LA, as well as conversion factors for compliance evaluation with the groundwater protection standards. The BDCFs will be used in performance assessment for calculating all-pathway annual doses for a given concentration of radionuclides in groundwater. The conversion factors will be used for calculating gross alpha particle activity in groundwater and the annual dose from drinking water for beta- and photon-emitting radionuclides.

M.A. Wasiolek

2005-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

3

Disruptive Event Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This analysis report is one of the technical reports containing documentation of the Environmental Radiation Model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN), a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis report describes the development of biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the volcanic ash exposure scenario, and the development of dose factors for calculating inhalation dose during volcanic eruption. A graphical representation of the documentation hierarchy for the ERMYN is presented in Figure 1-1. This figure shows the interrelationships among the products (i.e., analysis and model reports) developed for biosphere modeling and provides an understanding of how this analysis report contributes to biosphere modeling. This report is one of two reports that develop biosphere BDCFs, which are input parameters for the TSPA model. The ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) describes in detail the ERMYN conceptual model and mathematical model. The input parameter reports, shown to the right of the Biosphere Model Report in Figure 1-1, contain detailed descriptions of the model input parameters, their development and the relationship between the parameters and specific features, events and processes (FEPs). This report describes biosphere model calculations and their output, the BDCFs, for the volcanic ash exposure scenario. This analysis receives direct input from the outputs of the ''Biosphere Model Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169460]) and from the five analyses that develop parameter values for the biosphere model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169671]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169672]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169673]; BSC 2004 [DIRS 169458]; and BSC 2004 [DIRS 169459]). The results of this report are further analyzed in the ''Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis''. The objective of this analysis was to develop the BDCFs for the volcanic ash exposure scenario and the dose factors for calculating inhalation doses during volcanic eruption (eruption phase of the volcanic event). For the volcanic ash exposure scenario, the mode of radionuclide release into the biosphere is a volcanic eruption through the repository with the resulting entrainment of contaminated waste in the tephra and the subsequent atmospheric transport and dispersion of contaminated material in the biosphere. The biosphere process model for this scenario uses the surface deposition of contaminated ash as the source of radionuclides in the biosphere. The initial atmospheric transport and dispersion of the ash as well as its subsequent redistribution by fluvial and aeolian processes are not addressed within the biosphere model. These processes influence the value of the source term that is calculated elsewhere and then combined with the BDCFs in the TSPA model to calculate expected dose to the receptor. Another objective of this analysis was to re-qualify the output of the previous revision (BSC 2003 [DIRS 163958]).

M. Wasiolek

2004-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

4

Nominal Performance Biosphere Dose Conversion Factor Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report was to document the process leading to development of the Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) for the postclosure nominal performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. BDCF calculations concerned twenty-four radionuclides. This selection included sixteen radionuclides that may be significant nominal performance dose contributors during the compliance period of up to 10,000 years, five additional radionuclides of importance for up to 1 million years postclosure, and three relatively short-lived radionuclides important for the human intrusion scenario. Consideration of radionuclide buildup in soil caused by previous irrigation with contaminated groundwater was taken into account in the BDCF development. The effect of climate evolution, from the current arid conditions to a wetter and cooler climate, on the BDCF values was evaluated. The analysis included consideration of different exposure pathway's contribution to the BDCFs. Calculations of nominal performance BDCFs used the GENII-S computer code in a series of probabilistic realizations to propagate the uncertainties of input parameters into the output. BDCFs for the nominal performance, when combined with the concentrations of radionuclides in groundwater allow calculation of potential radiation doses to the receptor of interest. Calculated estimates of radionuclide concentration in groundwater result from the saturated zone modeling. The integration of the biosphere modeling results (BDCFs) with the outcomes of the other component models is accomplished in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) to calculate doses to the receptor of interest from radionuclides postulated to be released to the environment from the potential repository at Yucca Mountain.

Wasiolek, Maryla A.

2000-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

5

Biosphere dose conversion Factor Importance and Sensitivity Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents importance and sensitivity analysis for the environmental radiation model for Yucca Mountain, Nevada (ERMYN). ERMYN is a biosphere model supporting the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the license application (LA) for the Yucca Mountain repository. This analysis concerns the output of the model, biosphere dose conversion factors (BDCFs) for the groundwater, and the volcanic ash exposure scenarios. It identifies important processes and parameters that influence the BDCF values and distributions, enhances understanding of the relative importance of the physical and environmental processes on the outcome of the biosphere model, includes a detailed pathway analysis for key radionuclides, and evaluates the appropriateness of selected parameter values that are not site-specific or have large uncertainty.

M. Wasiolek

2004-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

6

Calculation of conversion factors for effective dose for various interventional radiology procedures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To provide dose-area-product (DAP) to effective dose (E) conversion factors for complete interventional procedures, based on in-the-field clinical measurements of DAP values and using tabulated E/DAP conversion factors for single projections available from the literature. Methods: Nine types of interventional procedures were performed on 84 patients with two angiographic systems. Different calibration curves (with and without patient table attenuation) were calculated for each DAP meter. Clinical and dosimetric parameters were recorded in-the-field for each projection and for all patients, and a conversion factor linking DAP and effective doses was derived for each complete procedure making use of published, Monte Carlo calculated conversion factors for single static projections. Results: Fluoroscopy time and DAP values for the lowest-dose procedure (biliary drainage) were approximately 3-fold and 13-fold lower, respectively, than those for the highest-dose examination (transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, TIPS). Median E/DAP conversion factors from 0.12 (abdominal percutaneous transluminal angioplasty) to 0.25 (Nephrostomy) mSvGy{sup -1} cm{sup -2} were obtained and good correlations between E and DAP were found for all procedures, with R{sup 2} coefficients ranging from 0.80 (abdominal angiography) to 0.99 (biliary stent insertion, Nephrostomy and TIPS). The DAP values obtained in this study showed general consistency with the values provided in the literature and median E values ranged from 4.0 mSv (biliary drainage) to 49.6 mSv (TIPS). Conclusions: Values of E/DAP conversion factors were derived for each procedure from a comprehensive analysis of projection and dosimetric data: they could provide a good evaluation for the stochastic effects. These results can be obtained by means of a close cooperation between different interventional professionals involved in patient care and dose optimization.

Compagnone, Gaetano; Giampalma, Emanuela; Domenichelli, Sara; Renzulli, Matteo; Golfieri, Rita [Medical Physics Department, S. Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital, Via Massarenti 9, 40138 Bologna (Italy); Radiology Department, S. Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital, Via Massarenti 9, 40138 Bologna (Italy); Medical Physics Department, S. Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital, Via Massarenti 9, 40138 Bologna (Italy); Radiology Department, S. Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital, Via Massarenti 9, 40138 Bologna (Italy)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

7

Revision of the APGEMS Dose Conversion Factor File Using Revised Factors from Federal Guidance Report 12 and 13.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Air Pollutant Graphical Environmental Monitoring System (APGEMS) is used by the Hanford Emergency Operation Center (EOC) to provide refined plume modeling of releases involving radionuclides. The dose conversion factors (DCFs) used by APGEMS to convert air concentration to dose are stored in a file called HUDUFACT.dat; the DCFs are based primarily on ICRP 30 compiled in the late 1980’s. This report updates the DCFs using more recent values reported in the Environmental Protection Agencies (EPAs) Federal Guidance Report (FGR) 12 and 13. FGR 12 provides external exposure (air submersion) DCFs for radionuclides in air; FGR 13 provides DCFs for radionuclides from inhalation. DCFs were updated for only those radionuclides listed in the original HUDUFACT.dat file. Since FGR 13 provides inhalation dose conversion factors as a function of age, revised DCF files were created for APGEMS for each age group. The “adult” DCF file is the most relevant to compare to the original DCF file being used in APGEMS; these DCF values are compared in this report.

Hay, Tristan R.; Rishel, Jeremy P.

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

8

Calculation of extremity neutron fluence-to-dose equivalent conversion factors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) Figure 4. Comparison of NCRP 38 and Siebert and Schuhmacher quality factors. Table 2. PNNL dose equivalent averaged quality factors (Q). * Phantom Finger Wrist 30 cm ICRU sphere Composition PMMA PMMA Tissue-and-bone Tissue-and-bone PMMA PMMA... Tissue-and-bone Tissue-and-bone PM MA PMMA (???) 'Adapted from reference 53. Source Bare Cf Moderated Cf Bare Cf Moderated Cf Bare Cf Moderated Cf Bare Cf Moderated Cf Bare Cf Moderated Cf 9. 2 9. 7 9. 2 9. 7 9. 4 9. 7 9. 4 9. 7 10...

Wood-Zika, Annmarie Ruth

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

DETERMINATION OF IN-VITRO LUNG SOLUBILITY AND INTAKE-TO-DOSE CONVERSION FACTOR FOR TRITIATED LANTHANUM NICKEL ALUMINUM ALLOY  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A sample of tritiated lanthanum nickel aluminum alloy (LaNi4.25Al0.75 or LANA.75) similar to that used at the Savannah River Site Tritium Facilities was analyzed to estimate the particle size distribution of this metal tritide powder and the rate, at which this material dissolves in the human respiratory tract after it is inhaled. This information is used to calculate the committed effective dose received by a worker after inhaling the material. These doses, which were calculated using the same methodology given in the DOE Tritium Handbook, are presented as inhalation intake-to-dose conversion factors (DCF). The DCF for this metal tritide is less than the DCF for tritiated water and radiation worker bioassay programs designed for tritiated water are adequate to monitor for intakes of this material.

Farfan, E.; Labone, T.; Staack, G.; Cheng, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Varallo, T.

2011-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

10

Conversion and correction factors for historical measurements of Iodine-131 in Hanford-area vegetation, 1945--1947: Draft. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is a result of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project whose goal is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received from emissions since 1944 at the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The report describes in detail the reconstructed conversion and correction factors for historical measurements of iodine-131 in Hanford-area vegetation which was collected from the beginning of October 1945 through the end of December 1947.

Mart, E.I.; Denham, D.H.; Thiede, M.E.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Comment on `Update of 40K and 226Ra and 232Th series $\\gamma$-to-dose conversion factors for soil'  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A letter to the editor of the Journal of Environmental Radioactivity on the article: E. Gasser, A. Nachab, A. Nourreddine, Ch. Roy, and A. Sellam, `Update of 40K and 226Ra and 232Th series $\\gamma$-to-dose conversion factors for soil', J. Environ. Radioactiv. 138, 68-71 (2014), DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvrad.2014.08.002.

Malins, Alex; Saito, Kimiaki

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Environmental Radioactivity 56 (2001) 327340 Radon progeny dose conversion coefficients for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 56 (2001) 327­340 Radon progeny dose conversion coefficients; Dose conversion coefficients; Scaling factors; Radon progeny 1. Introduction Epidemiological studies cancer associated with exposure to radon progeny (Lubin, 1988). More recently, Lubin et al (1994

Yu, K.N.

13

GUIDED ANGLER FISH ANNUAL CONVERSION FACTORS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GUIDED ANGLER FISH ANNUAL CONVERSION FACTORS FOR THE 2014 FISHING YEAR NOAA FISHERIES, ALASKA via the GAF electronic reporting system. If no GAF were harvested in a year, the conversion factor is the first calendar year that GAF regulations will be in effect. Therefore, the conversion factors are based

14

Dose factor entry and display tool for BNCT radiotherapy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for use in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) radiotherapy planning where a biological distribution is calculated using a combination of conversion factors and a previously calculated physical distribution. Conversion factors are presented in a graphical spreadsheet so that a planner can easily view and modify the conversion factors. For radiotherapy in multi-component modalities, such as Fast-Neutron and BNCT, it is necessary to combine each conversion factor component to form an effective dose which is used in radiotherapy planning and evaluation. The Dose Factor Entry and Display System is designed to facilitate planner entry of appropriate conversion factors in a straightforward manner for each component. The effective isodose is then immediately computed and displayed over the appropriate background (e.g. digitized image).

Wessol, Daniel E. (Bozeman, MT); Wheeler, Floyd J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Cook, Jeremy L. (Greeley, CO)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Disruptive Event Biosphere Doser Conversion Factor Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report was to document the process leading to, and the results of, development of radionuclide-, exposure scenario-, and ash thickness-specific Biosphere Dose Conversion Factors (BDCFs) for the postulated postclosure extrusive igneous event (volcanic eruption) at Yucca Mountain. BDCF calculations were done for seventeen radionuclides. The selection of radionuclides included those that may be significant dose contributors during the compliance period of up to 10,000 years, as well as radionuclides of importance for up to 1 million years postclosure. The approach documented in this report takes into account human exposure during three different phases at the time of, and after, volcanic eruption. Calculations of disruptive event BDCFs used the GENII-S computer code in a series of probabilistic realizations to propagate the uncertainties of input parameters into the output. The pathway analysis included consideration of different exposure pathway's contribution to the BDCFs. BDCFs for volcanic eruption, when combined with the concentration of radioactivity deposited by eruption on the soil surface, allow calculation of potential radiation doses to the receptor of interest. Calculation of radioactivity deposition is outside the scope of this report and so is the transport of contaminated ash from the volcano to the location of the receptor. The integration of the biosphere modeling results (BDCFs) with the outcomes of the other component models is accomplished in the Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA), in which doses are calculated to the receptor of interest from radionuclides postulated to be released to the environment from the potential repository at Yucca Mountain.

M. Wasiolek

2000-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

16

Unit Conversion Factors Quantity Equivalent Values  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Unit Conversion Factors Quantity Equivalent Values Mass 1 kg = 1000 g = 0.001 metric ton = 2·R 10.73 psia·ft3 lbmol·R 62.36 liter·torr mol·K 0.7302 ft3·atm lbmol·R Temperature Conversions: T

Ashurst, W. Robert

17

Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny in the human Abstract To calculate the absorbed dose in the human lung due to inhaled radon progeny, ICRP focussed and secretory cells). The absorbed energy for alpha particles emitted by radon progeny in the human respiratory

Yu, K.N.

18

CT effective dose per dose length product using ICRP 103 weighting factors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To generate effective dose per unit dose length product (E/DLP) conversion factors incorporating ICRP Publication 103 tissue weighting factors. Methods: Effective doses for CT examinations were obtained using the IMPACT Dosimetry Calculator using all 23 dose data sets that are offered by this spreadsheet. CT examinations were simulated for scans performed along the patient long axis for each dosimetry data set using a 4 cm beam width ranging from the upper thighs to top of the head. Five basic body regions (head, neck, chest, abdomen, and pelvis), as well as combinations of the regions (head/neck, chest/abdomen, abdomen/pelvis, and chest/abdomen/pelvis) and whole body CT scans were investigated. Correction factors were generated that can be applied to convert E/DLP conversion factors based on ICRP 60 data to conversion factors that are valid for ICRP 103 data (i.e., E{sub 103}/E{sub 60}). Results: Use of ICRP 103 weighting factors increase effective doses for head scans by {approx}11%, for chest scans by {approx}20%, and decrease effective doses for pelvis scans by {approx}25%. Current E/DLP conversion factors are estimated to be 2.4 {mu}Sv/mGy cm for head CT examinations and range between 14 and 20 {mu}Sv/mGy cm for body CT examinations. Conclusions: Factors that enable patient CT doses to be adjusted to account for ICRP 103 tissue weighting factors are provided, which result in E/DLP factors that were increased in head and chest CT, reduced in pelvis CT, and showed no marked change in neck and abdomen CT.

Huda, Walter; Magill, Dennise; He Wenjun [Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina 29425 (United States); Department of Bioengineering, Clemson-MUSC Bioengineering Program, Clemson University, Charleston, South Carolina 29425 (United States)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

19

Factors for converting dose measured in polystyrene phantoms to dose reported in water phantoms for incident proton beams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Previous dosimetry protocols allowed calibrations of proton beamline dose monitors to be performed in plastic phantoms. Nevertheless, dose determinations were referenced to absorbed dose-to-muscle or absorbed dose-to-water. The IAEA Code of Practice TRS 398 recommended that dose calibrations be performed with ionization chambers only in water phantoms because plastic-to-water dose conversion factors were not available with sufficient accuracy at the time of its writing. These factors are necessary, however, to evaluate the difference in doses delivered to patients if switching from calibration in plastic to a protocol that only allows calibration in water. Methods: This work measured polystyrene-to-water dose conversion factors for this purpose. Uncertainties in the results due to temperature, geometry, and chamber effects were minimized by using special experimental set-up procedures. The measurements were validated by Monte Carlo simulations. Results: At the peak of non-range-modulated beams, measured polystyrene-to-water factors ranged from 1.015 to 1.024 for beams with ranges from 36 to 315 mm. For beams with the same ranges and medium sized modulations, the factors ranged from 1.005 to 1.019. The measured results were used to generate tables of polystyrene-to-water dose conversion factors. Conclusions: The dose conversion factors can be used at clinical proton facilities to support beamline and patient specific dose per monitor unit calibrations performed in polystyrene phantoms.

Moyers, M. F.; Vatnitsky, A. S.; Vatnitsky, S. M. [Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, California 92354 (United States); Guthrie Clinic/Robert Packard Hospital, Sayre, Pennsylvania 18840 (United States); EBG MedAustron, Wiener Neustadt, Austria A2700 (Austria)

2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

20

Indoor Dose Conversion Coefficients for Radon Progeny for Different  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Indoor Dose Conversion Coefficients for Radon Progeny for Different Ambient Environments K . N . Y Inhaled progeny of 222Rn (radon progeny) are the most important source of irradiation of the human-, urban-, and marine-influenced aerosols. The ASDs of attached radon progeny for all three studied ambient

Yu, K.N.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose conversion factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

VOICE CONVERSION BASED ON NON-NEGATIVE MATRIX FACTORIZATION USING PHONEME-CATEGORIZED DICTIONARY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

VOICE CONVERSION BASED ON NON-NEGATIVE MATRIX FACTORIZATION USING PHONEME-CATEGORIZED DICTIONARY using Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) is employed for spectral conversion between different conversion, sparse representation, non- negative matrix factorization, sub-dictionary 1. INTRODUCTION

Takiguchi, Tetsuya

22

Is G a conversion factor or a fundamental unit?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

By using fundamental units c, h, G as conversion factors one can easily transform the dimensions of all observables. In particular one can make them all ``geometrical'', or dimensionless. However this has no impact on the fact that there are three fundamental units, G being one of them. Only experiment can tell us whether G is basically fundamental.

G. Fiorentini; L. Okun; M. Vysotsky

2001-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

23

Conversion and correction factors for historical measurements of Iodine-131 in Hanford-area vegetation, 1945--1947: Draft  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is a result of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project whose goal is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received from emissions since 1944 at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The report describes in detail the reconstructed conversion and correction factors for historical measurements of iodine-131 in Hanford-area vegetation which was collected from the beginning of October 1945 through the end of December 1947.

Mart, E.I.; Denham, D.H.; Thiede, M.E.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

2008 Guidelines to Defra's GHG Conversion Factors Guidelines to Defra's GHG Conversion Factors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Basis 5 Burning oil is also known as kerosene or paraffin used for heating systems. Aviation Turbine biomass heating systems. The emission factors are based on the factor provided in SAP2005, Table 12. Page - Imports and Exports Last updated: Jun-05 Total emissions (kg CO2) Total electricity produced Total heat

25

The Exposure Rate Conversion Factor for Nuclear Fallout  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nuclear fallout is comprised of approximately 2000 radionuclides. About 1000 of these radionuclides are either primary fission products or activated fission products that are created during the burn process. The exposure rate one meter above the surface produced by this complex mixture of radionuclides varies rapidly with time since many of the radionuclides are short-lived and decay numerous times before reaching a stable isotope. As a result, the mixture of radionuclides changes rapidly with time. Using a new code developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the mixture of radionuclides at any given point in time can be calculated. The code also calculates the exposure rate conversion factor (ECF) for all 3864 individual isotopes contained in its database based on the total gamma energy released per decay. Based on the combination of isotope mixture and individual ECFs, the time-dependent variation of the composite exposure rate conversion factor for nuclear fallout can be easily calculated. As example of this new capability, a simple test case corresponding to a 10 kt, uranium-plutonium fuel has been calculated. The results for the time-dependent, composite ECF for this test case are shown in Figure 1. For comparison, we also calculated the composite exposure rate conversion factor using the conversion factors found in Federal Guidance Report No.12 (FGR-12) published by ORNL, which contains the conversion factors for approximately 1000 isotopes. As can be noted from Figure 1, the two functions agree reasonably well at times greater than about 30 minutes. However, they do not agree at early times since FGR-12 does not include all of the short-lived isotopes that are produced in nuclear fallout. It should also be noted that the composite ECF at one hour is 19.7 R/hr per Ci/m{sup 2}. This corresponds to 3148 R/hr per 1 kt per square mile, which agrees reasonably well with the value of 3000 R/hr per 1 kt per square mile as quoted by Glasstone. We have also tabulated the top 50 contributors to the exposure rate at various points in time following a detonation. These major contributors are given in Table 1.

Spriggs, G D

2009-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

26

Guidance on Dose Rate Measurements for Use in Dose-to-Curie Conversions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The dose-to-curie (DTC) methodology used at SRS was developed in early 1994 by Health Physics Technology (HPT) for inclusion in the Site Waste Information Tracking System (WITS). DTC is used to estimate the nuclide activity in a waste container based on the measured dose rate from the container. The DTC method is a simple and easy to apply method that can provide a reasonable estimate of the container activity by nuclide when properly applied. In order to make the method practical, numerous assumptions had to be made and limitations placed on its use. Many of these assumptions and limitations can only be procedurally controlled and must be well understood by these individuals in order to assure proper application numerous the method. These limitations are addressed in this report.

Howell, R.S.

2000-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

27

Impact of HFIR LEU Conversion on Beryllium Reflector Degradation Factors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An assessment of the impact of low enriched uranium (LEU) conversion on the factors that may cause the degradation of the beryllium reflector is performed for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The computational methods, models, and tools, comparisons with previous work, along with the results obtained are documented and discussed in this report. The report documents the results for the gas and neutronic poison production, and the heating in the beryllium reflector for both the highly enriched uranium (HEU) and LEU HFIR configurations, and discusses the impact that the conversion to LEU may have on these quantities. A time-averaging procedure was developed to calculate the isotopic (gas and poisons) production in reflector. The sensitivity of this approach to different approximations is gauged and documented. The results show that the gas is produced in the beryllium reflector at a total rate of 0.304 g/cycle for the HEU configuration; this rate increases by ~12% for the LEU case. The total tritium production rate in reflector is 0.098 g/cycle for the HEU core and approximately 11% higher for the LEU core. A significant increase (up to ~25%) in the neutronic poisons production in the reflector during the operation cycles is observed for the LEU core, compared to the HEU case, for regions close to the core s horizontal midplane. The poisoning level of the reflector may increase by more than two orders of magnitude during long periods of downtime. The heating rate in the reflector is estimated to be approximately 20% lower for the LEU core than for the HEU core. The decrease is due to a significantly lower contribution of the heating produced by the gamma radiation for the LEU core. Both the isotopic (gas and neutronic poisons) production and the heating rates are spatially non-uniform throughout the beryllium reflector volume. The maximum values typically occur in the removable reflector and close to the midplane.

Ilas, Dan [ORNL

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

MULTIMODAL VOICE CONVERSION USING NON-NEGATIVE MATRIX FACTORIZATION IN NOISY ENVIRONMENTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MULTIMODAL VOICE CONVERSION USING NON-NEGATIVE MATRIX FACTORIZATION IN NOISY ENVIRONMENTS Kenta 1-1, Rokkodai, Nada, Kobe, 6578501, Japan ABSTRACT This paper presents a multimodal voice conversion with that of a conventional Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM)-based method. Index Terms-- voice conversion, multimodal, image

Takiguchi, Tetsuya

29

Voice Conversion based on Non-negative Matrix Factorization in Noisy Environments  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Voice Conversion based on Non-negative Matrix Factorization in Noisy Environments Takao Fujii, Ryo conversion (VC) tech- nique for noisy environments. We prepared parallel exemplars (dictionary) that consist. In the proposed method, a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) -based conversion method is also applied to the feature

Takiguchi, Tetsuya

30

Gender and Maternal Responsivity as Factors in Number of Conversational Turns in Adolescents with Developmental Disabilities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Gender and Maternal Responsivity as Factors in Number of Conversational Turns in Adolescents, Parlors, 3:00-4:00 PM This study examines factors that influence interactions between adolescents would take more conversational turns than boys, and that higher maternal responsivity would

31

INDIVIDUALITY-PRESERVING VOICE CONVERSION FOR ARTICULATION DISORDERS BASED ON NON-NEGATIVE MATRIX FACTORIZATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- based spectral conversion using Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF) is applied to a voiceINDIVIDUALITY-PRESERVING VOICE CONVERSION FOR ARTICULATION DISORDERS BASED ON NON-NEGATIVE MATRIX FACTORIZATION Ryo AIHARA, Ryoichi TAKASHIMA, Tetsuya TAKIGUCHI, Yasuo ARIKI Graduate School of System

Takiguchi, Tetsuya

32

Evolving Adjustments to External (Gamma) Slope Factors for CERCLA Risk and Dose Assessments - 12290  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To model the external exposure pathway in risk and dose assessments of radioactive contamination at Superfund sites, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) uses slope factors (SFs), also known as risk coefficients, and dose conversion factors (DCFs). Without any adjustment these external radiation exposure pathways effectively assumes that an individual is exposed to a source geometry that is effectively an infinite slab. The concept of an 'infinite slab' means that the thickness of the contaminated zone and its aerial extent are so large that it behaves as if it were infinite in its physical dimensions. EPA has been making increasingly complex adjustments to account for the extent of the contamination and its corresponding radiation field to provide more accurate risk and dose assessment modeling when using its calculators. In most instances, the more accurate modeling results derived from these gamma adjustments are less conservative. The notable exception are for some radionuclides in rooms with contaminated walls, ceiling, and floors, and the receptor is in location of the room with the highest amount of radiation exposure, usually the corner of small rooms and the center of large conference rooms. (authors)

Walker, Stuart [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Molecular line intensities as measures of cloud masses - II. Conversion factors for specific galaxy types  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present theoretically-established values of the CO-to-H2 and C-to-H2 conversion factors that may be used to estimate the gas masses of external galaxies. We consider four distinct galaxy types, represented by M51, NGC 6946, M82 and SMC N27. The physical parameters that best represent the conditions within the molecular clouds in each of the galaxy types are estimated using a chi^2 analysis of several observed atomic fine structure and CO rotational lines. This analysis is explored over a wide range of density, radiation field, extinction, and other relevant parameters. Using these estimated physical conditions in methods that we have previously established, CO-to-H2 conversion factors are then computed for CO transitions up to J=9-8. For the conventional CO(1-0) transition, the computed conversion factor varies significantly below and above the canonical value for the Milky Way in the four galaxy types considered. Since atomic carbon emission is now frequently used as a probe of external galaxies, we also present, for the first time, the C-to-H2 conversion factor for this emission in the four galaxy types considered.

T. A. Bell; S. Viti; D. A. Williams

2007-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

34

2009 Guidelines to Defra / DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and has been produced by Nikolas Hill (AEA) for the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC (HGVs) 40 Light Goods Vehicles (LGVs) 44 Rail Freight 45 RoPax Ferry Freight 46 Other Marine Freight) 48 IX. OTHER UK CONVERSION FACTORS (ANNEX 9) 49 Water 50 Biofuels 50 Other bioenergy 50 Waste 51 X

35

The Metallicity Dependence of the CO-to-H$_2$ Conversion Factor from Observations of Local Group Galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-resolution CO maps of 9 molecular clouds in IC 10 are combined with the new measurement of the distance to this nearby metal poor galaxy to measure accurately the CO-to-H2 conversion factor. The result for IC 10 is combined with published data for four other Local Group galaxies (M31, M33, NGC 6822, the SMC) to trace the dependence of the CO-to-H2 conversion factor on oxygen abundance. These data show conclusively that the CO-to-H$_2$ conversion factor increases as the metallicity of the host galaxy decreases, with the conversion factor increasing by a factor of 4.6 for a factor of 10 decrease in metallicity.

C. D. Wilson

1995-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

36

Factors for conversion between human and automatic read-outs of CDMAM images  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: According to the European protocol for the quality control of the physical and technical aspects of mammography screening (EPQCM) image quality of digital mammography devices has to be assessed using human evaluation of the CDMAM contrast-detail phantom. This is accomplished by the determination of threshold thicknesses of gold disks with different diameters (0.08-2 mm) and revealed to be very time consuming. Therefore a software solution based on a nonprewhitening matched filter (NPW) model was developed at University of Nijmegen. Factors for the conversion from automatic to human readouts have been determined by Young et al.[Proc. SPIE 614206, 1-13 (2006) and Proc. SPIE 6913, 69131C1 (2008)] using a huge amount of data of both human and automatic readouts. These factors depend on the observer groups and are purely phenomenological. The authors present an alternative approach to determine the factors by using the Rose observer model. Methods: Their method uses the Rose theory which gives a relationship between threshold contrast, diameter of the object and number of incident photons. To estimate the conversion factors for the five diameters from 0.2 to 0.5 mm they exposed with five different current-time products which resulted in 25 equations with five unknowns. Results: The theoretical conversion factors (in dependence of the diameters) amounted to be 1.61 {+-} 0.02 (0.2 mm diameter), 1.67 {+-} 0.02 (0.25 mm), 1.85 {+-} 0.02 (0.31 mm), 2.09 {+-} 0.02 (0.4 mm), and 2.28 {+-} 0.02 (0.5 mm). The corresponding phenomenological factors found in literature are 1.74 (0.2 mm), 1.78 (0.25 mm), 1.83 (0.31 mm), 1.88 (0.4 mm), and 1.93 (0.5 mm). Conclusions: They transferred the problem of determining the factors to a well known observer model which has been examined for many years and is also well established. This method reveals to be reproduceable and produces factors comparable to the phenomenological ones.

Figl, Michael; Hoffmann, Rainer; Kaar, Marcus; Semturs, Friedrich; Brasik, Natasa; Birkfellner, Wolfgang; Homolka, Peter; Hummel, Johann [Center for medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Medical University of Vienna, Austria A-1090 (Austria); Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Austria A-1090 (Austria); Center for medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Medical University of Vienna, Austria A-1090 (Austria); Center for medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering, Medical University of Vienna, Austria A-1090 and Department of Radio-oncology, Wilhelminenspital, Vienna, Austria A-1160 (Austria)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

37

Conversion, Fragmentation,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

YFFReview Forestland Conversion, Fragmentation, and Parcelization A summary of a forum exploring our forests today. Development and economic pressures on private lands are driving conversion the complexity of factors influencing fragmentation--for example, historic land use planning policies

38

5022 Biochemistry 1983, 22, 5022-5028 Conversion of Nerve Growth Factor-Receptor Complexes to a Slowly  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

5022 Biochemistry 1983, 22, 5022-5028 Conversion of Nerve Growth Factor-Receptor Complexes to a Slowly Dissociating, Triton X-100 Insoluble State by Anti Nerve Growth Factor Antibodied Ronald D. Vale and Eric M. Shooter* ABSTRACT: Two populations of nerve growth factor (NGF) receptors can be distinguished

Vale, Ronald D.

39

Genetic Factors Affecting Susceptibility to Low Dose & Low Dose-Rate Radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Our laboratory has, among other things, developed and used the gamma H2AX focus assay and other chromosomal and cell killing assays to show that differences in this DNA double strand break (dsb) related response can be clearly and distinctly demonstrated for cells which are mildly hyper-radiosensitive such as those associated with A-T heterozygosity. We have found this level of mild hypersensitivity for cells from some 20 to 30 % of apparently normal individuals and from apparently normal parents of Retinoblastoma patients. We found significant differences in gene expression in somatic cells from unaffected parents of Rb patients as compared with normal controls, suggesting that these parents may harbor some as yet unidentified genetic abnormality. In other experiments we sought to determine the extent of differences in normal human cellular reaponses to radiation depending on their irradiation in 2D monolayer vs 3D organized acinar growth conditions. We exmined cell reproductive death, chromosomal aberration induction, and the levels of ?-H2AX foci in cells after single acute gamma-ray doses and immediately after 20 hours of irradiation at a dose rate of 0.0017 Gy/min. We found no significant differences in the dose-responses of these cells under the 2D or 3D growth conditions. While this does not mean such differences cannot occur in other situations, it does mean that they do not generally or necessarily occur. In another series of studies in collaboration with Dr Chuan Li, with supprt from this current grant. We reported a role for apoptotic cell death in promoting wound healing and tissue regeneration in mice. Apoptotic cells released growth signals that stimulated the proliferation of progenitor or stem cells. In yet another collaboration with Dr, B. Chen with funds from this grant, the relative radiosensitivity to cell killing as well as chromosomal instability of 13 DNA-PKcs site-directed mutant cell lines (defective at phosphorylation sites or kinase activity) were examined after exposure of synchronized G1 cells to 137Cs c rays. DNA-PKcs mutant cells defective in phosphorylation at multiple sites withinthe T2609 cluster or within the PI3K domain displayed extreme radiosensitivity. Cells defective at the S2056 cluster or T2609 single site alone were only mildly radiosensitive, but cells defective at even one site in both the S2056 and T2609 clusters were maximally radiosensitive. Thus a synergism between the capacity for phosphorylation at the S2056 and T2609 clusterswas found to be critical for induction of radiosensitivity.

Bedford, Joel

2014-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

40

Beam quality conversion factors for parallel-plate ionization chambers in MV photon beams  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To investigate the behavior of plane-parallel ion chambers in high-energy photon beams through measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: Ten plane-parallel ion chamber types were obtained from the major ion chamber manufacturers. Absorbed dose-to-water calibration coefficients are measured for these chambers and k{sub Q} factors are determined. In the process, the behaviors of the chambers are characterized through measurements of leakage currents, chamber settling in cobalt-60, polarity and ion recombination behavior, and long-term stability. Monte Carlo calculations of the absorbed dose to the air in the ion chamber and absorbed dose to water are obtained to calculate k{sub Q} factors. Systematic uncertainties in Monte Carlo calculated k{sub Q} factors are investigated by varying material properties and chamber dimensions. Results: Chamber behavior was variable in MV photon beams, especially with regard to chamber leakage and ion recombination. The plane-parallel chambers did not perform as well as cylindrical chambers. Significant differences up to 1.5% were observed in calibration coefficients after a period of eight months although k{sub Q} factors were consistent on average within 0.17%. Chamber-to-chamber variations in k{sub Q} factors for chambers of the same type were at the 0.2% level. Systematic uncertainties in Monte Carlo calculated k{sub Q} factors ranged between 0.34% and 0.50% depending on the chamber type. Average percent differences between measured and calculated k{sub Q} factors were - 0.02%, 0.18%, and - 0.16% for 6, 10, and 25 MV beams, respectively. Conclusions: Excellent agreement is observed on average at the 0.2% level between measured and Monte Carlo calculated k{sub Q} factors. Measurements indicate that the behavior of these chambers is not adequate for their use for reference dosimetry of high-energy photon beams without a more extensive QA program than currently used for cylindrical reference-class ion chambers.

Muir, B. R.; McEwen, M. R.; Rogers, D. W. O. [Carleton Laboratory for Radiotherapy Physics, Physics Department, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada); Institute for National Measurement Standards, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Carleton Laboratory for Radiotherapy Physics, Physics Department, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose conversion factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Calculation of Ambient (H*(10)) and Personal (Hp(10)) Dose Equivalent from a 252Cf Neutron Source  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this calculation is to calculate the neutron dose factors for the Sr-Cf-3000 neutron source that is located in the 318 low scatter room (LSR). The dose factors were based on the dose conversion factors published in ICRP-21 Appendix 6, and the Ambient dose equivalent (H*(10)) and Personal dose equivalent (Hp(10)) dose factors published in ICRP Publication 74.

Traub, Richard J.

2010-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

42

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Dose-per-Unit-Release Factors for Use in Calculating Radionuclide Air Emissions Potential-to-Emit Doses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents assumptions and inputs used to prepare the dose-per-unit-release factors for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Site (including the buildings that make up the Physical Sciences Facility [PSF] as well as the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory [EMSL]) calculated using the EPA-approved Clean Air Act Assessment Package 1988–Personal Computer (CAP88-PC) Version 3 software package. The dose-per-unit-release factors are used to prepare dose estimates for a maximum public receptor (MPR) in support of Radioactive Air Pollutants Notice of Construction (NOC) applications for the PNNL Site.

Barnett, J. M.; Rhoads, Kathleen

2009-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

43

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Dose-per-Unit-Release Factors for Use in Calculating Radionuclide Air Emissions Potential-to-Emit Doses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents assumptions and inputs used to prepare the dose-per-unit-release factors for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Site (including the buildings that make up the Physical Sciences Facility [PSF] as well as the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory [EMSL]) calculated using the EPA-approved Clean Air Act Assessment Package 1988–Personal Computer (CAP88-PC) Version 3 software package. The dose-per-unit-release factors are used to prepare dose estimates for a maximum public receptor (MPR) in support of Radioactive Air Pollutants Notice of Construction (NOC) applications for the PNNL Site.

Barnett, J. M.; Rhoads, Kathleen

2008-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

44

Identification and Characterization of Soluble Factors Involved in Delayed Effects of Low Dose Radiation. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is a 'glue grant' that was part of a DOE Low Dose project entitled 'Identification and Characterization of Soluble Factors Involved in Delayed Effects of Low Dose Radiation'. This collaborative program has involved Drs. David L. Springer from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), John H. Miller from Washington State University, Tri-cities (WSU) and William F. Morgan then from the University of Maryland, Baltimore (UMB). In July 2008, Dr. Morgan moved to PNNL and Dr. Janet E. Baulch became PI for this project at University of Maryland. In November of 2008, a one year extension with no new funds was requested to complete the proteomic analyses. The project stemmed from studies in the Morgan laboratory demonstrating that genomically unstable cells secret a soluble factor or factors into the culture medium, that cause cytogenetic aberrations and apoptosis in normal parental GM10115 cells. The purpose of this project was to identify the death inducing effect (DIE) factor or factors, estimate their relative abundance, identify the cell signaling pathways involved and finally recapitulate DIE in normal cells by exogenous manipulation of putative DIE factors in culture medium. As reported in detail in the previous progress report, analysis of culture medium from the parental cell line, and stable and unstable clones demonstrated inconsistent proteomic profiles as relate to candidate DIE factors. While the proposed proteomic analyses did not provide information that would allow DIE factors to be identified, the analyses provided another important set of observations. Proteomic analysis suggested that proteins associated with the cellular response to oxidative stress and mitochondrial function were elevated in the medium from unstable clones in a manner consistent with mitochondrial dysfunction. These findings correlate with previous studies of these clones that demonstrated functional differences between the mitochondria of stable and unstable clones. These mitochondrial abnormalities in the unstable clones contributes to oxidative stress.

Baulch, Janet

2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

45

Factors for Predicting Rectal Dose of High-Dose-Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy After Pelvic Irradiation in Patients With Cervical Cancer: A Retrospective Study With Radiography-Based Dosimetry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To evaluate the predictive factors for rectal dose of the first fraction of high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) in patients with cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: From March 1993 through February 2008, 946 patients undergoing pelvic irradiation and HDR-ICBT were analyzed. Examination under anesthesia (EUA) at the first implantation of the applicator was usually performed in the early period. Rectal point was determined radiographically according to the 38th Report of the International Commission of Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU). The ICRU rectal dose (PRD) as a percentage of point A dose was calculated; multiple linear regression models were used to predict PRD. Results: Factors influencing successful rectal dose calculation were EUA (p < 0.001) and absence of diabetes (p = 0.047). Age (p < 0.001), body weight (p = 0.002), diabetes (p = 0.020), and EUA (p < 0.001) were independent factors for the PRD. The predictive equation derived from the regression model was PRD (%) = 57.002 + 0.443 x age (years) - 0.257 x body weight (kg) + 6.028 x diabetes (no: 0; yes: 1) - 8.325 x EUA (no: 0; yes: 1) Conclusion: Rectal dose at the first fraction of HDR-ICBT is positively influenced by age and diabetes, and negatively correlated with EUA and body weight. A small fraction size at point A may be considered in patients with a potentially high rectal dose to reduce the biologically effective dose if the ICRU rectal dose has not been immediately obtained in the first fraction of HDR-ICBT.

Huang Engyen, E-mail: huangengyen@giga.net.t [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Wang Chongjong; Lan Jenhong; Chen Huichun [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Fang Fumin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Hsu, H.-C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Huang Yujie; Wang Changyu; Wang Yuming [Department of Radiation Oncology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung Medical Center, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China)

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Method to determine the position-dependant metal correction factor for dose-rate equivalent laser testing of semiconductor devices  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method reconstructs the charge collection from regions beneath opaque metallization of a semiconductor device, as determined from focused laser charge collection response images, and thereby derives a dose-rate dependent correction factor for subsequent broad-area, dose-rate equivalent, laser measurements. The position- and dose-rate dependencies of the charge-collection magnitude of the device are determined empirically and can be combined with a digital reconstruction methodology to derive an accurate metal-correction factor that permits subsequent absolute dose-rate response measurements to be derived from laser measurements alone. Broad-area laser dose-rate testing can thereby be used to accurately determine the peak transient current, dose-rate response of semiconductor devices to penetrating electron, gamma- and x-ray irradiation.

Horn, Kevin M.

2013-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

47

2010 Guidelines to Defra / DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is available on the Defra website and has been produced by Nikolas Hill (AEA) for the Department of Energy) 34 Direct Emissions from Light Goods Vehicles (LGVs) 38 Direct Emissions from Rail Freight 39 Direct 57 Other bioenergy 58 Waste 59 X. OVERSEAS ELECTRICITY EMISSION FACTORS (ANNEX 10) 63 Summary

48

Dose-Volume Histogram Parameters and Clinical Factors Associated With Pleural Effusion After Chemoradiotherapy in Esophageal Cancer Patients  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To investigate the dose-volume histogram parameters and clinical factors as predictors of pleural effusion in esophageal cancer patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: Forty-three esophageal cancer patients treated with definitive CRT from January 2001 to March 2007 were reviewed retrospectively on the basis of the following criteria: pathologically confirmed esophageal cancer, available computed tomography scan for treatment planning, 6-month follow-up after CRT, and radiation dose {>=}50 Gy. Exclusion criteria were lung metastasis, malignant pleural effusion, and surgery. Mean heart dose, mean total lung dose, and percentages of heart or total lung volume receiving {>=}10-60 Gy (Heart-V{sub 10} to V{sub 60} and Lung-V{sub 10} to V{sub 60}, respectively) were analyzed in relation to pleural effusion. Results: The median follow-up time was 26.9 months (range, 6.7-70.2) after CRT. Of the 43 patients, 15 (35%) developed pleural effusion. By univariate analysis, mean heart dose, Heart-V{sub 10} to V{sub 60}, and Lung-V{sub 50} to V{sub 60} were significantly associated with pleural effusion. Poor performance status, primary tumor of the distal esophagus, and age {>=}65 years were significantly related with pleural effusion. Multivariate analysis identified Heart-V{sub 50} as the strongest predictive factor for pleural effusion (p = 0.01). Patients with Heart-V{sub 50} <20%, 20%{<=} Heart-V{sub 50} <40%, and Heart-V{sub 50} {>=}40% had 6%, 44%, and 64% of pleural effusion, respectively (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Heart-V{sub 50} is a useful parameter for assessing the risk of pleural effusion and should be reduced to avoid pleural effusion.

Shirai, Katsuyuki, E-mail: katu.shirai@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma Prefectural Cancer Center, Ota (Japan); Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi (Japan); Tamaki, Yoshio; Kitamoto, Yoshizumi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma Prefectural Cancer Center, Ota (Japan); Murata, Kazutoshi; Satoh, Yumi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi (Japan); Higuchi, Keiko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma Prefectural Cancer Center, Ota (Japan); Nonaka, Tetsuo; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Katoh, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Takeo; Nakano, Takashi [Department of Radiation Oncology, Gunma University Graduate School of Medicine, Maebashi (Japan)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

49

Submillimeter Galaxies at z~2: Evidence for Major Mergers & Constraints on Lifetimes, IMF and CO-H2 Conversion Factor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report sub-arcsecond resolution IRAM PdBI millimeter CO interferometry of four z~2 submillimeter galaxies (SMGs), and sensitive CO (3-2) flux limits toward three z~2 UV-/optically selected star forming galaxies. The new data reveal for the first time spatially resolved CO gas kinematics in the observed SMGs. Two of the SMGs show double or multiple morphologies, with complex, disturbed gas motions. The other two SMGs exhibit CO velocity gradients of ~500 km/s across 0.2 arcsec (1.6 kpc) diameter regions, suggesting that the star forming gas is in compact, rotating disks. Our data provide compelling evidence that these SMGs represent extreme, short-lived 'maximum' star forming events in highly dissipative mergers of gas rich galaxies. The resulting high mass surface and volume densities of SMGs are similar to those of compact quiescent galaxies in the same redshift range, and much higher than those in local spheroids. From the ratio of the comoving volume densities of SMGs and quiescent galaxies in the same mass and redshift ranges, and from the comparison of gas exhaustion time scales and stellar ages, we estimate that the SMG phase duration is about 100 Myrs. Our analysis of SMGs and optically/UV selected high redshift star forming galaxies supports a 'universal' Chabrier IMF as being valid over the star forming history of these galaxies. We find that the 12CO luminosity to total gas mass conversion factors at z~2-3 are probably similar to those assumed at z~0. The implied gas fractions in our sample galaxies range from 20 to 50%.

L. J. Tacconi; R. Genzel; I. Smail; R. Neri; S. C. Chapman; R. J. Ivison; A. Blain; P. Cox; A. Omont; F. Bertoldi; T. Greve; N. M. Foerster Schreiber; S. Genel; D. Lutz; A. M. Swinbank; A. E. Shapley; D. K. Erb; A. Cimatti; E. Daddi; A. J. Baker

2008-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

50

Improved assessment of population doses and risk factors for a nuclear power plant under accident conditions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In order to assess the doses received by the members of the public due to an accident at a nuclear power plant, a number of physical processes must be modeled. These processes include the release of radioactive materials, the atmospheric dispersion... representative of the industry. Generic reactor sites must be conceptualized in order to obtain meteorologic data which is representative of the areas within the United States in which nuclear power facilities have been sited, Information such as population...

Meyer, Christopher Martin

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Energy Unit Conversion Factors / 1Joule (J) equals 1 2.78 x lO-7 9.49 x 1o-4  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Unit Conversion Factors J kWh Btu -~ / 1Joule (J) equals 1 2.78 x lO-7 9.49 x 1o-4 1.25 x lo5i Uranium = 235 (1 gram) 8.28 x lOlo 2.30 x lo4 7.84 x lo7 Deuterium (1 gram) 2.38 x 1011 6

Kostic, Milivoje M.

52

ALLSMOG: an APEX Low-redshift Legacy Survey for MOlecular Gas. I - molecular gas scaling relations, and the effect of the CO/H2 conversion factor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present ALLSMOG, the APEX Low-redshift Legacy Survey for MOlecular Gas. ALLSMOG is a survey designed to observe the CO(2-1) emission line with the APEX telescope, in a sample of local galaxies (0.01 conversion factor. We find an increase in the H2/HI mass ratio with stellar mass which closely matches semi-analytic predictions. We find a mean molecular gas fraction for ALLSMOG galaxies of MH2/M* = (0.09 - 0.13),...

Bothwell, M S; Cicone, C; Maiolino, R; Mřller, P; Aravena, M; De Breuck, C; Peng, Y; Espada, D; Hodge, J A; Impellizzeri, C M V; Martín, S; Riechers, D; Walter, F

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

anthropometrically derived dosing: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Jonathan 102 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

54

additional dose assessment: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Jonathan 139 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

55

absorbed gamma dose: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Index 1 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

56

atoll dose assessment: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Jonathan 89 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

57

absorbed dose profiles: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Index 1 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

58

astronaut absorbed dose: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Index 1 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

59

absorbed dose kerma: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Index 1 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

60

assess lung dose: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Morgan 68 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose conversion factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

avaliacao da dose: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Jonathan 31 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

62

absorbed dose estimates: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

NTS tests 3 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

63

absorbed doses: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Index 1 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

64

absorbed doses received: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Index 1 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

65

absorbed radiation dose: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

10 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

66

average absorbed doses: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Index 1 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

67

assessing organ doses: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Jonathan 140 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

68

absorbed dose optimization: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Index 1 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

69

afterloading high dose: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

71 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

70

absorbed dose estimation: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

NTS tests 3 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

71

absorbed glandular dose: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Index 1 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

72

absorbed dose metrology: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Index 1 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

73

affecting dose distributions: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Index 141 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

74

absorbed doses profiles: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Index 1 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

75

absorbed dose appears: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Index 1 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

76

absorbed dose computations: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Index 1 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

77

acenocoumarol dose based: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Jonathan 48 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

78

absorbed dose evaluation: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Index 1 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

79

Conversion of Units of Measurement Gordon S. Novak Jr. \\Lambda  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by the programmer; this can be both burdensome and error­prone, since the conversion factors used by the programmer guidelines for use of SI units and tables of conversion factors. Several books provide conversion factors, the accuracy of the conversion factors, and the algorithms that some books present for unit conversion

Novak Jr., Gordon S.

80

R1S-M-2322 TABLE OF EXPOSURE RATE CONSTANTS AND DOSE EQUIVALENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in units of MeV/photon , (pen/p)air in cm2 /g gives r in R»m2 /Ci«h if the following conversion factors a point source . 4 5. DOSE BUILD-UP FACTORS 7 6. MASS ENERGY ABSORPTION COEFFICIENTS AND LINEAR

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose conversion factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Mapping of RBE-Weighted Doses Between HIMAC- and LEM-Based Treatment Planning Systems for Carbon Ion Therapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: A method was developed to convert clinically prescribed RBE (Relative Biological Effectiveness)-weighted doses from the approach used at the Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator (HIMAC) at the National Institute of Radiological Science, Chiba, Japan, to the LEM (Local Effect Model)-based TReatment planning for Particles (TRiP98) approach used in the pilot project at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum, Darmstadt, and the Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT). Methods and Materials: The proposed conversion method is based on a simulation of the fixed spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) depth dose profiles as used for the irradiation at HIMAC by LEM/TRiP98 and a recalculation of the resulting RBE-weighted dose distribution. We present data according to the clinical studies conducted at GSI in the past decade (LEM I), as well as data used in current studies (refined LEM version: LEM IV). Results: We found conversion factors (RBE-weighted dose LEM/RBE-weighted dose HIMAC) reaching from 0.4 to 2.0 for prescribed carbon ion doses from 1 to 60 Gy (RBE) for SOBP extensions ranging from 20 to 120 mm according to the HIMAC approach. A conversion factor of 1.0 was found for approximately 5 Gy (RBE). The conversion factor decreases with increasing prescribed dose. Slightly smaller values for the LEM IV-based data set compared with LEM I were found. A significant dependence of the conversion factor from the SOBP width could be observed in particular for LEM IV, whereas the depth dependence was found to be small. Conclusions: For the interpretation and comparison of clinical trials performed at HIMAC and GSI/HIT, it is of extreme importance to consider these conversion factors because according to the various methods to determine the RBE-weighted dose, similar dose values might not necessarily be related to similar clinical outcomes.

Steinstraeter, Olaf, E-mail: o.steinstraeter@gsi.de [Abteilung Biophysik, GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)] [Abteilung Biophysik, GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Gruen, Rebecca [Abteilung Biophysik, GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany) [Abteilung Biophysik, GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Institut fuer Medizinische Physik und Strahlenschutz, TH-Mittelhessen, Giessen (Germany); Fachbereich Medizin, Philipps-Universitaet Marburg, Marburg (Germany); Scholz, Uwe [Abteilung Biophysik, GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany) [Abteilung Biophysik, GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Friedrich, Thomas [Abteilung Biophysik, GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)] [Abteilung Biophysik, GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Durante, Marco [Abteilung Biophysik, GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany) [Abteilung Biophysik, GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Scholz, Michael [Abteilung Biophysik, GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)] [Abteilung Biophysik, GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany)

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

The Relationship between Organ Dose and Patients Size in Multidetector Computed Tomography (MDCT) Scans Utilizing Tube Current Modulation (TCM)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

However, the generated conversion factors were based on fixeis provided by conversion factors based on organ doseswhich established conversion factors applied to the scanner-

Khatonabadi, Maryam

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

a-bisabolol induces dose: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

42 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

84

Dark matter conversion as a source of boost factor for explaining the cosmic ray positron and electron excesses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In interacting multi-component dark matter (DM) models, if the DM components are nearly degenerate in mass and the interactions between them are strong enough, the relatively heavy DM components can be converted into lighter ones at late time after the thermal decoupling. Consequently, the relic density of the lightest DM component can be considerably enhanced at late time. This may contribute to an alternative source of boost factor required to explain the positron and electron excesses reported by the recent DM indirect search experiments such as PAMELA, Fermi-LAT and HESS etc..

Ze-Peng Liu; Yue-Liang Wu; Yu-Feng Zhou

2011-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

85

Systems Biology Model of Interactions Between Tissue Growth Factors and DNA Damage Pathways: Low Dose Response and Cross-Talk in TGFbeta and ATM Signaling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The etiology of radiation carcinogenesis has been described in terms of aberrant changes that span several levels of biological organization. Growth factors regulate many important cellular and tissue functions including apoptosis, differentiation and proliferation. A variety of genetic and epigenetic changes of growth factors have been shown to contribute to cancer initiation and progression. It is known that cellular and tissue damage to ionizing radiation is in part initiated by the production of reactive oxygen species, which can activate cytokine signaling, and the DNA damage response pathways, most notably the ATM signaling pathway. Recently the transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) pathway has been shown to regulate or directly interact with the ATM pathway in the response to radiation. The relevance of this interaction with the ATM pathway is not known although p53 becomes phosphorylated and DNA damage responses are involved. However, growth factor interactions with DNA damage responses have not been elucidated particularly at low doses and further characterization of their relationship to cancer processes is warranted. Our goal will be to use a systems biology approach to mathematically and experimentally describe the low dose responses and cross-talk between the ATM and TGF? pathways initiated by low and high LET radiation. We will characterize ATM and TGF? signaling in epithelial and fibroblast cells using 2D models and ultimately extending to 3D organotypic cell culture models to begin to elucidate possible differences that may occur for different cell types and/or inter-cellular communication. We will investigate the roles of the Smad and Activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) proteins as the potential major contributors to cross- talk between the TGF? and ATM pathways, and links to cell cycle control and/or the DNA damage response, and potential differences in their responses at low and high doses. We have developed various experimental approaches to apply to these problems using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry to detail changes at low dose/dose-rate in order to understand individual cell responses, and will establish our mathematical models based on the experimental findings resulting from changes in DNA repair, apoptosis and proliferation.

O'Neill, Peter [University of Oxford; Anderson, Jennifer [University of Oxford

2014-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

86

Automated size-specific CT dose monitoring program: Assessing variability in CT dose  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: The potential health risks associated with low levels of ionizing radiation have created a movement in the radiology community to optimize computed tomography (CT) imaging protocols to use the lowest radiation dose possible without compromising the diagnostic usefulness of the images. Despite efforts to use appropriate and consistent radiation doses, studies suggest that a great deal of variability in radiation dose exists both within and between institutions for CT imaging. In this context, the authors have developed an automated size-specific radiation dose monitoring program for CT and used this program to assess variability in size-adjusted effective dose from CT imaging. Methods: The authors radiation dose monitoring program operates on an independent health insurance portability and accountability act compliant dosimetry server. Digital imaging and communication in medicine routing software is used to isolate dose report screen captures and scout images for all incoming CT studies. Effective dose conversion factors (k-factors) are determined based on the protocol and optical character recognition is used to extract the CT dose index and dose-length product. The patient's thickness is obtained by applying an adaptive thresholding algorithm to the scout images and is used to calculate the size-adjusted effective dose (ED{sub adj}). The radiation dose monitoring program was used to collect data on 6351 CT studies from three scanner models (GE Lightspeed Pro 16, GE Lightspeed VCT, and GE Definition CT750 HD) and two institutions over a one-month period and to analyze the variability in ED{sub adj} between scanner models and across institutions. Results: No significant difference was found between computer measurements of patient thickness and observer measurements (p= 0.17), and the average difference between the two methods was less than 4%. Applying the size correction resulted in ED{sub adj} that differed by up to 44% from effective dose estimates that were not adjusted by patient size. Additionally, considerable differences were noted in ED{sub adj} distributions between scanners, with scanners employing iterative reconstruction exhibiting significantly lower ED{sub adj} (range: 9%-64%). Finally, a significant difference (up to 59%) in ED{sub adj} distributions was observed between institutions, indicating the potential for dose reduction. Conclusions: The authors developed a robust automated size-specific radiation dose monitoring program for CT. Using this program, significant differences in ED{sub adj} were observed between scanner models and across institutions. This new dose monitoring program offers a unique tool for improving quality assurance and standardization both within and across institutions.

Christianson, Olav; Li Xiang; Frush, Donald; Samei, Ehsan [Clinical Imaging Physics Group, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 and Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Clinical Imaging Physics Group, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States) and Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Clinical Imaging Physics Group, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Carl E. Ravin Advanced Imaging Laboratories, Department of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Medical Physics Graduate Program, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27705 (United States); Department of Physics, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27710 (United States); and Department of Biomedical Engineering, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina 27708 (United States)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

87

THE CO-TO-H{sub 2} CONVERSION FACTOR AND DUST-TO-GAS RATIO ON KILOPARSEC SCALES IN NEARBY GALAXIES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present ?kiloparsec spatial resolution maps of the CO-to-H{sub 2} conversion factor (?{sub CO}) and dust-to-gas ratio (DGR) in 26 nearby, star-forming galaxies. We have simultaneously solved for ?{sub CO} and the DGR by assuming that the DGR is approximately constant on kiloparsec scales. With this assumption, we can combine maps of dust mass surface density, CO-integrated intensity, and H I column density to solve for both ?{sub CO} and the DGR with no assumptions about their value or dependence on metallicity or other parameters. Such a study has just become possible with the availability of high-resolution far-IR maps from the Herschel key program KINGFISH, {sup 12}CO J = (2-1) maps from the IRAM 30 m large program HERACLES, and H I 21 cm line maps from THINGS. We use a fixed ratio between the (2-1) and (1-0) lines to present our ?{sub CO} results on the more typically used {sup 12}CO J = (1-0) scale and show using literature measurements that variations in the line ratio do not affect our results. In total, we derive 782 individual solutions for ?{sub CO} and the DGR. On average, ?{sub CO} = 3.1 M{sub ?} pc{sup –2} (K km s{sup –1}){sup –1} for our sample with a standard deviation of 0.3 dex. Within galaxies, we observe a generally flat profile of ?{sub CO} as a function of galactocentric radius. However, most galaxies exhibit a lower ?{sub CO} value in the central kiloparsec—a factor of ?2 below the galaxy mean, on average. In some cases, the central ?{sub CO} value can be factors of 5-10 below the standard Milky Way (MW) value of ?{sub CO,{sub MW}} = 4.4 M{sub ?} pc{sup –2} (K km s{sup –1}){sup –1}. While for ?{sub CO} we find only weak correlations with metallicity, the DGR is well-correlated with metallicity, with an approximately linear slope. Finally, we present several recommendations for choosing an appropriate ?{sub CO} for studies of nearby galaxies.

Sandstrom, K. M.; Walter, F. [Max Planck Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Leroy, A. K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Bolatto, A. D.; Wolfire, M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Croxall, K. V.; Crocker, A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Mail Drop 111, University of Toledo, 2801 West Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606 (United States); Draine, B. T.; Aniano, G. [Princeton University Observatory, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544-1001 (United States); Wilson, C. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4M1 (Canada); Calzetti, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Kennicutt, R. C.; Galametz, M. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Donovan Meyer, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, SUNY Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Usero, A. [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, Alfonso XII, 3, E-28014 Madrid (Spain); Bigiel, F. [Institut für theoretische Astrophysik, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Albert-Ueberle Str. 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Brinks, E. [Centre for Astrophysics Research, University of Hertfordshire, Hatfield AL10 9AB (United Kingdom); De Blok, W. J. G. [ASTRON, The Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy, Postbus 2, 7990-AA Dwingeloo (Netherlands); Dale, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Engelbracht, C. W., E-mail: sandstrom@mpia.de [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); and others

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

absorbed dose calculation: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2010-01-01 4 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

89

absorbed dose measurements: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2013-01-01 3 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

90

air dose absorbed: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2009-01-01 3 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

91

absorbed dose distribution: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2010-01-01 3 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

92

absorbed dose measurement: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2013-01-01 3 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

93

absorbed dose determination: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2012-06-07 5 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

94

absorbed dose effective: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2010-01-01 2 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

95

absorbed dose standard: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2010-01-01 4 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

96

absorbed doses distribution: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2010-01-01 3 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

97

absorbed dose distributions: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2010-01-01 3 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

98

absorbed dose rate: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2010-01-01 3 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

99

absorbed dose determinations: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2012-06-07 5 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

100

absorbed dose calculations: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2010-01-01 4 Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and dose conversion coefficient of radon progeny Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Absorbed dose in target cell nuclei and...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose conversion factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Landholders, Residential Land Conversion, and Market Signals  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

465– Margulis: Landholders, Residential Land Conversion, and1983. An Analysis of Residential Developer Location FactorsHow Regulation Affects New Residential Development. New

Margulis, Harry L.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Characterization of selected Ohio coals to predict their conversion behavior relative to 104 North American Coals. [Factors correlating with liquefaction behavior  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Twenty-six coal samples from Ohio were collected as washed and seam samples, and lithobodies within the seams. Characterization of these samples included determination of % maceral, % anti R/sub max/, LTA, chlorine content and proximate/ultimate and qualitative mineral analyses. These data were compared to data from a similar project by Yarzab, R.F., et al., 1980 completed at Pennsylvania State University using tetralin as the hydrogen donor solvent. The characteristics of these coals were correlated with liquefaction conversion and other data accrued on 104 North American coals by statistical analyses. Utilizing percent carbon, sulfur, volatile matter, reflectance, vitrinite and total reactive macerals, Q-mode cluster analysis demonstrated that Ohio coals are more similar to the coals of the Interior province than to those of the Appalachian province. Linear multiple regression analysis for the 104 North American coals provided a prediction equation for conversion (R = .96). The predicted conversion values for the samples range from 58.8 to 79.6%, with the Lower Kittanning (No. 5) and the Middle Kittanning (No. 6) coal seams showing the highest predicted percent conversion (respectively, 73.4 and 72.2%). The moderately low FSI values for the No. 5 and No. 6 coals (respectively, 2.5 and 3) and their moderately high alkaline earth content (respectively, 0.69 and 0.74%) suggest that these coals possess the best overall properties for conversion. Stepwise regression has indicated that the most important coal characteristics affecting conversion are, in decreasing order of importance: % volatile matter, % vitrinite and % total sulfur. Conversion processes can be expected to produce higher yields with Ohio coals due to the presence of such mineral catalysts as pyrite and kaolinite. It is believed that the presence of these disposable catalysts increases the marketability of Ohio coals.

Whitacre, T. P.; Hunt, T. J.; Kneller, W. A.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Preliminary draft industrial siting administration permit application: Socioeconomic factors technical report. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project in Converse County, Wyoming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under the with-project scenario, WyCoalGas is projected to make a difference in the long-range future of Converse County. Because of the size of the proposed construction and operations work forces, the projected changes in employment, income, labor force, and population will alter Converse County's economic role in the region. Specifically, as growth occurs, Converse County will begin to satisfy a larger portion of its own higher-ordered demands, those that are currently being satisfied by the economy of Casper. Business-serving and household-serving activities, currently absent, will find the larger income and population base forecast to occur with the WyCoalGas project desirable. Converse County's economy will begin to mature, moving away from strict dependence on extractive industries to a more sophisticated structure that could eventually appeal to national, and certainly, regional markets. The technical demand of the WyCoalGas plant will mean a significant influx of varying occupations and skills. The creation of basic manufacturing, advanced trade and service sectors, and concomitant finance and transportation firms will make Converse County more economically autonomous. The county will also begin to serve market center functions for the smaller counties of eastern Wyoming that currently rely on Casper, Cheyenne or other distant market centers. The projected conditions expected to exist in the absence of the WyCoalGas project, the socioeconomic conditions that would accompany the project, and the differences between the two scenarios are considered. The analysis is keyed to the linkages between Converse County and Natrona County.

Not Available

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Wind energy conversion system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The wind energy conversion system includes a wind machine having a propeller connected to a generator of electric power, the propeller rotating the generator in response to force of an incident wind. The generator converts the power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load. Circuitry for varying the duty factor of the generator output power is connected between the generator and the load to thereby alter a loading of the generator and the propeller by the electric load. Wind speed is sensed electro-optically to provide data of wind speed upwind of the propeller, to thereby permit tip speed ratio circuitry to operate the power control circuitry and thereby optimize the tip speed ratio by varying the loading of the propeller. Accordingly, the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system is maximized.

Longrigg, Paul (Golden, CO)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Investigation of the effects of cell model and subcellular location of gold nanoparticles on nuclear dose enhancement factors using Monte Carlo simulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: The authors’ aims were to model how various factors influence radiation dose enhancement by gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and to propose a new modeling approach to the dose enhancement factor (DEF).Methods: The authors used Monte Carlo N-particle (MCNP 5) computer code to simulate photon and electron transport in cells. The authors modeled human breast cancer cells as a single cell, a monolayer, or a cluster of cells. Different numbers of 5, 30, or 50 nm AuNPs were placed in the extracellular space, on the cell surface, in the cytoplasm, or in the nucleus. Photon sources examined in the simulation included nine monoenergetic x-rays (10–100 keV), an x-ray beam (100 kVp), and {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd brachytherapy seeds. Both nuclear and cellular dose enhancement factors (NDEFs, CDEFs) were calculated. The ability of these metrics to predict the experimental DEF based on the clonogenic survival of MDA-MB-361 human breast cancer cells exposed to AuNPs and x-rays were compared.Results: NDEFs show a strong dependence on photon energies with peaks at 15, 30/40, and 90 keV. Cell model and subcellular location of AuNPs influence the peak position and value of NDEF. NDEFs decrease in the order of AuNPs in the nucleus, cytoplasm, cell membrane, and extracellular space. NDEFs also decrease in the order of AuNPs in a cell cluster, monolayer, and single cell if the photon energy is larger than 20 keV. NDEFs depend linearly on the number of AuNPs per cell. Similar trends were observed for CDEFs. NDEFs using the monolayer cell model were more predictive than either single cell or cluster cell models of the DEFs experimentally derived from the clonogenic survival of cells cultured as a monolayer. The amount of AuNPs required to double the prescribed dose in terms of mg Au/g tissue decreases as the size of AuNPs increases, especially when AuNPs are in the nucleus and the cytoplasm. For 40 keV x-rays and a cluster of cells, to double the prescribed x-ray dose (NDEF = 2) using 30 nm AuNPs, would require 5.1 ± 0.2, 9 ± 1, 10 ± 1, 10 ± 1 mg Au/g tissue in the nucleus, in the cytoplasm, on the cell surface, or in the extracellular space, respectively. Using 50 nm AuNPs, the required amount decreases to 3.1 ± 0.3, 8 ± 1, 9 ± 1, 9 ± 1 mg Au/g tissue, respectively.Conclusions: NDEF is a new metric that can predict the radiation enhancement of AuNPs for various experimental conditions. Cell model, the subcellular location and size of AuNPs, and the number of AuNPs per cell, as well as the x-ray photon energy all have effects on NDEFs. Larger AuNPs in the nucleus of cluster cells exposed to x-rays of 15 or 40 keV maximize NDEFs.

Cai, Zhongli; Chattopadhyay, Niladri; Kwon, Yongkyu Luke [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3M2 (Canada)] [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3M2 (Canada); Pignol, Jean-Philippe [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Lechtman, Eli [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)] [Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Reilly, Raymond M. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3M2 (Canada) [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3M2 (Canada); Department of Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E2 (Canada); Toronto General Research Institute, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario M5G 2C4 (Canada)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

106

ascending dose study: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Masahiko; Saito, Kimiaki 2015-01-01 72 Environmental Radioactivity 56 (2001) 327340 Radon progeny dose conversion coefficients for Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: Journal of...

107

Evaluation of Effective Dose During Abdominal Three-Dimensional Imaging for Three Flat-Panel-Detector Angiography Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effective dose during abdominal three-dimensional (3D) imaging on phantoms and estimate the dose-area product (DAP) for effective dose conversion factors for three types of angiographic units. Three-dimensional imaging was performed for three sizes (small, medium, large) of human-shaped phantoms using three types of angiographic units (Allura Xper FD20/10, INNOVA 4100, AXIOM Artis dTA). We calculated 25 organ doses and effective doses using Monte Carlo technique for the three phantoms with a program for a personal computer. As benchmark studies to back up the results by Monte Carlo technique, we measured the organ doses directly on the small phantom using radiophotoluminescent glass dosimeters. The DAP value increased as the phantom size increased. The organ doses and the effective doses during the 3D imaging increased as the phantom size increased. The effective doses for the small phantom by Monte Carlo technique were 1.9, 2.2, and 2.1 mSv for the Allura Xper FD20/10, INNOVA 4100, and AXIOM Artis dTA, respectively, while those by direct measurement were 1.6, 2.0, and 2.6 mSv. The effective doses to DAP ratios by Monte Carlo technique were 0.37-0.45, 0.26-0.32, and 0.13-0.15 (mSv Gy{sup -1}cm{sup -2}) for the Allura Xper FD20/10, INNOVA 4100, and AXIOM Artis dTA, respectively. In conclusion, the effective doses during 3D imaging and the dose-to-DAP ratios differ among angiographic units, and the effective dose can be estimated using a proper conversion factor for each angiographic unit.

Suzuki, Shigeru, E-mail: shig.suz@gmail.com [Saitama Red Cross Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Yamaguchi, Ichiro [National Institute of Public Health, Department of Environmental Health (Japan); Kidouchi, Takashi; Yamamoto, Asako [Teikyo University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan); Masumoto, Tomohiko [Tsukuba University Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan); Ozaki, Yutaka [Juntendo University Nerima Hospital, Department of Radiology (Japan)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

108

2009 Guidelines to Defra / DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting Produced by AEA for the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a range of activities, including energy use, water consumption, waste disposal, recycling and transport for the Department of Energy and Climate Change (DECC) and the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) Version 2.0 Updated 30/09/2009 Key light blue = Data entry field purple = Fixed factors used

109

Application of Planck's law to thermionic conversion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A simple, highly accurate, mathematical model of heat-to-electricity conversion is developed from Planck's law for the distribution of the radiant exitance of heat at a selected temperature. An electrical power curve is calculated by integration of the heat law over a selected range of electromagnetic wavelength corresponding to electrical voltage. A novel wavelength-voltage conversion factor, developed from the known wavelength-electron volt conversion factor, establishes the wavelength ({lambda}) for the integration. The Planck law is integrated within the limits {lambda} to 2{lambda}. The integration provides the ideal electrical power that is available from heat at the emitter temperature. When multiplied by a simple ratio, the calculated ideal power closely matches published thermionic converter experimental data. The thermal power model of thermionic conversion is validated by experiments with thermionic emission of ordinary electron tubes. A theoretical basis for the heat law based model of thermionic conversion is found in linear oscillator theory.

Caldwell, F.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Quantum optical waveform conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Currently proposed architectures for long-distance quantum communication rely on networks of quantum processors connected by optical communications channels [1,2]. The key resource for such networks is the entanglement of matter-based quantum systems with quantum optical fields for information transmission. The optical interaction bandwidth of these material systems is a tiny fraction of that available for optical communication, and the temporal shape of the quantum optical output pulse is often poorly suited for long-distance transmission. Here we demonstrate that nonlinear mixing of a quantum light pulse with a spectrally tailored classical field can compress the quantum pulse by more than a factor of 100 and flexibly reshape its temporal waveform, while preserving all quantum properties, including entanglement. Waveform conversion can be used with heralded arrays of quantum light emitters to enable quantum communication at the full data rate of optical telecommunications.

D Kielpinski; JF Corney; HM Wiseman

2010-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

111

Photovoltaic Energy Conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Photovoltaic Energy Conversion Frank Zimmermann #12;Solar Electricity Generation Consumes no fuel Make solar cells more efficient Theoretical energy conversion efficiency limit of single junction warming and fossil fuel depletion problems! #12;Photovoltaics: Explosive Growth Sustained growth of 30

Glashausser, Charles

112

Solar Thermoelectric Energy Conversion  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

SOLID-STATE SOLAR-THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION CENTER NanoEngineering Group Solar Thermoelectric Energy Conversion Gang Chen, 1 Daniel Kraemer, 1 Bed Poudel, 2 Hsien-Ping Feng, 1 J....

113

Combined methodology for estimating dose rates and health effects from exposure to radioactive pollutants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The work described in the report is basically a synthesis of two previously existing computer codes: INREM II, developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); and CAIRD, developed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The INREM II code uses contemporary dosimetric methods to estimate doses to specified reference organs due to inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide. The CAIRD code employs actuarial life tables to account for competing risks in estimating numbers of health effects resulting from exposure of a cohort to some incremental risk. The combined computer code, referred to as RADRISK, estimates numbers of health effects in a hypothetical cohort of 100,000 persons due to continuous lifetime inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide. Also briefly discussed in this report is a method of estimating numbers of health effects in a hypothetical cohort due to continuous lifetime exposure to external radiation. This method employs the CAIRD methodology together with dose conversion factors generated by the computer code DOSFACTER, developed at ORNL; these dose conversion factors are used to estimate dose rates to persons due to radionuclides in the air or on the ground surface. The combination of the life table and dosimetric guidelines for the release of radioactive pollutants to the atmosphere, as required by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977.

Dunning, D.E. Jr.; Leggett, R.W.; Yalcintas, M.G.

1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

QUANTUM CONVERSION IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

QUANTUM CONVERSION IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS Melvin Calvin Januaryas it occurs in modern photosynthesis can only take place inof the problem or photosynthesis, or any specific aspect of

Calvin, Melvin

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Determination of prescription dose for Cs-131 permanent implants using the BED formalism including resensitization correction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: The current widely used biological equivalent dose (BED) formalism for permanent implants is based on the linear-quadratic model that includes cell repair and repopulation but not resensitization (redistribution and reoxygenation). The authors propose a BED formalism that includes all the four biological effects (4Rs), and the authors propose how it can be used to calculate appropriate prescription doses for permanent implants with Cs-131. Methods: A resensitization correction was added to the BED calculation for permanent implants to account for 4Rs. Using the same BED, the prescription doses with Au-198, I-125, and Pd-103 were converted to the isoeffective Cs-131 prescription doses. The conversion factor F, ratio of the Cs-131 dose to the equivalent dose with the other reference isotope (F{sub r}: with resensitization, F{sub n}: without resensitization), was thus derived and used for actual prescription. Different values of biological parameters such as ?, ?, and relative biological effectiveness for different types of tumors were used for the calculation. Results: Prescription doses with I-125, Pd-103, and Au-198 ranging from 10 to 160 Gy were converted into prescription doses with Cs-131. The difference in dose conversion factors with (F{sub r}) and without (F{sub n}) resensitization was significant but varied with different isotopes and different types of tumors. The conversion factors also varied with different doses. For I-125, the average values of F{sub r}/F{sub n} were 0.51/0.46, for fast growing tumors, and 0.88/0.77 for slow growing tumors. For Pd-103, the average values of F{sub r}/F{sub n} were 1.25/1.15 for fast growing tumors, and 1.28/1.22 for slow growing tumors. For Au-198, the average values of F{sub r}/F{sub n} were 1.08/1.25 for fast growing tumors, and 1.00/1.06 for slow growing tumors. Using the biological parameters for the HeLa/C4-I cells, the averaged value of F{sub r} was 1.07/1.11 (rounded to 1.1), and the averaged value of F{sub n} was 1.75/1.18. F{sub r} of 1.1 has been applied to gynecological cancer implants with expected acute reactions and outcomes as expected based on extensive experience with permanent implants. The calculation also gave the average Cs-131 dose of 126 Gy converted from the I-125 dose of 144 Gy for prostate implants. Conclusions: Inclusion of an allowance for resensitization led to significant dose corrections for Cs-131 permanent implants, and should be applied to prescription dose calculation. The adjustment of the Cs-131 prescription doses with resensitization correction for gynecological permanent implants was consistent with clinical experience and observations. However, the Cs-131 prescription doses converted from other implant doses can be further adjusted based on new experimental results, clinical observations, and clinical outcomes.

Luo, Wei, E-mail: wei.luo@uky.edu; Molloy, Janelle; Aryal, Prakash; Feddock, Jonathan; Randall, Marcus [Department of Radiation Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40536 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky 40536 (United States)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

116

Utirik Atoll Dose Assessment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On March 1, 1954, radioactive fallout from the nuclear test at Bikini Atoll code-named BRAVO was deposited on Utirik Atoll which lies about 187 km (300 miles) east of Bikini Atoll. The residents of Utirik were evacuated three days after the fallout started and returned to their atoll in May 1954. In this report we provide a final dose assessment for current conditions at the atoll based on extensive data generated from samples collected in 1993 and 1994. The estimated population average maximum annual effective dose using a diet including imported foods is 0.037 mSv y{sup -1} (3.7 mrem y{sup -1}). The 95% confidence limits are within a factor of three of their population average value. The population average integrated effective dose over 30-, 50-, and 70-y is 0.84 mSv (84, mrem), 1.2 mSv (120 mrem), and 1.4 mSv (140 mrem), respectively. The 95% confidence limits on the population-average value post 1998, i.e., the 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral doses, are within a factor of two of the mean value and are independent of time, t, for t > 5 y. Cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) is the radionuclide that contributes most of this dose, mostly through the terrestrial food chain and secondarily from external gamma exposure. The dose from weapons-related radionuclides is very low and of no consequence to the health of the population. The annual background doses in the U. S. and Europe are 3.0 mSv (300 mrem), and 2.4 mSv (240 mrem), respectively. The annual background dose in the Marshall Islands is estimated to be 1.4 mSv (140 mrem). The total estimated combined Marshall Islands background dose plus the weapons-related dose is about 1.5 mSv y{sup -1} (150 mrem y{sup -1}) which can be directly compared to the annual background effective dose of 3.0 mSv y{sup -1} (300 mrem y{sup -1}) for the U. S. and 2.4 mSv y{sup -1} (240 mrem y{sup -1}) for Europe. Moreover, the doses listed in this report are based only on the radiological decay of {sup 137}Cs (30.1 y half-life) and other radionuclides. However, we continually see {sup 137}Cs in the groundwater at all contaminated atolls; the turnover time of the groundwater is about 5 y. The {sup 137}Cs can only get to the groundwater by leaching through the soil column when a portion of the soluble fraction of {sup 137}Cs inventory in the soil is transported to the groundwater when rainfall is heavy enough to cause recharge of the aquifer. This process is causing a loss of {sup 137}Cs out of the root zone of the plants that provides an environmental loss constant ({lambda}{sub env}) in addition to radiological decay {lambda}{sub rad}. Consequently, there is an effective rate of loss, {lambda}{sub eff} = {lambda}{sub rad} + {lambda}{sub env} that is the sum of the radiological and environmental-loss decay constants. We have had, and continue to have, a vigorous program to determine the rate of the environmental loss process. What we do know at this time is that the loss of {sup 137}Cs over time is greater than the estimate based on radiological decay only, and that the actual dose received by the Utirik people over 30-, 50-, or 70-y will be less than those presented in this report.

Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Bogen, K.T

1999-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

117

Solar Thermal Conversion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The thermal conversion process of solar energy is based on well-known phenomena of heat transfer (Kreith 1976). In all thermal conversion processes, solar radiation is absorbed at the surface of a receiver, which contains or is in contact with flow passages through which a working fluid passes. As the receiver heats up, heat is transferred to the working fluid which may be air, water, oil, or a molten salt. The upper temperature that can be achieved in solar thermal conversion depends on the insolation, the degree to which the sunlight is concentrated, and the measures taken to reduce heat losses from the working fluid.

Kreith, F.; Meyer, R. T.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Object Closure Conversion * Neal Glew  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of closure conversion. This paper argues that a direct formulation of object closure conversio* *n Object Closure Conversion * Neal into closed code and auxiliary data* * structures. Closure conversion has been extensively studied

Glew, Neal

119

DANISHBIOETHANOLCONCEPT Biomass conversion for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DANISHBIOETHANOLCONCEPT Biomass conversion for transportation fuel Concept developed at RISĂ? and DTU Anne Belinda Thomsen (RISĂ?) Birgitte K. Ahring (DTU) #12;DANISHBIOETHANOLCONCEPT Biomass: Biogas #12;DANISHBIOETHANOLCONCEPT Pre-treatment Step Biomass is macerated The biomass is cut in small

120

Conversion Plan | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

document the conversion plan that clearly defines the system or project's conversion procedures; outlines the installation of new and converted filesdatabases; coordinates the...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose conversion factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Structured luminescence conversion layer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus device such as a light source is disclosed which has an OLED device and a structured luminescence conversion layer deposited on the substrate or transparent electrode of said OLED device and on the exterior of said OLED device. The structured luminescence conversion layer contains regions such as color-changing and non-color-changing regions with particular shapes arranged in a particular pattern.

Berben, Dirk; Antoniadis, Homer; Jermann, Frank; Krummacher, Benjamin Claus; Von Malm, Norwin; Zachau, Martin

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

122

Measurement of routinely encountered neutron field doses using portable survey instruments and a Bonner multisphere system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

against two 10 Ci PuBe neutron sources. Measurements were m de at a research reactor facility and a cyclotron facility using a Victoreen 4BBA portable survey instrument, a Ludlum Mode1 15 portable survey instrument and a Bonner multisphere system. Data... Detector Response as a Function of Neutron Energy Page Figure 2. Plot of BON25G Spectral Output Figure 3, Flux-to-Dose Rate Conversion Factors for Neutrons . . . . 8 Figure 4. Data Measurement Locations at NSC 13 Figure 5. Data Measurement Locations...

Davis, Donald Reed

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

123

Carbohydrate Derived-Pseudo-Lignin Can Retard Cellulose Biological Conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ARTICLE Carbohydrate Derived-Pseudo-Lignin Can Retard Cellulose Biological Conversion Rajeev Kumar degradation products, collectively termed as chars and/or pseudo-lignin. In order to understand the factors derived pseudo-lignin on cellulose conversion at the moderate to low enzyme loadings necessary

California at Riverside, University of

124

Patient radiation dose in prospectively gated axial CT coronary angiography and retrospectively gated helical technique with a 320-detector row CT scanner  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate radiation dose to patients undergoing computed tomography coronary angiography (CTCA) for prospectively gated axial (PGA) technique and retrospectively gated helical (RGH) technique. Methods: Radiation doses were measured for a 320-detector row CT scanner (Toshiba Aquilion ONE) using small sized silicon-photodiode dosimeters, which were implanted at various tissue and organ positions within an anthropomorphic phantom for a standard Japanese adult male. Output signals from photodiode dosimeters were read out on a personal computer, from which organ and effective doses were computed according to guidelines published in the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 103. Results: Organs that received high doses were breast, followed by lung, esophagus, and liver. Breast doses obtained with PGA technique and a phase window width of 16% at a simulated heart rate of 60 beats per minute were 13 mGy compared to 53 mGy with RGH technique using electrocardiographically dependent dose modulation at the same phase window width as that in PGA technique. Effective doses obtained in this case were 4.7 and 20 mSv for the PGA and RGH techniques, respectively. Conversion factors of dose length product to the effective dose in PGA and RGH were 0.022 and 0.025 mSv mGy{sup -1} cm{sup -1} with a scan length of 140 mm. Conclusions: CTCA performed with PGA technique provided a substantial effective dose reduction, i.e., 70%-76%, compared to RGH technique using the dose modulation at the same phase windows as those in PGA technique. Though radiation doses in CTCA with RGH technique were the same level as, or some higher than, those in conventional coronary angiography (CCA), the use of PGA technique reduced organ and effective doses to levels less than CCA except for breast dose.

Seguchi, Shigenobu; Aoyama, Takahiko; Koyama, Shuji; Fujii, Keisuke; Yamauchi-Kawaura, Chiyo [Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University, Daikominami, Higashi-ku, Nagoya 461-8673 (Japan) and Department of Medical Technology, Nagoya Daini Red Cross Hospital, Myouken-chou, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8650 (Japan); Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University, Daikominami, Higashi-ku, Nagoya 461-8673 (Japan); Section of Radiological Protection, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya University, Daikominami, Higashi-ku, Nagoya 461-8673 (Japan)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

125

Digital optical conversion module  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer.

Kotter, Dale K. (North Shelley, ID); Rankin, Richard A. (Ammon, ID)

1991-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

126

Digital optical conversion module  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A digital optical conversion module used to convert an analog signal to a computer compatible digital signal including a voltage-to-frequency converter, frequency offset response circuitry, and an electrical-to-optical converter. Also used in conjunction with the digital optical conversion module is an optical link and an interface at the computer for converting the optical signal back to an electrical signal. Suitable for use in hostile environments having high levels of electromagnetic interference, the conversion module retains high resolution of the analog signal while eliminating the potential for errors due to noise and interference. The module can be used to link analog output scientific equipment such as an electrometer used with a mass spectrometer to a computer. 2 figs.

Kotter, D.K.; Rankin, R.A.

1988-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

127

Campus Conversations: CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

review and input from scholars with expertise in climate change and communication. #12; Welcome Thank youCampus Conversations: CLIMATE CHANGE AND THE CAMPUS Southwestern Pennsylvania Program booklet is an adaptation and updating of Global Warming and Climate Change, a brochure developed in 1994

Attari, Shahzeen Z.

128

ENERGY CONVERSION Spring 2011  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on energy storage devices Course Webpage: http://www.sfu.ca/~mbahrami/ENSC 461.htm Tutorials for this course. Lab information is posted on the website. Laboratory report requirements, background and a lab1 ENSC 461 ENERGY CONVERSION Spring 2011 Instructor: Dr. Majid Bahrami 4372 Email

Bahrami, Majid

129

Solar energy conversion.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

If solar energy is to become a practical alternative to fossil fuels, we must have efficient ways to convert photons into electricity, fuel, and heat. The need for better conversion technologies is a driving force behind many recent developments in biology, materials, and especially nanoscience. The Sun has the enormous untapped potential to supply our growing energy needs. The barrier to greater use of the solar resource is its high cost relative to the cost of fossil fuels, although the disparity will decrease with the rising prices of fossil fuels and the rising costs of mitigating their impact on the environment and climate. The cost of solar energy is directly related to the low conversion efficiency, the modest energy density of solar radiation, and the costly materials currently required. The development of materials and methods to improve solar energy conversion is primarily a scientific challenge: Breakthroughs in fundamental understanding ought to enable marked progress. There is plenty of room for improvement, since photovoltaic conversion efficiencies for inexpensive organic and dye-sensitized solar cells are currently about 10% or less, the conversion efficiency of photosynthesis is less than 1%, and the best solar thermal efficiency is 30%. The theoretical limits suggest that we can do much better. Solar conversion is a young science. Its major growth began in the 1970s, spurred by the oil crisis that highlighted the pervasive importance of energy to our personal, social, economic, and political lives. In contrast, fossil-fuel science has developed over more than 250 years, stimulated by the Industrial Revolution and the promise of abundant fossil fuels. The science of thermodynamics, for example, is intimately intertwined with the development of the steam engine. The Carnot cycle, the mechanical equivalent of heat, and entropy all played starring roles in the development of thermodynamics and the technology of heat engines. Solar-energy science faces an equally rich future, with nanoscience enabling the discovery of the guiding principles of photonic energy conversion and their use in the development of cost-competitive new technologies.

Crabtree, G. W.; Lewis, N. S. (Materials Science Division); (California Inst. of Tech.)

2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Wind Energy Conversion Systems (Minnesota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This section distinguishes between large (capacity 5,000 kW or more) and small (capacity of less than 5,000 kW) wind energy conversion systems (WECS), and regulates the siting of large conversion...

131

Voice Conversion Jani Nurminen1, Hanna Siln2, Victor Popa2,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of voice conversion, it is essential to understand the factors that determine the perceived speaker0 Voice Conversion Jani Nurminen1, Hanna Silén2, Victor Popa2, Elina Helander2 and Moncef Gabbouj2 1Accenture 2Tampere University of Technology Finland 1. Introduction Voice conversion (VC

Gabbouj, Moncef

132

Mechanical properties of WC10Co cemented carbides sintered from nanocrystalline spray conversion processed powders  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical properties of WC±10Co cemented carbides sintered from nanocrystalline spray conversion as the spray conversion process [2]. The WC particle sizes in powders fabricated by the spray conversion: microstructural parameters such as WC grain size, Co mean free path and WC/WC contiguity; chemical factors

Hong, Soon Hyung

133

Object Closure Conversion Cornell University  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that a direct formulation of object closure conversion is interesting and gives further insight into generalObject Closure Conversion Neal Glew Cornell University 24 August 1999 Abstract An integral part of implementing functional languages is closure conversion--the process of converting code with free variables

Glew, Neal

134

Conversion of Questionnaire Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During the survey, respondents are asked to provide qualitative answers (well, adequate, needs improvement) on how well material control and accountability (MC&A) functions are being performed. These responses can be used to develop failure probabilities for basic events performed during routine operation of the MC&A systems. The failure frequencies for individual events may be used to estimate total system effectiveness using a fault tree in a probabilistic risk analysis (PRA). Numeric risk values are required for the PRA fault tree calculations that are performed to evaluate system effectiveness. So, the performance ratings in the questionnaire must be converted to relative risk values for all of the basic MC&A tasks performed in the facility. If a specific material protection, control, and accountability (MPC&A) task is being performed at the 'perfect' level, the task is considered to have a near zero risk of failure. If the task is performed at a less than perfect level, the deficiency in performance represents some risk of failure for the event. As the degree of deficiency in performance increases, the risk of failure increases. If a task that should be performed is not being performed, that task is in a state of failure. The failure probabilities of all basic events contribute to the total system risk. Conversion of questionnaire MPC&A system performance data to numeric values is a separate function from the process of completing the questionnaire. When specific questions in the questionnaire are answered, the focus is on correctly assessing and reporting, in an adjectival manner, the actual performance of the related MC&A function. Prior to conversion, consideration should not be given to the numeric value that will be assigned during the conversion process. In the conversion process, adjectival responses to questions on system performance are quantified based on a log normal scale typically used in human error analysis (see A.D. Swain and H.E. Guttmann, 'Handbook of Human Reliability Analysis with Emphasis on Nuclear Power Plant Applications,' NUREG/CR-1278). This conversion produces the basic event risk of failure values required for the fault tree calculations. The fault tree is a deductive logic structure that corresponds to the operational nuclear MC&A system at a nuclear facility. The conventional Delphi process is a time-honored approach commonly used in the risk assessment field to extract numerical values for the failure rates of actions or activities when statistically significant data is absent.

Powell, Danny H [ORNL] [ORNL; Elwood Jr, Robert H [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Semiconductor Nanowires and Nanotubes for Energy Conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nanowires and Nanotubes for Energy Conversion By MelissaNanowires and Nanotubes for Energy Conversion by MelissaNanowires and Nanotubes for Energy Conversion by Melissa

Fardy, Melissa Anne

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Sandia National Laboratories: Wavelength Conversion Materials  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

TechnologiesWavelength Conversion Materials Wavelength Conversion Materials Overview of SSL Wavelength Conversion Materials Rare-Earth Phosphors Inorganic phosphors doped with...

137

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

M.D. (editor) Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Draftin Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology haveThe Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) 2rogrammatic

Sands, M.Dale

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Sandia National Laboratories: Wavelength Conversion Materials  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

EFRCOverviewWavelength Conversion Materials Wavelength Conversion Materials Overview of SSL Wavelength Conversion Materials Rare-Earth Phosphors Inorganic phosphors doped with...

139

Probing the Role of PrP Repeats in Conformational Conversion and Amyloid Assembly of Chimeric Yeast Prions*S  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a relatively good understanding of the factors that guide the conformational conversion of the Sup35 prion conversion of the protein Sup35, a translation termina- tion factor. In its prion conformation, Sup35Probing the Role of PrP Repeats in Conformational Conversion and Amyloid Assembly of Chimeric Yeast

Lindquist, Susan

140

Zinc phosphate conversion coatings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate .alpha.-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal.

Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose conversion factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Zinc phosphate conversion coatings  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Zinc phosphate conversion coatings for producing metals which exhibit enhanced corrosion prevention characteristics are prepared by the addition of a transition-metal-compound promoter comprising a manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, or copper compound and an electrolyte such as polyacrylic acid, polymethacrylic acid, polyitaconic acid and poly-L-glutamic acid to a phosphating solution. These coatings are further improved by the incorporation of Fe ions. Thermal treatment of zinc phosphate coatings to generate {alpha}-phase anhydrous zinc phosphate improves the corrosion prevention qualities of the resulting coated metal. 33 figs.

Sugama, T.

1997-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

142

RELATIVE ATTENUATION CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME SHIELDING MATERIALS FOR PuB NEUTRONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the Neutron Conversion Factors," Health Physics Flux-to~to dose-equivalent conversion factors are those taken fromsion factors " The conversion factors for neutrons

Bringham, P.S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

MILDOS - A Computer Program for Calculating Environmental Radiation Doses from Uranium Recovery Operations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The MILDOS Computer Code estimates impacts from radioactive emissions from uranium milling facilities. These impacts are presented as dose commitments to individuals and the regional population within an 80 km radius of the facility. Only airborne releases of radioactive materials are considered: releases to surface water and to groundwater are not addressed in MILDOS. This code is multi-purposed and can be used to evaluate population doses for NEPA assessments, maximum individual doses for predictive 40 CFR 190 compliance evaluations, or maximum offsite air concentrations for predictive evaluations of 10 CFR 20 compliance. Emissions of radioactive materials from fixed point source locations and from area sources are modeled using a sector-averaged Gaussian plume dispersion model, which utilizes user-provided wind frequency data. Mechanisms such as deposition of particulates, resuspension. radioactive decay and ingrowth of daughter radionuclides are included in the transport model. Annual average air concentrations are computed, from which subsequent impacts to humans through various pathways are computed. Ground surface concentrations are estimated from deposition buildup and ingrowth of radioactive daughters. The surface concentrations are modified by radioactive decay, weathering and other environmental processes. The MILDOS Computer Code allows the user to vary the emission sources as a step function of time by adjustinq the emission rates. which includes shutting them off completely. Thus the results of a computer run can be made to reflect changing processes throughout the facility's operational lifetime. The pathways considered for individual dose commitments and for population impacts are: • Inhalation • External exposure from ground concentrations • External exposure from cloud immersion • Ingestioo of vegetables • Ingestion of meat • Ingestion of milk • Dose commitments are calculated using dose conversion factors, which are ultimately based on recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). These factors are fixed internally in the code, and are not part of the input option. Dose commitments which are available from the code are as follows: • Individual dose commitments for use in predictive 40 CFR 190 compliance evaluations (Radon and short-lived daughters are excluded) • Total individual dose commitments (impacts from all available radionuclides are considered) • Annual population dose commitments (regional, extraregional, total and cummulative). This model is primarily designed for uranium mill facilities, and should not be used for operations with different radionuclides or processes.

Strange, D. L.; Bander, T. J.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Solar Thermoelectric Energy Conversion | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Solar Thermoelectric Energy Conversion Solar Thermoelectric Energy Conversion Efficiencies of different types of solar thermoelectric generators were predicted using theoretical...

145

Energy conversion system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The energy conversion system includes a photo-voltaic array for receiving solar radiation and converting such radiation to electrical energy. The photo-voltaic array is mounted on a stretched membrane that is held by a frame. Tracking means for orienting the photo-voltaic array in predetermined positions that provide optimal exposure to solar radiation cooperate with the frame. An enclosure formed of a radiation transmissible material includes an inside containment space that accommodates the photo-voltaic array on the stretched membrane, the frame and the tracking means, and forms a protective shield for all such components. The enclosure is preferably formed of a flexible inflatable material and maintains its preferred form, such as a dome, under the influence of a low air pressure furnished to the dome. Under this arrangement the energy conversion system is streamlined for minimizing wind resistance, sufficiently weatherproof for providing protection against weather hazards such as hail, capable of using diffused light, lightweight for low-cost construction, and operational with a minimal power draw.

Murphy, Lawrence M. (Lakewood, CO)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Energy conversion system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The energy conversion system includes a photo-voltaic array for receiving solar radiation and converting such radiation to electrical energy. The photo-voltaic array is mounted on a stretched membrane that is held by a frame. Tracking means for orienting the photo-voltaic array in predetermined positions that provide optimal exposure to solar radiation cooperate with the frame. An enclosure formed of a radiation transmissible material includes an inside containment space that accommodates the photo-voltaic array on the stretched membrane, the frame and the tracking means, and forms a protective shield for all such components. The enclosure is preferably formed of a flexible inflatable material and maintains its preferred form, such as a dome, under the influence of a low air pressure furnished to the dome. Under this arrangement the energy conversion system is streamlined for minimizing wind resistance, sufficiently weathproof for providing protection against weather hazards such as hail, capable of using diffused light, lightweight for low-cost construction and operational with a minimal power draw.

Murphy, L.M.

1985-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

147

Wind energy conversion system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a wind energy conversion system comprising: a propeller rotatable by force of wind; a generator of electricity mechanically coupled to the propeller for converting power of the wind to electric power for use by an electric load; means coupled between the generator and the electric load for varying the electric power drawn by the electric load to alter the electric loading of the generator; means for electro-optically sensing the speed of the wind at a location upwind from the propeller; and means coupled between the sensing means and the power varying means for operating the power varying means to adjust the electric load of the generator in accordance with a sensed value of wind speed to thereby obtain a desired ratio of wind speed to the speed of a tip of a blade of the propeller.

Longrigg, P.

1987-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

148

Introduction to Solar Photon Conversion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The efficient and cost-effective direct conversion of solar photons into solar electricity and solar fuels is one of the most important scientific and technological challenges of this century. It is estimated that at least 20 terawatts of carbon-free energy (1 and 1/2 times the total amount of all forms of energy consumed today globally), in the form of electricity and liquid and gaseous fuels, will be required by 2050 in order to avoid the most serious consequences of global climate change and to ensure adequate global energy supply that will avoid economic chaos. But in order for solar energy to contribute a major fraction of future carbon-free energy supplies, it must be priced competitively with, or perhaps even be less costly than, energy from fossil fuels and nuclear power as well as other renewable energy resources. The challenge of delivering very low-cost solar fuels and electricity will require groundbreaking advances in both fundamental and applied science. This Thematic Issue on Solar Photon Conversion will provide a review by leading researchers on the present status and prognosis of the science and technology of direct solar photoconversion to electricity and fuels. The topics covered include advanced and novel concepts for low-cost photovoltaic (PV) energy based on chemistry (dye-sensitized photoelectrodes, organic and molecular PV, multiple exciton generation in quantum dots, singlet fission), solar water splitting, redox catalysis for water oxidation and reduction, the role of nanoscience and nanocrystals in solar photoconversion, photoelectrochemical energy conversion, and photoinduced electron transfer. The direct conversion of solar photons to electricity via photovoltaic (PV) cells is a vital present-day commercial industry, with PV module production growing at about 75%/year over the past 3 years. However, the total installed yearly averaged energy capacity at the end of 2009 was about 7 GW-year (0.2% of global electricity usage). Thus, there is potential for the PV industry to grow enormously in the future (by factors of 100-300) in order for it to provide a significant fraction of total global electricity needs (currently about 3.5 TW). Such growth will be greatly facilitated by, and probably even require, major advances in the conversion efficiency and cost reduction for PV cells and modules; such advances will depend upon advances in PV science and technology, and these approaches are discussed in this Thematic Issue. Industrial and domestic electricity utilization accounts for only about 30% of the total energy consumed globally. Most ({approx}70%) of our energy consumption is in the form of liquid and gaseous fuels. Presently, solar-derived fuels are produced from biomass (labeled as biofuels) and are generated through biological photosynthesis. The global production of liquid biofuels in 2009 was about 1.6 million barrels/day, equivalent to a yearly output of about 2.5 EJ (about 1.3% of global liquid fuel utilization). The direct conversion of solar photons to fuels produces high-energy chemical products that are labeled as solar fuels; these can be produced through nonbiological approaches, generally called artificial photosynthesis. The feedstocks for artificial photosynthesis are H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2}, either reacting as coupled oxidation-reduction reactions, as in biological photosynthesis, or by first splitting H{sub 2}O into H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} and then reacting the solar H{sub 2} with CO{sub 2} (or CO produced from CO2) in a second step to produce fuels through various well-known chemical routes involving syngas, water gas shift, and alcohol synthesis; in some applications, the generated solar H{sub 2} itself can be used as an excellent gaseous fuel, for example, in fuel cells. But at the present time, there is no solar fuels industry. Much research and development are required to create a solar fuels industry, and this Thematic Issue presents several reviews on the relevant solar fuels science and technology. The first three manuscripts relate to the daunting problem of producing

Nozik, A.; Miller, J.

2010-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

149

5, 35333559, 2005 Catalytic conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

measurement technique, employing selective gas- phase catalytic conversion of methanol to formaldehyde it the second most abundant organic trace gas after methane. Methanol can play an important role in upper tropoACPD 5, 3533­3559, 2005 Catalytic conversion of methanol to formaldehyde S. J. Solomon et al. Title

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

150

A System for Transforming the Emotion in Speech: Combining Data-Driven Conversion Techniques for Prosody and Voice Quality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

variations in an utterance by using a set of perceptually optimized contextual factors. Conversion of phoneA System for Transforming the Emotion in Speech: Combining Data-Driven Conversion Techniques, while dura- tions are transformed using phone-based relative decision trees. For spectral conversion

Young, Steve

151

HOOTS99 Preliminary Version Object Closure Conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

classes is an exam* *ple of closure conversion. This paper argues that a direct formulation of object HOOTS99 Preliminary Version Object Closure Conversion __________________________________________________________________________ Abstract An integral part of implementing functional languages is closure conversion_the process

Glew, Neal

152

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

M.D. (editor) Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Draftof ocean thermal energy conversion technology. U.S. Depart~June 1-11, 1980 OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC

Sands, M.Dale

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

M.D. (editor) Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Draftr:he comnercialization of ocean thermal energy conversionJune 1-11, 1980 OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC

Sands, M.Dale

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sands, M.D. (editor) Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)r:he comnercialization of ocean thermal energy conversionJune 1-11, 1980 OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION PROGRAMMATIC

Sands, M.Dale

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Dose reduction at nuclear power plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The collective dose equivalent at nuclear power plants increased from 1250 rem in 1969 to nearly 54,000 rem in 1980. This rise is attributable primarily to an increase in nuclear generated power from 1289 MW-y to 29,155 MW-y; and secondly, to increased average plant age. However, considerable variation in exposure occurs from plant to plant depending on plant type, refueling, maintenance, etc. In order to understand the factors influencing these differences, an investigation was initiated to study dose-reduction techniques and effectiveness of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) planning at light water plants. Objectives are to: identify high-dose maintenance tasks and related dose-reduction techniques; investigate utilization of high-reliability, low-maintenance equipment; recommend improved radioactive waste handling equipment and procedures; examine incentives for dose reduction; and compile an ALARA handbook.

Baum, J.W.; Dionne, B.J.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Plasmonic conversion of solar energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Basic Research Needs for Solar Energy Utilization, BasicS. Pillai and M. A. Green, Solar Energy Materials and SolarPlasmonic conversion of solar energy César Clavero Plasma

Clavero, Cesar

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste...

158

Thermochemical Conversion | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: AlternativeEnvironment,Institutes and1Telework Telework The|Conversion Thermochemical Conversion

159

Neutron dose equivalent meter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A neutron dose equivalent detector for measuring neutron dose capable of accurately responding to neutron energies according to published fluence to dose curves. The neutron dose equivalent meter has an inner sphere of polyethylene, with a middle shell overlying the inner sphere, the middle shell comprising RTV.RTM. silicone (organosiloxane) loaded with boron. An outer shell overlies the middle shell and comprises polyethylene loaded with tungsten. The neutron dose equivalent meter defines a channel through the outer shell, the middle shell, and the inner sphere for accepting a neutron counter tube. The outer shell is loaded with tungsten to provide neutron generation, increasing the neutron dose equivalent meter's response sensitivity above 8 MeV.

Olsher, Richard H. (Los Alamos, NM); Hsu, Hsiao-Hua (Los Alamos, NM); Casson, William H. (Los Alamos, NM); Vasilik, Dennis G. (Los Alamos, NM); Kleck, Jeffrey H. (Menlo Park, CA); Beverding, Anthony (Foster City, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Biochemical Conversion Pilot Plant (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This fact sheet provides information about Biochemical Conversion Pilot Plant capabilities and resources at NREL.

Not Available

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose conversion factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

HOOTS99 Preliminary Version Object Closure Conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is an example of closure conversion. This paper argues that a direct formulation of object closure conversionHOOTS99 Preliminary Version Object Closure Conversion Neal Glew 1 Department of Computer Science conversion--the process of converting code with free variables into closed code and auxiliary data structures

Glew, Neal

162

SCIENTIFIC CORRESPONDENCE Radiation doses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SCIENTIFIC CORRESPONDENCE Radiation doses and cancert-A T. w- - SIR- In February 1990, the Soviet. Nikipelov et al. published in g Priroda (Nature)' the radiation doses for each year, averaged over environmental impact on the Gulf waters is rapidly ex- ported to the Arabian Sea and then to the Indian Ocean

Shlyakhter, Ilya

163

Radiation Dose Estimates from  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Summary: Radiation Dose Estimates from Hanford Radioactive Material Releases to the Air and the Columbia River April 21,1994 TheTechnid Steering Panel of the Hanford - Environmental Dose Reconstruction than 40years, the U.S. Government made plutonium for nuclear weapons at the Hanford

164

HELIOPHYSICS II. ENERGY CONVERSION PROCESSES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a solar flare 11 2.3.1 Flare luminosity and mechanical energy 11 2.3.2 The impulsive phase (hard X with the term "solar flare" dominate our thinking about energy conversion from magnetic storage to other forms approaches to the problems involved in phys- ically characterizing the solar atmosphere; see also the lecture

Hudson, Hugh

165

Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Al-Ghadhban, Samir - Electrical Engineering Department, King Fahd University of...

166

Energy Conversion and Storage Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes, and (5) application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Topics include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced rechargeable batteries, improvements in battery and fuel-cell materials, and the establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Chemical Applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing waste streams from synfuel plants and coal gasifiers. Other research projects seek to identify and characterize the constituents of liquid fuel-system streams and to devise energy-efficient means for their separation. Materials Applications research includes the evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as the development of novel preparation techniques. For example, the use of advanced techniques, such as sputtering and laser ablation, are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

Cairns, E.J.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

MUTUAL CONVERSION SOLAR AND SIDEREAL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TABLES FOR THE MUTUAL CONVERSION OF SOLAR AND SIDEREAL TIME BY EDWARD SANG, F.R.S.E. EDINBURGH in the third example. Sang converts 3.27 seconds of solar time into 3.26 seconds of sidereal time. But sidereal time elapses faster than solar time, and the correct value is 3.28 sec- onds. In the fourth example

Roegel, Denis

168

Jet conversions in a quark-gluon plasma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quark and gluon jets traversing through a quark-gluon plasma not only lose their energies but also can undergo flavor conversions. The conversion rates via the elastic $q(\\bar q)g\\to gq(\\bar q)$ and the inelastic $q\\bar q\\leftrightarrow gg$ scatterings are evaluated in the lowest order in QCD. Including both jet energy loss and conversions in the expanding quark-gluon plasma produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions, we have found a net conversion of quark to gluon jets. This reduces the difference between the nuclear modification factors for quark and gluon jets in central heavy ion collisions and thus enhances the $p/\\pi^+$ and ${\\bar p}/\\pi^-$ ratios at high transverse momentum. However, a much larger net quark to gluon jet conversion rate than the one given by the lowest-order QCD is needed to account for the observed similar ratios in central Au+Au and p+p collisions at same energy. Implications of our results are discussed.

W. Liu; C. M. Ko; B. W. Zhang

2007-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

169

Radiation dose rates from UF{sub 6} cylinders  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the results of many studies, both theoretical and experimental, which have been carried out by Urenco over the last 15 years into radiation dose rates from uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) cylinders. The contents of the cylinder, its history, and the geometry all affect the radiation dose rate. These factors are all examined in detail. Actual and predicted dose rates are compared with levels permitted by IAEA transport regulations.

Friend, P.J. [Urenco, Capenhurst (United Kingdom)

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

170

UPDATE AND ENHANCEMENT OF ODOT'S CRASH REDUCTION FACTORS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Printed on recycled paper #12;ii SI* (MODERN METRIC) CONVERSION FACTORS APPROXIMATE CONVERSIONS TO SIUPDATE AND ENHANCEMENT OF ODOT'S CRASH REDUCTION FACTORS Final Report SPR 612 by Christopher M and Enhancement of ODOT's Crash Reduction Factors 6. Performing Organization Code 7. Author(s) Christopher M

Bertini, Robert L.

171

Misonidazole with dexamethasone rescue: an escalating dose toxicity study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Neurotoxicity induced by misonidazole (MISO) and desmethylmisonidazole (DMM) has become the dose limiting factor in clinical work. In 1981, the authors reported a preliminary study suggestive that Dexamethasone (DEXA) does have a protective effect against peripheral neuropathies (PN) resulting from toxicity of misonidazole. The authors are presently investigating the use of DEXA, with escalating doses of MISO in an attempt to modify its neurotoxicity. To date, 16 patients have been registered to receive total doses of MISO given in 9 equally divided doses over 3 weeks. DEXA is given 3 days prior to the first dose and continues for the duration of therapy. All patients receive palliative radiation. No toxicity was seen at the total dose of 13.5 gm/M/sub 2/. One grade I PN occurred in the first four patients receiving 15.5 gm/M/sub 2/. Six additional patients were entered at this dose level and no further incidence of PN was observed.

Tanasichuk, H.; Urtasun, R.C.; Fulton, D.S.; Raleigh, J.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

A converse to Dye's theorem Greg Hjorthy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

* A converse to Dye We show a converse to a consequence of the final strengthening of Dye's th* *eorem proved, measure preserving, and ergodic. Theorem 1.1(Dye; see [5], [6].) Any two ergodic, standard, measure

Hjorth, Greg

173

Grounded Situation Models for Situated Conversational Assistants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Situated Conversational Assistant (SCA) is a system with sensing, acting and speech synthesis/recognition abilities, which engages in physically situated natural language conversation with human partners and assists them ...

Mavridis, Nikolaos

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Petar Ljusev SIngle Conversion stage AMplifier  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The proposed SICAM solution strives for direct energy conversion from the mains to the audio outputPetar Ljusev SIngle Conversion stage AMplifier - SICAM PhD thesis, December 2005 #12;#12;To Elena of the project "SICAM - SIngle Conversion stage AMplifier", funded by the Danish Energy Authority under the EFP

175

Data Conversion in Residue Number System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for direct conversion when interaction with the real analog world is required. We first develop two efficient schemes for direct analog-to-residue conversion. Another efficient scheme for direct residue analogique réel est nécessaire. Nous dévelopons deux systèmes efficaces pour la conversion directe du domaine

Zilic, Zeljko

176

HOOTS99 Preliminary Version Object Closure Conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

classes is an example of closure conversion. This paper argues that a direct formulation of object closureHOOTS99 Preliminary Version Object Closure Conversion Neal Glew 1 Department of Computer Science conversion---the process of converting code with free variables into closed code and auxiliary data

Glew, Neal

177

DRAFT. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Commercial ocean thermal energy conversion ( OTEC) plants byand M.D. Sands. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) pilotfield of ocean thermal energy conversion discharges. I~. L.

Sullivan, S.M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of ocean thermal energy conversion technology. U.S. DOE.Open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion. A preliminaryof the Fifth Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Conference,

Sands, M. D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sands. 1980. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) pilotCommercial ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plants byof the Fifth Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Conference,

Sullivan, S.M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Recycling of wasted energy : thermal to electrical energy conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Direct energy conversion ..developed. Typically, direct energy conversion is achievedTechnologies 1.2.1. Direct energy conversion In a direct

Lim, Hyuck

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose conversion factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fifth Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Conference, FebruarySixth Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Conference, June 19-Fifth Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Conference, February

Sullivan, S.M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

DRAFT. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fifth Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Conference, Februarythe Sixth Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Conference. OceanSixth Ocean Thermal Energy conversion Conference. June 19-

Sullivan, S.M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fifth Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Conference, FebruaryFifth Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Conference, FebruarySixth Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Conference. June 19-

Sands, M. D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION: AN OVERALL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1980 :. i l OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION: ENVIRONMENTALM.D. (editor). 1980. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion DraftDevelopment Plan. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion. U.S. DOE

Sands, M.Dale

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Commercial ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plants byof the Fifth Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Conference,Sands. 1980. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) pilot

Sullivan, S.M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of ocean thermal energy conversion technology. U.S. DOE.Open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion. A preliminaryCompany. Ocean thermal energy conversion mission analysis

Sands, M. D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

DRAFT. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Commercial ocean thermal energy conversion ( OTEC) plants byfield of ocean thermal energy conversion discharges. I~. L.II of the Sixth Ocean Thermal Energy conversion Conference.

Sullivan, S.M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Commercial ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plants bySands. 1980. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) pilotof the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Biofouling,

Sullivan, S.M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Biofouling,development of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plant-impact assessment ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC)

Sands, M. D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

DRAFT. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Commercial ocean thermal energy conversion ( OTEC) plants bySands. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) pilot plantof the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Biofouling,

Sullivan, S.M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Next-Generation Thermionic Solar Energy Conversion | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Next-Generation Thermionic Solar Energy Conversion Next-Generation Thermionic Solar Energy Conversion This fact sheet describes a next-generation thermionic solar energy conversion...

192

DRAFT. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1979. Commercial ocean thermal energy conversion ( OTEC)field of ocean thermal energy conversion discharges. I~. L.II of the Sixth Ocean Thermal Energy conversion Conference.

Sullivan, S.M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1979. Commercial ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC)of the Fifth Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Conference,Sands. 1980. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) pilot

Sullivan, S.M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION: AN OVERALL ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

M.D. (editor). 1980. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Draft1980 :. i l OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION: ENVIRONMENTALDevelopment Plan. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion. U.S. DOE

Sands, M.Dale

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the commercialization of ocean thermal energy conversionE. Hathaway. Open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion. AElectric Company. Ocean thermal energy conversion mission

Sands, M. D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

DRAFT. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1979. Commercial ocean thermal energy conversion ( OTEC)the intermediate field of ocean thermal energy conversionII of the Sixth Ocean Thermal Energy conversion Conference.

Sullivan, S.M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1979. Commercial ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC)of the Fifth Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Conference,and M.D. Sands. 1980. Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC)

Sullivan, S.M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

High resolution A/D conversion based on piecewise conversion at lower resolution  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Piecewise conversion of an analog input signal is performed utilizing a plurality of relatively lower bit resolution A/D conversions. The results of this piecewise conversion are interpreted to achieve a relatively higher bit resolution A/D conversion without sampling frequency penalty.

Terwilliger, Steve (Albuquerque, NM)

2012-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

199

Biomass thermochemical conversion program: 1987 annual report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program is to generate a base of scientific data and conversion process information that will lead to establishment of cost-effective processes for conversion of biomass resources into clean fuels. To accomplish this objective, in fiscal year 1987 the Thermochemical Conversion Program sponsored research activities in the following four areas: Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels Technology; Gasification Technology; Direct Combustion Technology; Program Support Activities. In this report an overview of the Thermochemical Conversion Program is presented. Specific research projects are then described. Major accomplishments for 1987 are summarized.

Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Biomass thermochemical conversion program. 1985 annual report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Wood and crop residues constitute a vast majority of the biomass feedstocks available for conversion, and thermochemical processes are well suited for conversion of these materials. The US Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring research on this conversion technology for renewable energy through its Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. The Program is part of DOE's Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, Office of Renewable Technologies. This report briefly describes the Thermochemical Conversion Program structure and summarizes the activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1985. 32 figs., 4 tabs.

Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose conversion factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Conversion of raw carbonaceous fuels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Three configurations for an electrochemical cell are utilized to generate electric power from the reaction of oxygen or air with porous plates or particulates of carbon, arranged such that waste heat from the electrochemical cells is allowed to flow upwards through a storage chamber or port containing raw carbonaceous fuel. These configurations allow combining the separate processes of devolatilization, pyrolysis and electrochemical conversion of carbon to electric power into a single unit process, fed with raw fuel and exhausting high BTU gases, electric power, and substantially pure CO.sub.2 during operation.

Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

2007-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

202

Conversion | National Nuclear Security Administration  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to User GroupInformationE-Gov ContactsContractOffice ofConversion |

203

Biochemical Conversion | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsBSCmemo.pdf BSCmemo.pdf BSCmemo.pdfBetter BuildingsBetter Plants»NewsConversion

204

2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Thermochemical Conversion...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Thermochemical Conversion 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Thermochemical Conversion "This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an...

205

Agriculture-related radiation dose calculations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Estimates of radiation dose to the public must be made at each stage in the identification and qualification process leading to siting a high-level nuclear waste repository. Specifically considering the ingestion pathway, this paper examines questions of reliability and adequacy of dose calculations in relation to five stages of data availability (geologic province, region, area, location, and mass balance) and three methods of calculation (population, population/food production, and food production driven). Calculations were done using the model PABLM with data for the Permian and Palo Duro Basins and the Deaf Smith County area. Extra effort expended in gathering agricultural data at succeeding environmental characterization levels does not appear justified, since dose estimates do not differ greatly; that effort would be better spent determining usage of food types that contribute most to the total dose; and that consumption rate and the air dispersion factor are critical to assessment of radiation dose via the ingestion pathway. 17 refs., 9 figs., 32 tabs.

Furr, J.M.; Mayberry, J.J.; Waite, D.A.

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Microturbine Power Conversion Technology Review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is performing a technology review to assess the market for commercially available power electronic converters that can be used to connect microturbines to either the electric grid or local loads. The intent of the review is to facilitate an assessment of the present status of marketed power conversion technology to determine how versatile the designs are for potentially providing different services to the grid based on changes in market direction, new industry standards, and the critical needs of the local service provider. The project includes data gathering efforts and documentation of the state-of-the-art design approaches that are being used by microturbine manufacturers in their power conversion electronics development and refinement. This project task entails a review of power converters used in microturbines sized between 20 kW and 1 MW. The power converters permit microturbine generators, with their non-synchronous, high frequency output, to interface with the grid or local loads. The power converters produce 50- to 60-Hz power that can be used for local loads or, using interface electronics, synchronized for connection to the local feeder and/or microgrid. The power electronics enable operation in a stand-alone mode as a voltage source or in grid-connect mode as a current source. Some microturbines are designed to automatically switch between the two modes. The information obtained in this data gathering effort will provide a basis for determining how close the microturbine industry is to providing services such as voltage regulation, combined control of both voltage and current, fast/seamless mode transfers, enhanced reliability, reduced cost converters, reactive power supply, power quality, and other ancillary services. Some power quality improvements will require the addition of storage devices; therefore, the task should also determine what must be done to enable the power conversion circuits to accept a varying dc voltage source. The study will also look at technical issues pertaining to the interconnection and coordinated/compatible operation of multiple microturbines. It is important to know today if modifications to provide improved operation and additional services will entail complete redesign, selected component changes, software modifications, or the addition of power storage devices. This project is designed to provide a strong technical foundation for determining present technical needs and identifying recommendations for future work.

Staunton, R.H.

2003-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

207

Power conversion apparatus and method  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A power conversion apparatus includes an interfacing circuit that enables a current source inverter to operate from a voltage energy storage device (voltage source), such as a battery, ultracapacitor or fuel cell. The interfacing circuit, also referred to as a voltage-to-current converter, transforms the voltage source into a current source that feeds a DC current to a current source inverter. The voltage-to-current converter also provides means for controlling and maintaining a constant DC bus current that supplies the current source inverter. The voltage-to-current converter also enables the current source inverter to charge the voltage energy storage device, such as during dynamic braking of a hybrid electric vehicle, without the need of reversing the direction of the DC bus current.

Su, Gui-Jia (Knoxville, TN)

2012-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

208

NREL: Biomass Research - Biochemical Conversion Projects  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

NREL's projects in biochemical conversion involve three basic steps to convert biomass feedstocks to fuels: Converting biomass to sugar or other fermentation feedstock...

209

Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Power Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

or otherwise restricted information Project ID ace47lagrandeur Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Power Program- 2009 Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program...

210

Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Power Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Start Date: Oct '04 Program End date: Oct '10 Percent Complete: 80% 2 Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Power Program- Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review- June...

211

Next-Generation Thermionic Solar Energy Conversion  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Microscale-enhanced thermionic emitters will enable high-efficiency, solar-to-electrical conversion by taking advantage of both heat and light. Image from Stanford University...

212

"Approaches to Ultrahigh Efficiency Solar Energy Conversion"...  

Office of Science (SC) Website

"Approaches to Ultrahigh Efficiency Solar Energy Conversion" Webinar Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights News & Events EFRC News...

213

"Fundamental Challenges in Solar Energy Conversion" workshop...  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Fundamental Challenges in Solar Energy Conversion" workshop hosted by LMI-EFRC Energy Frontier Research Centers (EFRCs) EFRCs Home Centers Research Science Highlights News & Events...

214

Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Production Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates Production Purdue University report-out presentation at the CTAB webinar on Carbohydrates Production....

215

Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Upgrading Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates Upgrading PNNL report-out presentation at the CTAB webinar on carbohydrates upgrading. ctabwebinarcarbohyd...

216

LED Street Lighting Conversion Workshop Presentations  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This page provides links to the presentations given at the National League of Cities Mobile Workshop, LED Street Lighting Conversion: Saving Your Community Money, While Improving Public Safety,...

217

Framing the Conversation: The Role of Facebook Conversations in Shopping for Eyeglasses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Framing the Conversation: The Role of Facebook Conversations in Shopping for Eyeglasses Karim Said Warby Parker's Facebook page and explore the ways customers formulate questions and conversations,000 Facebook posts, consisting of photos, comments, and "likes". Using statistical analyses and qualitative

Kane, Shaun K.

218

Parameterizing energy conversion on rough topography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Parameterizing energy conversion on rough topography using bottom pressure sensors to measure form and mixing U0 Form drag pressure Tidal energy conversion Form drag causes: - internal wave generation - eddy Sound, WA Point Three Tree Previous work McCabe et al., 2006 > Measured the internal form drag

Warner, Sally

219

1982 annual report: Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides a brief overview of the Thermochemical Conversion Program's activities and major accomplishments during fiscal year 1982. The objective of the Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program is to generate scientific data and fundamental biomass converison process information that, in the long term, could lead to establishment of cost effective processes for conversion of biomass resources into clean fuels and petrochemical substitutes. The goal of the program is to improve the data base for biomass conversion by investigating the fundamental aspects of conversion technologies and exploring those parameters which are critical to these conversion processes. To achieve this objective and goal, the Thermochemical Conversion Program is sponsoring high-risk, long-term research with high payoff potential which industry is not currently sponsoring, nor is likely to support. Thermochemical conversion processes employ elevated temperatures to convert biomass materials into energy. Process examples include: combustion to produce heat, steam, electricity, direct mechanical power; gasification to produce fuel gas or synthesis gases for the production of methanol and hydrocarbon fuels; direct liquefaction to produce heavy oils or distillates; and pyrolysis to produce a mixture of oils, fuel gases, and char. A bibliography of publications for 1982 is included.

Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Gene conversion in the rice genome  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Over 60% of the conversions we detected were between chromosomes. We found that the inter-chromosomal conversions distributed between chromosome 1 and 5, 2 and 6, and 3 and 5 are more frequent than genome average (Z-test, P < 0.05). The frequencies...

Xu, Shuqing; Clark, Terry; Zheng, Hongkun; Vang, SÃ ¸ ren; Li, Ruiqiang; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Wang, Jun; Zheng, Xiaoguang

2008-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose conversion factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion LUIS A. VEGA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion LUIS A. VEGA Hawaii Natural Energy Institute, School of Ocean depths of 20 m (surface water) and 1,000 m. OTEC Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion, the process of converting the ocean thermal energy into electricity. OTEC transfer function The relationship between

222

Interdigitated photovoltaic power conversion device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A photovoltaic power conversion device has a top surface adapted to receive impinging radiation. The device includes at least two adjacent, serially connected cells. Each cell includes a semi-insulating substrate and a lateral conductivity layer of a first doped electrical conductivity disposed on the substrate. A base layer is disposed on the lateral conductivity layer and has the same electrical charge conductivity thereof. An emitter layer of a second doped electrical conductivity of opposite electrical charge is disposed on the base layer and forms a p-n junction therebetween. A plurality of spaced channels are formed in the emitter and base layers to expose the lateral conductivity layer at the bottoms thereof. A front contact grid is positioned on the top surface of the emitter layer of each cell. A first current collector is positioned along one outside edge of at least one first cell. A back contact grid is positioned in the channels at the top surface of the device for engagement with the lateral conductivity layer. A second current collector is positioned along at least one outside edge of at least one oppositely disposed second cell. Finally, an interdigitation mechanism is provided for serially connecting the front contact grid of one cell to the back contact grid of an adjacent cell at the top surface of the device.

Ward, James Scott (Englewood, CO); Wanlass, Mark Woodbury (Golden, CO); Gessert, Timothy Arthur (Conifer, CO)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Interdigitated photovoltaic power conversion device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A photovoltaic power conversion device has a top surface adapted to receive impinging radiation. The device includes at least two adjacent, serially connected cells. Each cell includes a semi-insulating substrate and a lateral conductivity layer of a first doped electrical conductivity disposed on the substrate. A base layer is disposed on the lateral conductivity layer and has the same electrical charge conductivity thereof. An emitter layer of a second doped electrical conductivity of opposite electrical charge is disposed on the base layer and forms a p-n junction therebetween. A plurality of spaced channels are formed in the emitter and base layers to expose the lateral conductivity layer at the bottoms thereof. A front contact grid is positioned on the top surface of the emitter layer of each cell. A first current collector is positioned along one outside edge of at least one first cell. A back contact grid is positioned in the channels at the top surface of the device for engagement with the lateral conductivity layer. A second current collector is positioned along at least one outside edge of at least one oppositely disposed second cell. Finally, an interdigitation mechanism is provided for serially connecting the front contact grid of one cell to the back contact grid of an adjacent cell at the top surface of the device. 15 figs.

Ward, J.S.; Wanlass, M.W.; Gessert, T.A.

1999-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

224

Standardized radiological dose evaluations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Following the end of the Cold War, the mission of Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site changed from production of nuclear weapons to cleanup. Authorization baseis documents for the facilities, primarily the Final Safety Analysis Reports, are being replaced with new ones in which accident scenarios are sorted into coarse bins of consequence and frequency, similar to the approach of DOE-STD-3011-94. Because this binning does not require high precision, a standardized approach for radiological dose evaluations is taken for all the facilities at the site. This is done through a standard calculation ``template`` for use by all safety analysts preparing the new documents. This report describes this template and its use.

Peterson, V.L.; Stahlnecker, E.

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Radiation Dose-Volume Effects in the Heart  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The literature is reviewed to identify the main clinical and dose-volume predictors for acute and late radiation-induced heart disease. A clear quantitative dose and/or volume dependence for most cardiac toxicity has not yet been shown, primarily because of the scarcity of the data. Several clinical factors, such as age, comorbidities and doxorubicin use, appear to increase the risk of injury. The existing dose-volume data is presented, as well as suggestions for future investigations to better define radiation-induced cardiac injury.

Gagliardi, Giovanna, E-mail: giovanna.gagliardi@karolinska.s [Department of Medical Physics, Karolinska University Hospital and Karolinska Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Constine, Louis S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Rochester Cancer Center, Rochester, NY (United States); Moiseenko, Vitali [Vancouver Cancer Centre, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Correa, Candace; Pierce, Lori J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Allen, Aaron M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana- Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Rabin Medical Center Petach Tikvah (Israel); Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Energy conversion & storage program. 1994 annual report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy Conversion and Storage Program investigates state-of-the-art electrochemistry, chemistry, and materials science technologies for: (1) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; (2) development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion; (3) characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species; (4) study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Research projects focus on transport process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis.

Cairns, E.J.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Energy Conversion & Storage Program, 1993 annual report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in: production of new synthetic fuels; development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells; development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion; characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species; and the study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis.

Cairns, E.J.

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories under contract with the Centers for Disease Control. The independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP) provides technical direction. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demography, food consumption, and agriculture; environmental pathways and dose estimates.

Finch, S.M.; McMakin, A.H. (comps.)

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

ORISE: Dose modeling and assessments  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

or state regulatory compliance requirements are being met during the decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Dose modeling is an important step in the...

230

Experimental and Analytical Studies on Pyroelectric Waste Heat Energy Conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High-e?ciency direct conversion of heat to electrical energyJ. Yu and M. Ikura, “Direct conversion of low-grade heat tois concerned with direct conversion of thermal energy into

Lee, Felix

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Energy Conversion and Transmission Facilities (South Dakota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This legislation applies to energy conversion facilities designed for or capable of generating 100 MW or more of electricity, wind energy facilities with a combined capacity of 100 MW, certain...

232

Summer Series 2012 - Conversation with Omar Yaghi  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Jeff Miller, head of Public Affairs, sat down in conversation with Omar Yaghi, director of the Molecular Foundry, in the first of a series of "powerpoint-free" talks on July 11th 2012, at Berkeley Lab.

Omar Yaghi

2013-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

233

Ris Energy Report 2 Bioenergy conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

6.3 Risø Energy Report 2 Bioenergy conversion There is a wide range of technologies to derive operate automatically and are in many regions an economic alternative, e.g. Austria and Finland

234

Overview of Capabilities Conversion System Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cycles Heat exchanger design and optimization TES Material Integration & Optimization: Solar power plantOverview of Capabilities Conversion System Technology - Power System Demonstrations - Systems Conceptual Design/Trade Space Exploration - Simulation Modeling for Manufacturing - Hybrid Energy Systems

Lee, Dongwon

235

Assessment of ocean thermal energy conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) is a promising renewable energy technology to generate electricity and has other applications such as production of freshwater, seawater air-conditioning, marine culture and chilled-soil ...

Muralidharan, Shylesh

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Summer Series 2012 - Conversation with Kathy Yelick  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Jeff Miller, head of Public Affairs, sat down in conversation with Kathy Yelick, Associate Berkeley Lab Director, Computing Sciences, in the second of a series of "powerpoint-free" talks on July 18th 2012, at Berkeley Lab.

Kathy Yelick

2013-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

237

Heterogeneity-corrected vs -uncorrected critical structure maximum point doses in breast balloon brachytherapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent studies have reported potentially clinically meaningful dose differences when heterogeneity correction is used in breast balloon brachytherapy. In this study, we report on the relationship between heterogeneity-corrected and -uncorrected doses for 2 commonly used plan evaluation metrics: maximum point dose to skin surface and maximum point dose to ribs. Maximum point doses to skin surface and ribs were calculated using TG-43 and Varian Acuros for 20 patients treated with breast balloon brachytherapy. The results were plotted against each other and fit with a zero-intercept line. Max skin dose (Acuros) = max skin dose (TG-43) ? 0.930 (R{sup 2} = 0.995). The average magnitude of difference from this relationship was 1.1% (max 2.8%). Max rib dose (Acuros) = max rib dose (TG-43) ? 0.955 (R{sup 2} = 0.9995). The average magnitude of difference from this relationship was 0.7% (max 1.6%). Heterogeneity-corrected maximum point doses to the skin surface and ribs were proportional to TG-43-calculated doses. The average deviation from proportionality was 1%. The proportional relationship suggests that a different metric other than maximum point dose may be needed to obtain a clinical advantage from heterogeneity correction. Alternatively, if maximum point dose continues to be used in recommended limits while incorporating heterogeneity correction, institutions without this capability may be able to accurately estimate these doses by use of a scaling factor.

Kim, Leonard, E-mail: kimlh@umdnj.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States); Narra, Venkat; Yue, Ning [Department of Radiation Oncology, Cancer Institute of New Jersey, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Potential Impacts of Hydrokinetic and Wave Energy Conversion...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Potential Impacts of Hydrokinetic and Wave Energy Conversion Technologies on Aquatic Environments Potential Impacts of Hydrokinetic and Wave Energy Conversion Technologies on...

239

Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Conversion Device...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Conversion Device Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy Conversion Device Advanced, High Power, Next Scale, Wave Energy...

240

Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass to Sugars and Biological Conversion...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose conversion factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Biochemical Conversion...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Biochemical Conversion 2011 Biomass Program Platform Peer Review: Biochemical Conversion This document summarizes the recommendations and evaluations provided by an independent...

242

New process speeds conversion of biomass to fuels  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Conversion of Biomass to Fuels New process speeds conversion of biomass to fuels Scientists made a major step forward recently towards transforming biomass-derived molecules into...

243

Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

truck system. schock.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Conversion of Wate Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste...

244

Thermoelectric Conversion of Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Thermoelectric Conversion of Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable Electricity Thermoelectric Conversion of Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable Electricity Presents successful...

245

Conversation/Culture Partner Program Would you like to help  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conversation/Culture Partner Program Would you like to help another student improve their English different cultures; *Help another student improve their conversation English; and *Assist another student

Thomas, Andrew

246

Energy Conversion and Thermal Efficiency Sales Tax Exemption  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Ohio may provide a sales and use tax exemption for certain tangible personal property used in energy conversion, solid waste energy conversion, or thermal efficiency improvement facilities designed...

247

aspergillus fumigatus conversion: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

135 Framing the Conversation: The Role of Facebook Conversations in Shopping for Eyeglasses Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: Framing the...

248

antidiabetic bis-maltolato-oxovanadiumiv conversion: Topics by...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

88 Framing the Conversation: The Role of Facebook Conversations in Shopping for Eyeglasses Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: Framing the...

249

Evaluation of Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion of High...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion of High Temperature Skutterudite-Based Thermoelectric Modules Evaluation of Thermal to Electrical Energy Conversion of High Temperature...

250

Trends in Contractor Conversion Rates | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Contractor Conversion Rates Trends in Contractor Conversion Rates Better Buildings Residential Network Workforce Business Partners Peer Exchange Call Series: Trends in Contractor...

251

Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for...

252

Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

on a OTR truck schock.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Thermoelectric Conversion of...

253

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: Potential Environmental Impacts and Fisheries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion: Potential Environmental Impacts and Fisheries Christina M Comfort Institute #12;Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) · Renewable energy ­ ocean thermal gradient · Large

Hawai'i at Manoa, University of

254

Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oil Production...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Oil Production Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oil Production RTI International report-out at the CTAB webinar on Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels...

255

Thermochemical Conversion: Using Heat and Catalysis to Make Biofuels...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Conversion: Using Heat and Catalysis to Make Biofuels and Bioproducts Thermochemical Conversion: Using Heat and Catalysis to Make Biofuels and Bioproducts The Bioenergy...

256

Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Presentation from the...

257

Novel Energy Conversion Equipment for Low Temperature Geothermal...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Novel Energy Conversion Equipment for Low Temperature Geothermal Resources Novel Energy Conversion Equipment for Low Temperature Geothermal Resources Project objective: Develop...

258

E-Print Network 3.0 - additional potential factor Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

These conversion... factors allow companies and individuals to calculate greenhouse gas (GHG) ... Source: Forest Research Agency of the UK Forestry Commission Collection:...

259

References R-3 Note: In this report we refer to a number of documents (e.g., plans, reports) that are intended for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. DOE. 1988a. External Dose-Rate Conversion Factors for Calculation of Dose to the Public. DOE/EH-0070. U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, D.C. DOE. 1988b. Internal Dose Conversion Factors

Pennycook, Steve

260

Effects of the difference in tube voltage of the CT scanner on dose calculation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Computed Tomography (CT) measures the attenuation coefficient of an object and converts the value assigned to each voxel into a CT number. In radiation therapy, CT number, which is directly proportional to the linear attenuation coefficient, is required to be converted to electron density for radiation dose calculation for cancer treatment. However, if various tube voltages were applied to take the patient CT image without applying the specific CT number to electron density conversion curve, the accuracy of dose calculation would be unassured. In this study, changes in CT numbers for different materials due to change in tube voltage were demonstrated and the dose calculation errors in percentage depth dose (PDD) and a clinical case were analyzed. The maximum dose difference in PDD from TPS dose calculation and Monte Carlo simulation were 1.3 % and 1.1 % respectively when applying the same CT number to electron density conversion curve to the 80 kVp and 140 kVp images. In the clinical case, the different CT nu...

Rhee, Dong Joo; Moon, Young Min; Kim, Jung Ki; Jeong, Dong Hyeok

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose conversion factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

ORIGINAL PAPER Tunability of Propane Conversion over Alumina Supported  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ORIGINAL PAPER Tunability of Propane Conversion over Alumina Supported Pt and Rh Catalysts William Propane conversion over alumina supported Pt and Rh (1 wt% metals loading) was examined under fuel rich conversion and almost complete propane conversion) so long as the metal particle size was sufficiently low

262

Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the APGEMS Dose Conversion Factor File Using Revised Factors from Federal Guidance Report 12 and 13 TR Hay JP Rishel September 2013 #12;#12;PNNL-22827 Revision of the APGEMS Dose Conversion Factor File Using Revised radionuclides. The dose conversion factors (DCFs) used by APGEMS to convert air concentration to dose are stored

263

Overview of coal conversion process instrumentation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A review of standard instrumentation used in the processing industries is given, and the applicability of this instrumentation to measurements in mixed phase media and hostile environments such as those encountered in coal conversion processes is considered. The major projects in coal conversion sponsored by the US Department of Energy are briefly reviewed with schematics to pinpoint areas where the standard instrumentation is inadequate or altogether lacking. The next report in this series will provide detailed requirements on the instruments needed for these processes, will review new instruments which have recently become commercially available but are not yet considered standard instrumentation, and report on the status of new instruments which are being developed and, in some cases, undergoing tests in coal conversion plants.

Liptak, B. G.; Leiter, C. P.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Energy conversion & storage program. 1995 annual report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The 1995 annual report discusses laboratory activities in the Energy Conversion and Storage (EC&S) Program. The report is divided into three categories: electrochemistry, chemical applications, and material applications. Research performed in each category during 1995 is described. Specific research topics relate to the development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, the development of high-efficiency thermochemical processes for energy conversion, the characterization of new chemical processes and complex chemical species, and the study and application of novel materials related to energy conversion and transmission. Research projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials and deposition technologies, and advanced methods of analysis.

Cairns, E.J.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Technical basis for dose reconstruction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this paper is to consider two general topics: technical considerations of why dose-reconstruction studies should or should not be performed and methods of dose reconstruction. The first topic is of general and growing interest as the number of dose-reconstruction studies increases, and one asks the question whether it is necessary to perform a dose reconstruction for virtually every site at which, for example, the Department of Energy (DOE) has operated a nuclear-related facility. And there is the broader question of how one might logically draw the line at performing or not performing dose-reconstruction (radiological and chemical) studies for virtually every industrial complex in the entire country. The second question is also of general interest. There is no single correct way to perform a dose-reconstruction study, and it is important not to follow blindly a single method to the point that cheaper, faster, more accurate, and more transparent methods might not be developed and applied.

Anspaugh, L.R.

1996-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

266

Weldon Spring historical dose estimate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study was conducted to determine the estimated radiation doses that individuals in five nearby population groups and the general population in the surrounding area may have received as a consequence of activities at a uranium processing plant in Weldon Spring, Missouri. The study is retrospective and encompasses plant operations (1957-1966), cleanup (1967-1969), and maintenance (1969-1982). The dose estimates for members of the nearby population groups are as follows. Of the three periods considered, the largest doses to the general population in the surrounding area would have occurred during the plant operations period (1957-1966). Dose estimates for the cleanup (1967-1969) and maintenance (1969-1982) periods are negligible in comparison. Based on the monitoring data, if there was a person residing continually in a dwelling 1.2 km (0.75 mi) north of the plant, this person is estimated to have received an average of about 96 mrem/yr (ranging from 50 to 160 mrem/yr) above background during plant operations, whereas the dose to a nearby resident during later years is estimated to have been about 0.4 mrem/yr during cleanup and about 0.2 mrem/yr during the maintenance period. These values may be compared with the background dose in Missouri of 120 mrem/yr.

Meshkov, N.; Benioff, P.; Wang, J.; Yuan, Y.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Residual oil conversion in Ashland FCC Units  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ashland Petroleum Company is a production-poor refining and marketing company. A company must have refining flexibility to compete in today's crude and marketing situation. Ashland has adopted a dual approach to achieving the required refining flexibility: development and construction of the RCC process, and development of techniques to practice residual oil conversion in Ashland FCC units. This paper discusses the operating techniques Ashland has used to allow residual oil conversion to be practiced in their present day FCC's and shows some of the yields which have been achieved.

Barger, D.F.; Miller, C.B.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Methanol engine conversion feasibility study: Phase 1  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents the selection of the surface-assisted ignition technique to convert two-stroke Diesel-cycle engines to methanol fuel. This study was the first phase of the Florida Department of Transportation methanol bus engine development project. It determined both the feasibility and technical approach for converting Diesel-cycle engines to methanol fuel. State-of-the-art conversion options, associated fuel formulations, and anticipated performance were identified. Economic considerations and technical limitations were examined. The surface-assisted conversion was determined to be feasible and was recommended for hardware development.

Not Available

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Biological doses with template distribution patterns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Consideration of radiation dose rate effects emphasizes advantages of the template method for lateral distribution of multiple sources in treatment of laterally infiltrating gynecologic cancer, when compared to a conventional technique with colpostats. Biological doses in time dose fractionation (TDF), ret and reu units are calculated for the two treatment methods. With the template method the lateral dose (point B) is raised without significantly increasing the doses to the rectum and bladder, that is, relatively, the calculated biological doses at point A and B are more nearly equivalent and the doses to the rectum and bladder are significantly lower than the dose to point B.

Harrop, R. (Simon Fraer Univ., Burnaby, British Columbia); Haymond, H.R.; Nisar, A.; Syed, A.N.M.; Feder, B.H.; Neblett, D.L.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Power Conversion APEX Interim Report November, 1999  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the combined efficiency of the topping cycle and bottoming cycle will be less than the single cycle along. POWER CONVERSION 17.1 Steam Cycle Different steam cycles have been well developed. A study by EPRI summarized the various advanced steam cycles which maybe available for an advanced coal power plant

California at Los Angeles, University of

271

Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. 1984 annual report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the program is to generate scientific data and conversion process information that will lead to establishment of cost-effective process for converting biomass resources into clean fuels. The goal of the program is to develop the data base for biomass thermal conversion by investigating the fundamental aspects of conversion technologies and by exploring those parameters that are critical to the conversion processes. The research activities can be divided into: (1) gasification technology; (2) liquid fuels technology; (3) direct combustion technology; and (4) program support activities. These activities are described in detail in this report. Outstanding accomplishments during fiscal year 1984 include: (1) successful operation of 3-MW combustor/gas turbine system; (2) successful extended term operation of an indirectly heated, dual bed gasifier for producing medium-Btu gas; (3) determination that oxygen requirements for medium-Btu gasification of biomass in a pressurized, fluidized bed gasifier are low; (4) established interdependence of temperature and residence times on biomass pyrolysis oil yields; and (5) determination of preliminary technical feasibility of thermally gasifying high moisture biomass feedstocks. A bibliography of 1984 publications is included. 26 figs., 1 tab.

Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Thermochemical Conversion Pilot Plant (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The state-of-the-art thermochemical conversion pilot plant includes several configurable, complementary unit operations for testing and developing various reactors, filters, catalysts, and other unit operations. NREL engineers and scientists as well as clients can test new processes and feedstocks in a timely, cost-effective, and safe manner to obtain extensive performance data on processes or equipment.

Not Available

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Soft materials for linear electromechanical energy conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We briefly review the literature of linear electromechanical effects of soft materials, especially in synthetic and biological polymers and liquid crystals (LCs). First we describe results on direct and converse piezoelectricity, and then we discuss a linear coupling between bending and electric polarization, which maybe called bending piezoelectricity, or flexoelectricity.

Antal Jakli; Nandor Eber

2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

274

Existing potato markers and marker conversions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Existing potato markers and marker conversions Walter De Jong PAA Workshop August 2009 1 #12;What of us will continue to use agarose gels for years to come #12;Example of a potato marker 4 PVY (Ryadg) ­ Kasai et al. 2000 Genome 43:1-8 allele specific amplification of a diagnostic product - potatoes

Douches, David S.

275

IntroductiontoProcessEngineering(PTG) conversion, balances,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#3/6 IntroductiontoProcessEngineering(PTG) VST rz13 1/118 3. Energy conversion, balances rz13 2/118 3.1: Energy #12;#3/6 IntroductiontoProcessEngineering(PTG) VST rz13 3/118 What is energy? · "Energy is any quantity that changes the state of a closed system when crossing the system boundary" (SEHB

Zevenhoven, Ron

276

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Mostly about USA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion History Mostly about USA 1980's to 1990's and bias towards Vega Structures (Plantships) · Bottom-Mounted Structures · Model Basin Tests/ At-Sea Tests · 210 kW OC-OTEC) #12;#12;Claude's Off Rio de Janeiro (1933) · Floating Ice Plant: 2.2 MW OC- OTEC to produce 2000

277

NAVFAC Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Project  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NAVFAC Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Project Contract Number N62583-09-C-0083 CDRL A014 OTEC Mini-Spar Pilot Plant 9 December 2011 OTEC-2011-001-4 Prepared for: Naval Facilities; distribution is unlimited. #12; Configuration Report and Development Plan Volume 4 Site Specific OTEC

278

Materials for coal conversion and utilization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Fifth Annual Conference on Materials for Coal Conversion and Utilization was held October 7-9, 1980, at the National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Maryland. Sixty-six papers have been entered individually into ERA and EDB; two had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

Not Available

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Energy Conversion: Solid-State Lighting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

8 Energy Conversion: Solid-State Lighting E. Kioupakis1,2 , P. Rinke1,3 , A. Janotti1 , Q. Yan1 fraction of the world's energy resources [1]. Lighting has been one of the earliest applications. The inefficiency of existing light sources that waste most of the power they consume is the reason for this large

280

Steam Plant Conversion Eliminating Campus Coal Use  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Steam Plant Conversion Eliminating Campus Coal Use at the Steam Plant #12;· Flagship campus region produce 14% of US coal (TN only 0.2%) Knoxville and the TN Valley #12;· UT is one of about 70 U.S. colleges and universities w/ steam plant that burns coal · Constructed in 1964, provides steam for

Dai, Pengcheng

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose conversion factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

An evaluation of the TSE MR sequence for time efficient data acquisition in polymer gel dosimetry of applications involving high doses and steep dose gradients  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of magnetic resonance imaging as a readout method for polymer gel dosimetry commonly involves long imaging sessions, particularly when high spatial resolution is required in all three dimensions, for the investigation of dose distributions with steep dose gradients and stringent dose delivery specifications. In this work, a volume selective turbo spin echo (TSE) pulse sequence is compared to the established Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) multiecho acquisition with regard to providing accurate dosimetric results in significantly reduced imaging times. Polyethylene glycol diacrylate based (PABIG) gels were irradiated and subsequently scanned to obtain R2 relaxation rate measurements, using a CPMG multiecho sequence and a dual echo TSE utilizing an acceleration (turbo) factor of 64. R2 values, plotted against corresponding Monte Carlo dose calculations, provided calibration data of PABIG gels dose response over a wide dose range. A linear R2 versus dose relationship was demonstrated for both sequences with TSE results presenting reduced dose sensitivity. Although TSE data were found to deviate from linearity at lower doses compared to CPMG data, a relatively wide dynamic dose range of response extending up to approximately 100 Gy was observed for both sequences. The TSE and CPMG sequences were evaluated with a brachytherapy irradiation using a high dose rate {sup 192}Ir source and a gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery irradiation with a single 4 mm collimator helmet shot. Dosimetric results obtained with the TSE and CPMG are shown to compare equally well with the expected dose distributions for these irradiations. The 60-fold scan time reduction achieved with TSE implies that this sequence could prove to be a useful tool for the introduction of polymer gel dosimetry in clinical radiation therapy applications involving high doses and steep dose gradients.

Baras, P.; Seimenis, I.; Sandilos, P.; Vlahos, L.; Bieganski, T.; Georgiou, E.; Pantelis, E.; Papagiannis, P.; Sakelliou, L. [Philips Hellas Medical Systems, 44 Kifissias Ave., Maroussi 151 25, Athens (Greece); Department of Radiology, Medical School, University of Athens, Areteion Hospital, 76 Vas. Sofias Ave., 115 28 Athens (Greece) and Medical Physics Department, Hygeia Hospital, Kiffisias Avenue, 24 Erythrou Stavrou, Marousi, 151 23, Athens (Greece); Department of Radiology, Mother's Memorial Hospital, Rzgowska 281/289, 93-388, Lodz (Poland); Medical Physics Department, University of Athens, 75 Mikras Asias, 115 27 Athens (Greece); Nuclear and Particle Physics Section, Physics Department, University of Athens, Panepistimioupolis, Ilisia, 157 71 Athens (Greece)

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

282

AGING FACILITY WORKER DOSE ASSESSMENT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this calculation is to estimate radiation doses received by personnel working in the Aging Facility performing operations to transfer aging casks to the aging pads for thermal and logistical management, stage empty aging casks, and retrieve aging casks from the aging pads for further processing in other site facilities. Doses received by workers due to aging cask surveillance and maintenance operations are also included. The specific scope of work contained in this calculation covers both collective doses and individual worker group doses on an annual basis, and includes the contributions due to external and internal radiation from normal operation. There are no Category 1 event sequences associated with the Aging Facility (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167268], Section 7.2.1). The results of this calculation will be used to support the design of the Aging Facility and to provide occupational dose estimates for the License Application. The calculations contained in this document were developed by Environmental and Nuclear Engineering of the Design and Engineering Organization and are intended solely for the use of the Design and Engineering Organization in its work regarding facility operation. Yucca Mountain Project personnel from the Environmental and Nuclear Engineering should be consulted before use of the calculations for purposes other than those stated herein or use by individuals other than authorized personnel in Environmental and Nuclear Engineering.

R.L. Thacker

2005-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

283

The Food Crises: A quantitative model of food prices including speculators and ethanol conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recent increases in basic food prices are severely impacting vulnerable populations worldwide. Proposed causes such as shortages of grain due to adverse weather, increasing meat consumption in China and India, conversion of corn to ethanol in the US, and investor speculation on commodity markets lead to widely differing implications for policy. A lack of clarity about which factors are responsible reinforces policy inaction. Here, for the first time, we construct a dynamic model that quantitatively agrees with food prices. The results show that the dominant causes of price increases are investor speculation and ethanol conversion. Models that just treat supply and demand are not consistent with the actual price dynamics. The two sharp peaks in 2007/2008 and 2010/2011 are specifically due to investor speculation, while an underlying upward trend is due to increasing demand from ethanol conversion. The model includes investor trend following as well as shifting between commodities, equities and bonds to take ad...

Lagi, Marco; Bertrand, Karla Z; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

E-Print Network 3.0 - activation dose analysis Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

65 AJR:176, February 2001 289 Estimated Risks of Radiation- Summary: dose at CT in pediatric patients. Radiology 1997;203:417-422 22. Olerud HM. Analysis of factors... ....

285

Potential for Cardiovascular Exercise Dosing to Improve Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Breast Cancer Survivors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to investigating feasibility, we analyzed the potential for cardiovascular exercise dosing to have different effects on CVD and breast cancer risk factors including low VO2max and weight gain during an Energy Balance Program. Nineteen female breast cancer survivors...

Burnett, Dave

2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

286

Novel Nuclear Powered Photocatalytic Energy Conversion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University of Massachusetts Lowell Radiation Laboratory (UMLRL) is involved in a comprehensive project to investigate a unique radiation sensing and energy conversion technology with applications for in-situ monitoring of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) during cask transport and storage. The technology makes use of the gamma photons emitted from the SNF as an inherent power source for driving a GPS-class transceiver that has the ability to verify the position and contents of the SNF cask. The power conversion process, which converts the gamma photon energy into electrical power, is based on a variation of the successful dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) design developed by Konarka Technologies, Inc. (KTI). In particular, the focus of the current research is to make direct use of the high-energy gamma photons emitted from SNF, coupled with a scintillator material to convert some of the incident gamma photons into photons having wavelengths within the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The high-energy gammas from the SNF will generate some power directly via Compton scattering and the photoelectric effect, and the generated visible photons output from the scintillator material can also be converted to electrical power in a manner similar to that of a standard solar cell. Upon successful implementation of an energy conversion device based on this new gammavoltaic principle, this inherent power source could then be utilized within SNF storage casks to drive a tamper-proof, low-power, electronic detection/security monitoring system for the spent fuel. The current project has addressed several aspects associated with this new energy conversion concept, including the development of a base conceptual design for an inherent gamma-induced power conversion unit for SNF monitoring, the characterization of the radiation environment that can be expected within a typical SNF storage system, the initial evaluation of Konarka's base solar cell design, the design and fabrication of a range of new cell materials and geometries at Konarka's manufacturing facilities, and the irradiation testing and evaluation of these new cell designs within the UML Radiation Laboratory. The primary focus of all this work was to establish the proof of concept of the basic gammavoltaic principle using a new class of dye-sensitized photon converter (DSPC) materials based on KTI's original DSSC design. In achieving this goal, this report clearly establishes the viability of the basic gammavoltaic energy conversion concept, yet it also identifies a set of challenges that must be met for practical implementation of this new technology.

White,John R.; Kinsmen,Douglas; Regan,Thomas M.; Bobek,Leo M.

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

287

Formation and conversion of defect centers in low water peak single mode optical fiber induced by gamma rays irradiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The formation and conversion processes of defect centers in low water peak single mode optical (LWPSM) fiber irradiated with gamma rays were investigated at room temperature using electron spin resonance. Germanium electron center (GEC) and self-trapped hole center (STH) occur when the fibers are irradiated with 1 and 5 kGy cumulative doses, respectively. With the increase in irradiation doses, the GEC defect centers disappear, and new defect centers such as E{sup '} centers (Si and Ge) and nonbridge oxygen hole centers (NBOHCs) generate. The generation of GEC and STH is attributed to the electron transfer, which is completely balanced. This is the main reason that radiation-induced attenuation (RIA) of the LWPSM fiber is only 10 dB/km at communication window. The new defect centers come from the conversion of GEC and STH to E{sup '} centers and NBOHC, and the conversion processes cause bond cleavage, which is the root cause that the RIA of the LWPSM fiber significantly increases up to 180 dB/km at working window. Furthermore, the concentration of new defect centers is saturated easily even by increasing cumulative doses.

Wen, J. X.; Luo, W. Y.; Xiao, Z. Y.; Wang, T. Y.; Chen, Z. Y.; Zeng, X. L. [Key Laboratory of Specialty Fiber Optics and Optical Access Networks, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China)

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

288

Direct Conversion of Biomass to Fuel | ornl.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Direct Conversion of Biomass to Fuel UGA, ORNL research team engineers microbes for the direct conversion of biomass to fuel July 11, 2014 New research from the University of...

289

Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Electric Power using Skutterudites...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Waste Heat Conversion to Electric Power using Skutterudites, TAGS, PbTe and Bi2Te3 Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Electric Power using Skutterudites, TAGS, PbTe and Bi2Te3...

290

Genetic diversity and combining ability among sorghum conversion lines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on genetic similarities estimated using AFLP markers and (3) to estimate heterosis, general and specific combining ability for grain yield among the set of conversion lines. Genetic diversity was present in the set of conversion lines evaluated. For the lines...

Mateo Moncada, Rafael Arturo

2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

291

Thermoelectrici Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Thermoelectrici Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine-Powered Vehicle Thermoelectrici Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine-Powered Vehicle 2005...

292

Cross section generation strategy for high conversion light water reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High conversion water reactors (HCWR), such as the Resource-renewable Boiling Water Reactor (RBWR), are being designed with axial heterogeneity of alternating fissile and blanket zones to achieve a conversion ratio of ...

Herman, Bryan R. (Bryan Robert)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

be 500 oC deer09schock.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Thermoelectric Conversion of...

294

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the commercialization of ocean thermal energy conversionOpen cycle ocean thermal energy conversion. A preliminary1978. 'Open cycle thermal energy converS1on. A preliminary

Sands, M. D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Direct conversion of algal biomass to biofuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method and system for providing direct conversion of algal biomass. Optionally, the method and system can be used to directly convert dry algal biomass to biodiesels under microwave irradiation by combining the reaction and combining steps. Alternatively, wet algae can be directly processed and converted to fatty acid methyl esters, which have the major components of biodiesels, by reacting with methanol at predetermined pressure and temperature ranges.

Deng, Shuguang; Patil, Prafulla D; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

296

Materials for coal conversion and utilization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Sixth annual conference on materials for coal conversion and utilization was held October 13-15, 1981 at the National Bureau of Standards Gaithersburg, Maryland. It was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Electric Power Research Institute, the Gas Research Institute and the National Bureau of Standards. Fifty-eight papers from the proceedings have been entered individually into EDB and ERA; four papers had been entered previously from other sources. (LTN)

None,

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Biofuel Conversion Basics | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in Review: Top Five EEREDepartmentFebruary 4, 2014 BioenergyDepartmentforBiofuel Conversion

298

Radiation Dose-Volume Effects and the Penile Bulb  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The dose, volume, and clinical outcome data for penile bulb are reviewed for patients treated with external-beam radiotherapy. Most, but not all, studies find an association between impotence and dosimetric parameters (e.g., threshold doses) and clinical factors (e.g., age, comorbid diseases). According to the data available, it is prudent to keep the mean dose to 95% of the penile bulb volume to <50 Gy. It may also be prudent to limit the D70 and D90 to 70 Gy and 50 Gy, respectively, but coverage of the planning target volume should not be compromised. It is acknowledged that the penile bulb may not be the critical component of the erectile apparatus, but it seems to be a surrogate for yet to be determined structure(s) critical for erectile function for at least some techniques.

Roach, Mack, E-mail: mroach@radonc.ucsf.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California-San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Nam, Jiho [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Gagliardi, Giovanna [Department of Medical Physics, Karolinska University Hospital and Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); El Naqa, Issam; Deasy, Joseph O. [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO (United States); Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

More Documents & Publications Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Vehicle Technologies Office...

300

Resource Limits and Conversion Efficiency with Implications for Climate Change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Repowering Project, Clean Coal Topical Report Number 20,P. and Nel, H. G. 2004, Clean coal conversion options using

Croft, Gregory Donald

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose conversion factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Flexible Conversion Ratio Fast Reactor Systems Evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conceptual designs of lead-cooled and liquid salt-cooled fast flexible conversion ratio reactors were developed. Both concepts have cores reated at 2400 MWt placed in a large-pool-type vessel with dual-free level, which also contains four intermediate heat exchanges coupling a primary coolant to a compact and efficient supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. Decay heat is removed passively using an enhanced Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System and a Passive Secondary Auxiliary Cooling System. The most important findings were that (1) it is feasible to design the lead-cooled and salt-cooled reactor with the flexible conversion ratio (CR) in the range of CR=0 and CR=1 n a manner that achieves inherent reactor shutdown in unprotected accidents, (2) the salt-cooled reactor requires Lithium thermal Expansion Modules to overcme the inherent salt coolant's large positive coolant temperature reactivity coefficient, (3) the preferable salt for fast spectrum high power density cores is NaCl-Kcl-MgCl2 as opposed to fluoride salts due to its better themal-hydraulic and neutronic characteristics, and (4) both reactor, but attain power density 3 times smaller than that of the sodium-cooled reactor.

Neil Todreas; Pavel Hejzlar

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

302

E2I EPRI Assessment Offshore Wave Energy Conversion Devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

E2I EPRI Assessment Offshore Wave Energy Conversion Devices Report: E2I EPRI WP ­ 004 ­ US ­ Rev 1 #12;E2I EPRI Assessment - Offshore Wave Energy Conversion Devices Table of Contents Introduction Assessment - Offshore Wave Energy Conversion Devices Introduction E2I EPRI is leading a U.S. nationwide

303

Method for conversion of .beta.-hydroxy carbonyl compounds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is disclosed for conversion of salts of .beta.-hydroxy carbonyl compounds forming useful conversion products including, e.g., .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carbonyl compounds and/or salts of .alpha.,.beta.-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. Conversion products find use, e.g., as feedstock and/or end-use chemicals.

Lilga, Michael A. (Richland, WA); White, James F. (Richland, WA); Holladay, Johnathan E. (Kennewick, WA); Zacher, Alan H. (Kennewick, WA); Muzatko, Danielle S. (Kennewick, WA); Orth, Rick J. (Kennewick, WA)

2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

304

Dose-equivalent neutron dosimeter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A neutron dosimeter is disclosed which provides a single measurement indicating the amount of potential biological damage resulting from the neutron exposure of the wearer, for a wide range of neutron energies. The dosimeter includes a detecting sheet of track etch detecting material such as a carbonate plastic, for detecting higher energy neutrons, and a radiator layer contaning conversion material such as /sup 6/Li and /sup 10/B lying adjacent to the detecting sheet for converting moderate energy neutrons to alpha particles that produce tracks in the adjacent detecting sheet.

Griffith, R.V.; Hankins, D.E.; Tomasino, L.; Gomaa, M.A.M.

1981-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

305

Power Control and Optimization of Photovoltaic and Wind Energy Conversion Systems /  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

77 5.2 Wind Energy Conversion System . . . . .Optimization and Control in Wind Energy Conversion SystemsAC matrix con- verter for wind energy conversion system,” in

Ghaffari, Azad

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

COMMERCIAL FISHERY DATA FROM A PROPOSED OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) SITE IN PUERTO RICO  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

proposed Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) sites toassessment: ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) program;operation of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power

Ryan, Constance J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

A PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF IMPINGEMENT AND ENTRAINMENT BY OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PLANTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assessment, Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) ProgramAssessment Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC), U.S.recommendations for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)

Sullivan, S.M.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

A PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF IMPINGEMENT AND ENTRAINMENT BY OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PLANTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assessment, Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) ProgramAssessment Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC), U.S.for Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) plants. Argonne,

Sullivan, S.M.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

COMMERCIAL FISHERY DATA FROM A PROPOSED OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) SITE IN PUERTO RICO  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

assessment: ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) program;proposed Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) sites tooperation of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) power

Ryan, Constance J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

COMMERCIAL FISHERY DATA FROM A PROPOSED OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) SITE IN PUERTO RICO  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at several proposed Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)Environmental assessment: ocean thermal energy conversion (The operation of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)

Ryan, Constance J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

An evaluation of gender-based weighting factors for internal dosimetry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

body irradiation. Weighting factors are used in the calculation of effective dose formerly called the effective dose equivalent. The 1990 recommendations of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 60 introduce a set...

Spiars, Joanna Hamilton

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Numerical models analysis of energy conversion process in air-breathing laser propulsion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Energy source was considered as a key essential in this paper to describe energy conversion process in air-breathing laser propulsion. Some secondary factors were ignored when three independent modules, ray transmission module, energy source term module and fluid dynamic module, were established by simultaneous laser radiation transportation equation and fluid mechanics equation. The incidence laser beam was simulated based on ray tracing method. The calculated results were in good agreement with those of theoretical analysis and experiments.

Hong Yanji; Song Junling; Cui Cunyan; Li Qian [Academy of Equipment Command and Technology, 101416 Beijing (China)

2011-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

313

Radiation dose from cigarette tobacco  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The radioactivity in tobacco leaves collected from 15 different regions of Greece before cigarette production was studied in order to estimate the effective dose from cigarette tobacco due to the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides, such as {sup 226}Ra and {sup 210}Pb of the uranium series and {sup 228}Ra of the thorium series and/or man-made produced radionuclides, such as {sup 137}Cs of Chernobyl origin. Gamma-ray spectrometry was applied using Ge planar and coaxial type detectors of high resolution and high efficiency. It was concluded that the annual effective dose due to inhalation for adults (smokers) for {sup 226}Ra varied from 42.5 to 178.6 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} (average 79.7 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}), while for {sup 228}Ra from 19.3 to 116.0 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} (average 67.1 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}) and for {sup 210}Pb from 47.0 to 134.9 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} (average 104.7 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}), that is the same order of magnitude for each radionuclide. The sum of the effective dose of the three natural radionuclides varied from 151.9 to 401.3 {mu}Sv y{sup -1} (average 251.5 {mu}Sv y{sup -1}). The annual effective dose from {sup 137}Cs of Chernobyl origin was three orders of magnitude lower as it varied from 70.4 to 410.4 nSv y{sup -1} (average 199.3 nSv y{sup -1})

Papastefanou, C. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Atomic and Nuclear Physics Laboratory, Thessaloniki 54124 (Greece)

2008-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

314

Tolerance doses for treatment planning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Data for the tolerance of normal tissues or organs to (low-LET) radiation has been compiled from a number of sources which are referenced at the end of this document. This tolerance dose data are ostensibly for uniform irradiation of all or part of an organ, and are for either 5% (TD/sub 5/) or 50% (TD/sub 50/) complication probability. The ''size'' of the irradiated organ is variously stated in terms of the absolute volume or the fraction of the organ volume irradiated, or the area or the length of the treatment field. The accuracy of these data is questionable. Much of the data represents doses that one or several experienced therapists have estimated could be safely given rather than quantitative analyses of clinical observations. Because these data have been obtained from multiple sources with possible different criteria for the definition of a complication, there are sometimes different values for what is apparently the same endpoint. The data from some sources shows a tendancy to be quantized in 5 Gy increments. This reflects the size of possible round off errors. It is believed that all these data have been accumulated without the benefit of 3-D dose distributions and therefore the estimates of the size of the volume and/or the uniformity of the irradiation may be less accurate than is now possible. 19 refs., 4 figs.

Lyman, J.T.

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Analysis of the NAEG model of transuranic radionuclide transport and dose  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We analyze the model for estimating the dose from /sup 239/Pu developed for the Nevada Applied Ecology Group (NAEG) by using sensitivity analysis and uncertainty analysis. Sensitivity analysis results suggest that the air pathway is the critical pathway for the organs receiving the highest dose. Soil concentration and the factors controlling air concentration are the most important parameters. The only organ whose dose is sensitive to parameters in the ingestion pathway is the GI tract. The air pathway accounts for 100% of the dose to lung, upper respiratory tract, and thoracic lymph nodes; and 95% of its dose via ingestion. Leafy vegetable ingestion accounts for 70% of the dose from the ingestion pathway regardless of organ, peeled vegetables 20%; accidental soil ingestion 5%; ingestion of beef liver 4%; beef muscle 1%. Only a handful of model parameters control the dose for any one organ. The number of important parameters is usually less than 10. Uncertainty analysis indicates that choosing a uniform distribution for the input parameters produces a lognormal distribution of the dose. The ratio of the square root of the variance to the mean is three times greater for the doses than it is for the individual parameters. As found by the sensitivity analysis, the uncertainty analysis suggests that only a few parameters control the dose for each organ. All organs have similar distributions and variance to mean ratios except for the lymph modes. 16 references, 9 figures, 13 tables.

Kercher, J.R.; Anspaugh, L.R.

1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Cohesive means in Slovenian spontaneous dialectal conversations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

— 17 — Cohesive means in Slovenian spontaneous dialectal conversations1 Danila zuljan kumar Inštitut za slovenski jezik Frana Ramovša ZRC SAZU, Raziskovalna postaja Nova Gorica, Delpinova 12, SI – 5000 Nova Gorica, DZuljan@zrc-sazu.si V... Centre SASA. SCN III/1 [2010], 17–34 — 18 — Slavia Centralis 1/2010 Danila Zuljan Kumar 0 Introduction A discourse (or a text as its product) is not a structural unit, like a clause or a sentence. Rather, it is a semantic unit, which means...

Kumar, Danila Zuljan

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Carbon aerogel electrodes for direct energy conversion  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A direct energy conversion device, such as a fuel cell, using carbon aerogel electrodes is described, wherein the carbon aerogel is loaded with a noble catalyst, such as platinum or rhodium and soaked with phosphoric acid, for example. A separator is located between the electrodes, which are placed in a cylinder having plate current collectors positioned adjacent the electrodes and connected to a power supply, and a pair of gas manifolds, containing hydrogen and oxygen positioned adjacent the current collectors. Due to the high surface area and excellent electrical conductivity of carbon aerogels, the problems relative to high polarization resistance of carbon composite electrodes conventionally used in fuel cells are overcome. 1 fig.

Mayer, S.T.; Kaschmitter, J.L.; Pekala, R.W.

1997-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

318

Carbon aerogel electrodes for direct energy conversion  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A direct energy conversion device, such as a fuel cell, using carbon aerogel electrodes, wherein the carbon aerogel is loaded with a noble catalyst, such as platinum or rhodium and soaked with phosphoric acid, for example. A separator is located between the electrodes, which are placed in a cylinder having plate current collectors positioned adjacent the electrodes and connected to a power supply, and a pair of gas manifolds, containing hydrogen and oxygen positioned adjacent the current collectors. Due to the high surface area and excellent electrical conductivity of carbon aerogels, the problems relative to high polarization resistance of carbon composite electrodes conventionally used in fuel cells are overcome.

Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Energy conversion device with improved seal  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An energy conversion device comprising an improved sealing member adapted to seal a cation-permeable casing to the remainder of the device. The sealing member comprises a metal substrate which (i) bears a nonconductive and corrosion resistant coating on the major surface to which said casing is sealed, and (ii) is corrugated so as to render it flexible, thereby allowing said member to move relative to said casing without cracking the seal therebetween. Corrugations may be circumferential, radial, or both radial and circumferential so as to form dimples. The corrugated member may be in form of a bellows or in a substantially flat form, such as a disc.

Miller, Gerald R. (Salt Lake City, UT); Virkar, Anil V. (Midvale, UT)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Advanced Conversion Roadmap Workshop | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergy Cooperation |South ValleyASGovLtr.pdfAboutSheet, April 20142-021 AdvanceConversion Roadmap

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose conversion factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Sandia National Laboratories: WEC power conversion chain  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -theErikGroundbreakingStandardsTCESJBEIMarineVideosVideos Videosinpower conversion

322

NREL: Biomass Research - Thermochemical Conversion Capabilities  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the Contributions and Achievements of Women |hitsAwardsPublicationsConversion

323

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Vehicle Conversions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels DataConversions to someone by

324

Fabrication and testing of an infrared spectral control component for thermophotovoltaic power conversion applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power conversion is the direct conversion of thermal radiation to electricity. Conceptually, TPV power conversion is a very elegant means of energy conversion. A thermal source emits a radiative ...

O'Sullivan, Francis M. (Francis Martin), 1980-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Case study of the conversion of tangential- and wall-fired units to low-NO{sub x} combustion: Impact on fly ash quality  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conversion of boilers to low-NO{sub x} combustion can influence fly ash quality in terms of the amount and forms of carbon, the overall fly ash fineness, and the relative amount of glass versus crystalline inorganic phases. All of these factors can influence the potential for a fly ash to be marketed for utilization. In this study, three coal-fired combustors, two tangentially fired and one wall-fired, all burning high-sulfur Illinois coal at the same power plant, were studied before and after conversion to low-NO{sub x} combustion. In all cases, the post-conversion fly ash was higher in carbon than the pre-conversion ash from the same unit. The fly ashes in at least two of the units would appear to have post-conversion ashes which still fall within the regional guidelines for the limit of carbon (or loss on ignition).

Hower, J.C.; Rathbone, R.F.; Robl, T.L.; Thomas, G.A. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research] [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; Haeberlin, B.O. [LG and E Energy Corp., Louisville, KY (United States)] [LG and E Energy Corp., Louisville, KY (United States); Trimble, A.S. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research] [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research; [Franklin County High School, Frankfort, KY (United States)

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project. Monthly report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP) provides technical direction. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed from release to impact on humans (dose estimates):Source Terms, Environmental Transport, Environmental Monitoring Data, Demography, Food Consumption, and Agriculture, and Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates.

Cannon, S.D.; Finch, S.M. [comps.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. Methods: MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. Results: By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. Conclusions: MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated.

Watkins, W. Tyler, E-mail: watkinswt@virginia.edu; Siebers, Jeffrey V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Moore, Joseph A. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Gordon, James [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan 48202 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Hugo, Geoffrey D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States)

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Advancing the Frontiers in Nanocatalysis, Biointerfaces, and Renewable Energy Conversion by Innovations of Surface Techniques  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biointerfaces, and Renewable Energy Conversion bychemistry) and develop renewable energy based processes.biointerfaces, and renewable energy conversion chemistry. In

Somorjai, G.A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

US energy conversion and use characteristics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The long-range goal of the Energy Conversion and Utilization Technology (ECUT) Program is to enhance energy productivity in all energy-use sectors by supporting research on improved efficiency and fuel switching capability in the conversion and utilization of energy. Regardless of the deficiencies of current information, a summary of the best available energy-use information is needed now to support current ECUT program planning. This document is the initial draft of this type of summary and serves as a data book that will present current and periodically updated descriptions of the following aspects of energy use: gross US energy consumption in each major energy-use sector; energy consumption by fuel type in each sector; energy efficiency of major equipment/processes; and inventories, replacement rates, and use patterns for major energy-using capital stocks. These data will help the ECUT program staff perform two vital planning functions: determine areas in which research to improve energy productivity might provide significant energy savings or fuel switching and estimate the actual effect that specific research projects may have on energy productivity and conservation. Descriptions of the data sources and examples of the uses of the different types of data are provided in Section 2. The energy-use information is presented in the last four sections; Section 3 contains general, national consumption data; and Sections 4 through 6 contain residential/commercial, industrial, and transportation consumption data, respectively. (MCW)

Imhoff, C.H.; Liberman, A.; Ashton, W.B.

1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Ocean energy conversion systems annual research report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Alternative power cycle concepts to the closed-cycle Rankine are evaluated and those that show potential for delivering power in a cost-effective and environmentally acceptable fashion are explored. Concepts are classified according to the ocean energy resource: thermal, waves, currents, and salinity gradient. Research projects have been funded and reported in each of these areas. The lift of seawater entrained in a vertical steam flow can provide potential energy for a conventional hydraulic turbine conversion system. Quantification of the process and assessment of potential costs must be completed to support concept evaluation. Exploratory development is being completed in thermoelectricity and 2-phase nozzles for other thermal concepts. Wave energy concepts are being evaluated by analysis and model testing with present emphasis on pneumatic turbines and wave focussing. Likewise, several conversion approaches to ocean current energy are being evaluated. The use of salinity resources requires further research in membranes or the development of membraneless processes. Using the thermal resource in a Claude cycle process as a power converter is promising, and a program of R and D and subsystem development has been initiated to provide confirmation of the preliminary conclusion.

Not Available

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Conversion of DAP models to SPEEDUP  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several processes at the Savannah River Site are modeled using Bechtel`s Dynamic Analysis Program (DAP) which uses a sequential modular modeling architecture. The feasibility of conversion of DAP models to SPEEDUP was examined because of the benefits associated with this de facto industry standard. The equation-based approach used in SPEEDUP gives accuracy, stability, and ease of maintenance. The DAP licenses on our site are for single-user PS/2 machines whereas the SPEEDUP product is licensed on a VAX minicomputer which provides faster execution and ease of integration with existing visualization tools. In this paper the basic unit operations of a DAP model that simulates a ventilation system are described. The basic operations were modeled with both DAP and SPEEDUP, and the two models yield results that are in close agreement. Since the basic unit operations of the DAP model have been successfully duplicated using SPEEDUP, it is feasible to proceed with model conversion. DAP subroutines and functions that involve only algebraic manipulation may be inserted directly into the SPEEDUP model or their underlying equations may be extracted and written as SPEEDUP model equations. A problem modeled in SPEEDUP running on a VAX 8810 runs approximately fifteen times faster in elapsed time than the same problem modeled with DAP on a 33 MHz Intel 80486 processor.

Aull, J.E.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Oriented Nanostructures for Energy Conversion and Storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recently the role of nanostructured materials in addressing the challenges in energy and natural resources has attracted wide attention. In particular, oriented nanostructures have demonstrated promising properties for energy harvesting, conversion and storage. The purpose of the paper is to review the synthesis and application of oriented nanostructures in a few key areas of energy technologies, namely photovoltaics, batteries, supercapacitors and thermoelectrics. Although the applications differ from field to field, one of the fundamental challenges is to improve the generation and transport of electrons and ions. We will first briefly review the several major approaches to attain oriented nanostructured films that are applicable for energy applications. We will then discuss how such controlled nanostructures can be used in photovoltaics, batteries, capacitors, thermoelectrics, and other unconventional ways of energy conversion. We will highlight the role of high surface area to maximize the surface activity, and the importance of optimum dimension and architecture, controlled pore channels and alignment of the nanocrystalline phase to optimize the electrons and ion transport. Finally, the paper will discuss the challenges in attaining integrated architectures to achieve the desired performance. Brief background information will be provided for the relevant technologies, but the emphasis is focused mainly on the nanoeffects of mostly inorganic based materials and devices.

Liu, Jun; Cao, Guozhong H.; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Donghai; DuBois, Daniel L.; Zhou, Xiao Dong; Graff, Gordon L.; Pederson, Larry R.; Zhang, Jiguang

2008-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

333

Conversion characteristics of 10 selected oil shales  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The conversion behavior of 10 oil shale from seven foreign and three domestic deposits has been studied by combining solid- and liquid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements with material balance Fischer assay conversion data. The extent of aromatization of aliphatic carbons was determined. Between zero and 42% of the raw shale aliphatic carbon formed aromatic carbon during Fischer assay. For three of the shales, there was more aromatic carbon in the residue after Fisher assay than in the raw shale. Between 10 and 20% of the raw shale aliphatic carbons ended up as aliphatic carbons on the spent shale. Good correlations were found between the raw shale aliphatic carbon and carbon in the oil and between the raw shale aromatic carbon and aromatic carbon on the spent shale. Simulated distillations and molecular weight determinations were performed on the shale oils. Greater than 50% of the oil consisted of the atmospheric and vacuum gas oil boiling fractions. 14 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

Miknis, F.P.

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Energy Conversion DevicesEnergy Conversion Devices Fuel Cell Electrocatalyst Development Program  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Conversion Devices Fuel cells are a critical component in the Ovonic total hydrogen system approach. #12 catalysts for air electrodes for the ORFC * Ovonic Regenerative Fuel Cell #12;Texaco Ovonic Fuel Cell Ovonic Fuel Cell Company, LLC non-precious metal catalysts regenerative braking energy absorption

335

ORISE: Dose modeling and assessments  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas Conchas recoveryLaboratory |CHEMPACK Mapping Application ORISECenterMakingDOEOakDose modeling

336

Implications of Fast Reactor Transuranic Conversion Ratio  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Theoretically, the transuranic conversion ratio (CR), i.e. the transuranic production divided by transuranic destruction, in a fast reactor can range from near zero to about 1.9, which is the average neutron yield from Pu239 minus 1. In practice, the possible range will be somewhat less. We have studied the implications of transuranic conversion ratio of 0.0 to 1.7 using the fresh and discharge fuel compositions calculated elsewhere. The corresponding fissile breeding ratio ranges from 0.2 to 1.6. The cases below CR=1 (“burners”) do not have blankets; the cases above CR=1 (“breeders”) have breeding blankets. The burnup was allowed to float while holding the maximum fluence to the cladding constant. We graph the fuel burnup and composition change. As a function of transuranic conversion ratio, we calculate and graph the heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; whether the material is “attractive” for direct weapon use using published criteria; the uranium utilization and rate of consumption of natural uranium; and the long-term radiotoxicity after fuel discharge. For context, other cases and analyses are included, primarily once-through light water reactor (LWR) uranium oxide fuel at 51 MWth-day/kg-iHM burnup (UOX-51). For CR<1, the heat, gamma, and neutron emission increase as material is recycled. The uranium utilization is at or below 1%, just as it is in thermal reactors as both types of reactors require continuing fissile support. For CR>1, heat, gamma, and neutron emission decrease with recycling. The uranium utilization exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. exceeds 1%, especially as all the transuranic elements are recycled. At the system equilibrium, heat and gamma vary by somewhat over an order of magnitude as a function of CR. Isotopes that dominate heat and gamma emission are scattered throughout the actinide chain, so the modest impact of CR is unsurprising. Neutron emitters are preferentially found among the higher actinides, so the neutron emission varies much stronger with CR, about three orders of magnitude.

Steven J. Piet; Edward A. Hoffman; Samuel E. Bays

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Enzymantic Conversion of Coal to Liquid Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The work in this project focused on the conversion of bituminous coal to liquid hydrocarbons. The major steps in this process include mechanical pretreatment, chemical pretreatment, and finally solubilization and conversion of coal to liquid hydrocarbons. Two different types of mechanical pretreatment were considered for the process: hammer mill grinding and jet mill grinding. After research and experimentation, it was decided to use jet mill grinding, which allows for coal to be ground down to particle sizes of 5 {mu}m or less. A Fluid Energy Model 0101 JET-O-MIZER-630 size reduction mill was purchased for this purpose. This machine was completed and final testing was performed on the machine at the Fluid Energy facilities in Telford, PA. The test results from the machine show that it can indeed perform to the required specifications and is able to grind coal down to a mean particle size that is ideal for experimentation. Solubilization and conversion experiments were performed on various pretreated coal samples using 3 different approaches: (1) enzymatic - using extracellular Laccase and Manganese Peroxidase (MnP), (2) chemical - using Ammonium Tartrate and Manganese Peroxidase, and (3) enzymatic - using the live organisms Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Spectral analysis was used to determine how effective each of these methods were in decomposing bituminous coal. After analysis of the results and other considerations, such as cost and environmental impacts, it was determined that the enzymatic approaches, as opposed to the chemical approaches using chelators, were more effective in decomposing coal. The results from the laccase/MnP experiments and Phanerochaete chrysosporium experiments are presented and compared in this final report. Spectra from both enzymatic methods show absorption peaks in the 240nm to 300nm region. These peaks correspond to aromatic intermediates formed when breaking down the coal structure. The peaks then decrease in absorbance over time, corresponding to the consumption of aromatic intermediates as they undergo ring cleavage. The results show that this process happens within 1 hour when using extracellular enzymes, but takes several days when using live organisms. In addition, live organisms require specific culture conditions, control of contaminants and fungicides in order to effectively produce extracellular enzymes that degrade coal. Therefore, when comparing the two enzymatic methods, results show that the process of using extracellular lignin degrading enzymes, such as laccase and manganese peroxidase, appears to be a more efficient method of decomposing bituminous coal.

Richard Troiano

2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

338

Scatter factors assessment in microbeam radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: The success of the preclinical studies in Microbeam Radiation Therapy (MRT) paved the way to the clinical trials under preparation at the Biomedical Beamline of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility. Within this framework, an accurate determination of the deposited dose is crucial. With that aim, the scatter factors, which translate the absolute dose measured in reference conditions (2 x 2 cm{sup 2} field size at 2 cm-depth in water) to peak doses, were assessed. Methods: Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were performed with two different widely used codes, PENELOPE and GEANT4, for the sake of safety. The scatter factors were obtained as the ratio of the doses that are deposited by a microbeam and by a field of reference size, at the reference depth. The calculated values were compared with the experimental data obtained by radiochromic (ISP HD-810) films and a PTW 34070 large area chamber. Results: The scatter factors for different microbeam field sizes assessed by the two MC codes were in agreement and reproduced the experimental data within uncertainty bars. Those correction factors were shown to be non-negligible for the future MRT clinical settings: an average 30% lower dose was deposited by a 50 {mu}m microbeam with respect to the reference conditions. Conclusions: For the first time, the scatter factors in MRT were systematically studied. They constitute an essential key to deposit accurate doses in the forthcoming clinical trials in MRT. The good agreement between the different calculations and the experimental data confirms the reliability of this challenging micrometric dose estimation.

Prezado, Y.; Martinez-Rovira, I.; Sanchez, M. [Laboratoire Imagerie et Modelisation en Neurobiologie et Cancerologie IMNC-UMR 8165, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Campus Universitaire, Bat. 440, 15 rue Georges Clemenceau, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Institut de Tecniques Energetiques, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain) and ID17 Biomedical Beamline, European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, B.P. 220, 38043 Grenoble Cedex (France); Servicio de Radiofisica, Complejo Hospitalario de Santiago de Compostela, Rua Choupana S/N, 15706 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

339

Apparatus and method for pyroelectric power conversion  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus and method for converting heat to electrical energy by the use of one or more capacitors having temperature dependent capacitance. The capacitor is cycled between relatively high and relatively low temperatures by successive thermal contact with relatively high and relatively low temperature portions of a heat transfer medium having a temperature gradient therein. Upon heating of the capacitor, the capacitance thereof is reduced, so that a charge therein is caused to expand into associated external circuitry in which it is available to do electrical work. The capacitor is then cooled and recharged and the cycle is repeated. The electrical output of the capacitor results from the regenerative delivery of heat to and removal of heat from the capacitor by the heat transfer medium, and efficient conversion of heat to electric energy is thereby effected.

Olsen, Randall B. (Olivenhain, CA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Apparatus and method for pyroelectric power conversion  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus and method for converting heat to electrical energy by the use of one or more capacitors having temperature dependent capacitance are disclosed. The capacitor is cycled between relatively high and relatively low temperatures by successive thermal contact with relatively high and relatively low temperature portions of a heat transfer medium having a temperature gradient therein. Upon heating of the capacitor, the capacitance thereof is reduced, so that a charge therein is caused to expand into associated external circuitry in which it is available to do electrical work. The capacitor is then cooled and recharged and the cycle is repeated. The electrical output of the capacitor results from the regenerative delivery of heat to and removal of heat from the capacitor by the heat transfer medium, and efficient conversion of heat to electric energy is thereby effected. 12 figs.

Olsen, R.B.

1984-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose conversion factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

(Biotechnology for the conversion of lignocellulosics)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the results of the traveler's participation in the International Energy Agency (IEA) Network planning meeting for Biotechnology for the Conversion of Lignocellulosics,'' held at the Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), Rueil-Malmaison, France. It also summarizes the results of discussions held at Aston University, Birmingham, UK, with Dr. Martin Beevers with whom the traveler is attempting to initiate a collaborative research project that will be beneficial to ongoing research programs at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The itinerary for the trip is given in Appendix A; the names of the people contacted are listed in Appendix B. Also, pertinent information about the Institut Francais du Petrole is attached (Appendix C). 1 tab.

Woodward, J.

1990-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

342

Radiation Dose-Volume Effects in the Brain  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have reviewed the published data regarding radiotherapy (RT)-induced brain injury. Radiation necrosis appears a median of 1-2 years after RT; however, cognitive decline develops over many years. The incidence and severity is dose and volume dependent and can also be increased by chemotherapy, age, diabetes, and spatial factors. For fractionated RT with a fraction size of <2.5 Gy, an incidence of radiation necrosis of 5% and 10% is predicted to occur at a biologically effective dose of 120 Gy (range, 100-140) and 150 Gy (range, 140-170), respectively. For twice-daily fractionation, a steep increase in toxicity appears to occur when the biologically effective dose is >80 Gy. For large fraction sizes (>=2.5 Gy), the incidence and severity of toxicity is unpredictable. For single fraction radiosurgery, a clear correlation has been demonstrated between the target size and the risk of adverse events. Substantial variation among different centers' reported outcomes have prevented us from making toxicity-risk predictions. Cognitive dysfunction in children is largely seen for whole brain doses of >=18 Gy. No substantial evidence has shown that RT induces irreversible cognitive decline in adults within 4 years of RT.

Lawrence, Yaacov Richard, E-mail: richard.lawrence@jefferson.ed [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Li, X. Allen [Department of Radiation Oncology, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI (United States); El Naqa, Issam [Department of Radiation Oncology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Hahn, Carol A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Marks, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States); Merchant, Thomas E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Dicker, Adam P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

WEC up! Energy Department Announces Wave Energy Conversion Prize...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Buren Township, Michigan for the development and execution of the Energy Department's Wave Energy Conversion (WEC) Prize Competition. The WEC Prize aims to attract innovative...

344

Process Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Thermochemical Pathway by Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis A. Dutta, M. Talmadge, and J. Hensley National...

345

Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellul...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover Process Design and Economics for Biochemical...

346

Conversion Technologies II: Bio-Oils, Sugar Intermediates, Precursors...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Technologies II: Bio-Oils, Sugar Intermediates, Precursors, Distributed Models, and Refinery Co-Processing July 30, 2014 Bryna Berendzen Technology Manager BETO Conversion...

347

CONVERSION OF DOE TECHNICAL STANDARDS TO NON-GOVERNMENT STANDARDS  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

PurposeThis procedure provides guidance on the conversion of DOE Technical Standards to Voluntary Consensus Standards (VCSs), also referred to as non-Government standards. 

348

Nx-TEC: Next-Generation Thermionic Solar Energy Conversion  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

(MSE), ZX Shen (SIMES), Roger Howe (EE) Nx-TEC: Next-Generation Thermionic Solar Energy Conversion SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory Award Number:CPS 25659 Start date:...

349

Bioenergy Technologies Office Conversion R&D Pathway: Whole Algae...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Bioenergy Technologies Office Conversion R&D Pathway: Whole Algae Hydrothermal Liquefaction Whole algae hydrothermal liquefaction is one of...

350

Bioenergy Technologies Office Conversion R&D Pathway: Syngas...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Bioenergy Technologies Office Conversion R&D Pathway: Syngas Upgrading to Hydrocarbon Fuels Syngas upgrading to hydrocarbon fuels is one of...

351

Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

case investigates the biological conversion of biomass-derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and information consistent with...

352

Plasmonic enhancement of catalysis and solar energy conversion.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis is dedicated to exploring the potential applications of plasmonic metal nanoparticles and understanding their fundamental enhancement mechanisms. Photocatalysis and solar energy conversion are… (more)

Hung, Wei Hsuan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

CHEMICAL TRAPPING OF A PRIMARY QUANTUM CONVERSION PRODUCT IN PHOTOSYNTHESIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CONVERSION PRODUCT I N PHOTOSYNTHESIS G e r a l d A. C o r kthe two light acts of photosynthesis. Potassium Ecrricyanide

Corker, Gerald A.; Klein, Melvin P.; Calvin, Melvin.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

1 Conversational Agents 1 1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Contents 1 Conversational Agents 1 1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.3 Technical Challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.3.1 Natural

Lester, James C.

355

April 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

April 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Energy Storage, Conversion, And Utilization Science Subject Feed Seventh Edition Fuel Cell Handbook NETL (2004) 628 > Continuously variable...

356

University Reactor Conversion Lessons Learned Workshop for Purdue University Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, under its programmatic responsibility for managing the University Research Reactor Conversions, has completed the conversion of the reactor at Purdue University Reactor. With this work completed and in anticipation of other impending conversion projects, the INL convened and engaged the project participants in a structured discussion to capture the lessons learned. The lessons learned process has allowed us to capture gaps, opportunities, and good practices, drawing from the project team’s experiences. These lessons will be used to raise the standard of excellence, effectiveness, and efficiency in all future conversion projects.

Eric C. Woolstenhulme; Dana M. Hewit

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

by the Application of Advanced Thermoelectric Systems Implemented in a Hybrid Configuration Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle...

358

Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

2006deerschock.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectrici Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine-Powered Vehicle Development of Thermoelectric...

359

DOE Selects Contractor for Depleted Hexafluoride Conversion Project...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

to the DOE Portsmouth Paducah Project Office (PPPO) in Lexington, Kentucky and the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF6) Conversion Project in Paducah, Kentucky and...

360

AWARD FEE PLAN FOR Babcock and Wilcox Conversion Services, LLC  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Services, LLC Second Period -October 1, 2012 through September 30, 2013 Operations of Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride (DUF 6 ) Conversion Facilities at Paducah, Kentucky and...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose conversion factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Workshop on Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydra...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Carbohydrates Workshop on Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Carbohydrates DOE report-out presentation at the CTAB webinar on carbohydrates. ctabwebinarcarbohydrates...

362

Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oil Upgrading...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Oil Upgrading Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oil Upgrading PNNL report-out at the CTAB webinar on Bio-Oil Upgrading. ctabwebinarbiooilsupgrading.pdf More...

363

Novel Energy Conversion Equipment for Low Temperatures Geothermal...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Novel Energy Conversion Equipment for Low Temperature Geothermal Resources City of Eagan Civic Ice Arena Renovation Canby Cascaded Geothermal Project Phase 1 Feasibility...

364

United States Office of EPA-520/1-88-020 Environmental Protection Radiation Program September 1988  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Dose Conversion Factors For Inhalation, Submersion, And Ingestion Federal Guidance Report No.11 #12 and Exposure-to-Dose Conversion Factors for General Application, Based on the 1987 Federal Radiation Protection) and Derived Air Concentrations (DAC) for Occupational Exposure 31 2.1 Exposure-to-Dose Conversion Factors

365

Efficient readout of a single spin state in diamond via spin-to-charge conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Efficient readout of individual electronic spins associated with atom-like impurities in the solid state is essential for applications in quantum information processing and quantum metrology. We demonstrate a new method for efficient spin readout of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers in diamond. The method is based on conversion of the electronic spin state of the NV to a charge state distribution, followed by single-shot readout of the charge state. Conversion is achieved through a spin-dependent photoionization process in diamond at room temperature. Using NVs in nanofabricated diamond beams, we demonstrate that the resulting spin readout noise is within a factor of three of the spin projection noise level. Applications of this technique for nanoscale magnetic sensing are discussed.

B. J. Shields; Q. P. Unterreithmeier; N. P. de Leon; H. Park; M. D. Lukin

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Cost update technology, safety, and costs of decommissioning a reference uranium hexafluoride conversion plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to update the cost estimates developed in a previous report, NUREG/CR-1757 (Elder 1980) for decommissioning a reference uranium hexafluoride conversion plant from the original mid-1981 dollars to values representative of January 1993. The cost updates were performed by using escalation factors derived from cost index trends over the past 11.5 years. Contemporary price quotes wee used for costs that have increased drastically or for which is is difficult to find a cost trend. No changes were made in the decommissioning procedures or cost element requirements assumed in NUREG/CR-1757. This report includes only information that was changed from NUREG/CR-1757. Thus, for those interested in detailed descriptions and associated information for the reference uranium hexafluoride conversion plant, a copy of NUREG/CR-1757 will be needed.

Miles, T.L.; Liu, Y.

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Multicriteria optimization of the spatial dose distribution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Treatment planning for radiation therapy involves trade-offs with respect to different clinical goals. Typically, the dose distribution is evaluated based on few statistics and dose–volume histograms. Particularly for stereotactic treatments, the spatial dose distribution represents further criteria, e.g., when considering the gradient between subregions of volumes of interest. The authors have studied how to consider the spatial dose distribution using a multicriteria optimization approach.Methods: The authors have extended a stepwise multicriteria optimization approach to include criteria with respect to the local dose distribution. Based on a three-dimensional visualization of the dose the authors use a software tool allowing interaction with the dose distribution to map objectives with respect to its shape to a constrained optimization problem. Similarly, conflicting criteria are highlighted and the planner decides if and where to relax the shape of the dose distribution.Results: To demonstrate the potential of spatial multicriteria optimization, the tool was applied to a prostate and meningioma case. For the prostate case, local sparing of the rectal wall and shaping of a boost volume are achieved through local relaxations and while maintaining the remaining dose distribution. For the meningioma, target coverage is improved by compromising low dose conformality toward noncritical structures. A comparison of dose–volume histograms illustrates the importance of spatial information for achieving the trade-offs.Conclusions: The results show that it is possible to consider the location of conflicting criteria during treatment planning. Particularly, it is possible to conserve already achieved goals with respect to the dose distribution, to visualize potential trade-offs, and to relax constraints locally. Hence, the proposed approach facilitates a systematic exploration of the optimal shape of the dose distribution.

Schlaefer, Alexander [Medical Robotics Group, Universität zu Lübeck, Lübeck 23562, Germany and Institute of Medical Technology, Hamburg University of Technology, Hamburg 21073 (Germany)] [Medical Robotics Group, Universität zu Lübeck, Lübeck 23562, Germany and Institute of Medical Technology, Hamburg University of Technology, Hamburg 21073 (Germany); Viulet, Tiberiu [Medical Robotics Group, Universität zu Lübeck, Lübeck 23562 (Germany)] [Medical Robotics Group, Universität zu Lübeck, Lübeck 23562 (Germany); Muacevic, Alexander; Fürweger, Christoph [European CyberKnife Center Munich, Munich 81377 (Germany)] [European CyberKnife Center Munich, Munich 81377 (Germany)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

368

Conversion Tower for Dispatchable Solar Power: High-Efficiency Solar-Electric Conversion Power Tower  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

HEATS Project: Abengoa Solar is developing a high-efficiency solar-electric conversion tower to enable low-cost, fully dispatchable solar energy generation. Abengoa’s conversion tower utilizes new system architecture and a two-phase thermal energy storage media with an efficient supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) power cycle. The company is using a high-temperature heat-transfer fluid with a phase change in between its hot and cold operating temperature. The fluid serves as a heat storage material and is cheaper and more efficient than conventional heat-storage materials, like molten salt. It also allows the use of a high heat flux solar receiver, advanced high thermal energy density storage, and more efficient power cycles.

None

2012-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

369

Tandem filters using frequency selective surfaces for enhanced conversion efficiency in a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to the field of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) direct energy conversion. In particular, TPV systems use filters to minimize parasitic absorption of below bandgap energy. This invention constitutes a novel combination of front surface filters to increase TPV conversion efficiency by reflecting useless below bandgap energy while transmitting a very high percentage of the useful above bandgap energy. In particular, a frequency selective surface is used in combination with an interference filter. The frequency selective surface provides high transmission of above bandgap energy and high reflection of long wavelength below bandgap energy. The interference filter maintains high transmission of above bandgap energy and provides high reflection of short wavelength below bandgap energy and a sharp transition from high transmission to high reflection.

Dziendziel, Randolph J. (Middle Grove, NY); DePoy, David Moore (Clifton Park, NY); Baldasaro, Paul Francis (Clifton Park, NY)

2007-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

370

Tandem filters using frequency selective surfaces for enhanced conversion efficiency in a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to the field of thermophotovoltaic (TPV) direct energy conversion. In particular, TPV systems use filters to minimize parasitic absorption of below bandgap energy. This invention constitutes a novel combination of front surface filters to increase TPV conversion efficiency by reflecting useless below bandgap energy while transmitting a very high percentage of the useful above bandgap energy. In particular, a frequency selective surface is used in combination with an interference filter. The frequency selective surface provides high transmission of above bandgap energy and high reflection of long wavelength below bandgap energy. The interference filter maintains high transmission of above bandgap energy and provides high reflection of short wavelength below bandgap energy and a sharp transition from high transmission to high reflection.

Dziendziel, Randolph J. (Middle Grove, NY); Baldasaro, Paul F. (Clifton Park, NY); DePoy, David M. (Clifton Park, NY)

2010-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

371

Testing the Use of Electronic Monitoring to Quantify Atsea Halibut Discards in the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

................................................................................................................................................. 14 Length Conversion Factors

372

Dynamically accumulated dose and 4D accumulated dose for moving tumors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: The purpose of this work was to investigate the relationship between dynamically accumulated dose (dynamic dose) and 4D accumulated dose (4D dose) for irradiation of moving tumors, and to quantify the dose uncertainty induced by tumor motion. Methods: The authors established that regardless of treatment modality and delivery properties, the dynamic dose will converge to the 4D dose, instead of the 3D static dose, after multiple deliveries. The bounds of dynamic dose, or the maximum estimation error using 4D or static dose, were established for the 4D and static doses, respectively. Numerical simulations were performed (1) to prove the principle that for each phase, after multiple deliveries, the average number of deliveries for any given time converges to the total number of fractions (K) over the number of phases (N); (2) to investigate the dose difference between the 4D and dynamic doses as a function of the number of deliveries for deliveries of a 'pulsed beam'; and (3) to investigate the dose difference between 4D dose and dynamic doses as a function of delivery time for deliveries of a 'continuous beam.' A Poisson model was developed to estimate the mean dose error as a function of number of deliveries or delivered time for both pulsed beam and continuous beam. Results: The numerical simulations confirmed that the number of deliveries for each phase converges to K/N, assuming a random starting phase. Simulations for the pulsed beam and continuous beam also suggested that the dose error is a strong function of the number of deliveries and/or total deliver time and could be a function of the breathing cycle, depending on the mode of delivery. The Poisson model agrees well with the simulation. Conclusions: Dynamically accumulated dose will converge to the 4D accumulated dose after multiple deliveries, regardless of treatment modality. Bounds of the dynamic dose could be determined using quantities derived from 4D doses, and the mean dose difference between the dynamic dose and 4D dose as a function of number of deliveries and/or total deliver time was also established.

Li Heng; Li Yupeng; Zhang Xiaodong; Li Xiaoqiang; Liu Wei; Gillin, Michael T.; Zhu, X. Ronald [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

373

Office of Enterprse Assessments Review of the West Valley Demonstratio...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

source term is then appropriately converted to a total effective dose equivalent using a dose conversion factor, exposures are calculated using breathing rates established by the...

374

International Atomic Energy Agency support of research reactor highly enriched uranium to low enriched uranium fuel conversion projects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The IAEA has been involved for more than twenty years in supporting international nuclear non- proliferation efforts associated with reducing the amount of highly enriched uranium (HEU) in international commerce. IAEA projects and activities have directly supported the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) programme, as well as directly assisted efforts to convert research reactors from HEU to LEU fuel. HEU to LEU fuel conversion projects differ significantly depending on several factors including the design of the reactor and fuel, technical needs of the member state, local nuclear infrastructure, and available resources. To support such diverse endeavours, the IAEA tailors each project to address the relevant constraints. This paper presents the different approaches taken by the IAEA to address the diverse challenges involved in research reactor HEU to LEU fuel conversion projects. Examples of conversion related projects in different Member States are fully detailed. (author)

Bradley, E.; Adelfang, P.; Goldman, I.N. [Research Reactors Unit, Division of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology, International Atomic Energy Agency, Wagramer Strasse 5, P.O. Box 100, A-1400 Vienna (Austria)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

375

Microfluidic Glycosyl Hydrolase Screening for Biomass-to-Biofuel Conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microfluidic Glycosyl Hydrolase Screening for Biomass-to-Biofuel Conversion Rajiv Bharadwaj such as cellulases and hemicellulases is a limiting and costly step in the conversion of biomass to biofuels strategies. Advances in both areas in turn strongly depend on the progress in developing high- throughput

Singh, Anup

376

A converse to Dye's theorem Greg Hjorth y  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A converse to Dye's theorem #3; Greg Hjorth y Abstract Every non-amenable countable group induces show a converse to a consequence of the #12;nal strengthening of Dye's theorem proved by Ornstein relation EG . Any such EG will necessarily be standard, measure preserving, and ergodic. Theorem 1.1 (Dye

Hjorth, Greg

377

WHEELS: A CONVERSATIONAL SYSTEM IN THE AUTOMOBILE CLASSIFIEDS DOMAIN  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

WHEELS: A CONVERSATIONAL SYSTEM IN THE AUTOMOBILE CLASSIFIEDS DOMAIN Helen Meng, Senis WHEELS is a conversational system which provides access to a database of eletronic automobile classified users to search through a database of 5,000 automobile classifieds. The current end-to-end system can re

378

Commercial considerations in conversion and UF{sub 6} transactions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article addresses various commercial considerations that result from the conversion of U3O8 into UF6 and the associated physical characteristics of natural UF6. Handling, transport, conversion, and enrichment of UF6 are discussed. Avenues of acquisition, including nation of origin, are also noted.

NONE

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

The Benefits of Planar Magnetics in OF Power Conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is increased, are related to the magnetic components: transformers and inductors. Unless the copper and coreThe Benefits of Planar Magnetics in OF Power Conversion Planar Magnetics (PM): The Technology that Meets the Challenges of HF Switch and Resonant Mode Power Conversion Professor Sam Ben-Yaakov Department

380

Direct-Write Piezoelectric Polymeric Nanogenerator with High Energy Conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Direct-Write Piezoelectric Polymeric Nanogenerator with High Energy Conversion Efficiency Chieh conversion efficiency. Here, we report direct-write, piezoelectric polymeric nanogenerators based on organic to direct-write poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) nanofibers with in situ mechanical stretch and electrical

Lin, Liwei

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose conversion factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Assured Fuel Supply: Potential Conversion and Fabrication Bottlenecks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assured Fuel Supply: Potential Conversion and Fabrication Bottlenecks PNNL-16951 DRAFT Authors bottlenecks that may arise in the conversion and fuel fabrication steps when used in conjunction with the U.S.-sponsored Reliable Fuel Supply (RFS) reserve. Paper is also intended to identify pathways for assessing the magnitude

382

Understanding the Interaction between Interests, Conversations and Friendships in Facebook  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Understanding the Interaction between Interests, Conversations and Friendships in Facebook Qirong the Interaction between Interests, Conversations and Friendships in Facebook Qirong Ho Rong Yan Rajat Raina Eric P 15213 Facebook, 10 Hacker Way, Menlo Park CA 94025 Abstract In this paper, we explore salient questions

383

On Transforming Spectral Peaks in Voice Conversion Elizabeth Godoy 1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On Transforming Spectral Peaks in Voice Conversion Elizabeth Godoy 1 , Olivier Rosec1 , Thierry.chonavel@telecom-bretagne.eu Abstract This paper explores the benefits of transforming spectral peaks in voice conversion. First, in examining classic GMM- based transformation with cepstral coefficients, we show that the lack of transformed

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

384

Impact of dose size in single fraction spatially fractionated (grid) radiotherapy for melanoma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To evaluate the impact of dose size in single fraction, spatially fractionated (grid) radiotherapy for selectively killing infiltrated melanoma cancer cells of different tumor sizes, using different radiobiological models. Methods: A Monte Carlo technique was employed to calculate the 3D dose distribution of a commercially available megavoltage grid collimator in a 6 MV beam. The linear-quadratic (LQ) and modified linear quadratic (MLQ) models were used separately to evaluate the therapeutic outcome of a series of single fraction regimens that employed grid therapy to treat both acute and late responding melanomas of varying sizes. The dose prescription point was at the center of the tumor volume. Dose sizes ranging from 1 to 30 Gy at 100% dose line were modeled. Tumors were either touching the skin surface or having their centers at a depth of 3 cm. The equivalent uniform dose (EUD) to the melanoma cells and the therapeutic ratio (TR) were defined by comparing grid therapy with the traditional open debulking field. The clinical outcomes from recent reports were used to verify the authors’ model. Results: Dose profiles at different depths and 3D dose distributions in a series of 3D melanomas treated with grid therapy were obtained. The EUDs and TRs for all sizes of 3D tumors involved at different doses were derived through the LQ and MLQ models, and a practical equation was derived. The EUD was only one fifth of the prescribed dose. The TR was dependent on the prescribed dose and on the LQ parameters of both the interspersed cancer and normal tissue cells. The results from the LQ model were consistent with those of the MLQ model. At 20 Gy, the EUD and TR by the LQ model were 2.8% higher and 1% lower than by the MLQ, while at 10 Gy, the EUD and TR as defined by the LQ model were only 1.4% higher and 0.8% lower, respectively. The dose volume histograms of grid therapy for a 10 cm tumor showed different dosimetric characteristics from those of conventional radiotherapy. A significant portion of the tumor volume received a very large dose in grid therapy, which ensures significant tumor cell killing in these regions. Conversely, some areas received a relatively small dose, thereby sparing interspersed normal cells and increasing radiation tolerance. The radiobiology modeling results indicated that grid therapy could be useful for treating acutely responding melanomas infiltrating radiosensitive normal tissues. The theoretical model predictions were supported by the clinical outcomes. Conclusions: Grid therapy functions by selectively killing infiltrating tumor cells and concomitantly sparing interspersed normal cells. The TR depends on the radiosensitivity of the cell population, dose, tumor size, and location. Because the volumes of very high dose regions are small, the LQ model can be used safely to predict the clinical outcomes of grid therapy. When treating melanomas with a dose of 15 Gy or higher, single fraction grid therapy is clearly advantageous for sparing interspersed normal cells. The existence of a threshold fraction dose, which was found in the authors’ theoretical simulations, was confirmed by clinical observations.

Zhang, Hualin, E-mail: hualin.zhang@northwestern.edu, E-mail: hualinzhang@yahoo.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois 60611 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois 60611 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 (United States); Zhong, Hualiang [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan 48202 (United States); Barth, Rolf F. [Department of Pathology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)] [Department of Pathology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Cao, Minsong; Das, Indra J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana 46202 (United States)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

385

Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project Monthly Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is being managed and conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of an independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed, from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): source terms; environmental transport; environmental monitoring data; demographics; agriculture; food habits; and environmental pathways and dose estimates. 3 figs.

Finch, S.M. (comp.)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Dose Uncertainties in IMPT for Oropharyngeal Cancer in the Presence of Anatomical, Range, and Setup Errors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Setup, range, and anatomical uncertainties influence the dose delivered with intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT), but clinical quantification of these errors for oropharyngeal cancer is lacking. We quantified these factors and investigated treatment fidelity, that is, robustness, as influenced by adaptive planning and by applying more beam directions. Methods and Materials: We used an in-house treatment planning system with multicriteria optimization of pencil beam energies, directions, and weights to create treatment plans for 3-, 5-, and 7-beam directions for 10 oropharyngeal cancer patients. The dose prescription was a simultaneously integrated boost scheme, prescribing 66 Gy to primary tumor and positive neck levels (clinical target volume-66 Gy; CTV-66 Gy) and 54 Gy to elective neck levels (CTV-54 Gy). Doses were recalculated in 3700 simulations of setup, range, and anatomical uncertainties. Repeat computed tomography (CT) scans were used to evaluate an adaptive planning strategy using nonrigid registration for dose accumulation. Results: For the recalculated 3-beam plans including all treatment uncertainty sources, only 69% (CTV-66 Gy) and 88% (CTV-54 Gy) of the simulations had a dose received by 98% of the target volume (D98%) >95% of the prescription dose. Doses to organs at risk (OARs) showed considerable spread around planned values. Causes for major deviations were mixed. Adaptive planning based on repeat imaging positively affected dose delivery accuracy: in the presence of the other errors, percentages of treatments with D98% >95% increased to 96% (CTV-66 Gy) and 100% (CTV-54 Gy). Plans with more beam directions were not more robust. Conclusions: For oropharyngeal cancer patients, treatment uncertainties can result in significant differences between planned and delivered IMPT doses. Given the mixed causes for major deviations, we advise repeat diagnostic CT scans during treatment, recalculation of the dose, and if required, adaptive planning to improve adequate IMPT dose delivery.

Kraan, Aafke C., E-mail: aafke.kraan@pi.infn.it [Erasmus MC Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Water, Steven van de; Teguh, David N.; Al-Mamgani, Abrahim [Erasmus MC Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Madden, Tom; Kooy, Hanne M. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Heijmen, Ben J.M.; Hoogeman, Mischa S. [Erasmus MC Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Static jaw collimation settings to minimize radiation dose to normal brain tissue during stereotactic radiosurgery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (UAMS) intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is performed by using a linear accelerator with an add-on micromultileaf collimator (mMLC). In our clinical setting, static jaws are automatically adapted to the furthest edge of the mMLC-defined segments with 2-mm (X jaw) and 5-mm (Y jaw) margin and the same jaw values are applied for all beam angles in the treatment planning system. This additional field gap between the static jaws and the mMLC allows additional radiation dose to normal brain tissue. Because a radiosurgery procedure consists of a single high dose to the planning target volume (PTV), reduction of unnecessary dose to normal brain tissue near the PTV is important, particularly for pediatric patients whose brains are still developing or when a critical organ, such as the optic chiasm, is near the PTV. The purpose of this study was to minimize dose to normal brain tissue by allowing minimal static jaw margin around the mMLC-defined fields and different static jaw values for each beam angle or arc. Dose output factors were measured with various static jaw margins and the results were compared with calculated doses in the treatment planning system. Ten patient plans were randomly selected and recalculated with zero static jaw margins without changing other parameters. Changes of PTV coverage, mean dose to predefined normal brain tissue volume adjacent to PTV, and monitor units were compared. It was found that the dose output percentage difference varied from 4.9-1.3% for the maximum static jaw opening vs. static jaw with zero margins. The mean dose to normal brain tissue at risk adjacent to the PTV was reduced by an average of 1.9%, with negligible PTV coverage loss. This dose reduction strategy may be meaningful in terms of late effects of radiation, particularly in pediatric patients. This study generated clinical knowledge and tools to consistently minimize dose to normal brain tissue.

Han, Eun Young, E-mail: eyhan@uams.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Zhang Xin; Yan Yulong; Sharma, Sunil; Penagaricano, Jose [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States); Moros, Eduardo [Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL (United States); Corry, Peter [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR (United States)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Measured and Monte Carlo calculated k{sub Q} factors: Accuracy and comparison  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: The journal Medical Physics recently published two papers that determine beam quality conversion factors, k{sub Q}, for large sets of ion chambers. In the first paper [McEwen Med. Phys. 37, 2179-2193 (2010)], k{sub Q} was determined experimentally, while the second paper [Muir and Rogers Med. Phys. 37, 5939-5950 (2010)] provides k{sub Q} factors calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. This work investigates a variety of additional consistency checks to verify the accuracy of the k{sub Q} factors determined in each publication and a comparison of the two data sets. Uncertainty introduced in calculated k{sub Q} factors by possible variation of W/e with beam energy is investigated further. Methods: The validity of the experimental set of k{sub Q} factors relies on the accuracy of the NE2571 reference chamber measurements to which k{sub Q} factors for all other ion chambers are correlated. The stability of NE2571 absorbed dose to water calibration coefficients is determined and comparison to other experimental k{sub Q} factors is analyzed. Reliability of Monte Carlo calculated k{sub Q} factors is assessed through comparison to other publications that provide Monte Carlo calculations of k{sub Q} as well as an analysis of the sleeve effect, the effect of cavity length and self-consistencies between graphite-walled Farmer-chambers. Comparison between the two data sets is given in terms of the percent difference between the k{sub Q} factors presented in both publications. Results: Monitoring of the absorbed dose calibration coefficients for the NE2571 chambers over a period of more than 15 yrs exhibit consistency at a level better than 0.1%. Agreement of the NE2571 k{sub Q} factors with a quadratic fit to all other experimental data from standards labs for the same chamber is observed within 0.3%. Monte Carlo calculated k{sub Q} factors are in good agreement with most other Monte Carlo calculated k{sub Q} factors. Expected results are observed for the sleeve effect and the effect of cavity length on k{sub Q}. The mean percent differences between experimental and Monte Carlo calculated k{sub Q} factors are -0.08, -0.07, and -0.23% for the Elekta 6, 10, and 25 MV nominal beam energies, respectively. An upper limit on the variation of W/e in photon beams from cobalt-60 to 25 MV is determined as 0.4% with 95% confidence. The combined uncertainty on Monte Carlo calculated k{sub Q} factors is reassessed and amounts to between 0.40 and 0.49% depending on the wall material of the chamber. Conclusions: Excellent agreement (mean percent difference of only 0.13% for the entire data set) between experimental and calculated k{sub Q} factors is observed. For some chambers, k{sub Q} is measured for only one chamber of each type--the level of agreement observed in this study would suggest that for those chambers the measured k{sub Q} values are generally representative of the chamber type.

Muir, B. R.; McEwen, M. R.; Rogers, D. W. O. [Ottawa Medical Physics Institute (OMPI), Ottawa Carleton Institute for Physics, Carleton University Campus, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada); Institute for National Measurement Standards, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Ottawa Medical Physics Institute (OMPI), Ottawa Carleton Institute for Physics, Carleton University Campus, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

389

Conversion of bagasse cellulose into ethanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The study conducted by Arkenol was designed to test the conversion of feedstocks such as sugar cane bagasse, sorghum, napier grass and rice straw into fermentable sugars, and then ferment these sugars using natural yeasts and genetically engineered Zymomonis mobilis bacteria (ZM). The study did convert various cellulosic feedstocks into fermentable sugars utilizing the patented Arkenol Concentrated Acid Hydrolysis Process and equipment at the Arkenol Technology Center in Orange, California. The sugars produced using this process were in the concentration range of 12--15%, much higher than the sugar concentrations the genetically engineered ZM bacteria had been developed for. As a result, while the ZM bacteria fermented the produced sugars without initial inhibition, the completion of high sugar concentration fermentations was slower and at lower yield than predicted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Natural yeasts performed as expected by Arkenol, similar to the results obtained over the last four years of testing. Overall, at sugar concentrations in the 10--13% range, yeast produced 850090% theoretical ethanol yields and ZM bacteria produced 82--87% theoretical yields in 96 hour fermentations. Additional commercialization work revealed the ability to centrifugally separate and recycle the ZM bacteria after fermentation, slight additional benefits from mixed culture ZM bacteria fermentations, and successful utilization of defined media for ZM bacteria fermentation nutrients in lieu of natural media.

Cuzens, J.E.

1997-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

390

Determination of radionuclides and pathways contributing to cumulative dose. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project: Dose code recovery activities, Calculation 004  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of scoping calculations has been undertaken to evaluate the absolute and relative contributions of different radionuclides and exposure pathways to doses that may have been received by individuals living in the vicinity of the Hanford Site. This scoping calculation (Calculation 004) examined the contributions of numerous radionuclides to cumulative dose via environmental exposures and accumulation in foods. Addressed in this calculation were the contributions to organ and effective dose of infants and adults from (1) air submersion and groundshine external dose, (2) inhalation, (3) ingestion of soil by humans, (4) ingestion of leafy vegetables, (5) ingestion of other vegetables and fruits, (6) ingestion of meat, (7) ingestion of eggs, and (8) ingestion of cows` milk from Feeding Regime 1, as described in calculation 002. This calculation specifically addresses cumulative radiation doses to infants and adults resulting from releases occurring over the period 1945 through 1972.

Napier, B.A.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

An updated dose assessment for Rongelap Island  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We have updated the radiological dose assessment for Rongelap Island at Rongelap Atoll using data generated from field trips to the atoll during 1986 through 1993. The data base used for this dose assessment is ten fold greater than that available for the 1982 assessment. Details of each data base are presented along with details about the methods used to calculate the dose from each exposure pathway. The doses are calculated for a resettlement date of January 1, 1995. The maximum annual effective dose is 0.26 mSv y{sup {minus}1} (26 mrem y{sup {minus}1}). The estimated 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral effective doses are 0.0059 Sv (0.59 rem), 0.0082 Sv (0.82 rem), and 0.0097 Sv (0.97 rem), respectively. More than 95% of these estimated doses are due to 137-Cesium ({sup 137}Cs). About 1.5% of the estimated dose is contributed by 90-Strontium ({sup 90}Sr), and about the same amount each by 239+240-Plutonium ({sup 239+240}PU), and 241-Americium ({sup 241}Am).

Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Bogen, K.T.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project Monthly Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This monthly report summarizes the technical progress and project status for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project being conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of a Technical Steering Panel (TSP). The TSP is composed of experts in numerous technical fields related to this project and represents the interests of the public. The US Department of Energy (DOE) funds the project. The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project is to estimate the radiation doses that populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks address each of the primary steps in the path from radioactive releases to dose estimates source terms, environmental transport, environmental monitoring data, demographics, agriculture, and food habits, and environmental pathways and dose estimates.

Finch, S.M. (comp.)

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program. 1983 Annual report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights of progress achieved in the program of thermochemical conversion of biomass into clean fuels during 1983 are summarized. Gasification research projects include: production of a medium-Btu gas without using purified oxygen at Battelle-Columbus Laboratories; high pressure (up to 500 psia) steam-oxygen gasification of biomass in a fluidized bed reactor at IGT; producing synthesis gas via catalytic gasification at PNL; indirect reactor heating methods at the Univ. of Missouri-Rolla and Texas Tech Univ.; improving the reliability, performance, and acceptability of small air-blown gasifiers at Univ. of Florida-Gainesville, Rocky Creek Farm Gasogens, and Cal Recovery Systems. Liquefaction projects include: determination of individual sequential pyrolysis mechanisms at SERI; research at SERI on a unique entrained, ablative fast pyrolysis reactor for supplying the heat fluxes required for fast pyrolysis; work at BNL on rapid pyrolysis of biomass in an atmosphere of methane to increase the yields of olefin and BTX products; research at the Georgia Inst. of Tech. on an entrained rapid pyrolysis reactor to produce higher yields of pyrolysis oil; research on an advanced concept to liquefy very concentrated biomass slurries in an integrated extruder/static mixer reactor at the Univ. of Arizona; and research at PNL on the characterization and upgrading of direct liquefaction oils including research to lower oxygen content and viscosity of the product. Combustion projects include: research on a directly fired wood combustor/gas turbine system at Aerospace Research Corp.; adaptation of Stirling engine external combustion systems to biomass fuels at United Stirling, Inc.; and theoretical modeling and experimental verification of biomass combustion behavior at JPL to increase biomass combustion efficiency and examine the effects of additives on combustion rates. 26 figures, 1 table.

Schiefelbein, G.F.; Stevens, D.J.; Gerber, M.A.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Conversion of municipal solid waste to hydrogen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

LLNL and Texaco are cooperatively developing a physical and chemical treatment method for the conversion of municipal solid waste (MSW) to hydrogen via the steps of hydrothermal pretreatment, gasification and purification. LLNL`s focus has been on hydrothermal pretreatment of MSW in order to prepare a slurry of suitable viscosity and heating value to allow efficient and economical gasification and hydrogen production. The project has evolved along 3 parallel paths: laboratory scale experiments, pilot scale processing, and process modeling. Initial laboratory-scale MSW treatment results (e.g., viscosity, slurry solids content) over a range of temperatures and times with newspaper and plastics will be presented. Viscosity measurements have been correlated with results obtained at MRL. A hydrothermal treatment pilot facility has been rented from Texaco and is being reconfigured at LLNL; the status of that facility and plans for initial runs will be described. Several different operational scenarios have been modeled. Steady state processes have been modeled with ASPEN PLUS; consideration of steam injection in a batch mode was handled using continuous process modules. A transient model derived from a general purpose packed bed model is being developed which can examine the aspects of steam heating inside the hydrothermal reactor vessel. These models have been applied to pilot and commercial scale scenarios as a function of MSW input parameters and have been used to outline initial overall economic trends. Part of the modeling, an overview of the MSW gasification process and the modeling of the MSW as a process material, was completed by a DOE SERS (Science and Engineering Research Semester) student. The ultimate programmatic goal is the technical demonstration of the gasification of MSW to hydrogen at the laboratory and pilot scale and the economic analysis of the commercial feasibility of such a process.

Richardson, J.H.; Rogers, R.S.; Thorsness, C.B. [and others

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved open cycle ocean thermal energy conversion system including a flash evaporator for vaporizing relatively warm ocean surface water and an axial flow, elastic fluid turbine having a vertical shaft and axis of rotation. The warm ocean water is transmitted to the evaporator through a first prestressed concrete skirt-conduit structure circumferentially situated about the axis of rotation. The unflashed warm ocean water exits the evaporator through a second prestressed concrete skirt-conduit structure located circumferentially about and radially within the first skirt-conduit structure. The radially inner surface of the second skirt conduit structure constitutes a cylinder which functions as the turbine's outer casing and obviates the need for a conventional outer housing. The turbine includes a radially enlarged disc element attached to the shaft for supporting at least one axial row of radially directed blades through which the steam is expanded. A prestressed concrete inner casing structure of the turbine has upstream and downstream portions respectively situated upstream and downstream from the disc element. The radially outer surfaces of the inner casing portions and radially outer periphery of the axially interposed disc cooperatively form a downwardly radially inwardly tapered surface. An annular steam flowpath of increasing flow area in the downward axial direction is radially bounded by the inner and outer prestressed concrete casing structures. The inner casing portions each include a transversely situated prestressed concrete circular wall for rotatably supporting the turbine shaft and associated structure. The turbine blades are substantially radially coextensive with the steam flowpath and receive steam from the evaporator through an annular array of prestressed concrete stationary vanes which extend between the inner and outer casings to provide structural support therefor and impart a desired flow direction to the steam.

Wittig, J. Michael (West Goshen, PA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Recent Advances in Catalytic Conversion of Ethanol to Chemicals  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

With increased availability and decreased cost, ethanol is potentially a promising platform molecule for the production of a variety of value-added chemicals. In this review, we provide a detailed summary of recent advances in catalytic conversion of ethanol to a wide range of chemicals and fuels. We particularly focus on catalyst advances and fundamental understanding of reaction mechanisms involved in ethanol steam reforming (ESR) to produce hydrogen, ethanol conversion to hydrocarbons ranging from light olefins to longer chain alkenes/alkanes and aromatics, and ethanol conversion to other oxygenates including 1-butanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, diethyl ether, and ethyl acetate.

Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

2014-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

397

Method for the photocatalytic conversion of gas hydrates  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for converting methane hydrates to methanol, as well as hydrogen, through exposure to light. The process includes conversion of methane hydrates by light where a radical initiator has been added, and may be modified to include the conversion of methane hydrates with light where a photocatalyst doped by a suitable metal and an electron transfer agent to produce methanol and hydrogen. The present invention operates at temperatures below 0.degree. C., and allows for the direct conversion of methane contained within the hydrate in situ.

Taylor, Charles E. (Pittsburg, PA); Noceti, Richard P. (Pittsburg, PA); Bockrath, Bradley C. (Bethel Park, PA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Development of Integrated Online Monitoring Systems for Detection of Diversion at Natural Uranium Conversion Facilities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Recent work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has focused on some source term modeling of uranyl nitrate (UN) as part of a comprehensive validation effort employing gamma-ray detector instrumentation for the detection of diversion from declared conversion activities. Conversion, the process by which natural uranium ore (yellowcake) is purified and converted through a series of chemical processes into uranium hexafluoride gas (UF6), has historically been excluded from the nuclear safeguards requirements of the 235U-based nuclear fuel cycle. The undeclared diversion of this product material could potentially provide feedstock for a clandestine weapons program for state or non-state entities. Given the changing global political environment and the increased availability of dual-use nuclear technology, the International Atomic Energy Agency has evolved its policies to emphasize safeguarding this potential feedstock material in response to dynamic and evolving potential diversion pathways. To meet the demand for instrumentation testing at conversion facilities, ORNL developed the Uranyl Nitrate Calibration Loop Equipment (UNCLE) facility to simulate the full-scale operating conditions of a purified uranium-bearing aqueous stream exiting the solvent extraction process in a natural uranium conversion plant. This work investigates gamma-ray signatures of UN circulating in the UNCLE facility and evaluates detector instrumentation sensitivity to UN for safeguards applications. These detector validation activities include assessing detector responses to the UN gamma-ray signatures for spectrometers based on sodium iodide, lanthanum bromide, and germanium detectors. The results of measurements under static and dynamic operating conditions at concentrations ranging from 10-90g U/L of naturally enriched UN will be presented. A range of gamma-ray lines was examined and self-attenuation factors were calculated, in addition to attenuation for transmission measurement of density, concentration and enrichment. A detailed uncertainty analysis will be presented providing insights into instrumentation limitations to spoofing.

Dewji, Shaheen A [ORNL] [ORNL; Lee, Denise L [ORNL] [ORNL; Croft, Stephen [ORNL] [ORNL; McElroy, Robert Dennis [ORNL] [ORNL; Hertel, Nolan [Georgia Institute of Technology] [Georgia Institute of Technology; Chapman, Jeffrey Allen [ORNL] [ORNL; Cleveland, Steven L [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

ANDROS: A code for Assessment of Nuclide Doses and Risks with Option Selection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ANDROS (Assessment of Nuclide Doses and Risks with Option Selection) is a computer code written to compute doses and health effects from atmospheric releases of radionuclides. ANDROS has been designed as an integral part of the CRRIS (Computerized Radiological Risk Investigation System). ANDROS reads air concentrations and environmental concentrations of radionuclides to produce tables of specified doses and health effects to selected organs via selected pathways (e.g., ingestion or air immersion). The calculation may be done for an individual at a specific location or for the population of the whole assessment grid. The user may request tables of specific effects for every assessment grid location. Along with the radionuclide concentrations, the code requires radionuclide decay data, dose and risk factors, and location-specific data, all of which are available within the CRRIS. This document is a user manual for ANDROS and presents the methodology used in this code.

Begovich, C.L.; Sjoreen, A.L.; Ohr, S.Y.; Chester, R.O.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Semiconductor nanowires for photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical energy conversion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Semiconductor nanowires (NW) possess several beneficial properties for efficient conversion of solar energy into electricity and chemical energy. Due to their efficient absorption of light, short distances for minority carriers to travel, high surface-to-volume ratios, and the availability of scalable synthesis methods, they provide a pathway to address the low cost-to-power requirements for wide-scale adaptation of solar energy conversion technologies. Here we highlight recent progress in our group towards implementation of NW components as photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical energy conversion devices. An emphasis is placed on the unique properties of these one-dimensional (1D) structures, which enable the use of abundant, low-cost materials and improved energy conversion efficiency compared to bulk devices.

Dasgupta, Neil; Yang, Peidong

2013-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose conversion factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

DRAFT. ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the external fluid mechanics of OTEC plants: report coveringthermal energy conversion ( OTEC) plants by mid-1980 1 s.distributiion at potential OTEC sites. p. 7D-4/1-4/5. In

Sullivan, S.M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PILOT PLANTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the external fluid mechanics of OTEC plants: report coveringocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plants by mid-1980's.1980. A baseline design of a 40-MW OTEC Pilot Johns Hopkins

Sullivan, S.M.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Conversion of methane and acetylene into gasoline range hydrocarbons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Conversion of methane and acetylene to higher molecular weight hydrocarbons over zeolite catalyst (HZSM-5) was studied The reaction between methane and acetylene successfully produced high molecular weight hydrocarbons, such as naphthalene, benzene...

Alkhawaldeh, Ammar

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Raconteur : intelligent assistance for conversational storytelling with media libraries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

People who are not professional storytellers sometimes have difficulty putting together a coherent and engaging story, even when it is about their own experiences. However, consider putting the same person in a conversation ...

Chi, Pei-Yu, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Y-12 fulfills major milestone in fuel conversion commitment for...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

fulfills major ... Y-12 fulfills major milestone in fuel conversion commitment for Jamaican research reactor Posted: June 3, 2014 - 4:42pm The Y-12 National Security Complex...

406

Kinetics of high-conversion hydrocracking of bitumen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Residues are complex mixtures of thousands of components. This mixture will change during hydrocracking, so that high conversion may result in a residue material with different characteristics from the starting material. Our objective is to determine the kinetics of residue conversion and yields of distillates at high conversions, and to relate these observations to the underlying chemical reactions. Athabasca bitumen was reacted in a 1-L CSTR in a multipass operation. Product from the first pass was collected, then run through the reactor again and so on, giving kinetic data under conditions that simulated a multi-reactor or packed-bed operation. Experiments were run both with hydrocracking catalyst and without added catalyst. Products were analyzed by distillation, elemental analysis, NMR, and GPC. These data will be used to derive a kinetic model for hydrocracking of bitumen residue covering a wide range of conversion (from 30% to 95%+), based on the underlying chemistry.

Nagaishi, H.; Gray, M.R. [Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada); Chan, E.W.; Sanford, E.C. [Syncrude Canada, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

407

Optimization of Oxygen Purity for Coal Conversion Energy Reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The conversion of coal into gaseous and liquid fuels and chemical feedstock will require large quantities of oxygen. This oxygen will be produced in large multi-train air separation plants which will consume about 350 kilowatt hours of energy...

Baker, C. R.; Pike, R. A.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Theoretical investigation of solar energy conversion and water oxidation catalysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solar energy conversion and water oxidation catalysis are two great scientific and engineering challenges that will play pivotal roles in a future sustainable energy economy. In this work, I apply electronic structure ...

Wang, Lee-Ping

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Wrapping Up: Our Conversation on Increasing Diversity in STEM...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Our Conversation on Increasing Diversity in STEM Education and the Workforce March 5, 2013 - 9:43am Addthis Watch our science and tech experts answer questions and share advice...

410

Toward Widely-Available and Usable Multimodal Conversational Interfaces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multimodal conversational interfaces, which allow humans to interact with a computer using a combination of spoken natural language and a graphical interface, offer the potential to transform the manner by which humans ...

Gruenstein, Alexander

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Thermoelectric Conversion of Wate Heat to Electricity in an IC...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Wate Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Thermoelectric Conversion of Wate Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Presentation given at the 16th...

412

Power conversion architecture for grid interface at high switching frequency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper presents a new power conversion architecture for single-phase grid interface. The proposed architecture is suitable for realizing miniaturized ac-dc converters operating at high frequencies (HF, above 3 MHz) and ...

Lim, Seungbum

413

Control strategies for supercritical carbon dioxide power conversion systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The supercritical carbon dioxide (S-C02) recompression cycle is a promising advanced power conversion cycle which couples well to numerous advanced nuclear reactor designs. This thesis investigates the dynamic simulation ...

Carstens, Nathan, 1978-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Electron Transfer Dynamics in Photocatalytic CO2 Conversion ...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Electron Transfer Dynamics in Photocatalytic CO2 Conversion Sep 2014 Aug 2014 Jul 2014 June 2014 May 2014 Apr 2014 Mar 2014 Feb 2014 Jan 2014 Dec 2013 Nov 2013 Oct 2013 Sep 2013...

415

Workshop on Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Bio-Oils Workshop on Conversion Technologies for Advanced Biofuels - Bio-Oils Introduction presentation report-out at the CTAB webinar on bio-oils. ctabwebinarbiooilsintro.pdf...

416

advanced coal conversion: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the coal plant is transmitted over the transmission lines, Phadke, Amol 2008-01-01 7 Clean Coal Technology Program Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration CiteSeer Summary:...

417

Drinking up endings: conversational resources of the café   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A first theme of this article is the abiding relationship between the café and conversation. A relationship which begins with Habermas’s emphasis on political debate in early modernity and continues to more contemporary ...

Laurier, Eric

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Perceptions and Expressions of Social Presence During Conversations on Twitter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Computer-mediated environments such as social media create new social climates that impact communication interactions in un-mediated environments. This study examined social variables during conversations on Twitter through a qualitative document...

Pritchett, Kelly

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

419

Articulatory-based Speech Processing Methods for Foreign Accent Conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The objective of this dissertation is to develop speech processing methods that enable without altering their identity. We envision accent conversion primarily as a tool for pronunciation training, allowing non-native speakers to hear their native...

Felps, Daniel

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

420

Coal Conversion Facility Privilege Tax Exemptions (North Dakota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Coal Conversion Facility Privilege Tax Exemptions are granted under a variety of conditions through the North Dakota Tax Department. Privilege tax, which is in lieu of property taxes on the...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose conversion factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

COMMERCIAL FISHERY DATA FROM A PROPOSED OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) SITE IN PUERTO RICO  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) sites to identify thefishery resources at potential OTEC sites. At this time, thethermal energy conversion (OTEC) program; preoperational

Ryan, Constance J.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Micro/Nano-Scale Phase Change Systems for Thermal Management and Solar Energy Conversion Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Solar Energy Conversion Applications By Dusan Coso B.S. (UniversitySolar Energy Conversion Applications by Dusan Coso Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering – Mechanical Engineering University

Coso, Dusan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

E-Print Network 3.0 - alkane conversion chemistry Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

conversion chemistry Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: alkane conversion chemistry Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 BERKELEY CATALYSIS...

424

RAW MATERIALS EVALUATION AND PROCESS DEVELOPMENT STUDIES FOR CONVERSION OF BIOMASS TO SUGARS AND ETHANOL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of Cellulose Conversion on Ethanol Cost. ReferencesBioconversion of Cellulose and Production of Ethanol," LBL-to the ethanol cost assuming a complete cellulose conversion

Wilke, C.R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

A PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF IMPINGEMENT AND ENTRAINMENT BY OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PLANTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

nental Assessment, Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)Impact Assessment Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC),Intake Screens for Ocean Thermal Energy M.S. Thesis. Oregon

Sullivan, S.M.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

In Conversation with Jim Schuck: Nano-optics  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Sponsored by Berkeley Lab's Materials Sciences Division (MSD), "In Conversation with" is a next generation science seminar series. Host Alice Egan is the assistant to MSD Director Miquel Salmeron. Alice conducts a fun and informative interview, touching on the lives and work of the guest. The first In Conversation With took place July 9 with Jim Schuck, a staff scientist in the Molecular Foundry's Imaging and Manipulation Facility as our first guest. He discussed the world of Nano-optics.

Jim Schuck and Alice Egan

2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

427

Neutrino conversions in cosmological gamma-ray burst fireballs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study neutrino conversions in a recently envisaged source of high-energy neutrinos (E \\geq 10^6 GeV), that is, in the vicinity of cosmological Gamma-Ray Burst fireballs (GRB). We consider the effects of flavor and spin-flavor conversions and point out that in both situations, a some what higher than estimated high energy tau neutrino flux from GRBs is expected in new km^2 surface area under water/ice neutrino telescopes.

H. Athar

2000-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

428

Guidelines to Defra's GHG conversion factors for company reporting Annexes updated June 2007  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.498 Coking Coal tonnes x 2810 x 2810 kWh x 0.349 x 0.332 Aviation Spirit tonnes x 3128 x 3128 kWh x 0.250 x 0.281 x 0.267 Burning Oil1 tonnes x 3150 x 3150 kWh x 0.258 x 0.245 litres x 2.518 x 2.518 Coal 2 tonnes xWh x 0.249 x 0.237 Lubricants tonnes x 3171 x 3171 kWh x 0.263 x 0.250 Petroleum Coke tonnes x 3410 x

429

2008 Guidelines to Defra's GHG Conversion Methodology Paper for Transport Emission Factors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Clements House, 2-16 Colegate, Norwich NR3 1BQ; Fax: +44 (0)1603 723000; email: hmsolicensing at the end of each of the relevant following sections. 2. Since the previous update, significant work has

430

Design and performance evaluation of a unity power factor converter for wind energy conversion systems.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Wind turbine driven Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generators (PMSG) find increasing applications due to their numerous advantages. Small scale stand-alone wind energy systems are receiving considerable… (more)

Nirnaya Sarangan.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs Guidelines to Defra's Greenhouse Gas Conversion Factors for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Departments What about my personal carbon footprint? Individuals who wish to calculate their carbon footprint is my company's carbon footprint? The Carbon Trust provides more information about carbon footprinting for companies at www.carbontrust.co.uk/footprinting. This includes a carbon footprint calculator

432

Nondestructive optical characterization of chemical conversion coatings on aluminum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Chromium phosphate conversion coatings on aluminum have been characterized with nondestructive optical techniques. Complementary vibrational spectroscopy techniques, i.e., Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy, prove the presence of chromium phosphate as principal component in the coating. Additionally, aluminum oxide and indications for the presence of chromium oxide and aluminum fluoride are found. Reflection/absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) allows analysis of coatings as thin as 40 nm, while confocal micro-Raman spectroscopy is limited to thicknesses above about 150 nm. Compared to RAIRS spectra, the interpretation of Raman spectra is easier due to the morphological characteristics of the conversion coatings, e.g., the coating thickness, using a simulation and regression procedure based on a two-layer optical model. The optical constants of the upper layer, which in a first approximation can be attributed to the chromium phosphate part of the conversion coating, can explain the greenish appearance of the thickest conversion coatings. A linear relationship exists between the coating thickness and the conversion time. An analogous linear relation exists between the conversion time and the peak areas of most of the absorption peaks in the RAIRS spectra.

Schram, T.; De Laet, J.; Terryn, H. [Vrije Univ. Brussel, Brussels (Belgium). Dept. of Metallurgy, Electrochemistry, and Materials Science

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project monthly report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction MDR) Project is to estimate the radiation doses that individuals and populations could have received from nuclear operations at Hanford since 1944. The TSP consists of experts in envirorunental pathways. epidemiology, surface-water transport, ground-water transport, statistics, demography, agriculture, meteorology, nuclear engineering. radiation dosimetry. and cultural anthropology. Included are appointed members representing the states of Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, a representative of Native American tribes, and an individual representing the public. The project is divided into the following technical tasks. These tasks correspond to the path radionuclides followed from release to impact on humans (dose estimates): Source Terms; Environmental Transport; Environmental Monitoring Data Demography, Food Consumption, and Agriculture; and Environmental Pathways and Dose Estimates.

McMakin, A.H., Cannon, S.D.; Finch, S.M. (comps.) [comps.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Radiation Leukemogenesis at Low Dose Rates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The major goals of this program were to study the efficacy of low dose rate radiation exposures for the induction of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and to characterize the leukemias that are caused by radiation exposures at low dose rate. An irradiator facility was designed and constructed that allows large numbers of mice to be irradiated at low dose rates for protracted periods (up to their life span). To the best of our knowledge this facility is unique in the US and it was subsequently used to study radioprotectors being developed for radiological defense (PLoS One. 7(3), e33044, 2012) and is currently being used to study the role of genetic background in susceptibility to radiation-induced lung cancer. One result of the irradiation was expected; low dose rate exposures are ineffective in inducing AML. However, another result was completely unexpected; the irradiated mice had a very high incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), approximately 50%. It was unexpected because acute exposures are ineffective in increasing HCC incidence above background. This is a potential important finding for setting exposure limits because it supports the concept of an 'inverse dose rate effect' for some tumor types. That is, for the development of some tumor types low dose rate exposures carry greater risks than acute exposures.

Weil, Michael; Ullrich, Robert

2013-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

435

A dose assessment for a U.S. nuclear test site -- Bikini Atoll  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

On March 1, 1954, a nuclear weapon test, code-named BRAVO, conducted at Bikini Atoll in the northern Marshall Islands contaminated the major residence island. Here the authors provide a radiological dose assessment for the main residence island, Bikini, using extensive radionuclide concentration data derived from analysis of food crops, ground water, cistern water, fish and other marine species, animals, air, and soil collected at Bikini Island. The unique composition of coral soil greatly alters the relative contribution of cesium-137 and strontium-90 to the total estimated dose relative to expectations based on North American and European soils. Cesium-137 produces 96% of the estimated dose for returning residents, mostly through uptake from the soil to terrestrial food crops but also from external gamma exposure. The estimated maximum annual effective dose is 4.4 mSv y{sup {minus}1} when imported foods, which are now an established part of the diet, are available. The 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral effective doses are 10 cSv, 14 cSv, and 16 cSv, respectively. An analysis of interindividual variability in 0- to 30-y expected integral dose indicates that 95% of Bikini residents would have expected doses within a factor of 3.4 above and 4.8 below the population-average value. A corresponding uncertainty analysis showed that after about 5 y of residence, the 95% confidence limits on population-average dose would be {+-}35% of its expected value. The authors have evaluated various countermeasures to reduce {sup 137}Cs in food crops. Treatment with potassium reduces the uptake of {sup 137}Cs into food crops, and therefore the ingestion dose, to less than 10% of pretreatment levels and has essentially no negative environmental consequences.

Robison, W.L.; Bogen, K.T.; Conrado, C.L.

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Approach for calculating population doses using the CIDER computer code  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes an approach for calculating radiation doses for the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project. The approach utilizes the CIDER computer code.

Shipler, D.B.

1993-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

437

Energy Conversion and Storage Program: 1992 Annual report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report is the 1992 annual progress report for the Energy Conversion and Storage Program, a part of the Energy and Environment Division of the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Work described falls into three broad areas: electrochemistry; chemical applications; and materials applications. The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies principles of chemistry and materials science to solve problems in several areas: (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes and chemical species, and (5) study and application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Chemical applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing product and waste streams from synfuel plants, coal gasifiers, and biomass conversion processes. Materials applications research includes evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as development of novel preparation techniques. For example, techniques such as sputtering, laser ablation, and poised laser deposition are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

Cairns, E.J.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Radionuclides in the terrestrial ecosystem near a Canadian uranium mill -- Part 1: Distribution and doses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Soils, vegetation, small mammals, and birds were measured for uranium series radionuclides at three sites near the operating Key Lake uranium mill in northern Saskatchewan. Sites, impacted by windblown tailings and mill dust, had significantly higher concentrations of uranium, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 210}Pb, and {sup 210}Po in soils, litter, vegetation, tree needles and twigs, small mammals, and birds, compared to a control site. Samples were collected from both upland jackpine and black spruce bog habitats in triplicate at each site. Both habitats were similar in radionuclide accumulation. Absorbed doses averaged 0.92, 8.4, and 4.9 mGy y{sup {minus}1} to small mammals and 2.0, 5.8, and 2.8 mGy y{sup {minus}1} to Lincoln's sparrows at the control, tailings, and mill sites, respectively. These doses do not include doses from short-lived radon progeny. The majority of the dose increment at the tailings and mill sites was due to {sup 226}Ra, whereas it was {sup 210}Po at the control site. Thus, use of a radiation weighting factor of 20 for alpha radiation raised equivalent doses (in mSv y{sup {minus}1}) by nearly a factor of 20.

Thomas, P.A.

2000-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Assistant, Associate or Full Professor (Mid-Career)(10-657) Energy Conversion Position in MAE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and biofuels. Excellent candidates in other areas of energy conversion will also be given full consideration

Gleeson, Joseph G.

440

SYNTAX-DIRECTED TRANSLATION SCHEMES FOR MULTI -AGENT SYSTEMS CONVERSATION MODELLING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SYNTAX-DIRECTED TRANSLATION SCHEMES FOR MULTI - AGENT SYSTEMS CONVERSATION MODELLING Ana Fred-intensive business processes based on formal conversations, i.e. partially ordered sets of communicative acts representation of agent conversations. In this paper we present a formal method for conversation representation

Fred, Ana

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose conversion factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

DRY TRANSFER FACILITY WORKER DOSE ASSESSMENT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this calculation is to estimate radiation doses received by personnel working in the Dry Transfer Facility No.1 (DTF-1) performing operations to receive transportation casks, transfer wastes, prepare waste packages, and ship out loaded waste packages and empty casks. Doses received by workers due to maintenance operations are also included in this revision. The specific scope of work contained in this calculation covers both collective doses and individual worker group doses on an annual basis, and includes the contributions due to external and internal radiation from normal operation, excluding the remediation area of the building. The results of this calculation will be used to support the design of the DTF-1 and to provide occupational dose estimates for the License Application. The calculations contained in this document were developed by Environmental and Nuclear Engineering of the Design and Engineering Organization and are intended solely for the use of the Design and Engineering Organization in its work regarding facility operation. Yucca Mountain Project personnel from the Environmental and Nuclear Engineering should be consulted before use of the calculations for purposes other than those stated herein or use by individuals other than authorized personnel in the Environmental and Nuclear Engineering.

J.S. Tang

2004-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

442

Plasma-induced conversion of surface-adsorbed hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental results are reported for an electrical device for direct conversion of methane into higher hydrocarbons. A microchannel plate is excited with electrons from a photoemissive source, and electron impact ionization of methane on the inner surfaces of the microchannels creates an ion feedback process. The resulting low-density plasma creates higher hydrocarbons when charged particles impact the surfaces at grazing incidence. The production Of C{sub 2} to C{sub 8}-containing gases was noted, with a selectivity for C{sub 2} of 39% in one case. The proportions of converted products and the conversion rates depend upon the electrical voltage, the microchannel geometry, and the operating pressure. Conversion rates increase with operating pressure.

Sackinger, W.M.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Plasma-induced conversion of surface-adsorbed hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental results are reported for an electrical device for direct conversion of methane into higher hydrocarbons. A microchannel plate is excited with electrons from a photoemissive source, and electron impact ionization of methane on the inner surfaces of the microchannels creates an ion feedback process. The resulting low-density plasma creates higher hydrocarbons when charged particles impact the surfaces at grazing incidence. The production Of C{sub 2} to C{sub 8}-containing gases was noted, with a selectivity for C{sub 2} of 39% in one case. The proportions of converted products and the conversion rates depend upon the electrical voltage, the microchannel geometry, and the operating pressure. Conversion rates increase with operating pressure.

Sackinger, W.M.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In support of the Bioenergy Technologies Office, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are undertaking studies of biomass conversion technologies to identify barriers and target research toward reducing conversion costs. Process designs and preliminary economic estimates for each of these pathway cases were developed using rigorous modeling tools (Aspen Plus and Chemcad). These analyses incorporated the best information available at the time of development, including data from recent pilot and bench-scale demonstrations, collaborative industrial and academic partners, and published literature and patents. This technology pathway case investigates the biological conversion of biomass derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and information consistent with recent pilot scale demonstrations at NREL. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the pathway to become competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline, diesel and jet range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

Davis, Ryan; Biddy, Mary J.; Tan, Eric; Tao, Ling; Jones, Susanne B.

2013-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

445

Novel, Integrated Reactor / Power Conversion System (LMR-AMTEC)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main features of this project were the development of a long life (up to 10 years) Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) and a static conversion subsystem comprising an Alkali Metal Thermal-to-Electric (AMTEC) topping cycle and a ThermoElectric (TE) Bottom cycle. Various coupling options of the LMR with the energy conversion subsystem were explored and, base in the performances found in this analysis, an Indirect Coupling (IC) between the LMR and the AMTEC/TE converters with Alkali Metal Boilers (AMB) was chosen as the reference design. The performance model of the fully integrated sodium-and potassium-AMTEC/TE converters shows that a combined conversion efficiency in excess of 30% could be achieved by the plant. (B204)

Pablo Rubiolo, Principal Investigator

2003-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

446

Proceedings of the 25th intersociety energy conversion engineering conference  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This book contains the proceedings of the 25th Intersociety Energy Conversion Engineering Conference. Volume 5 is organized under the following headings: Photovoltaics I, Photovoltaics II, Geothermal power, Thermochemical conversion of biomass, Energy from waste and biomass, Solar thermal systems for environmental applications, Solar thermal low temperature systems and components, Solar thermal high temperature systems and components, Wind systems, Space power sterling technology Stirling cooler developments, Stirling solar terrestrial I, Stirling solar terrestrial II, Stirling engine generator sets, Stirling models and simulations, Stirling engine analysis, Stirling models and simulations, Stirling engine analysis, Stirling engine loss understanding, Novel engine concepts, Coal conversion and utilization, Power cycles, MHD water propulsion I, Underwater vehicle powerplants - performance, MHD underwater propulsion II, Nuclear power, Update of advanced nuclear power reactor concepts.

Nelson, P.A.; Schertz, W.W.; Till, R.H.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Segregated tandem filter for enhanced conversion efficiency in a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A filter system to transmit short wavelength radiation and reflect long wavelength radiation for a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion cell comprises an optically transparent substrate segregation layer with at least one coherent wavelength in optical thickness; a dielectric interference filter deposited on one side of the substrate segregation layer, the interference filter being disposed toward the source of radiation, the interference filter including a plurality of alternating layers of high and low optical index materials adapted to change from transmitting to reflecting at a nominal wavelength .lambda..sub.IF approximately equal to the bandgap wavelength .lambda..sub.g of the thermophotovoltaic cell, the interference filter being adapted to transmit incident radiation from about 0.5.lambda..sub.IF to .lambda..sub.IF and reflect from .lambda..sub.IF to about 2.lambda..sub.IF ; and a high mobility plasma filter deposited on the opposite side of the substrate segregation layer, the plasma filter being adapted to start to become reflecting at a wavelength of about 1.5.lambda..sub.IF.

Brown, Edward J. (Clifton Park, NY); Baldasaro, Paul F. (Clifton Park, NY); Dziendziel, Randolph J. (Middlegrove, NY)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Segregated tandem filter for enhanced conversion efficiency in a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A filter system to transmit short wavelength radiation and reflect long wavelength radiation for a thermophotovoltaic energy conversion cell comprises an optically transparent substrate segregation layer with at least one coherent wavelength in optical thickness; a dielectric interference filter deposited on one side of the substrate segregation layer, the interference filter being disposed toward the source of radiation, the interference filter including a plurality of alternating layers of high and low optical index materials adapted to change from transmitting to reflecting at a nominal wavelength {lambda}{sub IF} approximately equal to the bandgap wavelength {lambda}{sub g} of the thermophotovoltaic cell, the interference filter being adapted to transmit incident radiation from about 0.5{lambda}{sub IF} to {lambda}{sub IF} and reflect from {lambda}{sub IF} to about 2{lambda}{sub IF}; and a high mobility plasma filter deposited on the opposite side of the substrate segregation layer, the plasma filter being adapted to start to become reflecting at a wavelength of about 1.5{lambda}{sub IF}. 10 figs.

Brown, E.J.; Baldasaro, P.F.; Dziendziel, R.J.

1997-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

449

Extended range radiation dose-rate monitor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An extended range dose-rate monitor is provided which utilizes the pulse pileup phenomenon that occurs in conventional counting systems to alter the dynamic response of the system to extend the dose-rate counting range. The current pulses from a solid-state detector generated by radiation events are amplified and shaped prior to applying the pulses to the input of a comparator. The comparator generates one logic pulse for each input pulse which exceeds the comparator reference threshold. These pulses are integrated and applied to a meter calibrated to indicate the measured dose-rate in response to the integrator output. A portion of the output signal from the integrator is fed back to vary the comparator reference threshold in proportion to the output count rate to extend the sensitive dynamic detection range by delaying the asymptotic approach of the integrator output toward full scale as measured by the meter.

Valentine, Kenneth H. (Knoxville, TN)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Historical river flow rates for dose calculations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Annual average river flow rates are required input to the LADTAP Computer Code for calculating offsite doses from liquid releases of radioactive materials to the Savannah River. The source of information on annual river flow rates used in dose calculations varies, depending on whether calculations are for retrospective releases or prospective releases. Examples of these types of releases are: Retrospective - releases from routine operations (annual environmental reports) and short term release incidents that have occurred. Prospective - releases that might be expected in the future from routine or abnormal operation of existing or new facilities (EIS`s, EID`S, SAR`S, etc.). This memorandum provides historical flow rates at the downstream gauging station at Highway 301 for use in retrospective dose calculations and derives flow rate data for the Beaufort-Jasper and Port Wentworth water treatment plants.

Carlton, W.H.

1991-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

451

Energy conversion device with support member having pore channels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Energy devices such as energy conversion devices and energy storage devices and methods for the manufacture of such devices. The devices include a support member having an array of pore channels having a small average pore channel diameter and having a pore channel length. Material layers that may include energy conversion materials and conductive materials are coaxially disposed within the pore channels to form material rods having a relatively small cross-section and a relatively long length. By varying the structure of the materials in the pore channels, various energy devices can be fabricated, such as photovoltaic (PV) devices, radiation detectors, capacitors, batteries and the like.

Routkevitch, Dmitri [Longmont, CO; Wind, Rikard A [Johnstown, CO

2014-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

452

THERMOCHEMICAL CONVERSION OF FERMENTATION-DERIVED OXYGENATES TO FUELS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At present ethanol generated from renewable resources through fermentation process is the dominant biofuel. But ethanol suffers from undesirable fuel properties such as low energy density and high water solubility. The production capacity of fermentation derived oxygenates are projected to rise in near future beyond the current needs. The conversion of oxygenates to hydrocarbon compounds that are similar to gasoline, diesel and jet fuel is considered as one of the viable option. In this chapter the thermo catalytic conversion of oxygenates generated through fermentation to fuel range hydrocarbons will be discussed.

Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Wang, Yong

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Jet conversions in a quark-gluon plasma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RAPID COMMUNICATIONS PHYSICAL REVIEW C 75, 051901(R) (2007) Jet conversions in a quark-gluon plasma W. Liu, C. M. Ko, and B. W. Zhang* Cyclotron Institute and Physics Department, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843-3366, USA... COMMUNICATIONS W. LIU, C. M. KO, AND B. W. ZHANG PHYSICAL REVIEW C 75, 051901(R) (2007) FIG. 1. (Color online) Collisional widths for gluon-to-quark (upper panels) and quark-to-gluon (lower panels) jet conversions in QGP due to elastic scattering q(q?)g? gq...

Liu, W.; Ko, Che Ming; Zhang, B. W.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Statistics of multiphoton events in spontaneous parametric down-conversion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present an experimental characterization of the statistics of multiple photon pairs produced by spontaneous parametric down-conversion realized in a nonlinear medium pumped by high-energy ultrashort pulses from a regenerative amplifier. The photon number resolved measurement has been implemented with the help of a fiber loop detector. We introduce an effective theoretical description of the observed statistics based on parameters that can be assigned direct physical nterpretation. These parameters, determined for our source from the collected experimental data, characterize the usefulness of down-conversion sources in multiphoton interference schemes that underlie protocols for quantum information processing and communication.

Wojciech Wasilewski; Czeslaw Radzewicz; Robert Frankowski; Konrad Banaszek

2008-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

455

Simultaneous constraint and phase conversion processing of oxide superconductors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of making an oxide superconductor article includes subjecting an oxide superconductor precursor to a texturing operation to orient grains of the oxide superconductor precursor to obtain a highly textured precursor; and converting the textured oxide superconducting precursor into an oxide superconductor, while simultaneously applying a force to the precursor which at least matches the expansion force experienced by the precursor during phase conversion to the oxide superconductor. The density and the degree of texture of the oxide superconductor precursor are retained during phase conversion. The constraining force may be applied isostatically.

Li, Qi (Marlborough, MA); Thompson, Elliott D. (Coventry, RI); Riley, Jr., Gilbert N. (Marlborough, MA); Hellstrom, Eric E. (Madison, WI); Larbalestier, David C. (Madison, WI); DeMoranville, Kenneth L. (Jefferson, MA); Parrell, Jeffrey A. (Roselle Park, NJ); Reeves, Jodi L. (Madison, WI)

2003-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

456

X-band EPR imaging as a tool for gradient dose reconstruction in irradiated bones  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: Various tools are currently available for dose reconstruction in individuals after accidental exposure to ionizing radiation. Among the available biological analyses, Monte Carlo simulations, and biophysical methods, such as electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), the latter has proved its usefulness for retrospective dosimetry. Although EPR spectroscopy is probably the most sensitive technique, it does not provide spatial dosimetric data. This information is, however, highly desirable when steep dose gradient irradiations are involved. The purpose of this work was to explore the possibilities of EPR imaging (EPRI) for spatial dose reconstruction in irradiated biological material. Methods: X-band EPRI was used to reconstruct ex vivo the relative dose distribution in human bone samples and hydroxyapatite phantoms after irradiation with brachytherapy seeds or x rays. Three situations were investigated: Homogeneous, stepwise gradient, and continuous gradient irradiation. Results: EPRI gave a faithful relative spin density distribution in bone samples and in hydroxyapatite phantoms. Measured dose ratios were in close agreement with the actual delivered dose ratios. EPRI was able to distinguish the dose gradients induced by two different sources ({sup 125}I and {sup 192}Ir). However, the measured spatial resolution of the system was 1.9 mm and this appeared to be a limiting factor. The method could be improved by using new signal postprocessing strategies. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that EPRI can be used to assess the regional relative dose distribution in irradiated bone samples. The method is currently applicable to ex vivo measurements of small size samples with low variation in tissue density but is likely to be adapted for in vivo application using L-band EPRI.

Leveque, Philippe; Godechal, Quentin; Bol, Anne; Trompier, Francois; Gallez, Bernard [Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Unit, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1200 Brussels (Belgium); Molecular Imaging and Experimental Radiotherapy Unit, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1200 Brussels (Belgium); Institut de Surete Nucleaire et de Radioprotection, F-92262 Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Biomedical Magnetic Resonance Unit, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1200 Brussels (Belgium)

2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

457

Hanford Technical Basis for Multiple Dosimetry Effective Dose Methodology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The current method at Hanford for dealing with the results from multiple dosimeters worn during non-uniform irradiation is to use a compartmentalization method to calculate the effective dose (E). The method, as documented in the current version of Section 6.9.3 in the 'Hanford External Dosimetry Technical Basis Manual, PNL-MA-842,' is based on the compartmentalization method presented in the 1997 ANSI/HPS N13.41 standard, 'Criteria for Performing Multiple Dosimetry.' With the adoption of the ICRP 60 methodology in the 2007 revision to 10 CFR 835 came changes that have a direct affect on the compartmentalization method described in the 1997 ANSI/HPS N13.41 standard, and, thus, to the method used at Hanford. The ANSI/HPS N13.41 standard committee is in the process of updating the standard, but the changes to the standard have not yet been approved. And, the drafts of the revision of the standard tend to align more with ICRP 60 than with the changes specified in the 2007 revision to 10 CFR 835. Therefore, a revised method for calculating effective dose from non-uniform external irradiation using a compartmental method was developed using the tissue weighting factors and remainder organs specified in 10 CFR 835 (2007).

Hill, Robin L.; Rathbone, Bruce A.

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Advanced Computational Approaches for Characterizing Stochastic Cellular Responses to Low Dose, Low Dose Rate Exposures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

OAK - B135 This project final report summarizes modeling research conducted in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Low Dose Radiation Research Program at the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute from October 1998 through June 2003. The modeling research described involves critically evaluating the validity of the linear nonthreshold (LNT) risk model as it relates to stochastic effects induced in cells by low doses of ionizing radiation and genotoxic chemicals. The LNT model plays a central role in low-dose risk assessment for humans. With the LNT model, any radiation (or genotoxic chemical) exposure is assumed to increase oneˇŻs risk of cancer. Based on the LNT model, others have predicted tens of thousands of cancer deaths related to environmental exposure to radioactive material from nuclear accidents (e.g., Chernobyl) and fallout from nuclear weapons testing. Our research has focused on developing biologically based models that explain the shape of dose-response curves for low-dose radiation and genotoxic chemical-induced stochastic effects in cells. Understanding the shape of the dose-response curve for radiation and genotoxic chemical-induced stochastic effects in cells helps to better understand the shape of the dose-response curve for cancer induction in humans. We have used a modeling approach that facilitated model revisions over time, allowing for timely incorporation of new knowledge gained related to the biological basis for low-dose-induced stochastic effects in cells. Both deleterious (e.g., genomic instability, mutations, and neoplastic transformation) and protective (e.g., DNA repair and apoptosis) effects have been included in our modeling. Our most advanced model, NEOTRANS2, involves differing levels of genomic instability. Persistent genomic instability is presumed to be associated with nonspecific, nonlethal mutations and to increase both the risk for neoplastic transformation and for cancer occurrence. Our research results, based on applications of NEOTRANS2, indicate that nonlinear threshold-type, dose-response relationships for excess stochastic effects (problematic nonlethal mutations, neoplastic transformation) should be expected after exposure to low linear energy transfer (LET) gamma rays or gamma rays in combination with high-LET alpha radiation. Similar thresholds are expected for low-dose-rate low-LET beta irradiation. We attribute the thresholds to low-dose, low-LET radiation induced protection against spontaneous mutations and neoplastic transformations. The protection is presumed mainly to involve selective elimination of problematic cells via apoptosis. Low-dose, low-LET radiation is presumed to trigger wide-area cell signaling, which in turn leads to problematic bystander cells (e.g., mutants, neoplastically transformed cells) selectively undergoing apoptosis. Thus, this protective bystander effect leads to selective elimination of problematic cells (a tissue cleansing process in vivo). However, this protective bystander effects is a different process from low-dose stimulation of the immune system. Low-dose, low-LET radiation stimulation of the immune system may explain why thresholds for inducing excess cancer appear much larger (possibly more than 100-fold larger) than thresholds for inducing excess mutations and neoplastic transformations, when the dose rate is low. For ionizing radiation, the current risk assessment paradigm is such that the relative risk (RR) is always ˇÝ 1, no matter how small the dose. Our research results indicate that for low-dose or low-dose-rate, low-LET irradiation, RR < 1 may be more the rule than the exception. Directly tied to the current RR paradigm are the billion-dollar cleanup costs for radionuclide-contaminated DOE sites. Our research results suggest that continued use of the current RR paradigm for which RR ˇÝ 1 could cause more harm than benefit to society (e.g., by spreading unwarranted fear about phantom excess risks associated with low-dose low-LET radiation). Such phantom risks also may arise from risk assessments conducted for com

Scott, Bobby, R., Ph.D.

2003-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

459

Power factor correction of an electrical drive system based on multiphase machines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Power factor correction of an electrical drive system based on multiphase machines Khoudir MAROUANI_tabache@yahoo.com Abstract--This paper deals with the energy efficiency improvement of an electrical drive which can be used both in wind energy conversion or motor drive applications. A power factor (PF) control scheme

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

460

Individual Dose Calculations with Use of the Revised Techa River Dosimetry System TRDS-2009D  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An updated deterministic version of the Techa River Dosimetry System (TRDS-2009D) has been developed to estimate individual doses from external exposure and intake of radionuclides for residents living on the Techa River contaminated as a result of radioactive releases from the Mayak plutonium facility in 1949–1956. The TRDS-2009D is designed as a flexible system that uses, depending on the input data for an individual, various elements of system databases to provide the dosimetric variables requested by the user. Several phases are included in the computation schedule. The first phase includes calculations with use of a common protocol for all cohort members based on village-average-intake functions and external dose rates; individual data on age, gender and history of residence are included in the first phase. This phase results in dose estimates similar to those obtained with system TRDS-2000 used previously to derive risks of health effects in the Techa River Cohort. The second phase includes refinement of individual internal doses for those persons who have had body-burden measurements or exposure parameters specific to the household where he/she lived on the Techa River. The third phase includes summation of individual doses from environmental exposure and from radiological examinations. The results of TRDS-2009D dose calculations have demonstrated for the ETRC members on average a moderate increase in RBM dose estimates (34%) and a minor increase (5%) in estimates of stomach dose. The calculations for the members of the ETROC indicated similar small changes for stomach, but significant increase in RBM doses (400%). Individual-dose assessments performed with use of TRDS-2009D have been provided to epidemiologists for exploratory risk analysis in the ETRC and ETROC. These data provide an opportunity to evaluate the possible impact on radiogenic risk of such factors as confounding exposure (environmental and medical), changes in the Techa River source-term data and the change of the approach to individual internal dose estimation (90Sr-body burden measurements and family correlations vs. village averages). Our further plan is to upgrade the TRDS-2009D and to complete a stochastic version of the dosimetry system.

Degteva, M. O.; Shagina, N. B.; Tolstykh, E. I.; Vorobiova, M. I.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

2009-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose conversion factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

FINAL REPORT DOSES TO THE PUBLIC  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oak Ridge, Inc. 102 Donner Drive Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 Authors: A. Iulian Apostoaei / SENES Oak Ridge, Inc. Brian A. Thomas / SENES Oak Ridge, Inc. David C. Kocher / SENES Oak Ridge, Inc. F. Owen Hoffman / SENES Oak Ridge, Inc. July 2005 #12;Doses to the Public from Atmospheric

462

NON-MONOTONIC DOSE DEPENDENCE OF THERMOLUMINESCENCE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Scientific Inc., Pacifica, CA, USA The thermoluminescence (TL) intensity in different materials is usually material used for archaeological and geological TL dating. Ichikawa(6) found that in gammaNON-MONOTONIC DOSE DEPENDENCE OF THERMOLUMINESCENCE R. Chen1,Ă? , D. Lo2 and J. L. Lawless3 1 School

Chen, Reuven

463

What is Supercomputing? A Conversation with Kathy Yelick  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

In this highlight video, Jeff Miller, head of Public Affairs, sat down in conversation with Kathy Yelick, Associate Berkeley Lab Director, Computing Sciences, in the second of a series of "powerpoint-free" talks on July 18th 2012, at Berkeley Lab.

Kathy Yelick

2013-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

464

Thermochemical conversion of waste materials to valuable products  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The potential offered by a large variety of solid and liquid wastes for generating value added products is widely recognized. Extensive research and development has focused on developing technologies to recover energy and valuable products from waste materials. These treatment technologies include use of waste materials for direct combustion, upgrading the waste materials into useful fuel such as fuel gas or fuel oil, and conversion of waste materials into higher value products for the chemical industry. Thermal treatment in aerobic (with oxygen) conditions or direct combustion of waste materials in most cases results in generating air pollution and thereby requiring installation of expensive control devices. Thermochemical conversion in aerobic (without oxygen) conditions, referred to as thermal decomposition (destructive distillation) results in formation of usable liquid, solid, and gaseous products. Thermochemical conversion includes gasification, liquefaction, and thermal decomposition (pyrolysis). Each thermochemical conversion process yields a different range of products and this paper will discuss thermal decomposition in detail. This paper will also present results of a case study for recovering value added products, in the form of a liquid, solid, and gas, from thermal decomposition of waste oil and scrap tires. The product has a high concentration of benzene, xylene, and toluene. The solid product has significant amounts of carbon black and can be used as an asphalt modifier for road construction. The gas product is primarily composed of methane and is used for heating the reactor.

Saraf, S. [Engineering Technologies, Lombard, IL (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

465

Compact anhydrous HCl to aqueous HCl conversion system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to an inexpensive and compact apparatus adapted for use with a .sup.196 Hg isotope separation process and the conversion of anhydrous HCl to aqueous HCl without the use of air flow to carry the HCl vapor into the converter system.

Grossman, Mark W. (Belmont, MA); Speer, Richard (S. Hamilton, MA)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Technology Pathway  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This technology pathway case investigates the biological conversion of biomass-derived sugars to hydrocarbon biofuels, utilizing data from recent literature references and information consistent with recent pilot-scale demonstrations at NREL. Technical barriers and key research needs have been identified that should be pursued for the pathway to become competitive with petroleum-derived gasoline-, diesel-, and jet-range hydrocarbon blendstocks.

Davis, R.; Biddy, M.; Tan, E.; Tao, L.; Jones, S.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Conversations for a smarter planet: A planet of smarter cities.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a real impact today. But they are just the first step toward a true smart city. For a glimpse of whatConversations for a smarter planet: A planet of smarter cities. © Copyright IBM Australia Limited.ibm.com/legal/copytrade.shtml IBMCCA1043_Cities_R In 1901, only 36% of Australia's population lived in metropolitan areas. Now

468

Improving efficiency of thermoelectric energy conversion devices is a major  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract · Improving efficiency of thermoelectric energy conversion devices is a major challenge Interdisciplinary Program in Material Science Thermal Physics Lab Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 2 S T ZT dominates over increase in Seebeck coefficient leading to poor device performance. Thermoelectric figure

Walker, D. Greg

469

Surface Tension Mediated Conversion of Light to Work David Okawa,,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to a high energy intermediate (e.g., electrical potential, thermal loading, or chemical fuel), which- taics for conversion to electricity, solar thermal for water heating, fast growing plants to produce rely on weak momentum transfer from photons. Harnessing the energy of photons is a far more powerful

Zettl, Alex

470

Catalyst and process development for synthesis gas conversion to isobutylene  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of this project are to develop a new catalyst, the kinetics for this catalyst, reactor models for trickle bed, slurry and fixed bed, and simulate the performance of fixed bed trickle flow reactors, slurry flow reactors, and fixed bed gas phase reactors for conversion of a hydrogen lean synthesis gas to isobutylene.

Anthony, R.G.; Akgerman, A.

1992-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

471

CRAD, Training- Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January 2005 assessment of the Training Program at the Y-12 - Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility.

472

CRAD, Management- Y-12 Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A section of Appendix C to DOE G 226.1-2 "Federal Line Management Oversight of Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities." Consists of Criteria Review and Approach Documents (CRADs) used for a January 2005 assessment of Management program at the Y-12 - Enriched Uranium Operations Oxide Conversion Facility.

473

Review of Mode-Conversion Calculations in Toroidal Plasmasy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Institute of Technology SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden y work performed during a visit at CRPP, september 1999 ABSTRACT. Recent developments in the gyrokinetic modeling of drift-, Alfv´en and Bernstein waves allow-hybrid resonances where mode-conversion is possible; the power absorption can however not cor- rectly be determined

Jaun, André

474

Review of ModeConversion Calculations in Toroidal Plasmas y  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Institute of Technology SE­100 44 Stockholm, Sweden y work performed during a visit at CRPP, september 1999 ABSTRACT. Recent developments in the gyrokinetic modeling of drift­, Alfvâ??en and Bernstein waves allow­hybrid resonances where mode­conversion is possible; the power absorption can however not cor­ rectly be determined

Jaun, André

475

Wind Energy Conversion Systems Fault Diagnosis Using Wavelet Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wind Energy Conversion Systems Fault Diagnosis Using Wavelet Analysis Elie Al-Ahmar1,2 , Mohamed El, induction generator, Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), failure diagnosis. I. Introduction Wind energy the condition of induction machines. Fig. 1. Worldwide growth of wind energy installed capacity [1]. 1 E. Al

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

476

Energy Conversion and Storage Program. 1990 annual report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy Conversion and Storage Program applies chemistry and materials science principles to solve problems in (1) production of new synthetic fuels, (2) development of high-performance rechargeable batteries and fuel cells, (3) development of advanced thermochemical processes for energy conversion, (4) characterization of complex chemical processes, and (5) application of novel materials for energy conversion and transmission. Projects focus on transport-process principles, chemical kinetics, thermodynamics, separation processes, organic and physical chemistry, novel materials, and advanced methods of analysis. Electrochemistry research aims to develop advanced power systems for electric vehicle and stationary energy storage applications. Topics include identification of new electrochemical couples for advanced rechargeable batteries, improvements in battery and fuel-cell materials, and the establishment of engineering principles applicable to electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Chemical Applications research includes topics such as separations, catalysis, fuels, and chemical analyses. Included in this program area are projects to develop improved, energy-efficient methods for processing waste streams from synfuel plants and coal gasifiers. Other research projects seek to identify and characterize the constituents of liquid fuel-system streams and to devise energy-efficient means for their separation. Materials Applications research includes the evaluation of the properties of advanced materials, as well as the development of novel preparation techniques. For example, the use of advanced techniques, such as sputtering and laser ablation, are being used to produce high-temperature superconducting films.

Cairns, E.J.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Energy conversion of fully random thermal relaxation times Franois Barriquand  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Energy conversion of fully random thermal relaxation times François Barriquand proba5050@hotmail.com ABSTRACT. Thermodynamic random processes in thermal systems are generally associated with one or several relaxation times, the inverse of which are formally homogeneous with energy. Here, we show in a precise way

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

478

Assessment of effectiveness of geologic isolation systems. ARRRG and FOOD: computer programs for calculating radiation dose to man from radionuclides in the environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The computer programs ARRRG and FOOD were written to facilitate the calculation of internal radiation doses to man from the radionuclides in the environment and external radiation doses from radionuclides in the environment. Using ARRRG, radiation doses to man may be calculated for radionuclides released to bodies of water from which people might obtain fish, other aquatic foods, or drinking water, and in which they might fish, swim or boat. With the FOOD program, radiation doses to man may be calculated from deposition on farm or garden soil and crops during either an atmospheric or water release of radionuclides. Deposition may be either directly from the air or from irrigation water. Fifteen crop or animal product pathways may be chosen. ARRAG and FOOD doses may be calculated for either a maximum-exposed individual or for a population group. Doses calculated are a one-year dose and a committed dose from one year of exposure. The exposure is usually considered as chronic; however, equations are included to calculate dose and dose commitment from acute (one-time) exposure. The equations for calculating internal dose and dose commitment are derived from those given by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) for body burdens and Maximum Permissible Concentration (MPC) of each radionuclide. The radiation doses from external exposure to contaminated farm fields or shorelines are calculated assuming an infinite flat plane source of radionuclides. A factor of two is included for surface roughness. A modifying factor to compensate for finite extent is included in the shoreline calculations.

Napier, B.A.; Roswell, R.L.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Strenge, D.L.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Study of thermal conversion of naphthenic oils on the basis of analysis of their middle fractions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The composition of the middle fractions of the thermal decomposition products of naphthenic oils obtained at 300, 350, and 400{degrees}C was studied. It was shown that the character of conversions of petroleum hydrocarbons is governed by the intensity of thermal treatment and by the chemical nature of the starting oil. The removal of aliphatic chains from high-boiling components of the petroleum at a temperature below 350{degrees}C results in the new formation of linear and isoprene alkanes in their middle fractions similarly to the catagenic transformations of oils in deposits. The rise in temperature up to 400{degrees}C enhances the destruction processes related to extension of the reactions of the homolytic cleavage of C-C bonds in aliphatic chains. This results in practically complete destruction of isoprene alkanes and in predominance of low-molecular homologs among the linear alkanes. On the basis of the results obtained it can be supposed that the thermal treatment is an important factor in the conversion of naphthenic oils into paraffin oils. 10 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Kayukova, G.P.; Kurbskii, G.P.; Mutalapova, R.I. [A.E. Arbuzov Inst. of Organic and Physical Chemistry, Kazan (Russian Federation)] [and others

1994-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

480

Human In vivo Dose-Response to Controlled, Low-Dose Low Linear EnergyTransfer Ionizing Radiation Exposure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Human In vivo Dose-Response to Controlled, Low-Dose Low Linear EnergyTransfer Ionizing Radiation Purpose: The effect of low doses of low ^ linear energy transfer (photon) ionizing radiation (LDIR, and pathway. Conclusions: These results show for the first time that low doses of radiation have an identifi

Rocke, David M.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "dose conversion factors" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

A work bibliography on native food consumption, demography and lifestyle. Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to provide a bibliography for the Native American tribe participants in the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project to use. The HEDR Project`s primary objective is to estimate the radiation dose that individuals could have received as a result of emissions since 1944 from the US Department of Energy`s Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Eight Native American tribes are responsible for estimating daily and seasonal consumption of traditional foods, demography, and other lifestyle factors that could have affected the radiation dose received by tribal members. This report provides a bibliography of recorded accounts that tribal researchers may use to verify their estimates. The bibliographic citations include references to information on the specific tribes, Columbia River plateau ethnobotany, infant feeding practices and milk consumption, nutritional studies and radiation, tribal economic and demographic characteristics (1940--1970), research methods, primary sources from the National Archives, regional archives, libraries, and museums.

Murray, C.E.; Lee, W.J.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Total dose and dose rate models for bipolar transistors in circuit simulation.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this work is to develop a model for total dose effects in bipolar junction transistors for use in circuit simulation. The components of the model are an electrical model of device performance that includes the effects of trapped charge on device behavior, and a model that calculates the trapped charge densities in a specific device structure as a function of radiation dose and dose rate. Simulations based on this model are found to agree well with measurements on a number of devices for which data are available.

Campbell, Phillip Montgomery; Wix, Steven D.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Planning Document for an NBSR Conversion Safety Analysis Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCNR) is a reactor-laboratory complex providing the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the nation with a world-class facility for the performance of neutron-based research. The heart of this facility is the National Bureau of Standards Reactor (NBSR). The NBSR is a heavy water moderated and cooled reactor operating at 20 MW. It is fueled with high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel elements. A Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) program is underway to convert the reactor to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel. This program includes the qualification of the proposed fuel, uranium and molybdenum alloy foil clad in an aluminum alloy, and the development of the fabrication techniques. This report is a planning document for the conversion Safety Analysis Report (SAR) that would be submitted to, and approved by, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) before the reactor could be converted.This report follows the recommended format and content from the NRC codified in NUREG-1537, “Guidelines for Preparing and Reviewing Applications for the Licensing of Non-power Reactors,” Chapter 18, “Highly Enriched to Low-Enriched Uranium Conversions.” The emphasis herein is on the SAR chapters that require significant changes as a result of conversion, primarily Chapter 4, Reactor Description, and Chapter 13, Safety Analysis. The document provides information on the proposed design for the LEU fuel elements and identifies what information is still missing. This document is intended to assist ongoing fuel development efforts, and to provide a platform for the development of the final conversion SAR. This report contributes directly to the reactor conversion pillar of the GTRI program, but also acts as a boundary condition for the fuel development and fuel fabrication pillars.

Diamond D. J.; Baek J.; Hanson, A.L.; Cheng, L-Y.; Brown, N.; Cuadra, A.

2013-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

484

Observation of a Dose-Control Relationship for Lung and Liver Tumors After Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To determine prognostic factors for local control of primary or metastatic tumors within the lung or liver treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) within a single institution. Methods and Materials: The records of 141 consecutive patients with 246 lesions treated with three-fraction SBRT from Oct 1999 through Aug 2005 were reviewed. Local control was assessed radiographically. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the influence of the following factors on local control: total dose, expressed as either nominal prescription dose or equivalent uniform dose (EUD); gross tumor volume; primary site; treatment site (lung vs. other); histologic characteristics (adenocarcinoma vs. other); gender; age; and primary vs. metastatic tumor. Results: On univariate analysis, increased dose (either nominal or EUD) and smaller gross tumor volume were significant predictors of higher local control. Lesions treated to a nominal dose of 54 Gy or greater had a 3-year actuarial local control rate of 89.3% compared with 59.0% and 8.1% for those treated to 36-53.9 Gy and less than 36 Gy. On multivariate analysis, only increased nominal dose and EUD retained statistical significance. Treatment was well tolerated; 5.7% of patients experienced Grade 3 or higher toxicity. Conclusions: This large single-institution series suggests a dose-control relationship within the range of SBRT doses applied. Excellent local control rates are achieved with a nominal dose of 54 Gy or greater, corresponding to an EUD greater than 65.3 Gy. These results support the use of aggressive SBRT regimens when durable tumor control is the primary objective.

McCammon, Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO (United States)], E-mail: Robert.mccammon@uchsc.edu; Schefter, Tracey E.; Gaspar, Laurie E.; Zaemisch, Rebekah; Gravdahl, Daniel; Kavanagh, Brian [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO (United States)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Super-radiant backward-wave oscillators with enhanced power conversion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We propose a method for a very significant increase of the peak power of a backward-wave electron oscillator operating in the non-stationary regime of the super-radiation of short rf pulses. This method is based on sectioning: a regular self-oscillator section is supported with a section providing amplification of the super-radiant pulse. Profiling of a resonant parameter in the amplifying section is used to avoid the parasitic self-excitation and to increase the efficiency of the electron-wave interaction. In such systems, the conversion factor (the ratio between the rf pulse power and the electron beam power) can achieve a few hundred percent.

Rostov, V. V. [Institute of High Current Electronics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Savilov, A. V. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia, and Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

2013-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

486

A survey of Opportunities for Microbial Conversion of Biomass to Hydrocarbon Compatible Fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biomass is uniquely able to supply renewable and sustainable liquid transportation fuels. In the near term, the Biomass program has a 2012 goal of cost competitive cellulosic ethanol. However, beyond 2012, there will be an increasing need to provide liquid transportation fuels that are more compatible with the existing infrastructure and can supply fuel into all transportation sectors, including aviation and heavy road transport. Microbial organisms are capable of producing a wide variety of fuel and fuel precursors such as higher alcohols, ethers, esters, fatty acids, alkenes and alkanes. This report surveys liquid fuels and fuel precurors that can be produced from microbial processes, but are not yet ready for commercialization using cellulosic feedstocks. Organisms, current research and commercial activities, and economics are addressed. Significant improvements to yields and process intensification are needed to make these routes economic. Specifically, high productivity, titer and efficient conversion are the key factors for success.

Jovanovic, Iva; Jones, Susanne B.; Santosa, Daniel M.; Dai, Ziyu; Ramasamy, Karthikeyan K.; Zhu, Yunhua

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Biomass Feedstock and Conversion Supply System Design and Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Idaho National Laboratory (INL) supports the U.S. Department of Energy’s bioenergy research program. As part of the research program INL investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. A series of reports were published between 2000 and 2013 to demonstrate the feedstock logistics cost. Those reports were tailored to specific feedstock and conversion process. Although those reports are different in terms of conversion, some of the process in the feedstock logistic are same for each conversion process. As a result, each report has similar information. A single report can be designed that could bring all commonality occurred in the feedstock logistics process while discussing the feedstock logistics cost for different conversion process. Therefore, this report is designed in such a way that it can capture different feedstock logistics cost while eliminating the need of writing a conversion specific design report. Previous work established the current costs based on conventional equipment and processes. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a delivered biomass logistics cost of $55/dry ton for woody biomass delivered to fast pyrolysis conversion facility. The goal was achieved by applying field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model. The goal of the 2017 Design Case is to enable expansion of biofuels production beyond highly productive resource areas by breaking the reliance of cost-competitive biofuel production on a single, low-cost feedstock. The 2017 programmatic target is to supply feedstock to the conversion facility that meets the in-feed conversion process quality specifications at a total logistics cost of $80/dry T. The $80/dry T. target encompasses total delivered feedstock cost, including both grower payment and logistics costs, while meeting all conversion in-feed quality targets. The 2012 $55/dry T. programmatic target included only logistics costs with a limited focus on biomass quantity, quality and did not include a grower payment. The 2017 Design Case explores two approaches to addressing the logistics challenge: one is an agronomic solution based on blending and integrated landscape management and the second is a logistics solution based on distributed biomass preprocessing depots. The concept behind blended feedstocks and integrated landscape management is to gain access to more regional feedstock at lower access fees (i.e., grower payment) and to reduce preprocessing costs by blending high quality feedstocks with marginal quality feedstocks. Blending has been used in the grain industry for a long time; however, the concept of blended feedstocks in the biofuel industry is a relatively new concept. The blended feedstock strategy relies on the availability of multiple feedstock sources that are blended using a least-cost formulation within an economical supply radius, which, in turn, decreases the grower payment by reducing the amount of any single biomass. This report will introduce the concepts of blending and integrated landscape management and justify their importance in meeting the 2017 programmatic goals.

Jacob J. Jacobson; Mohammad S. Roni; Patrick Lamers; Kara G. Cafferty

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Conversion Pathway: Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons The 2017 Design Case  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blendstocks from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. Between 2000 and 2012, INL conducted a campaign to quantify the economics and sustainability of moving biomass from standing in the field or stand to the throat of the biomass conversion process. The goal of this program was to establish the current costs based on conventional equipment and processes, design improvements to the current system, and to mark annual improvements based on higher efficiencies or better designs. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a delivered biomass logistics cost of $35/dry ton. This goal was successfully achieved in 2012 by implementing field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model. Looking forward to 2017, the programmatic target is to supply biomass to the conversion facilities at a total cost of $80/dry ton and on specification with in-feed requirements. The goal of the 2017 Design Case is to enable expansion of biofuels production beyond highly productive resource areas by breaking the reliance of cost-competitive biofuel production on a single, abundant, low-cost feedstock. If this goal is not achieved, biofuel plants are destined to be small and/or clustered in select regions of the country that have a lock on low-cost feedstock. To put the 2017 cost target into perspective of past accomplishments of the cellulosic ethanol pathway, the $80 target encompasses total delivered feedstock cost, including both grower payment and logistics costs, while meeting all conversion in-feed quality targets. The 2012 $35 programmatic target included only logistics costs with a limited focus on biomass quality

Kevin Kenney; Kara G. Cafferty; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ian J Bonner; Garold L. Gresham; William A. Smith; David N. Thompson; Vicki S. Thompson; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Neal Yancey

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Low Dose Suppression of Neoplastic Transformation in Vitro  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This grant was to study the low dose suppression of neoplastic transformation in vitro and the shape of the dose-response curve at low doses and dose-rates of ionizing radiation. Previous findings had indicated a suppression of transformation at dose <10cGy of low-LET radiation when delivered at high dose-rate. The present study indicates that such suppression extends out to doses in excess of 100cGy when the dose (from I-125 photons) is delivered at dose-rates as low as 0.2 mGy/min and out to in excess of {approx}25cGy the highest dose studied at the very low dose-rate of 0.5 mGy/day. We also examined dose-rate effects for high energy protons (which are a low-LET radiation) and suppression was evident below {approx}10cGy for high dose-rate delivery and at least out to 50cGy for low dose-rate (20cGy/h) delivery. Finally, we also examined the effect of low doses of 1 GeV/n iron ions (a high-LET radiation) delivered at high dose-rate on transformation at low doses and found a suppression below {approx}10cGy that could be attributable to an adaptive response in bystander cells induced by the associated low-LET delta rays. These results have implications for cancer risk assessment at low doses.

John Leslie Redpath

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Conversion of CO2 into Commercial Materials Using Carbon Feedstocks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this project, our research focused on developing reaction chemistry that would support using carbon as a reductant for CO2 utilization that would permit CO2 consumption on a scale that would match or exceed anthropomorphic CO2 generation for energy production from fossil fuels. Armed with the knowledge that reactions attempting to produce compounds with an energy content greater than CO2 would be thermodynamically challenged and/or require significant amounts of energy, we developed a potential process that utilized a solid carbon source and recycled the carbon to effectively provide infinite time for the carbon to react. During testing of different carbon sources, we found a wide range of reaction rates. Biomass-derived samples had the most reactivity and coals and petcoke had the lowest. Because we had anticipated this challenge, we recognized that a catalyst would be necessary to improve reaction rates and conversion. From the data analysis of carbon samples, we recognized that alkali metals improved the reaction rate. Through parametric testing of catalyst formulations we were able to increase the reaction rate with petcoke by a factor of >70. Our efforts to identify the reaction mechanism to assist in improving the catalyst formulation demonstrated that the catalyst was catalyzing the extraction of oxygen from CO2 and using this extracted oxygen to oxidize carbon. This was a significant discovery in that if we could modify the catalyst formulation to permit controlled the oxidation, we would have a very power selective oxidation process. With selective oxidation, CO2 utilization could be effective used as one of the process steps in making many of the large volume commodity chemicals that support our modern lifestyles. The key challenges for incorporating these functionalities into the catalyst formulation were to make the oxidation selective and lower the temperature required for catalytic activity. We identified four catalyst families that had the potential to meet these challenges. Initial screening of the catalyst families did show that the reduction/oxidation activity did occur at lower temperatures and that these catalysts were able to cause carbon chain growth as well as C—C cleavage. A preliminary techno-economic feasibility of using petcoke/catalyst to produce a CO-rich syngas product was completed and showed significant economic promise. Testing of the different catalyst families demonstrated that Catalyst A was able to stably produce 5 sccm of ethylene/gram of catalyst at 900°C for one hour. For dry methane reforming, our Catalyst 4 was able to achieve production rates of > 10 sccm of CO and > 3 sccm of H2 per gram of catalyst at 600°C and 350 psig. Based on these developments, the potential for CO2 utilization in the production of large volume commodity chemicals is very promising.

Shen, Jian-Ping; Peters, Jonathan; Lail, Marty; Mobley, Paul; Turk, Brian

2014-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

491

Dose reduction for snubber inspection and testing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports that Health physics staff members at Grand Gulf Nuclear Station have implemented several dose reduction methods for snubber inspection, testing and changeout. These methods include construction maps to permit easy location of snubbers in the drywell, painting azimuth numbers on the inside drywell wall and biological shield wall to coincide with the maps, requiring pre-job briefings for quality inspectors and craft support personnel, using job history files for work planning, using experienced inspectors and craft personnel whenever possible, designating certain craft personnel solely for snubber work, and cutting out stuck snubber pins rather than attempting intact removal. The total dose for snubber-related tasks has been significantly reduced using these methods.

Morrison, G.M.; Cotton, S.R. (Entergy Operations, Inc. (US))

1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

WaveBob (TRL 5 6 System) - Advanced Wave Energy Conversion Project...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

WaveBob (TRL 5 6 System) - Advanced Wave Energy Conversion Project WaveBob (TRL 5 6 System) - Advanced Wave Energy Conversion Project WaveBob (TRL 5 6 System) - Advanced Wave...

493

Geek-Up[09.17.2010] -- Water Blades, Biomass Conversion and Antineutri...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Geek-Up09.17.2010 -- Water Blades, Biomass Conversion and Antineutrino Detection Geek-Up09.17.2010 -- Water Blades, Biomass Conversion and Antineutrino Detection September 17,...

494

Power conversion system design for supercritical carbon dioxide cooled indirect cycle nuclear reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO?) cycle is a promising advanced power conversion cycle which couples nicely to many Generation IV nuclear reactors. This work investigates the power conversion system design and ...

Gibbs, Jonathan Paul

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

A PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF IMPINGEMENT AND ENTRAINMENT BY OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PLANTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Program PreoperationalThermal Energy Conversion (OTEC), U.S. Department of Energy,aspects of the screens for OTEC intake systems. U.S. Energy

Sullivan, S.M.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

The Role of Ir in Ternary Rh-Based Catalysts for Syngas Conversion...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Ir in Ternary Rh-Based Catalysts for Syngas Conversion to C2+ Oxygenates. The Role of Ir in Ternary Rh-Based Catalysts for Syngas Conversion to C2+ Oxygenates. Abstract: Transition...

497

Direct Conversion of Bio-ethanol to Isobutene on Nanosized ZnxZryOz...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Conversion of Bio-ethanol to Isobutene on Nanosized ZnxZryOz Mixed Oxides with Balanced Acid–Base Sites. Direct Conversion of Bio-ethanol to Isobutene on Nanosized ZnxZryOz...

498

A study of ZnxZryOz mixed oxides for direct conversion of ethanol...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

study of ZnxZryOz mixed oxides for direct conversion of ethanol to isobutene. A study of ZnxZryOz mixed oxides for direct conversion of ethanol to isobutene. Abstract: ZnxZryOz...

499

SYNFORMPeople, Trends and Views in Synthetic Organic Chemistry Direct Conversion of Arylamines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Formamides to Alkynes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A41 Direct ConversionSYNFORMPeople, Trends and Views in Synthetic Organic Chemistry 2010/05 Thieme SYNSTORIES Direct Conversion of Arylamines to Pinacol Boronates Palladium-Catalyzed Intermolecular Addition of Formamides

Wang, Jianbo

500

ARTICLE doi:10.1038/nature09591 Direct conversion of human fibroblasts to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ARTICLE doi:10.1038/nature09591 Direct conversion of human fibroblasts to multilineage blood, we demonstrate and characterize direct haematopoietic fate conversion to multipotent blood of the haematopoietic fate directly from human dermal fibroblasts without establishing pluripotency. Ectopic expression