Sample records for domestic heating fuels

  1. 16 Heat Transfer and Air Flow in a Domestic Refrigerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    445 16 Heat Transfer and Air Flow in a Domestic Refrigerator Onrawee Laguerre UMR Génie Industriel...............................................447 16.2.1 Studies in Domestic Refrigerators...................................................................................... 451 16.3 Cold Production System in Domestic Refrigerators

  2. Comparative evaluation of the impacts of domestic gas and electric heat pump heating on air pollution in California. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganji, A. [San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States). Div. of Engineering

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Residential space and water heating accounts for approximately 12% of California`s and 15% of the United States, energy consumption. most Of the residential heating is by direct use of natural gas. combustion of natural gas is a contributor to the overall air pollution,, especially CO and NO{sub x} in the urban areas. Another efficient method for domestic water and space heating is use of electric heat pumps, the most popular category of which uses air as its heat source. Electric heat pumps do not emit air pollutants at the point of use, but use electric power, which is a major contributor to air pollution at its point of generation from fossil fuels. It is the specific objective of this report to evaluate and compare the energy efficiency and source air pollutants of natural gas heaters and electric heat pumps used for domestic heating. Effect of replacing natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps on air pollutant emissions due to domestic heating in two urban areas and in California as a whole has also been evaluated. The analysis shows that with the present state of technology, electric heat pumps have higher heating efficiencies than natural gas heaters. Considering the current electricity generation mix in the US, electric heat pumps produce two to four times more NO{sub x}, much less CO, and comparable amount of CO{sub 2} per unit of useful heating energy compared to natural gas heaters. With California mix, electric heat pumps produce comparable NO{sub x} and much less CO and approximately 30% less CO{sub 2} per unit heat output. Replacement of natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps will slightly increase the overall NO{sub x}, and reduce CO and CO{sub 2} emissions in California. The effect of advanced technology power generation and heat pump heating has also been analyzed.

  3. Comparative evaluation of the impacts of domestic gas and electric heat pump heating on air pollution in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganji, A. (San Francisco State Univ., CA (United States). Div. of Engineering)

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Residential space and water heating accounts for approximately 12% of California's and 15% of the United States, energy consumption. most Of the residential heating is by direct use of natural gas. combustion of natural gas is a contributor to the overall air pollution,, especially CO and NO{sub x} in the urban areas. Another efficient method for domestic water and space heating is use of electric heat pumps, the most popular category of which uses air as its heat source. Electric heat pumps do not emit air pollutants at the point of use, but use electric power, which is a major contributor to air pollution at its point of generation from fossil fuels. It is the specific objective of this report to evaluate and compare the energy efficiency and source air pollutants of natural gas heaters and electric heat pumps used for domestic heating. Effect of replacing natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps on air pollutant emissions due to domestic heating in two urban areas and in California as a whole has also been evaluated. The analysis shows that with the present state of technology, electric heat pumps have higher heating efficiencies than natural gas heaters. Considering the current electricity generation mix in the US, electric heat pumps produce two to four times more NO{sub x}, much less CO, and comparable amount of CO{sub 2} per unit of useful heating energy compared to natural gas heaters. With California mix, electric heat pumps produce comparable NO{sub x} and much less CO and approximately 30% less CO{sub 2} per unit heat output. Replacement of natural gas heaters with electric heat pumps will slightly increase the overall NO{sub x}, and reduce CO and CO{sub 2} emissions in California. The effect of advanced technology power generation and heat pump heating has also been analyzed.

  4. Thermodynamic analysis of the reverse Joule–Brayton cycle heat pump for domestic heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, Alexander

    2009-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper presents an analysis of the effects of irreversibility on the performance of a reverse Joule–Brayton cycle heat pump for domestic heating applications. Both the simple and recuperated (regenerative) cycle are considered at a variety...

  5. Energy Consumption and Demand as Affected by Heat Pumps that Cool, Heat and Heat Domestic Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cawley, R.

    heaters. The methods presented demonstrate how integrated systems can be of value in reducing daily summertime peaks. INTRODUCTION A need for descriptors to evaluate systems that condition space and heat domestic water has been recognized for several... added to and used by the water from the desuperheated refrigerant - heat normally provided by the electric water heater's resistance elements. DESCRIPTION OF EQUIPMENT The system considered for this study is best described by U.S. Patent No. 4...

  6. WARMWASSER ERNEUERBARE ENERGIEN KLIMA RAUMHEIZUNG Adsorption Heat-Pumps for domestic heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    1 #12;WARMWASSER ERNEUERBARE ENERGIEN KLIMA RAUMHEIZUNG Adsorption Heat-Pumps for domestic heating J. Üpping1, E. Wagner1, D. Brühling1, K. Schiefelbein1, I. Daßler2, R. Hermann2, W. Mittelbach2 Heat module Gas adsorption heat pump #12;5 Zeolite ­ a natural mineral [1] von www.vaillant.de [2] www

  7. United States Domestic Research Reactor Infrastrucutre TRIGA Reactor Fuel Support

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas Morrell

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The United State Domestic Research Reactor Infrastructure Program at the Idaho National Laboratory manages and provides project management, technical, quality engineering, quality inspection and nuclear material support for the United States Department of Energy sponsored University Reactor Fuels Program. This program provides fresh, unirradiated nuclear fuel to Domestic University Research Reactor Facilities and is responsible for the return of the DOE-owned, irradiated nuclear fuel over the life of the program. This presentation will introduce the program management team, the universities supported by the program, the status of the program and focus on the return process of irradiated nuclear fuel for long term storage at DOE managed receipt facilities. It will include lessons learned from research reactor facilities that have successfully shipped spent fuel elements to DOE receipt facilities.

  8. Dynamic Allocation of a Domestic Heating Task to Gas-Based and Heatpump-Based Heating Agents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treur, Jan

    Dynamic Allocation of a Domestic Heating Task to Gas-Based and Heatpump-Based Heating Agents Jan for a domestic heating task is introduced and analysed. The model includes two alternative heating agents (for gas-based heating and for heatpump-based heating), and a third allocation agent which determines

  9. Author's personal copy Effectiveness of domestic wastewater treatment using microbial fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction Conventional biological wastewater treatmentAuthor's personal copy Effectiveness of domestic wastewater treatment using microbial fuel cells 2009 Available online 5 September 2009 Keywords: Domestic wastewater treatment Energy recovery

  10. Apparatus for regenerative heating of diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leary, D.F.; Olds, R.N.

    1987-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes an apparatus for heating diesel fuel before it is filtered and for transferring heat from filtered diesel fuel to diesel fuel to be filtered, the apparatus comprising means for removably securing it between a fuel manifold and a fuel filter of a fuel supply system of a diesel-engined vehicle. The apparatus comprises: (1) an electric heater; (2) means for connecting the heater to a power supply; and (3) a housing which comprises: a heat-exchange chamber having a heat-exchange member therein and having a first entry port for the entry of filtered diesel fuel from a fuel filter when the apparatus is secured to a fuel filter, and a first exit port for the exit of fuel to a fuel manifold when the apparatus is secured to a fuel manifold; the first entry and exit ports defining a first passage therebetween on one side of the heat exchange member. The heat exchange member has a second entry port for entry of diesel fuel from a fuel manifold when the apparatus is secured to a fuel manifold and having a second exit port for the exit of fuel to a heating chamber. The second entry and exit ports define a second passage on the other side of the heat-exchange member so that heat from the first passage can be transferred to the second passage through the heat-exchange member; and a heating chamber having a heating chamber entry port for the entry of diesel fuel from the second exit port of the heat exchange means and a heating chamber exit port for the exit of diesel fuel to a filter when the apparatus is secured to a fuel filter.

  11. Heating subsurface formations by oxidizing fuel on a fuel carrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Costello, Michael; Vinegar, Harold J.

    2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of heating a portion of a subsurface formation includes drawing fuel on a fuel carrier through an opening formed in the formation. Oxidant is supplied to the fuel at one or more locations in the opening. The fuel is combusted with the oxidant to provide heat to the formation.

  12. Examination of microbial fuel cell start-up times with domestic wastewater and additional amendments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    biological process used for wastewater treatment is desirable to avoid discharge of untreated wastewaterExamination of microbial fuel cell start-up times with domestic wastewater and additional Available online 30 April 2011 Keywords: Microbial fuel cell Domestic wastewater Startup time Substrate a b

  13. Solar Thermochemical Fuels Production: Solar Fuels via Partial Redox Cycles with Heat Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATS Project: The University of Minnesota is developing a solar thermochemical reactor that will efficiently produce fuel from sunlight, using solar energy to produce heat to break chemical bonds. The University of Minnesota is envisioning producing the fuel by using partial redox cycles and ceria-based reactive materials. The team will achieve unprecedented solar-to-fuel conversion efficiencies of more than 10% (where current state-of-the-art efficiency is 1%) by combined efforts and innovations in material development, and reactor design with effective heat recovery mechanisms and demonstration. This new technology will allow for the effective use of vast domestic solar resources to produce precursors to synthetic fuels that could replace gasoline.

  14. Simulating the energy savings potential in domestic heating scenarios in Switzerland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and ventilation, as well as the heat gains due to internal gains, solar gains and the heating system. In Section 5Simulating the energy savings potential in domestic heating scenarios in Switzerland Wilhelm a new methodology to prepare weather data for simulating the energy consumption of a heating system when

  15. Combustion & Fuels Waste Heat Recovery & Utilization Project...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion & Fuels Waste Heat Recovery & Utilization Project Project Technical Lead - Thermoelectric Analysis & Materials 27 February 2008 2008 DOE OVT Annual Merit Review 2008...

  16. One Machine for Heating Cooling & Domestic Hot Water: Multi-Function Heat Pumps to Enable Zero Net Energy Homes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    One Machine for Heating Cooling & Domestic Hot Water: Multi-Function Heat Pumps to Enable Zero Net at the core of a zero-net-energy demonstration home designed to generate enough electricity to also power policy initiatives to advance zero net energy homes as standard practice. #12;As heat pump systems become

  17. Measure Guideline: Combination Forced-Air Space and Tankless Domestic Hot Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes design and application guidance for combination space and tankless domestic hot water heating systems (combination systems) used in residential buildings, based on field evaluation, testing, and industry meetings conducted by Building Science Corporation. As residential building enclosure improvements continue to drive heating loads down, using the same water heating equipment for both space heating and domestic water heating becomes attractive from an initial cost and space-saving perspective. This topic is applicable to single- and multi-family residential buildings, both new and retrofitted.

  18. A Comparison of Domestic Water Heating Options in the Austin Electric Service Area

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vliet, G. C.; Hood, D. B.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , M., and F. C. Fontana, "Heat-Pump Desuperheaters for Supplying Domestic Not Water - Estimation of Energy Savings and Economic Viability For Residential Applications," ORNLICON-114. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, May 1983. 11...

  19. ITER Ion Cyclotron Heating and Fueling Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rasmussen, D.A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States); Baylor, L.R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States); Combs, S.K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States); Fredd, E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (United States); Goulding, R.H. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States); Hosea, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (United States); Swain, D.W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (United States)

    2005-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The ITER burning plasma and advanced operating regimes require robust and reliable heating and current drive and fueling systems. The ITER design documents describe the requirements and reference designs for the ion cyclotron and pellet fueling systems. Development and testing programs are required to optimize, validate and qualify these systems for installation on ITER.The ITER ion cyclotron system offers significant technology challenges. The antenna must operate in a nuclear environment and withstand heat loads and disruption forces beyond present-day designs. It must operate for long pulse lengths and be highly reliable, delivering power to a plasma load with properties that will change throughout the discharge. The ITER ion cyclotron system consists of one eight-strap antenna, eight rf sources (20 MW, 35-65 MHz), associated high-voltage DC power supplies, transmission lines and matching and decoupling components.The ITER fueling system consists of a gas injection system and multiple pellet injectors for edge fueling and deep core fueling. Pellet injection will be the primary ITER fuel delivery system. The fueling requirements will require significant extensions in pellet injector pulse length ({approx}3000 s), throughput (400 torr-L/s,) and reliability. The proposed design is based on a centrifuge accelerator fed by a continuous screw extruder. Inner wall pellet injection with the use of curved guide tubes will be utilized for deep fueling.

  20. Microfabricated fuel heating value monitoring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robinson, Alex L. (Albuquerque, NM); Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM); Moorman, Matthew W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A microfabricated fuel heating value monitoring device comprises a microfabricated gas chromatography column in combination with a catalytic microcalorimeter. The microcalorimeter can comprise a reference thermal conductivity sensor to provide diagnostics and surety. Using microfabrication techniques, the device can be manufactured in production quantities at a low per-unit cost. The microfabricated fuel heating value monitoring device enables continuous calorimetric determination of the heating value of natural gas with a 1 minute analysis time and 1.5 minute cycle time using air as a carrier gas. This device has applications in remote natural gas mining stations, pipeline switching and metering stations, turbine generators, and other industrial user sites. For gas pipelines, the device can improve gas quality during transfer and blending, and provide accurate financial accounting. For industrial end users, the device can provide continuous feedback of physical gas properties to improve combustion efficiency during use.

  1. Heat exchanger for fuel cell power plant reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Misage, Robert (Manchester, CT); Scheffler, Glenn W. (Tolland, CT); Setzer, Herbert J. (Ellington, CT); Margiott, Paul R. (Manchester, CT); Parenti, Jr., Edmund K. (Manchester, CT)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat exchanger uses the heat from processed fuel gas from a reformer for a fuel cell to superheat steam, to preheat raw fuel prior to entering the reformer and to heat a water-steam coolant mixture from the fuel cells. The processed fuel gas temperature is thus lowered to a level useful in the fuel cell reaction. The four temperature adjustments are accomplished in a single heat exchanger with only three heat transfer cores. The heat exchanger is preheated by circulating coolant and purge steam from the power section during startup of the latter.

  2. Solar heating, cooling and domestic hot water system installed at Columbia Gas System Service Corp. , Columbus, Ohio. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Solar Energy System located at the Columbia Gas Corporation, Columbus, Ohio, has 2978 ft/sup 2/ of Honeywell single axis tracking, concentrating collectors and provides solar energy for space heating, space cooling and domestic hot water. A 1,200,000 Btu/h Bryan water-tube gas boiler provides hot water for space heating. Space cooling is provided by a 100 ton Arkla hot water fired absorption chiller. Domestic hot water heating is provided by a 50 gallon natural gas domestic storage water heater. Extracts are included from the site files, specification references, drawings, installation, operation and maintenance instructions.

  3. Method and apparatus for fuel gas moisturization and heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ranasinghe, Jatila (Niskayuna, NY); Smith, Raub Warfield (Ballston Lake, NY)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel gas is saturated with water heated with a heat recovery steam generator heat source. The heat source is preferably a water heating section downstream of the lower pressure evaporator to provide better temperature matching between the hot and cold heat exchange streams in that portion of the heat recovery steam generator. The increased gas mass flow due to the addition of moisture results in increased power output from the gas and steam turbines. Fuel gas saturation is followed by superheating the fuel, preferably with bottom cycle heat sources, resulting in a larger thermal efficiency gain compared to current fuel heating methods. There is a gain in power output compared to no fuel heating, even when heating the fuel to above the LP steam temperature.

  4. Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudd, A.; Ueno, K.; Bergey, D.; Osser, R.

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The topic of this meeting was 'Recommendations For Applying Water Heaters In Combination Space And Domestic Water Heating Systems.' Presentations and discussions centered on the design, performance, and maintenance of these combination systems, with the goal of developing foundational information toward the development of a Building America Measure Guideline on this topic. The meeting was held at the Westford Regency Hotel, in Westford, Massachusetts on 7/31/2011.

  5. Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    opportunity fuel(s) for distributed energy resources and combined heat and power (DERCHP) applications, examine the DERCHP technologies that can use them, and assess the...

  6. Fuel cell system with combustor-heated reformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pettit, William Henry (Rochester, NY)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell system including a fuel reformer heated by a catalytic combustor fired by anode effluent and/or fuel from a liquid fuel supply providing fuel for the fuel cell. The combustor includes a vaporizer section heated by the combustor exhaust gases for vaporizing the fuel before feeding it into the combustor. Cathode effluent is used as the principle oxidant for the combustor.

  7. Fuel cells: providing heat and power in the urban environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    Fuel cells: providing heat and power in the urban environment Jim Halliday, Alan Ruddell, Jane;Fuel cells: providing heat and power in the urban environment Tyndall Centre Technical Report No. 32 efficiencies, and therefore reduced CO2 emissions, compared to conventional centralised generation. Fuel cell

  8. Fuel cell entropy production with ohmic heating and diffusive polarization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naterer, Greg F.

    Fuel cell entropy production with ohmic heating and diffusive polarization G.F. Naterer a,*, C production of ohmic heating and concentration polarization is investigated for two types of fuel cells (PEMFC oxide fuel cell (SOFC), this article formulates entropy production within electrodes of a proton

  9. Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Power Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat and Power Capstone Turbine Corporation, in collaboration with the University of California-Irvine, Packer...

  10. Refundable Clean Heating Fuel Tax Credit (Corporate)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The state of New York began offering a corporate income tax credit for biodiesel purchases used for residential space heating and water heating beginning in 2006. The original credit was authorized...

  11. Refundable Clean Heating Fuel Tax Credit (Personal)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The state of New York began offering a personal income tax credit for biodiesel purchases used for residential space heating and water heating beginning in 2006. The original credit was authorized...

  12. Renewable Fuel Heating Plant SyStem SpecificationS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renewable Fuel Heating Plant SyStem SpecificationS Manufacturer: Advanced Recycling Equipment efficiency of natural gas combustion) The facility is designed to meet additional future heating loads, so annual output will increase when the Research Support Facility comes online What it will heat

  13. Nuclear reactor fuel element having improved heat transfer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garnier, J.E.; Begej, S.; Williford, R.E.; Christensen, J.A.

    1982-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A nuclear reactor fuel element having improved heat transfer between fuel material and cladding is described. The element consists of an outer cladding tube divided into an upper fuel section containing a central core of fissionable or mixed fissionable and fertile fuel material, slightly smaller in diameter than the inner surface of the cladding tube and a small lower accumulator section, the cladding tube being which is filled with a low molecular weight gas to transfer heat from fuel material to cladding during irradiation. A plurality of essentially vertical grooves in the fuel section extend downward and communicate with the accumulator section. The radial depth of the grooves is sufficient to provide a thermal gradient between the hot fuel surface and the relatively cooler cladding surface to allow thermal segregation to take place between the low molecular weight heat transfer gas and high molecular weight fission product gases produced by the fuel material during irradiation.

  14. Control apparatus and method for efficiently heating a fuel processor in a fuel cell system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doan, Tien M.; Clingerman, Bruce J.

    2003-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A control apparatus and method for efficiently controlling the amount of heat generated by a fuel cell processor in a fuel cell system by determining a temperature error between actual and desired fuel processor temperatures. The temperature error is converted to a combustor fuel injector command signal or a heat dump valve position command signal depending upon the type of temperature error. Logic controls are responsive to the combustor fuel injector command signals and the heat dump valve position command signal to prevent the combustor fuel injector command signal from being generated if the heat dump valve is opened or, alternately, from preventing the heat dump valve position command signal from being generated if the combustor fuel injector is opened.

  15. Residential Wood Heating Fuel Exemption (New York)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New York exempts retail sales of wood used for residential heating purposes from the state sales tax. The law also permits local governments (municipalities and counties) to grant an exemption from...

  16. Winter Heating Fuels - Energy Information Administration

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at Commercial andSeptember 25, 2012 MEMORANDUMWestern4

  17. EIA-877 WINTER HEATING FUELS TELEPHONE SURVEY

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells, Wisconsin:DeploymentSite Name: Email: Terminal2,7,

  18. Wood Heating Fuel Exemption | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA group currentBradley NickellApril 16, 2008Ms. KesslerKimWomenTinaResidential

  19. York Electric Cooperative- Dual Fuel Heat Pump Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    York Electric Cooperative, Inc. (YEC) offers a $400 rebate to members who install a dual fuel heat pump in homes or businesses. The rebates are for primary residence and/or commercial and...

  20. High pressure low heat rate phosphoric acid fuel cell stack

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wertheim, R.J.

    1987-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A high pressure phosphoric acid fuel cell stack assembly is described comprising: (a) a stack of fuel cells for producing electricity, the stack including cathode means, anode means, and heat exchange means; (b) means for delivering pressurized air to the cathode means; (c) means for delivering a hydrogen rich fuel gas to the anode means for electrochemically reacting with oxygen in the pressurized air to produce electricity and water; (d) first conduit means connected to the cathode means for exhausting a mixture of oxygen-depleted air and reaction water from the cathode means; (e) second conduit means connected to the first conduit means for delivering a water fog to the first conduit means for entrainment in the mixture of oxygen-depleted air and reaction water to form a two phase coolant having a gaseous air phase and an entrained water droplet phase; (f) means for circulating the coolant to the heat exchange means to cool the stack solely through vaporization of the water droplet phase in the heat exchange means whereby a mixed gas exhaust of air and water vapor is exhausted from the heat exchange means; and (g) means for heating the mixed gas exhaust and delivering the heated mixed gas exhaust at reformer reaction temperatures to an autothermal reformer in the stack assembly for autothermal reaction with a raw fuel to form the hydrogen rich fuel.

  1. WORKING PARK-FUEL CELL COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allan Jones

    2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report covers the aims and objectives of the project which was to design, install and operate a fuel cell combined heat and power (CHP) system in Woking Park, the first fuel cell CHP system in the United Kingdom. The report also covers the benefits that were expected to accrue from the work in an understanding of the full technology procurement process (including planning, design, installation, operation and maintenance), the economic and environmental performance in comparison with both conventional UK fuel supply and conventional CHP and the commercial viability of fuel cell CHP energy supply in the new deregulated energy markets.

  2. EIA-877 WINTER HEATING FUELS TELEPHONE SURVEY INSTRUCTIONS

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells, Wisconsin:DeploymentSite Name: Email: Terminal2,7,7, "Winter Heating

  3. Thermoacoustic sensor for nuclear fuel temperaturemonitoring and heat transfer enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James A. Smith; Dale K. Kotter; Randall A. Alli; Steven L. Garrett

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new acoustical sensing system for the nuclear power industry has been developed at The Pennsylvania State University in collaboration with Idaho National Laboratories. This sensor uses the high temperatures of nuclear fuel to convert a nuclear fuel rod into a standing-wave thermoacoustic engine. When a standing wave is generated, the sound wave within the fuel rod will be propagated, by acoustic radiation, through the cooling fluid within the reactor or spent fuel pool and can be monitored a remote location external to the reactor. The frequency of the sound can be correlated to an effective temperature of either the fuel or the surrounding coolant. We will present results for a thermoacoustic resonator built into a Nitonic-60 (stainless steel) fuel rod that requires only one passive component and no heat exchangers.

  4. Heat transfer modeling of dry spent nuclear fuel storage facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present work was undertaken to provide heat transfer model that accurately predicts the thermal performance of dry spent nuclear fuel storage facilities. One of the storage configurations being considered for DOE Aluminum-clad Spent Nuclear Fuel (Al-SNF), such as the Material and Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel, is in a dry storage facility. To support design studies of storage options a computational and experimental program has been conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The main objective is to develop heat transfer models including natural convection effects internal to an interim dry storage canister and to geologic codisposal Waste Package (WP). Calculated temperatures will be used to demonstrate engineering viability of a dry storage option in enclosed interim storage and geologic repository WP and to assess the chemical and physical behaviors of the Al-SNF in the dry storage facilities. The current paper describes the modeling approaches and presents the computational results along with the experimental data.

  5. Heat Transfer Modeling of Dry Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1999-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The present work was undertaken to provide heat transfer model that accurately predicts the thermal performance of dry spent nuclear fuel storage facilities. One of the storage configurations being considered for DOE Aluminum-clad Spent Nuclear Fuel (Al-SNF), such as the Material and Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel, is in a dry storage facility. To support design studies of storage options a computational and experimental program has been conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The main objective is to develop heat transfer models including natural convection effects internal to an interim dry storage canister and to geological codisposal Waste Package (WP). Calculated temperatures will be used to demonstrate engineering viability of a dry storage option in enclosed interim storage and geological repository WP and to assess the chemical and physical behaviors of the Al-SNF in the dry storage facilities. The current paper describes the modeling approaches and presents the computational results along with the experimental data.

  6. An analysis of heating fuel market behavior, 1989--1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to fully assess the heating fuel crisis from a broader and longer-term perspective. Using EIA final, monthly data, in conjunction with credible information from non-government sources, the pricing phenomena exhibited by heating fuels in late December 1989 and early January 1990 are described and evaluated in more detail and more accurately than in the interim report. Additionally, data through February 1990 (and, in some cases, preliminary figures for March) make it possible to assess the market impact of movements in prices and supplies over the heating season as a whole. Finally, the longer time frame and the availability of quarterly reports filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission make it possible to weigh the impact of revenue gains in December and January on overall profits over the two winter quarters. Some of the major, related issues raised during the House and Senate hearings in January concerned the structure of heating fuel markets and the degree to which changes in this structure over the last decade may have influenced the behavior and financial performance of market participants. Have these markets become more concentrated Was collusion or market manipulation behind December's rising prices Did these, or other, factors permit suppliers to realize excessive profits What additional costs were incurred by consumers as a result of such forces These questions, and others, are addressed in the course of this report.

  7. Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power Improving Desulfurization to Enable Fuel Cell Utilization of Digester Gases This project will develop a new,...

  8. Secure Fuels from Domestic Resources - Oil Shale and Tar Sands | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideo »UsageSecretary of Energy Advisory Board FollowSection 3161L-1

  9. High Temperature Fuel Cell Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Temperature Fuel Cell Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2 from Biogas High Temperature Fuel Cell Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2 from Biogas Success story about using waste water...

  10. Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power - Fact Sheet, 2015 Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power - Fact Sheet, 2015 TDA Research...

  11. EA-1573-S1: Proposed Renewable Fuel Heat Plant Improvements at...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    573-S1: Proposed Renewable Fuel Heat Plant Improvements at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory South Table Mountain Site, Golden, CO EA-1573-S1: Proposed Renewable Fuel Heat...

  12. Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) Furnace for Post-Irradiation Heating Tests of VHTR Fuel Compacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A Demkowicz; Paul Demkowicz; David V Laug

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract –Fuel irradiation testing and post-irradiation examination are currently in progress as part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Fuels Development and Qualification Program. The PIE campaign will include extensive accident testing of irradiated very high temperature reactor fuel compacts to verify fission product retention characteristics at high temperatures. This work will be carried out at both the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, beginning with accident tests on irradiated fuel from the AGR-1 experiment in 2010. A new furnace system has been designed, built, and tested at INL to perform high temperature accident tests. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system is designed to heat fuel specimens at temperatures up to 2000°C in helium while monitoring the release of volatile fission metals (e.g. Cs, Ag, Sr, Eu, and I) and fission gases (Kr, Xe). Fission gases released from the fuel to the sweep gas are monitored in real time using dual cryogenic traps fitted with high purity germanium detectors. Condensable fission products are collected on a plate attached to a water-cooled cold finger that can be exchanged periodically without interrupting the test. Analysis of fission products on the condensation plates involves dry gamma counting followed by chemical analysis of selected isotopes. This paper will describe design and operational details of the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) furnace system, as well as preliminary system calibration results.

  13. A Comparison of Domestic Water Heating Options in the Austin Electric Service Area 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vliet, G. C.; Hood, D. B.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report examines the energy, demand, and economic effects of three alternative electric water heating systems from the perspective of both the City of Austin Electric Utility and its ratepayers. An hourly computer simulation was used to model...

  14. Expert Meeting Report: Recommendations for Applying Water Heaters in Combination Space and Domestic Water Heating Systems

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2: Final EnvironmentalCounties,UnitedCommunication,1] U.S.EducationalJanuaryKey

  15. Natural convection heat transfer within horizontal spent nuclear fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canaan, R.E.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural convection heat transfer is experimentally investigated in an enclosed horizontal rod bundle, which characterizes a spent nuclear fuel assembly during dry storage and/or transport conditions. The basic test section consists of a square array of sixty-four stainless steel tubular heaters enclosed within a water-cooled rectangular copper heat exchanger. The heaters are supplied with a uniform power generation per unit length while the surrounding enclosure is maintained at a uniform temperature. The test section resides within a vacuum/pressure chamber in order to subject the assembly to a range of pressure statepoints and various backfill gases. The objective of this experimental study is to obtain convection correlations which can be used in order to easily incorporate convective effects into analytical models of horizontal spent fuel systems, and also to investigate the physical nature of natural convection in enclosed horizontal rod bundles in general. The resulting data consist of: (1) measured temperatures within the assembly as a function of power, pressure, and backfill gas; (2) the relative radiative contribution for the range of observed temperatures; (3) correlations of convective Nusselt number and Rayleigh number for the rod bundle as a whole; and (4) correlations of convective Nusselt number as a function of Rayleigh number for individual rods within the array.

  16. Exergy and Energy analysis of a ground-source heat pump for domestic water heating under simulated occupancy conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ally, Moonis Raza [ORNL; Munk, Jeffrey D [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Gehl, Anthony C [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents detailed analysis of a water to water ground source heat pump (WW-GSHP) to provide all the hot water needs in a 345 m2 house located in DOE climate zone 4 (mixed-humid). The protocol for hot water use is based on the Building America Research Benchmark Definition (Hendron 2008; Hendron and Engebrecht 2010) which aims to capture the living habits of the average American household and its impact on energy consumption. The entire house was operated under simulated occupancy conditions. Detailed energy and exergy analysis provides a complete set of information on system efficiency and sources of irreversibility, the main cause of wasted energy. The WW-GSHP was sized at 5.275 kW (1.5-ton) for this house and supplied hot water to a 303 L (80 gal) water storage tank. The WW-GSHP shared the same ground loop with a 7.56 kW (2.1-ton) water to air ground source heat pump (WA-GSHP) which provided space conditioning needs to the entire house. Data, analyses, and measures of performance for the WW-GSHP in this paper complements the results of the WA-GSHP published in this journal (Ally, Munk et al. 2012). Understanding the performance of GSHPs is vital if the ground is to be used as a viable renewable energy resource.

  17. Fuel additives and heat treatment effects on nanocrystalline zinc ferrite phase composition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Volinsky, Alex A.

    Fuel additives and heat treatment effects on nanocrystalline zinc ferrite phase composition Ping Hu October 2010 Keywords: Zinc ferrite Fuel additive Heat treatment Phase composition a b s t r a c, carbamide and acrylic acid as fuel additives. Pure spinel zinc ferrite with the crystallite size of about 15

  18. Chapter 2: Machine Design, Fueling, and Heating in ASDEX Upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Streibl, Bernhard; Lang, Peter Thomas; Leuterer, Fritz; Noterdaeme, Jean-Marie; Staebler, Albrecht [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik (Germany)

    2003-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The machine design, power supply, and machine protection, as well as the different heating systems installed at ASDEX Upgrade are discussed. The available auxiliary heating power of 30 MW, supplied by three different heating systems, allows the power deposition to be varied and species heated over a large range. These three heating systems - neutral beam, ion cyclotron, and electron cyclotron heating - are presented in detail. A description of the pellet refueling system is included, which is successfully used for density control.

  19. Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden Central Office Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden Central Office This is a case study...

  20. Two-phase microfluidics, heat and mass transport in direct methanol fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CHAPTER 9 Two-phase microfluidics, heat and mass transport in direct methanol fuel cells G. Lu & C, including two-phase microfluidics, heat and mass transport. We explain how the better understanding

  1. Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With their clean and quiet operation, fuel cells represent a promising means of implementing small-scale distributed power generation in the future. Waste heat from the fuel cell can be harnessed...

  2. Solar heating, cooling, and domestic hot water system installed at Kaw Valley State Bank and Trust Company, Topeka, Kansas. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The building has approximately 5600 square feet of conditioned space. Solar energy is used for space heating, space cooling, and preheating domestic hot water (DHW). The solar energy system has an array of evacuated tube-type collectors with an area of 1068 square feet. A 50/50 solution of ethylene glycol and water is the transfer medium that delivers solar energy to a tube-in-shell heat exchanger that in turn delivers solar-heated water to a 1100 gallon pressurized hot water storage tank. When solar energy is insufficient to satisfy the space heating and/or cooling demand, a natural gas-fired boiler provides auxiliary energy to the fan coil loops and/or the absorption chillers. Extracts from the site files, specification references, drawings, and installation, operation and maintenance instructions are included.

  3. Domestic olivine vs magnesite as a thermal-energy-storage material: performance comparisons for electrically heated room-size units in accordance with ASHRAE Standard 94. 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laster, W.R.; Schoenhals, R.J.; Gay, B.M.; Palmour, H. III

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrically heated thermal-energy-storage (TES) heaters employing high-heat-capacity ceramic refractories for sensible heat storage have been in use in Europe for several years. With these heaters, low cost off-peak electrical energy is stored by heating a storage core composed of ceramic material to approximately 800/sup 0/C. During the peak period, no electrical energy is used as the building heating needs are supplied by extracting the stored heat from the core by forced air circulation. Recently significant interest in the use of off-peak TES units in the US has occured, leading to the search for a domestic supply of high heat capacity ceramic refractory material. North Carolina's extensive but under-utilized supply of refractory grade olivine has been proposed as a source of storage material for these units. In this paper, the suitability of North Carolina olivine for heat-storage applications is assessed by comparing its thermal performance with that of European materials. Using the method of ASHRAE Standard 94.2, the thermal performance of two small room-sized commercially available TES units was determined experimentally with two different storage materials, North Carolina olivine and German magnesite. Comparisons between the two materials are made and conclusions are drawn.

  4. The Northeast heating fuel market: Assessment and options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to a Presidential request, this study examines how the distillate fuel oil market (and related energy markets) in the Northeast behaved in the winter of 1999-2000, explains the role played by residential, commercial, industrial, and electricity generation sector consumers in distillate fuel oil markets and describes how that role is influenced by the structure of tie energy markets in the Northeast. In addition, this report explores the potential for nonresidential users to move away from distillate fuel oil and how this might impact future prices, and discusses conversion of distillate fuel oil users to other fuels over the next 5 years. Because the President's and Secretary's request focused on converting factories and other large-volume users of mostly high-sulfur distillate fuel oil to other fuels, transportation sector use of low-sulfur distillate fuel oil is not examined here.

  5. Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chinese translation of ITP fact sheet about installing Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces. For most fuel-fired heating equipment, a large amount of the heat supplied is wasted as exhaust or flue gases. In furnaces, air and fuel are mixed and burned to generate heat, some of which is transferred to the heating device and its load. When the heat transfer reaches its practical limit, the spent combustion gases are removed from the furnace via a flue or stack. At this point, these gases still hold considerable thermal energy. In many systems, this is the greatest single heat loss. The energy efficiency can often be increased by using waste heat gas recovery systems to capture and use some of the energy in the flue gas. For natural gas-based systems, the amount of heat contained in the flue gases as a percentage of the heat input in a heating system can be estimated by using Figure 1. Exhaust gas loss or waste heat depends on flue gas temperature and its mass flow, or in practical terms, excess air resulting from combustion air supply and air leakage into the furnace. The excess air can be estimated by measuring oxygen percentage in the flue gases.

  6. Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling of Dry Gases in the Cathode of PEM Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stockie, John

    Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling of Dry Gases in the Cathode of PEM Fuel Cells M.J. Kermani1 J and N2, through the cathode of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is studied numerically) an energy equation, written in a form that has enthalpy as the dependent variable. Keywords: PEM fuel cells

  7. REFORMING PROCESSES FOR MICRO COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM BASED ON SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    REFORMING PROCESSES FOR MICRO COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM BASED ON SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL University Denmark ABSTRACT Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a promising technology for decentralized power performance parameters will be identified. Keywords: Solid Oxide Fuel Cell, Micro CHP System INTRODUCTION

  8. RIS-M-2185 CALCULATION OF HEAT RATING AND BURN-UP FOR TEST FUEL PINS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RISŰ-M-2185 CALCULATION OF HEAT RATING AND BURN-UP FOR TEST FUEL PINS IRRADIATED IN DR3 C. Bagger of fuel pins irradiated in HP1 rigs. The calculations are carried out rather detailed, especially of the data. INIS Descriptors . BURN-UP, CALORIMETRY, COMPUTER CALCULATIONS, DR-3, FISSION, FUEL ASSEMBLIES

  9. Combustion & Fuels Waste Heat Recovery & Utilization Project | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof"Wave the White Flag"DepartmentToward Targets of Efficient NOxof

  10. Low Temperature Heat Release Behavior of Conventional and Alternative Fuels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomy andTerms LoanLosCombustion |Needs | DepartmentLowin

  11. Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your DensityEnergy U.S.-China Electric Vehicle and03/02 TUEValidation of& Systems Simulation| Department of

  12. Automotive Fuel Efficiency Improvement via Exhaust Gas Waste Heat

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: The FutureComments fromof Energy Automation World Features New

  13. Multi-Function Fuel-Fired Heat Pump

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311,OfficialProductsUptake andUser ManualTowardMulti

  14. Multi-function fuel-fired heat pump CRADA

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaeferApril 1,(EAC)TABLE OFDepartment ofDepartment

  15. Native Village of Teller Addresses Heating Fuel Shortage, Improves Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaeferAprilOverview | Department of Energy ThisofDepartmentDepartment

  16. Fuel Ion Ratio Measurements in NBI Heated Deuterium Tritium Fusion Plasmas at JET using Neutron Emission Spectrometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuel Ion Ratio Measurements in NBI Heated Deuterium Tritium Fusion Plasmas at JET using Neutron Emission Spectrometry

  17. Decay Heat Calculations for PWR and BWR Assemblies Fueled with Uranium and Plutonium Mixed Oxide Fuel using SCALE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ade, Brian J [ORNL; Gauld, Ian C [ORNL

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In currently operating commercial nuclear power plants (NPP), there are two main types of nuclear fuel, low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, and mixed-oxide uranium-plutonium (MOX) fuel. The LEU fuel is made of pure uranium dioxide (UO{sub 2} or UOX) and has been the fuel of choice in commercial light water reactors (LWRs) for a number of years. Naturally occurring uranium contains a mixture of different uranium isotopes, primarily, {sup 235}U and {sup 238}U. {sup 235}U is a fissile isotope, and will readily undergo a fission reaction upon interaction with a thermal neutron. {sup 235}U has an isotopic concentration of 0.71% in naturally occurring uranium. For most reactors to maintain a fission chain reaction, the natural isotopic concentration of {sup 235}U must be increased (enriched) to a level greater than 0.71%. Modern nuclear reactor fuel assemblies contain a number of fuel pins potentially having different {sup 235}U enrichments varying from {approx}2.0% to {approx}5% enriched in {sup 235}U. Currently in the United States (US), all commercial nuclear power plants use UO{sub 2} fuel. In the rest of the world, UO{sub 2} fuel is still commonly used, but MOX fuel is also used in a number of reactors. MOX fuel contains a mixture of both UO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2}. Because the plutonium provides the fissile content of the fuel, the uranium used in MOX is either natural or depleted uranium. PuO{sub 2} is added to effectively replace the fissile content of {sup 235}U so that the level of fissile content is sufficiently high to maintain the chain reaction in an LWR. Both reactor-grade and weapons-grade plutonium contains a number of fissile and non-fissile plutonium isotopes, with the fraction of fissile and non-fissile plutonium isotopes being dependent on the source of the plutonium. While only RG plutonium is currently used in MOX, there is the possibility that WG plutonium from dismantled weapons will be used to make MOX for use in US reactors. Reactor-grade plutonium in MOX fuel is generally obtained from reprocessed irradiated nuclear fuel, whereas weapons-grade plutonium is obtained from decommissioned nuclear weapons material and thus has a different plutonium (and other actinides) concentration. Using MOX fuel instead of UOX fuel has potential impacts on the neutronic performance of the nuclear fuel and the design of the nuclear fuel must take these differences into account. Each of the plutonium sources (RG and WG) has different implications on the neutronic behavior of the fuel because each contains a different blend of plutonium nuclides. The amount of heat and the number of neutrons produced from fission of plutonium nuclides is different from fission of {sup 235}U. These differences in UOX and MOX do not end at discharge of the fuel from the reactor core - the short- and long-term storage of MOX fuel may have different requirements than UOX fuel because of the different discharged fuel decay heat characteristics. The research documented in this report compares MOX and UOX fuel during storage and disposal of the fuel by comparing decay heat rates for typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies with and without weapons-grade (WG) and reactor-grade (RG) MOX fuel.

  18. Evaluation of Industrial Energy Options for Cogeneration, Waste Heat Recovery and Alternative Fuel Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hencey, S.; Hinkle, B.; Limaye, D. R.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the energy options available to Missouri industrial firms in the areas of cogeneration, waste heat recovery, and coal and alternative fuel utilization. The project, being performed by Synergic Resources Corporation...

  19. EA-0534: Radioisotope Heat Source Fuel Processing and Fabrication, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to operate existing Pu-238 processing facilities at Savannah River Site, and fabricate a limited quantity of Pu-238 fueled heat sources at...

  20. Integration and Optimization of Trigeneration Systems with Solar Energy, Biofuels, Process Heat and Fossil Fuels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tora, Eman

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    at developing a systematic approach to integrate solar energy into industrial processes to drive thermal energy transfer systems producing power, cool, and heat. Solar energy is needed to be integrated with other different energy sources (biofuels, fossil fuels...

  1. The effect of drying on the heating value of biomass fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, Pablo Gregorio

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There has been some speculation as to whether or not biomass fuels (such as feedlot manure) may lose volatile matter during the drying process. Since current standards state that heating value analysis may be performed before or after drying...

  2. Integration and Optimization of Trigeneration Systems with Solar Energy, Biofuels, Process Heat and Fossil Fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tora, Eman

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    at developing a systematic approach to integrate solar energy into industrial processes to drive thermal energy transfer systems producing power, cool, and heat. Solar energy is needed to be integrated with other different energy sources (biofuels, fossil fuels...

  3. Mixed-oxide fuel decay heat analysis for BWR LOCA safety evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiang, R. T. [AREVA Inc., 303 Ravendale Drive, Mountain View, CA 94043 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel decay heat behavior is analyzed for Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) safety evaluation. The physical reasoning on why the decay heat power fractions of MOX fuel fission product (FP) are significantly lower than the corresponding decay heat power fractions of uranium-oxide (UOX) fuel FP is illustrated. This is primarily due to the following physical phenomena. -The recoverable energies per fission of plutonium (Pu)-239 and Pu-241 are significantly higher than those of uranium (U)-235 and U-238. Consequently, the fission rate required to produce the same amount of power in MOX fuel is significantly lower than that in UOX fuel, which leads to lower subsequent FP generation rate and associated decay heat power in MOX fuel than those in UOX fuel. - The effective FP decay energy per fission of Pu-239 is significantly lower than the corresponding effective FP decay energy per fission of U-235, e.g., Pu-239's 10.63 Mega-electron-Volt (MeV) vs. U-235's 12.81 MeV at the cooling time 0.2 second. This also leads to lower decay heat power in MOX fuel than that in UOX fuel. The FP decay heat is shown to account for more than 90% of the total decay heat immediately after shutdown. The FP decay heat results based on the American National Standard Institute (ANSI)/American Nuclear Society (ANS)-5.1-1979 standard method are shown very close to the corresponding FP decay heat results based on the ANSI/ANS-5.1-2005 standard method. The FP decay heat results based on the ANSI/ANS-5.1-1979 simplified method are shown very close to but mostly slightly lower than the corresponding FP decay heat results based on the ANSI/ANS-5.1-1971 method. The FP decay heat results based on the ANSI/ANS-5.1-1979 simplified method or the ANSI/ANS-5.1-1971 method are shown significantly larger than the corresponding FP decay heat results based on the ANSI/ANS-5.1-1979 standard method or the ANSI/ANS-5.1-2005 standard method. (authors)

  4. Fuel Cells for Supermarkets: Cleaner Energy with Fuel Cell Combined Heat

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdf Flash2006-52.pdf0.pdfDepartment ofEnergy 3 Fuel Cell2|&Fuel Cellsatand Power

  5. Investigating Methods of Heat Recovery from Low-Temperature PEM Fuel Cells in CHP Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jalalzadeh-Azar, A. A.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat recovery from low-temperature proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells poses a number of challenges. In response to these challenges, thermodynamic assessments of proposed heat recovery methods are studied in the context of combined heat and power (CHP) for building applications. Preheating combustion air in conjunction with desiccant dehumidification and absorption cooling technologies is one of the two strategies examined in this study. The other approach integrates the PEM fuel cell with a water-loop heat pump (WLHP) for direct heat recovery. As the primary objective, energy-saving potentials of the adopted heat recovery strategies are estimated with respect to various benchmarks. The quantified energy-saving potentials are translated into effective CHP performance indices and compared with those typically specified by the manufacturers for service hot water applications. The need for developing CHP performance protocols is also discussed in light of the proposed energy recovery techniques - thereby, accomplishing the secondary objective.

  6. Water and Space Heating Heat Pumps 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessler, A. F.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the design and operation of the Trane Weathertron III Heat Pump Water Heating System and includes a comparison of features and performance to other domestic water heating systems. Domestic water is generally provided through...

  7. Water and Space Heating Heat Pumps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kessler, A. F.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the design and operation of the Trane Weathertron III Heat Pump Water Heating System and includes a comparison of features and performance to other domestic water heating systems. Domestic water is generally provided through...

  8. Native Village of Teller Addresses Heating Fuel Shortage, Improves...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The combination of the Native Village of Tellers limited fuel storage capacity and a harsh winter led to a supply shortage. Photo by Alexander Dane, NREL The combination of...

  9. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGENDDepartmentSeptember 20092009 The U.S.Heat and

  10. Industrial Heat Pumps for Steam and Fuel Savings: A BestPractices Steam Technical Brief

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet),EnergyImprovementINDIAN COUNTRYBarriers toHeat Pumps for Steam and

  11. Liquid Metal Bond for Improved Heat Transfer in LWR Fuel Rods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald Olander

    2005-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A liquid metal (LM) consisting of 1/3 weight fraction each of Pb, Sn, and Bi has been proposed as the bonding substance in the pellet-cladding gap in place of He. The LM bond eliminates the large AT over the pre-closure gap which is characteristic of helium-bonded fuel elements. Because the LM does not wet either UO2 or Zircaloy, simply loading fuel pellets into a cladding tube containing LM at atmospheric pressure leaves unfilled regions (voids) in the bond. The HEATING 7.3 heat transfer code indicates that these void spaces lead to local fuel hot spots.

  12. Fuel and cladding nano-technologies based solutions for long life heat-pipe based reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Popa-Simil, L. [LAVM LLC, Los Alamos (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel nuclear reactor concept, unifying the fuel pipe with fuel tube functionality has been developed. The structure is a quasi-spherical modular reactor, designed for a very long life. The reactor module unifies the fuel tube with the heat pipe and a graphite beryllium reflector. It also uses a micro-hetero-structure that allows the fission products to be removed in the heat pipe flow and deposited in a getter area in the cold zone of the heat pipe, but outside the neutron flux. The reactor operates as a breed and burn reactor - it contains the fuel pipe with a variable enrichment, starting from the hot-end of the pipe, meant to assure the initial criticality, and reactor start-up followed by area with depleted uranium or thorium that get enriched during the consumption of the first part of the enriched uranium. (authors)

  13. A Validation Study of Pin Heat Transfer for MOX Fuel Based on the IFA-597 Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillippe, Aaron M [ORNL; Clarno, Kevin T [ORNL; Banfield, James E [ORNL; Ott, Larry J [ORNL; Philip, Bobby [ORNL; Berrill, Mark A [ORNL; Sampath, Rahul S [ORNL; Allu, Srikanth [ORNL; Hamilton, Steven P [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract The IFA-597 (Integrated Fuel Assessment) experiments from the International Fuel Performance Experiments (IFPE) database were designed to study the thermal behavior of mixed oxide (MOX) fuel and the effects of an annulus on fission gas release in light-water-reactor fuel. An evaluation of nuclear fuel pin heat transfer in the FRAPCON-3.4 and Exnihilo codes for MOX fuel systems was performed, with a focus on the first 20 time steps ( 6 GWd/MT(iHM)) for explicit comparison between the codes. In addition, sensitivity studies were performed to evaluate the effect of the radial power shape and approximations to the geometry to account for the thermocouple hole, dish, and chamfer. The analysis demonstrated relative agreement for both solid (rod 1) and annular (rod 2) fuel in the experiment, demonstrating the accuracy of the codes and their underlying material models for MOX fuel, while also revealing a small energy loss artifact in how gap conductance is currently handled in Exnihilo for chamfered fuel pellets. The within-pellet power shape was shown to significantly impact the predicted centerline temperatures. This has provided an initial benchmarking of the pin heat transfer capability of Exnihilo for MOX fuel with respect to a well-validated nuclear fuel performance code.

  14. Partial fuel stratification to control HCCI heat release rates : fuel composition and other factors affecting pre-ignition reactions of two-stage ignition fuels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dec, John E.; Sjoberg, Carl-Magnus G.; Cannella, William (Chevron USA Inc.); Yang, Yi; Dronniou, Nicolas

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion with fully premixed charge is severely limited at high-load operation due to the rapid pressure-rise rates (PRR) which can lead to engine knock and potential engine damage. Recent studies have shown that two-stage ignition fuels possess a significant potential to reduce the combustion heat release rate, thus enabling higher load without knock.

  15. Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels, August 2004

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'sEnergyTexas1. FeedstockCLEANSprings Gets anColoring andCombined Heat||

  16. Dynamics, Optimization and Control of a Fuel Cell Based Combined Heat Power (CHP) System for Shipboard Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanopoulou, Anna

    Dynamics, Optimization and Control of a Fuel Cell Based Combined Heat Power (CHP) System, a natural gas fuel processor system (FPS), a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM-FC) and a catalytic) systems based on fuel cells and fuel processing technologies have great potential for future shipboard

  17. A Two-Stage Microbial Fuel Cell and Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Membrane Bioreactor (MFC-AFMBR) System for Effective Domestic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Two-Stage Microbial Fuel Cell and Anaerobic Fluidized Bed Membrane Bioreactor (MFC-AFMBR) System treatment process, consisting of microbial fuel cells and an anaerobic fluidized bed membrane bioreactor that is currently required for typical activated sludge or aerobic membrane bioreactor processes. In addition, MFCs

  18. BWR spent fuel storage cask performance test. Volume 1. Cask handling experience and decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKinnon, M.A.; Doman, J.W.; Tanner, J.E.; Guenther, R.J.; Creer, J.M.; King, C.E.

    1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents a heat transfer and shielding performance test conducted on a Ridihalgh, Eggers and Associates REA 2023 boiling water reactor (BWR) spent fuel storage cask. The testing effort consisted of three parts: pretest preparations, performance testing, and post-test activities. Pretest preparations included conducting cask handling dry runs and characterizing BWR spent fuel assemblies from Nebraska Public Power District's Cooper Nuclear Station. The performance test matrix included 14 runs consisting of two loadings, two cask orientations, and three backfill environments. Post-test activities included calorimetry and axial radiation scans of selected fuel assemblies, in-basin sipping of each assembly, crud collection, video and photographic scans, and decontamination of the cask interior and exterior.

  19. Direct Gas Fired Air Heating For 40 to 50% Fuel Savings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Searcy, J. A.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    between direct and indirect gas fired unit heaters show why there is a minimum of 40% fuel savings. The application of direct gas-fired make-up heaters for industrial space heating as well as the safety of the direct gas fired systems, a simple...

  20. Uncertainty analysis of steady state incident heat flux measurements in hydrocarbon fuel fires.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakos, James Thomas

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this report is to develop uncertainty estimates for three heat flux measurement techniques used for the measurement of incident heat flux in a combined radiative and convective environment. This is related to the measurement of heat flux to objects placed inside hydrocarbon fuel (diesel, JP-8 jet fuel) fires, which is very difficult to make accurately (e.g., less than 10%). Three methods will be discussed: a Schmidt-Boelter heat flux gage; a calorimeter and inverse heat conduction method; and a thin plate and energy balance method. Steady state uncertainties were estimated for two types of fires (i.e., calm wind and high winds) at three times (early in the fire, late in the fire, and at an intermediate time). Results showed a large uncertainty for all three methods. Typical uncertainties for a Schmidt-Boelter gage ranged from {+-}23% for high wind fires to {+-}39% for low wind fires. For the calorimeter/inverse method the uncertainties were {+-}25% to {+-}40%. The thin plate/energy balance method the uncertainties ranged from {+-}21% to {+-}42%. The 23-39% uncertainties for the Schmidt-Boelter gage are much larger than the quoted uncertainty for a radiative only environment (i.e ., {+-}3%). This large difference is due to the convective contribution and because the gage sensitivities to radiative and convective environments are not equal. All these values are larger than desired, which suggests the need for improvements in heat flux measurements in fires.

  1. Converting the Sun's Heat to Gasoline Solar Fuel Corporation is a clean tech company transforming the way gasoline, diesel and hydrogen fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jawitz, James W.

    the way gasoline, diesel and hydrogen fuels are created and produced. The company has a proprietary technology for converting solar thermal en- ergy (the sun's heat) to fuel (e.g., gasoline, diesel, hydrogen solar energy to syngas, which is then converted to "drop in" fuel (diesel, gasoline or hydrogen

  2. Impacts of the Weatherization Assistance Program in fuel-oil heated houses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levins, W.P.; Ternes, M.P.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1990, the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a national evaluation of its lowincome Weatherization Assistance Program. This report, which is one of five parts of that evaluation, evaluates the energy savings and cost-effectiveness of the Program as it had been applied to single-family houses heated primarily by fuel-oil. The study was based upon a representative sample (41 local weatherization agencies, 222 weatherized and 115 control houses) from the nine northeastern states during 1991 and 1992 program years. Dwelling-specific and agency-level data on measures installed, costs, and service delivery procedures were collected from the sampled agencies. Space-heating fuel-oil consumption, indoor temperature, and outdoor temperature were monitored at each house. Dwelling characteristics, air-leakage measurements, space-heating system steady-state efficiency measurements, safety inspections, and occupant questionnaires were also collected or performed at each monitored house. We estimate that the Program weatherized a total of 23,400 single-family fuel-oil heated houses in the nine northeastern states during program years 1991 and 1992. Annual fuel-oil savings were calculated using regression techniques to normalize the savings to standard weather conditions. For the northeast region, annual net fuel-oil savings averaged 160 gallons per house, or 17.7% of pre-weatherization consumption. Although indoor temperatures changed in individual houses following weatherization, there was no average change and no significant difference as compared to the control houses; thus, there was no overall indoor temperature takeback effect influencing fuel-oil savings. The weatherization work was performed cost effectively in these houses from the Program perspective, which included both installation costs and overhead and management costs but did not include non-energy benefits (such as employment and environmental).

  3. U.S. Domestic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun602 1,39720Sales1 Domestic and

  4. U.S. Domestic

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun602 1,39720Sales1 Domestic and2

  5. NATCOR -Xpress case study (advanced) Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Julian

    NATCOR - Xpress case study (advanced) Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel.5 for heating oil. To produce these products, Margaret can purchase two types of crude oil: crude 1 (at Ł12 per Jet fuel Heating oil Minimum octane 8.5 7 4.5 Price (Ł) 18 16 14 Minimum production 2500 3000 3500

  6. High Fuel Costs Spark Increased Use of Wood for Home Heating by Brian Handwerk for National Geographic News

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    South Bohemia, University of

    's Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), which provides data on how Americans heat their homes. According of the 2009 RECS show that wood is a significant source of heat in many U.S. homes, and wood consumption is almost as much as heating oil consumption," Berry said. Sometimes-Forgotten Fuel Ackerly

  7. Numerical simulation of turbulent heat transfer in an annular fuel channel augmented by spacer ribs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takase, Kazuyuki; Akino, Norio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Dept. of High Temperature Engineering

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal-hydraulic characteristics of fuel channels with three dimensional trapezoidal spacer ribs for high temperature gas-cooled reactors were investigated under the same coolant conditions as the reactor operation, maximum fuel channel outlet temperature of 1,000 C and pressure of 4 MPa, and analytically by numerical simulations using the {kappa}-{var_epsilon} turbulence model. The turbulent heat transfer coefficients in the spacer ribbed fuel channel were 20 to 100% higher than those in a concentric smooth annulus for a region of Reynolds number exceeding 2,000. Furthermore, the predicted Nusselt number in the spacer ribbed fuel channel was in good agreement with the empirical correlation obtained from the present experimental data within an error of 10% with Reynolds number of more than 5000. On the other hand, the friction factors in the spacer ribbed fuel channel were higher than those in the smooth duct in the turbulent region, and also they could be predicted with sufficient accuracy. In addition, the present numerical simulation could clarify quantitatively the effects of the heat transfer augmentation due to the spacer ribs and the axial velocity increase due to a reduction in the annular channel cross-section.

  8. Design of a core-length thermionic fuel element for electrical heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miskolczy, G. (ThermoTrex Coporation, 85 First Avenue, P.O. Box 8995, Waltham, MA 02254-8995 (United States)); Horner, H. (General Atomics, 3550 General Atomics Court, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-9784 (United States)); Lamp, T. (Wright Laboratories, WL/POOC-2, Wright Patternson Air Force Base, Ohio 45433-6563 (United States))

    1993-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the design of an electrically heated version of a core-length Thermionic Fuel Element (TFE) with advanced features, as is suggested by the designation Advanced Thermionic Inititative (ATI). The advanced features include a high-strength emitter structure to be fabricated by Space Power, Incorporated. This structure consists of a cylindrical emitter, 15 mm diameter and 254 mm long of Chemically Vapor Deposited (CVD) tungsten, reinforced with tungsten-hafnium carbide wire wound over a CVD tungsten core with additional CVD tungsten incorporating and bonding the wire into the emitter. The emitter surface is CVD tungsten, deposited from tungsten chloride resulting in the desirable crystal orientation of [l angle]110[r angle]. It is possible to design a reactor with core-length TFEs so that it can be electrically tested prior to fueling. The program is focussed on the design and fabrication of a single core-length TFE with current collection at both ends which will be tested in a reactor. In parallel with this effort is the design, fabrication, and testing of an unfueled, electrically heated prototype. The intent is to make the electrically heated converter as similar as possible to the fueled one, while providing for accurate emitter and collector temperature measurement.

  9. Evaluation of Gas, Oil and Wood Pellet Fueled Residential Heating System Emissions Characteristics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, R.

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study has measured the emissions from a wide range of heating equipment burning different fuels including several liquid fuel options, utility supplied natural gas and wood pellet resources. The major effort was placed on generating a database for the mass emission rate of fine particulates (PM 2.5) for the various fuel types studied. The fine particulates or PM 2.5 (less than 2.5 microns in size) were measured using a dilution tunnel technique following the method described in US EPA CTM-039. The PM 2.5 emission results are expressed in several units for the benefit of scientists, engineers and administrators. The measurements of gaseous emissions of O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} were made using a combustion analyzer based on electrochemical cells These measurements are presented for each of the residential heating systems tested. This analyzer also provides a steady state efficiency based on stack gas and temperature measurements and these values are included in the report. The gaseous results are within the ranges expected from prior emission studies with the enhancement of expanding these measurements to fuels not available to earlier researchers. Based on measured excess air levels and ultimate analysis of the fuel's chemical composition the gaseous emission results are as expected and fall within the range provided for emission factors contained in the US-EPA AP 42, Emission Factors Volume I, Fifth Edition. Since there were no unexpected findings in these gaseous measurements, the bulk of the report is centered on the emissions of fine particulates, or PM 2.5. The fine particulate (PM 2.5) results for the liquid fuel fired heating systems indicate a very strong linear relationship between the fine particulate emissions and the sulfur content of the liquid fuels being studied. This is illustrated by the plot contained in the first figure on the next page which clearly illustrates the linear relationship between the measured mass of fine particulate per unit of energy, expressed as milligrams per Mega-Joule (mg/MJ) versus the different sulfur contents of four different heating fuels. These were tested in a conventional cast iron boiler equipped with a flame retention head burner. The fuels included a typical ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with sulfur below 0.5 percent (1520 average ppm S), an ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with very high sulfur content (5780 ppm S), low sulfur heating oil (322 ppm S) and an ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (11 ppm S). Three additional oil-fired heating system types were also tested with normal heating fuel, low sulfur and ultralow sulfur fuel. They included an oil-fired warm air furnace of conventional design, a high efficiency condensing warm air furnace, a condensing hydronic boiler and the conventional hydronic boiler as discussed above. The linearity in the results was observed with all of the different oil-fired equipment types (as shown in the second figure on the next page). A linear regression of the data resulted in an Rsquared value of 0.99 indicating that a very good linear relationship exits. This means that as sulfur decreases the PM 2.5 emissions are reduced in a linear manner within the sulfur content range tested. At the ultra low sulfur level (15 ppm S) the amount of PM 2.5 had been reduced dramatically to an average of 0.043 mg/MJ. Three different gas-fired heating systems were tested. These included a conventional in-shot induced draft warm air furnace, an atmospheric fired hydronic boiler and a high efficiency hydronic boiler. The particulate (PM 2.5) measured ranged from 0.011 to 0.036 mg/MJ. depending on the raw material source used in their manufacture. All three stoves tested were fueled with premium (low ash) wood pellets obtained in a single batch to provide for uniformity in the test fuel. Unlike the oil and gas fired systems, the wood pellet stoves had measurable amounts of particulates sized above the 2.5-micron size that defines fine particulates (less than 2.5 microns). The fine particulate emissions rates ranged from 22 to 30 mg/ MJ with an average value

  10. A Validation Study of Pin Heat Transfer for UO2 Fuel Based on the IFA-432 Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillippe, Aaron M [ORNL; Clarno, Kevin T [ORNL; Banfield, James E [ORNL; Ott, Larry J [ORNL; Philip, Bobby [ORNL; Berrill, Mark A [ORNL; Sampath, Rahul S [ORNL; Allu, Srikanth [ORNL; Hamilton, Steven P [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The IFA-432 (Integrated Fuel Assessment) experiments from the International Fuel Performance Experiments (IFPE) database were designed to study the effects of gap size, fuel density, and fuel densification on fuel centerline temperature in light-water-reactor fuel. An evaluation of nuclear fuel pin heat transfer in the FRAPCON-3.4 and Exnihilo codes for uranium dioxide (UO$_2$) fuel systems was performed, with a focus on the densification stage (2.2 \\unitfrac{GWd}{MT(UO$_{2}$)}). In addition, sensitivity studies were performed to evaluate the effect of the radial power shape and approximations to the geometry to account for the thermocouple hole. The analysis demonstrated excellent agreement for rods 1, 2, 3, and 5 (varying gap thicknesses and density with traditional fuel), demonstrating the accuracy of the codes and their underlying material models for traditional fuel. For rod 6, which contained unstable fuel that densified an order of magnitude more than traditional, stable fuel, the magnitude of densification was over-predicted and the temperatures were outside of the experimental uncertainty. The radial power shape within the fuel was shown to significantly impact the predicted centerline temperatures, whereas modeling the fuel at the thermocouple location as either annular or solid was relatively negligible. This has provided an initial benchmarking of the pin heat transfer capability of Exnihilo for UO$_2$ fuel with respect to a well-validated nuclear fuel performance code.

  11. Development of a coal-fueled Internal Manifold Heat Exchanger (IMHEX reg sign ) molten carbonate fuel cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design of a CGMCFC electric generation plant that will provide a cost of eletricity (COE) which is lower than that of current electric generation technologies and which is competitive with other long-range electric generating systems is presented. This effort is based upon the Internal Manifold Heat Exchanger (IMHEX) technology as developed by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT). The project was executed by selecting economic and performance objectives for alternative plant arrangements while considering process constraints identified during IMHEX fuel cell development activities at ICT. The four major subsystems of a coal-based MCFC power plant are coal gasification, gas purification, fuel cell power generation and the bottoming cycle. The design and method of operation of each subsystem can be varied, and, depending upon design choices, can have major impact on both the design of other subsystems and the resulting cost of electricity. The challenge of this project was to select, from a range of design parameters, those operating conditions that result in a preferred plant design. Computer modelling was thus used to perform sensitivity analyses of as many system variables as program resources and schedules would permit. In any systems analysis, it is imperative that the evaluation methodology be verifiable and comparable. The TAG Class I develops comparable (if imprecise) data on performance and costs for the alternative cases being studied. It identifies, from a range of options, those which merit more exacting scrutiny to be undertaken at the second level, TAG class II analysis.

  12. BWR spent fuel storage cask performance test. Volume 2. Pre- and post-test decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiles, L.E.; Lombardo, N.J.; Heeb, C.M.; Jenquin, U.P.; Michener, T.E.; Wheeler, C.L.; Creer, J.M.; McCann, R.A.

    1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the decay heat, heat transfer, and shielding analyses conducted in support of performance testing of a Ridhihalgh, Eggers and Associates REA 2033 boiling water reactor (BWR) spent fuel storage cask. The cask testing program was conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Commercial Spent Fuel Management Program by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and by General Electric at the latters' Morris Operation (GE-MO) as reported in Volume I. The analyses effort consisted of performing pretest calculations to (1) select spent fuel for the test; (2) symmetrically load the spent fuel assemblies in the cask to ensure lateral symmetry of decay heat generation rates; (3) optimally locate temperature and dose rate instrumentation in the cask and spent fuel assemblies; and (4) evaluate the ORIGEN2 (decay heat), HYDRA and COBRA-SFS (heat transfer), and QAD and DOT (shielding) computer codes. The emphasis of this second volume is on the comparison of code predictions to experimental test data in support of the code evaluation process. Code evaluations were accomplished by comparing pretest (actually pre-look, since some predictions were not completed until testing was in progress) predictions with experimental cask testing data reported in Volume I. No attempt was made in this study to compare the two heat transfer codes because results of other evaluations have not been completed, and a comparison based on one data set may lead to erroneous conclusions.

  13. Heat removal from high temperature tubular solid oxide fuel cells utilizing product gas from coal gasifiers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parkinson, W. J. (William Jerry),

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work we describe the results of a computer study used to investigate the practicality of several heat exchanger configurations that could be used to extract heat from tubular solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) . Two SOFC feed gas compositions were used in this study. They represent product gases from two different coal gasifier designs from the Zero Emission Coal study at Los Alamos National Laboratory . Both plant designs rely on the efficient use of the heat produced by the SOFCs . Both feed streams are relatively rich in hydrogen with a very small hydrocarbon content . One feed stream has a significant carbon monoxide content with a bit less hydrogen . Since neither stream has a significant hydrocarbon content, the common use of the endothermic reforming reaction to reduce the process heat is not possible for these feed streams . The process, the method, the computer code, and the results are presented as well as a discussion of the pros and cons of each configuration for each process .

  14. Experimental Evaluation of a Pt-based Heat Exchanger Methanol Reformer for a HTPEM Fuel Cell Stack

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    Experimental Evaluation of a Pt-based Heat Exchanger Methanol Reformer for a HTPEM Fuel Cell Stack as e.g. methanol as the hydrogen carrier and reforming it to a hydrogen rich gas can solve some of these storage issues. The work presented here examines the use of a heat exchanger methanol reformer for use

  15. Trigger - and heat-transfer times measured during experimental molten-fuel-interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spitznagel, N.; Dürig, T.; Zimanowski, B. [Physikalisch-Vulkanologisches Labor, Universität Würzburg, Pleicherwall 1, 97070 Würzburg (Germany)] [Physikalisch-Vulkanologisches Labor, Universität Würzburg, Pleicherwall 1, 97070 Würzburg (Germany)

    2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A modified setup featuring high speed high resolution data and video recording was developed to obtain detailed information on trigger and heat transfer times during explosive molten fuel-coolant-interaction (MFCI). MFCI occurs predominantly in configurations where water is entrapped by hot melt. The setup was modified to allow direct observation of the trigger and explosion onset. In addition the influences of experimental control and data acquisition can now be more clearly distinguished from the pure phenomena. More precise experimental studies will facilitate the description of MFCI thermodynamics.

  16. NATCOR -Xpress case study Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. The average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Julian

    NATCOR - Xpress case study Margaret Oil produces three products: gasoline, jet fuel, and heating oil. To produce these products, Margaret purchases crude oil at a price of Ł11 per barrel. Each day to produce gasoline or jet fuel. Distilled oil can be used to produce all three products. The octane level

  17. Market Share Elasticities for Fuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, D.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ing the Market for Home Heating and Cooling Equipment," LBLestimating the market shares of space-heating technologiesestimating the market shares of space-heating technologies

  18. Market Share Elasticities for Fuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, D.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    among different space heating technologies to household andhousehold's choice of heating technology is modeled jointlymodel five space heating technologies given central cooling

  19. Market Share Elasticities for Fuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, D.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are conventional air conditioning and heat pump, given thein heat pump alternative Dummy for oil forced air choiceair choice Dummy for electric baseboard choice Dummy for heat pump

  20. MODELING HEAT TRANSFER IN SPENT FUEL TRANSFER CASK NEUTRON SHIELDS – A CHALLENGING PROBLEM IN NATURAL CONVECTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fort, James A.; Cuta, Judith M.; Bajwa, C.; Baglietto, E.

    2010-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    In the United States, commercial spent nuclear fuel is typically moved from spent fuel pools to outdoor dry storage pads within a transfer cask system that provides radiation shielding to protect personnel and the surrounding environment. The transfer casks are cylindrical steel enclosures with integral gamma and neutron radiation shields. Since the transfer cask system must be passively cooled, decay heat removal from spent nuclear fuel canister is limited by the rate of heat transfer through the cask components, and natural convection from the transfer cask surface. The primary mode of heat transfer within the transfer cask system is conduction, but some cask designs incorporate a liquid neutron shield tank surrounding the transfer cask structural shell. In these systems, accurate prediction of natural convection within the neutron shield tank is an important part of assessing the overall thermal performance of the transfer cask system. The large-scale geometry of the neutron shield tank, which is typically an annulus approximately 2 meters in diameter but only 10-15 cm in thickness, and the relatively small scale velocities (typically less than 5 cm/s) represent a wide range of spatial and temporal scales that contribute to making this a challenging problem for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. Relevant experimental data at these scales are not available in the literature, but some recent modeling studies offer insights into numerical issues and solutions; however, the geometries in these studies, and for the experimental data in the literature at smaller scales, all have large annular gaps that are not prototypic of the transfer cask neutron shield. This paper proposes that there may be reliable CFD approaches to the transfer cask problem, specifically coupled steady-state solvers or unsteady simulations; however, both of these solutions take significant computational effort. Segregated (uncoupled) steady state solvers that were tested did not accurately capture the flow field and heat transfer distribution in this application. Mesh resolution, turbulence modeling, and the tradeoff between steady state and transient solutions are addressed. Because of the critical nature of this application, the need for new experiments at representative scales is clearly demonstrated.

  1. Multi-objective fuel policies: Renewable fuel standards versus Fuel greenhouse gas intensity standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    relates domestic crude oil consumption q c to the marginalDomestic ROW Total Crude oil consumption (mbpd) Domestic ROWcrude oil fuels while achieving a total level of biofuel consumption.

  2. Advanced Ultrasonic Inspection Techniques for General Purpose Heat Source Fueled Clad Closure Welds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moyer, M.W.

    2001-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A radioisotope thermoelectric generator is used to provide a power source for long-term deep space missions. This General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is fabricated using iridium clad vent sets to contain the plutonium oxide fuel pellets. Integrity of the closure weld is essential to ensure containment of the plutonium. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant took the lead role in developing the ultrasonic inspection for the closure weld and transferring the inspection to Los Alamos National Laboratory for use in fueled clad inspection for the Cassini mission. Initially only amplitude and time-of-flight data were recorded. However, a number of benign geometric conditions produced signals that were larger than the acceptance threshold. To identify these conditions, a B-scan inspection was developed that acquired full ultrasonic waveforms. Using a test protocol the B-scan inspection was able to identify benign conditions such as weld shield fusion and internal mismatch. Tangential radiography was used to confirm the ultrasonic results. All but two of 29 fueled clads for which ultrasonic B-scan data was evaluated appeared to have signals that could be attributed to benign geometric conditions. This report describes the ultrasonic inspection developed at Y-12 for the Cassini mission.

  3. Ignition and fueling scenario calculations for neutral-beam-heated Tokamak reactors based on pellet injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lengyel, L.L.

    1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Results of ignition and continuous fueling scenario calculations are presented that were obtained in the framework of an assessment performed for the Next European Torus based on International Tokamak Reactors (INTOR) parameters. The results obtained with pellet injection are compared with results corresponding to gas puffing. Pellet injection transports fresh fuel to the reaction zone on a time scale that is much shorter than the diffusion time characterizing the gas puffing method, thus making the method flexible and readily adaptable to different situations. In the case of ignition by pellet injection, it may become possible to have deep neutral beam penetration and maintain favorable heat deposition profiles up to the moment of density ramp-up, thus substantially relaxing beam output requirements. The importance of a proper match between beam characteristics and pellet parameters is shown. In the case of continuous fueling of an already ignited discharge, the alpha power production notably increases if repetitive pellet injection, instead of gas puffing, is applied. The advantages of pellet injection are substantial, even at moderate pellet velocities.

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Biofuels Promotion The New Jersey Assembly urges the U.S. Congress to maintain the federal Renewable Fuels Standard, which will increase the production of domestic renewable fuel,...

  5. CFD Simulations of a Flow Mixing and Heat Transfer Enhancement in an Advanced LWR Nuclear Fuel Assembly

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    In, Wang-Kee; Chun, Tae-Hyun; Shin, Chang-Hwan; Oh, Dong-Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon, Korea 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis has been performed to investigate a flow-mixing and heat-transfer enhancement caused by a mixing-vane spacer in a LWR fuel assembly which is a rod bundle. This paper presents the CFD simulations of a flow mixing and heat transfer in a fully heated 5x5 array of a rod bundle with a split-vane and hybrid-vane spacer. The CFD prediction at a low Reynolds number of 42,000 showed a reasonably good agreement of the initial heat transfer enhancement with the measured one for a partially heated experiment using a similar spacer structure. The CFD simulation also predicted the decay rate of a normalized Nusselt number downstream of the split-vane spacer which agrees fairly well with those of the experiment and the correlation. The CFD calculations for the split vane and hybrid vane at the LWR operating conditions(Re = 500,000) predicted hot fuel spots in a streaky structure downstream of the spacer, which occurs due to the secondary flow occurring in an opposite direction near the fuel rod. However, the split-vane and hybrid-vane spacers are predicted to significantly enhance the overall heat transfer of a LWR nuclear fuel assembly. (authors)

  6. Fuel Cell Power Model Version 2: Startup Guide, System Designs, and Case Studies. Modeling Electricity, Heat, and Hydrogen Generation from Fuel Cell-Based Distributed Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steward, D.; Penev, M.; Saur, G.; Becker, W.; Zuboy, J.

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This guide helps users get started with the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Fuel Cell Power (FCPower) Model Version 2, which is a Microsoft Excel workbook that analyzes the technical and economic aspects of high-temperature fuel cell-based distributed energy systems with the aim of providing consistent, transparent, comparable results. This type of energy system would provide onsite-generated heat and electricity to large end users such as hospitals and office complexes. The hydrogen produced could be used for fueling vehicles or stored for later conversion to electricity.

  7. Waste Classification based on Waste Form Heat Generation in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles Using the Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT) Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denia Djokic; Steven J. Piet; Layne F. Pincock; Nick R. Soelberg

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study explores the impact of wastes generated from potential future fuel cycles and the issues presented by classifying these under current classification criteria, and discusses the possibility of a comprehensive and consistent characteristics-based classification framework based on new waste streams created from advanced fuel cycles. A static mass flow model, Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT), was used to calculate the composition of waste streams resulting from different nuclear fuel cycle choices. This analysis focuses on the impact of waste form heat load on waste classification practices, although classifying by metrics of radiotoxicity, mass, and volume is also possible. The value of separation of heat-generating fission products and actinides in different fuel cycles is discussed. It was shown that the benefits of reducing the short-term fission-product heat load of waste destined for geologic disposal are neglected under the current source-based radioactive waste classification system , and that it is useful to classify waste streams based on how favorable the impact of interim storage is in increasing repository capacity.

  8. Waste Classification based on Waste Form Heat Generation in Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles Using the Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT) Model - 13413

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djokic, Denia [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California - Berkeley, 4149 Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-1730 (United States)] [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of California - Berkeley, 4149 Etcheverry Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720-1730 (United States); Piet, Steven J.; Pincock, Layne F.; Soelberg, Nick R. [Idaho National Laboratory - INL, 2525 North Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)] [Idaho National Laboratory - INL, 2525 North Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study explores the impact of wastes generated from potential future fuel cycles and the issues presented by classifying these under current classification criteria, and discusses the possibility of a comprehensive and consistent characteristics-based classification framework based on new waste streams created from advanced fuel cycles. A static mass flow model, Fuel-Cycle Integration and Tradeoffs (FIT), was used to calculate the composition of waste streams resulting from different nuclear fuel cycle choices. This analysis focuses on the impact of waste form heat load on waste classification practices, although classifying by metrics of radiotoxicity, mass, and volume is also possible. The value of separation of heat-generating fission products and actinides in different fuel cycles is discussed. It was shown that the benefits of reducing the short-term fission-product heat load of waste destined for geologic disposal are neglected under the current source-based radioactive waste classification system, and that it is useful to classify waste streams based on how favorable the impact of interim storage is in increasing repository capacity. (authors)

  9. Check Burner Air to Fuel Ratios (International Fact Sheet), Energy Tips-Process Heating, Process Heating Tip Sheet #2c

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This English/Chinese international tip sheet provides information for optimizing efficiency of industrial process heating systems and includes measurements in metric units.

  10. Co-flow anode/cathode supply heat exchanger for a solid-oxide fuel cell assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haltiner, Jr., Karl J.; Kelly, Sean M.

    2005-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In a solid-oxide fuel cell assembly, a co-flow heat exchanger is provided in the flow paths of the reformate gas and the cathode air ahead of the fuel cell stack, the reformate gas being on one side of the exchanger and the cathode air being on the other. The reformate gas is at a substantially higher temperature than is desired in the stack, and the cathode gas is substantially cooler than desired. In the co-flow heat exchanger, the temperatures of the reformate and cathode streams converge to nearly the same temperature at the outlet of the exchanger. Preferably, the heat exchanger is formed within an integrated component manifold (ICM) for a solid-oxide fuel cell assembly.

  11. Market Share Elasticities for Fuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, D.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling D.J. Wood,AND TECHNOLOGY CHOICE IN HOME HEATING AND COOLING* David J.nology choices in home heating and cooling is presented. We

  12. Mississippi State University Cooling, Heating, and Power (Micro-CHP) and Bio-Fuel Center

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mago, Pedro; Newell, LeLe

    2014-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Between 2008 and 2014, the U.S. Department of Energy funded the MSU Micro-CHP and Bio-Fuel Center located at Mississippi State University. The overall objective of this project was to enable micro-CHP (micro-combined heat and power) utilization, to facilitate and promote the use of CHP systems and to educate architects, engineers, and agricultural producers and scientists on the benefits of CHP systems. Therefore, the work of the Center focused on the three areas: CHP system modeling and optimization, outreach, and research. In general, the results obtained from this project demonstrated that CHP systems are attractive because they can provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits. Some of these benefits include the potential to reduce operational cost, carbon dioxide emissions, primary energy consumption, and power reliability during electric grid disruptions. The knowledge disseminated in numerous journal and conference papers from the outcomes of this project is beneficial to engineers, architects, agricultural producers, scientists and the public in general who are interested in CHP technology and applications. In addition, more than 48 graduate students and 23 undergraduate students, benefited from the training and research performed in the MSU Micro-CHP and Bio-Fuel Center.

  13. Technical Analysis of Installed Micro-Combined Heat and Power Fuel-Cell System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe

    2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Combined heat and power fuel cell systems (CHP-FCSs) provide consistent electrical power and hot water with greater efficiency and lower emissions than alternative sources. These systems can be used either as baseload, grid-connected, or as off-the-grid power sources. This report presents a technical analysis of 5 kWe CHP-FCSs installed in different locations in the U.S. At some sites as many as five 5 kWe system is used to provide up to 25kWe of power. Systems in this power range are considered “micro”-CHP-FCS. To better assess performance of micro-CHP-FCS and understand their benefits, the U.S. Department of Energy worked with ClearEdge Power to install fifteen 5-kWe PBI high temperature PEM fuel cells (CE5 models) in the commercial markets of California and Oregon. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated these systems in terms of their economics, operations, and technical performance. These units were monitored from September 2011 until June 2013. During this time, about 190,000 hours of data were collected and more than 17 billion data points were analyzed. Beginning in July 2013, ten of these systems were gradually replaced with ungraded systems (M5 models) containing phosphoric acid fuel cell technology. The new units were monitored until June 2014 until they went offline because ClearEdge was bought by Doosan at the time and the new manufacturer did not continue to support data collection and maintenance of these units. During these two phases, data was collected at once per second and data analysis techniques were applied to understand behavior of these systems. The results of this analysis indicate that systems installed in the second phase of this demonstration performed much better in terms of availability, consistency in generation, and reliability. The average net electrical power output increased from 4.1 to 4.9 kWe, net heat recovery from 4.7 to 5.4 kWth, and system availability improved from 94% to 95%. The average net system electric efficiency, average net heat recovery efficiency, and overall net efficiency of the system increased respectively from 33% to 36%, from 38% to 41%, and from 71% to 76%. The temperature of water sent to sit however reduced by about 16% from 51?C to 43 ?C. This was a control strategy and the temperature can be controlled depending on building heat demands. More importantly, the number of shutdowns and maintenance events required to keep the systems running at the manufacturer’s rated performance specifications were substantially reduced by about 76% (for 8 to 10 units running over a one-year period). From July 2012 to June 2013, there were eight CE5 units in operation and a total of 134 scheduled and unscheduled shutdowns took place. From July 2013 to June 2014, between two to ten units were in operation and only 32 shutdowns were reported (all unscheduled). In summary, the number of shutdowns reduced from 10 shutdowns per month on average for eight CE5units to an average of 2.7 shutdowns per month for M5 units (between two to ten units).

  14. Micro Cooling, Heating, and Power (Micro-CHP) and Bio-Fuel Center, Mississippi State University

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Louay Chamra

    2008-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Initially, most micro-CHP systems will likely be designed as constant-power output or base-load systems. This implies that at some point the power requirement will not be met, or that the requirement will be exceeded. Realistically, both cases will occur within a 24-hour period. For example, in the United States, the base electrical load for the average home is approximately 2 kW while the peak electrical demand is slightly over 4 kW. If a 3 kWe micro- CHP system were installed in this situation, part of the time more energy will be provided than could be used and for a portion of the time more energy will be required than could be provided. Jalalzadeh-Azar [6] investigated this situation and presented a comparison of electrical- and thermal-load-following CHP systems. In his investigation he included in a parametric analysis addressing the influence of the subsystem efficiencies on the total primary energy consumption as well as an economic analysis of these systems. He found that an increase in the efficiencies of the on-site power generation and electrical equipment reduced the total monthly import of electricity. A methodology for calculating performance characteristics of different micro-CHP system components will be introduced in this article. Thermodynamic cycles are used to model each individual prime mover. The prime movers modeled in this article are a spark-ignition internal combustion engine (Otto cycle) and a diesel engine (Diesel cycle). Calculations for heat exchanger, absorption chiller, and boiler modeling are also presented. The individual component models are then linked together to calculate total system performance values. Performance characteristics that will be observed for each system include maximum fuel flow rate, total monthly fuel consumption, and system energy (electrical, thermal, and total) efficiencies. Also, whether or not both the required electrical and thermal loads can sufficiently be accounted for within the system specifications is observed. Case study data for various micro-CHP system configurations have been discussed and compared. Comparisons are made of the different prime mover/fuel combinations. Also, micro- CHP monthly energy cost results are compared for each system configuration to conventional monthly utility costs for equivalent monthly building power, heating, and cooling requirements.

  15. Business Case for a Micro-Combined Heat and Power Fuel Cell System in Commercial Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Anderson, David M.; Amaya, Jodi P.; Pilli, Siva Prasad; Srivastava, Viraj; Upton, Jaki F.

    2013-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Combined heat and power fuel cell systems (CHP-FCSs) provide consistent electrical power and hot water with greater efficiency and lower emissions than alternative sources. These systems can be used either as baseload, grid-connected, or as off-the-grid power sources. This report presents a business case for CHP-FCSs in the range of 5 to 50 kWe. Systems in this power range are considered micro-CHP-FCS. For this particular business case, commercial applications rather than residential or industrial are targeted. To understand the benefits of implementing a micro-CHP-FCS, the characteristics that determine their competitive advantage must first be identified. Locations with high electricity prices and low natural gas prices are ideal locations for micro-CHP-FCSs. Fortunately, these high spark spread locations are generally in the northeastern area of the United States and California where government incentives are already in place to offset the current high cost of the micro-CHP-FCSs. As a result of the inherently high efficiency of a fuel cell and their ability to use the waste heat that is generated as a CHP, they have higher efficiency. This results in lower fuel costs than comparable alternative small-scale power systems (e.g., microturbines and reciprocating engines). A variety of markets should consider micro-CHP-FCSs including those that require both heat and baseload electricity throughout the year. In addition, the reliable power of micro-CHP-FCSs could be beneficial to markets where electrical outages are especially frequent or costly. Greenhouse gas emission levels from micro-CHP-FCSs are 69 percent lower, and the human health costs are 99.9 percent lower, than those attributed to conventional coal-fired power plants. As a result, FCSs can allow a company to advertise as environmentally conscious and provide a bottom-line sales advantage. As a new technology in the early stages of adoption, micro-CHP-FCSs are currently more expensive than alternative technologies. As the technology gains a foothold in its target markets and demand increases, the costs will decline in response to improved manufacturing efficiencies, similar to trends seen with other technologies. Transparency Market Research forecasts suggest that the CHP-FCS market will grow at a compound annual growth rate of greater than 27 percent over the next 5 years. These production level increases, coupled with the expected low price of natural gas, indicate the economic payback period will move to less than 5 years over the course of the next 5 years. To better understand the benefits of micro-CHP-FCSs, The U.S. Department of Energy worked with ClearEdge Power to install fifteen 5-kWe fuel cells in the commercial markets of California and Oregon. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is evaluating these systems in terms of economics, operations, and their environmental impact in real-world applications. As expected, the economic analysis has indicated that the high capital cost of the micro-CHP-FCSs results in a longer payback period than typically is acceptable for all but early-adopter market segments. However, a payback period of less than 3 years may be expected as increased production brings system cost down, and CHP incentives are maintained or improved.

  16. Oxy-fuel combustion of coal and biomass, the effect on radiative and convective heat transfer and burnout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smart, John P.; Patel, Rajeshriben; Riley, Gerry S. [RWEnpower, Windmill Hill Business Park, Whitehill Way, Swindon, Wiltshire SN5 6PB, England (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper focuses on results of co-firing coal and biomass under oxy-fuel combustion conditions on the RWEn 0.5 MWt Combustion Test Facility (CTF). Results are presented of radiative and convective heat transfer and burnout measurements. Two coals were fired: a South African coal and a Russian Coal under air and oxy-fuel firing conditions. The two coals were also co-fired with Shea Meal at a co-firing mass fraction of 20%. Shea Meal was also co-fired at a mass fraction of 40% and sawdust at 20% with the Russian Coal. An IFRF Aerodynamically Air Staged Burner (AASB) was used. The thermal input was maintained at 0.5 MWt for all conditions studied. The test matrix comprised of varying the Recycle Ratio (RR) between 65% and 75% and furnace exit O{sub 2} was maintained at 3%. Carbon-in-ash samples for burnout determination were also taken. Results show that the highest peak radiative heat flux and highest flame luminosity corresponded to the lowest recycle ratio. The effect of co-firing of biomass resulted in lower radiative heat fluxes for corresponding recycle ratios. Furthermore, the highest levels of radiative heat flux corresponded to the lowest convective heat flux. Results are compared to air firing and the air equivalent radiative and convective heat fluxes are fuel type dependent. Reasons for these differences are discussed in the main text. Burnout improves with biomass co-firing under both air and oxy-fuel firing conditions and burnout is also seen to improve under oxy-fuel firing conditions compared to air. (author)

  17. 2014 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at Commercial andSeptember 25,9,1996 N Y MDomesticDomestic Uranium

  18. Outline for a multi-cell nuclear thermionic fuel element that may be pretested with electric heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, Volney C. [General Electric R and DC, retired 2446 A Del Norte Dr. SW Albuquerque, New Mexico 87105 (United States)

    1997-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A nuclear thermionic converter electrical generating system is proposed in which the nuclear fuel is clad in tungsten (W) and transmits heat to a tungsten emitter by radiation. The tungsten clad is a single unit, containing a continuous fuel stack with an unfueled section extending through one end of the reactor. The emitters are electrically insulated from the heat source; therefore, several converters may be connected by short leads to produce more voltage per fuel element and to reduce the power losses in the leads. A fast reactor design was chosen; consequently, tungsten may be used for the fuel cladding and the emitters without a significant reactivity penalty due to neutron capture by tungsten epithermal resonances. The ability to use all-tungsten emitters may permit high emitter temperatures. Calculations indicate that at an emitter temperature of 2150 K and current density of 10 A/cm{sup 2}, a 36 cm long thermionic fuel element (TFE) with 9 converters in series should produce 4500 W{sub e} at 9.2 V and 15.7% efficiency. One major advantage of this approach, relative to typical multicell designs is that the system can be tested by electrical heaters in the fuel cavity before loading fuel.

  19. Outline for a multi-cell nuclear thermionic fuel element that may be pretested with electric heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, V.C. [General Electric RDC, retired 2446 A Del Norte Dr. SW Albuquerque, New Mexico871059 (United States)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A nuclear thermionic converter electrical generating system is proposed in which the nuclear fuel is clad in tungsten (W) and transmits heat to a tungsten emitter by radiation. The tungsten clad is a single unit, containing a continuous fuel stack with an unfueled section extending through one end of the reactor. The emitters are electrically insulated from the heat source; therefore, several converters may be connected by short leads to produce more voltage per fuel element and to reduce the power losses in the leads. A fast reactor design was chosen; consequently, tungsten may be used for the fuel cladding and the emitters without a significant reactivity penalty due to neutron capture by tungsten epithermal resonances. The ability to use all-tungsten emitters may permit high emitter temperatures. Calculations indicate that at an emitter temperature of 2150 K and current density of 10A/cm{sup 2}, a 36 cm long thermionic fuel element (TFE) with 9 converters in series should produce 4500W{sub e} at 9.2 V and 15.7{percent} efficiency. One major advantage of this approach, relative to typical multicell designs is that the system can be tested by electrical heaters in the fuel cavity before loading fuel. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Prospects for increased low-grade bio-fuels use in home and commercial heating applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pendray, John Robert

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Though we must eventually find viable alternatives for fossil fuels in large segments of the energy market, there are economically attractive fossil fuel alternatives today for niche markets. The easiest fossil fuels to ...

  1. Modeling of fuel-to-steel heat transfer in core disruptive accidents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Russell Charles

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mathematical model for direct-contact boiling heat transfer between immiscible fluids was developed and tested experimentally. The model describes heat transfer from a hot fluid bath to an ensemble of droplets of a cooler ...

  2. Industrial Heat Pumps for Steam and Fuel Savings: A BestPractices Steam Technical Brief

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this Steam Techcial Brief is to introduce heat-pump technology and its applicaiton in industrial processes.

  3. Control of Lime Kiln Heat Balance is Key to Reduced Fuel Consumption 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kramm, D. J.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article discusses the various heat loads in a pulp mill lime sludge kiln, pointing out which heat loads cannot be reduced and which heat loads can, and how a reduction in energy use can be achieved. In almost any existing rotary lime sludge...

  4. Environmental improvements resulting from the use of renewable energy sources and nonpolluting fuels and technologies with district heating and cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kainlauri, E.O. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of district heating and cooling (DHC) for a group of buildings or on a city-wide basis does by itself usually improve the local environmental conditions, regardless of the type of fuel used, as the DHC system replaces a larger number of individual units and is able to utilize anti-pollution and emission-cleaning devices at a central location. The DHC system may also be able to use several alternative choices for fuel, including renewable energy sources, depending on both economic and environmentally required conditions. The DHC systems are also safe and clean for the users, eliminating the need for fuel-burning equipment in their buildings. Solar energy is being utilized to a small degree in district heating systems, sometimes with the assistance of energy storage facilities, to reduce the amount of fuel needed to burn for the total system. The use of municipal and industrial waste as fuel helps reduce the amount of fossil fuel being burned and also reduces the areas of landfill needed to dispose wastes, but special care must be exercised to avoid releases of toxic gases into the atmosphere. This paper describes a few examples of the use of solar energy and energy storage in community-wide systems (Lyckebo in Sweden, Kerava in Finland), the use of natural gas in DHC (Lappenranta and Lahti in Finland), and applications of heat pump utilization in DHC (Uppsala wastewater and Stockholm preheat system in Sweden). Some projections are made of several alternative fuels derived from biomass, recycling, and other possible technologies in the future development of waste-handling and DHC systems. A brief discussion is included regarding the environmental concerns and legislative development in the US and elsewhere in the world.

  5. Hydrogen is a clean fuel. When used in fuel cells, the only byproducts are water and heat.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    outside seoul. · in the United states, the state of Ohio utility, First Energy, purchased a 1 MW, polymer's oil and gas supplies. · Fuel cells have more than double the energy-efficien- cy of internal can provide energy at all scales, ranging from micro power sources for small consumer devices to multi

  6. Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden Central Office

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof Energy Change RequestFirstchampions, checklists, tap-

  7. Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power - Fact

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative JC3 RSS September 9, 2013News Archive News Archive RSSNotices of(CCHP) Systems -

  8. SulfaTrap(tm): Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOriginEducationVideoStrategic Safety Goals Strategicthe Department of Energy |Oil and

  9. Multi-Function Fuel-Fired Heat Pump | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311,OfficialProductsUptake andUser

  10. Fission product release from highly irradiated LWR fuel heated to 1300 to 1600/sup 0/C in steam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lorenz, R.A.; Collins, J.L.; Malinauskas, A.P. Osborne, M.F.; Towns, R.L.

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Four tests were performed with high-burnup light water reactor (LWR) fuel to explore the amount and characteristics of fission product release at short heating times (0.4 to 10 min) in steam atmosphere in the temperature range 1300 to 1600/sup 0/C. The test fuel rod segments were cut from full-length fuel rods irradiated at low heat rating to 30,000 MWd/MT in the H.B. Robinson-2 reactor. The releases of cesium and iodine increased tenfold (approx.0.3 to >4%) with temperature from 1350 to 1400/sup 0/C from fuel with defects that simulate ruptured cladding. Krypton release rose from approx.2 to approx.11% of total inventory in this temperature range. This sudden increase in release of krypton, cesium, and iodine is believed to result from prior accumulations of these species at or very near the grain boundaries. At 1600/sup 0/C, the releases of krypton, cesium, and iodine were in the range 17 to 25% of total fuel inventory.

  11. Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat and Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdf Flash2006-52.pdf0.pdfDepartment ofEnergy 3 FuelModel | Department ofHeaters

  12. Market Share Elasticities for Fuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, D.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    joint probability of a household choosing each particular heating/cooling technology combination is a function of the capital and operating

  13. Market Share Elasticities for Fuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, D.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    energy consumption. EPRI translates these projections into3 Technology Choices in EPRI's Model of Space Heating andPower Research Institute (EPRI) [1984]: "Household Appliance

  14. An experiment to simulate the heat transfer properties of a dry, horizontal spent nuclear fuel assembly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovett, Phyllis Maria

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear power reactors generate highly radioactive spent fuel assemblies. Initially, the spent fuel assemblies are stored for a period of several years in an on-site storage facility to allow the radioactivity levels of ...

  15. From Domestic vs. International to Domestic and International

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amin, S. Massoud

    % 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Domestic International International Domestic 100% 67% 86% 29

  16. Market Share Elasticities for Fuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, D.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    models require accurate estimates of how the market shares of different fuel choices (electricity, gas, or oil)

  17. Sandia Energy - From Compost to Sustainable Fuels: Heat-Loving Fungi Are

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiationImplementing Nonlinear757 (1)Tara46Energy StorageFirst-Ever Asian

  18. Fuel-disruption experiments under high-ramp-rate heating conditions. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, S.A.; Worledge, D.H.; Cano, G.L.; Mast, P.K.; Briscoe, F.

    1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This topical report presents the preliminary results and analysis of the High Ramp Rate fuel-disruption experiment series. These experiments were performed in the Annular Core Research Reactor at Sandia National Laboratories to investigate the timing and mode of fuel disruption during the prompt-burst phase of a loss-of-flow accident. High-speed cinematography was used to observe the timing and mode of the fuel disruption in a stack of five fuel pellets. Of the four experiments discussed, one used fresh mixed-oxide fuel, and three used irradiated mixed-oxide fuel. Analysis of the experiments indicates that in all cases, the observed disruption occurred well before fuel-vapor pressure was high enough to cause the disruption. The disruption appeared as a rapid spray-like expansion and occurred near the onset of fuel melting in the irradiated-fuel experiments and near the time of complete fuel melting in the fresh-fuel experiment. This early occurrence of fuel disruption is significant because it can potentially lower the work-energy release resulting from a prompt-burst disassembly accident.

  19. *sja@iet.aau.dkwww.iet.aau.dk Initial experiments with a Pt based heat exchanger methanol reformer for a HTPEM fuel cell system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andreasen, Sűren Juhl

    *sja@iet.aau.dkwww.iet.aau.dk Initial experiments with a Pt based heat exchanger methanol reformer, Pontoppidanstræde 101, 9220 Aalborg East, Denmark Motivation Methanol Reformer Test Conclusions The use of a liquid reformed hydro- carbon as fuel for fuel cells can redu- ce fuel storage volume considerably. The PBI

  20. Fuel-Flexible Microturbine and Gasifier System for Combined Heat and Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaefer To: Congestion Study CommentsStolar,NEAC FuelFederal agencies andDiagram|

  1. Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platformBuilding RemovalCSS Letter -SeptemberWorkshopby: AlanCasaCentral Office

  2. Geek-Up[5.20.2011]: Electricity from Waste Heat, Fuel from Sunlight |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport inEnergy0.pdfTechnologiesNATIONAL003 IntellectualSECCSDepartment of Energy

  3. Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and Power Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOilNEW HAMPSHIREofNewsletterEnergySeptember

  4. RTP Green Fuel: A Proven Path to Renewable Heat and Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMay 2015 < prevQuick Guide: PowerFrequency | Department ofEnvergent

  5. Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of BlytheDepartment ofEnergy1 Inspection12-01SummaryRemovable

  6. Load Preheating Using Flue Gases from a Fuel-Fired Heating System |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOil & Gas »ofMarketing | DepartmentComputing CenterLiz Doris

  7. Combined Heat and Power Market Potential for Opportunity Fuels, August 2004

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof"Wave the White Flag"Department of8,catalysts for3ServicesAugust|

  8. EA-1573-S1: Proposed Renewable Fuel Heat Plant Improvements at the National

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny:Revised Finding of No53197E TDrew Bittner56: MitigationEnergyRenewable Energy

  9. Industrial Heat Pumps for Steam and Fuel Savings | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of BlytheDepartment of EnergyTreatment andJuneJobs |Executive

  10. Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof Energy Change RequestFirstchampions, checklists, tap- pingLiquidCentral

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: The Heat Is on in St. Louis Buses

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041cloth DocumentationProductsAlternative FuelsSanta Fe Metro Fleet RunsTexas Puts a New SpinThe

  12. Developing Low-Cost, Highly Efficient Heat Recovery for Fuel Cells

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube| DepartmentStatementDepartment ofVisitsDeterminations and|DepartmentMicrochannel

  13. High Temperature Fuel Cell Tri-Generation of Power, Heat & H2 from Biogas |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet), GeothermalGridHYDROGEND D e e p p a a r r t t m m e e n n t t

  14. Multi-Function Fuel-Fired Heat Pump - 2013 Peer Review | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment3311,OfficialProductsUptake andUser ManualTowardMultiEnergy

  15. In-Cylinder Mechanisms of PCI Heat-Release Rate Control by Fuel Reactivity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(Fact Sheet),EnergyImprovement of the LostDepartmentIn the Senate

  16. Technical Potential of Solar Water Heating to Reduce Fossil Fuel Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.

    2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Use of solar water heating (SWH) in the United States grew significantly in the late 1970s and early 1980s, as a result of increasing energy prices and generous tax credits. Since 1985, however, expiration of federal tax credits and decreased energy prices have virtually eliminated the U.S. market for SWH. More recently, increases in energy prices, concerns regarding emissions of greenhouse gases, and improvements in SWH systems have created new interest in the potential of this technology. SWH, which uses the sun to heat water directly or via a heat-transfer fluid in a collector, may be particularly important in its ability to reduce natural gas use. Dependence on natural gas as an energy resource in the United States has significantly increased in the past decade, along with increased prices, price volatility, and concerns about sustainability and security of supply. One of the readily deployable technologies available to decrease use of natural gas is solar water heating. This report provides an overview of the technical potential of solar water heating to reduce fossil fuel consumption and associated greenhouse gas emissions in U.S. residential and commercial buildings.

  17. Market Share Elasticities for Fuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, D.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Home Heating Anderson [21 Oil Price Electric Share Gas ShareBaughman and Joskow [3] Oil Price Gas Price Lin, Hirst,and Cohn [10] Gas Price Oil Price Hartman and Hollyer [8] (

  18. Climate Change Fuel Cell Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alice M. Gitchell

    2006-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A 200 kW, natural gas fired fuel cell was installed at the Richard Stockton College of New Jersey. The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the financial and operational suitability of retrofit fuel cell technology at a medium sized college. Target audience was design professionals and the wider community, with emphasis on use in higher education. ''Waste'' heat from the fuel cell was utilized to supplement boiler operations and provide domestic hot water. Instrumentation was installed in order to measure the effectiveness of heat utilization. It was determined that 26% of the available heat was captured during the first year of operation. The economics of the fuel cell is highly dependent on the prices of electricity and natural gas. Considering only fuel consumed and energy produced (adjusted for boiler efficiency), the fuel cell saved $54,000 in its first year of operation. However, taking into account the price of maintenance and the cost of financing over the short five-year life span, the fuel cell operated at a loss, despite generous subsidies. As an educational tool and market stimulus, the fuel cell attracted considerable attention, both from design professionals and the general public.

  19. Control of Lime Kiln Heat Balance is Key to Reduced Fuel Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kramm, D. J.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    kiln, it is possible to save hundreds of thousands of dollars in fuel annually by paying attention to the proper operating details....

  20. Fundamentals of Understanding & Collecting data for SHOPPs EIA-877 Winter Heating Fuels Survey

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688Electricity UseFoot) Year Jan2009 2010F6:8:7:9:F9:Data

  1. Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power to

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration would likeConstitution4 Department of EnergyCross-SectorDepartmentReplace

  2. RTP Green Fuel: A Proven Path to Renewable Heat and Power | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23, 2014, an OHASeptember 2010In addition to 1 |D I S P URFIof CleanEnergy

  3. Multi-Function Fuel-Fired Heat Pump | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy China 2015of 2005 attheMohammed Khan - Technology Project OfficerTheasHow important0,

  4. Multi-Function Fuel-Fired Heat Pump - 2013 Peer Review | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaeferApril 1,(EAC)TABLE OFDepartment ofDepartment ofEnergy Emerging

  5. Fossil Fuel-fired Peak Heating for Geothermal Greenhouses | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdf Jump to:ar-80m.pdfFillmoreGabbsSalonga, New York: EnergyFortuna,Foss

  6. A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions from Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by crediting against full fuel cycle emissions from theuse” process fuel -- is the full fuel cycle emission factor,where the full fuel cycle includes emissions from

  7. Achieving Vehicle Fuel Efficiency: The CAFE Standards and Abstract: As a series of political objectives converge and call for enhanced domestic automobile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mauzerall, Denise

    Achieving Vehicle Fuel Efficiency: The CAFE Standards and Beyond Abstract: As a series of political efficiency as part of a greater effort to promote sustainable development. This paper uses China to demonstrate the challenges faced by developing countries and also studies the particular opportunities China

  8. Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two subjects are covered in this section. They are: (1) Health effects of possible contamination at Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant to be studied; and (2) DOE agrees on test of MOX fuel in Canada.

  9. Multi-objective fuel policies: Renewable fuel standards versus Fuel greenhouse gas intensity standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    higher than fossil fuels. f > 0 because demand function hasfossil fuel increases. Proof : By reducing domestic demand,fossil fuel, then fuel price increases (decreases) if mc b ? f + 1 demand

  10. Novel Sorbent to Clean Biogas for Fuel Cell Combined Heat and...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    to remove both sulfur species in biogas to ppb levels, making its use possible in a fuel cell CHP unit The high concentrations of sulfur species in the biogas (up to 1.5%...

  11. Case Study: Fuel Cells Provide Combined Heat and Power at Verizon's Garden City Central Office

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This case study describes how Verizon's Central Office in Garden City, NY, installed a 1.4-MW phosphoric acid fuel cell system as an alternative solution to bolster electric reliability, optimize the

  12. Smokes from the burning of aviation fuel and their self-lofting by solar heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radke, L.F.; Lyons, J.H.; Hobbs, P.V. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA)); Weiss, R.E. (Radiance Research, Inc., Seattle, WA (USA))

    1990-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The emission factors and optical properties of smokes produced by the burning of aviation fuel were determined from airborne measurements. These rather large fires (30 m in diameter and containing as much as 4.5 {times} 10{sup 4} liters of fuel) produced dark columns of smoke. On several occasions the smoke was observed to continue to rise slowly after its initial stabilization at a temperature inversion. This rise was evidently due to the absorption of solar radiation by the smoke.

  13. Domestic production of medical isotope Mo-99 moves a step closer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Domestic production of medical isotope Mo-99 Domestic production of medical isotope Mo-99 moves a step closer Irradiated uranium fuel has been recycled and reused for molybdenum-99...

  14. Analysis of reactor material experiments investigating oxide fuel crust stability and heat transfer in jet impingement flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sienicki, J.J.; Spencer, B.W.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An analysis is presented of the crust stability and heat transfer behavior in the CSTI-1, CSTI-3, and CWTI-11 reactor material experiments in which a jet of molten oxide fuel at approx. 160/sup 0/K above its freezing temperature was impinged normally upon stainless steel plates initially at 300 and 385 K. The major issue is the existence of nonexistence of a stable solidified layer of fuel, or crust, interstitial to the flowing hot fuel and the steel substrate, tending to insulate the steel from the hot molten fuel. A computer model was developed to predict the heatup of thermocouples imbedded immediately beneath the surface of the plate for both of the cases in which a stable crust is assumed to be either present or absent during the impingement phase. Comparison of the model calculations with the measured thermocouple temperatures indicates that a protective crust was present over nearly all of the plate surface area throughout the impingement process precluding major melting of the plate steel. However, the experiments also show evidence for very localized and isolated steel melting as revealed by localized and isolated pitting of the steel surface and the response of thermocouples located within the pitted region.

  15. Consolidated Electric Cooperative- Heat Pump and Water Heating Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Consolidated Electric Cooperative provides rebates to residential customers who install electric water heaters, dual-fuel heating system or geothermal heat pumps. A dual-fuel heating systems...

  16. Development of a coal-fueled Internal Manifold Heat Exchanger (IMHEX{reg_sign}) molten carbonate fuel cell. Volumes 1--6, Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design of a CGMCFC electric generation plant that will provide a cost of eletricity (COE) which is lower than that of current electric generation technologies and which is competitive with other long-range electric generating systems is presented. This effort is based upon the Internal Manifold Heat Exchanger (IMHEX) technology as developed by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT). The project was executed by selecting economic and performance objectives for alternative plant arrangements while considering process constraints identified during IMHEX fuel cell development activities at ICT. The four major subsystems of a coal-based MCFC power plant are coal gasification, gas purification, fuel cell power generation and the bottoming cycle. The design and method of operation of each subsystem can be varied, and, depending upon design choices, can have major impact on both the design of other subsystems and the resulting cost of electricity. The challenge of this project was to select, from a range of design parameters, those operating conditions that result in a preferred plant design. Computer modelling was thus used to perform sensitivity analyses of as many system variables as program resources and schedules would permit. In any systems analysis, it is imperative that the evaluation methodology be verifiable and comparable. The TAG Class I develops comparable (if imprecise) data on performance and costs for the alternative cases being studied. It identifies, from a range of options, those which merit more exacting scrutiny to be undertaken at the second level, TAG class II analysis.

  17. A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions from Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    duty fuel cell vehicles using gasoline, methanol, ethanol,fuel-cell vehicle with a proton-exchange membrane (PEM) and methanolmethanol), fuel feedstocks (e.g. , coal), and vehicle types (e.g. , fuel-cell vehicle).

  18. A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions from Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    because diesel fuel contains 11% more BTUs per gallon thangenerators, in gallons-diesel fuel per million BTU of

  19. Cycle simulation of coal-fueled engines utilizing low heat rejection concepts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roth, John M.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    combustion engines has existed since the development of' the earliest engines. Caton and Rosegay (I] presented a comprehensive review of coal fired engine activities spanning the years from the late 1800's to 1983. Interest is seen to have been sustained.... n increased understanding of the coal coinbustion process in an internal combustion engine envi'ronment. Ryan and Dodge [6] studied the injection and combustion of slurries of coal, charcoal and coke in diesel fuel. Deviations between the slurry...

  20. A 2-D Test Problem for CFD Modeling Heat Transfer in Spent Fuel Transfer Cask Neutron Shields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zigh, Ghani; Solis, Jorge; Fort, James A.

    2011-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In the United States, commercial spent nuclear fuel is typically moved from spent fuel pools to outdoor dry storage pads within a transfer cask system that provides radiation shielding to protect personnel and the surrounding environment. The transfer casks are cylindrical steel enclosures with integral gamma and neutron radiation shields. Since the transfer cask system must be passively cooled, decay heat removal from spent nuclear fuel canister is limited by the rate of heat transfer through the cask components, and natural convection from the transfer cask surface. The primary mode of heat transfer within the transfer cask system is conduction, but some cask designs incorporate a liquid neutron shield tank surrounding the transfer cask structural shell. In these systems, accurate prediction of natural convection within the neutron shield tank is an important part of assessing the overall thermal performance of the transfer cask system. The large-scale geometry of the neutron shield tank, which is typically an annulus approximately 2 meters in diameter but only 5-10 cm in thickness, and the relatively small scale velocities (typically less than 5 cm/s) represent a wide range of spatial and temporal scales that contribute to making this a challenging problem for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. Relevant experimental data at these scales are not available in the literature, but some recent modeling studies offer insights into numerical issues and solutions; however, the geometries in these studies, and for the experimental data in the literature at smaller scales, all have large annular gaps that are not prototypic of the transfer cask neutron shield. This paper presents results for a simple 2-D problem that is an effective numerical analog for the neutron shield application. Because it is 2-D, solutions can be obtained relatively quickly allowing a comparison and assessment of sensitivity to model parameter changes. Turbulence models are considered as well as the tradeoff between steady state and transient solutions. Solutions are compared for two commercial CFD codes, FLUENT and STAR-CCM+. The results can be used to provide input to the CFD Best Practices for this application. Following study results for the 2-D test problem, a comparison of simulation results is provided for a high Rayleigh number experiment with large annular gap. Because the geometry of this validation is significantly different from the neutron shield, and due to the critical nature of this application, the argument is made for new experiments at representative scales

  1. Evaluation of Aqueous and Powder Processing Techniques for Production of Pu-238-Fueled General Purpose Heat Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report evaluates alternative processes that could be used to produce Pu-238 fueled General Purpose Heat Sources (GPHS) for radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG). Fabricating GPHSs with the current process has remained essentially unchanged since its development in the 1970s. Meanwhile, 30 years of technological advancements have been made in the fields of chemistry, manufacturing, ceramics, and control systems. At the Department of Energy’s request, alternate manufacturing methods were compared to current methods to determine if alternative fabrication processes could reduce the hazards, especially the production of respirable fines, while producing an equivalent GPHS product. An expert committee performed the evaluation with input from four national laboratories experienced in Pu-238 handling.

  2. International Support for Domestic Climate Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neuhoff, Karsten

    the CO2 emissions from fossil fuel use. Overall carbon emissions can be further reduced using carbon capture and sequestration for fossil fuel combustion, with substantial reductions occurring if the technology is applied to large installations... from Concentrated Solar Power Plants can encourage domestic and international firms to adopt the technology and stimulate its production in South Africa. Large wind resources require appropriate technology and network design to capture...

  3. Domestic Uranium Production Report 2004-13

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688 760,877 951,322 1,381,127by Local(Dollars9.Domestic Thank

  4. Domestic Uranium Production Report - Energy Information Administration

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline353/06) 2Yonthly Energy :and CommercialDomestic

  5. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Promoting Combined Heat and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    residential applications the heat can be used for domestic hot water, space heating, absorption cooling, or dehumidifying at the building where it is produced. CHP systems consist...

  6. Determining the quality and quantity of heat produced by proton exchange membrane fuel cells with application to air-cooled stacks for combined heat and power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    cells as a heat and electrical power source for residential combined heat and power (CHP characterization provided data to assess the CHP potential of the Nexa and validate the model used ambient temperature. #12;iv To improve performance as a CHP heat engine, the Nexa and other air-cooled PEM

  7. Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System Phase 5 report: Impacts of ultra low sulfur diesel fuel production on Navy fuel availability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadder, G.R.; Das, S.; Lee, R.; Domingo, N.; Davis, R.M.

    1989-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Legislation for ultra low sulfur (ULS) diesel fuel, with a greatly reduced allowable sulfur content and a new limit on aromatics content, is expected to be in place by 1995. The ULS diesel fuel has been specified to satisfy national standards for particulate emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines. The economic and engineering models of the Navy Mobility Fuels Forecasting System have been used to study the impacts of ULS diesel fuel production on other refined petroleum products, with emphasis on the quality of Navy mobility fuels. The study predicts that to produce ULS diesel fuel, Gulf and West Coast refiners will have to invest about $4.4 billion in new processing capacity. Refiners will shift aromatics from No. 2 diesel fuel to jet fuel and to No. 2 fuel oil. Therefore, particulate emissions could be transferred from the nation's highways to the airways and to communities which use No. 2 fuel oil for residential and commercial heating. The study also predicts that there will be an increase in the aromatics content of domestically produced Navy JP-5 jet fuel and F-76 marine diesel fuel. The gum-forming tendencies of F-76 an F-77 burner fuel oil will increase in most cases. The freezing point of JP-5 will improve. There will be minor changes in the cost of JP-5, but sizable reductions in the cost of F-76 and F-77. 20 refs., 2 figs., 17 tabs.

  8. Optimizal design and control strategies for novel Combined Heat and Power (CHP) fuel cell systems. Part II of II, case study results.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colella, Whitney G.

    2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Innovative energy system optimization models are deployed to evaluate novel fuel cell system (FCS) operating strategies, not typically pursued by commercial industry. Most FCS today are installed according to a 'business-as-usual' approach: (1) stand-alone (unconnected to district heating networks and low-voltage electricity distribution lines), (2) not load following (not producing output equivalent to the instantaneous electrical or thermal demand of surrounding buildings), (3) employing a fairly fixed heat-to-power ratio (producing heat and electricity in a relatively constant ratio to each other), and (4) producing only electricity and no recoverable heat. By contrast, models discussed here consider novel approaches as well. Novel approaches include (1) networking (connecting FCSs to electrical and/or thermal networks), (2) load following (having FCSs produce only the instantaneous electricity or heat demanded by surrounding buildings), (3) employing a variable heat-to-power ratio (such that FCS can vary the ratio of heat and electricity they produce), (4) co-generation (combining the production of electricity and recoverable heat), (5) permutations of these together, and (6) permutations of these combined with more 'business-as-usual' approaches.

  9. Optimal design and control strategies for novel combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell systems. Part II of II, case study results.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colella, Whitney G.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Innovative energy system optimization models are deployed to evaluate novel fuel cell system (FCS) operating strategies, not typically pursued by commercial industry. Most FCS today are installed according to a 'business-as-usual' approach: (1) stand-alone (unconnected to district heating networks and low-voltage electricity distribution lines), (2) not load following (not producing output equivalent to the instantaneous electrical or thermal demand of surrounding buildings), (3) employing a fairly fixed heat-to-power ratio (producing heat and electricity in a relatively constant ratio to each other), and (4) producing only electricity and no recoverable heat. By contrast, models discussed here consider novel approaches as well. Novel approaches include (1) networking (connecting FCSs to electrical and/or thermal networks), (2) load following (having FCSs produce only the instantaneous electricity or heat demanded by surrounding buildings), (3) employing a variable heat-to-power ratio (such that FCS can vary the ratio of heat and electricity they produce), (4) co-generation (combining the production of electricity and recoverable heat), (5) permutations of these together, and (6) permutations of these combined with more 'business-as-usual' approaches. The detailed assumptions and methods behind these models are described in Part I of this article pair.

  10. Proceedings of the joint contractors meeting: FE/EE Advanced Turbine Systems conference FE fuel cells and coal-fired heat engines conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geiling, D.W. [ed.

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The joint contractors meeting: FE/EE Advanced Turbine Systems conference FEE fuel cells and coal-fired heat engines conference; was sponsored by the US Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy and held at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center, P.O. Box 880, Morgantown, West Virginia 26507-0880, August 3--5, 1993. Individual papers have been entered separately.

  11. EA-1887: Renewable Fuel Heat Plant Improvements at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado (DOE/EA-1573-S1)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Draft Supplemental Environmental Assessment This EA will evaluate the environmental impacts of a proposal to make improvements to the Renewable Fuel Heat Plant including construction and operation of a wood chip storage silo and the associated material handling conveyances and utilization of regional wood sources.

  12. Fuel pin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Karnesky, Richard A. (Richland, WA); Leggett, Robert D. (Richland, WA); Baker, Ronald B. (Richland, WA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  13. Fuel pin

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, D.W.; Karnesky, R.A.; Leggett, R.D.; Baker, R.B.

    1987-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel pin for a liquid metal nuclear reactor is provided. The fuel pin includes a generally cylindrical cladding member with metallic fuel material disposed therein. At least a portion of the fuel material extends radially outwardly to the inner diameter of the cladding member to promote efficient transfer of heat to the reactor coolant system. The fuel material defines at least one void space therein to facilitate swelling of the fuel material during fission.

  14. A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions from Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    S and a reference ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) with 5 ppmof the reference ultra-low-sulfur diesel (5 ppm). SF CD =diesel fuel (CD), ultra-low-sulfur diesel fuel (ULSD),

  15. A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions from Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    = distillate fuel; ULSD = ultra-low-sulfur distillate fuel;ppm S and a reference ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) with 5content of the reference ultra-low-sulfur diesel (5 ppm). SF

  16. Assessment of the Current Level of Automation in the Manufacture of Fuel Cell Systems for Combined Heat and Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ulsh, M.; Wheeler, D.; Protopappas, P.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is interested in supporting manufacturing research and development (R&D) for fuel cell systems in the 10-1,000 kilowatt (kW) power range relevant to stationary and distributed combined heat and power applications, with the intent to reduce manufacturing costs and increase production throughput. To assist in future decision-making, DOE requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provide a baseline understanding of the current levels of adoption of automation in manufacturing processes and flow, as well as of continuous processes. NREL identified and visited or interviewed key manufacturers, universities, and laboratories relevant to the study using a standard questionnaire. The questionnaire covered the current level of vertical integration, the importance of quality control developments for automation, the current level of automation and source of automation design, critical balance of plant issues, potential for continuous cell manufacturing, key manufacturing steps or processes that would benefit from DOE support for manufacturing R&D, the potential for cell or stack design changes to support automation, and the relationship between production volume and decisions on automation.

  17. Characterization and Quantification of Electronic and Ionic Ohmic Overpotential and Heat Generation in a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grew, Kyle N.; Izzo, John R.; Chiu, Wilson K.S.

    2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a higher efficiency and power density requires an improved understanding and treatment of the irreversibilities. Losses due to the electronic and ionic resistances, which are also known as ohmic losses in the form of Joule heating, can hinder the SOFC's performance. Ohmic losses can result from the bulk material resistivities as well as the complexities introduced by the cell's microstructure. In this work, two-dimensional (2D), electronic and ionic transport models are used to develop a method of quantification of the ohmic losses within the SOFC anode microstructure. This quantification is completed as a function of properties determined from a detailed microstructure characterization, namely, the tortuosity of the electronic and ionic phases, phase volume fraction, contiguity, and mean free path. A direct modeling approach at the level of the pore-scale microstructure is achieved through the use of a representative volume element (RVE) method. The correlation of these ohmic losses with the quantification of the SOFC anode microstructure are examined. It is found with this analysis that the contributions of the SOFC anode microstructure on ohmic losses can be correlated with the volume fraction, contiguity, and mean free path.

  18. Characterization and Quantification of Electronic and Ionic Ohmic Overpotential and Heat Generation in a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grew, Kyle N.; Izzo, Jr., John R.; Chiu, W. K. S.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) with a higher efficiency and power density requires an improved understanding and treatment of the irreversibilities. Losses due to the electronic and ionic resistances, which are also known as ohmic losses in the form of Joule heating, can hinder the SOFC’s performance. Ohmic losses can result from the bulk material resistivities as well as the complexities introduced by the cell’s microstructure. In this work, two-dimensional (2D), electronic and ionic transport models are used to develop a method of quantification of the ohmic losses within the SOFC anode microstructure. This quantification is completed as a function of properties determined from a detailed microstructure characterization, namely, the tortuosity of the electronic and ionic phases, phase volume fraction, contiguity, and mean free path. A direct modeling approach at the level of the pore-scale microstructure is achieved through the use of a representative volume element (RVE) method. The correlation of these ohmic losses with the quantification of the SOFC anode microstructure are examined. It is found with this analysis that the contributions of the SOFC anode microstructure on ohmic losses can be correlated with the volume fraction, contiguity, and mean free path.

  19. Three-dimensional numerical simulations of heat transfer in an annular fuel channel with periodic spacer ribs under a fully developed turbulent flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takase, Kazuyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal-hydraulic characteristics in a spacer-ribbed annular fuel channel for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors were analyzed numerically by three-dimensional computations under a fully developed turbulent flow. The two-equation {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model was applied in the present turbulent analysis, and the turbulence model constants for eddy viscosity and the turbulent Prandtl number were improved from the previous standard values to increase the accuracy of numerical simulations. Consequently, heat transfer coefficients and friction factors in the spacer-ribbed fuel channel were predicted with sufficient accuracy in the range of Reynolds number >3,000. It was clarified quantitatively that the main mechanism for heat transfer augmentation in the spacer-ribbed fuel channel was a combined effect of the turbulence promoter effect by the spacer rib and the velocity acceleration effect by a reduction in the channel cross section.

  20. Nonlinear Electron Heat Conduction Equation and Self similar method for 1-D Thermal Waves in Laser Heating of Solid Density DT Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Mohammadian Pourtalari; M. A. Jafarizadeh; M. Ghoranneviss

    2011-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron heat conduction is one of the ways that energy transports in laser heating of fusible target material. The aim of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is to show that the thermal conductivity is strongly dependent on temperature and the equation of electron heat conduction is a nonlinear equation. In this article, we solve the one-dimensional (1-D) nonlinear electron heat conduction equation with a self-similar method (SSM). This solution has been used to investigate the propagation of 1-D thermal wave from a deuterium-tritium (DT) plane source which occurs when a giant laser pulse impinges onto a DT solid target. It corresponds to the physical problem of rapid heating of a boundary layer of material in which the energy of laser pulse is released in a finite initial thickness.

  1. Load Preheating Using Flue Gases from a Fuel-Fired Heating System; Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) Energy Tips - Process Heating Tip Sheet #9 (Fact Sheet).

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment ofLetterEconomy and EmissionsDepartmentHartman About9 * January

  2. Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces; Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) Energy Tips - Process Heating Tip Sheet #8 (Fact Sheet).

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment of Energy InvestingS10IS007 InspectionRemovable Insulation on78

  3. Valley Electric Association- Solar Water Heating Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Valley Electric Association (VEA), a nonprofit member owned cooperative, developed the domestic solar water heating program to encourage energy efficiency at the request of the membership. VEA...

  4. Development of a technique for ex-reactor heating of electrodes and for obtaining voltage-current characteristics of multi-cell thermionic fuel elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalandarishvili, A.G.; Mailov, G.M.; Igumnov, B.N.; Bisko, V.A. [I.N. Vekua Sukhumi Inst. for Physics and Engineering, Tbilisi (Georgia)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents results of development of a technique for ex-reactor heating with simultaneous recording of voltage-current characteristics of multi-cell thermionic fuel elements (TFE). Heating pulses were applied to electrodes of a thermionic energy converter (TIC), and between these pulses in the antiphase to them there were applied shorter pulses. The TIC emitter was heated by energy of an electric current flowing from the collector (back current heating). Comparison of TIC voltage-current characteristics, obtained for direct (using electric heater) and back current (current from the collector) heating, shows that for the same conditions they differ only slightly. Significant difference may be observed in the case of different profiles along the collector working surface. Results are given of the investigation of multi-cell thermionic fuel assemblies conducted using this technique. The developed technique of the TFE diagnostics can be successfully employed to assess the device quality. Pre-loop testing of multi-cell TFE by the method of back currents allows for cost effective and expeditious thermovacuum treatment of the TFE on thermal stands and for checking of its serviceability prior to its mounting into an irradiation loop or reactor-converter, enables improvements to the TFE design, monitoring of its electric parameters, for example, after vibration testing, and TFE accelerated testing in the most arduous conditions (thermocycling, loss of vacuum, etc.).

  5. FUEL CELL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Case Study: Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    through March), cooling water conveys waste heat from the fuel cells to an unfired furnace for space by the boilers. Early in the project, Verizon decided not to utilize the fuel cell's low temperature waste heat the cooling season (April through October), the high-grade waste heat from the fuel cells is used in two 70

  6. A Total Cost of Ownership Model for Low Temperature PEM Fuel Cells in Combined Heat and Power and Backup Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    University of California, Berkeley; Wei, Max; Lipman, Timothy; Mayyas, Ahmad; Chien, Joshua; Chan, Shuk Han; Gosselin, David; Breunig, Hanna; Stadler, Michael; McKone, Thomas; Beattie, Paul; Chong, Patricia; Colella, Whitney; James, Brian

    2014-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A total cost of ownership model is described for low temperature proton exchange membrane stationary fuel cell systems for combined heat and power (CHP) applications from 1-250kW and backup power applications from 1-50kW. System designs and functional specifications for these two applications were developed across the range of system power levels. Bottom-up cost estimates were made for balance of plant costs, and detailed direct cost estimates for key fuel cell stack components were derived using design-for-manufacturing-and-assembly techniques. The development of high throughput, automated processes achieving high yield are projected to reduce the cost for fuel cell stacks to the $300/kW level at an annual production volume of 100 MW. Several promising combinations of building types and geographical location in the U.S. were identified for installation of fuel cell CHP systems based on the LBNL modelling tool DER CAM. Life-cycle modelling and externality assessment were done for hotels and hospitals. Reduced electricity demand charges, heating credits and carbon credits can reduce the effective cost of electricity ($/kWhe) by 26-44percent in locations such as Minneapolis, where high carbon intensity electricity from the grid is displaces by a fuel cell system operating on reformate fuel. This project extends the scope of existing cost studies to include externalities and ancillary financial benefits and thus provides a more comprehensive picture of fuel cell system benefits, consistent with a policy and incentive environment that increasingly values these ancillary benefits. The project provides a critical, new modelling capacity and should aid a broad range of policy makers in assessing the integrated costs and benefits of fuel cell systems versus other distributed generation technologies.

  7. Biodiesel Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    unknown authors

    publication 442-880 There are broad and increasing interests across the nation in using domestic, renewable bioenergy. Virginia farmers and transportation fleets use considerable amounts of diesel fuel in their operations. Biodiesel is an excellent alternative fuel for the diesel engines. Biodiesel can be produced from crops commonly grown in Virginia, such as soybean and canola, and has almost the same performance as petrodiesel. The purpose of this publication is to introduce the basics of biodiesel fuel and address some myths and answer some questions about biodiesel fuel before farmers and fleet owners use this type of fuel. ASTM standard for biodiesel (ASTM D6751) Biodiesel fuel, hereafter referred to as simply biodiesel,

  8. A High-Temperature Fuel Cell to Provide On-Site Process Reducing Gas, Clean Power, and Heat

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platform is always evolving, soFuelDepartmentPotawatomi Community -A Guide

  9. A Lifecycle Emissions Model (LEM): Lifecycle Emissions from Transportation Fuels, Motor Vehicles, Transportation Modes, Electricity Use, Heating and Cooking Fuels, and Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delucchi, Mark

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    However, in the case of biomass feedstocks and fuels, LNG,NGL57/LRG43 LDVs, biomass feedstocks (versus 26 mpg LDGV)NGL57/LRG43 HDVs, biomass feedstocks (versus 6 mpg HDDV)

  10. Biofuel Boundaries: Estimating the Medium-Term Supply Potential of Domestic Biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Andrew; O'Hare, Michael; Farrell, Alexander

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    solar, nuclear, combined heat and power) than for low greenhouse gas liquid fuels. Thus liquid fuel production

  11. Heat Transfer -2 A heat generating ( ) flat plate fuel element of thickness 2L is covered with flat plate steel cladding of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    with flat plate steel cladding of thickness b. The heat generated is removed by a fluid at T, which adjoins on both sides On the sketch show regions where dT/dx is zero, constant and increasing. T , h x LL bb SteelSteel

  12. Check Burner Air to Fuel Ratios; Industrial Technologies Program (ITP) Process Heating Tip Sheet #2 (Fact Sheet)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof EnergyAdministration-DesertofSuccess Storiesof EnergyChartPeriodic

  13. Technical Information Exchange on Pyrolysis Oil: Potential for a Renewab;e Heating Oil Substation Fuel in New England

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMayDepartment ofEnergyTeam Cumberland »Department of

  14. Lung cancer and indoor pollution from heating and cooking with solid fuels - The IARIC International Multicentre Case-Control study in Eastern/Central Europe and the United Kingdom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lissowska, J.; Bardin-Mikolajczak, A.; Fletcher, T.; Zaridze, D.; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N.; Rudnai, P.; Fabianova, E.; Cassidy, A.; Mates, D.; Holcatova, I.; Vitova, V.; Janout, V.; Mannetje, A.; Brennan, P.; Boffetta, P. [Center for Cancer, Warsaw (Poland). Dept. of Epidemiology & Cancer Prevention

    2005-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Exposure to fuel from cooking and heating has not been studied in Europe, where lung cancer rates are high and many residents have had a long tradition of burning coal and unprocessed biomass. Study subjects included 2,861 cases and 3,118 controls recruited during 1998-2002 in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Russia, Slovakia, and the United Kingdom. The odds ratio of lung cancer associated with solid fuel use was 1.22 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04, 1.44) for cooking or heating, 1.37 (95% CI: 0.90, 2.09) for solid fuel only for cooking, and 1.24 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.47) for solid fuels used for both cooking and heating. Risk increased relative to the percentage of time that solid fuel was used for cooking (P-trend {lt} 0.0001), while no risk increase was detected for solid fuel used for heating. The odds ratio of lung cancer in whole-life users of solid cooking fuel was 1.80 (95% CI: 1.35, 2.40). Switching to nonsolid fuels resulted in a decrease in risk. The odds ratio for the longest duration of time since switching was 0.76 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.92). The data suggest a modest increased risk of lung cancer related to solid-fuel use for cooking rather than heating.

  15. U.S. Domestic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are nowTotal" (Percent) Type: Sulfur Content API GravityDakota" "Fuel, quality",Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New England (PADD 1A)20,798 18,5782009 2010Area:

  16. STATE OF CALIFORNIA SOLAR DOMESTIC HOT WATER SYSTEMS (SDHW)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    attached CEC F-Chart) # of Collectors in System Collector Size Solar Tank Volume (gallons) §150(j)1B piping shall be insulated. §150(j)4: Solar water-heating system and/or/collectors are certifiedSTATE OF CALIFORNIA SOLAR DOMESTIC HOT WATER SYSTEMS (SDHW) CEC- CF-6R-MECH-02 (Revised 08

  17. Design package for solar domestic hot water system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Information used to evaluate the initial design of the Elcam, Inc., Solar Domestic Hot Water System is presented. Included are such items as the system performance specification, detailed design drawings and other information. Elcam, Inc., has developed two solar heated prototype hot water systems and two heat exchangers. The hot water systems consist of the following subsystems: collector, storage, control, transport, auxiliary energy, and government-furnished Site Data Acquisition. The two systems are installed at Tempe, Arizona, and San Diego, California.

  18. Design and Control of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Systems using Methanol Reformers with Air or Liquid Heat Integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    of burner temperature and the aspects of implementing advanced modeling based control approaches using], auxiliary and uninterruptible power systems [13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19]. Polymer electrolyte membrane fuelDesign and Control of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell Systems using Methanol Reformers with Air

  19. Evaluation and Analysis of an Integrated PEM Fuel Cell with Absorption Cooling and Water Heating System for Sustainable Building Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gadalla, M.; Ratlamwala, T.; Dincer, I.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, a parametric study of a PEM fuel cell integrated with a double effect absorption system is carried out in order to study the effect of different operating conditions on the efficiency of the PEM fuel cell, utilization factor...

  20. Accidental Burning of a Fuel Layer on a Waterbed: A Scale Analysis Study of the Heat Transfer Models Predicting the pre-Boilover Time and Scaling to Published Data 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hristov, J; Planas, E; Arnaldos, J; Casal, J

    The paper concerns the heat transfer models of liquid fuel bed burning on water sublayer. The main efforts are stressed on the qualitative assessment of models available and their adequacy as well as on the prediction of ...

  1. Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688 760,877 951,322 1,381,127by Local(Dollars per611. U.S.

  2. Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688 760,877 951,322 1,381,127by Local(Dollars per611. U.S.6.

  3. Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688 760,877 951,322 1,381,127by Local(Dollars per611.

  4. Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688 760,877 951,322 1,381,127by Local(Dollars per611.8. U.S.

  5. Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688 760,877 951,322 1,381,127by Local(Dollars per611.8.

  6. Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688 760,877 951,322 1,381,127by Local(Dollars per611.8.4.

  7. Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688 760,877 951,322 1,381,127by Local(Dollars per611.8.4.2.

  8. Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688 760,877 951,322 1,381,127by Local(Dollars per611.8.4.2.3.

  9. Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688 760,877 951,322 1,381,127by Local(Dollars

  10. Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688 760,877 951,322 1,381,127by Local(Dollars9. Summary

  11. Domestic and Foreign Distribution

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,128 2,469Decade Year-0CubicCubic8 Final May 2010 2008 of U.S.

  12. Domestic* Foreign* Total Alabama

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,128 2,469Decade Year-0CubicCubic8 Final May 2010 2008 of U.S./

  13. Crude Oil Domestic Production

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline prices4Consumption TheX Imeans

  14. Industrial and Commercial Heat Pump Applications in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niess, R. C.

    compression cycle. Using readily available fluorocarbon refrigerants as the heat pump working fluid, this cycle is commonly used because of its wide application opportunities. Compressed Vapors Heat Pump Compressor Heat Sink PrOCess (Condenser... and refrigerants most commonly used and the open-cycle mechanical vapor compression heat pumps. Waste heat sources, heat loads served by heat pumps--and typical applications using heat pumps for large-scale space heating, domestic water heating, and industrial...

  15. 2013 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA.S. Energy Information Administration | 2013 Domestic Uranium Production Report iii Preface The U.S. Energy://www.eia.doe.gov/glossary/. #12;U.S. Energy Information Administration | 2013 Domestic Uranium Production Report iv Contents

  16. Peculiarities of a method for ex-reactor heating of electrodes and obtaining voltage-current characteristics of multi-cell thermionic fuel elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalandarishvili, A.G. [Sukhumi Institute of Physics and Engineering, Tbilisi 380008 Republic of (Georgia); Drozdov, A.A. [RRC ``Kurchatov Institute``, Moscow 123182 (Russia); Stepennov, B.S. [INERTEK, Moscow 123182 (Russia)

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper discusses principle of operation and applications of a pulse method of heating multi-cell thermionic fuel elements. Some experimental results are given for a cylindrical single-cell thermionic energy converter that simulates conditions close to that of multi-cell TFE operation. Basic requirements for technical parameters are stated that should be observed when testing TFE on thermal facilities. The means to improve the method are described, including both a computer-aided experiment and modifications in individual components of the test facility. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cortright, Randy D.; Dumesic, James A.

    2013-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  18. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cortright, Randy D. (Madison, WI); Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI)

    2011-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  19. Method for producing bio-fuel that integrates heat from carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions to drive biomass gasification reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cortright, Randy D. (Madison, WI); Dumesic, James A. (Verona, WI)

    2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-temperature catalytic process for converting biomass (preferably glycerol recovered from the fabrication of bio-diesel) to synthesis gas (i.e., H.sub.2/CO gas mixture) in an endothermic gasification reaction is described. The synthesis gas is used in exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions, such as Fischer-Tropsch, methanol, or dimethylether syntheses. The heat from the exothermic carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction is integrated with the endothermic gasification reaction, thus providing an energy-efficient route for producing fuels and chemicals from renewable biomass resources.

  20. Michigan residential No. 2 fuel oil and propane price survey for the 1990/91 heating season. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of home heating oil and propane prices over the 1990/1991 heating season in Michigan. The survey was conducted under a cooperative agreement between the State of Michigan, Michigan Public Service Commission and the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and was funded by a grant from EIA. From October 1990 through May 1991, participating dealers/distributions were called and asked for their current residential retail prices of No. 2 home heating oil and propane. This information was then transmitted to the EIA, bi-monthly using an electronic reporting system called Petroleum Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). The survey was conducted using a sample provided by EIA of home heating oil and propane retailers which supply Michigan households. These retailers were contacted the first and third Mondays of each month. The sample was designed to account for distributors with different sales volumes, geographic distributions and sources of primary supply. It should be noted that this simple is different from the sample used in prior year surveys.

  1. Michigan residential No. 2 fuel oil and propane price survey for the 1990/91 heating season

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of home heating oil and propane prices over the 1990/1991 heating season in Michigan. The survey was conducted under a cooperative agreement between the State of Michigan, Michigan Public Service Commission and the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and was funded by a grant from EIA. From October 1990 through May 1991, participating dealers/distributions were called and asked for their current residential retail prices of No. 2 home heating oil and propane. This information was then transmitted to the EIA, bi-monthly using an electronic reporting system called Petroleum Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). The survey was conducted using a sample provided by EIA of home heating oil and propane retailers which supply Michigan households. These retailers were contacted the first and third Mondays of each month. The sample was designed to account for distributors with different sales volumes, geographic distributions and sources of primary supply. It should be noted that this simple is different from the sample used in prior year surveys.

  2. AFFIDAVIT OF TERMINATION OF DOMESTIC PARTNERSHIP Declaration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohta, Shigemi

    AFFIDAVIT OF TERMINATION OF DOMESTIC PARTNERSHIP Declaration I of Termination of Domestic Partnership form to my former Domestic Partner on ____________________, 20 or misleading statement made will subject me to disciplinary action up to and including termination

  3. Fuel from wastewater : harnessing a potential energy source in Canada through the co-location of algae biofuel production to sources of effluent, heat and CO2.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Passell, Howard David; Whalen, Jake (SmartWhale Consulting, Dartmouth, NS, CA); Pienkos, Philip P. (National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO); O'Leary, Stephen J. (National Research Council Canada, Institute for Marine Biosciences, Halifax, NS, CA); Roach, Jesse Dillon; Moreland, Barbara D.; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories is collaborating with the National Research Council (NRC) Canada and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop a decision-support model that will evaluate the tradeoffs associated with high-latitude algae biofuel production co-located with wastewater, CO2, and waste heat. This project helps Canada meet its goal of diversifying fuel sources with algae-based biofuels. The biofuel production will provide a wide range of benefits including wastewater treatment, CO2 reuse and reduction of demand for fossil-based fuels. The higher energy density in algae-based fuels gives them an advantage over crop-based biofuels as the 'production' footprint required is much less, resulting in less water consumed and little, if any conversion of agricultural land from food to fuel production. Besides being a potential source for liquid fuel, algae have the potential to be used to generate electricity through the burning of dried biomass, or anaerobically digested to generate methane for electricity production. Co-locating algae production with waste streams may be crucial for making algae an economically valuable fuel source, and will certainly improve its overall ecological sustainability. The modeling process will address these questions, and others that are important to the use of water for energy production: What are the locations where all resources are co-located, and what volumes of algal biomass and oil can be produced there? In locations where co-location does not occur, what resources should be transported, and how far, while maintaining economic viability? This work is being funded through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Biomass Program Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, and is part of a larger collaborative effort that includes sampling, strain isolation, strain characterization and cultivation being performed by the NREL and Canada's NRC. Results from the NREL / NRC collaboration including specific productivities of selected algal strains will eventually be incorporated into this model.

  4. Modelling the impact of user behaviour on heat energy consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Combe, Nicola Miss; Harrison, David Professor; Way, Celia Miss

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    strategies impact on energy consumption in residentialBEHAVIOUR ON HEAT ENERGY CONSUMPTION Nicola Combe 1 ,2 ,nearly 60% of domestic energy consumption and 27% of total

  5. SOLAR HEATING OF TANK BOTTOMS Application of Solar Heating to Asphaltic and Parrafinic Oils Reducing Fuel Costs and Greenhouse Gases Due to Use of Natural Gas and Propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eugene A. Fritzler

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The sale of crude oil requires that the crude meet product specifications for BS&W, temperature, pour point and API gravity. The physical characteristics of the crude such as pour point and viscosity effect the efficient loading, transport, and unloading of the crude oil. In many cases, the crude oil has either a very high paraffin content or asphalt content which will require either hot oiling or the addition of diluents to the crude oil to reduce the viscosity and the pour point of the oil allowing the crude oil to be readily loaded on to the transport. Marginal wells are significantly impacted by the cost of preheating the oil to an appropriate temperature to allow for ease of transport. Highly paraffinic and asphaltic oils exist throughout the D-J basin and generally require pretreatment during cold months prior to sales. The current study addresses the use of solar energy to heat tank bottoms and improves the overall efficiency and operational reliability of stripper wells.

  6. Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions...

  7. Optimal design and control strategies for novel combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell systems. Part I of II, datum design conditions and approach.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colella, Whitney G.

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy network optimization (ENO) models identify new strategies for designing, installing, and controlling stationary combined heat and power (CHP) fuel cell systems (FCSs) with the goals of (1) minimizing electricity and heating costs for building owners and (2) reducing emissions of the primary greenhouse gas (GHG) - carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). A goal of this work is to employ relatively inexpensive simulation studies to discover more financially and environmentally effective approaches for installing CHP FCSs. ENO models quantify the impact of different choices made by power generation operators, FCS manufacturers, building owners, and governments with respect to two primary goals - energy cost savings for building owners and CO{sub 2} emission reductions. These types of models are crucial for identifying cost and CO{sub 2} optima for particular installations. Optimal strategies change with varying economic and environmental conditions, FCS performance, the characteristics of building demand for electricity and heat, and many other factors. ENO models evaluate both 'business-as-usual' and novel FCS operating strategies. For the scenarios examined here, relative to a base case of no FCSs installed, model results indicate that novel strategies could reduce building energy costs by 25% and CO{sub 2} emissions by 80%. Part I of II articles discusses model assumptions and methodology. Part II of II articles illustrates model results for a university campus town and generalizes these results for diverse communities.

  8. Domestic Coal Distribution 2009 Q2 by Destination State: Alabama

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688 760,877 951,322 1,381,127by Local(Dollars per61 Domestic

  9. Table 5. Domestic Crude Oil Production, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14Total DeliveredPrincipal shale gas plays:Domestic Crude

  10. Special Problem for Chapter 4: Compare the Lower Heating Values of different fuel gases per Standard Cubic Foot, recalling that

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2 + 3.76N2) - 1H2Ovapor + 1.88N2 0 = 1 lbmolH2 O lbmolfuel � 18.016 lbmH2 O lbmolH2 O ” -5774.6 BTU lbmH2 0 ¶ + Qout 0 = -104040 BTU/lbmolfuel + Qout Qout = 104040 BTU/lbmolfuel = 51607 BTU/lbmfuel = 266 BTU/ft3 fuel [274 BTU/SCF] For 16.043 lbm of Methane CH4 + 2 (O2 + 3.76N2) - 2H2O + CO2 + 7.52N2

  11. Alternative Fuels Data Center: xTL Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    liquefaction technologies. Liquid Fuels from Biomass Liquid fuels converted from biomass feedstocks are produced primarily through two processes: Gasification-heating biomass by...

  12. Geothermal heat pumps for heating and cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garg, S.C.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) has been tasked by Naval Shore Facilities Energy Office to evaluate the NAS Patuxent River ground-source heat pump (GHP) installation. A large part of a building`s energy consumption consists of heating and air conditioning for occupant comfort. The space heating requirements are normally met by fossil-fuel-fired equipment or electric resistance heating. Cooling is provided by either air conditioners or heat pumps, both using electricity as an energy source.

  13. WA_96_016_AIR_PRODUCTS_AND_CHEMICALS_INC_Waiver_of_Domestic_...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    16AIRPRODUCTSANDCHEMICALSINCWaiverofDomestic.pdf WA96016AIRPRODUCTSANDCHEMICALSINCWaiverofDomestic.pdf WA96016AIRPRODUCTSANDCHEMICALSINCWaiverofDomest...

  14. State Support of Domestic Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amy Wright

    2007-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was developed in response to a cooperative agreement offering by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) under the State Support of Domestic Production DE-FC26-04NT15456. The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC) performed efforts in support of State programs related to the security, reliability and growth if our nation's domestic production of oil and natural gas. The project objectives were to improve the States ability to monitor the security of oil and gas operations; to maximize the production of domestic oil and natural gas thereby minimizing the threat to national security posed by interruptions in energy imports; to assist States in developing and maintaining high standards of environmental protection; to assist in addressing issues that limit the capacity of the industry; to promote the deployment of the appropriate application of technology for regulatory efficiency; and to inform the public about emerging energy issues.

  15. Fuel processor for fuel cell power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E. (Los Alamos, NM); Springer, Thomas E. (Los Alamos, NM); Huff, James R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalytic organic fuel processing apparatus, which can be used in a fuel cell power system, contains within a housing a catalyst chamber, a variable speed fan, and a combustion chamber. Vaporized organic fuel is circulated by the fan past the combustion chamber with which it is in indirect heat exchange relationship. The heated vaporized organic fuel enters a catalyst bed where it is converted into a desired product such as hydrogen needed to power the fuel cell. During periods of high demand, air is injected upstream of the combustion chamber and organic fuel injection means to burn with some of the organic fuel on the outside of the combustion chamber, and thus be in direct heat exchange relation with the organic fuel going into the catalyst bed.

  16. Alternative Fuels Data Center

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    to reduce the state's dependence on petroleum-based fuels in the transportation and heating sectors. Recommendations will include those related to incentives, plug-in electric...

  17. addressing domestic violence: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    domestic violence and abuse. There is help available. Understanding domestic violence and abuse Men can be victims, too Women Leistikow, Bruce N. 9 Domestic violence is a health...

  18. Lakeland Electric- Solar Water Heating Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lakeland Electric, a municipal utility in Florida, is the nation's first utility to offer solar-heated domestic hot water on a "pay-for-energy" basis. The utility has contracted with a solar...

  19. Investigation of global and regional BWR instabilities with a four heated-channel Reduced Order Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demazière, Christophe

    transport) and a heat transfer model (describing heat transfer between the fuel and the coolant). All

  20. The domestic travel sector in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anders, Jeff, M.B.A. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China is already the largest domestic tourism market in the world. Chinese citizens made as many as 800 million overnight domestic trips in 2005. While travel is not a new concept in China, the disposable income they wield, ...

  1. Fuel Price Forecasts INTRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuel Price Forecasts INTRODUCTION Fuel prices affect electricity planning in two primary ways and water heating, and other end-uses as well. Fuel prices also influence electricity supply and price because oil, coal, and natural gas are potential fuels for electricity generation. Natural gas

  2. Solar Thermochemical Fuels Production: Solar Thermochemical Fuel Production via a Novel Lowe Pressure, Magnetically Stabilized, Non-volatile Iron Oxide Looping Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATS Project: The University of Florida is developing a windowless high-temperature chemical reactor that converts concentrated solar thermal energy to syngas, which can be used to produce gasoline. The overarching project goal is lowering the cost of the solar thermochemical production of syngas for clean and synthetic hydrocarbon fuels like petroleum. The team will develop processes that rely on water and recycled CO2 as the sole feed-stock, and concentrated solar radiation as the sole energy source, to power the reactor to produce fuel efficiently. Successful large-scale deployment of this solar thermochemical fuel production could substantially improve our national and economic security by replacing imported oil with domestically produced solar fuels.

  3. Thulium-170 heat source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walter, Carl E. (Pleasanton, CA); Van Konynenburg, Richard (Livermore, CA); VanSant, James H. (Tracy, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An isotopic heat source is formed using stacks of thin individual layers of a refractory isotopic fuel, preferably thulium oxide, alternating with layers of a low atomic weight diluent, preferably graphite. The graphite serves several functions: to act as a moderator during neutron irradiation, to minimize bremsstrahlung radiation, and to facilitate heat transfer. The fuel stacks are inserted into a heat block, which is encased in a sealed, insulated and shielded structural container. Heat pipes are inserted in the heat block and contain a working fluid. The heat pipe working fluid transfers heat from the heat block to a heat exchanger for power conversion. Single phase gas pressure controls the flow of the working fluid for maximum heat exchange and to provide passive cooling.

  4. Advanced technology options for industrial heating equipment research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jain, R.C.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents a strategy for a comprehensive program plan that is applicable to the Combustion Equipment Program of the DOE Office of Industrial Technologies (the program). The program seeks to develop improved heating equipment and advanced control techniques which, by improvements in combustion and beat transfer, will increase energy-use efficiency and productivity in industrial processes and allow the preferred use of abundant, low grade and waste domestic fuels. While the plan development strategy endeavors to be consistent with the programmatic goals and policies of the office, it is primarily governed by the needs and concerns of the US heating equipment industry. The program, by nature, focuses on energy intensive industrial processes. According to the DOE Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), the industrial sector in the US consumed about 21 quads of energy in 1988 in the form of coal, petroleum, natural gas and electricity. This energy was used as fuels for industrial boilers and furnaces, for agricultural uses, for construction, as feedstocks for chemicals and plastics, and for steel, mining, motors, engines and other industrial use over 75 percent of this energy was consumed to provide heat and power for manufacturing industries. The largest consumers of fuel energy were the primary metals, chemical and allied products, paper and allied products, and stone, clay and glass industry groups which accounted for about 60% of the total fuel energy consumed by the US manufacturing sector.

  5. First university owned district heating system using biomass heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    Highlights · First university owned district heating system using biomass heat · Capacity: 15 MMBtu Main Campus District Heating Performance · Avoided: 3500 tonnes of CO2 · Particulate: less than 10 mg District Heating Goals To displace 85% of natural gas used for core campus heating. Fuel Bunker Sawmill

  6. Large Hybrid Energy Systems for Making Low CO2 Load-Following Power and Synthetic Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert S. Cherry; Richard D. Boardman; Steven Aumeier

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hybrid energy systems using nuclear heat sources can economically produce load-following electrical power by exploiting the surplus generation capacity available at night or seasonally to make synthetic fuel. Vehicle fuel is the only current energy use large enough to absorb all the energy capacity that might be diverted from the power industry, and its ease of storage obviates problems with discontinuous synfuel production. The potential benefits and challenges of synfuels integration are illustrated by the production of methanol from natural gas (as a source of carbon) using steam from a light water nuclear power reactor which is assumed to be available in accord with a year's worth of power demand data. Methanol's synthesis process is easily adapted to using 300 C heat from a light water reactor and this simple compound can be further processed into gasoline, biodiesel, or dimethyl ether, fuels which can be used with the current vehicle fleet. A supplemental feed to the methanol process of natural gas (for energy) allows operation at constant full rate when the nuclear heat is being used to produce electrical power. The higher capital costs of such a system are offset by a lower cost of heat and power production from a large base load type of plant and by reduced costs associated with much lower CO2 emissions. Other less tangible economic benefits of this and similar hybrid systems include better use of natural resource for fuels and greater energy services security from the domestic production of vehicle fuel.

  7. Automotive Fuel Efficiency Improvement via Exhaust Gas Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Efficiency Improvement via Exhaust Gas Waste Heat Conversion to Electricity Automotive Fuel Efficiency Improvement via Exhaust Gas Waste Heat Conversion to Electricity Working...

  8. Residential Wood Heating Fuel Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New York Department of Taxation and Finance publishes a variety of sales tax reports detailing local tax rates and exemptions, including those for residential energy services. The residential...

  9. Alternative Fuels Data Center: P-Series

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Security-P-Series fuels can be manufactured from domestic natural gas and biomass feedstocks, reducing U.S. reliance on imported petroleum. More Information Learn more about...

  10. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by electricity generation/CHP facilities by distillate fuelFossil Fuel Consumption for Electricity and Heat GenerationFossil Fuel Consumption for Electricity and Heat Generation

  11. Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Presentati...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Presentation by FuelCell Energy, June 2011 Ultra Efficient Combined Heat, Hydrogen, and Power System - Presentation by FuelCell Energy, June...

  12. Low Temperature Heat Release Behavior of Conventional and Alternative...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Temperature Heat Release Behavior of Conventional and Alternative Fuels in a Motored Engine Low Temperature Heat Release Behavior of Conventional and Alternative Fuels in a...

  13. Heat Transfer Guest Editorial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    Journal of Heat Transfer Guest Editorial We are indeed delighted in bringing out this special issue was showcased in diverse areas such as traditional heat and mass transfer, lab-on-chip, sensors, biomedical applica- tions, micromixers, fuel cells, and microdevices. Selected papers in the field of heat transfer

  14. DOE's Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Technologies Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    · Advanced fuel cell testing & diagnostics Wet Direct coated Anode #1 Direct coated Anode #2 Control Anode #3DOE's Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Technologies Manufacturing Sub-program Nancy L. Garland, Ph.D. U for fuel cells, and hydrogen production, delivery, and storage; grow the domestic supplier base

  15. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Analysis and Concept Design for grey water heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Design for grey water heat recovery to preheat domestic water supply for multi-unit residential high rise of a project/report". #12;2 Analysis and Concept Design for grey water heat recovery to preheat domestic water) for effective capture of heat from waste grey water. Calculations for energy, dollar and GHG savings were made

  16. Power, Efficiency, and Emissions Optimization of a Single Cylinder Direct-Injected Diesel Engine for Testing of Alternative Fuels through Heat Release Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mattson, Jonathan Michael Stearns

    2013-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The increasing dependency of the global economy on mineral fuels necessitates the investigation and future implementation of renewable fuels. Within the spectrum of compression ignition engines, this requires an understanding of the differences...

  17. Solar industrial process heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumsdaine, E.

    1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of the assessment reported is to candidly examine the contribution that solar industrial process heat (SIPH) is realistically able to make in the near and long-term energy futures of the United States. The performance history of government and privately funded SIPH demonstration programs, 15 of which are briefly summarized, and the present status of SIPH technology are discussed. The technical and performance characteristics of solar industrial process heat plants and equipment are reviewed, as well as evaluating how the operating experience of over a dozen SIPH demonstration projects is influencing institutional acceptance and economoc projections. Implications for domestic energy policy and international implications are briefly discussed. (LEW)

  18. Sandia National Laboratories: domestic reuse of wastewater

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    domestic reuse of wastewater Sandia, the Atlantic Council, and NM Water Resource Research Institute Sponsor Roundtable on Western Water Scarcity On October 4, 2013, in Climate,...

  19. Seeking New Approaches to Investigate Domestication Events |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Department of Anthropology and Zooarcheology Laboratory The domestication of wild animal species has underpinned some of the most fundamental developments in human...

  20. Dead heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oppenheimer, M.; Boyle, R.H.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reports on the prospect of global warming. This paper proposes a workable solution, and a road map for getting there. The author explains how we became addicted to fossil fuels and evokes a bleak picture should this dependence continue. But the book also explores how industry can become a vehicle for solving, instead of precipitating, the global environmental crisis. The decoupling of energy from pollution can be accomplished without sacrificing prosperity by powering the economy with solar energy. Dead Heat takes us step by step to a greenhouse-friendly world fueled only by the sun.

  1. Ris-R-1203(EN) The Feasibility of Domestic CO2 Emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risű-R-1203(EN) The Feasibility of Domestic CO2 Emissions Trading in Poland By Jochen Hauff Edited feasible in Poland. However, a pilot emissions trading system in the power and Combined Heat and Power (CHP future introduction of a comprehensive system and for the emerging international emissions trading system

  2. Multi-objective fuel policies: Renewable fuel standards versus Fuel greenhouse gas intensity standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajagopal, Deepak

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    relates domestic crude oil consumption q c to the marginalDomestic ROW Total Crude oil consumption (mbpd) Domestic ROWROW Biofuel consumption (mbpd) Domestic Oil outlay ($

  3. Review of pre-treated peat applied in treating domestic wastewaters and oily waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coles, Cynthia

    has been used as a biogas or green combustible fuel for heating, especially where peat deposits used as a green energy source for heating in the northern parts of Europe and North America. Nowadays are considerable and easy to exploit (Buivid et al., 1980). Recently, for heating purposes, alternative fuels

  4. Fuel Cell Animation- Chemical Process (Text Version)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This text version of the fuel cell animation demonstrates how a fuel cell uses hydrogen to produce electricity, with only water and heat as byproducts.

  5. Waste Heat Recovery Using a Circulating Heat Medium Loop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manning, E., Jr.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by a circulating heat medium loop where waste heat is recovered for useful purposes. The heat medium chosen is turbine fuel. It is pumped around the refinery to pick up heat at the crude distilling unit, the hydrocracker, the catalytic cracker...

  6. 2014 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at Commercial andSeptember 25,9,1996 N Y MDomestic Uranium Production

  7. 2014 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at Commercial andSeptember 25,9,1996 N Y MDomestic Uranium

  8. 2014 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at Commercial andSeptember 25,9,1996 N Y MDomestic Uranium9 2014

  9. 2014 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at Commercial andSeptember 25,9,1996 N Y MDomestic Uranium9

  10. 2014 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at Commercial andSeptember 25,9,1996 N Y MDomestic Uranium911 2014

  11. 2014 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at Commercial andSeptember 25,9,1996 N Y MDomestic Uranium911

  12. 2014 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at Commercial andSeptember 25,9,1996 N Y MDomestic Uranium9117 2014

  13. 2014 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at Commercial andSeptember 25,9,1996 N Y MDomestic Uranium9117 20145

  14. 2014 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at Commercial andSeptember 25,9,1996 N Y MDomestic Uranium9117

  15. 2014 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at Commercial andSeptember 25,9,1996 N Y MDomestic

  16. Domestic Uranium Production Report - Quarterly

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline353/06) 2Yonthly Energy :and

  17. Domestic Uranium Production Report - Quarterly

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline353/06) 2Yonthly Energy :and1. Total production

  18. Domestic Uranium Production Report - Quarterly

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline353/06) 2Yonthly Energy :and1. Total

  19. Domestic Uranium Production Report - Quarterly

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline353/06) 2Yonthly Energy :and1. Total3. U.S.

  20. Domestic Uranium Production Report - Quarterly

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001)gasoline353/06) 2Yonthly Energy :and1. Total3. U.S.4.

  1. 2014 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi" ,"Plant","Primary1. TotalRevenueTotal97. Employment in

  2. 2014 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi" ,"Plant","Primary1. TotalRevenueTotal97. Employment

  3. 2014 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi" ,"Plant","Primary1. TotalRevenueTotal97. Employment4.

  4. 2014 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi" ,"Plant","Primary1. TotalRevenueTotal97. Employment4.2.

  5. 2014 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi" ,"Plant","Primary1. TotalRevenueTotal97.

  6. 2014 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi" ,"Plant","Primary1. TotalRevenueTotal97.10. Uranium

  7. 2014 Domestic Uranium Production Report

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghurajiConventionalMississippi" ,"Plant","Primary1. TotalRevenueTotal97.10. Uranium9.

  8. Miniature ceramic fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lessing, Paul A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Zuppero, Anthony C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A miniature power source assembly capable of providing portable electricity is provided. A preferred embodiment of the power source assembly employing a fuel tank, fuel pump and control, air pump, heat management system, power chamber, power conditioning and power storage. The power chamber utilizes a ceramic fuel cell to produce the electricity. Incoming hydro carbon fuel is automatically reformed within the power chamber. Electrochemical combustion of hydrogen then produces electricity.

  9. Active microchannel heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee Y. (Pasco, WA) [Pasco, WA; Roberts, Gary L. (West Richland, WA) [West Richland, WA; Call, Charles J. (Pasco, WA) [Pasco, WA; Wegeng, Robert S. (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA; Wang, Yong (Richland, WA) [Richland, WA

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is an active microchannel heat exchanger with an active heat source and with microchannel architecture. The microchannel heat exchanger has (a) an exothermic reaction chamber; (b) an exhaust chamber; and (c) a heat exchanger chamber in thermal contact with the exhaust chamber, wherein (d) heat from the exothermic reaction chamber is convected by an exothermic reaction exhaust through the exhaust chamber and by conduction through a containment wall to the working fluid in the heat exchanger chamber thereby raising a temperature of the working fluid. The invention is particularly useful as a liquid fuel vaporizer and/or a steam generator for fuel cell power systems, and as a heat source for sustaining endothermic chemical reactions and initiating exothermic reactions.

  10. GNEP Element:Expand Domestic Use of Nuclear Power | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Expand Domestic Use of Nuclear Power GNEP Element:Expand Domestic Use of Nuclear Power A report discussing the intentions of the GNEP. GNEP Element:Expand Domestic Use of Nuclear...

  11. Marketing Ground Source Heat Pump Advanced Applications that

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marketing Ground Source Heat Pump Advanced Applications that Deliver Competitive Advantage Al is the fastest growing market with the available capital and need for the benefits of ground source heat pumps Heating ... and Cooling n Comfort & Indoor Air Quality n Homes have domestic hot water - DHW n Less

  12. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of

  13. american turkey domestication: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to precontact Native the region, butrules out the South Mexican domestic turkey(Melea- gris gallopavo gallopavo) as a progenitor Kemp, Brian M. 4 The Paradox of Domesticity:...

  14. Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Fact Sheet - Expand Domestic...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Expand Domestic Use of Nuclear Power Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Fact Sheet - Expand Domestic Use of Nuclear Power GNEP will build on the recent advances made by the...

  15. Table 22. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices for Selected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Form EIA-182, "Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Report." 22. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices for Selected Crude Streams 44 Energy Information Administration...

  16. Model Simulating Real Domestic Hot Water Use - Building America...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Model Simulating Real Domestic Hot Water Use - Building America Top Innovation Model Simulating Real Domestic Hot Water Use - Building America Top Innovation Image of a pipe...

  17. Extension and improvement of Central Station District heating budget period 1 and 2, Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Project aim was to reduce pollution levels in the City of Krakow through the retirement of coal-fired (hand and mechanically-stoked) boiler houses. This was achieved by identifying attractive candidates and connecting them to the Krakow district heating system, thus permitting them to eliminate boiler operations. Because coal is less costly than district hot water, the district heating company Miejskie Przedsiebiorstwo Energetyki Cieplnej S.A., henceforth identified as MPEC, needed to provide potential customers with incentives for purchasing district heat. These incentives consisted of offerings which MPEC made to the prospective client. The offerings presented the economic and environmental benefits to district heating tie-in and also could include conservation studies of the facilities, so that consumption of energy could be reduced and the cost impact on operations mitigated. Because some of the targeted boiler houses were large, the capacity of the district heating network required enhancement at strategic locations. Consequently, project construction work included both enhancement to the district piping network as well as facility tie-ins. The process of securing new customers necessitated the strengthening of MPEC`s competitive position in Krakow`s energy marketplace, which in turn required improvements in marketing, customer service, strategic planning, and project management. Learning how US utilities address these challenges became an integral segment of the project`s scope.

  18. Carbonate fuel cell system with thermally integrated gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinfeld, George (Southbury, CT); Meyers, Steven J. (Huntington Beach, CA); Lee, Arthur (Fishkill, NY)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell system employing a gasifier for generating fuel gas for the fuel cell of the fuel cell system and in which heat for the gasifier is derived from the anode exhaust gas of the fuel cell.

  19. Technology Commercialization Showcase 2008 Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    : Multiple fuel feedstocks, usable waste heat, and cheap catalysts · Cons: Slow start-up, poor transient Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) · Pros: Multiple fuel feedstocks and usable waste heat · Cons: Slow start

  20. Fuel-Cycle Fossil Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Fuel Ethanol Produced from U.S. Midwest Corn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    #12;Fuel-Cycle Fossil Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Fuel Ethanol Produced from U on a mass emission per travel mile basis, the corn-to-ethanol fuel cycle for Midwest-produced ethanol% of total domestic ethanol production. That is, while the model still covers all alternative fuels and five

  1. Smart Domestic Appliances Provide Flexibility for Sustainable Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-f < RAPID‎ |RippeyInformation SlimSlough Heat andSmallFoot

  2. Demonstration of a 30-kW Microturbine with Heat Recovery in a 500-Soldier Barracks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedrich, Michele; Armstrong, Peter R.; Smith, David L.; Rowley, Steven

    2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A combined heat and power-configured microturbine system was evaluated as an alternative to grid-supplied electric power. While off-grid, the system provides auxiliary power for gas-fired boilers and a portion of the domestic hot water for a 500-man barracks and kitchen. One-time tests were made of sound levels, stack emissions and power quality. Steady-state generating capacity dropped faster than the ratings as the inlet air temperature approached 15°C, while generating efficiency, based on fuel higher heating value, did not drop as rapidly and was still almost 21% at 33°C. The microturbine must boost the fuel (natural gas) delivery pressure to 55 psig. During the one year of operation, four fuel compressors failed and there were repeated failures of the microturbine and heat recovery heat exchanger controls. Energy savings based on the measured performance and CY2003 utility rates were $2670 per year. This paper, which will be presented at the ASHRAE Annual Meeting in Orlando, Florida, Feb. 5-9, describes the results of this evaluation.

  3. National Fuel Cell Research Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    National Fuel Cell Research Center www.nfcrc.uci.edu CONTROLS RESIDENTIAL FUEL CELL PHOTOVOLTAIC and efficiency, (3) RFC produces hydrogen, a flexible fuel that may be used for electricity, vehicles, heating fuel cells (RFC), we gain access to a new energy storage device that is both analogous to rechargeable

  4. Emissions Benefits From Renewable Fuels and Other Alternatives for Heavy-Duty Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hajbabaei, Maryam

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    its lower heating value compared to diesel fuel. Biodiesellower in heating value compared to typical diesel fuel on aGTL diesel fuel, which is due to the lower heating value of

  5. Meeting U.S. Liquid Transport Fuel Needs with a Nuclear Hydrogen Biomass System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, Charles W [ORNL

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The two major energy challenges for the United States are replacing crude oil in our transportation system and eliminating greenhouse gas emissions. A domestic-source greenhouse-gas-neutral nuclear hydrogen biomass system to replace oil in the transportation sector is described. Some parts of the transportation system can be electrified with electricity supplied by nuclear energy sources that do not emit significant quantities of greenhouse gases. Other components of the transportation system require liquid fuels. Biomass can be converted to greenhouse-gas-neutral liquid fuels; however, the conversion of biomass-to-liquid fuels is energy intensive. There is insufficient biomass to meet U.S. liquid fuel demands and provide the energy required to process the biomass-to-liquid fuels. With the use of nuclear energy to provide heat, electricity, and hydrogen for the processing of biomass-to-liquid fuels, the liquid fuel production per unit of biomass is dramatically increased, and the available biomass could meet U.S. liquid fuel requirements.

  6. Synthetic fuels handbook: properties, process and performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Speight, J. [University of Utah, UT (United States)

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The handbook is a comprehensive guide to the benefits and trade-offs of numerous alternative fuels, presenting expert analyses of the different properties, processes, and performance characteristics of each fuel. It discusses the concept systems and technology involved in the production of fuels on both industrial and individual scales. Chapters 5 and 7 are of special interest to the coal industry. Contents: Chapter 1. Fuel Sources - Conventional and Non-conventional; Chapter 2. Natural Gas; Chapter 3. Fuels From Petroleum and Heavy Oil; Chapter 4. Fuels From Tar Sand Bitumen; Chapter 5. Fuels From Coal; Chapter 6. Fuels From Oil Shale; Chapter 7. Fuels From Synthesis Gas; Chapter 8. Fuels From Biomass; Chapter 9. Fuels From Crops; Chapter 10. Fuels From Wood; Chapter 11. Fuels From Domestic and Industrial Waste; Chapter 12. Landfill Gas. 3 apps.

  7. Sun, Jan 09, 2005 Domestic Economy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gosselin, Frédéric

    Sun, Jan 09, 2005 Front Page National Domestic Economy Science Panorama Economic Focus Dot Coms on which SM was focusing, the team used a 'bubble test' in which only part of the face is revealed

  8. Steam reforming of fuel to hydrogen in fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, J.E.; Fraioli, A.V.

    1983-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell is described capable of utilizing a hydrocarbon such as methane as fuel and having an internal dual catalyst system within the anode zone, the dual catalyst system including an anode catalyst supporting and in heat conducting relationship with a reforming catalyst with heat for the reforming reaction being supplied by the reaction at the anode catalyst.

  9. Steam reforming of fuel to hydrogen in fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraioli, Anthony V. (Hawthorne Woods, IL); Young, John E. (Woodridge, IL)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell capable of utilizing a hydrocarbon such as methane as fuel and having an internal dual catalyst system within the anode zone, the dual catalyst system including an anode catalyst supporting and in heat conducting relationship with a reforming catalyst with heat for the reforming reaction being supplied by the reaction at the anode catalyst.

  10. An Improved Procedure for Developing a Calibrated Hourly Simulation Model of an Electrically Heated and Cooled Commercial Buildling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bou-Saada, Tarek Edmond

    lighting, energy efficient heat pumps, a photovoltaic system, envelope measures, and a solar domestic water heating system. To accomplish this, a DOE-2 baseline model was calibrated to the measured hourly data and compared to a building model constructed...

  11. Domestic U.S. Reactor Conversions: Fact Sheet | National Nuclear Security

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContract ManagementDiscovering How MusclesAdministration Domestic U.S.

  12. Domestic production of medical isotope Mo-99 moves a step closer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisitingContract ManagementDiscovering How MusclesAdministrationDomestic

  13. U.S. Domestic and Foreign Coal Distribution by State of Origin

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 34 44Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun602 1,39720Sales1 Domestic

  14. Recovery Act - Geothermal Technologies Program: Ground Source Heat Pumps Final Scientific/Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nick Rosenberry, Harris Companies

    2012-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A large centralized geothermal heat pump system was installed to provide ice making, space cooling, space heating, process water heating, and domestic hot water heating for an ice arena in Eagan Minnesota. This paper provides information related to the design and construction of the project. Additionally, operating conditions for 12 months after start-up are provided.

  15. PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2003 NATIONAL OILHEAT RESEARCH ALLIANCE TECHNOLOGY SYMPOSIUM, HELD AT THE 2003 NEW ENGLAND FUEL INSTITUTE CONVENTION AND 30TH NORTH AMERICAN HEATING AND ENERGY EXPOSITION, HYNES CONVENTION CENTER, PRUDENTIAL CENTER, BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS, JUNE 9 - 10, 2003.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MCDONALD,R.J.

    2003-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This meeting is the sixteenth oilheat industry technology meeting held since 1984 and the third since the National Oilheat Research Alliance (NORA) was formed. This year's symposium is a very important part of the effort in technology transfer, which is supported by the Oilheat Research Fuel Flexibility Program under the United States Department of Energy, Distributed Energy and Electricity Reliability Program (DEER). The foremost reason for the conference is to provide a platform for the exchange of information and perspectives among international researchers, engineers, manufacturers, service technicians, and marketers of oil-fired space-conditioning equipment. The conference provides a conduit by which information and ideas can be exchanged to examine present technologies, as well as helping to develop the future course for oil heating advancement. These conferences also serve as a stage for unifying government representatives, researchers, fuel oil marketers, and other members of the oil-heat industry in addressing technology advancements in this important energy use sector. The specific objectives of the conference are to: (1) Identify and evaluate the current state-of-the-art and recommend new initiatives for higher efficiency, a cleaner environment, and to satisfy consumer needs cost effectively, reliably, and safely; (2) Foster cooperative interactions among federal and industrial representatives for the common goal of sustained economic growth and energy security via energy conservation.

  16. A GUIDE TO FUEL PERFORMANCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LITZKE,W.

    2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heating oil, as its name implies, is intended for end use heating consumption as its primary application. But its identity in reference name and actual chemical properties may vary based on a number of factors. By name, heating oil is sometimes referred to as gas oil, diesel, No. 2 distillate (middle distillate), or light heating oil. Kerosene, also used as a burner fuel, is a No. 1 distillate. Due to the higher heat content and competitive price in most markets, No. 2 heating oil is primarily used in modern, pressure-atomized burners. Using No. 1 oil for heating has the advantages of better cold-flow properties, lower emissions, and better storage properties. Because it is not nearly as abundant in supply, it is often markedly more expensive than No. 2 heating oil. Given the advanced, low-firing rate burners in use today, the objective is for the fuel to be compatible and achieve combustion performance at the highest achievable efficiency of the heating systems--with minimal service requirements. Among the Oil heat industry's top priorities are improving reliability and reducing service costs associated with fuel performance. Poor fuel quality, fuel degradation, and contamination can cause burner shut-downs resulting in ''no-heat'' calls. Many of these unscheduled service calls are preventable with routine inspection of the fuel and the tank. This manual focuses on No. 2 heating oil--its performance, properties, sampling and testing. Its purpose is to provide the marketer, service manager and technician with the proper guidelines for inspecting the product, maintaining good fuel quality, and the best practices for proper storage. Up-to-date information is also provided on commercially available fuel additives, their appropriate use and limitations.

  17. Laser ablation based fuel ignition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, James W. (Los Alamos, NM); Lester, Charles S. (San Juan Pueblo, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is provided a method of fuel/oxidizer ignition comprising: (a) application of laser light to a material surface which is absorptive to the laser radiation; (b) heating of the material surface with the laser light to produce a high temperature ablation plume which emanates from the heated surface as an intensely hot cloud of vaporized surface material; and (c) contacting the fuel/oxidizer mixture with the hot ablation cloud at or near the surface of the material in order to heat the fuel to a temperature sufficient to initiate fuel ignition.

  18. Laser ablation based fuel ignition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, J.W.; Lester, C.S.

    1998-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    There is provided a method of fuel/oxidizer ignition comprising: (a) application of laser light to a material surface which is absorptive to the laser radiation; (b) heating of the material surface with the laser light to produce a high temperature ablation plume which emanates from the heated surface as an intensely hot cloud of vaporized surface material; and (c) contacting the fuel/oxidizer mixture with the hot ablation cloud at or near the surface of the material in order to heat the fuel to a temperature sufficient to initiate fuel ignition. 3 figs.

  19. Syn-fuels: general

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The General Accounting Office recently published results of a study conducted for the US Congress entitled, ''Oil and Natural Gas From Alaska, Canada, and Mexico - Only Limited Help for US.'' Copies are available from the GPO as report number EMD-80-72. From this, the GAO made the following observations: (1) The gap between domestic consumption and production of conventional oil and gas can be expected to widen during the 1980's and 1990's, and our import dependency can be expected to continue. This observation is made with consideration of Alaskan production, which, regardless of how promising it may appear to be, requires long lead times for production to come on line and is subject to uncertainty. (2) Concentrated effort should be made to increase our domestic production, including the development of synthetic fuels, and unconventional oil and gas resources. (3) The decline in domestic production cannot be offset by synfuels development during the 1980's and 1990's because of lead times and other constraints, but unconventional gas appears to offer more promise because several technologies are already operational on a commercial basis.

  20. Fossil fuels -- future fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

  1. Fuel cell gas management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DuBose, Ronald Arthur (Marietta, GA)

    2000-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell gas management system including a cathode humidification system for transferring latent and sensible heat from an exhaust stream to the cathode inlet stream of the fuel cell; an anode humidity retention system for maintaining the total enthalpy of the anode stream exiting the fuel cell equal to the total enthalpy of the anode inlet stream; and a cooling water management system having segregated deionized water and cooling water loops interconnected by means of a brazed plate heat exchanger.

  2. A STUDY OF AGGREGATION BIAS IN ESTIMATING THE MARKET FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING EQUIPMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, D.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Estimating the Market for Home Heating and Cooling EquipmentFuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling," LBLTHE MARKET FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING EQUIPMENT* David

  3. State of Maine residential heating oil survey 2001-02 season summary [SHOPP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elder, Betsy

    2002-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This, as the title implies, is a summary report of the price trends for heating oil, propane and kerosene heating fuels for the heating season.

  4. Promising freeze protection alternatives in solar domestic hot water systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, D.E.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the gains associated with solar thermal energy technologies are comparatively small in relation to the required capital investment, it is vital to maximize conversion efficiency. While providing the necessary function of freeze protection, the heat exchanger commonly included in solar domestic water heating systems represents a system inefficiency. This thesis explores two alternate methods of providing freeze protection without resorting to a heat exchanger. Commonly, collectors are made of rigid copper tubes separated by copper or aluminum fins. Cracking damage can occur when water is allowed to freeze and expand inside the non compliant tubes. The possibility of making collectors out of an elastic material was investigated and shown to be effective. Since unlike copper, elastomers typically have low thermal conductivities, the standard collector performance prediction equations do not apply. Modified thermal performance prediction equations were developed which can be used for both low and high thermal conductivity materials to provide accurate predictions within a limited range of plate geometries. An elastomeric collector plate was then designed and shown to have comparable performance to a copper plate collector whose aperture area is approximately 33% smaller. Another options for providing freeze protection to an SDHW system is to turn it off during the winter. Choosing a three-season operating period means two things. First, the system will have different optimums such as slope and collector area. Second, the wintertime solar energy incident on the collector is unavailable for meeting a heating load. However, the system`s heat exchanger becomes unnecessary and removing it increases the amount of energy that arrives at the storage tank during those periods in which the system is operating.

  5. advanced fuel systems: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    this aim, a heat exchanger based TEG heat recovery Berning, Torsten 129 Thorium as a Fuel for Accelerator Driven Subcritical Electronuclear Systems CERN Preprints Summary:...

  6. HEATS: Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HEATS Project: The 15 projects that make up ARPA-E’s HEATS program, short for “High Energy Advanced Thermal Storage,” seek to develop revolutionary, cost-effective ways to store thermal energy. HEATS focuses on 3 specific areas: 1) developing high-temperature solar thermal energy storage capable of cost-effectively delivering electricity around the clock and thermal energy storage for nuclear power plants capable of cost-effectively meeting peak demand, 2) creating synthetic fuel efficiently from sunlight by converting sunlight into heat, and 3) using thermal energy storage to improve the driving range of electric vehicles (EVs) and also enable thermal management of internal combustion engine vehicles.

  7. Magnetic refrigeration, based on the magnetocaloric ef-fect, has great promise for domestic and industrial use and is at-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canet, LĂ©onie

    Magnetic refrigeration, based on the magnetocaloric ef- fect, has great promise for domestic the magnetization phase, and heat is withdrawn from the volume to be refrigerated during the demagnetization phase but these LaFeSi ma- terials seem to have the best properties in view of magnetic refrigeration applications

  8. Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Program for Passenger Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste Heat Recovery Program for Passenger Vehicles Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Program for Passenger Vehicles 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  9. Combined Heat & Power Technology Overview and Federal Sector...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    electricity) from a single fuelenergy source Defining Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Steam Electricity Fuel Prime Mover & Generator Heat Recovery Steam Boiler Conventional CHP...

  10. Fuel Cell Technologies Office Multi-Year Research, Development...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    power. In these scenarios, hydrogen fuel could be produced for use: (1) in stationary fuel cells to produce electricity and heat and (2) as a transportation fuel in fuel cell...

  11. Heat transfer in the plate heat exchanger of an ammonia-synthesis column

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obolentsev, Y.G.; Chus', M.S.; Norobchanskii, O.A.; Teplitshi, Y.S.; Tovazhnyanskii, L.L.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The planning and construction of high-capacity synthetic ammonia plants requires the development and fabrication of unique, high unit-power equipment with high technical and economic characteristics. In foreign and domestic practice, tubular heat exchangers with relatively low heat-transfer coefficients are used. Plate heat exchangers are a promising alternative. They are compact and have a high heat energy efficiency and a relatively small metal content. To make an experimental check of the operating capability of a plate heat exchanger under ammonia production conditions, a welded plate heat exchanger was designed for an ammonia synthesis column 800mm in diameter. On prolonged testing (four years), the device provided an autothermal operating mode in the column and the heat transfer coefficient was practically constant for fixed space velocities. Consequently, the heat exchange surface was not contaminated significantly with catalyst dust, confirmed by visual observation of the heat exchanger after disassembly.

  12. National Fuel Cell Research Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    National Fuel Cell Research Center www.nfcrc.uci.edu SOFC AND PEMFC COMPARISON Efficiency ­ Higher FOR OPTIMIZATION · Fuel Cell · Compressor · Combustor · Turbine · Storage Tank · Heat Exchanger·Battery · Motor of the system. · Operating characteristics of fuel cells at pressures less than 1 atm are largely unknown

  13. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses how a significant opportunity for energy savings is domestic hot water heating, where an emerging technology has recently arrived in the U.S. market: the residential integrated heat pump water heater. A laboratory evaluation is presented of the five integrated HPWHs available in the U.S. today.

  14. Impact of Fuel Interchangeability on dynamic Instabilities in Gas Turbine Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferguson, D.H.; Straub, D.L.; Richards, G.A.; Robey, E.H.

    2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modern, low NOx emitting gas turbines typically utilize lean pre-mixed (LPM) combustion as a means of achieving target emissions goals. As stable combustion in LPM systems is somewhat intolerant to changes in operating conditions, precise engine tuning on a prescribed range of fuel properties is commonly performed to avoid dynamic instabilities. This has raised concerns regarding the use of imported liquefied natural gas (LNG) and natural gas liquids (NGL’s) to offset a reduction in the domestic natural gas supply, which when introduced into the pipeline could alter the fuel BTU content and subsequently exacerbate problems such as combustion instabilities. The intent of this study is to investigate the sensitivity of dynamically unstable test rigs to changes in fuel composition and heat content. Fuel Wobbe number was controlled by blending methane and natural gas with various amounts of ethane, propane and nitrogen. Changes in combustion instabilities were observed, in both atmospheric and pressurized test rigs, for fuels containing high concentrations of propane (> 62% by vol). However, pressure oscillations measured while operating on typical “LNG like” fuels did not appear to deviate significantly from natural gas and methane flame responses. Mechanisms thought to produce changes in the dynamic response are discussed.

  15. Fuel Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuel Cells Converting chemical energy of hydrogenated fuels into electricity Project Description Invented in 1839, fuels cells powered the Gemini and Apollo space missions, as well...

  16. Improving thermosyphon solar domestic hot water system model performance. Final report, March 1994--February 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, T.N.

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Data from an indoor solar simulator experimental performance test is used to develop a systematic calibration procedure for a computer model of a thermosyphoning, solar domestic hot water heating system with a tank-in-tank heat exchanger. Calibration is performed using an indoor test with a simulated solar collector to adjust heat transfer in the heat exchanger and heat transfer between adjacent layers of water in the storage tank. An outdoor test is used to calibrate the calculation of the friction drop in the closed collector loop. Additional indoor data with forced flow in the annulus of the heat exchanger leads to improved heat transfer correlations for the inside and outside regions of the tank-in-tank heat exchanger. The calibrated simulation model is compared to several additional outdoor tests both with and without auxiliary heating. Integrated draw energies are predicted with greater accuracy and draw temperature profiles match experimental results to a better degree. Auxiliary energy input predictions improve significantly. 63 figs., 29 tabs.

  17. Microchannel High-Temperature Recuperator for Fuel Cell Systems...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    developed an efficient, microchannel-based waste heat recuperator for a high-temperature fuel cell system. This technology increases the efficiency of fuel cells and improves...

  18. The Challenge Domestic solar panels produce electricity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crowther, Paul

    Sheffield Science Gateway. The Challenge Domestic solar panels produce electricity for homes materials to a wide range of optoelectronic devices, including solar panels. This project was one of 10 of renewable energy generated by solar panels. As a country with ambitious targets for renewable energy at both

  19. Office of Domestic and International Health Studies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Domestic and International Health Studies engages in the conduct of international scientific studies that may provide new knowledge and information about the human response to ionizing radiation in the workplace or people exposed in communities as a result of nuclear accidents, including providing health and environmental monitoring services to populations specified by law.

  20. Video Mediated Communication for Domestic Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tollmar, Konrad

    ). The core argument is that information and com- munication technologies (ICT) are a prerequisite for the transformation process from a society focused on industrial production to a society dominated by information could change due to new social movements and new use of the domestic environment, we have designed

  1. Domestic medicine in eighteenth centrury Scotland 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hatfield, Vivienne Gabrielle

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    put their services beyond the reach of most people. Even later in the century when roads improved and an increasing number of medical graduates were trained, in rural Scotland domestic medicine was still the only form of treatment available to many...

  2. Breakout Group 5: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    choice o Combined heat and power applications maximize SOFC benefit of high grade waste heat o Critical and remote power are good early market applications o Biomass-fueled SOFCs...

  3. Home, Habits, and Energy: Examining Domestic Interactions and Energy Consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paulos, Eric

    , habitual, and irrational. Implications for the design of energy-conserving interactions with technology investigate the relationships among "normal" domestic interactions with technology, energy consumptionHome, Habits, and Energy: Examining Domestic Interactions and Energy Consumption James Pierce1

  4. Hydrogen from Diverse Domestic ResourcesHydrogen from Diverse Domestic Resources Distributed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sequestration Biomass Hydro Wind Solar Biomass Hydro Wind Solar Coal Nuclear Natural Gas Oil Sequestration #12 on foreign oil. · Promote the use of diverse, domestic, and sustainable energy sources. · Reduce carbon

  5. Secondary fuel delivery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parker, David M. (Oviedo, FL); Cai, Weidong (Oviedo, FL); Garan, Daniel W. (Orlando, FL); Harris, Arthur J. (Orlando, FL)

    2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A secondary fuel delivery system for delivering a secondary stream of fuel and/or diluent to a secondary combustion zone located in the transition piece of a combustion engine, downstream of the engine primary combustion region is disclosed. The system includes a manifold formed integral to, and surrounding a portion of, the transition piece, a manifold inlet port, and a collection of injection nozzles. A flowsleeve augments fuel/diluent flow velocity and improves the system cooling effectiveness. Passive cooling elements, including effusion cooling holes located within the transition boundary and thermal-stress-dissipating gaps that resist thermal stress accumulation, provide supplemental heat dissipation in key areas. The system delivers a secondary fuel/diluent mixture to a secondary combustion zone located along the length of the transition piece, while reducing the impact of elevated vibration levels found within the transition piece and avoiding the heat dissipation difficulties often associated with traditional vibration reduction methods.

  6. Combined Heat and Power

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'sEnergyTexas1. FeedstockCLEANSprings Gets anColoring andCombined Heat

  7. ARM - Atmospheric Heat Budget

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearchSOLICITATIONIMODI FICATION OFMaterialsAnnual Reports27,ListAtmospheric Heat

  8. Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cn SunnybankD.jpgHanfordDepartment of EnergyHearingsWater Heating »

  9. Heat Source Lire,

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cn SunnybankD.jpgHanfordDepartment of EnergyHearingsWater Heating

  10. Fuel cell system combustor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pettit, William Henry (Rochester, NY)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell system including a fuel reformer heated by a catalytic combustor fired by anode and cathode effluents. The combustor includes a turbulator section at its input end for intimately mixing the anode and cathode effluents before they contact the combustors primary catalyst bed. The turbulator comprises at least one porous bed of mixing media that provides a tortuous path therethrough for creating turbulent flow and intimate mixing of the anode and cathode effluents therein.

  11. Radiative heat transfer in porous uranium dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, S.L. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to low thermal conductivity and high emissivity of UO{sub 2}, it has been suggested that radiative heat transfer may play a significant role in heat transfer through pores of UO{sub 2} fuel. This possibility was computationally investigated and contribution of radiative heat transfer within pores to overall heat transport in porous UO{sub 2} quantified. A repeating unit cell was developed to model approximately a porous UO{sub 2} fuel system, and the heat transfer through unit cells representing a wide variety of fuel conditions was calculated using a finite element computer program. Conduction through solid fuel matrix as wekk as pore gas, and radiative exchange at pore surface was incorporated. A variety of pore compositions were investigated: porosity, pore size, shape and orientation, temperature, and temperature gradient. Calculations were made in which pore surface radiation was both modeled and neglected. The difference between yielding the integral contribution of radiative heat transfer mechanism to overall heat transport. Results indicate that radiative component of heat transfer within pores is small for conditions representative of light water reactor fuel, typically less than 1% of total heat transport. It is much larger, however, for conditions present in liquid metal fast breeder reactor fuel; during restructuring of this fuel type early in life, the radiative heat transfer mode was shown to contribute as much as 10-20% of total heat transport in hottest regions of fuel.

  12. Using a Quasipotential Transformation for Modeling Diffusion Media in Polymer-Electrolyte Fuel Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, Adam Z.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell , Numerical Heat Transferof Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells Using a Two-EquationExchange Membrane Fuel Cells 2. Absolute Permeability ,

  13. Q&A About Media Coverage of Domestic Violence New York State Office for the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Weigang

    Q&A About Media Coverage of Domestic Violence New York State Office for the Prevention of Domestic..............................................................................................Cover Media Coverage of Domestic Violence...................................................................................... Page 2 Q&A About Media Coverage of Domestic Violence

  14. The Analysis and Assessment on Heating Energy Consumption of SAT 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The article introduced the fuel-energy consumption and outdoor temperatures of three heating terms from year 1999 to 2002 of SAT's fuel-boiler heating system. It demonstrated the relationship between the consumption and the temperatures by using...

  15. The Analysis and Assessment on Heating Energy Consumption of SAT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The article introduced the fuel-energy consumption and outdoor temperatures of three heating terms from year 1999 to 2002 of SAT's fuel-boiler heating system. It demonstrated the relationship between the consumption and the temperatures by using...

  16. MotorWeek Fuel Cell Video

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Learn how fuel cells are being used in specialty vehicles, auxiliary power, standby power generators, and for supplying power and heat to buildings and warehouse operations.

  17. Future Directions in Engines and Fuels

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    parties Future Directions in Engines and Fuels 9 HP-EGR Cooler: Shell and tubes heat exchanger with optimised gas tube design High thermal exchange and resistance to...

  18. Sandia National Laboratories: domestic energy sources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fuel and grid-scale energy applications offers several advantages over above-ground storage, says a recent Sandia study sponsored by the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies...

  19. DETAILED LOOP MODEL (DLM) ANALYSIS OF LIQUID SOLAR THERMOSIPHONS WITH HEAT EXCHANGERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mertol, A.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Warm Water Hot Water Heater Water Tank Heat flow from low-of Solar Domestic Hot Water Heaters in California,n inBradley, J.M. , Water Heater Construe on. u Administration

  20. Cold start characteristics of ethanol as an automobile fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greiner, Leonard (2750-C Segerstrom, Santa Ana, CA 92704)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An alcohol fuel burner and decomposer in which one stream of fuel is preheated by passing it through an electrically heated conduit to vaporize the fuel, the fuel vapor is mixed with air, the air-fuel mixture is ignited and combusted, and the combustion gases are passed in heat exchange relationship with a conduit carrying a stream of fuel to decompose the fuel forming a fuel stream containing hydrogen gas for starting internal combustion engines, the mass flow of the combustion gas being increased as it flows in heat exchange relationship with the fuel carrying conduit, is disclosed.

  1. A STUDY OF AGGREGATION BIAS IN ESTIMATING THE MARKET FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING EQUIPMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, D.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the choice of space heating technology is depen- dent on thefor Fuel and Technology Choice in Home Heating and Cooling,"fuel or technology for residential space heating. The

  2. Planning a Commercial Fuel Cell Installation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowden, J. R.; May, G. W.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fuel cell power plants represent a unique opportunity for industrial users to combine on-site electricity generation and heat recovery with high efficiencies and no significant environmental releases. Thus in some circumstances, the fuel cell may...

  3. 2008 Fuel Cell Technologies Market Report

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of

  4. DYNAMIC MODELING FUEL PROCESSORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    turbine module (compressor and turbine sub-modules) Catalytic oxidizer Combustor module Heat exchanger, PEM, Gas Turbine General Model Assumptions · 1D process flow · Well-stirred within nodal volume · Slow reactants #12;Steam Reformation ­ Occurs in Reformer and Fuel Cells Methane reformation reaction Water Gas

  5. Energy use of icemaking in domestic refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.; Martinez, M.S. [ENVEST-SCE, Irwindale, CA (United States)

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was designed to develop and test a procedure to measure the electrical consumption of ice making in domestic refrigerators. The Department of Energy (DOE) test procedure was modified to include the energy used for icemaking in conventional refrigerators and those equipped with automatic icemakers. The procedure assumed that 500 grams of ice would be produced daily. Using the new test procedure and the existing DOE test (as a benchmark), four refrigerators equipped with automatic icemakers were tested for ice-making energy use. With the revised test, gross electricity consumption increased about 10% (100 kWh/yr) due to automatic icemaking but about 5% (55 kWh/yr) could be attributed to the special features of the automatic icemaker. The test also confirmed the feasibility of establishing procedures for measuring energy use of specific loads and other activities related to domestic refrigerators. Field testing and subsequent retesting revealed a 14% increase in energy use.

  6. Domestic institutions, strategic interests, and international conflict

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clare, Joseph Daniel

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    (Huth and Russett 1984, 1988; Fearon 1994a, 1995; Zagare and Kilgour 2000; Schultz 2001; Danilovic 2002). Two recent theoretical angles are most relevant for the approach I take here. Though both attempt to explain the same phenomena?strategic bargaining... of resolve are more credible when leaders face domestic punishment for failing to carry out their threats. Most notably advanced in the audience costs approach (Fearon 1994; Smith 1998; Schultz 2001), this premise leads to an expectation for democratic states...

  7. Winter fuels report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. 27 figs, 12 tabs.

  8. Winter fuels report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s; as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 Day and 30-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  9. Winter fuels report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide consise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: Distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; Natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s as well as selected National average prices; Residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; Crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and A 6-10 Day and 30-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree days by city.

  10. Combined Heat and Power Research and Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    system performance e.g., effect of low-temperature combustion strategies, improved turbo-machinery, etc on process heat production and system efficiency Fuel flexibility...

  11. Winter fuels report, week ending October 20, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Weekly estimates of distillate stocks (131.6 MMB) are now 2.1 MMB below the lower bound of the three year average, and the current rate of increase is also lower than the average of the past three years. Heating fuels are 48% of the total inventory and have fallen 1.3 MMB during the past week. Distillate production dipped while demand increased. The supply of propane for the current week declined 1.5 MMB from the prior reporting period but is in the normal range for the time of the year. The natural gas supply available for distribution in August 1995 was estimated to be 1,795 BCF, which was almost unchanged from the previous year. The August 1995 consumption of 1,502 BCF was 6% greater than the previous year. This gas volume included 276 BCF injected into underground storage and 16 BCF exported. In July 1995, major gas pipeline companies paid an average of $1.91/KCF for gas purchased from domestic producers, which was a decrease from $2.03 in the previous month. The price for imported gas was $1.10/KCF. Heating oil prices showed little movement during this period, as did propane prices.

  12. Heat Pumps | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMFormsGasReleaseSpeechesHallNot Logged3 HanfordHarry S.Heat Pumps Heat

  13. Residential heating oil prices available

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price decreases Theheating oil9,heating

  14. Residential heating oil prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price decreasesheating oil3, 2014heating

  15. Residential heating oil prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price decreasesheating oil3, 2014heating5,

  16. Residential heating oil prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price decreasesheating oil3,heating oil

  17. Residential heating oil prices increase

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oil price decreasesheating oil3,heating

  18. World nuclear fuel cycle requirements 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The nuclear fuel cycle consists of mining and milling uranium ore, processing the uranium into a form suitable for generating electricity, burning'' the fuel in nuclear reactors, and managing the resulting spent nuclear fuel. This report presents projections of domestic and foreign requirements for natural uranium and enrichment services as well as projections of discharges of spent nuclear fuel. These fuel cycle requirements are based on the forecasts of future commercial nuclear power capacity and generation published in a recent Energy Information Administration (EIA) report. Also included in this report are projections of the amount of spent fuel discharged at the end of each fuel cycle for each nuclear generating unit in the United States. The International Nuclear Model is used for calculating the projected nuclear fuel cycle requirements. 14 figs., 38 tabs.

  19. Industrial Fuel Switching - Emerging NGL Opportunities 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cascone, R.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INDUSTRIAL FUEL SWITCHING - EMERGING NGL OPPORTUNITIES Ron Cascone Manager Special Projects, Utilities and Environmental Nexant, Inc. White Plains, NY ABSTRACT Removing butanes and pentanes from gasoline to meet local... feedstocks, convert them to alternative fuels, or sell them as heating fuels. Industrial fuel users can switch from fuel oil, natural gas or LPG for short periods to these clean and/or more economic fuels. Current regulations will necessitate removing...

  20. Alternative Fuel Vehicles | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center HomeIdle ReductionOfficesActive Solar HeatingScience &

  1. Water Heating Requirements Overview Page 5-1 5 Water Heating Requirements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Water Heating Requirements ­ Overview Page 5-1 5 Water Heating Requirements 5.1 Overview 5.1.1 Water Heating Energy Water heating energy use is an important end use in low-rise residential buildings. Roughly 90 percent of California households use natural gas fueled water heaters, typically storage gas

  2. The Added Economic and Environmental Value of Solar Thermal Systems in Microgrids with CombinedHeat and Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Lai, Judy; Siddiqui, Afzal

    2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The addition of solar thermal and heat storage systems can improve the economic, as well as environmental attraction of micro-generation systems, e.g. fuel cells with or without combined heat and power (CHP) and contribute to enhanced CO2 reduction. However, the interactions between solar thermal collection and storage systems and CHP systems can be complex, depending on the tariff structure, load profile, etc. In order to examine the impact of solar thermal and heat storage on CO2 emissions and annual energy costs, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program. The objective is minimization of annual energy costs. This paper focuses on analysis of the optimal interaction of solar thermal systems, which can be used for domestic hot water, space heating and/or cooling, and micro-CHP systems in the California service territory of San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). Contrary to typical expectations, our results indicate that despite the high solar radiation in southern California, fossil based CHP units are dominant, even with forecast 2020 technology and costs. A CO2 pricing scheme would be needed to incent installation of combined solar thermal absorption chiller systems, and no heat storage systems are adopted. This research also shows that photovoltaic (PV) arrays are favored by CO2 pricing more than solar thermal adoption.

  3. LMFBR fuel assembly design for HCDA fuel dispersal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lacko, Robert E. (North Huntingdon, PA); Tilbrook, Roger W. (Monroeville, PA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel assembly for a liquid metal fast breeder reactor having an upper axial blanket region disposed in a plurality of zones within the fuel assembly. The characterization of a zone is dependent on the height of the axial blanket region with respect to the active fuel region. The net effect of having a plurality of zones is to establish a dispersal flow path for the molten materials resulting during a core meltdown accident. Upward flowing molten material can escape from the core region and/or fuel assembly without solidifying on the surface of fuel rods due to the heat sink represented by blanket region pellets.

  4. Safeguards and security by design (SSBD) for the domestic threat - theft and sabotage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demuth, Scott F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mullen, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Safeguards by Design (SBD) is receiving significant interest with respect to international safeguards objectives. However, less attention has been focused on the equally important topic of domestic Safeguards and Security by Design (SSBD), which addresses requirements such as those of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in the United States. While international safeguards are concerned with detecting State diversion of nuclear material from peaceful to nuclear explosives purposes, domestic Material Protection, Control and Accounting measures (MPC&A) are focused on non-State theft and sabotage. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has described the Safeguards by Design (SBD) concept as an approach in which 'international safeguards are fully integrated into the design process of a new nuclear facility from the initial planning through design, construction, operation, and decommissioning.' This same concept is equally applicable to SSBD for domestic requirements. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated a project through its Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) and more specifically its Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program, to develop a domestic SSBD discipline and methodology in parallel with similar efforts sponsored by the DOE Next Generation Safeguards Initiative (NGSI) and the IAEA for international safeguards. This activity includes the participation of industry (through DOE-sponsored contracts) and DOE National Laboratories. This paper will identify the key domestic safeguards and security requirements (i.e. MC&A and physical protection) and explain how and why Safeguards and Security by Design (SSBD) is important and beneficial for the design of future US nuclear energy systems.

  5. Hog Fuel Drying Using Vapour Recompression 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azarniouch, M. K.; MacEachen, I.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A continuous hog fuel drying pilot plant based on the principle of mixing hog fuel with a hot oil (e.g., crude tall oil) as the heat transfer medium, and recirculating the suspension through a steam heated exchanger was designed, built...

  6. Actual Scale MOX Powder Mixing Test for MOX Fuel Fabrication Plant in Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Osaka, Shuichi; Kurita, Ichiro; Deguchi, Morimoto [Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd., 4-108, Aza okitsuke, oaza obuchi rokkasyo-mura, kamikita-gun, Aomori 039-3212 (Japan); Ito, Masanori [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4-33 Muramatu, Tokai-mura, Ibaraki 319-1194 (Japan); Goto, Masakazu [Nuclear Fuel Industries, Ltd., 14-10, Mita 3-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0073 (Japan)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Japan Nuclear Fuel Ltd. (hereafter, JNFL) promotes a program of constructing a MOX fuel fabrication plant (hereafter, J-MOX) to fabricate MOX fuels to be loaded in domestic light water reactors. Since Japanese fiscal year (hereafter, JFY) 1999, JNFL, to establish the technology for a smooth start-up and the stable operation of J-MOX, has executed an evaluation test for technology to be adopted at J-MOX. JNFL, based on a consideration that J-MOX fuel fabrication comes commercial scale production, decided an introduction of MIMAS technology into J-MOX main process, from powder mixing through pellet sintering, well recognized as mostly important to achieve good quality product of MOX fuel, since it achieves good results in both fuel production and actual reactor irradiation in Europe, but there is one difference that JNFL is going to use Japanese typical plutonium and uranium mixed oxide powder converted with the micro-wave heating direct de-nitration technology (hereafter, MH-MOX) but normal PuO{sub 2} of European MOX fuel fabricators. Therefore, in order to evaluate the suitability of the MH-MOX powder for the MIMAS process, JNFL manufactured small scale test equipment, and implemented a powder mixing evaluation test up until JFY 2003. As a result, the suitability of the MH-MOX powder for the MIMAS process was positively evaluated and confirmed It was followed by a five-years test named an 'actual test' from JFY 2003 to JFY 2007, which aims at demonstrating good operation and maintenance of process equipment as well as obtaining good quality of MOX fuel pellets. (authors)

  7. Winters fuels report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The outlook for distillate fuel oil this winter is for increased demand and a return to normal inventory patterns, assuming a resumption of normal, cooler weather than last winter. With industrial production expected to grow slightly from last winter`s pace, overall consumption is projected to increase 3 percent from last winter, to 3.4 million barrels per day during the heating season (October 1, 1995-March 31, 1996). Much of the supply win come from stock drawdowns and refinery production. Estimates for the winter are from the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) 4th Quarter 1995 Short-Tenn Energy Outlook (STEO) Mid-World Oil Price Case forecast. Inventories in place on September 30, 1995, of 132 million barrels were 9 percent below the unusually high year-earlier level. Inventories of high-sulfur distillate fuel oil, the principal type used for heating, were 13 percent lower than a year earlier. Supply problems are not anticipated because refinery production and the ready availability of imports should be adequate to meet demand. Residential heating off prices are expected to be somewhat higher than last winter`s, as the effects of lower crude oil prices are offset by lower distillate inventories. Heating oil is forecast to average $0.92 per gallon, the highest price since the winter of 1992-93. Diesel fuel (including tax) is predicted to be slightly higher than last year at $1.13 per gallon. This article focuses on the winter assessment for distillate fuel oil, how well last year`s STEO winter outlook compared to actual events, and expectations for the coming winter. Additional analyses include regional low-sulfur and high-sulfur distillate supply, demand, and prices, and recent trends in distillate fuel oil inventories.

  8. Geothermal heating for Caliente, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wallis, F.; Schaper, J.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Utilization of geothermal resources in the town of Caliente, Nevada (population 600) has been the objective of two grants. The first grant was awarded to Ferg Wallis, part-owner and operator of the Agua Caliente Trailer Park, to assess the potential of hot geothermal water for heating the 53 trailers in his park. The results from test wells indicate sustainable temperatures of 140/sup 0/ to 160/sup 0/F. Three wells were drilled to supply all 53 trailers with domestic hot water heating, 11 trailers with space heating and hot water for the laundry from the geothermal resource. System payback in terms of energy cost-savings is estimated at less than two years. The second grant was awarded to Grover C. Dils Medical Center in Caliente to drill a geothermal well and pipe the hot water through a heat exchanger to preheat air for space heating. This geothermal preheater served to convert the existing forced air electric furnace to a booster system. It is estimated that the hospital will save an average of $5300 in electric bills per year, at the current rate of $.0275/KWH. This represents a payback of approximately two years. Subsequent studies on the geothermal resource base in Caliente and on the economics of district heating indicate that geothermal may represent the most effective supply of energy for Caliente. Two of these studies are included as appendices.

  9. Emergency fuels utilization guidebook. Alternative Fuels Utilization Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The basic concept of an emergency fuel is to safely and effectively use blends of specification fuels and hydrocarbon liquids which are free in the sense that they have been commandeered or volunteered from lower priority uses to provide critical transportation services for short-duration emergencies on the order of weeks, or perhaps months. A wide variety of liquid hydrocarbons not normally used as fuels for internal combustion engines have been categorized generically, including limited information on physical characteristics and chemical composition which might prove useful and instructive to fleet operators. Fuels covered are: gasoline and diesel fuel; alcohols; solvents; jet fuels; kerosene; heating oils; residual fuels; crude oils; vegetable oils; gaseous fuels.

  10. Comparison of domestic olivine and European magnesite for electrically charged thermal energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laster, W.R.; Gay, B.M.; Palmour, H.; Schoenhals, R.J.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrically charged thermal energy storage (TES) heaters employing high heat capacity ceramic refractories for sensible heat storage have been in use in Europe for several years. With these devices, low cost off-peak electrical energy is stored by heating a storage core composed of ceramic material to approximately 800/sup 0/C. During the peak period, no electrical energy is used as the building heating needs are supplied by extracting the stored energy from the core by forced air circulation. The recent increase in use of off-peak TES units in the U.S. has led to the search for a domestic supply of high heat capacity ceramic refractory material. North Carolina's extensive but underutilized supply of refractory grade olivine has been proposed as a source of storage material for these units. In this paper the suitability of North Carolina olivine for heat storage applications is assessed by comparing its thermal performance with that of European materials. Using the method of ASHRAE Standard 94.2, the thermal performance of two commercially available room-size TES units was determined experimentally with two different storage materials, North Carolina olivine and German magnesite. Comparisons are made and conclusions are drawn.

  11. Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1998 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II...

  12. Table 22. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices for Selected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    company data. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-182, "Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Report." 44 Energy Information AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual...

  13. Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Information Administration Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 41 Table 21. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices (Dollars per Barrel) - Continued Year Month PAD District II...

  14. Table 22. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices for Selected...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    company data. Source: Energy Information Administration, Form EIA-182, "Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Report." 44 Energy Information Administration Petroleum Marketing...

  15. ORISE: Securing the Golden State from threats foreign and domestic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Securing the Golden State from threats foreign and domestic ORISE helps California emergency planners with innovative training on state and local levels To protect the state of...

  16. Spring 2014 Heat Transfer -1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    Spring 2014 1 Heat Transfer - 1 Consider a cylindrical nuclear fuel rod of length L and diameter df the fuel rod, and the volumetric generation rate is known to vary sinusoidally with distance along the rod to exist between the surface of the rod and the water. Axial conduction can be neglected in rod and fluid

  17. Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of Blythe Solar Power ProjectHawai'i EstablishesChillerEast WingHeat

  18. (Data in thousand metric tons gross weight unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2007, the United States consumed about 11% of world chromite ore production in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    48 CHROMIUM (Data in thousand metric tons gross weight unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production. Stainless- and heat-resisting-steel producers were the leading consumers of ferrochromium. Superalloys require chromium. The value of chromium material consumption was about $408 million as measured

  19. (Data in thousand metric tons, gross weight, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2000, the United States consumed about 13% of world chromite ore production in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    44 CHROMIUM (Data in thousand metric tons, gross weight, unless otherwise noted) Domestic chromium chemicals and chromite-containing refractories, respectively. Consumption of chromium ferroalloys and metal was predominantly for the production of stainless and heat-resisting steel and superalloys

  20. (Data in thousand metric tons, gross weight, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The United States consumes about 13% of world chromite ore production in various

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    48 CHROMIUM (Data in thousand metric tons, gross weight, unless otherwise noted) Domestic chromium chemicals, chromium ferroalloys, and chromite-containing refractories, respectively. Consumption of chromium ferroalloys and metal by end use was: stainless and heat-resisting steel, 76%; full-alloy steel, 8

  1. (Data in thousand metric tons, gross weight, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2001, the United States consumed about 14% of world chromite ore production in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    46 CHROMIUM (Data in thousand metric tons, gross weight, unless otherwise noted) Domestic chromium chemicals and chromite-containing refractories, respectively. Consumption of chromium ferroalloys and metal was predominantly for the production of stainless and heat-resisting steel and superalloys

  2. (Data in thousand metric tons, gross weight unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2005, the United States consumed about 11% of world chromite ore production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    48 CHROMIUM (Data in thousand metric tons, gross weight unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production. Imported chromite was consumed by one chemical firm to produce chromium chemicals. Consumption of chromium ferroalloys and metal was predominantly for the production of stainless and heat-resisting steel

  3. (Data in thousand metric tons gross weight unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2011, the United States was expected to consume about 5% of world chromite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    42 CHROMIUM (Data in thousand metric tons gross weight unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production- and heat-resisting-steel producers were the leading consumers of ferrochromium. Superalloys require chromium. The value of chromium material consumption in 2010 was $883 million as measured by the value

  4. (Data in thousand metric tons gross weight unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2009, the United States was expected to consume about 7% of world chromite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    42 CHROMIUM (Data in thousand metric tons gross weight unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and chromium metal. Stainless- and heat-resisting-steel producers were the leading consumers of ferrochromium. Superalloys require chromium. The value of chromium material consumption in 2008 was $1,283 million

  5. (Data in thousand metric tons, gross weight, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The United States consumes about 14% of world chromite ore production in various

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    48 CHROMIUM (Data in thousand metric tons, gross weight, unless otherwise noted) Domestic and chromite-containing refractories, respectively. Consumption of chromium ferroalloys and metal was predominantly for the production of stainless and heat-resisting steel and superalloys, respectively. The value

  6. (Data in thousand metric tons gross weight unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2012, the United States was expected to consume about 6% of world chromite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    42 CHROMIUM (Data in thousand metric tons gross weight unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production company produced chromium metal. Stainless- and heat-resisting-steel producers were the leading consumers of ferrochromium. Superalloys require chromium. The value of chromium material consumption in 2011 was $1

  7. (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Indium was not recovered from ores in the United States in 2004. Two companies,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    80 INDIUM (Data in metric tons unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: Indium-efficiency photovoltaic devices. A major manufacturer is testing indium for a new application as a heat-management material in computers, which could increase consumption by 40 metric tons per year. The estimated

  8. (Data in thousand metric tons, gross weight unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2004, the United States consumed about 10% of world chromite ore production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    46 CHROMIUM (Data in thousand metric tons, gross weight unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production. Imported chromite was consumed by one chemical firm to produce chromium chemicals. Consumption of chromium ferroalloys and metal was predominantly for the production of stainless and heat-resisting steel

  9. (Data in thousand metric tons, gross weight, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The United States consumes about 16% of world chromite ore production in various

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    44 CHROMIUM (Data in thousand metric tons, gross weight, unless otherwise noted) Domestic chromium chemicals, chromium ferroalloys, and chromite-containing refractories, respectively. Consumption of chromium ferroalloys and metal by end use was: stainless and heat-resisting steel, 74%; full-alloy steel

  10. (Data in thousand metric tons gross weight unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2010, the United States was expected to consume about 2% of world chromite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    42 CHROMIUM (Data in thousand metric tons gross weight unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production- and heat-resisting-steel producers were the leading consumers of ferrochromium. Superalloys require chromium. The value of chromium material consumption in 2009 was $358 million as measured by the value

  11. (Data in thousand metric tons gross weight unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 2008, the United States consumed about 10% of world chromite ore production in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    44 CHROMIUM (Data in thousand metric tons gross weight unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production. Stainless- and heat-resisting-steel producers were the leading consumers of ferrochromium. Superalloys require chromium. The value of chromium material consumption in 2007 was $548 million as measured

  12. (Data in thousand metric tons, gross weight, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: The United States consumes about 12% of world chromite ore production in various

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    44 CHROMIUM (Data in thousand metric tons, gross weight, unless otherwise noted) Domestic chromium chemicals, chromium ferroalloys, and chromite-containing refractories, respectively. Consumption of chromium ferroalloys and metal by end use was: stainless and heat-resisting steel, 68%; full-alloy steel, 8

  13. TEMPERATURE PREDICTION IN DOMESTIC REFRIGERATOR: DETERMINIST AND STOCHASTIC APPROACHES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    was studied. A simplified steady state heat transfer model was developed which takes into account heat

  14. Dry Storage of Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel - 13321

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, T.M.; Dunsmuir, M.D.; Leduc, D.R.; Severynse, T.F.; Sindelar, R.L. [Savannah River National Laboratory (United States)] [Savannah River National Laboratory (United States); Moore, E.N. [Moore Nuclear Energy, LLC (United States)] [Moore Nuclear Energy, LLC (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spent fuel from domestic and foreign research reactors is received and stored at the Savannah River Site's L Area Material Storage (L Basin) Facility. This DOE-owned fuel consists primarily of highly enriched uranium in metal, oxide or silicide form with aluminum cladding. Upon receipt, the fuel is unloaded and transferred to basin storage awaiting final disposition. Disposition alternatives include processing via the site's H Canyon facility for uranium recovery, or packaging and shipment of the spent fuel to a waste repository. A program has been developed to provide a phased approach for dry storage of the L Basin fuel. The initial phase of the dry storage program will demonstrate loading, drying, and storage of fuel in twelve instrumented canisters to assess fuel performance. After closure, the loaded canisters are transferred to pad-mounted concrete overpacks, similar to those used for dry storage of commercial fuel. Unlike commercial spent fuel, however, the DOE fuel has high enrichment, very low to high burnup, and low decay heat. The aluminum cladding presents unique challenges due to the presence of an oxide layer that forms on the cladding surface, and corrosion degradation resulting from prolonged wet storage. The removal of free and bound water is essential to the prevention of fuel corrosion and radiolytic generation of hydrogen. The demonstration will validate models predicting pressure, temperature, gas generation, and corrosion performance, provide an engineering scale demonstration of fuel handling, drying, leak testing, and canister backfill operations, and establish 'road-ready' storage of fuel that is suitable for offsite repository shipment or retrievable for onsite processing. Implementation of the Phase I demonstration can be completed within three years. Phases II and III, leading to the de-inventory of L Basin, would require an additional 750 canisters and 6-12 years to complete. Transfer of the fuel from basin storage to dry storage requires integration with current facility operations, and selection of equipment that will allow safe operation within the constraints of existing facility conditions. Examples of such constraints that are evaluated and addressed by the dry storage program include limited basin depth, varying fuel lengths up to 4 m, (13 ft), fissile loading limits, canister closure design, post-load drying and closure of the canisters, instrument selection and installation, and movement of the canisters to storage casks. The initial pilot phase restricts the fuels to shorter length fuels that can be loaded to the canister directly underwater; subsequent phases will require use of a shielded transfer system. Removal of the canister from the basin, followed by drying, inerting, closure of the canister, and transfer of the canister to the storage cask are completed with remotely operated equipment and appropriate shielding to reduce personnel radiation exposure. (authors)

  15. Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

  16. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,602 1,397...

  17. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy Consumption Survey: Energy End-Use Consumption Tables Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All...

  18. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings* ... 1,870 1,276...

  19. Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook-

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Released: September, 2008 Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other Total Space Heating Water Heating Cook- ing Other All Buildings ... 2,037...

  20. Waste Heat Recapture from Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with improved utilization of waste heat from supermarket refrigeration systems. Existing and advanced strategies for waste heat recovery in supermarkets were analyzed, including options from advanced sources such as combined heat and power (CHP), micro-turbines and fuel cells.

  1. Tips For Residential Heating Oil Tank Owners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maroncelli, Mark

    · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · · Tips For Residential Heating Oil Tank Owners Source: DEP Fact Sheet Residential heating oil tanks are used to store fuel for furnaces or boilers to heat

  2. Testing and analysis of immersed heat exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farrington, R.B.; Bingham, C.E.

    1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives were to determine the performance of four immersed, ''supply-side'' heat exchangers used in solar domestic-hot-water systems; to examine the effects of flow rate, temperature difference, and coil configuration on performance; and to develop a simple model to predict the performance of immersed heat exchangers. We tested four immersed heat exchangers: a smooth coil, a finned spiral, a single-wall bayonet, and a double-wall bayonet. We developed two analyticl models and a simple finite difference model. We experimentally verified that the performance of these heat exchangers depends on the flow rate through them; we also showed that the temperature difference between the heat exchanger's inlet and the storage tank can strongly affect a heat exchanger's performance. We also compared the effects of the heat exchanger's configuration and correlated Nusselt and Rayleigh numbers for each heat exchanger tested. The smooth coil had a higher effectiveness than the others, while the double-wall bayonet had a very low effectiveness. We still do not know the long-term effectiveness of heat exchangers regarding scale accumulation, nor do we know the effects of very low flow rates on a heat exchanger's performance.

  3. Air heating system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Primeau, John J. (19800 Seminole Rd., Euclid, OH 44117)

    1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

  4. Synthetic Fuel

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Idaho National Laboratory - Steve Herring, Jim O'Brien, Carl Stoots

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhouse gass Two global energy priorities today are finding environmentally friendly alternatives to fossil fuels, and reducing greenhous

  5. Winter fuels report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: (1) distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; (2) propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; (3) natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; (4) residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; (5) crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and (6) US total heating degree-days by city.

  6. Domestic Uranium Production Report - Quarterly - Energy Information

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40 Buildingto17 3400, U.S. DEPARTMENTshort05) EnergyAdministration All Nuclear

  7. Domestic Energy Partners | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOE FacilityDimondale, Michigan:Emerling FarmCenter,Dolliver, Iowa:Dome Tech

  8. Fuel Economy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department is investing in groundbreaking research that will make cars weigh less, drive further and consume less fuel.

  9. Operation strategy for solid oxide fuel cell systems for small-scale stationary applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berning, Torsten

    Operation strategy for solid oxide fuel cell systems for small-scale stationary applications V Abstract: Solid oxide fuel cell micro cogeneration systems have the potential to reduce domestic energy factor. One of the technologies in focus in EU research programmers is solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC

  10. Energy Advisors at Work: Charity Work Practices to Support People in Fuel Poverty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Advisors at Work: Charity Work Practices to Support People in Fuel Poverty Joel E. Fischer to people in fuel poverty. Our fieldwork comprises detailed observations that reveal the collaborative design challenges that relate the domestic fuel poverty setting to the wider Ubicomp literature. Our work

  11. Interaction between domestic and international students: a case study on

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amin, S. Massoud

    Interaction between domestic and international students: a case study on the perspective of CIDE of domestic students is limited. Case study conducted in Fall 2009 Purpose to explore current level integration ·Case studies "We cannot simply assume that interaction between local and international students

  12. Comparative Life-Cycle Air Emissions of Coal, Domestic Natural

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Paulina

    come domestically from the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) via coal gasification- methanation gasification technologies that use coal to produce SNG. This National Gasification Strategy callsComparative Life-Cycle Air Emissions of Coal, Domestic Natural Gas, LNG, and SNG for Electricity

  13. Winter fuels report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition, underground storage, and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. This report will be published weekly by the EIA starting the first week in October 1990 and will continue until the first week in April 1991. The data will also be available electronically after 5:00 p.m. on Thursday during the heating season through the EIA Electronic Publication System (EPUB). 12 tabs.

  14. Fuel Interchangeability Considerations for Gas Turbine Combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferguson, D.H.

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years domestic natural gas has experienced a considerable growth in demand particularly in the power generation industry. However, the desire for energy security, lower fuel costs and a reduction in carbon emissions has produced an increase in demand for alternative fuel sources. Current strategies for reducing the environmental impact of natural gas combustion in gas turbine engines used for power generation experience such hurdles as flashback, lean blow-off and combustion dynamics. These issues will continue as turbines are presented with coal syngas, gasified coal, biomass, LNG and high hydrogen content fuels. As it may be impractical to physically test a given turbine on all of the possible fuel blends it may experience over its life cycle, the need to predict fuel interchangeability becomes imperative. This study considers a number of historical parameters typically used to determine fuel interchangeability. Also addressed is the need for improved reaction mechanisms capable of accurately modeling the combustion of natural gas alternatives.

  15. *Tri-Generation is a novel technology that was conceived by the National Fuel Cell Research Center in 2001 to simultaneously generate electricity, hydrogen, and heat. It was developed into the first prototype in collaboration with FuelCell Energy, Inc., a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    and fuel cell electric vehicles), there are still emissions associated with the upstream processes Electric Vehicles Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles #12;*Tri-Generation is a novel technology that was conceived by the National Fuel Cell Research Center

  16. Retrofitting Combined Space and Water Heating Systems: Laboratory Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schoenbauer, B.; Bohac, D.; Huelman, P.; Olson, R.; Hewitt, M.

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Better insulated and tighter homes can often use a single heating plant for both space and domestic water heating. These systems, called dual integrated appliances (DIA) or combination systems, can operate at high efficiency and eliminate combustion safety issues associated by using a condensing, sealed combustion heating plant. Funds were received to install 400 DIAs in Minnesota low-income homes. The NorthernSTAR DIA laboratory was created to identify proper system components, designs, operating parameters, and installation procedures to assure high efficiency of field installed systems. Tests verified that heating loads up to 57,000 Btu/hr can be achieved with acceptable return water temperatures and supply air temperatures.

  17. Heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nishman, P.J.

    1983-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A heating system utilizing solar panels and buried ground conduits to collect and store heat which is delivered to a heatpump heat exchanger. A heat-distribution fluid continuously circulates through a ground circuit to transfer heat from the ground to the heat exchanger. The ground circuit includes a length of buried ground conduit, a pump, a check valve and the heat exchanger. A solar circuit, including a solar panel and a second pump, is connected in parallel with the check valve so that the distribution fluid transfers solar heat to the heat exchanger for utilization and to the ground conduit for storage when the second pump is energized. A thermostatically instrumented control system energizes the second pump only when the temperature differential between the solar panel inlet and outlet temperatures exceeds a predetermined value and the ground temperature is less than a predetermined value. Consequently, the distribution fluid flows through the solar panel only when the panel is capable of supplying significant heat to the remainder of the system without causing excessive drying of the ground.

  18. Transportation Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del SolStrengthening a solidSynthesisAppliances »Contact-InformationFuels DOE would

  19. Fuel Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField8,Dist.Newof Energy ForrestalPrinceton PlasmaEnergyFuel Cell

  20. Advanced Fuel Reformer Development: Putting the 'Fuel' in Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Reformer Development: Putting the 'Fuel' in Fuel Cells Advanced Fuel Reformer Development: Putting the 'Fuel' in Fuel Cells Presented at the DOE-DOD Shipboard APU Workshop on...

  1. Stocks of Distillate Fuel Oil

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oilAll Tables133,477 133,591 135,428 135,820

  2. The Homopolar Pulse Billet Heating Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keith, R. E.; Weldon, W. F.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    - or gas-fired furnace machine. (7) Also during 1981, under the heating. Although most billet heating sponsorship of the Electric Power Research today is done using fuel-fired furnaces, Institute (EPRI), CEM-UT carried out a electric heating... obtained frDm Electromechanics at The University of Texas the EPRI study. at Austin (CEM-UT) has been engaged in research on large pulsed power supplies for use in experiments leading to controlled TEMPERATURE GRADIENTS IN BILLET HEATING...

  3. A COMPARISON OF LABORATORY AND FIELD-TEST MEASUREMENTS OF HEAT PUMP WATER HEATERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;A COMPARISON OF LABORATORY AND FIELD-TEST MEASUREMENTS OF HEAT PUMP WATER HEATERS William P a heat pump water heater (HPWH). After developing the HPWH, a field-test plan was implemented whereby 20 evaluate this effect. #12;INTRODUCTION Domestic water heaters account for approximately 2.5 EJ (2.4 x 1015

  4. LowerLower--Cost Fuel CellsCost Fuel Cells Allen J. Bard, Arumugam Manthiram,Allen J. Bard, Arumugam Manthiram,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lightsey, Glenn

    1 LowerLower--Cost Fuel CellsCost Fuel Cells Allen J. Bard, Arumugam Manthiram,Allen J. BardMaterials Science and Engineering Program 2 CONVENTIONAL POWER PLANT DIRECT FUEL CELL POWER PLANT Heat power PEMFC: H2 fuel DMFC: Methanol fuel Fuel cells vs. conventional #12;2 3 Fuel cells could change

  5. Superradiant Quantum Heat Engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali Ü. C. Hardal; Özgür E. Müstecapl?oglu

    2015-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum physics revolutionized classical disciplines of mechanics, statistical physics, and electrodynamics. One branch of scientific knowledge however seems untouched: thermodynamics. Major motivation behind thermodynamics is to develop efficient heat engines. Technology has a trend to miniaturize engines, reaching to quantum regimes. Development of quantum heat engines (QHEs) requires emerging field of quantum thermodynamics. Studies of QHEs debate whether quantum coherence can be used as a resource. We explore an alternative where it can function as an effective catalyst. We propose a QHE which consists of a photon gas inside an optical cavity as the working fluid and quantum coherent atomic clusters as the fuel. Utilizing the superradiance, where a cluster can radiate quadratically faster than a single atom, we show that the work output becomes proportional to the square of the number of the atoms. In addition to practical value of cranking up QHE, our result is a fundamental difference of a quantum fuel from its classical counterpart.

  6. Life cycle costs for the domestic reactor-based plutonium disposition option

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, K.A.

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Projected constant dollar life cycle cost (LCC) estimates are presented for the domestic reactor-based plutonium disposition program being managed by the US Department of Energy Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (DOE/MD). The scope of the LCC estimate includes: design, construction, licensing, operation, and deactivation of a mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel fabrication facility (FFF) that will be used to purify and convert weapons-derived plutonium oxides to MOX fuel pellets and fabricate MOX fuel bundles for use in commercial pressurized-water reactors (PWRs); fuel qualification activities and modification of facilities required for manufacture of lead assemblies that will be used to qualify and license this MOX fuel; and modification, licensing, and operation of commercial PWRs to allow irradiation of a partial core of MOX fuel in combination with low-enriched uranium fuel. The baseline cost elements used for this document are the same as those used for examination of the preferred sites described in the site-specific final environmental impact statement and in the DOE Record of Decision that will follow in late 1999. Cost data are separated by facilities, government accounting categories, contract phases, and expenditures anticipated by the various organizations who will participate in the program over a 20-year period. Total LCCs to DOE/MD are projected at approximately $1.4 billion for a 33-MT plutonium disposition mission.

  7. Carbonate fuel cell system with thermally integrated gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinfeld, G.; Meyers, S.J.; Lee, A.

    1996-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell system is described which employs a gasifier for generating fuel gas for the fuel cell of the fuel cell system and in which heat for the gasifier is derived from the anode exhaust gas of the fuel cell. 2 figs.

  8. Fuel processor for fuel cell power system. [Conversion of methanol into hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vanderborgh, N.E.; Springer, T.E.; Huff, J.R.

    1986-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalytic organic fuel processing apparatus, which can be used in a fuel cell power system, contains within a housing a catalyst chamber, a variable speed fan, and a combustion chamber. Vaporized organic fuel is circulated by the fan past the combustion chamber with which it is in indirect heat exchange relationship. The heated vaporized organic fuel enters a catalyst bed where it is converted into a desired product such as hydrogen needed to power the fuel cell. During periods of high demand, air is injected upstream of the combustion chamber and organic fuel injection means to burn with some of the organic fuel on the outside of the combustion chamber, and thus be in direct heat exchange relation with the organic fuel going into the catalyst bed.

  9. Table 23. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices by API Gravity

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Form EIA-182, "Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Report." 23. Domestic Crude Oil First Purchase Prices by API Gravity Energy Information Administration Petroleum...

  10. COMBINING DIVERSE DATA SOURCES FOR CEDSS, AN AGENT-BASED MODEL OF DOMESTIC ENERGY DEMAND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gotts, Nicholas Mark; Polhill, Gary; Craig, Tony; Galan-Diaz, Carlos

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Model CEDSS (Community Energy Demand Social Simulator) wasthe determinants of domestic energy demand and covering fivescenarios of domestic energy demand to 2050, and for its

  11. Spotless Italy: Hygiene, Domesticity, and the Ubiquity of Whiteness in Fascist and Postwar Consumer Culture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lombardi-Diop, Cristina

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spotless Italy: Hygiene, Domesticity, and the Ubiquity ofa certain obsession with hygiene seems to signal a desireculture, domesticity, hygiene, and whiteness begins. This

  12. Heat Exchangers for Solar Water Heating Systems | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33Frequently20,000 RussianBy: Thomas P. D'Agostino,GlenLearning andDesign inImage of a heat

  13. State heating oil and propane program, 1994--1995 heating season. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Propane prices and No. 2 fuel prices during the 1994-1995 heating season are tabulated for the state of Ohio. Nineteen companies were included in the telephone survey of propane prices, and twenty two companies for the fuel oil prices. A bar graph is also presented for average residential prices of No. 2 heating oil.

  14. Performance of hybrid quad generation system consisting of solid oxide fuel cell system and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liso, Vincenzo

    Performance of hybrid quad generation system consisting of solid oxide fuel cell system. Keywords: Energy system modeling, Solid oxide fuel cell, Absorption heat pump. 1. Introduction 1

  15. Binder enhanced refuse derived fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daugherty, Kenneth E. (Lewisville, TX); Venables, Barney J. (Denton, TX); Ohlsson, Oscar O. (Naperville, IL)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A refuse derived fuel (RDF) pellet having about 11% or more particulate calcium hydroxide which is utilized in a combustionable mixture. The pellets are used in a particulate fuel bring a mixture of 10% or more, on a heat equivalent basis, of the RDF pellet which contains calcium hydroxide as a binder, with 50% or more, on a heat equivalent basis, of a sulphur containing coal. Combustion of the mixture is effective to produce an effluent gas from the combustion zone having a reduced SO.sub.2 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of effluent gas from similar combustion materials not containing the calcium hydroxide.

  16. Fuel Cells

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the major national security imperatives of this century. Get Expertise Rod Borup MPA-11, Fuel Cell Program Manager Email Andrew Dattelbaum MPA-11 Group Leader Email Melissa Fox...

  17. Usefulness of North Carolina olivine in heat storage bricks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmour, H.; Gay, B.M.; Cochrane, R.L.

    1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sensible heat storage systems are available which make use of low cost electric energy during off-peak hours to heat ceramic refractories to approx. 1500/sup 0/F. Thereafter, heat is extracted as needed and without further energy demand (fan excluded) by controlled circulation of air through the core to meet residential or commercial space conditioning needs. Heat storage furnaces represent valuable load-leveling capabilities for central electric utilities and safe, convenient, reliable heat sources for consumers. The background of this new technology is reviewed, the different available types of heat storage furnaces are described, and attention is focused on materials selections, ceramic processing, thermal and mechanical properties and in-service performance factors for the ceramic refractories which make up the actual storage core. Prototype domestic heat storage refractories produced from North Carolina olivine (magnesium iron orthosilicate) are used as examples in discussing some of the available engineering options and tradeoffs, and their technical and economic consequences.

  18. Fuel Saving Ideas for Metal and Ceramic Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reed, R. J.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An easy method is presented for analyzing sources of heat loss from industrial processing furnaces, kilns, and ovens; and thus for recognizing opportunities for fuel saving. This will relate to melting, heat treating and hot forming of metals...

  19. Home Heating | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMFormsGasReleaseSpeechesHallNotSeventy years of greatHome DesignHeating

  20. Radiant Heating | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you wantJoin us for| Department ofRightsSmart SensorsHeating Radiant