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Sample records for dni gef ghi

  1. Kenya Hourly DNI, GHI and Diffuse Solar Data - Datasets - OpenEI...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kenya Hourly DNI, GHI and Diffuse Solar Data Abstract Each data file is a set of hourly values of solar radiation (DNI, GHI and diffuse) and meteorological elements for a 1-year...

  2. Solar: monthly and annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Download Carribean Islands Central America DNI GIS Mexico NREL GEF SWERA UNEP atmospheric water v... solar Additional Info Field Value Source www.nrel.gov Author National Renewable...

  3. DNI-predictability_paper

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    predictable is DNI? An evaluation of hour ahead and day ahead DNI forecasts from four different providers Tobias Gerstmaier 1 , Michael Bührer 2 , Michael Röttger 2 , Andreas Gombert 2 , Clifford W. Hansen 3 , and Joshua S. Stein 3 1 Soitec Solar GmbH, Bötzinger Str. 31, D-79111 Freiburg, Germany, phone +4976121410842, e-mail tobias.gerstmaier@soitec.com 2 Soitec Solar GmbH, Freiburg, Germany 3 Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM, USA Abstract. Forecast DNI values in hourly

  4. Turkmenistan-GEF Projects | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Topics Background analysis Website http:www.gefonline.orgproje Country Turkmenistan Central Asia References GEF Climate Projects1 For a list of GEF climate projects in...

  5. Kenya-GEF Projects | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    database1 GEF Climate Projects in Kenya 1780 Kenya Joint Geophysical Imaging (JGI) Methodology for Geothermal Reservoir Assessment Climate Change UNEP Medium Size Project, GEF...

  6. UNEP-GEF Renewable Energy Project Financial Risk Management in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEF Renewable Energy Project Financial Risk Management in Developing Countries Jump to: navigation, search Name UNEP-GEF Renewable Energy Project Financial Risk Management in...

  7. GEF-Colombia-Geothermal Energy Grant | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colombia-Geothermal Energy Grant Jump to: navigation, search Name GEF-Colombia-Geothermal Energy Grant AgencyCompany Organization Global Environment Facility (GEF),...

  8. Identification of periods of clear sky irradiance in time series of GHI measurements

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Reno, Matthew J.; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2016-01-18

    In this study, we present a simple algorithm for identifying periods of time with broadband global horizontal irradiance (GHI) similar to that occurring during clear sky conditions from a time series of GHI measurements. Other available methods to identify these periods do so by identifying periods with clear sky conditions using additional measurements, such as direct or diffuse irradiance. Our algorithm compares characteristics of the time series of measured GHI with the output of a clear sky model without requiring additional measurements. We validate our algorithm using data from several locations by comparing our results with those obtained from amore » clear sky detection algorithm, and with satellite and ground-based sky imagery.« less

  9. Shock initiation of 2,4-dinitroimidazole (2,4-DNI)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urtiew, P.A.; Tarver, C.M.; Simpson, R.L.

    1995-07-19

    The shock sensitivity of the pressed solid explosive 2,4-dinitroimidazole (2,4-DNI) was determined using the embedded manganin pressure gauge technique. At an initial shock pressure of 2 GPa, several microseconds were required before any exothermic reaction was observed. At 4 GPa, 2,4-DNI reacted more rapidly but did not transition to detonation at the 12 mm deep gauge position. At 6 GPa, detonation occurred in less than 6 mm of shock propagation. Thus, 2,4-DNI is more shock sensitive than TATB-based explosives but is considerably less shock sensitive than HMX-based explosives. An Ignition and Growth reactive flow model for 2,4-DNI based on these gauge records showed that 2,4-DNI exhibits shock initiation characteristics similar to TATB but reacts faster. The chemical structure of 2,4-DNI suggests that it may exhibit thermal decomposition reactions similar to nitroguanine and explosives with similar ring structures, such as ANTA and NTO.

  10. Peru-GEF Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions in the Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    (Redirected from UNDP-Peru GEF Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions in the Energy Generation and End-Use Sectors)...

  11. GEF-Knowledge Management Initiative | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AgencyCompany Organization Global Environment Facility (GEF) Resource Type Dataset, Lessons learnedbest practices Website http:www.thegef.orggefsite Program Start 2010...

  12. UNDP-GEF Fuel Cell Bus Programme: Update | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GEF Fuel Cell Bus Programme: Update Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: UNDP-GEF Fuel Cell Bus Programme: Update AgencyCompany Organization: United Nations...

  13. Brief introduction of GEF efficient industrial boiler project in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meijian, T.

    1996-12-31

    The present situation of installed industrial boilers, their efficiency and environmental impact are assessed. And the factors contribute to the low efficiency and serious pollution are summarized. Based on WB-assisted GEF project, {open_quotes}Efficient Industrial Boiler Project{close_quotes} aimed at CO{sub 2} mitigation in China, a series of effective measures to bring the GHG emission under control are addressed, in technology, system performance, and operation management aspects.

  14. China Renewable Energy Scale up Program CRESP GOC WB GEF | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    up Program CRESP GOC WB GEF Jump to: navigation, search Name: China Renewable Energy Scale-up Program (CRESP) GOCWBGEF Place: Beijing, Beijing Municipality, China Zip: 100038...

  15. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    record (number of years of data) Spatial variability (e.g., 14% difference around Dallas) Need for methods using only GHI (estimate DNI and DHI) Advances in modeling ...

  16. Production of high Resoulution Irradiance Data for Central America...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    irradiance (GHI) and direct irradiance (DNI) data sets for the countries of Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua. Much of our initial effort focused on building up...

  17. Comparison of the thermal decompositions of HMX and 2,4-DNI for evaluation of slow cookoff response and long-term stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minier, L.; Behrens, R.; Bulusu, S.

    1995-12-01

    Thermal decomposition of HMX between 175C and 200C was studied using the simultaneous thermogravimetric modulated beam mass spectrometer with focus on initial stages of the decomposition. Thermal decomposition products are the same as in previous higher temperature experiments. The initial stages of the decomposition have an induction period followed by two acceleratory periods. Arrhenius parameters for the induction and two acceleratory periods are (Log(A)= 18.2 {plus_minus} 0.8, Ea = 48.2 {plus_minus} 1.8 kcal/mole), (Log (A) = 17.15 {plus_minus} 1.5 and Ea = 48.9 {plus_minus} 3.2 kcal/mole), (Log (A) = 19.1 {plus_minus} 3.0 and Ea = 52.1 {plus_minus} 6.3 kcal/mole). This data can be used to calculate the time and temperature required to decompose a desired fraction of a test sample testing the effect of thermal degradation on sensitivity or bum rates. It can also be used to estimate the extent of decomposition expected under normal storage conditions for munitions containing HMX. This data, along with previous mechanistic studies conducted at higher temperatures, suggest that the process that controls the early stages of decomposition of HMX in the solid phase is scission of the N-NO{sub 2} bond, reaction of the N0{sub 2} within a lattice cage to form the mononitroso analogue of HMX and decomposition of the mononitroso HMX within the HMX lattice to form gaseous products that are retained in bubbles or diffuse into the surrounding lattice. These methods evaluating HMX can be used to evaluate new energetic materials such as 2,4-DNI. The early 2,4-DNI thermal decomposition is characterized by an initial decomposition, an apparent induction period, then an initial acceleratory period. The main gaseous products are NO, C0{sub 2}, HNCO, H{sub 2}0, N{sub 2}, CO, HCN and C{sub 2}N{sub 2}. The presence of adsorbed and occluded H{sub 2}0 is the major cause of the early decomposition.

  18. Recognition of the Activated States of G[alpha]13 by the rgRGS Domain of PDZRhoGEF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Zhe; Singer, William D.; Danesh, Shahab M.; Sternweis, Paul C.; Sprang, Stephen R.

    2009-12-01

    G12 class heterotrimeric G proteins stimulate RhoA activation by RGS-RhoGEFs. However, p115RhoGEF is a GTPase Activating Protein (GAP) toward G{alpha}13, whereas PDZRhoGEF is not. We have characterized the interaction between the PDZRhoGEF rgRGS domain (PRG-rgRGS) and the alpha subunit of G13 and have determined crystal structures of their complexes in both the inactive state bound to GDP and the active states bound to GDP {center_dot} AlF (transition state) and GTP{gamma}S (Michaelis complex). PRG-rgRGS interacts extensively with the helical domain and the effector-binding sites on G{alpha}13 through contacts that are largely conserved in all three nucleotide-bound states, although PRG-rgRGS has highest affinity to the Michaelis complex. An acidic motif in the N terminus of PRG-rgRGS occupies the GAP binding site of G{alpha}13 and is flexible in the GDP {center_dot} AlF complex but well ordered in the GTPS complex. Replacement of key residues in this motif with their counterparts in p115RhoGEF confers GAP activity.

  19. Activated RhoA Binds to the Pleckstrin Homology (PH) Domain of PDZ-RhoGEF, a Potential Site for Autoregulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Zhe; Medina, Frank; Liu, Mu-ya; Thomas, Celestine; Sprang, Stephen R.; Sternweis, Paul C.

    2010-07-19

    Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) catalyze exchange of GDP for GTP by stabilizing the nucleotide-free state of the small GTPases through their Dbl homology/pleckstrin homology (DH {center_dot} PH) domains. Unconventionally, PDZ-RhoGEF (PRG), a member of the RGS-RhoGEFs, binds tightly to both nucleotide-free and activated RhoA (RhoA {center_dot} GTP). We have characterized the interaction between PRG and activated RhoA and determined the structure of the PRG-DH {center_dot} PH-RhoA {center_dot} GTP{gamma}S (guanosine 5{prime}-O-[{gamma}-thio]triphosphate) complex. The interface bears striking similarity to a GTPase-effector interface and involves the switch regions in RhoA and a hydrophobic patch in PRG-PH that is conserved among all Lbc RhoGEFs. The two surfaces that bind activated and nucleotide-free RhoA on PRG-DH {center_dot} PH do not overlap, and a ternary complex of PRG-DH {center_dot} PH bound to both forms of RhoA can be isolated by size-exclusion chromatography. This novel interaction between activated RhoA and PH could play a key role in regulation of RhoGEF activity in vivo.

  20. Insights into the Molecular Activation Mechanism of the RhoA-specific Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor, PDZRhoGEF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bielnicki, Jakub A.; Shkumatov, Alexander V.; Derewenda, Urszula; Somlyo, Avril V.; Svergun, Dmitri I.; Derewenda, Zygmunt S.

    2012-10-09

    PDZRhoGEF (PRG) belongs to a small family of RhoA-specific nucleotide exchange factors that mediates signaling through select G-protein-coupled receptors via G{alpha}{sub 12/13} and activates RhoA by catalyzing the exchange of GDP to GTP. PRG is a multidomain protein composed of PDZ, regulators of G-protein signaling-like (RGSL), Dbl-homology (DH), and pleckstrin-homology (PH) domains. It is autoinhibited in cytosol and is believed to undergo a conformational rearrangement and translocation to the membrane for full activation, although the molecular details of the regulation mechanism are not clear. It has been shown recently that the main autoregulatory elements of PDZRhoGEF, the autoinhibitory 'activation box' and the 'GEF switch,' which is required for full activation, are located directly upstream of the catalytic DH domain and its RhoA binding surface, emphasizing the functional role of the RGSL-DH linker. Here, using a combination of biophysical and biochemical methods, we show that the mechanism of PRG regulation is yet more complex and may involve an additional autoinhibitory element in the form of a molten globule region within the linker between RGSL and DH domains. We propose a novel, two-tier model of autoinhibition where the activation box and the molten globule region act synergistically to impair the ability of RhoA to bind to the catalytic DH-PH tandem. The molten globule region and the activation box become less ordered in the PRG-RhoA complex and dissociate from the RhoA-binding site, which may constitute a critical step leading to PRG activation.

  1. Transforming on-grid renewable energy markets. A review of UNDP-GEF support for feed-in tariffs and related price and market-access instruments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glemarec, Yannick; Rickerson, Wilson; Waissbein, Oliver

    2012-11-15

    As a Global Environment Facility (GEF) founding implementing agency, UNDP has worked on over 230 GEF-supported clean energy projects in close to 100 developing countries since 1992. About 100 of these projects in 80 countries have focused on renewable energy, supported by approximately US $ 293 million in GEF funds and leveraging US $1.48 billion in associated co-financing from national governments, international organizations, the private sector and non-governmental organizations. As part of UNDP efforts to codify and share lessons learnt from these initiatives, this report addresses how scarce public resources can be used to catalyze larger private financial flows for renewable energy. It provides an overview of UNDP-GEF’s extensive work supporting development of national renewable energy policies such as feed-in tariffs. In these activities UNDP-GEF assists developing countries to assess key risks and barriers to technology diffusion and then to identify a mix of policy and financial de-risking measures to remove these barriers and drive investment. This approach is illustrated through three case studies in Uruguay, Mauritius and Kazakhstan. This report is complemented by a companion publication presenting an innovative UNDP financial modeling tool to assist policymakers in appraising different public instruments to promote clean energy.

  2. NREL: International Activities - India Solar Resource Maps & Data

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    International Activities Printable Version A button that leads to NREL's National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB) India Solar Resoource - Annual Average DNI Map Annual Average DNI Map JPG 12.5 MB India Annual Average GHI Map - Annual Average GHI Map Annual Average GHI Map JPG 13.3 MB The cover page of the India Solar Resource Data Fact Sheet India Solar Resource Data Fact Sheet PDF 395 KB India Solar Resource Maps & Data (updated March 2016) This page provides solar resource maps and data

  3. Experiments and Theoretical Data for Studying the Impact of Fission Yield Uncertainties on the Nuclear Fuel Cycle with TALYS/GEF and the Total Monte Carlo Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pomp, S.; Al-Adili, A.; Alhassan, E.; Gustavsson, C.; Helgesson, P.; Hellesen, C.; Koning, A.J.; Lantz, M.; Österlund, M.; Rochman, D.; Simutkin, V.; Sjöstrand, H.; Solders, A.

    2015-01-15

    We describe the research program of the nuclear reactions research group at Uppsala University concerning experimental and theoretical efforts to quantify and reduce nuclear data uncertainties relevant for the nuclear fuel cycle. We briefly describe the Total Monte Carlo (TMC) methodology and how it can be used to study fuel cycle and accident scenarios, and summarize our relevant experimental activities. Input from the latter is to be used to guide the nuclear models and constrain parameter space for TMC. The TMC method relies on the availability of good nuclear models. For this we use the TALYS code which is currently being extended to include the GEF model for the fission channel. We present results from TALYS-1.6 using different versions of GEF with both default and randomized input parameters and compare calculations with experimental data for {sup 234}U(n,f) in the fast energy range. These preliminary studies reveal some systematic differences between experimental data and calculations but give overall good and promising results.

  4. Evaluating Solar Resource Data Obtained from Multiple Radiometers Deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Andreas, A.; Wilcox, S.; Stoffel, T.

    2014-09-01

    Solar radiation resource measurements from radiometers are used to predict and evaluate the performance of photovoltaic and concentrating solar power systems, validate satellite-based models for estimating solar resources, and advance research in solar forecasting and climate change. This study analyzes the performance of various commercially available radiometers used for measuring global horizontal irradiances (GHI) and direct normal irradiances (DNI). These include pyranometers, pyrheliometers, rotating shadowband irradiometers, and a pyranometer with a shading ring deployed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL). The radiometers in this study were deployed for one year (from April 1, 2011, through March 31, 2012) and compared to measurements from radiometers with the lowest values of estimated measurement uncertainties for producing reference GHI and DNI.

  5. GEF climate change operational strategy: Whither UNDP?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosier, R.

    1996-12-31

    The paper discusses aspects of the implementation of the program for climatic change which has been come about as part of the U.N. Framework Convention on Climate Change. Initial effort has focused on providing strategic information and help to countries, on achieving offsets in greenhouse gas emissions by energy conservation or carbon sinking, and an emphasis on development of renewable energy supplies. The U.N. Development Agency has limited funding to help support startup on projects submitted. Specific examples are discussed in the areas of energy conservation and energy efficiency, adoption of renewable energy sources, and reducing the long-term costs of low greenhouse gas-emitting energy technologies.

  6. Global Environment Fund GEF | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Invests in companies that make positive contributions to environmental quality, human health and sustainable management of resources. References: Global Environment Fund...

  7. File:NREL-bhutan-10kmsolar-ghi.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search File File history File usage Bhutan - Annual Global Horizontal Solar Radiation Size of this preview: 776 600 pixels. Full resolution (1,650 1,275 pixels,...

  8. File:NREL-bhutan-10kmsolar-dni.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search File File history File usage Bhutan - Annual Direct Normal Solar Radiation Size of this preview: 776 600 pixels. Full resolution (1,650 1,275 pixels,...

  9. Surface Radiation from GOES: A Physical Approach; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Wilcox, S.

    2012-09-01

    Models to compute Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) and Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) have been in development over the last 3 decades. These models can be classified as empirical or physical, based on the approach. Empirical models relate ground based observations with satellite measurements and use these relations to compute surface radiation. Physical models consider the radiation received from the earth at the satellite and create retrievals to estimate surface radiation. While empirical methods have been traditionally used for computing surface radiation for the solar energy industry the advent of faster computing has made operational physical models viable. The Global Solar Insolation Project (GSIP) is an operational physical model from NOAA that computes GHI using the visible and infrared channel measurements from the GOES satellites. GSIP uses a two-stage scheme that first retrieves cloud properties and uses those properties in a radiative transfer model to calculate surface radiation. NREL, University of Wisconsin and NOAA have recently collaborated to adapt GSIP to create a 4 km GHI and DNI product every 30 minutes. This paper presents an outline of the methodology and a comprehensive validation using high quality ground based solar data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Surface Radiation (SURFRAD) (http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/surfrad/sitepage.html) and Integrated Surface Insolation Study (ISIS) http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/isis/isissites.html), the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) at National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Sun Spot One (SS1) stations.

  10. Solar Radiometric Data Quality Assessment of SIRS, SKYRAD and GNDRAD Measurements (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Habte, A.; Stoffel, T.; Reda, I.; Wilcox, S.; Kutchenreiter, M.; Gotseff, P.; Anderberg, M.

    2014-03-01

    Solar radiation is the driving force for the earth's weather and climate. Understanding the elements of this dynamic energy balance requires accurate measurements of broadband solar irradiance. Since the mid-1990's the ARM Program has deployed pyrheliometers and pyranometers for the measurement of direct normal irradiance (DNI), global horizontal irradiance (GHI), diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI), and upwelling shortwave (US) radiation at permanent and mobile field research sites. This poster summarizes the basis for assessing the broadband solar radiation data available from the SIRS, SKYRAD, and GNDRAD measurement systems and provides examples of data inspections.

  11. UNDP/GEF-Cambodia-Sustainable Forest Management | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    be carried out through community forestry activities to engage rural communities in nature conservation and create markets for sustainable bio-energy technologies to help curb...

  12. Investing in Sustainable Transport and Urban Systems: The GEF...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    expand clean public transportation choices that also have the added benefits of lowering air pollution and reducing traffic congestion. LEDSGP green logo.png This tool is included...

  13. Satellite-Based Solar Resource Data Sets for India 2002-2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengupta, M.; Perez, R.; Gueymard, C.; Anderberg, M.; Gotseff, P.

    2014-02-01

    A new 10-km hourly solar resource product was created for India. This product was created using satellite radiances from the Meteosat series of satellites. The product contains global horizontal irradiances (GHI) and direct normal irradiances (DNI) for the period from 2002 to 2011. An additional solar resource data set covering the period from January 2012 to June 2012 was created solely for validation because this period overlaps ground measurements that were made available from the Indian Ministry of New and Renewable Energy's (MNRE's) National Institute for Solar Energy for five stations that are part of MNRE's solar resource network. These measurements were quality checked using the SERI QC software and used to validate the satellite product. A comparison of the satellite product to the ground measurements for the five stations shows good agreement. This report also presents a comparison of the new version of solar resource data to the previous version, which covered the period from 2002 to 2008.

  14. SAND2014-4277C © Copyright 2013, First...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... DHI, POA 12013 -122013 40 180 11 Central CA 200 Warm temperate; dry, hot summer (CSa) GHI, DHI 12013 -122013 NA NA 12 Central NM 1657 BSk GHI, GHI, POA 12011 - 122011 ...

  15. CONFRRM Solar Energy Resource Data: Data from the Cooperative Network for Renewable Resource Measurements

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Cooperative Network for Renewable Resource Measurements (CONFRRM) is a cooperative effort between NREL and other agencies to conduct long-term solar radiation and wind measurements at selected locations in the United States. CONFRRM expands the geographic coverage of measurement locations and provides high quality data for determining site-specific resources, as well as data for the validation and testing of models to predict available resources based on meteorological or satellite data. Twelve sites are currently active in the CONFRRM network. CONFRRM complements and provides additional geographic coverage to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) Integrated Surface Irradiance Study (ISIS) network. Solar data elements measured and reported by the CONFRRM sites include global horizontal irradiance (GHI), direct normal irradiance (DNI), diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI), and global horizontal irradiance measured with a LI-COR pyranometer. Meteorological data include air temperature, relative humidity, pressure, wind speed, wind direction and peak wind speed. Data logger temperature and battery voltage may also be reported. Prior to January 1, 1996, five CONFRRM sites together with South Caroline State College in Orangeburg, South Carolina, made up the Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU) Solar Radiation Monitoring Network, located in the Southeastern United States. In January 1997 the HBCU sites became part of CONFRRM.

  16. Validation of the National Solar Radiation Database (NSRDB) (2005-2012): Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengupta, Manajit; Weekley, Andrew; Habte, Aron; Lopez, Anthony; Molling, Christine

    2015-09-15

    Publicly accessible, high-quality, long-term, satellite-based solar resource data is foundational and critical to solar technologies to quantify system output predictions and deploy solar energy technologies in grid-tied systems. Solar radiation models have been in development for more than three decades. For many years, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed and/or updated such models through the National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB). There are two widely used approaches to derive solar resource data from models: (a) an empirical approach that relates ground-based observations to satellite measurements and (b) a physics-based approach that considers the radiation received at the satellite and creates retrievals to estimate clouds and surface radiation. Although empirical methods have been traditionally used for computing surface radiation, the advent of faster computing has made operational physical models viable. The Global Solar Insolation Project (GSIP) is an operational physical model from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) that computes global horizontal irradiance (GHI) using the visible and infrared channel measurements from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) system. GSIP uses a two-stage scheme that first retrieves cloud properties and then uses those properties in the Satellite Algorithm for Surface Radiation Budget (SASRAB) model to calculate surface radiation. NREL, the University of Wisconsin, and NOAA have recently collaborated to adapt GSIP to create a high temporal and spatial resolution data set. The product initially generates the cloud properties using the AVHRR Pathfinder Atmospheres-Extended (PATMOS-x) algorithms [3], whereas the GHI is calculated using SASRAB. Then NREL implements accurate and high-resolution input parameters such as aerosol optical depth (AOD) and precipitable water vapor (PWV) to compute direct normal irradiance (DNI) using the DISC model. The AOD and

  17. File:SWERA-247.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    navigation, search File File history File usage Solar: monthly global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km resolution for Bangladesh from NREL Size of this preview: 776 600...

  18. Building America Case Study: Greenbelt Homes, Inc. Pilot Retrofit...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Greenbelt Homes, Inc. Pilot Retrofit Project Greenbelt, Maryland PROJECT INFORMATION Construction: Existing homes Builder: Greenbelt Homes, Inc., ghi.coop Type: Single-family, ...

  19. File:SWERA-277.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    horizontal (GHI) map at 40km resolution for Southern Mexico (Oaxaca, Veracruz, and Chiapas) from NREL Size of this preview: 776 600 pixels. Full resolution (1,650 ...

  20. File:NREL-africa-glo.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Description Africa - Annual Global Horizontal Solar Radiation (PDF) Sources National Renewable Energy Laboratory Authors Donna Heimiller Related Technologies Solar, Solar-GHI,...

  1. End-to-End Network Tuning Sends Data Screaming from NERSC to...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The GEFS weather forecast model used in this project is the same as that which is currently run in real time by the National Weather Service. In the reforecast project, GEFS ...

  2. File:SWERA-202.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    File File history File usage Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km resolution for Sri Lanka from NREL Size of this preview: 776 600...

  3. File:SWERA-253.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    File File history File usage Solar: monthly and annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 40km resolution for Nepal from NREL Size of this preview: 776 600 pixels....

  4. File:SWERA-212.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar: monthly global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 10km resolution for Central America from NREL Size of this preview: 776 600 pixels. Full resolution (1,650 1,275...

  5. West African Clean Energy Gateway-Resource Assessment | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    a grid cell. It follows then that each grid cell would only have one value for solar resource, which represents the annual average solar resource (GHI, for PV analysis)...

  6. Renewable Energy Technical Potential Toolkit | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    cell would only have one value for solar resource, which represents the annual average solar resource (GHI, for PV analysis) for the entire area covered by the grid cell....

  7. File:SWERA-159.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    File usage Solar: monthly average global horizontal (GHI) map at 40km resolution for Cuba from NREL Size of this preview: 776 600 pixels. Full resolution (1,650 1,275...

  8. File:SWERA-214.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    usage Solar: annual average global horizontal (GHI) GIS data at 10km resolution for Cuba from SUNY Size of this preview: 776 600 pixels. Full resolution (1,650 1,275...

  9. Evaluation of global horizontal irradiance to plane-of-array irradiance models at locations across the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lave, Matthew; Hayes, William; Pohl, Andrew; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2015-02-02

    We report an evaluation of the accuracy of combinations of models that estimate plane-of-array (POA) irradiance from measured global horizontal irradiance (GHI). This estimation involves two steps: 1) decomposition of GHI into direct and diffuse horizontal components and 2) transposition of direct and diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI) to POA irradiance. Measured GHI and coincident measured POA irradiance from a variety of climates within the United States were used to evaluate combinations of decomposition and transposition models. A few locations also had DHI measurements, allowing for decoupled analysis of either the decomposition or the transposition models alone. Results suggest that decomposition models had mean bias differences (modeled versus measured) that vary with climate. Transposition model mean bias differences depended more on the model than the location. Lastly, when only GHI measurements were available and combinations of decomposition and transposition models were considered, the smallest mean bias differences were typically found for combinations which included the Hay/Davies transposition model.

  10. Maryland's 8th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    8th congressional district Arborview Capital Clean Currents Global Environment Fund GEF National Interest Security Company NISC Formerly Technology Management Services TMS Inc...

  11. Annual Monitoring Report Interactive Map | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    inception, that are not currently under implementation, data is extracted from the GEF's Project Management Information System (PMIS). The main concept behind the map is to create...

  12. Ghana-NREL Rural Electrification | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    electrification project in Ghana in cooperation with UNDP and GEF. NREL also piloted a business model for providing energy services in rural areas of Ghana.1 References ...

  13. Burkina Faso-National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  14. Djibouti-National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme (NAP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  15. Central African Republic-National Adaptation Plan Global Support...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  16. Niger-National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme (NAP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  17. Rwanda-National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme (NAP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  18. Lesotho-National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme (NAP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  19. Liberia-National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme (NAP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  20. Malawi-National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme (NAP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  1. Comoros-National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme (NAP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  2. Tanzania-National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme (NAP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  3. Bangladesh-National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  4. The Gambia-National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  5. Democratic Republic of Congo-National Adaptation Plan Global...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  6. Uganda-National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme (NAP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  7. Mali-National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme (NAP-GSP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  8. Mozambique-National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  9. Mauritania-National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  10. Sudan-National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme (NAP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  11. Cambodia-National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme (NAP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  12. Benin-National Adaptation Plan Global Support Programme (NAP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Global Environment Facility (GEF), United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), Global Water Partnership (GWP), German Society for International Cooperation...

  13. Promotion of Wind Energy: Lessons Learned from International...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wind Energy: Lessons Learned from International Experience and United Nations Development Programme Global Environment Facility (UNDP-GEF) Projects Jump to: navigation, search Tool...

  14. Gateway:Coordinated Low Emissions Assistance Network (CLEAN)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Center ClimateTechWiki ESMAP Low Carbon Development Knowledge Products and E-Learning IEA Policies and Measures Database GEF-Knowledge Management Initiative REN21...

  15. Memorandum, Interim Procedures During Temporary Suspension of Electronic Questionnaires for Investigations Processing System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    On July 2, 2015, the Director of OPM and the Director of National Intelligence (DNI) jointly issued a memorandum outlining temporary equivalencies to facilitate hiring, credentialing and eligibility determinations during the period of e-QIP suspension.

  16. Impact of Aerosols on Atmospheric Attenuation Loss in Central Receiver Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sengupta, M.; Wagner, M. J.

    2011-08-01

    Atmospheric attenuation loss between the heliostat field and receiver has been recognized as a significant source of loss in Central Receiver Systems. In clear sky situations, extinction of Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) is primarily by aerosols in the atmosphere. When aerosol loading is high close to the surface the attenuation loss between heliostat and receivers is significantly influenced by the amount of aerosols present on a particular day. This study relates measured DNI to aerosol optical depths close to the surface of the earth. The model developed in the paper uses only measured DNI to estimate the attenuation between heliostat and receiver in a central receiver system. The requirement that only a DNI measurement is available potentially makes the model a candidate for widespread use.

  17. File:SWERA-213.pdf | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    File usage Solar: annual average direct normal (DNI) GIS data at 10km resolution for Cuba from SUNY Size of this preview: 776 600 pixels. Full resolution (1,650 1,275...

  18. Department of Energy to Host ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (R-TN) U.S. Senator Lisa Murkowski (R-AK) U.S. Senator Mark Udall (D-CO) Rep. Steve Israel (D-NY) Find more information and register for the ARPA-E Energy Innovation Summit. ...

  19. Sub-Hour Solar Data for Power System Modeling From Static Spatial Variability Analysis: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hummon, M.; Ibanez, E.; Brinkman, G.; Lew, D.

    2012-12-01

    High penetration renewable integration studies need high quality solar power data with spatial-temporal correlations that are representative of a real system. This paper will summarize the research relating sequential point-source sub-hour global horizontal irradiance (GHI) values to static, spatially distributed GHI values. This research led to the development of an algorithm for generating coherent sub-hour datasets that span distances ranging from 10 km to 4,000 km. The algorithm, in brief, generates synthetic GHI values at an interval of one-minute, for a specific location, using SUNY/Clean Power Research, satellite-derived, hourly irradiance values for the nearest grid cell to that location and grid cells within 40 km.

  20. Clear Sky Detection Paper for Solar Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    J. Reno and C. W. Hansen, "Identification of Periods of Clear Sky Irradiance in Time Series of GHI Measurements," Renewable Energy, 2016. Preprint. DOI: 10.1016/j.renene.2015.12.031 1 Identification of Periods of Clear Sky Irradiance in Time Series of GHI Measurements Matthew J. Reno * and Clifford W. Hansen Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185-1033, USA *Corresponding author. E-mail address: mjreno@sandia.gov TEL.: +1 505 844 3087; Fax: +1 505 844 7231

  1. Evaluation of global horizontal irradiance to plane-of-array irradiance models at locations across the United States

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lave, Matthew; Hayes, William; Pohl, Andrew; Hansen, Clifford W.

    2015-02-02

    We report an evaluation of the accuracy of combinations of models that estimate plane-of-array (POA) irradiance from measured global horizontal irradiance (GHI). This estimation involves two steps: 1) decomposition of GHI into direct and diffuse horizontal components and 2) transposition of direct and diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI) to POA irradiance. Measured GHI and coincident measured POA irradiance from a variety of climates within the United States were used to evaluate combinations of decomposition and transposition models. A few locations also had DHI measurements, allowing for decoupled analysis of either the decomposition or the transposition models alone. Results suggest that decompositionmore » models had mean bias differences (modeled versus measured) that vary with climate. Transposition model mean bias differences depended more on the model than the location. Lastly, when only GHI measurements were available and combinations of decomposition and transposition models were considered, the smallest mean bias differences were typically found for combinations which included the Hay/Davies transposition model.« less

  2. Methane recovery from landfill in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaolai, L.

    1996-12-31

    GEF has approved a special project for a demonstration project for Methane Recovery from the Urban Refuse Land Fill. This paper will introduce the possibility of GHG reduction from the landfill in China, describe the activities of the GEF project, and the priorities for international cooperation in this field. The Global Environment Facility (GEF) approved the project, China Promoting Methane Recovery and Unlization from Mixed Municipal Refuse, at its Council meeting in last April. This project is the first one supported by international organization in this field.

  3. GE科技为F1卡特汉姆车队添动力 | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GEF1 Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to ...

  4. Secondary PDZ domain-binding site on class B plexins enhances...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Secondary PDZ domain-binding site on class B plexins enhances the affinity for PDZ-RhoGEF Authors: Pascoe, Heath G. ; Gutowski, Stephen ; Chen, Hua ; Brautigam, Chad A. ; ...

  5. insert 52005.indd

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) is a US 9.3 million Project, co-financed with US6.8 million from the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and more than 25...

  6. Brazil-World Bank Climate Projects | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    1.1 Sao Paulo Metro Line 5 Project 1.2 BR-GEF Sustainable Transport and Air Quality Project (STAQ) 1.3 First Programmatic Development Policy Loan for Sustainable...

  7. PV Derived Data for Predicting Performance; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marion, Bill

    2015-09-14

    A method is described for providing solar irradiance data for modeling PV performance by using measured PV performance data and back-solving for the unknown direct normal irradiance (DNI) and diffuse horizontal irradiance (DHI), which can then be used to model the performance of PV systems of any size, PV array tilt, or PV array azimuth orientation. Ideally situated for using the performance data from PV modules with micro-inverters, the PV module operating current is used to determine the global tilted irradiance (GTI), and a separation model is then used to determine the DNI and DHI from the GTI.

  8. Greenbelt Homes Pilot Energy Efficiency Program Phase 1 Summary: Existing Conditions and Baseline Energy Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiehagen, J.; Del Bianco, M.; Wood, A.

    2013-02-01

    A multi-year pilot energy efficiency retrofit project has been undertaken by Greenbelt Homes, Inc, (GHI) a 1,566 co-operative of circa 1930 and '40 homes. The three predominate construction methods of the townhomes in the community are materials common to the area and climate zone including 8" CMU block, wood frame with brick veneer and wood frame with vinyl siding. GHI has established a pilot project that will serve as a basis for decision making for the roll out of a decade-long community upgrade program that will incorporate energy efficiency to the building envelope and equipment with the modernization of other systems like plumbing, mechanical equipment, and cladding.

  9. Greenbelt Homes Pilot Energy Efficiency Program Phase 1 Summary. Existing Conditions and Baseline Energy Use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiehagen, J.; Del Bianco, M.; Wood, A.

    2013-02-01

    A multi-year pilot energy efficiency retrofit project has been undertaken by Greenbelt Homes, Inc, (GHI) a 1,566 co-operative of circa 1930 and '40 homes. The three predominate construction methods of the townhomes in the community are materials common to the area and climate zone including 8” CMU block, wood frame with brick veneer and wood frame with vinyl siding. GHI has established a pilot project that will serve as a basis for decision making for the roll out of a decade-long community upgrade program that will incorporate energy efficiency to the building envelope and equipment with the modernization of other systems like plumbing, mechanical equipment, and cladding.

  10. EC Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Periods of Clear Sky Irradiance in Time Series of GHI Measurements admin 2016-04-18T20:58:24+00:00 Popular Downloads Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems: Final Report of the Florida Solar Energy Center Team (11369 downloads) Modeling System Losses in PVsyst (9347 downloads) Numerical Manufacturing And Design Tool (NuMAD v2.0) for Wind Turbine Blades: User's Guide (7615 downloads) Solar Energy Grid Integration Systems (SEGIS) Proactive Intelligent Advances for Photovoltaic Systems (6677

  11. Building America Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes: Greenbelt Homes,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Inc. Pilot Retrofit Project - Greenbelt, Maryland | Department of Energy Greenbelt Homes, Inc. Pilot Retrofit Project - Greenbelt, Maryland Building America Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes: Greenbelt Homes, Inc. Pilot Retrofit Project - Greenbelt, Maryland This multiyear pilot energy efficiency retrofit project was undertaken by Greenbelt Homes, Inc, (GHI) a 1,566 home cooperative of circa 1930 and 1940 homes, to serve as a basis for decision making for the rollout of a

  12. Direct normal irradiance related definitions and applications: The circumsolar issue

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Blanc, P.; Espinar, B.; Geuder, N.; Gueymard, C.; Meyer, R.; Pitz-Paal, R.; Reinhardt, B.; Renne, D.; Segupta, M.; Wald, L.; et al

    2014-10-21

    The direct irradiance received on a plane normal to the sun, called direct normal irradiance (DNI), is of particular relevance to concentrated solar technologies, including concentrating solar thermal plants and concentrated photovoltaic systems. Following various standards from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the DNI definition is related to the irradiance from a small solid angle of the sky, centered on the position of the sun. Half-angle apertures of pyrheliometers measuring DNI have varied over time, up to ≈10°. The current recommendation of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for this half-angle is 2.5°. Solar concentrating collectors have an angular acceptancemore » function that can be significantly narrower, especially for technologies with high concentration ratios. The disagreement between the various interpretations of DNI, from the theoretical definition used in atmospheric physics and radiative transfer modeling to practical definitions corresponding to specific measurements or conversion technologies is significant, especially in the presence of cirrus clouds or large concentration of aerosols. Under such sky conditions, the circumsolar radiation—i.e. the diffuse radiation coming from the vicinity of the sun—contributes significantly to the DNI ground measurement, although some concentrating collectors cannot utilize the bulk of it. These issues have been identified in the EU-funded projects MACC-II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate-Interim Implementation) and SFERA (Solar Facilities for the European Research Area), and have been discussed within a panel of international experts in the framework of the Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC) program of the International Energy Agency’s (IEA’s) Task 46 “Solar Resource Assessment and Forecasting”. In accordance with these discussions, the terms of reference related to DNI are specified here. The important role of circumsolar radiation is

  13. Direct normal irradiance related definitions and applications: The circumsolar issue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanc, P.; Espinar, B.; Geuder, N.; Gueymard, C.; Meyer, R.; Pitz-Paal, R.; Reinhardt, B.; Renne, D.; Segupta, M.; Wald, L.; Wilbert, S.

    2014-10-21

    The direct irradiance received on a plane normal to the sun, called direct normal irradiance (DNI), is of particular relevance to concentrated solar technologies, including concentrating solar thermal plants and concentrated photovoltaic systems. Following various standards from the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the DNI definition is related to the irradiance from a small solid angle of the sky, centered on the position of the sun. Half-angle apertures of pyrheliometers measuring DNI have varied over time, up to ≈10°. The current recommendation of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) for this half-angle is 2.5°. Solar concentrating collectors have an angular acceptance function that can be significantly narrower, especially for technologies with high concentration ratios. The disagreement between the various interpretations of DNI, from the theoretical definition used in atmospheric physics and radiative transfer modeling to practical definitions corresponding to specific measurements or conversion technologies is significant, especially in the presence of cirrus clouds or large concentration of aerosols. Under such sky conditions, the circumsolar radiation—i.e. the diffuse radiation coming from the vicinity of the sun—contributes significantly to the DNI ground measurement, although some concentrating collectors cannot utilize the bulk of it. These issues have been identified in the EU-funded projects MACC-II (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate-Interim Implementation) and SFERA (Solar Facilities for the European Research Area), and have been discussed within a panel of international experts in the framework of the Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC) program of the International Energy Agency’s (IEA’s) Task 46 “Solar Resource Assessment and Forecasting”. In accordance with these discussions, the terms of reference related to DNI are specified here. The important role of circumsolar radiation is evidenced

  14. Cool covered sky-splitting spectrum-splitting FK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohedano, Rubén; Chaves, Julio; Falicoff, Waqidi; Hernandez, Maikel; Sorgato, Simone; Miñano, Juan C.; Benitez, Pablo; Buljan, Marina

    2014-09-26

    Placing a plane mirror between the primary lens and the receiver in a Fresnel Köhler (FK) concentrator gives birth to a quite different CPV system where all the high-tech components sit on a common plane, that of the primary lens panels. The idea enables not only a thinner device (a half of the original) but also a low cost 1-step manufacturing process for the optics, automatic alignment of primary and secondary lenses, and cell/wiring protection. The concept is also compatible with two different techniques to increase the module efficiency: spectrum splitting between a 3J and a BPC Silicon cell for better usage of Direct Normal Irradiance DNI, and sky splitting to harvest the energy of the diffuse radiation and higher energy production throughout the year. Simple calculations forecast the module would convert 45% of the DNI into electricity.

  15. DOE/EIA-0376(2014)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    376(2014) June 2016 State Energy Price and Expenditure Estimates 1970 Through 2014 2014 Price and Expenditure Summary Tables S U M M A R I E S U.S. Energy Information Administration | State Energy Data 2014: Prices and Expenditures 3 Table E1. Primary Energy, Electricity, and Total Energy Price Estimates, 2014 (Dollars per Million Btu) State Primary Energy Electric Power Sector g,h Retail Electricity Total Energy g,i Coal Natural Gas a Petroleum Nuclear Fuel Biomass Total g,h,i Distillate Fuel

  16. U N I T E D S T A T E S U.S. Energy Information Administration | State Energy Data 2014: Prices and Expenditures

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Prices and Expenditures 25 Table ET1. Primary Energy, Electricity, and Total Energy Price and Expenditure Estimates, Selected Years, 1970-2014, United States Year Primary Energy Electric Power Sector h,j Retail Electricity Total Energy g,h,i Coal Coal Coke Natural Gas a Petroleum Nuclear Fuel Biomass Total g,h,i,j Coking Coal Steam Coal Total Exports Imports Distillate Fuel Oil Jet Fuel b LPG c Motor Gasoline d Residual Fuel Oil Other e Total Wood and Waste f,g Prices in Dollars per Million Btu

  17. Greenbelt Homes Pilot Program. Summary of Building Envelope Retrofits, Planned HVAC Equipment Upgrades, and Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiehagen, J.; Del Bianco, M.; Mallay, D.

    2015-05-22

    The U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Partnership for Home Innovation wrote a report on Phase 1 of the project that summarized a condition assessment of the homes and evaluated retrofit options within the constraints of the cooperative provided by GHI. Phase 2 was completed following monitoring in the 2013–2014 winter season; the results are summarized in this report. Phase 3 upgrades of heating equipment will be implemented in time for the 2014–2015 heating season and are not part of this report.

  18. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Greenbelt Homes, Inc. Pilot Retrofit Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-06-01

    In the fall of 2010, a multiyear pilot energy efficiency retrofit project was undertaken by Greenbelt Homes, Inc., (GHI) a 1,566 home cooperative of circa 1930 and 1940 homes in Greenbelt, Maryland. GHI established this pilot project to serve as a basis for decision making for the rollout of a community-wide upgrade program that will incorporate energy efficiency improvements to the building envelope and mechanical equipment. With the community upgrade fully funded by the cooperative through their membership without outside subsidies, this project presents a unique opportunity to evaluate and prioritize the wide range of benefits of high-performance retrofits based on member experience with and acceptance of the retrofit measures implemented during the pilot project. Addressing the complex interactions between benefits, trade-offs, construction methods, project management implications, realistic upfront costs, financing, and other considerations, serves as a case study for energy retrofit projects that include high-performance technologies based on the long-term value to the homeowner. The pilot project focused on identifying the added costs and energy-savings benefits of improvements. Phase 1—baseline evaluation for a representative set of 28 homes sited in seven buildings; Phase 2—installation of the building envelope improvements and continued monitoring of the energy consumption for the heating season; Phase 3—energy simulations supporting recommendations for HVAC and water heating upgrades.

  19. Building America Case Study: Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes: Greenbelt Homes, Inc. Pilot Retrofit Program; Whole-House Solutions for Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-06-01

    In the fall of 2010, a multiyear pilot energy efficiency retrofit project was undertaken by Greenbelt Homes, Inc, (GHI) a 1,566 home cooperative of circa 1930 and 1940 homes in Greenbelt, Maryland. GHI established this pilot project to serve as a basis for decision making for the rollout of a decade-long community-wide upgrade program that will incorporate energy efficiency improvements to the building envelope and mechanical equipment. With the community upgrade fully funded by the cooperative through their membership without outside subsidies, this project presents a unique opportunity to evaluate and prioritize the wide-range of benefits of high-performance retrofits based on member experience with and acceptance of the retrofit measures implemented during the pilot project. Addressing the complex interactions between benefits, trade-offs, construction methods, project management implications, realistic upfront costs, financing, and other considerations, serves as a case study for energy retrofit projects to include high-performance technologies based on the long-term value to the homeowner. The pilot project focused on identifying the added costs and energy savings benefits of improvements. Phase 1: baseline evaluation for a representative set of 28 homes sited in seven buildings; Phase 2: installation of the building envelope improvements and continued monitoring of the energy consumption for the heating season and energy simulations supporting recommendations for HVAC and water heating upgrades to be implemented in Phase 3.

  20. Global horizontal irradiance clear sky models : implementation and analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Hansen, Clifford W.; Reno, Matthew J.

    2012-03-01

    Clear sky models estimate the terrestrial solar radiation under a cloudless sky as a function of the solar elevation angle, site altitude, aerosol concentration, water vapor, and various atmospheric conditions. This report provides an overview of a number of global horizontal irradiance (GHI) clear sky models from very simple to complex. Validation of clear-sky models requires comparison of model results to measured irradiance during clear-sky periods. To facilitate validation, we present a new algorithm for automatically identifying clear-sky periods in a time series of GHI measurements. We evaluate the performance of selected clear-sky models using measured data from 30 different sites, totaling about 300 site-years of data. We analyze the variation of these errors across time and location. In terms of error averaged over all locations and times, we found that complex models that correctly account for all the atmospheric parameters are slightly more accurate than other models, but, primarily at low elevations, comparable accuracy can be obtained from some simpler models. However, simpler models often exhibit errors that vary with time of day and season, whereas the errors for complex models vary less over time.

  1. Greenbelt Homes Pilot Program: Summary of Building Envelope Retrofits, Planned HVAC Equipment Upgrades, and Energy Savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiehagen, J.; Del Bianco, M.; Mallay, D.

    2015-05-01

    In the fall of 2010, a multiyear pilot energy efficiency retrofit project was undertaken by Greenbelt Homes, Inc, (GHI) a 1,566 home cooperative of circa 1930 and 1940 homes in Greenbelt, Maryland. GHI established this pilot project to serve as a basis for decision making for the rollout of a decade-long community-wide upgrade program that will incorporate energy efficiency improvements to the building envelope and mechanical equipment. It presents a unique opportunity to evaluate and prioritize the wide-range of benefits of high-performance retrofits based on member experience with and acceptance of the retrofit measures implemented during the pilot project. Addressing the complex interactions between benefits, trade-offs, construction methods, project management implications, realistic upfront costs, financing, and other considerations, serves as a case study for energy retrofit projects to include high-performance technologies based on the long-term value to the homeowner. The pilot project focused on identifying the added costs and energy savings benefits of improvements.

  2. Current Status of Concentrator Photovoltaic (CPV) Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philipps, S. P.; Bett, A. W.; Horowitz, K.; Kurtz, S.

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the current status of the market and technology for concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) cells and modules. Significant progress in CPV has been achieved, including record efficiencies for modules (36.7%) and cells (46%), as well as growth of large field installations in recent years. CPV technology may also have the potential to be cost-competitive on a levelized cost of energy (LCOE) basis in regions of high direct normal irradiance (DNI). The study includes an overview of all installations larger than 1 MW, information on companies currently active in the CPV field, efficiency data, and estimates of the LCOE in different scenarios.

  3. S U M M A R I E S U.S. Energy Information Administration | State Energy Data 2014: Prices and Expenditures

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Prices and Expenditures 10 Table E8. Primary Energy, Electricity, and Total Energy Expenditure Estimates, 2014 (Million Dollars) State Primary Energy Electric Power Sector g,h Retail Electricity Total Energy g,i Coal Natural Gas a Petroleum Nuclear Fuel Biomass Total g,h,i Distillate Fuel Oil Jet Fuel b LPG c Motor Gasoline d Residual Fuel Oil Other e Total Wood and Waste f Alabama 1,677.3 3,521.2 3,718.3 283.1 226.6 8,039.9 97.2 713.3 13,078.4 344.2 498.0 19,119.2 -3,336.0 8,363.3 24,146.5

  4. S U M M A R I E S U.S. Energy Information Administration | State Energy Data 2014: Prices and Expenditures

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    3 Table E1. Primary Energy, Electricity, and Total Energy Price Estimates, 2014 (Dollars per Million Btu) State Primary Energy Electric Power Sector g,h Retail Electricity Total Energy g,i Coal Natural Gas a Petroleum Nuclear Fuel Biomass Total g,h,i Distillate Fuel Oil Jet Fuel b LPG c Motor Gasoline d Residual Fuel Oil Other e Total Wood and Waste f Alabama 2.91 5.81 25.88 19.92 26.79 25.88 12.59 28.08 25.64 0.80 3.43 8.43 2.60 27.20 18.64 Alaska 4.87 6.99 28.53 20.97 27.65 33.67 18.87 19.35

  5. Direct imaging of neural currents using ultra-low field magnetic resonance techniques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Volegov, Petr L.; Matlashov, Andrei N.; Mosher, John C.; Espy, Michelle A.; Kraus, Jr., Robert H.

    2009-08-11

    Using resonant interactions to directly and tomographically image neural activity in the human brain using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques at ultra-low field (ULF), the present inventors have established an approach that is sensitive to magnetic field distributions local to the spin population in cortex at the Larmor frequency of the measurement field. Because the Larmor frequency can be readily manipulated (through varying B.sub.m), one can also envision using ULF-DNI to image the frequency distribution of the local fields in cortex. Such information, taken together with simultaneous acquisition of MEG and ULF-NMR signals, enables non-invasive exploration of the correlation between local fields induced by neural activity in cortex and more `distant` measures of brain activity such as MEG and EEG.

  6. Correlations in Characteristic Data of Concentrator Photovoltaics (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweet, C.; Bosco, N.; Kurtz, S.

    2011-02-01

    This study is motivated by a reported 1-2% infant mortality rate in concentrator photovoltaic cell assemblies. Approximately 650 bare III-V multi-junction PV cells were initially characterized via electroluminescence imaging and both light and dark current-voltage responses were recorded. The cells were then packaged into receivers and their IV response again evaluated both before and after an outdoor high concentration exposure of at least four hours above 750 DNI. Correlations exist between the initial dark IV characteristic and artifacts found in the EL image. Initial results also suggest that artifacts observed in the bare cell may serve as an indicator for early on-sun degradation, though may not be able to predict the infant mortality population.

  7. Crystal Structure of the C-terminal Domain of the Subunit of Human Translation Initiation Factor eIF2B

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, J.; Jia, M; Zheng, C; Wang, M; Gao, F; Xu, H; Gong, W

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF2B, the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for eIF2, catalyzes conversion of eIF2 {center_dot} GDP to eIF2 {center_dot} GTP. The eIF2B is composed of five subunits, {alpha}, {beta}, {gamma}, {delta} and {var_epsilon}, within which the {var_epsilon} subunit is responsible for catalyzing the guanine exchange reaction. Here we present the crystal structure of the C-terminal domain of human eIF2B{var_epsilon} (eIF2B{var_epsilon}-CTD) at 2.0-{angstrom} resolution. The structure resembles a HEAT motif and three charge-rich areas on its surface can be identified. When compared to yeast eIF2B{var_epsilon}-CTD, one area involves highly conserved AA boxes while the other two are only partially conserved. In addition, the previously reported mutations in human eIF2B{var_epsilon}-CTD, which are related to the loss of the GEF activity and human VWM disease, have been discussed. Based on the structure, most of such mutations tend to destabilize the HEAT motif.

  8. Potential options to reduce GHG emissions in Venezuela

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pereira, N.; Bonduki, Y.; Perdomo, M.

    1996-12-31

    The Government of Venezuela ratified the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in December, 1994. The Convention requires all parties to develop and publish national inventories of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) as well as national plans to reduce or control emissions, taking into account their common but differentiated responsibilities and their specific national and regional development priorities, objectives, and circumstances. Within this context, the Ministry of Environment and Renewable Natural Resources and the Ministry of Energy and Mines developed the `Venezuelan Case-Study to Address Climate Change`. The study was initiated in October 1993, with the financial and technical assistance of the Government of United States, through the U.S. Country Studies Program (USCSP), and the Global Environment Facility (GEF), through the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP).

  9. Assessment of fission product yields data needs in nuclear reactor applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kern, K.; Becker, M.; Broeders, C.

    2012-07-01

    Studies on the build-up of fission products in fast reactors have been performed, with particular emphasis on the effects related to the physics of the nuclear fission process. Fission product yields, which are required for burn-up calculations, depend on the proton and neutron number of the target nucleus as well as on the incident neutron energy. Evaluated nuclear data on fission product yields are available for all relevant target nuclides in reactor applications. However, the description of their energy dependence in evaluated data is still rather rudimentary, which is due to the lack of experimental fast fission data and reliable physical models. Additionally, physics studies of evaluated JEFF-3.1.1 fission yields data have shown potential improvements, especially for various fast fission data sets of this evaluation. In recent years, important progress in the understanding of the fission process has been made, and advanced model codes are currently being developed. This paper deals with the semi-empirical approach to the description of the fission process, which is used in the GEF code being developed by K.-H. Schmidt and B. Jurado on behalf of the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, and with results from the corresponding author's diploma thesis. An extended version of the GEF code, supporting the calculation of spectrum weighted fission product yields, has been developed. It has been applied to the calculation of fission product yields in the fission rate spectra of a MOX fuelled sodium-cooled fast reactor. Important results are compared to JEFF-3.1.1 data and discussed in this paper. (authors)

  10. Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in motor vehicle fuels and exhaust emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marr, L.C.; Kirchstetter, T.W.; Harley, R.A.; Hammond, S.K.; Miguel, A.H.; Hering, S.V.

    1999-09-15

    Motor vehicles are a significant source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions. Improved understanding of the relationship between fuel composition and PAH emissions is needed to determine whether fuel reformulation is a viable approach for reducing PAH emissions. PAH concentrations were quantified in gasoline and diesel fuel samples collected in summer 1997 in northern California. Naphthalene was the predominant PAH in both fuels, with concentrations of up to 2,600 mg L{sup {minus}1} in gasoline and 1,600 mg L{sup {minus}1} in diesel fuel. Particle-phase PAH size distributions and exhaust emission factors were measured in two bores of a roadway tunnel. Emission factors were determined separately for light-duty vehicles and for heavy-duty diesel trucks, based on measurements of PAHs, CO, and CO{sub 2}. Particle-phase emission factors, expressed per unit mass of fuel burned, ranged up to 21 {micro}g kg{sup {minus}1} for benzo[ghi]perylene for light-duty vehicles and up to {approximately} 1,000 {micro}g kg{sup {minus}1} for pyrene for heavy-duty diesel vehicles. Light-duty vehicles were found to be a significant source of heavier (four- and five-ring) PAHs, whereas heavy-duty diesel engines were the dominant source of three-ring PAHs, such as fluoranthene and pyrene. While no correlation between heavy-duty diesel truck PAH emission factors and PAH concentrations in diesel fuel was found, light-duty vehicle PAH emission factors were found to be correlated with PAH concentrations in gasoline, suggesting that gasoline reformulation may be effective in reducing PAH emissions from motor vehicles.

  11. Photovoltaic concentrator module improvements study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, S.L.; Kerschen, K.A. ); Hutchison, G. ); Nowlan, M.J. )

    1991-08-01

    This report presents results of a project to design and fabricate an improved photovoltaic concentrator module. Using previous work as a baseline, this study conducted analyses and testing to select major module components and design features. The lens parquet and concentrator solar cell were selected from the highest performing, available components. A single 185X point-focus module was fabricated by the project team and tested at Sandia. Major module characteristics include a 6 by 4 compression-molded acrylic lens parquet (0.737 m{sup 2} area), twenty-four 0.2 ohms-cm, FZ, p-Si solar cells (1.56 cm{sup 2} area) soldered to ceramic substrates and copper heat spreaders, and an aluminized steel housing with corrugated bottom. This project marked the first attempt to use prismatic covers on solar cells in a high-concentration, point-focus application. Cells with 15 percent metallization were obtained, but problems with the fabrication and placement of prismatic covers on these cells lead to the decision not to use covers in the prototype module. Cell assembly fabrication, module fabrication, and module optical design activities are presented here. Test results are also presented for bare cells, cell assemblies, and module. At operating conditions of 981 watts/m{sup 2} DNI and an estimated cell temperature of 65{degrees}C, the module demonstrated an efficiency of 13.9 percent prior to stressed environmental exposure. 12 refs., 56 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Structural Evidence for a Sequential Release Mechanism for Activation of Heterotrimeric G Proteins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kapoor, Neeraj; Menon, Santosh T.; Chauhan, Radha; Sachdev, Pallavi; Sakmar, Thomas P.

    2010-01-12

    Heptahelical G-protein (heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein)-coupled receptors couple to heterotrimeric G proteins to relay extracellular signals to intracellular signaling networks, but the molecular mechanism underlying guanosine 5'-diphosphate (GDP) release by the G protein {alpha}-subunit is not well understood. Amino acid substitutions in the conserved {alpha}5 helix of Gi, which extends from the C-terminal region to the nucleotide-binding pocket, cause dramatic increases in basal (receptor-independent) GDP release rates. For example, mutant G{alpha}{sub i1}-T329A shows an 18-fold increase in basal GDP release rate and, when expressed in culture, it causes a significant decrease in forskolin-stimulated cAMP accumulation. The crystal structure of G{alpha}{sub i1}-T329A {center_dot} GDP shows substantial conformational rearrangement of the switch I region and additional striking alterations of side chains lining the catalytic pocket that disrupt the Mg{sup +2} coordination sphere and dislodge bound Mg{sup +2}. We propose a 'sequential release' mechanism whereby a transient conformational change in the {alpha}5 helix alters switch I to induce GDP release. Interestingly, this mechanistic model for heterotrimeric G protein activation is similar to that suggested for the activation of the plant small G protein Rop4 by RopGEF8.

  13. Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) Data from the National Renewable Energy Library and the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The SWERA Programme provides easy access to credible renewable energy data to stimulate investment in, and development of, renewable energy technologies. The Solar and Wind Energy Resource Assessment (SWERA) started in 2001 to advance the large-scale use of renewable energy technologies by increasing the availability and accessibility of high-quality solar and wind resource information. SWERA began as a pilot project with funding from the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and managed by the United Nations Environment Programme's (UNEP) Division of Technology, Industry and Economics (DTIE) in collaboration with more than 25 partners around the world. With the success of the project in 13 pilot countries SWERA expanded in 2006 into a full programme. Its expanded mission is to provide high quality information on renewable energy resources for countries and regions around the world, along with the tools needed to apply these data in ways that facilitate renewable energy policies and investments.[from the SWERA Guide at http://swera.unep.net/index.php?id=sweraguide_chp1] DOE and, in particular, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, has been a functioning partner from the beginning. NREL was part of the original technical team involved in mapping, database, and GIS activities. Solar, wind, and meteorological data for selected countries can be accessed through a variety of different tools and interfaces.

  14. Production, Service and Trade Enterprise EKOREX Co. Ltd.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wlodkowski, A.

    1995-12-31

    In the first period of its activity the business employed skilled and experienced specialists from the ex-Military College for Army Chemical Engineers in Cracow; therefore, the enterprise dealt chiefly with the elimination of environmental contamination. Nowadays, the enterprise`s operational range comprises: consulting and training services related with ecology; study on environmental contamination; participation in the US program of low emission elimination in Cracow; designing, consulting in the realization of projects {open_quotes}GEF{close_quotes} (Global Environmental Facility); designing, construction, servicing, operating the sewerage and water treatment plants, boiler-houses, incinerators etc.; and designing of heat networks, exchanger junctions, central heating and household hot water installations. Since 1991 employees have individually participated in making the program and in testing boilers and fuels verified in the boiler houses covered by the Polish - US program of reduction of low emission sources in Cracow. We have actively joined the program of elimination of heating network boiler houses (industrial and local) by designing (for the Cracow cogeneration plant and MPEC) new connections among some structures and the municiple thermal distribution network and exchangers stations. In 1994, 47 such designs were made and have been working on successive projects to be carried out in Cracow.

  15. Shift in the Equilibrium between On and Off States of the Allosteric Switch in Ras-GppNHp Affected by Small Molecules and Bulk Solvent Composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holzapfel, Genevieve; Buhrman, Greg; Mattos, Carla

    2012-08-31

    Ras GTPase cycles between its active GTP-bound form promoted by GEFs and its inactive GDP-bound form promoted by GAPs to affect the control of various cellular functions. It is becoming increasingly apparent that subtle regulation of the GTP-bound active state may occur through promotion of substates mediated by an allosteric switch mechanism that induces a disorder to order transition in switch II upon ligand binding at an allosteric site. We show with high-resolution structures that calcium acetate and either dithioerythritol (DTE) or dithiothreitol (DTT) soaked into H-Ras-GppNHp crystals in the presence of a moderate amount of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) can selectively shift the equilibrium to the 'on' state, where the active site appears to be poised for catalysis (calcium acetate), or to what we call the 'ordered off' state, which is associated with an anticatalytic conformation (DTE or DTT). We also show that the equilibrium is reversible in our crystals and dependent on the nature of the small molecule present. Calcium acetate binding in the allosteric site stabilizes the conformation observed in the H-Ras-GppNHp/NOR1A complex, and PEG, DTE, and DTT stabilize the anticatalytic conformation observed in the complex between the Ras homologue Ran and Importin-{beta}. The small molecules are therefore selecting biologically relevant conformations in the crystal that are sampled by the disordered switch II in the uncomplexed GTP-bound form of H-Ras. In the presence of a large amount of PEG, the ordered off conformation predominates, whereas in solution, in the absence of PEG, switch regions appear to remain disordered in what we call the off state, unable to bind DTE.

  16. Brayton-Cycle Baseload Power Tower CSP System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Bruce

    2013-12-31

    The primary objectives of Phase 2 of this Project were: 1. Engineer, fabricate, and conduct preliminary testing on a low-pressure, air-heating solar receiver capable of powering a microturbine system to produce 300kWe while the sun is shining while simultaneously storing enough energy thermally to power the system for up to 13 hours thereafter. 2. Cycle-test a high-temperature super alloy, Haynes HR214, to determine its efficacy for the system’s high-temperature heat exchanger. 3. Engineer the thermal energy storage system This Phase 2 followed Wilson’s Phase 1, which primarily was an engineering feasibility study to determine a practical and innovative approach to a full Brayton-cycle system configuration that could meet DOE’s targets. Below is a summary table of the DOE targets with Wilson’s Phase 1 Project results. The results showed that a Brayton system with an innovative (low pressure) solar receiver with ~13 hours of dry (i.e., not phase change materials or molten salts but rather firebrick, stone, or ceramics) has the potential to meet or exceed DOE targets. Such systems would consist of pre-engineered, standardized, factory-produced modules to minimize on-site costs while driving down costs through mass production. System sizes most carefully analyzed were in the range of 300 kWe to 2 MWe. Such systems would also use off-the-shelf towers, blowers, piping, microturbine packages, and heliostats. Per DOE’s instructions, LCOEs are based on the elevation and DNI levels of Daggett, CA, for a 100 MWe power plant following 2 GWe of factory production of the various system components. Success criteria DOE targets Wilson system LCOE DOE’s gas price $6.75/MBtu 9 cents/kWh 7.7 cents/kWh LCOE Current gas price $4.71/MBtu NA 6.9 cents/kWh Capacity factor 75% (6500hr) 75-100% Solar fraction 85% (5585hr) >5585hr Receiver cost $170/kWe $50/kWe Thermal storage cost $20/kWhth $13/kWhth Heliostat cost $120/m2 $89.8/m2

  17. Cashew nut roasting: Chemical characterization of particulate matter and genotocixity analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliveira Galvo, Marcos Felipe de; Melo Cabral, Thiago de; Andr, Paulo Afonso de; Ftima Andrade, Maria de; Miranda, Regina Maura de; Saldiva, Paulo Hilrio Nascimento; Castro Vasconcellos, Prola de; Batistuzzo de Medeiros, Silvia Regina

    2014-05-01

    Background: Particulate matter (PM) is potentially harmful to health and related to genotoxic events, an increase in the number of hospitalizations and mortality from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. The present study conducted the first characterization of elemental composition and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) analysis of PM, as well as the biomonitoring of genotoxic activity associated to artisanal cashew nut roasting, an important economic and social activity worldwide. Methods: The levels of PM{sub 2.5} and black carbon were also measured by gravimetric analysis and light reflectance. The elemental composition was determined using X-ray fluorescence spectrometry and PAH analysis was carried out by gas chromatographymass spectrometry. Genotoxic activity was measured by the Tradescantia pallida micronucleus bioassay (Trad-MCN). Other biomarkers of DNA damage, such as nucleoplasmic bridges and nuclear fragments, were also quantified. Results: The mean amount of PM{sub 2.5} accumulated in the filters (January 2124.2 g/m{sup 3}; May 1022.2 g/m{sup 3}; September 1291.9 g/m{sup 3}), black carbon (January 363.6 g/m{sup 3}; May 70 g/m{sup 3}; September 69.4 g/m{sup 3}) and concentrations of Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br and Pb were significantly higher than the non-exposed area. Biomass burning tracers K, Cl, and S were the major inorganic compounds found. Benzo[k]fluoranthene, indene[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, phenanthrene and benzo[b]fluoranthene were the most abundant PAHs. Mean benzo[a]pyrene-equivalent carcinogenic power values showed a significant cancer risk. The Trad-MCN bioassay revealed an increase in micronucleus frequency, 27 times higher than the negative control and significantly higher in all the months analyzed, possibly related to the mutagenic PAHs found. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that artisanal cashew nut roasting is a serious occupational problem, with harmful effects on

  18. Infant sex-specific placental cadmium and DNA methylation associations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohanty, April F.; Farin, Fred M.; Bammler, Theo K.; MacDonald, James W.; Afsharinejad, Zahra; Burbacher, Thomas M.; Siscovick, David S.; and others

    2015-04-15

    Background: Recent evidence suggests that maternal cadmium (Cd) burden and fetal growth associations may vary by fetal sex. However, mechanisms contributing to these differences are unknown. Objectives: Among 24 maternal-infant pairs, we investigated infant sex-specific associations between placental Cd and placental genome-wide DNA methylation. Methods: We used ANOVA models to examine sex-stratified associations of placental Cd (dichotomized into high/low Cd using sex-specific Cd median cutoffs) with DNA methylation at each cytosine-phosphate-guanine site or region. Statistical significance was defined using a false discovery rate cutoff (<0.10). Results: Medians of placental Cd among females and males were 5 and 2 ng/g, respectively. Among females, three sites (near ADP-ribosylation factor-like 9 (ARL9), siah E3 ubiquitin protein ligase family member 3 (SIAH3), and heparin sulfate (glucosamine) 3-O-sulfotransferase 4 (HS3ST4) and one region on chromosome 7 (including carnitine O-octanoyltransferase (CROT) and TP5S target 1 (TP53TG1)) were hypomethylated in high Cd placentas. Among males, high placental Cd was associated with methylation of three sites, two (hypomethylated) near MDS1 and EVI1 complex locus (MECOM) and one (hypermethylated) near spalt-like transcription factor 1 (SALL1), and two regions (both hypomethylated, one on chromosome 3 including MECOM and another on chromosome 8 including rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 10 (ARHGEF10). Differentially methylated sites were at or close to transcription start sites of genes involved in cell damage response (SIAH3, HS3ST4, TP53TG1) in females and cell differentiation, angiogenesis and organ development (MECOM, SALL1) in males. Conclusions: Our preliminary study supports infant sex-specific placental Cd-DNA methylation associations, possibly accounting for previously reported differences in Cd-fetal growth associations across fetal sex. Larger studies are needed to replicate and extend these