National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for dl dolomitic limestone

  1. Porosity development in the Copper Ridge Dolomite and Maynardville Limestone, Bear Creek Valley and Chestnut Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldstrand, P.M.; Menefee, L.S.; Dreier, R.B.

    1995-12-01

    Matrix porosity data from deep core obtained in Bear Creek Valley indicate that porosities in the Maynardville Limestone are lithology and depth dependent. Matrix porosities are greater in the Cooper Ridge Dolomite than in the Maynardville Limestone, yet there is no apparent correlation with depth. Two interrelated diagenetic processes are the major controlling factors on porosity development in the Copper Ridge Dolomite and Maynardville Limestone; dissolution of evaporate minerals and dedolomitization. Both of these diagenetic processes produce matrix porosities between 2.1 and 1.3% in the Copper Ridge Dolomite and upper part of the Maynardville Limestone (Zone 6) to depths of approximately 600 ft bgs. Mean matrix porosities in Zones 5 through 2 of the Maynardville Limestone range from 0.8 to 0.5%. A large number of cavities have been intersected during drilling activities in nearly all zones of the Maynardville Limestone in Bear Creek Valley. Therefore, any maynardville Limestone zone within approximately 200 ft of the ground surface is likely to contain cavities that allow significant and rapid flow of groundwater. Zone 6 could be an important stratigraphic unit in the Maynardville Limestone for groundwater flow and contaminant transport because of the abundance of vuggy and moldic porosities. There are large variations in the thickness and lithology in the lower part of the Maynardville (Zones 2, 3, and 4 in the Burial Grounds region). The direction and velocity of strike-parallel groundwater flow may be altered in this area within the lower Maynardville Limestone.

  2. Hydrothermal dolomitization of Jurassic-Cretaceous limestones in the southern Alps (Italy): Relation to tectonics and volcanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cervato, C. )

    1990-05-01

    Dolomitization has affected up to 750m of the Jurassic and Cretaceous pelagic carbonate sequence of the southern continental margin of the Alpine Tethys; the sequence crops out in the southern Alps of Italy (Monti Lessini). Late Paleocene to Miocene extrusion of basaltic tuffs, breccias, and lavas was contemporaneous with the dolomitization was was associated with extensive tectonism in an ancient back-arc basin. More than 200 samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, cathodoluminescence, scanning electron microscopy, stable isotope ratios (carbon, oxygen, strontium), and clay mineralogy. The dolomite contains 40% to 50% MgCO{sub 3}. In thin sections, the crystal size distribution is unimodal (about 100 {mu}m), possibly indicating a single nucleation for the main crystallization phase. The {delta}{sup 13}C of the dolomite is not appreciably different from the undolomitized pelagic limestone (+1.0{per thousand} to +2.0{per thousand} Peedee belemnite (PDB)). The {delta}{sup 18}O variation (-5.0{per thousand} to -13.0{per thousand} PDB) is due to temperature variation in the system. The {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio in the dolomite (0.70839-0.70867) is consistent with the ratio in late Oligocene-Miocene marine water. Clay minerals in limestone and dolomite differ in the presence of neoformed Mg-chlorite, indicating a maximum temperature of about 150C for dolomitization. The dolomite is suggested to have a hydrothermal origin. The heat flow associated with the volcanism allowed marine water to penetrate the system and circulate in convective cells through the tectonic breccias, locally dolomitizing the limestone.

  3. The relative merits of dolomitic and calcitic limestone in detoxifying and revegetating acidic, nickel- and copper-contaminated soils in the Sudbury mining and smelting region of Canada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McHale, D.; Winterhalder, K.

    1996-12-31

    Soils in the Sudbury mining and smelting region have been rendered phytotoxic and barren by acidification and Particulate metal contamination, but can be detoxified revegetated by the surface application of an growth is better on soil treated ground limestone. On certain barren sites, plant growth is better on soil treated with dolomitic limestone than with calcitic limestone and greenhouse experiments using mung beans (Vigna radiata) have shown superior root and shoot growth on certain contaminated soils when the limestone is dolomitic rather than calcitic. Results of experiments with species used in revegetation (Agrostis gigantea and Lotus corniculatus) suggest that leguminous species are more sensitive to Ca:Mg ratio than grasses, that the plant response to this ratio is greater at lowering liming levels, and that the response is more marked on more toxic soils. The effects of calcium:magnesium ratio of the limestone used in revegetating acidic, metal-contaminated soils are clearly complex, interactive and difficult to interpret. Further studies are needed, but meanwhile it is recommended that the practice of using dolomitic limestone to detoxify barren Sudbury soils be continued, since there is a risk of induced magnesium deficiency at certain sites when calcitic limestone is used.

  4. Exploratory and basic fluidized-bed combustion studies. Quarterly report, April-June 1980. [Limestone and dolomite; USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, I.; Myles, K.M.; Swift, W.M.

    1980-12-01

    This work supports the development studies for both atmospheric and pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion. Laboratory and process development studies are aimed at providing needed information on limestone utilization, removal of particles and alkali metal compounds from the flue gas, control of SO/sub 2/ and trace pollutant emissions, and other aspects of fluidized-bed coal combustion. This report presents information on: (1) the development of a sorbent utilization prediction methodology, (2) studies of factors which affect limestone breakup and elutriation, (3) basic studies of limestone sulfation under combustion conditions, and (4) studies of the kinetics of the hydration of spent limestone.

  5. Multiple dolomitization events in Triassic Latemar buildup, the Dolomites, northern Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, E.N.

    1988-01-01

    Partially dolomitized grainstones of the Middle Triassic Latemar buildup (Dolomites, northern Italy) exhibit a range of texturally distinct dolomite types. Petrographic and field observations of spatial associations and cross-cutting relationships among dolomites allow unravelling of the paragenesis of dolomitization events. Three generations of dolomite are preserved in the Latemar. Microdolomite, the earliest generation, occurs as replacement of allochems and as cement in thin (5-15 cm) exposure caps of meter-scale subtidal cycles. These dolomite crusts are texturally and chemically analogous to the Holocene supratidal crusts of Florida and the Bahamas. Saddle dolomite cements, the second generation, fill or line pores and fractures through the platform. The final generation is massive replacement of limestone by coarse, crystalline dolomite, which occupies a 2-3 km/sup 3/ mushroom-shaped zone in the center of the buildup and includes a wide array of fabrics. Here, subtidal limestones are altered to porous sucrosic dolomite, while microdolomite caps are altered to dense dolomite mosaics. Saddle dolomite cements remain as relics surrounded by replacement rhombs. Two important conclusions are (1) early dolomite is preserved as poorly ordered microdolomite (unless overprinted by a later dolomitization event) and accounts for an insignificant volume of the Latemar dolomite, and (2) saddle dolomite cements, often regarded as late-stage burial, occur before massive replacement.

  6. Multiple dolomitization events in Triassic latemar buildup, the dolomites, northern Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, E.N.

    1988-02-01

    Partially dolomitized grainstones of the Middle Triassic Latemar buildup (Dolomites, northern Italy) exhibit a range of texturally distinct dolomite types. Petrographic and field observations of spatial associations and cross-cutting relationships among dolomites allow unravelling of the paragenesis of dolomitization events. Three generations of dolomite are preserved in the Latemar. Microdolomite, the earliest generation, occurs as replacement of allochems and as cement in thin (5-15 cm) exposure caps of meter-scale subtidal cycles. These dolomite crusts are texturally and chemically analogous to the Holocene supratidal crusts of Florida and the Bahamas. Saddle dolomite cements, the second generation, fill or line pores and fractures through the platform. The final generation is massive replacement of limestone by coarse, crystalline dolomite, which occupies a 2-3 km/sup 3/ mushroom-shaped zone in the center of the buildup and includes a wide array of fabrics. Here, subtidal limestones are altered to porous sucrosic dolomite, while microdolomite caps are altered to dense dolomite mosaics. Saddle dolomite cements remain as relics surrounded by replacement rhombs. Two important conclusions are (1) early dolomite is preserved as poorly ordered microdolomite (unless overprinted by a later dolomitization event) and accounts for an insignificant volume of the Latemar dolomite, and (2) saddle dolomite cements, often regarded as late-stage burial, occur before massive replacement. Standard textural classification of Latemar dolomites hindered the resolution of the timing of dolomitization events. Instead, paragenetic relationships provided a powerful tool for grouping dolomites into generations representing specific diagenetic events in specific dolomitizing environments.

  7. Indiana's Trenton limestone geology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keith, B.D.

    1981-03-01

    The term Trenton limestone is the stratigraphic designation for a unit in northern Indiana composed of both limestone and dolomite. The Trenton is Middle Ordovician (Champlainian) in age and related clearly to the position of the Cincinnati arch. The limestone is thickest in northern Indiana and thins toward the southeast. Isopach maps of the Trenton limestone and the Maquoketa group above it indicate that the Cincinnati arch did not exist as a positive structural influence to sedimentation until after Ordovician time. Preliminary results of an ongoing study of the Trenton reservoir suggest that second and tertiary recovery there will be limited. Because of the low density of drilling on the Trenton's north flank, however, large areas remain virtually untested; more structural or stratigraphic traps similar to those of the Urbana field could exist. A better definition of the distribution of the dolomite facies will lead to a more accurate assessment of the Trenton's potential.

  8. An example of mixing-zone dolomite, Middle Eocene Avon Park Formation, Floridan aquifer system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cander, H.S. )

    1994-07-01

    A late-formed dolomite cement in a core of the Middle Eocene Avon Park Formation, peninsular Florida, provides an example of dolomite cement from a mixing zone and illustrates how dolomite textural alteration and stabilization can occur at earth-surface conditions. The Avon Park Formation is a pervasively dolomitized peritidal platform carbonate 400 m thick in the Florida aquifer system. Typical Avon Park dolomite is inclusion-rich, fine-grained (< 40 mm), noncathodoluminescent, highly porous (average, 20%), and formed during the Eocene by normal to hypersaline seawater ([delta][sup 18]O = + 3.7[per thousand] PDB; [delta][sup 13]C = + 2.0[per thousand]; [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr = 0.70778; Sr = 167 ppm). In a 20 m interval in a core from southwest Florida, inclusion-free, cathodoluminescent dolomite overgrows the early-formed noncathodoluminescent marine dolomite. The cathodoluminescent dolomite cement profoundly alters the texture of Avon Park dolomite from typical Cenozoic-like porous, poorly crystalline dolomite to hard, dense, low-porosity, highly crystalline Paleozoic-like dolomite. The dolomite cement is not a replacement of limestone but an overgrowth of early-formed marine dolomite and pore-occluding cement. This study demonstrates that: (1) dolomite precipitated from a 75% seawater mixing-zone fluid that was both calcite saturated and sulfate-rich, and (2) dramatic textural maturation and stabilization in dolomite can occur in the near surface environment, without elevated temperature and burial conditions.

  9. ARM - Instrument - dl

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Instrument : Doppler Lidar (DL) Instrument Categories Cloud Properties Picture of the Doppler Lidar...

  10. Doppler Lidar (DL) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newsom, RK

    2012-02-13

    The Doppler lidar (DL) is an active remote sensing instrument that provides range- and time-resolved measurements of radial velocity and attenuated backscatter. The principle of operation is similar to radar in that pulses of energy are transmitted into the atmosphere; the energy scattered back to the transceiver is collected and measured as a time-resolved signal. From the time delay between each outgoing transmitted pulse and the backscattered signal, the distance to the scatterer is inferred. The radial or line-of-sight velocity of the scatterers is determined from the Doppler frequency shift of the backscattered radiation. The DL uses a heterodyne detection technique in which the return signal is mixed with a reference laser beam (i.e., local oscillator) of known frequency. An onboard signal processing computer then determines the Doppler frequency shift from the spectra of the heterodyne signal. The energy content of the Doppler spectra can also be used to determine attenuated backscatter.

  11. ARM - Campaign Instrument - dl

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    govInstrumentsdl Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Doppler Lidar (DL) Instrument Categories Cloud Properties Campaigns ARM Support for the Plains Elevated Convection at Night Experiment: Doppler Lidar Operations [ Download Data ] Southern Great Plains, 2015.06.01 - 2015.07.01 ARM Support for the Plains Elevated Convection at Night Experiment: Doppler Lidar Operations [ Download Data ] Southern Great Plains,

  12. Stratigraphy and diagenesis of the Mississippian Lodgepole Limestone, Williston Basin, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grover, P.W. )

    1996-01-01

    Stratigraphic correlation of the Lodgepole Limestone (Bottineau Interval) indicates a sequence of three clinoform-shaped wedges that filled in the early Williston Basin. To date four productive 100m thick mounds have been discovered in the Lodgepole Limestone at Dickinson Field. The mounds seem to have nucleated at the toe of slope of the first highstand system tract and were subsequently buried by the second highstand systems tract. By isopaching each of the systems tracts one can predict were other mounds might have nucleated. Burial depth of the Bakken Shale-Lodgepole Limestone contact grade from 0.6 km at the edge of the Williston Basin to 3.4 km in the center. With increased depth the basal Lodgepole Limestone shows three phases of dolomitization, which are: small clear early dolomite; later iron rich fracture filling saddle dolomite and a later iron rich dolomite that seems to follow stylolites. Pre-oil migration mineralization of the overlying limestone include minor amounts of: anhydrite, pyrite, iron poor sphalerite, late iron rich sphalerite, chalcopyrite and celestite.

  13. Stratigraphy and diagenesis of the Mississippian Lodgepole Limestone, Williston Basin, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grover, P.W.

    1996-12-31

    Stratigraphic correlation of the Lodgepole Limestone (Bottineau Interval) indicates a sequence of three clinoform-shaped wedges that filled in the early Williston Basin. To date four productive 100m thick mounds have been discovered in the Lodgepole Limestone at Dickinson Field. The mounds seem to have nucleated at the toe of slope of the first highstand system tract and were subsequently buried by the second highstand systems tract. By isopaching each of the systems tracts one can predict were other mounds might have nucleated. Burial depth of the Bakken Shale-Lodgepole Limestone contact grade from 0.6 km at the edge of the Williston Basin to 3.4 km in the center. With increased depth the basal Lodgepole Limestone shows three phases of dolomitization, which are: small clear early dolomite; later iron rich fracture filling saddle dolomite and a later iron rich dolomite that seems to follow stylolites. Pre-oil migration mineralization of the overlying limestone include minor amounts of: anhydrite, pyrite, iron poor sphalerite, late iron rich sphalerite, chalcopyrite and celestite.

  14. DL-36361 UC-414 I

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DL-36361 UC-414 I * Discovery of the Most Distant Supernovae and the Quest for L l Gerson Goldhaber and Saul Perlmutter Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and Center for Particle Astrophysics University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 Silvia Gabi, Ariel Goobar, Alex Kim, Mathew Kim, and Reynald Pain Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California Berkeley, CA 94720 Carl Pennypacker and Ivan Small Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and Space Sciences Laboratory University of California, Berkeley, CA

  15. Water/rock interaction efficiency and seawater dolomitization in the Eocene Avon Park Formation, Floridan Aquifer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cander, H.S. )

    1990-05-01

    The Floridan aquifer has often been proposed as a system of extensive meteoric carbonate diagenesis and mixing zone dolomitization. However, the dominance of marine isotope (C, O, {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr) and trace element (Sr, Fe, Mn) compositions in dolomites and limestones in the Eocene Avon Park Formation, Floridan aquifer, suggests that the very active low temperature meteoric groundwater system has, over the past 40 m.y., been an inefficient mechanism of diagenesis. {delta}{sup 18}O values of all but two replacement dolomites sampled range from +2.0 to +5.1 (PDB) with high Sr concentrations (90-325 ppm), indicating dolomitization by near-normal marine water involving no significant interaction with meteoric groundwater. The two {delta}{sup 18}O-depleted (0.0 {plus minus} 1) dolomites have low Sr concentrations ({approximately}100 ppm) suggesting limited recrystallization in meteoric water. Several dolomite samples have radiogenic {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr compositions (0.70810-0.70883 {plus minus} 2), but have heavy oxygen isotope compositions (> +2.0) and high Sr concentrations (<200 ppm) suggesting precipitation from cold Miocene age or younger seawater that circulated through the Florida platform. Most limestone stable isotope compositions cluster around marine values (({delta}{sup 18}O = {minus}1 to +1, PDB) {delta}{sup 13}C = +0.5 to +2.5) and have Eocene seawater {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr compositions (0.70775 {plus minus} 2 to 0.70779 {plus minus} 2) with 400 to 500 ppm Sr. Isotopic compositions of limestones from the east coast of Florida are all within these ranges. Only some limestones from central Florida and the west coast contain depleted stable isotopic compositions and low Sr concentrations. The sample with the most depleted stable isotope values has a radiogenic {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr composition (0.70870 {plus minus} 2), suggesting that diagenetic meteoric water migrated through post-Miocene strata.

  16. Anatomy of a dolomitized carbonate reservoir - Mission Canyon formation at little Knife field, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindsay, R.F.

    1985-05-01

    The Mission Canyon Formation is a regressive, shoaling-upward carbonate to anhydrite sequence deposited in a slowly shrinking epeiric sea. From its base upsection, the formation is mostly subtidal in origin and emergent at its top, and consists of (1) deeper water carbonates, (2) major cycles of open shallow-marine mudstones grading up into skeletal packstone or rainstone, (3) minor cycles of dolomitized transitional open to restricted marine mudstone grading up into skeletal wackestone, (4) dolomitized restricted marine pelletal wackestone or packstone, (5) partially dolomitized marginal marine skeletal wackestone, (6) slightly skeletal, oolitic-pisolitic wackestone, or grainstone barrier-island buildups with storm washover aprons, (7) thin lagoonal limestones, (8) tidal-flat anhydrite, and (9) sabkha anhydrite. The oil is structurally trapped on the north, east, and west, within the northward plunging Little Knife anticline. Facies changes entrap the oil southward; the vertical seal is the overlying anhydrite beds. Closure is less than 100 ft 930 m). Porous, hydrocarbon-bearing beds were deposited as transitional open-to-restricted marine, restricted marine, and marginal marine lime muds. These became porous dolomitic reservoir rock by undergoing three diagenetic changes: (1) anhydrite replacement of skeletal fragments, (2) dolomitization of the muddy matrix, and (3) later, leaching of the anhydrite to create moldic porosity. The reservoir's pore system is composed of moldic pores and three types of dolomite intercrystalline pores-polyhedral, tetrahedral, and interboundary-sheet pores. Pore throats in productive beds are of two general sizes (1.2-1.6..mu.. and 5.2..mu..).

  17. Treating tar sands formations with dolomite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2013-10-15

    A method for treating a karsted formation containing heavy hydrocarbons and dolomite includes providing heat to at least part of one or more karsted layers in the formation from one or more heaters located in the karsted layers. A temperature in at least one of the karsted layers is allowed to reach a decomposition temperature of dolomite in the formation. The dolomite is allowed to decompose and at least some hydrocarbons are produced from at least one of the karsted layers of the formation.

  18. Treating tar sands formations with dolomite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael

    2010-06-08

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. The tar sands formation may include dolomite and hydrocarbons. Methods may include providing heat at less than the decomposition temperature of dolomite from one or more heaters to at least a portion of the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids are mobilized in the formation. At least some of the hydrocarbon fluids may be produced from the formation.

  19. The Mississippian Leadville Limestone Exploration Play, Utah and Colorado-Exploration Techniques and Studies for Independents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Chidsey

    2008-09-30

    -marine facies constitute a significant reservoir potential, having both effective porosity and permeability when dissolution of skeletal grains, followed by dolomitization, has occurred. Two major types of diagenetic dolomite are observed in the Leadville Limestone at Lisbon field: (1) tight 'early' dolomite consisting of very fine grained (<5 {micro}m), interlocking crystals that faithfully preserve depositional fabrics; and (2) porous, coarser (>100-250 {micro}m), rhombic and saddle crystals that discordantly replace limestone and earlier very fine grained dolomite. Predating or concomitant with late dolomite formation are pervasive leaching episodes that produced vugs and extensive microporosity. Most reservoir rocks within Lisbon field appear to be associated with the second, late type of dolomitization and associated leaching events. Other diagenetic products include pyrobitumen, syntaxial cement, sulfide minerals, anhydrite cement and replacement, and late macrocalcite. Fracturing (solution enlarged) and brecciation (autobrecciation) caused by hydrofracturing are widespread within Lisbon field. Sediment-filled cavities, related to karstification of the exposed Leadville, are present in the upper third of the formation. Pyrobitumen and sulfide minerals appear to coat most crystal faces of the rhombic and saddle dolomites. The fluid inclusion and mineral relationships suggest the following sequence of events: (1) dolomite precipitation, (2) anhydrite deposition, (3) anhydrite dissolution and quartz precipitation, (4) dolomite dissolution and late calcite precipitation, (5) trapping of a mobile oil phase, and (6) formation of bitumen. Fluid inclusions in calcite and dolomite display variable liquid to vapor ratios suggesting reequilibration at elevated temperatures (50 C). Fluid salinities exceed 10 weight percent NaCl equivalent. Low ice melting temperatures of quartz- and calcite-hosted inclusions suggest chemically complex Ca-Mg-bearing brines associated with evaporite

  20. Diagenetic features of Trenton Limestone in northern Indiana: petrographic evidence for Late (Mesogenetic) Dolostone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fara, D.R.

    1986-08-01

    Three conventional cores of the entire Trenton section were examined in detail by in-depth visual description, analysis of more than 250 thin sections, scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. The cores are located in the northern half of Indiana where they span the major dolostone pinch-out that is the trap for the prolific Trenton oil and gas field. The Trenton Limestone is completely dolomitized in northern Indiana. Dolostone abundance decreases to the south where the dolostone is restricted to the upper few feet of the formation. Two major types of dolostone are recognized. The top 5-20 ft of the Trenton cores consists of medium crystalline nonporous xenotopic ferroan dolostone. Mesogenetic dewatering of the overlying Maquoketa shale is the proposed dolomitizing mechanisms for this ferroan dolostone cap. Below the ferroan dolostone cap in northern Indiana is coarsely crystalline dolostone, which consists of thin intercalated subfacies of porous idiotopic and nonporous xenotopic dolostone. This is the dominant dolostone type and is the reservoir in the Trenton field. The coarsely crystalline dolostone postdates the ferroan dolostone cap, chert nodule formation, and initial pressure solution. Therefore, this dolostone is considered to have formed relatively late in the diagenetic history of the Trenton under mesogenetic conditions. In the northernmost core, nearly all of the secondary dolomitic porosity is plugged by poikilotopic gypsum and minor amounts of calcite and celestite. Other diagenetic features observed in Trenton are also discussed, including silicification, ferroan calcite cement, upper Trenton contact formation, hardgrounds, and pressure solution.

  1. Physical constraints on dolomite crust formation, Ambergris Cay Belize

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birdwell, B.A.; Bischoff, W.D.; Mazzullo, S.J. )

    1990-05-01

    Dolomitic crusts forming on a peritidal flat on Ambergris Cay, Belize, occur beneath surface sediment adjacent to, but not within, small saline (60-90 ppt) ponds. Upper crusts, 2-12 cm thick forming at or slightly below the water table (approximately equivalent to lagoon water level) are areally restricted by (1) ponds where sediment lies below 20-50 cm of water, (2) high and relatively dry areas where sediment accumulation of more than 15 cm above water level supports diverse vegetation, and (3) low areas affected by mangrove encroachment where preexisting crusts are perforated by roots and displaced. The lower crusts occur immediately above the Pleistocene in lows beneath the Holocene sediment and on exposed Pleistocene surfaces. Estimates from x-ray diffraction analysis indicate 80-100% dolomite content within the upper crusts and 50-60% dolomite content in the lower crusts. Unlithified sediment above and below the upper crust contain up to 80% dolomite. Compositions range from Ca{sub 56}, Mg{sub 44} in the upper crusts to Ca{sub 60} Mg{sub 40} in the lower crusts. There is no correlation between stoichiometry and ordering in the dolomites; all are poorly ordered as indicated by very weak (015) and (021) superstructure peaks. Where crusts are not 100% dolomite, the dolomite is evident as euhedral cements within pores, especially within foraminiferal tests, and as micrite along algal laminations and walls of burrows. However, preliminary examinations with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray mapping show that magnesium enrichment is pervasive within these crusts and may represent Mg-enrichment of calcite as an intermediate stage in dolomite formation.

  2. dlCC Opt: Optimization Software for Renewable Energy Projects...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search dlCC Opt: Optimization ... Many existing programs require the user to enter the size ... Because the algorithm was built in terms of analytics ...

  3. Summary of Research through Phase II/Year 2 of Initially Approved 3 Phase/3 Year Project - Establishing the Relationship between Fracture-Related Dolomite and Primary Rock Fabric on the Distribution of Reservoirs in the Michigan Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Grammer

    2007-09-30

    This final scientific/technical report covers the first 2 years (Phases I and II of an originally planned 3 Year/3 Phase program). The project was focused on evaluating the relationship between fracture-related dolomite and dolomite constrained by primary rock fabric in the 3 most prolific reservoir intervals in the Michigan Basin. The characterization of select dolomite reservoirs was the major focus of our efforts in Phases I and II of the project. Structural mapping and log analysis in the Dundee (Devonian) and Trenton/Black River (Ordovician) suggest a close spatial relationship among gross dolomite distribution and regional-scale, wrench fault-related NW-SE and NE-SW structural trends. A high temperature origin for much of the dolomite in these 2 studied intervals (based upon fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures and stable isotopic analyses,) coupled with persistent association of this dolomite in reservoirs coincident with wrench fault-related features, is strong evidence for these reservoirs being influenced by hydrothermal dolomitization. In the Niagaran (Silurian), there is a general trend of increasing dolomitization shelfward, with limestone predominant in more basinward positions. A major finding is that facies types, when analyzed at a detailed level, are directly related to reservoir porosity and permeability in these dolomites which increases the predictability of reservoir quality in these units. This pattern is consistent with our original hypothesis of primary facies control on dolomitization and resulting reservoir quality at some level. The identification of distinct and predictable vertical stacking patterns within a hierarchical sequence and cycle framework provides a high degree of confidence at this point that the results should be exportable throughout the basin. Much of the data synthesis and modeling for the project was scheduled to be part of Year 3/Phase III, but the discontinuation of funding after Year 2 precluded those efforts

  4. Reservoir potential of dolomites in the Western part of the Maracaibo basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marquez, X.M.; Romulo, C.

    1996-08-01

    Recent exploration activities in the Western part of the Maracaibo basin, has increased interest in the hydrocarbon potential of dolomitized intervals within usually non-porous Cretaceous carbonate sequence. Sedimentological and geochemical data from this carbonate sequence reveals two major dolomitized intervals. The upper dolomitized zone occurs in the Middle Cretaceous Lisure Formation. The lower (and thicker) interval is to be found in the Lower Cretaceous Apon Formation, which is the subject of this study. In the Apon Formation the rocks am partially (< 75% dolomite) to completely dolomitized. In partially dolomitized rocks, selective matrix replacement is represented by planar, unimodal, euhedral, medium crystalline dolomite rhombs. Porosity is low (<2%) and consists of small irregular vugs. Complete dolomitization (dolomites as such) is characterized by planar, unimodal euhedral to subhedral, medium crystalline dolomite mosaics. Dolomitization occurs during burial as it is related to pressure solution and late diagenetic processes. Polihedral intercrystalline pores, up to 500 micrometers, irregular vugs and minor moldic pores contribute towards an effective porosity value of up to 20%. Permeabilities range from 7 to 2000 md. Hydrocarbon saturation is about 75%. Those dolomites range in thickness from 10 to 100 ft and extend for more than 50 km. In some areas (e.g. La Villa Field) the dolomitized interval is the main contributor to production (1500-2200 bopd) of light gravity oil. This study shows that delineation of the variability and distribution of dolomites will reduce the exploratory risk for this Cretaceous carbonate sequence. In addition, the recovery of oil from dolomites is improved by understanding the relationships between dolomite types and pore system (e.g. relationship to fractures).

  5. Limestone County, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Limestone County, Texas: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates...

  6. [Analysis of trace elements in limestone for archeological functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanc, A.; Holmes, L.; Harbottle, G.

    1998-12-31

    Numerous quarries in the Lutetian limestone formations of the Paris Basin provided stone for the building and the decoration of monuments from antiquity to the present. To determine the origin of stone used for masonry and sculptures in these monuments, a team of geologists and archaeologists has investigated 300 quarries and collected 2,300 samples. Petrographic and paleontologic examination of thin sections allows geologists to distinguish Lutetian limestones from Jurassic and Cretaceous limestones. Geologists also seek to formulate hypotheses regarding the origin of Lutetian limestones used for building and sculpture in the Paris region. In the search for the sources of building and sculptural stone, the analytical methods of geologists are limited because often several quarries produce the same lithofacies. A new tool is now available, however, to attack questions of provenance raised by art historians. Because limestones from different sources have distinctive patterns of trace-element concentrations, compositional analysis by neutron activation allows one to compare building or sculptural stone from one monument with stone from quarries or other monuments. This analytical method subjects a powdered limestone sample to standard neutron activation analysis procedures at Brookhaven National Laboratory. With the help of computer programs, the compositional fingerprints of Lutetian limestones can be determined and stored in a database. The limestone database contains data for approximately 2,100 samples from monuments, sculptures and quarries. It is particularly rich in samples from the Paris Basin.

  7. Regional distribution and chemical characterization of Permian Capitan fore-reef slope dolomite: Implications for paleohydrology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melim, L.A. )

    1990-05-01

    Dolomitized fore-reef slope facies recently have become significant targets for petroleum exploration in the Permian basin and elsewhere. Despite this, very little is known about the dolomitization process that largely controls porosity distribution in this facies. An integrated field, petrographic, and geochemical study has been conducted in the fore-reef slope strata of the Permian Capitan Formation to provide insight into this problem. Dolomitization of the Capitan fore-reef slope facies ranges from 0 to 100%. Regionally, the variation is related to stratigraphic age, with older forereef slope facies more dolomitized than younger facies. This generalization is consistent throughout the Guadalupe Mountains and appears to continue into the subsurface. On a local scale, more permeable beds were the first dolomitized, and within these, dolomitization decreases downslope. In the Capitan reef facies, dolomitization is restricted to vertical karst breccia pipes and other zones of high primary porosity. The majority of Capitan dolomite is finely crystalline (5-30 {mu}) with average {delta}{sup 18}O = 0.9 and {delta}{sup 13}C = 5.9. A second coarser (130-{mu}) dolomite generation is also present but is not as volumetrically important. The relative positive (for the Late Permian) {delta}{sup 18}O values indicates an evaporitively concentrated dolomitizing fluid. The most likely paleohydrologic model for the main phase of forereef slope dolomitization calls for descending hypersaline brines passing through the reef facies in vertical karst breccia pipes and then following permeable beds down the foreslope. Several sources are possible for these brines, with the most likely being the hypersaline back-reef lagoonal environment.

  8. PMC*Fr.. U.S. Dl?PARThIENT OFFNFRGY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CE...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    U.S. Dl?PARThIENT OFFNFRGY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CETER NlPA DFllNATION ... publication and distribution, and classroom training and informational programs), ...

  9. Dolomitization, sulfate solution, and porosity development, San Andres Formation, Howard-Glasscock field, Howard County, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, T.C.

    1984-01-01

    Facies of the Permian San Andres Formation, Howard-Glasscock field, Howard County, Texas, consist mainly of thick shelf carbonates topped by a carbonate-evaporite sabkha unit. Clastics are present as thin shale beds occurring sporadically throughout the sequence. Carbonate facies reflect a broad progradation across a promontory of the Eastern shelf bordering the Midland basin, punctuated by minor transgressions and onlap due to differential subsidence. Core examination demonstrates that the carbonates have been pervasively dolomitized and plugged by sulfates, principally anhydrite. Dolomite crystal size shows a broad increase down-core, while anhydrite content decreases. Anhydrite precipitation appears to increasingly postdate the onset of dolomitization with depth. Reflux processes are felt to be largely responsible for the ubiquitous dolomitization and sulfate precipitation. Porosity developed as a result of a sulfate solution event, producing vuggy, moldic, and intercrystalline dolomitic porosity due to leaching of sulfates from the dolomite fabric. Lateral solution pathways developed, particularly through the leaching of sulfates from packstone allochem replacements and void fills. Insoluble residue content was a major inhibiting factor in solution, especially because of stylolite development in shaly dolomites, which created low-porosity horizons. Hydrocarbon shows are primarily intercrystalline.

  10. Dolomitization of coeval shelf and fore-shelf carbonates, Lower Permian, Midland basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazzullo, S.J.; Qiuchang, Ye )

    1991-03-01

    Coeval shelf and fore-shelf carbonates in Lower Permian (Leonardian) rocks in the Midland basin are pervasively dolomitized. Shelf strata consist of a regional mosaic of shelf margin reef, lagoon, and peritidal facies associated with contemporaneous evaporite deposition; fore-shelf facies consist of resedimented shelf margin deposits. Numerous relative sea-level fluctuations that resulted in the formation of Type 1 and 2 unconformities are recognized throughout this section. Mean stable oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions of the shelf strate suggest that dolomitization occurred essentially syndepositionally, likely by interaction with normal marine( ) and hypersaline fluids. In fore-shelf strata petrographic evidence, in combination with paleotemperature estimates from isotopic data and the burial depth-temperature history of these rocks, suggest relatively early (late Permian) dolomitization in rock-dominated systems. Three possible modes of dolomitization could have affected these fore-shelf beds: (1) dolomitization by reflux of normal-marine and/or hypersaline fluids during sea level highstands or lowstands; (2) dolomitization by mixed meteoric-marine fluids during lowstands; and (3) replacement by calcic dolomites via reaction with circulating marine fluids during deposition and early, shallow burial without organic matter influences. The latter mode of origin, however, is favored for most of the rocks examined on the basis of the slightly positive carbon isotopic compositions, Sr versus MgCO{sub 3} compositions (mean Sr 61 ppm, mean MgCO{sub 3} 49.5), and low Mn contents (mean 61 ppm) of the dolomites, although later burial recrystallization is indicated by their relatively depleted isotopic compositions.

  11. Modified dry limestone process for control of sulfur dioxide emissions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shale, Correll C.; Cross, William G.

    1976-08-24

    A method and apparatus for removing sulfur oxides from flue gas comprise cooling and conditioning the hot flue gas to increase the degree of water vapor saturation prior to passage through a bed of substantially dry carbonate chips or lumps, e.g., crushed limestone. The reaction products form as a thick layer of sulfites and sulfates on the surface of the chips which is easily removed by agitation to restore the reactive surface of the chips.

  12. Suspension- and current-deposit reservoirs in the Delaware basin: Trends and cycles in siltstones of the Permian Bone Spring Limestone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lorenz, J.C. ); Brooks, L.L. )

    1990-05-01

    Cores show that siltstone to very fine-grained sandstone oil reservoirs within the Permian Bone Spring Limestone are composed of submillimeter- to centimeter-thick sedimentation laminae. Blanketing of small-scale topography suggests that the laminae were deposited over wide areas as sediment settled vertical to the sea floor. Superimposed on the event laminae, were (1) background sedimentation of dolomitic, organic-rich, mudstone, (2) invertebrate burrowing, and (3) reworking by gentle bottom currents. Currents produced wispy ripply bedding and starved ripple forms that were draped by later deposits. Paleoflow was subparallel to the basin margin. Several sedimentation patterns occur within the formation. Three clastic intervals 25-50-m thick are interbedded with dolomitic mudstones of similar thickness. The clastic intervals are composed of three to six siltstone beds, each up to 25-m thick. Upsection within the beds increases in event-laminae, thickness, bioturbation, and current reworking. Other reports have suggested that these are turbidite-fan deposits, but locally, paleocurrent orientations and the lack of diagnostic assemblages and sequences of sedimentary structures argue against this interpretation. Rather, some of these deposits compare favorably with the few existing sedimentologic descriptions of Quaternary dust storm deposition in marine basins. The siltstone beds may also record deflation of the exposed adjacent shelf during lowered sea level. Very fine grain size and extensive carbonate cementation produce 5-10 pd permeability and 4-15% porosity. Sedimentary laminations cause significantly reduced vertical permeability where they are not disrupted by bioturbation, but permeability may be enhanced by natural fractures. Some reservoir thickenings are attributed to the formation of giant ripples by bottom currents, dictating a different exploration rationale than the turbidite-fan model.

  13. Intermediate-scale tests of sodium interactions with calcite and dolomite aggregate concretes. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randich, E.; Acton, R.U.

    1983-09-01

    Two intermediate-scale tests were performed to compare the behavior of calcite and dolomite aggregate concretes when attacked by molten sodium. The tests were performed as part of an interlaboratory comparison between Sandia National Laboratories and Hanford Engineering Development Laboratories. Results of the tests at Sandia National Laboratories are reported here. The results show that both concretes exhibit similar exothermic reactions with molten sodium. The large difference in reaction vigor suggested by thermodynamic considerations of CO/sub 2/ release from calcite and dolomite was not realized. Penetration rates of 1.4 to 1.7 mm/min were observed for short periods of time with reaction zone temperatures in excess of 800/sup 0/C during the energetic attack. The penetration was not uniform over the entire sodium-concrete contact area. Rapid attack may be localized due to inhomogeneities in the concrete. The chemical reaction zone is less then one cm thick for the calcite concrete but is about seven cm thick for the dolomite concrete.

  14. SLAM: a sodium-limestone concrete ablation model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suo-Anttila, A.J.

    1983-12-01

    SLAM is a three-region model, containing a pool (sodium and reaction debris) region, a dry (boundary layer and dehydrated concrete) region, and a wet (hydrated concrete) region. The model includes a solution to the mass, momentum, and energy equations in each region. A chemical kinetics model is included to provide heat sources due to chemical reactions between the sodium and the concrete. Both isolated model as well as integrated whole code evaluations have been made with good results. The chemical kinetics and water migration models were evaluated separately, with good results. Several small and large-scale sodium limestone concrete experiments were simulated with reasonable agreement between SLAM and the experimental results. The SLAM code was applied to investigate the effects of mixing, pool temperature, pool depth and fluidization. All these phenomena were found to be of significance in the predicted response of the sodium concrete interaction. Pool fluidization is predicted to be the most important variable in large scale interactions.

  15. Hydration mechanisms of ternary Portland cements containing limestone powder and fly ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Weerdt, K.; Haha, M. Ben; Le Saout, G.; Kjellsen, K.O.; Justnes, H.; Lothenbach, B.

    2011-03-15

    The effect of minor additions of limestone powder on the properties of fly ash blended cements was investigated in this study using isothermal calorimetry, thermogravimetry (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques, and pore solution analysis. The presence of limestone powder led to the formation of hemi- and monocarbonate and to a stabilisation of ettringite compared to the limestone-free cements, where a part of the ettringite converted to monosulphate. Thus, the presence of 5% of limestone led to an increase of the volume of the hydrates, as visible in the increase in chemical shrinkage, and an increase in compressive strength. This effect was amplified for the fly ash/limestone blended cements due to the additional alumina provided by the fly ash reaction.

  16. Early-to-late-diagenetic dolomitization of platform carbonates: Lower Ordovician Ellenburger Group, Permian basin, west Texas and southeastern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amthor, J.E. ); Friedman, G.M. Northeastern Science Foundation, Troy, NY )

    1991-03-01

    Pervasive early- to late-diagenetic dolomitization of Lower Ordovician Ellenburger carbonates in the deep Permian basin is recorded in core samples having present-day burial depths of 1.5 to 7.0 km. Fine-crystalline planar replacement dolomite formed during early diagenesis in a subtidal to peritidal setting under near-surface, low-temperature conditions, with Mg{sup 2+} for dolomitization of precursor lime mud supplied by diffusion from overlying seawater. During intermediate burial (500-2,000 m), medium- to coarse-crystalline planar-s dolomite replaced allochems and matrix, or occurred as void-filling. Burial-history and thermal maturation calculations suggest that deep-burial dolomite cementation occurred during the Late Pennsylvanian/Early Permian. Inter- and intracrystalline dissolution surfaces are observed within the paragenetic sequence. Major truncation surfaces between early replacement dolomites and later void-filling dolomites, and between planar and nonplanar dolomite cements are evidence for dolomite dissolution. Deep-discharge of meteoric fluids as a result of frequent periods of karsting in overlying strata, and long-distance fluid migration during the Ouachita orogeny from foreland basins to the south are invoked for sources of undersaturated fluids causing dolomite dissolution and creating matrix-porosity in the deep subsurface. Similar diagenetic relationships have been described from other deeply buried carbonate rocks elsewhere, indicating that trends and timing of dolomitization, dissolution and porosity formation, and cementation by late dolomite and calcite are intimately related to the evolution of sedimentary basins. The origin of massive dolostones such as the Ellenburger is best explained in the context of basin evolution, rather than by a single model of dolomite formation.

  17. Preliminary microfacies analysis and cyclicity of the Wahoo Limestone, Lisburne Field, North Slope, Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, S.K.; Watts, K.F.

    1995-05-01

    A well from the Lisburne field near Prudhoe Bay was examined in core, thin section, and on well logs for comparison with Wahoo Limestone in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). Carbonate cycles (parasequences) are well developed in both areas but the greater abundance of terrigenous sediment and associated carbonate facies indicate that the study well is located in a more landward position on the Wahoo carbonate ramp, closer to a source of terrigenous sediment. This report presents the preliminary results of microfacies analyses that have been conducted on 424 of a total 1,115 thin sections from the study well. The stratigraphic nomenclature extended from ANWR (the type locality of the Wahoo Limestone) is different that the terminology previously used for the subsurface Lisburne Group near Prudhoe Bay. We distinguish informal lower and upper members within the Mississippian to Pennsylvanian Wahoo Limestone which overlies the Mississippian Alapah Limestone. Our upper Alapah corresponds to the middle Alapah of previous workers. Our lower Wahoo Limestone member corresponds to the upper Alapah of previous workers. Our upper Wahoo Limestone member corresponds to the previous Wahoo Limestone and is the major hydrocarbon reservoir at the Lisburne field, which is characterized by well-developed carbonate cycles (parasequences).

  18. ANALYTICAL DATA SHEET ANALYTICAL DEPT. - HEALTH Al\rD SAFETY DlVlSlON

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    em IVIL, u-3 1' 1L, I -' I ANALYTICAL DATA SHEET ANALYTICAL DEPT. - HEALTH Al\rD SAFETY DlVlSlON 1956 1. H.# fL22 Industrial Hygiene or Medical Dept. Sample Nor& 3 Date Collected- 5117 by --Route to CES CES r Location IQJKER-PEMJNS Co- Type of Sample-waternalyzed for F Alpha Remarks -&I GG -- u - Beta Samples of water discharged to river during Steam clean- No, Ra ing of equipment. Oil PH Be Th Sample No. Hour Sample Description (RT Please analyze for gm/U/gal. BP-1 P- RO-Kneader BP-2 K-

  19. ANALYTICAL DATA SHEET hlul ANALYTICAL DEPT. - HEALTH ANI SAFETY DlVlSlON

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    hlul ANALYTICAL DEPT. - HEALTH ANI SAFETY DlVlSlON Industrial Hygiene or Medical Dept. 1956 I. H.# 1093 Sample Nos. 9 -Date Collected- 812 by-L!LP Route to I"? Lo,--tionr\OGERS IRON CO. Type of Sample air %X!LAnalyzed for F Alphcxx Remarks JOYLIN, ~!ISSo~I -U Beta Four people involved in the test were H. Ruhe and W. K)epper No Ka -- of NLO. and J. Jones and L. Jones of Rogers Iron. No res- Oil3 PH piratory equipment used. -Be Th __- Sample No. Hour Sample Description )R T Q 9001 _ 1330 BZ

  20. Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in fractured, unsaturated dolomite at a field site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McLinn, E.L.; Rehm, B.W.

    1997-12-31

    Gasoline constituents were detected in unsaturated soil and rock during abandonment of a leaky underground storage tank (UST). The unsaturated sequence beneath the former UST consists of 90 feet of silty till, fractured dolomite, and friable sandstone. Pore gas probes were installed in each of the unsaturated units, both in the source area and in a background on-site location. Pore gas samples were collected to evaluate the nature, extent, and fate of residual hydrocarbons in the vadose zone. Pore gas from the till and dolomite in the source area was enriched in petroleum hydrocarbons and carbon dioxide, and was depleted in oxygen, relative to pore gas from the background area. During two years of ground water monitoring at the site, methyl tertiary butyl ether was periodically detected in the ground water beneath the source area as pulses of recharge passed through the unsaturated zone, but not other gasoline constituents were detected. Apparently, the most degradable fraction of the gasoline (aromatic hydrocarbons) is being attenuated in the vadose zone before the water table is reached.

  1. ANALYTICAL DATA SHEET ANALYTICAL DEPT. - HEALTH AhD SAFETY DlVlSlDN

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ANALYTICAL DEPT. - HEALTH AhD SAFETY DlVlSlDN I -. . Industrial Hygiene or Medical Dept. 1956 I. H.# 984 Sample Nos. l2 Date Collected- o/2g by&- Route to J" Location SSi4.X CUiTn! CXJitP. Type of Sample&-dust Analyzed for F Alpha x Remarks P~UXC~JGIi.' ON. 14lCI11~ U Beta - IIoll0Wi.n~ slucs - NO, Ra Oil PH Be Th Sample No. 7573p Hour Sample Description 1355 CZ Orxxator sets slul: into place, closes shield over machine S starts &ill. oil coolant flows through hollow drill ____

  2. DEPXRTMEKT OF ENV]RO~:MENTAL F'ROTECTION DlVklOh OF

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    . * @.+<, .-- v 7, -e -5 u i' ;. - - : ,.:,, 4-.1M-4. a". : ' - l-1 &dp d 3-m 3jPr5Py DEPXRTMEKT OF ENV]RO~:MENTAL F'ROTECTION DlVklOh OF ~NVIR0N~Eh~A.L OUR' tiIn - . BUREAU OF R&DllmcN t=ROTE~lOH ' 1 ,_ jBD 5cOTCH ROAD. ~R~%~obi. fd. 1. 08628 .' - ._ -_ _ . . : S=_srterrjer 27, 1977 - ,. _ :.- ,_..I \ L . x=- a-. JEC): f' eust C--l L-9 ,c:c- -*r 2ze E&f&y _3=iz=Et=g cr;i\' ==Siq ' ---res"LE;, c2iiIps - de- ~-z7~~to3, Bew --d Jersey DE540 3ez' -- . w- Tecsk: i 25,

  3. Interpretations of Tracer Tests Performed in the Culebra Dolomite at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MEIGS,LUCY C.; BEAUHEIM,RICHARD L.; JONES,TOYA L.

    2000-08-01

    This report provides (1) an overview of all tracer testing conducted in the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WPP) site, (2) a detailed description of the important information about the 1995-96 tracer tests and the current interpretations of the data, and (3) a summary of the knowledge gained to date through tracer testing in the Culebra. Tracer tests have been used to identify transport processes occurring within the Culebra and quantify relevant parameters for use in performance assessment of the WIPP. The data, especially those from the tests performed in 1995-96, provide valuable insight into transport processes within the Culebra. Interpretations of the tracer tests in combination with geologic information, hydraulic-test information, and laboratory studies have resulted in a greatly improved conceptual model of transport processes within the Culebra. At locations where the transmissivity of the Culebra is low (< 4 x 10{sup -6} m{sup 2}/s), we conceptualize the Culebra as a single-porosity medium in which advection occurs largely through the primary porosity of the dolomite matrix. At locations where the transmissivity of the Culebra is high (> 4 x 10{sup -6} m{sup 2}/s), we conceptualize the Culebra as a heterogeneous, layered, fractured medium in which advection occurs largely through fractures and solutes diffuse between fractures and matrix at multiple rates. The variations in diffusion rate can be attributed to both variations in fracture spacing (or the spacing of advective pathways) and matrix heterogeneity. Flow and transport appear to be concentrated in the lower Culebra. At all locations, diffusion is the dominant transport process in the portions of the matrix that tracer does not access by flow.

  4. The occurrence of freshwater limestones in the Upper Pennsylvanian and lower Permian of the northern Appalachian basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eggleston, J.R. ); Ferdinand, L.F. )

    1990-05-01

    Freshwater limestones comprise a significant portion of the Upper Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian strata of the northern Appalachian basin. In some areas, the Monogahela Group consists of as much as 50% freshwater limestones. These limestones are clayey to silty, iron-bearing, sparsely fossiliferous, micritic, and thinly bedded or nodular and are presumed to be lacustrine in origin. They are part of a recurring sequence of beds that include coal, sandstone, shale/clay, and marine limestone. The initial goals of this study are to develop a stratigraphic framework for these freshwater limestones and to determine, their lateral continuity, thickness variability, and relation to other beds in this section, in particular the coals, on a regional scale. The Pittsburgh coal and Ames limestone are very persistent regionally and are used as a datum. Regional correlations show that possibly 20 freshwater limestone beds are persistent and widespread; some cover at least 5,000 mi{sup 2} in eastern Ohio, western Pennsylvania, northern West Virginia and western Maryland. Cross sections and fence diagrams constructed from drill logs and measured sections indicate that the thickness of these limestone beds varies laterally and between beds, ranging from less than 1 to 150 ft thick. Correlations also show stratigraphic and paleogeographic relationships between the coals and freshwater limestones. Many of the limestones underlie coal beds, directly in some places. The coals and limestones are better developed in the northern part of the Appalachian basin. These associations may hold significant clues to the depositional and the paleoclimatic setting of the freshwater limestones and the coals.

  5. Early Permian deep-water allochthonous limestone facies and reservoir, west Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobson, J.P.; Caldwell, C.D.; Toomey, D.F.

    1985-12-01

    Conventional cores from six wells in southwest Reagan and northern Crockett Counties, Texas, recovered interbedded limestone conglomerate, intraclast and bioclast limestone, calcarenite, and shale. Twenty-one lithologies are grouped into six lithofacies based on study of slabbed core surfaces. The limestone facies are interpreted on the basis of petrologic characteristics, biota regional stratigraphic setting, and facies stratigraphy as deep water and allochthonous. Biotic constituents within the lithoclasts and matrix indicate an Early Permian (Wolfcamp) age. Age and facies determinations from cores in the Gunnx area significantly alter earlier stratigraphic interpretations made with wireline logs alone. Late Paleozoic allochthonous carbonate facies may provide significant new reserves in the Permian basin. 19 figures, 2 tables.

  6. Expression, purification and preliminary X-ray characterization of dl-2-haloacid dehalogenase from Methylobacterium sp. CPA1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omi, Rie; Jitsumori, Keiji; Yamauchi, Takahiro; Ichiyama, Susumu; Kurihara, Tatsuo; Esaki, Nobuyoshi; Kamiya, Nobuo; Hirotsu, Ken Miyahara, Ikuko

    2007-07-01

    A recombinant form of dl-2-haloacid dehalogenase from Methylobacterium sp. CPA1 has been expressed in E. coli, purified and crystallized. The crystal belongs to space group P6{sub 3}. Diffraction data have been collected to 1.75 Å resolution. dl-2-Haloacid dehalogenase from Methylobacterium sp. CPA1 (dl-DEX Mb) is a unique enzyme that catalyzes the dehalogenation reaction without the formation of an ester intermediate. A recombinant form of dl-DEX Mb has been expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystal belongs to the hexagonal space group P6{sub 3}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 186.2, c = 114.4 Å. The crystals are likely to contain between four and eight monomers in the asymmetric unit, with a V{sub M} value of 4.20–2.10 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1}. A self-rotation function revealed peaks on the χ = 180° section. X-ray data have been collected to 1.75 Å resolution.

  7. Rapid method to determine actinides and 89/90Sr in limestone and marble samples

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian; Hutchison, Jay B.; Utsey, Robin C.; Sudowe, Ralf; McAlister, Daniel R.

    2016-04-12

    A new method for the determination of actinides and radiostrontium in limestone and marble samples has been developed that utilizes a rapid sodium hydroxide fusion to digest the sample. Following rapid pre-concentration steps to remove sample matrix interferences, the actinides and 89/90Sr are separated using extraction chromatographic resins and measured radiometrically. The advantages of sodium hydroxide fusion versus other fusion techniques will be discussed. Lastly, this approach has a sample preparation time for limestone and marble samples of <4 hours.

  8. Rate of reaction of hydrogen sulfide-carbonyl sulfide mixtures with fully calcined dolomite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamath, V.S.; Petrie, T.W.

    1981-01-01

    Kinetic data are obtained by a gravimetric technique for rates of reaction of calcium oxide in fully calcined dolomite with hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen sulfide-carbonyl sulfide mixtures. The data are presented as values for a factor k defined by d(CAO) = -k (CAO) dt. At 600, 700, and 800 degrees C with (H/sub 2/S) from 0.5% to 5.0% by volume and (H/sub 2/S)/(COS) = 20 for mixtures, expressions for k show apparent rate constants and the dependence on sulfurous gas concentration. For example, at 700 degrees C, k = 1.43 x 10/sup -4/ (h2s) 1.06/S and k = 1.70 x 10/sup -4/ (H/sub 2/S + COS) 1.00/s. Since the date show first-order dependence on calcium oxide, k's for H/sub 2/S alone as the sulfurous gas and h2s-cos mixtures can be obtained for the same sample, free from scatter due to variations from sample to sample. Addition of values for k from runs with H/sub 2/S as the only sulfurous gas and runs with COS as the only sulfurous gas are compared to measurements with actual mixtures. K's for the mixtures are approximately 30% higher than the sum of the appropriate separate values.

  9. Seismic model of a progradational carbonate platform, Picco di Vallandro, the Dolomites, northern Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biddle, K.T.; Bush, T.L. ); Schlager, W. ); Rudolph, K.W. )

    1992-01-01

    The authors present a seismic model of a well-exposed carbonate platform-to-basin transition from the Triassic succession at Picco di Vallandro, the Dolomites, northern Italy. The core of this model is a detailed lithologic cross section that represents 1,500 m of stratigraphic section over a distance of 3.5 km. The cross section is based on detailed measured sections, photo interpretation, and careful projection of surface mapping into the plane of section. Samples from the measured sections provide control on velocity and density distribution, and these data were used to generate an impedance model from the cross section. The impedance model was convolved with a zero-phase, 25-Hz peak-frequency wavelet to produce the seismic model. The results illustrate how the platform-to-basin transition might be imaged by conventional seismic reflection data, how the reflections relate to the distribution of lithology and through-going geological surfaces, and how constructive and destructive interference and seismic resolution combine to produce individual reflections.

  10. Development strategy in a fractured dolomite reservoir, Permian Basin, Southwestern USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Major, R.P.; Holtz, M.H.

    1995-06-01

    The Permian (Guadalupian) San Andres reservoir at Keystone field, in Winkler County, Texas, is divided into 3 major stratigraphic units and 12 flow units on the basis of multiple upward-shoaling cycles of shallow-water marine to tidal-flat carbonate facies. Minor amounts of siliciclastic material concentrated in tidal-flat rocks impart a gamma-ray signature that allows correlation with well logs. These rocks are now thoroughly dolomitized and cemented with anhydrite and gypsum. Most of the resource is in the upper five flow units, and the original upper flow units indicates that the highest concentration of hydrocarbons is in the center of the study area, with a 1,500-ft-wide, 100-ft-thick fairway of high saturations having a northwest-southeast trend. Matrix permeabilities in this reservoir are very low, commonly less than 1 md in rocks having porosities of nearly 10 percent. Now wells in areas of highest original oil in place initially produce at rates up to 120 barrels of oil per day. However, these high production rates are commonly short lived and decline an average of 75 percent in the first 6 months. Vertical fractures in this reservoir are visible in cores and on a microimage log. Early floodwater breakthrough occurred without increased oil production in a pilot waterflood. These production characteristics, combined with direct observations of fractures, indicate that productivity is dependent on fracture permeability. Borehole asymmetry and regional stress measurements suggest that the direction of principal compressive stress, which dictates the strike of fractures that effectively transmit fluids, is northeast-southwest. Thus, horizontal boreholes parallel to the strike of maximum oil volume and perpendicular to the strike of effective fractures will maximize primary recovery. Recognition that injected water must load fractures before effectively sweeping the matrix will be critical in designing an effective waterflood.

  11. Petrography study of two siliceous limestones submitted to alkali-silica reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monnin, Y. . E-mail: monnin@ensm-douai.fr; Degrugilliers, P.; Bulteel, D.; Garcia-Diaz, E.

    2006-08-15

    This study presents the contribution of petrography to the comprehension of the alkali-silica reaction mechanism applied to two siliceous limestones. A petrography study was made on the two aggregates before reaction to define their relative proportions and types of reactive silica and to observe their distribution in the microstructure. Then a model reactor, constituted by the reactive siliceous limestone aggregate, portlandite and NaOH, was used to measure the swelling due to reaction of the silica with alkalis and the free expansion of the aggregates. The volume evolution between both aggregates was very different and could be explained by the preliminary petrographic study. It appears that the swelling of the aggregates is conditioned by the microstructure of the carbonated matrix, the quantity and the distribution of the reactive silica.

  12. A Novel Treatment for Acid Mine Drainage Utilizing Reclaimed Limestone Residual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horace K. Moo-Young; Charles E. Ochola

    2004-08-31

    The viability of utilizing Reclaimed Limestone Residual (RLR) to remediate Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) was investigated. Physical and chemical characterization of RLR showed that it is composed of various minerals that contain significant quantities of limestone or calcium bearing compounds that can be exploited for acid neutralization. Acid Neutralization Potential (ANP) test results showed that RLR has a neutralization potential of approximately 83% as calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}). Neutralization tests with most of the heavy metals associated with AMD showed removal efficiencies of over 99%. An unexpected benefit of utilizing RLR was the removal of hexavalent chromium Cr (VI) from the aqueous phase. Due to an elevation in pH by RLR most AMD heavy metals are removed from solution by precipitation as their metal hydroxides. Cr (VI) however is not removed by pH elevation and therefore subsequent ongoing tests to elucidate the mechanism responsible for this reaction were conducted.

  13. Large-scale exploratory tests of sodium/limestone concrete interactions. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randich, E.; Smaardyk, J.E.; Acton, R.U.

    1983-02-01

    Eleven large-scale tests examining the interaction of molten sodium and limestone (calcite) concrete were performed. The tests typically used between 100 and 200 kg of sodium at temperatures between 723 K and 973 K and a total sodium/concrete contact area of approx. 1.0m/sup 2/. The results show that energetic reactions can occur between sodium and limestone concrete. Delay times of less than 30 minutes were observed before the onset of the energetic phase. Not all tests exhibited energetic reactions and the results indicate that there is a sodium temperature threshold of 723 K to 773 K which is necessary to initiate the energetic phase. Maximum heat fluxes during the energetic phase were measured at 3.6 x 10/sup 5/ J/m/sup 2/-s. Maximum penetration rates were 4 mm/min. Total concrete erosion varied from 1 to 15 cm.

  14. Intermediate-scale sodium-concrete reaction tests with basalt and limestone concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassberger, J.A.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    1981-01-01

    Ten tests were performed to investigate the chemical reactions and rate and extent of attack between sodium and basalt and limestone concretes. Test temperatures ranged from 510 to 870/sup 0/C (950 to 1600/sup 0/F) and test times from 2 to 24 hours. Sodium hydroxide was added to some of the tests to assess the impact of a sodium hydroxide-aided reaction on the overall penetration characteristics. Data suggest that the sodium penetration of concrete surfaces is limited. Penetration of basalt concrete in the presence of sodium hydroxide is shown to be less severe than attack by the metallic sodium alone. Presence of sodium hydroxide changes the characteristics of sodium penetration of limestone concrete, but no major differences in bulk penetration were observed as compared to penetration by metallic sodium.

  15. Water quality changes in acid mine drainage streams in Gangneung, Korea, 10 years after treatment with limestone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shim, Moo Joon; Choi, Byoung Young; Lee, Giehyeon; Hwang, Yun Ho; Yang, Jung-Seok; O'Loughlin, Edward J.; Kwon, Man Jae

    2015-12-01

    To determine the long-term effectiveness of the limestone treatment for acid mine drainage (AMD) in Gangneung, Korea, we investigated the elemental distribution in streams impacted by AMD and compared the results of previous studies before and approximately 10 years after the addition of limestone. Addition of limestone in 1999 leads to a pH increase in 2008, and with the exception of Ca, the elemental concentrations (e.g., Fe, Mn, Mg, Sr, Ni, Zn, S) in the streams decreased. The pH was 2.5–3 before the addition of limestone and remained stable at around 4.5–5 from 2008 to 2011, suggesting the reactivity of the added limestone was diminished and that an alternative approach is needed to increase the pH up to circumneutral range and maintain effective long-term treatment. To identify the processes causing the decrease in the elemental concentrations, we also examined the spatial (approximately 7 km) distribution over three different types of streams affected by the AMD. The elemental distribution was mainly controlled by physicochemical processes including redox reactions, dilution on mixing, and co-precipitation/adsorption with Fe (hydr)oxides.

  16. Water-rock interaction during meteoric flushing of a limestone: Implications for porosity development in karstified petroleum reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smalley, P.C. ); Bishop, P.K. . School of Earth Sciences); Dickson, J.A.D. . Dept. of Earth Sciences); Emery, D. )

    1994-04-01

    The Lincolnshire Limestone, comprising a succession of Jurassic wackestones, packstones, and oolitic grainstones, forms an important carbonate aquifer in eastern England. Meteoric waters enter at outcrop and penetrate between confining strata at least 25 km down-dip. This water dissolves and interacts with the limestone, and even water samples collected at or near outcrop are calcite-saturated. Net limestone dissolution is thus a process that is most dominant in the near-surface environment. Water samples taken at increasing distances from outcrop have increasing Sr and Mg contents, and [delta][sup 13]C values of dissolved bicarbonate increase from [minus]15[per thousand] to [minus]8[per thousand] (PDB), while [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr falls from 0.7082 to 0.7077. Isotopically light bulk-rock carbon near joint surfaces suggests that reprecipitation of calcite in the form of cement could be concentrated preferentially in and near joints. The Lincolnshire Limestone may be used as an analogue for karstified petroleum reservoirs, specifically those which have been buried and lost their unstable carbonate minerals (aragonite, high-Mg calcite) prior to uplift and karstification. The present water chemical data suggest that, in such reservoirs, influx of meteoric water at an unconformity creates porosity and enhances permeability through limestone dissolution, but this may be concentrated close (tens of meters) to the unconformity. Such factors should be taken into account when exploring for, and appraising, karstified petroleum reservoirs.

  17. AEC Lowman Station FGD conversion from limestone to magnesium-enhanced lime scrubbing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inkenhaus, W.; Babu, M.; Smith, K.; Loper, L.

    1996-12-31

    AEC`s Lowman Station is located in Leroy, Alabama. Units 2 and 3, with a total of 516 MW output capacity, were switched from the limestone FGD operation in January of 1996. Prior to switching, personnel from AEC and Dravo Lime Company conducted a four week test on magnesium-enhanced lime and obtained scrubber performance data including SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies on the modulus while burning higher sulfur coal. It was determined that the plant could take advantage of the higher SO{sub 2} removal efficiency of the magnesium-enhanced lime system. Major benefits resulting from this conversion were AEC`s ability to switch to a lower cost high sulfur coal while meeting the stringent SO{sub 2} emission requirements. Power cost savings resulted from the lower liquid to gas ratio required by the magnesium-enhanced lime process. Three recirculation pumps per module were reduced to a single operating pump per module, lowering the scrubber pressure drop. Significant cost reduction in the operating costs of the ball mill was realized due to modifications made to slake lime instead of grinding limestone. This paper discusses the plant modifications that were needed to make the switch, cost justifications, and AEC`s operating experiences to date. AEC and Dravo Lime Company working together as a team conducted detailed cost studies that followed with extended field tests and implementing plant modifications. This plant continues to operate in the magnesium-enhanced lime FGD mode to date.

  18. Establishing the Relationship between Fracture-Related Dolomite and Primary Rock Fabric on the Distribution of Reservoirs in the Michigan Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Michael Grammer

    2006-09-30

    This topical report covers the year 2 of the subject 3-year grant, evaluating the relationship between fracture-related dolomite and dolomite constrained by primary rock fabric in the 3 most prolific reservoir intervals in the Michigan Basin (Ordovician Trenton-Black River Formations; Silurian Niagara Group; and the Devonian Dundee Formation). The characterization of select dolomite reservoirs has been the major focus of our efforts in Phase II/Year 2. Fields have been prioritized based upon the availability of rock data for interpretation of depositional environments, fracture density and distribution as well as thin section, geochemical, and petrophysical analyses. Structural mapping and log analysis in the Dundee (Devonian) and Trenton/Black River (Ordovician) suggest a close spatial relationship among gross dolomite distribution and regional-scale, wrench fault related NW-SE and NE-SW structural trends. A high temperature origin for much of the dolomite in the 3 studied intervals (based upon initial fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures and stable isotopic analyses,) coupled with persistent association of this dolomite in reservoirs coincident with wrench fault-related features, is strong evidence for these reservoirs being influenced by hydrothermal dolomitization. For the Niagaran (Silurian), a comprehensive high resolution sequence stratigraphic framework has been developed for a pinnacle reef in the northern reef trend where we had 100% core coverage throughout the reef section. Major findings to date are that facies types, when analyzed at a detailed level, have direct links to reservoir porosity and permeability in these dolomites. This pattern is consistent with our original hypothesis of primary facies control on dolomitization and resulting reservoir quality at some level. The identification of distinct and predictable vertical stacking patterns within a hierarchical sequence and cycle framework provides a high degree of confidence at this point

  19. Laboratory evaluation of limestone and lime neutralization of acidic uranium mill tailings solution. Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Opitz, B.E.; Dodson, M.E.; Serne, R.J.

    1984-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to evaluate a two-step neutralization scheme for treatment of acidic uranium mill tailings solutions. Tailings solutions from the Lucky Mc Mill and Exxon Highland Mill, both in Wyoming, were neutralized with limestone, CaCO/sub 3/, to an intermediate pH of 4.0 or 5.0, followed by lime, Ca(OH)/sub 2/, neutralization to pH 7.3. The combination limestone/lime treatment methods, CaCO/sub 3/ neutralization to pH 4 followed by neutralization with Ca(OH)/sub 2/ to pH 7.3 resulted in the highest quality effluent solution with respect to EPA's water quality guidelines. The combination method is the most cost-effective treatment procedure tested in our studies. Neutralization experiments to evaluate the optimum solution pH for contaminant removal were performed on the same two tailings solutions using only lime Ca(OH)/sub 2/ as the neutralizing agent. The data indicate solution neutralization above pH 7.3 does not significantly increase removal of pH dependent contaminants from solution. Column leaching experiments were performed on the neutralized sludge material (the precipitated solid material which forms as the acidic tailings solutions are neutralized to pH 4 or above). The sludges were contacted with laboratory prepared synthetic ground water until several effluent pore volumes were collected. Effluent solutions were analyzed for macro ions, trace metals and radionuclides in an effort to evaluate the long term effectiveness of attenuating contaminants in sludges formed during solution neutralization. Neutralized sludge leaching experiments indicate that Ca, Na, Mg, Se, Cl, and SO/sub 4/ are the only constituents which show solution concentrations significantly higher than the synthetic ground water in the early pore volumes of long-term leaching studies.

  20. Seismic models of a carbonate foreslope-to-basin transition, Picco di Vallandro, Dolomite Alps, northern Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudolph, K.W. ); Schlager, W. ); Biddle, K.T. )

    1989-05-01

    Detailed geologic cross sections, augmented by laboratory calibration of lithology and acoustic impedance, have been used to produce synthetic reflection seismic sections of a carbonate foreslope-to-basin transition. Two areas from the Picco di Vallandro region of the Dolomite Alps were modeled: a progradational section and a retrogradational (backstepping) section. The resulting models show how these complex areas of strata interfingering might be displayed on conventional reflection seismic lines. In the area of progradation, rapid stratigraphic thinning below seismic detectibility, coupled with abrupt impedance changes, produces a reflection discontinuity between steeply dipping reflections of the foreslope and gently dipping paralle reflections of the basin section. This apparent downlap surface marks the toe-of-slope for successive clinoforms but dose not correspond to a discrete stratigraphic surface. In the backstepping example, similar stratigraphic thinning and impedance changes create an apparent onlap surface. Wavelet interference causes complications in both examples. These models indicate how stratigraphic complexity can be simplified by the seismic reflection process and suggest that caution should be exercised when using seismic data to construct general models in areas of complex depositional geometries and rapidly changing facies.

  1. ARM - Datastreams - dl

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Datastreamsdl Documentation Data Quality Plots Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Error occurred. No datastream found.

  2. Re-examination of laminated osagid grains from a Lower Permian midcontinent limestone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toomey, D.F. ); Lowenstein, T.K. ); Mitchell, R.W. )

    1989-02-01

    Osagid grains from the Lower Permian (Wolfcamp) Winfield Limestone of southern Kansas-northern Oklahoma are small accretionary structures formed in shallow, well-agitated waters on a carbonate shelf. Osagid grains consist of small shell fragments serving as nuclei, which during formation were rolled about and coated by roughly concentric algal-foraminiferal laminations. Their shapes range from round to subround to elliptical, dependent primarily on the size and shape of the shell nuclei. Grain laminae are dark micrite which in places contain tubules of the blue-green alga Girvanella, and/or various encrusting foraminifers, with either calcareous or agglutinated tests, or intermixtures of all three components. Formic acid etching of individual osagid grains indicates that the agglutinated foraminiferal component is of greater importance than previously believed and can be their principal biotic component. Girvanella tubules appear to be most susceptible to diagenetic alteration, with the end-product generally a dark, micritic groundmass of algal dust. Since these accretionary structures are not true biological species, the generic term Osagia should be dropped and these structures should be called osgid grains.

  3. Cycle stratigraphy and porosity in Pennsylvanian and Lower Permian shelf limestones, eastern Central Basin Platform, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saller, A.H.; Dickson, J.A.D.; Boyd, S.A.

    1994-12-01

    Pennyslvanian and Lower Permian shelfal limestones were studied in core and wireline logs on the eastern side of the Central Basin platform in west Texas. Sixty-three (63) cycles were delineated in the study interval, which includes 200-250 m of Canyon (Missourian), Cisco (Virgilian), and Wolfcamp strata. Four general lithofacies are present: fossiliferous wackestones and packstones, grainstones, phylloid algal boundstones, and shales. These lithologies typically occur in 1-18-m-thick cycles bounded by subaerial exposure surfaces. Grainstones in the upper part of some cycles indicate a shallowing of environments prior to subaerial exposure. Many cycles have subaerial exposure surfaces developed on subtidal fossiliferous wackestones or packstones suggesting rapid falls in sea level. Long-term transgressive intervals (transgressive systems tracts or TST) are dominated by thick (>4 m) cycles, whereas long-term regressive intervals (highstand systems tract or HST) are dominated by thinner cycles. Stable carbon isotope data suggest that thick cycles in TSTs were subjected to short periods of subaerial exposure, whereas thin cycles in the HSTs were subjected to much longer subaerial exposure. Where present, reservoir-grade porosity occurs in the upper part of cycles, 0.3-5 m below subaerial exposure surfaces. Prolonged subaerial exposure apparently reduced matrix porosity by allowing more time for calcite precipitation, which was especially effective in reducing porosity in micritic strata below exposure surfaces.

  4. The economic impact of removing chloride from closed-loop wet limestone FGD systems. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, J.L.; Horton, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    High chloride concentrations in wet limestone FGD systems increase the corrosion rates of certain materials and decrease SO{sub 2} removal efficiency and limestone utilization. This study revealed four different technologies that could be used to control chloride concentrations in closed-loop wet limestone FGD systems: reverse osmosis, electrodialysis reversal, vapor compression evaporation, and duct injection. This two-volume report describes each option in detail, discusses the basis for selecting the chloride threshold levels along with approximate cost estimates for combined chloride removal and waste disposal options, and presents flow sheets and detailed material balances for the least-cost combined options. The total annualized costs for chloride removal and waste disposal estimated in this study for a 300-MW plant range from 0.8 to 1.3 mils/kWh for controlling chloride at 3000 ppm to prevent corrosion and range from 0.3 to 0.7 mils/kWh for controlling chloride at 15,000 ppm to prevent decreased SO{sub 2} removal. The design coal has a relatively high chloride-to-sulfur ratio; costs for other coals would be lower.

  5. The economic impact of removing chloride from closed-loop wet limestone GFD systems. Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, J.L.; Horton, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    High chloride concentrations in wet limestone FGD systems increase the corrosion rates of certain materials and decrease SO{sub 2} removal efficiency and limestone utilization. This study revealed four different technologies that could be used to control chloride concentrations in closed-loop wet limestone FGD systems: reverse osmosis, electrodialysis reversal, vapor compression evaporation, and duct injection. This two-volume report describes each option in detail, discusses the basis for selecting the chloride threshold levels along with approximate cost estimates for combined chloride removal and waste disposal options, and presents flow sheets and detailed material balances for the least-cost combined options. The total annualized costs for chloride removal and waste disposal estimated in this study for a 300-MW plant range from 0.8 to 1.3 mils/kWh for controlling chloride at 3000 ppm to prevent corrosion and range from 0.3 to 0.7 mils/kWh for controlling chloride at 15,000 ppm to prevent decreased SO{sub 2} removal. The design coal has a relatively high chloride-to-sulfur ratio; costs for other coals would be lower.

  6. 3D mapping of water in oolithic limestone at atmospheric and vacuum saturation using X-ray micro-CT differential imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boone, M.A.; De Kock, T.; Bultreys, T.; De Schutter, G.; Vontobel, P.; Van Hoorebeke, L.; Cnudde, V.

    2014-11-15

    Determining the distribution of fluids in porous sedimentary rocks is of great importance in many geological fields. However, this is not straightforward, especially in the case of complex sedimentary rocks like limestone, where a multidisciplinary approach is often needed to capture its broad, multimodal pore size distribution and complex pore geometries. This paper focuses on the porosity and fluid distribution in two varieties of Massangis limestone, a widely used natural building stone from the southeast part of the Paris basin (France). The Massangis limestone shows locally varying post-depositional alterations, resulting in different types of pore networks and very different water distributions within the limestone. Traditional techniques for characterizing the porosity and pore size distribution are compared with state-of-the-art neutron radiography and X-ray computed microtomography to visualize the distribution of water inside the limestone at different imbibition conditions. X-ray computed microtomography images have the great advantage to non-destructively visualize and analyze the pore space inside of a rock, but are often limited to the larger macropores in the rock due to resolution limitations. In this paper, differential imaging is successfully applied to the X-ray computed microtomography images to obtain sub-resolution information about fluid occupancy and to map the fluid distribution in three dimensions inside the scanned limestone samples. The detailed study of the pore space with differential imaging allows understanding the difference in the water uptake behavior of the limestone, a primary factor that affects the weathering of the rock. - Highlights: • The water distribution in a limestone was visualized in 3D with micro-CT. • Differential imaging allowed to map both macro and microporous zones in the rock. • The 3D study of the pore space clarified the difference in water uptake behavior. • Trapped air is visualized in the moldic

  7. Regional analysis of rhythmic bedding in the Fort Hays limestone member, Niobrara Formation (Upper Cretaceous), US western interior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laferriere, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    Results of a regional stratigraphic investigation of the rhythmically bedded Fort Hays limestone member of Kansas, Colorado, and New Mexico indicate at least two levels of cyclicity. Regional development of these cycles strongly supports the hypothesis that they are climatic in origin. Departures from simple cyclical patterns resulted from sedimentary effects of Late Cretaceous orogenic activity, erosional events associated with eustatic sea level changes, diagenetic modification, and possibly from interference between orbital parameters having different periodicities. The vulnerability of Milankovitch-type cyclicity to overprinting by tectono-sedimentologic effects makes units such as the Fort Hays useful as indicators of subtle tectonic activity. Regional thickness changes in groups of shale-limestone couplets were identified, correlated, and mapped in the subsurface using geophysical well log information in order to locate subtle structural elements that influenced Fort Hays sedimentation. In the Denver-Julesburg Basin of Colorado and western Kansas, thinning of the section between Fort Hays marker horizons occurs dominantly along northeastwardly trending belts that resulted apparently from Late Cretaceous reactivation of the Transcontinental Arch. Isotopic and petrographic analyses were conducted on pelagic (carbonate matrix) and benthic (inoceramid bivalve) constituents of selected shale/limestone couplets. These data suggest that there was little difference in temperature or salinity between times of terrigenous detrital input and times of nearly pure carbonate deposition. Isotopic information from matrix samples suggests a westward decrease in salinity of surface water in the Western Interior Sea. Isotopic data from largely unaltered inoceramid bivalves indicate bottom-water conditions of near-normal marine salinity.

  8. Modeling dolomitized carbonate-ramp reservoirs: A case study of the Seminole San Andres unit. Part 2 -- Seismic modeling, reservoir geostatistics, and reservoir simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, F.P.; Dai, J.; Kerans, C.

    1998-11-01

    In part 1 of this paper, the authors discussed the rock-fabric/petrophysical classes for dolomitized carbonate-ramp rocks, the effects of rock fabric and pore type on petrophysical properties, petrophysical models for analyzing wireline logs, the critical scales for defining geologic framework, and 3-D geologic modeling. Part 2 focuses on geophysical and engineering characterizations, including seismic modeling, reservoir geostatistics, stochastic modeling, and reservoir simulation. Synthetic seismograms of 30 to 200 Hz were generated to study the level of seismic resolution required to capture the high-frequency geologic features in dolomitized carbonate-ramp reservoirs. Outcrop data were collected to investigate effects of sampling interval and scale-up of block size on geostatistical parameters. Semivariogram analysis of outcrop data showed that the sill of log permeability decreases and the correlation length increases with an increase of horizontal block size. Permeability models were generated using conventional linear interpolation, stochastic realizations without stratigraphic constraints, and stochastic realizations with stratigraphic constraints. Simulations of a fine-scale Lawyer Canyon outcrop model were used to study the factors affecting waterflooding performance. Simulation results show that waterflooding performance depends strongly on the geometry and stacking pattern of the rock-fabric units and on the location of production and injection wells.

  9. Dolomite, gypsum, and anhydrite in Permian McElroy field, Central Basin platform: genetic and spatial relationships to facies tracts, cyclicity, structure, and pay zones

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Machel, H.G.; Longacre, S.A.

    1989-03-01

    The Permian McElroy field at the eastern margin of the Central Basin platform is part of the giant P.J.W.D.M. field complex. Oil production occurs mainly from the Grayburg Formation, which consists of at least four and possibly five internal sedimentary cycles. Trapping is facilitated by a combination of structure (asymmetrical anticline) and a seal of fine-grained peritidal and supratidal dolostones plugged and overlain by gypsum and anhydrite. Although most oil is located close to the top of the structure, the gross pay zone appears to be subdivided into smaller irregularly shaped pods. The geometry and degree of interconnection of these pods are difficult to predict and may be related to the internal cyclicity as well as to diagenesis and structure. Dolomitization largely enhanced and emplacement of sulfates largely reduced the reservoir quality. Data suggest subhorizontal fluid flow in at least one part of the field during dolomite formation or recrystallization from gypsum-saturated brines. Sulfur and oxygen isotope data of the sulfates scatter from 10.0 to 12.5 /per thousand/ CDT and 10.0 to 14.3 /per thousand/ SMOW, respectively, suggesting precipitation from Late Permian brines and later recrystallization and redistribution accompanied by oxidation of bacterial sulfide, minor mixing with older or younger sulfate, equilibration of isotopically heavier formation waters, or a combination thereof.

  10. Pilot-scale Limestone Emission Control (LEC) process: A development project. Volume 1, Main report and appendices A, B, C, and D: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prudich, M.E.; Appell, K.W.; McKenna, J.D.

    1994-03-01

    ETS, Inc., a pollution consulting firm with headquarters in Roanoke, Virginia, has developed a dry, limestone-based flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. This SO{sub 2} removal system, called Limestone Emission Control (LEC), can be designed for installation on either new or existing coal-fired boilers. In the LEC process, the SO{sub 2} in the flue gas reacts with wetted granular limestone that is contained in a moving bed. A surface layer of principally calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}) is formed on the limestone. Periodic removal of this surface layer by mechanical agitation allows high utilization of the limestone granules. A nominal 5,000 acfm LEC pilot plant has been designed, fabricated and installed on the slipstream of a 70,000 pph stoker boiler providing steam to Ohio University`s Athens, Ohio campus. A total of over 90 experimental trials have been performed using the pilot-scale moving-bed LEC dry scrubber as a part of this research project with run times ranging up to a high of 125 hours. SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies as high as 99.9% were achievable for all experimental conditions studied during which sufficient humidification was added to the LEC bed. The LEC process and conventional limestone scrubbing have been compared on an equatable basis using flue gas conditions that would be expected at the outlet of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) of a 500 MW coal-fired power plant. The LEC was found to have a definite economic advantage in both direct capital costs and operating costs. Based on the success and findings of the present project, the next step in LEC process development will be a full-scale commercial demonstration unit.

  11. Effect of pore pressure on the elastic moduli, porosity and permeability of Berea sandstone and Leuders limestone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, T.W.; Kelkar, S.M.; Gray, K.E.

    1983-02-01

    The behavior of Berea sandstone and Leuders limestone under atmospheric and elevated pore pressures is reported. The porosity and the permeability changes, along with the static and dynamic moduli for these rocks have been determined under various conditions. The existing theoretical background pertinent to the study is reviewed along with the previous experimental work. The detailed descriptions and the discussions on the experimental procedure involved and the equipment utilized are presented. A discussion on the sources of experimental errors is included. It also includes the error propagation equations and relevant discussions on the data acquisition and analysis. The findings are summarized together with a discussion of the results. The conclusions drawn from these results are included. The bulk of the data acquired and the results computed from it are presented.

  12. System for removing solids from a used lime or limestone slurry scrubbing liquor in flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randolph, A.D.

    1981-10-13

    The flue gas desulfurization process using a lime or limestone slurry scrubbing solution produces used liquor containing calcium sulfite or sulfate (Typically gypsum). Precipitated particles are removed by feeding the used scrubbing liquor to an agitated crystallization zone to grow crystals and directing part of the used scrubbing liquor from that zone to a quiescent crystallization zone, in which particles are settled back into the agitated zone. An underflow stream from the agitated zone containing large crystals is combined with an overflow stream from the quiescent zone, which combined stream is clarified with the fines being returned to the scrubber and the large crystals being removed as a waste product. Apparatus for performing the above process in which the agitated and quiescent crystallization zones form part of a single crystallization vessel, and the two zones are separated by a baffle.

  13. Retrofit costs for lime/limestone FGD and lime spray drying at coal-fired utility boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emmel, T.E.; Jones, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    The paper gives results of a research program the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 controls to existing coal-fired utility boilers. The costs of retrofitting conventional lime/limestone wet flue gas desulfurization (L/LS FGD) and lime spray drying (LSD) FGD at 100-200 coal-fired power plants are being estimated under this program. The retrofit capital cost estimating procedures used for L/LS FGD and LSD FGD make two cost adjustments to current procedures used to estimate FGD costs: cost adders (for items not normally included in FGD system costs; e.g., demolition and relocation of existing facilities) and cost multipliers (to adjust capital costs for site access, congestion, and underground obstructions).

  14. Pilot-scale limestone emission control (LEC) process: A development project. Volume 1: Main report and appendices A, B, C, and D. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    ETS, Inc., a pollution consulting firm with headquarters in Roanoke, Virginia, has developed a dry, limestone-based flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. This SO{sub 2} removal system, called Limestone Emission Control (LEC), can be designed for installation on either new or existing coal-fired boilers. In the LEC process, the SO{sub 2} in the flue gas reacts with wetted granular limestone that is contained in a moving bed. A surface layer of principally calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}) is formed on the limestone. Periodic removal of this surface layer by mechanical agitation allows high utilization of the limestone granules. The primary goal of the current study is the demonstration of the techno/economic capability of the LEC system as a post-combustion FGD process capable of use in both existing and future coal-fired boiler facilities burning high-sulfur coal. A nominal 5,000 acfm LEC pilot plant has been designed, fabricated and installed on the slipstream of a 70,000 pph stoker boiler providing steam to Ohio University`s Athens, Ohio campus. The pilot plant was normally operated on the slipstream of the Ohio Univ. boiler plant flue gas, but also had the capability of operating at higher inlet SO{sub 2} concentrations (typically equivalent to 3-1/2% sulfur coal) than those normally available from the flue gas slipstream. This was accomplished by injecting SO{sub 2} gas into the slipstream inlet. The pilot plant was instrumented to provide around-the-clock operation and was fully outfitted with temperature, SO{sub 2}, gas flow and pressure drop monitors.

  15. Phase I (Year 1) Summary of Research--Establishing the Relationship between Fracture-Related Dolomite and Primary Rock Fabric on the Distribution of Reservoirs in the Michigan Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Michael Grammer

    2005-11-09

    This topical report covers the first 12 months of the subject 3-year grant, evaluating the relationship between fracture-related dolomite and dolomite constrained by primary rock fabric in the 3 most prolific reservoir intervals in the Michigan Basin (Ordovician Trenton-Black River Formations; Silurian Niagara Group; and the Devonian Dundee Formation). Phase I tasks, including Developing a Reservoir Catalog for selected dolomite reservoirs in the Michigan Basin, Characterization of Dolomite Reservoirs in Representative Fields and Technology Transfer have all been initiated and progress is consistent with our original scheduling. The development of a reservoir catalog for the 3 subject formations in the Michigan Basin has been a primary focus of our efforts during Phase I. As part of this effort, we currently have scanned some 13,000 wireline logs, and compiled in excess of 940 key references and 275 reprints that cover reservoir aspects of the 3 intervals in the Michigan Basin. A summary evaluation of the data in these publications is currently ongoing, with the Silurian Niagara Group being handled as a first priority. In addition, full production and reservoir parameter data bases obtained from available data sources have been developed for the 3 intervals in Excel and Microsoft Access data bases. We currently have an excess of 25 million cells of data for wells in the Basin. All Task 2 objectives are on time and on target for Phase I per our original proposal. Our mapping efforts to date, which have focused in large part on the Devonian Dundee Formation, have important implications for both new exploration plays and improved enhanced recovery methods in the Dundee ''play'' in Michigan--i.e. the interpreted fracture-related dolomitization control on the distribution of hydrocarbon reservoirs. In an exploration context, high-resolution structure mapping using quality-controlled well data should provide leads to convergence zones of fault/fracture trends that are

  16. Recovery and utilization of gypsum and limestone from scrubber sludge. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

    1993-12-31

    Wet flue-gas desulfurization units in coal-fired power plants produce a large amount of sludge which must be disposed of, and which is currently landfilled in most cases. Increasing landfill costs are gradually forcing utilities to find other alternatives. In principle, this sludge can be used to make gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O) for products such as plaster-of-Paris and wallboard, but only if impurities such as unreacted limestone and soluble salts are removed, and the calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}) is oxidized to calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}). This project investigated methods for removing the impurities from the sludge so that high-quality, salable gypsum products can be made. Two processes were studied, both separately and in combination: Water-only cycloning, and froth flotation. A large fraction (30--40%) of the impurities in the sludge are contained in the coarser, higher-density particles, which are readily removed using a water-only cyclone. Much of the remaining impurities are hydrophobic, and can be removed by froth flotation. A combined cyclone/froth flotation process has been found to be suitable for producing a high-purity product from scrubber sludge at low cost.

  17. Numerical simulation of ground-water flow in the Culebra dolomite at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site: Second interim report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaVenue, A.M.; Haug, A.; Kelley, V.A.

    1988-03-01

    This hydrogeologic modeling study has been performed as part of the regional hydrologic characterization of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site in southeastern New Mexico. The study resulted in an estimation of the transmissivity distrubution, hydraulic potentials, flow field, and fluid densities in the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Permian Rustler Formation at the WIPP site. The three-dimensional finite-difference code SWIFT-II was employed for the numerical modeling, using variable-fluid-density and a single-porosity formulation. The modeled area includes and extends beyond the WIPP controlled zone (Zone 3). The work performed consisted of modeling the hydrogeology of the Culebra using two approaches: (1) steady-state modeling to develop the best estimate of the undisturbed head distribution, i.e., of the situation before sinking if the WIPP shafts, which began in 1981; and (2) superimposed transient modeling of local hydrologic responses to excavation of the three WIPP shafts at the center of the WIPP site, as well as to various well tests. Boundary conditions (prescribed constant fluid pressures and densities) were estimated using hydraulic-head and fluid-density data obtained from about 40 wells at and near the WIPP site. The transient modeling used the calculated steady-state freshwater heads as initial conditions. 107 refs., 112 figs., 22 tabs.

  18. Permitting and solid waste management issues for the Bailly Station wet limestone Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization (AFGD) system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bolinsky, F.T. (Pure Air, Allentown, PA (United States)); Ross, J. (Northern Indiana Public Service Co., Hammond, IN (United States)); Dennis, D.S. (United Engineers and Constructors, Inc., Denver, CO (United States). Stearns-Roger Div.); Huston, J.S. (Environmental Alternatives, Inc., Warren NJ (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Pure Air (a general partnership between Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries America, Inc.). is constructing a wet limestone co-current advanced flue gas desulfurization (AFGD) system that has technological and commercial advantages over conventional FGD systems in the United States. The AFGD system is being installed at the Northern Indiana Public Service Company's Bailly Generating Station near Gary, Indiana. The AFGD system is scheduled to be operational by the Summer, 1992. The AFGD system will remove at least 90 percent of the sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in the flue gas from Boilers 7 and 8 at the Station while burning 3.2 percent sulfur coal. Also as part of testing the AFGD system, 95 percent removal of SO{sub 2} will be demonstrated on coals containing up to 4.5 percent sulfur. At the same time that SO{sub 2} is removed from the flue gas, a gypsum by-product will be produced which will be used for wallboard manufacturing. Since the AFGD system is a pollution control device, one would expect its installation to be received favorably by the public and regulatory agencies. Although the project was well received by regulatory agencies, on public group (Save the Dunes Council) was initially concerned since the project is located adjacent to the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. The purpose of this paper is to describe the project team's experiences in obtaining permits/approvals from regulatory agencies and in dealing with the public. 1 ref., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  19. Sequence stratigraphy of carbonate buildups developed in an active tectonic/volcanic setting: Triassic (Late Ladinian and Carnian) of the Dolomites, northern Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yose, L.A. ); Littmann, P. )

    1991-03-01

    Late Ladinian and Carnian deposits of the Dolomites record the evolution of carbonate buildups developed during the waning phases of a major period of volcanism and strike-slip tectonics. Each separate buildup provides an independent record of eustasy, tectonism, and competing carbonate and volcaniclastic sedimentation. Palynomorphs, calibrated with ammonites, are used to correlate between buildups and provide a means for distinguishing local variations in buildup histories from regional, synchronous trends in sedimentation which may record third-order eustasy. Although individual buildup histories vary dramatically, two depositional sequences may be recorded at a regional scale: one of late Ladinian age (early to late Longobardian) and another of late Ladinian to middle Carnian age (late Longobardian to Cordevolian). A relative sea-level fall in the late Ladinian resulted in an increased supply of volcaniclastics that onlap the flanks of many buildups and/or downslope shifts in carbonate production. Buildups of the second sequence developed in response to a relative sea-level rise and are similar in diversity to those of the first sequence. Extensive buildup progradation and accretion during this phase, concomitant with mixed-carbonate/volcaniclastic basin filling and diminished tectonic activity, result in a regional suturing of the complex paleogeography developed during the middle Ladinian. Local paleogeography, determined by the distribution of earlier platforms in addition to tectonic and volcanogenic processes, is interpreted as the primary control over buildup geometries and the variability of buildups within sequences. However, the regional extent and synchroneity of the sequences described above many record third-order eustasy.

  20. Recent advances in use of magnesium-enhanced FGD processes include a natural oxidation limestone scrubber conversion and the first commercial ThioClear{reg{underscore}sign} application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Babu, M; Inkenhaus, W.

    1998-07-01

    The magnesium-enhanced Thiosorbic FGD process, originally developed by the Dravo Lime Company (DLC) in the early 1970's, is used by over 1,400 MW of power generation in the US primarily by high sulfur coal burning utilities. The excellent SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies, high reliability, and cost effectiveness are the hallmarks of this process. DLC personnel working with Alabama Electric Cooperative's (AEC) personnel converted AEC's Units 2 and 3 at the Lowman Station in Alabama from limestone scrubbing to magnesium-enhanced lime scrubbing process in early 1996. These units totaling 516 MW have been in continuous operation, enabling AEC to save on fuel costs by switching to a lower cost, higher sulfur containing coal, made possible by the higher removal efficiency Thiosorbic process modification. The first part of this paper details the modification that were made and compares the performance differences between the limestone and Thiosorbic FGD processes. ThioClear{reg{underscore}sign} FGD is a forced oxidized magnesium-enhanced lime scrubbing process that produces high quality gypsum and magnesium hydroxide as by-products. The recycle liquor in this process is nearly clear and the capability for SO{sub 2} removal is as high as the Thiosorbic process. DLC working with Applied Energy Systems (AES) of Monaca, Pennsylvania, is currently constructing a 130 Mwe station modification to convert from the natural oxidation Thiosorbic process to the forced oxidation ThioClear{reg{underscore}sign} process. The plant is scheduled to start up by the end of the third quarter of this year. The second part oft his paper details the ThioClear process modifications at AES and describes the by-products and their potential uses.

  1. Recent advances in use of magnesium-enhanced FGD processes include a natural oxidation limestone scrubber conversion and the first commercial ThioClear{reg_sign} application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Babu, M.; Inkenhaus, W.

    1998-04-01

    The magnesium-enhanced Thiosorbic FGD process, originally developed by the Dravo Lime Company (DLC) in the early 1970`s, is used by over 1400 MW of power generation in the US primarily by high sulfur coal burning utilities. The excellent SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies, high reliability, and cost effectiveness are the hallmarks of this process. DLC personnel working with Alabama Electric Cooperative`s (AEC) personnel converted AEC`s Units 2 and 3 at the Lowman Station in Alabama from limestone scrubbing to magnesium-enhanced lime scrubbing process in early 1996. These units totaling 516 MW have been in continuous operation, enabling AEC to save on fuel costs by switching to a lower cost, higher sulfur containing coal, made possible by the higher removal efficiency Thiosorbic process modification. The first part of this paper details the modifications that were made and compares the performance differences between the limestone and Thiosorbic FGD processes. ThioClear{reg_sign} FGD is a forced oxidized magnesium-enhanced lime scrubbing process that produces high quality gypsum and magnesium hydroxide as by-products. The recycle liquor in this process is nearly clear and the capability for SO{sub 2} removal is as high as the Thiosorbic process. DLC working with Applied Energy Systems (AES) of Monaca, Pennsylvania, is currently constructing a 130 Mwe station modification to convert from the natural oxidation Thiosorbic process to the forced oxidation ThioClear{reg_sign} process. The plant is scheduled to start up by the end of the third quarter of this year. The second part of this paper details the ThioClear process modifications at AES and describes the by-ducts and their potential uses.

  2. TEAM0.5DL.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Instrument preparation Show how to check basic vacuum functionality and target pressure values (Gun: 1, Liner: 18-20 and Octagon: < 10) Check Gun operate "ON" and ...

  3. CM200DL-Final.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    To reserve a CM200 session, go to wwwncem.lbl.gov, click on "Microscope Scheduling", use proposal number and password to log in. You may only sign up for one Core session at a ...

  4. Microsoft Word - mitchell-dl.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ice crystals of maximum dimension D, P(D) is the projected area for a crystal of maximum dimension D, and N(D) is the ice-crystal particle size distribution. N(D) has units of...

  5. Petrology of lower and middle Eocene carbonate rocks, Floridan aquifer, central Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thayer, P.A.; Miller, J.A.

    1984-09-01

    Study of cores from a US Geological Survey test well near Polk City, Florida, indicates that the Avon Park-Lake City (Claibornian) and Oldsmar (Sabinian) Limestones, which comprise most of the Floridan aquifer in central Florida, can be divided into six microfacies: foraminiferal mudstone, foraminiferal wackestone-packstone, foraminiferal grainstone, nodular anhydrite, laminated dolomicrite, and replacement dolomite. Dolomite containing variable amounts of nodular anhydrite forms more than 90% of the Avon Park-Lake city interval, whereas thte Oldsmar is chiefly limestone. Several episodes of dolomite formation are recognized. Laminated dolomicrite formed syngenetically in a supratidal-sabhka environment. Crystalline dolomite with nodular anhydrite formed early by replacement of limestone through reflux of dense, magnesium-rich brines. Replacement dolomite not associated with evaporites and containing limpid crystals probably formed later by a mixed-water process in the subsurface environment. Late diagenetic processes affecting crystalline dolomites include hydration of anhydrite to gypsum, partial dissolution of gypsum, minor alteration of gypsum to calcite, and dissolution of calcian dolomite cores in stoichiometric crystals. Crystalline dolomite and grainstone are the only rock types that have high enough porosities and permeabilities to provide significant yields of water. Medium and finely crystalline dolomites show best values of porosity and permeability because they have high percentages of intercrystal and moldic pores that are well connected. Filling of pores by anhydrite or gypsum can significantly reduce porosity and permeability.

  6. Generalized thickness and configuration of the top of the intermediate aquifer, West-Central Florida

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corral, M.A. Jr.; Wolansky, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The water-bearing units of the intermediate aquifer consist of discontinuous sand, gravel, shell, and limestone and dolomite beds in the Tamiami Formation of late Miocene age and the Hawthorn Formation of middle Miocene age. Within parts of Polk, Manatee, Hardee, De Soto, Sarasota, and Charlotte Counties, sand and clay beds within the Tampa Limestone that are hydraulically connected to the Hawthorn Formation are also included in the intermediate aquifer. 15 refs.

  7. Distribution of uranium and thorium in dolomitic gravel fill...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Type: Publisher's Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Journal of Hazardous Materials Additional Journal ... (SC), Biological and Environmental Research (BER) (SC-23) Country of ...

  8. Mineral resources of the Cross Mountain Wilderness Study Area, Moffat County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, K.V.; Frisken, J.G.; Kulik, D.M.; Thompson, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Cross Mountain Wilderness Study Area, in northwestern Colorado, contains high-purity limestone suitable for industrial and agricultural use; dolomitic limestone suitable for agricultural use; and limestone, dolomite, sandstone, and sand and gravel suitable for use as construction materials. There has been no mining within this study area. This entire study area has a low mineral resource potential for sediment-hosted copper in the Uinta Mountain Group, and parts of this study area have a low resource potential for sandstone-type uranium-vanadium in sedimentary rocks. The entire study area has a low resource potential for all other metals and geothermal resources. It has a high energy resource potential for oil and gas in the eastern part of the area and moderate potential elsewhere. This study area has no mineral resource potential for coal.

  9. Synthesis and development of processes for the recovery of sulfur from acid gases. Part 1, Development of a high-temperature process for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gas using limestone -- thermodynamic and kinetic considerations; Part 2, Development of a zero-emissions process for recovery of sulfur from acid gas streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Towler, G.P.; Lynn, S.

    1993-05-01

    Limestone can be used more effectively as a sorbent for H{sub 2}S in high-temperature gas-cleaning applications if it is prevented from undergoing calcination. Sorption of H{sub 2}S by limestone is impeded by sintering of the product CaS layer. Sintering of CaS is catalyzed by CO{sub 2}, but is not affected by N{sub 2} or H{sub 2}. The kinetics of CaS sintering was determined for the temperature range 750--900{degrees}C. When hydrogen sulfide is heated above 600{degrees}C in the presence of carbon dioxide elemental sulfur is formed. The rate-limiting step of elemental sulfur formation is thermal decomposition of H{sub 2}S. Part of the hydrogen thereby produced reacts with CO{sub 2}, forming CO via the water-gas-shift reaction. The equilibrium of H{sub 2}S decomposition is therefore shifted to favor the formation of elemental sulfur. The main byproduct is COS, formed by a reaction between CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S that is analogous to the water-gas-shift reaction. Smaller amounts of SO{sub 2} and CS{sub 2} also form. Molybdenum disulfide is a strong catalyst for H{sub 2}S decomposition in the presence of CO{sub 2}. A process for recovery of sulfur from H{sub 2}S using this chemistry is as follows: Hydrogen sulfide is heated in a high-temperature reactor in the presence of CO{sub 2} and a suitable catalyst. The primary products of the overall reaction are S{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. Rapid quenching of the reaction mixture to roughly 600{degrees}C prevents loss Of S{sub 2} during cooling. Carbonyl sulfide is removed from the product gas by hydrolysis back to CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S. Unreacted CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S are removed from the product gas and recycled to the reactor, leaving a gas consisting chiefly of H{sub 2} and CO, which recovers the hydrogen value from the H{sub 2}S. This process is economically favorable compared to the existing sulfur-recovery technology and allows emissions of sulfur-containing gases to be controlled to very low levels.

  10. Limestone County, Alabama: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ardmore, Alabama Athens, Alabama Decatur, Alabama Elkmont, Alabama Huntsville, Alabama Lester, Alabama Madison, Alabama Mooresville, Alabama Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgw...

  11. Diagenesis of early Permian evaporites and carbonates, Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Posey, H.H.; Fisher, R.S.; Hovorka, S.D.; Elliott, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    Anhydrite nodules within dolomite grainstone constitute a characteristic facies marking the transition from open marine deposits of the Lower Permian Wolfcamp Formation into hypersaline dolomite and evaporite deposits of the overlying Wichita Formation. Accompanying this transition is a shift from nodular to bedded anhydrite, a decrease in faunal diversity, finer carbonate grain size, a greater abundance of algae and a decrease in calcite abundance. Anhydrite nodules in the Upper Wolfcamp probably displaced carbonate muds before Wichita deposition. Other diagenetic features include dolomitization, and anhydrite recrystallization and replacement by silica. Sr, C, O and S isotopes help account for many of the primary and diagenetic features. Values for delta/sup 34/S and /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr from unaltered Wichita anhydrite beds (approx.13.5 per thousands and 0.7078) indicate equilibrium with Early Permian seawater. Unaltered Upper Wolfcamp nodules, most abundant in the northeastern Palo Dura Basin, have lighter delta/sup 34/S (approx.12.7 per thousands) but probably record the seawater delta/sup 34/S composition of Early Permian, pre-Wichita Formation seawater. delta/sup 34/S of altered anhydrite nodules, cements and anhydrite veins are 1 to 4 per thousands heavier, probably due to anhydrite reduction during silicification. Dolomite ranges from -1 to +5.5 (delta/sup 13/C, PDB) and -1 to +3(delta/sup 18/O, PDB) whereas limestone ranges from -1 to +7 (delta/sup 13/C) and -4.5 to -2.5 (delta/sup 18/O). Dolomite delta/sup 13/C and delta/sup 18/O values are 2 to 4 thousands heavier than adjacent limestone, suggesting that dolomite and calcite are locally in equilibrium.

  12. Early rifting deposition: examples from carbonate sequences of Sardinia (Cambrian) and Tuscany (Triassic-Jurassic), Italy: an analogous tectono-sedimentary and climatic context

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cocozza, T.; Gandin, A.

    1987-05-01

    Lower Cambrian Ceroide Limestone (Sardinia) and Lower Jurassic Massiccio Limestone (Tuscany) belong to sequences deposited in analogous tectono-sedimentary context: the former linked to the Caledonian Sardic Phase, the latter to the Alpine Orogeny. Both units consist of massive pure limestone characterized by marginal and lagoonal sequences repeatedly interfingering in the same geological structure. This distribution indicates a morphology of the platforms composed of banks (marginal facies) and shallow basins (lagoonal facies) comparable with a Bahamian complex. Dolomitization affects patchily the massive limestone bodies, and karstic features, breccias, and sedimentary dikes occur at their upper boundary. Both units overlie early dolomite and evaporites (sabkha facies) containing siliciclastic intercalations in their lower and/or upper part and are unconformably covered by open-shelf red (hematitic), nodular limestone Ammonitico Rosso facies). The sedimentary evolution of the two sequences appears to have been controlled by synsedimentary tectonics whose major effects are the end of the terrigenous input, the bank-and-basin morphology of the platform, the irregular distribution of the dolomitization, and the nodular fabric of the overlying facies. The end of the Bahamian-type system is marked by the karstification of the emerged blocks and is followed by their differential sinking and burial under red-nodular facies. From a geodynamic viewpoint, sequences composed of Bahamian-like platform carbonates followed by Ammonitico Rosso facies imply deposition along continental margins subjected to block-faulting during an extensional regime connected with the beginning of continental rifting. Moreover, the variation from sabkha to Bahamian conditions suggests the drifting of the continent from arid to humid, tropical areas.

  13. Formation of dl-limonene in used tire vacuum pyrolysis oils. [dipentene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pakdel, H.; Roy, C.; Aubin, H.; Jean, G. ); Coulombe, S. )

    1991-09-01

    Tire recycling has become an important environmental issue recently due to the huge piles of tires that threaten the environment. Thermal decomposition of tire, a synthetic rubber material, enables the recovery of carbon black and liquid hydrocarbon oils. Both have potential economic values. Pyrolysis oils obtained under vacuum conditions contain a significant portion of a volatile, naptha-like fraction with an octane number similar to petroleum naphtha fraction, in addition, contains approximately 15% limonene. Potential applications of vacuum pyrolysis oil and carbon black have been investigated. However, the process economics is greatly influenced by the quality of the oil and carbon black products. This paper discusses limonene formation during used tire vacuum pyrolysis and its postulated reaction mechanism. The limonene separation method from pyrolysis oil, as well as its purification in laboratory scale, and structural characterization are discussed. Large-scale limonene separation and purification is under investigation.

  14. u.s. Dl!PARThIENT OF ENERGY EERE PROJECT MANAGEMENT CENTER NEPA...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    laboratory operations (such as preparation of chemical development, standards and ... characterizing and eliminating remaining defects and fabricating solid-state p-n junctions. ...

  15. 3.1.1.2 Feed Processing and Handling DL2 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Wend, Christopher F.

    2006-09-30

    This milestone report is the deliverable for our Feed Processing and Handling project. It includes results of wet biomass feedstock analysis, slurry pumping information, fungal processing to produce a lignin-rich biorefinery residue and two subcontracted efforts to quantify the amount of wet biomass feedstocks currently available within the corn processing and paper processing industries.

  16. DOE/SC-ARM-13-003 ARM Lead Mentor Selection Process DL Sisterson

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    facility. The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at...

  17. HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Loucks; Steve Ruppel; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jon Olsen; Deanna Combs; Dhiraj Dembla; Leonel Gomez

    2003-12-10

    The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company have assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The characterization phase of the project is utilizing geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. This model will be used to define a field deployment plan that Goldrus, a small independent oil company, will implement by drilling both vertical and horizontal wells during the demonstration phase of the project. Additional reservoir data are being gathered during the demonstration phase to improve the accuracy of the reservoir model. The results of the demonstration will being closely monitored to provide a basis for improving the design of the HPAI field deployment plan. The results of the reservoir characterization field demonstration and monitoring program will be documented and widely disseminated to facilitate adoption of this technology by oil operators in the Permian Basin and elsewhere in the U.S.

  18. CREATING A GEOLOGIC PLAY BOOK FOR TRENTON-BLACK RIVER APPALACHIAN BASIN EXPLORATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas G. Patchen; Katharine Lee Avary; John M. Bocan; Michael Hohn; John B. Hickman; Paul D. Lake; James A. Drahovzal; Christopher D. Laughrey; Jaime Kostelnik; Taury Smith; Ron Riley; Mark Baranoski

    2005-04-01

    The Trenton-Black River Appalachian Basin Research Consortium has made significant progress toward their goal of producing a geologic play book for the Trenton-Black River gas play. The final product will include a resource assessment model of Trenton-Black River reservoirs; possible fairways within which to concentrate further studies and seismic programs; and a model for the origin of Trenton-Black River hydrothermal dolomite reservoirs. All seismic data available to the consortium have been examined. Synthetic seismograms constructed for specific wells have enabled researchers to correlate the tops of 15 stratigraphic units determined from well logs to seismic profiles in New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia and Kentucky. In addition, three surfaces for the area have been depth converted, gridded and mapped. A 16-layer velocity model has been developed to help constrain time-to-depth conversions. Considerable progress was made in fault trend delineation and seismic-stratigraphic correlation within the project area. Isopach maps and a network of gamma-ray cross sections supplemented with core descriptions allowed researchers to more clearly define the architecture of the basin during Middle and Late Ordovician time, the control of basin architecture on carbonate and shale deposition and eventually, the location of reservoirs in Trenton Limestone and Black River Group carbonates. The basin architecture itself may be structurally controlled, and this fault-related structural control along platform margins influenced the formation of hydrothermal dolomite reservoirs in original limestone facies deposited in high energy environments. This resulted in productive trends along the northwest margin of the Trenton platform in Ohio. The continuation of this platform margin into New York should provide further areas with good exploration potential. The focus of the petrographic study shifted from cataloging a broad spectrum of carbonate rocks that occur in the

  19. Stratigraphy of the cambo-ordovician succession in Illnois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lasemi, Yaghoob; Khorasgani, Zohreh; Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    The Upper Cambrian through Lower Ordovician succession (Sauk II-III sequences) in the Illinois Basin covers the entire state of Illinois and most of the states of Indiana and Kentucky. To determine lateral and vertical lithologic variations of the rocks within the Cambro-Ordovician deposits that could serve as reservoir or seal for CO2 storage, detailed subsurface stratigraphic evaluation of the succession in Illinois was conducted. The Cambro-Ordovician succession in the Illinois Basin consists of mixed carbonate-siliciclastic deposits. Its thickness ranges from nearly 800 feet in the extreme northwest to nearly 8000 feet in the Reelfoot Rift in the extreme southeastern part of the state. In northern and central Illinois, the Cambro-Ordovician rocks are classified as the Cambrian Knox and the Ordovician Prairie du Chien Groups, which consist of alternating dolomite and siliciclastic units. In the southern and deeper part of the Illinois Basin, the Cambro-Ordovician deposits consist chiefly of fine to coarsely crystalline dolomite capped by the Middle Ordovician Everton Formation. Detailed facies analysis indicates that the carbonate units consist mainly of mudstone to grainstone facies (fossiliferous/oolitic limestone and dolomite) with relics of bioclasts, ooids, intraclasts and peloids recording deposition on a shallow marine ramp setting. The dominant lithology of the Knox and the overlying Prairie du Chien Group is fine to coarsely crystalline, dense dolomite. However, porous and permeable vugular or fractured/cavernous dolomite intervals that grade to dense fine to coarsely crystalline dolomite are present within the dolomite units. Several hundred barrels of fluid were lost in some of these porous intervals during drilling, indicating high permeability. The sandstone intervals are porous and permeable and are texturally and compositionally mature. The permeable sandstone and porous dolomite intervals are laterally extensive and could serve as important

  20. Petroleum potential of lower and middle Paleozoic rocks in Nebraska portion of Mid-Continent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, M.P. )

    1989-08-01

    Central North America during the Paleozoic was characterized by northern (Williston) and southern (Anadarko) depositional regimes separated by a stable Transcontinental arch. Nebraska lies on the southern flank of this arch and contains the northern zero edges of the lower and middle Paleozoic rocks of the southern regime. Most of these rocks are secondary dolomites with zones of excellent intercrystalline porosity. The Reagan-LaMotte Sandstones and the overlying Arbuckle dolomites are overlapped by Middle Ordovician rocks toward the Transcontinental arch. Rocks equivalent to the Simpson consist of a basal sand (St. Peter) and overlying interbedded gray-green shales and dolomitic limestones. An uppermost shale facies is present in the Upper Ordovician (Viola-Maquoketa) eastward and southward across Nebraska. The dolomite facies extends northward into the Williston basin. The Silurian dolomites, originally more widely deposited, are overlapped by Devonian dolomites in southeastern Nebraska. Upper Devonian rocks exhibit a regional facies change from carbonate to green-gray shale to black shale southeastward across the Mid-Continent. Mississippian carbonates overlap the Devonian westward and northward across the Transcontinental arch. Pennsylvanian uplift and erosion were widespread, producing numerous stratigraphic traps. Sands related to the basal Pennsylvanian unconformity produce along the Cambridge arch. Arbuckle, Simpson, Viola, and Hunton production is present in the Forest City basin and along the Central Kansas uplift. Although source rocks are scarce and the maturation is marginal, current theories of long-distance oil migration encourage exploration in the extensive lower and middle Paleozoic reservoirs in this portion of the Mid-Continent.

  1. Removal of H{sub 2}S by spray-calcined calcium acetate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nimmo, W.; Agnew, J.; Hampartsoumian, E.; Jones, J.M.

    1999-08-01

    The effectiveness of wet-spraying calcium acetate as an alternative to limestone and dolomite for the desulfurization of flue gases (in particular, H{sub 2}S removal from coal gas) has been investigated by experimental studies using drop tube (DTR) and fixed-bed flow reactors (FBR). Calcium acetate solution was spray-calcined in the DTR at temperatures of 1073 and 1323 K. At the lower temperature, conversions approaching 80% were found at the longest residence time studied, 0.8 s. On the other hand, the higher temperature condition initially showed a much greater rate of calcination, indicated by greater conversion at shorter residence times, but was then followed by a much slower rate beyond 0.4 s. The final degree of conversion was in the region of 70%. Batches of spray-calcined calcium acetate (SCA), limestone, and dolomite, prepared in the DTR at 1323 K, to 70% conversion, were sulfided in the FBR at temperatures of 873 and 1173 K to assess their relative sulfur capture reactivities. Significantly higher conversions were achieved by the spray-calcined material, especially at the higher FBR temperature (1173 K) where a difference in conversion of more than 40% was observed. The physical structure of the particles formed from wet-spray calcination were determined by electron microscopy and showed highly porous cenospheres with large internal voids and an outside surface characterized by blowholes of between 1 and 10 {micro}m in diameter. As a consequence, the available surface area for reaction with H{sub 2}S is greater than with limestone or dolomite, producing a 4-fold difference in the level of particle conversion.

  2. China develops natural gas industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    An, Z.

    1982-09-06

    As of 1981, China was producing some 474.4 billion CF (12.74 billion m/sup 3/)/yr of natural gas from over 60 gas fields, 40 of them in Sichuan Province. The Sichuan gas lies in fractures and solution cavities in limestone and dolomite formations that generally require stimulation. After desulfurization, the gas is used by the steel and chemical industries and for residential heating. Recent discoveries in other areas of China include the Guxinzhuang field in the Bohai-North China basin, where geological conditions favor large gas pools, and the Sebei fields in Qaidam basin, northwest China.

  3. Regeneration of sulfated metal oxides and carbonates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubble, Bill R.; Siegel, Stanley; Cunningham, Paul T.

    1978-03-28

    Alkali metal or alkaline earth metal carbonates such as calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate found in dolomite or limestone are employed for removal of sulfur dioxide from combustion exhaust gases. The sulfated carbonates are regenerated to oxides through use of a solid-solid reaction, particularly calcium sulfide with calcium sulfate to form calcium oxide and sulfur dioxide gas. The regeneration is performed by contacting the sulfated material with a reductant gas such as hydrogen within an inert diluent to produce calcium sulfide in mixture with the sulfate under process conditions selected to permit the sulfide-sulfate, solid-state reaction to occur.

  4. Failure mode analysis for lime/limestone FGD systems. Volume 3. Plant profiles. Part 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenney, S.M.; Rosenberg, H.S.; Nilsson, L.I.O.; Oxley, J.H.

    1984-08-01

    Plant profiles are given for the following plants: Tombigbee 2, 3; Apache 2, 3; Cholla 1, 2; Four Corners 1, 2, 3; Laramie River 1; Green 1, 2; Duck Creek 1; Craig 1, 2; Conesville 5, 6; Coal Creek 1, 2; Elrama 1, 2, 3, 4; and Phillips 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. (DLC)

  5. Permian `Wolfcamp` limestone reservoirs: Powell ranch field, eastern Midland basin: Discussion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazzullo, S.J.

    1997-10-01

    The {open_quotes}E&P Notes{close_quotes} paper by S.L. Montgomery (1996) on Wolfcamp resedimented carbonates in the Permian basin concerns an exploration play with the potential for significant reserves; however, its economic importance and geological complexity, and the question of whether his model can be extended to other areas in the Permian basin warrant this discussion.

  6. Permian {open_quotes}Wolfcamp{close_quotes} limestone reservoirs: Powell Ranch field, Eastern Midland Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montgomery, S.L.

    1996-09-01

    Deep-water carbonate channel reservoirs form important oil reservoirs along the toe of the Eastern Shelf of the Permian basin in west Texas. In northwestern Glasscock County, these `Wolfcamp` reservoirs are Leonardian (Early Permian) in age and define high-energy channels incised into surrounding carbonate detritus and basinal shale. Porous grain-flow material filling these channels, along with encasing detritus, was derived from the shallow shelf located six miles to the east. Reservoirs are in packstone and grainstone facies and have significant interparticle and moldic porosity. Relevant exploration began in the 1960s, but expanded slowly thereafter due to lack of success caused by complex patterns of channel occurrence. Results of a three-dimensional (3-D) seismic survey conducted in 1990 have greatly enhanced the identification and mapping of productive channels in the Powell Ranch field complex. Wells in this complex are capable of flowing 400-1200 bbl of oil per day, and have reserves ranging from 0.2 to 1.3 MBO. The new 3-D data have improved the relevant geologic model and dramatically increased rates of drilling success. Application of such data to this setting offers a potential model for other parts of the Permian basin.

  7. Assessment of thermal evolution stages and oil-gas migration of carbonate source rocks of early tertiary in eastern Sichuan, China, by organic inclusion analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi Jixi; Li Benchao; Fu Jiamo

    1989-03-01

    The Jialinjiang Formation of early Tertiary in Sichuan, China, is a series of limestone and dolomite sediments deposited in a platform shoal environment. The diagenetic sequence and organic inclusions trapped in minerals of 95 samples from 20 drillings have been studied. At the late diagenetic stage, pale yellow organic inclusions consisted of liquid hydrocarbons disseminated in pore-infiltrating dolomite, and the homogeneous temperature of contemporaneous saline liquid inclusions possessing a low gas-liquid ratio was 86/degree/C. This indicates the evolution of the organic matter had gone over the oil generating threshold and oil formation had initiated. In the limestone formed at the late diagenetic stage, more brown-yellow organic inclusions were scattered and/or developed along with fissures, comprising 60-70% liquid hydrocarbons and 30-40% gaseous hydrocarbons. Contemporaneous saline liquid inclusions with gas-liquid ratios of 5-10% had homogeneous temperatures of 90/degree/-130/degree/C. These findings show that the organic material had entered a high evolution stage and oil migration had taken place on a large scale.

  8. Water quality evaluation and geochemical assessment of iron, manganese, and arsenic in a landfill site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pisigan, R.A. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    Several monitoring wells at a landfill site were sampled for water quality parameters to determine the nature of groundwater contamination. The landfill, located beneath a limestone and dolomitic bedrock, has been used for about 20 years for trash and garbage disposal. The monitoring parameters include major cations and anions, as well as iron, manganese, arsenic, and other parameters measured in the field to characterize the subsurface conditions. Groundwater samples collected near the landfill and downgradient locations had higher levels of iron, manganese, arsenic, alkalinity, hardness than those samples from an upgradient well. The downgradient and on-site samples were also more acidic and turbid, The dissolved oxygen data tend to suggest reducing conditions in the leachate environment. The elevated groundwater concentrations of the three metals, especially iron, were most probably caused by the acidity generated by carbon dioxide and organic acids released from microbial degradation of organic compounds dumped into the landfill. The acidic pH led to the dissolution of iron, manganese, and arsenic bearing mineral phases. The buffering reactions of limestone and dolomite to neutralize the acidic degradation products increased the hardness cations, Ca{sup +2} and Mg{sup +2}. Inorganic speciation modeling indicates that iron, manganese, and arsenic predominantly exist as Fe {sup +2}, Mn{sup +2}, and H{sub 3}AsO{sub 3}. The possible presence of organic complexes of iron was discussed, but could be modeled due to lack of appropriate equilibrium constant data.

  9. Geoscience/engineering characterization of the interwell environment in carbonate reservoirs based on outcrop analogs, Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico - petrophysical characterization of the South Cowden Grayburg Reservoir, Ector County, Texas. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucia, F.J.

    1997-06-01

    Reservoir performance of the South Cowden Grayburg field suggests that only 21 percent of the original oil in place has been recovered. The purpose of this study is to construct a realistic reservoir model to be used to predict the location of the remaining mobile oil. Construction of reservoir models for fluid-flow simulation of carbonate reservoirs is difficult because they typically have complicated and unpredictable permeability patterns. Much of the difficulty results from the degree to which diagenetic overprinting masks depositional textures and patterns. For example, the task of constructing a reservoir model of a limestone reservoir that has undergone only cementation and compaction is easier than constructing a model of a karsted reservoir that has undergone cavern formation and collapse as well as cementation and compaction. The Permian-age carbonate-ramp reservoirs in the Permian Basin, West Texas and New Mexico, are typically anhydritic dolomitized limestone. Because the dolomitization occurred soon after deposition, depositional fabrics and patterns are often retained, and a reservoir model can be constructed using depositional concepts. Recent studies of the San Andres outcrop in the Guadalupe Mountains and the Seminole San Andres reservoir in the Permian Basin illustrate how depositional fabrics and patterns can be used to construct a reservoir model when depositional features are retained.

  10. REVIVING ABANDONED RESERVOIRS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Loucks; Steve Ruppel; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jon Olsen; Deanna Combs; Dhiraj Dembla; Leonel Gomez

    2003-06-01

    The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company have assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The characterization phase of the project is utilizing geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. This model will be used to define a field deployment plant that Goldrus, a small independent oil company, will implement by drilling both vertical and horizontal wells during the demonstration phase of the project. Additional reservoir data are being gathered during the demonstration phase to improve the accuracy of the reservoir model. The results of the demonstration are being closely monitored to provide a basis for improving the design of the HPAI field deployment plan. The results of the reservoir characterization field demonstration and monitoring program will be documented and widely disseminated to facilitate adoption of this technology by oil operators in the Permian Basin and elsewhere in the US.

  11. Reviving Abandoned Reservoirs with High-Pressure Air Injection: Application in a Fractured and Karsted Dolomite Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Loucks; Stephen C. Ruppel; Dembla Dhiraj; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jeff Kane; Jon Olson; John A. Jackson; Katherine G. Jackson

    2006-09-30

    Despite declining production rates, existing reservoirs in the United States contain vast volumes of remaining oil that is not being effectively recovered. This oil resource constitutes a huge target for the development and application of modern, cost-effective technologies for producing oil. Chief among the barriers to the recovery of this oil are the high costs of designing and implementing conventional advanced recovery technologies in these mature, in many cases pressure-depleted, reservoirs. An additional, increasingly significant barrier is the lack of vital technical expertise necessary for the application of these technologies. This lack of expertise is especially notable among the small operators and independents that operate many of these mature, yet oil-rich, reservoirs. We addressed these barriers to more effective oil recovery by developing, testing, applying, and documenting an innovative technology that can be used by even the smallest operator to significantly increase the flow of oil from mature U.S. reservoirs. The Bureau of Economic Geology and Goldrus Producing Company assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The Permian Basin, the largest oil-bearing basin in North America, contains more than 70 billion barrels of remaining oil in place and is an ideal venue to validate this technology. We have demonstrated the potential of HPAI for oil-recovery improvement in preliminary laboratory tests and a reservoir pilot project. To more completely test the technology, this project emphasized detailed characterization of reservoir properties, which were integrated to access the effectiveness and economics of HPAI. The characterization phase of the project utilized geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology and the Department of Petroleum Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. The successful development of HPAI technology has tremendous potential for increasing the flow of oil from deep carbonate reservoirs in the Permian Basin, a target resource that can be conservatively estimated at more than 1.5 billion barrels. Successful implementation in the field chosen for demonstration, for example, could result in the recovery of more than 34 million barrels of oil that will not otherwise be produced. Geological and petrophysical analysis of available data at Barnhart field reveals the following important observations: (1) the Barnhart Ellenburger reservoir is similar to most other Ellenburger reservoirs in terms of depositional facies, diagenesis, and petrophysical attributes; (2) the reservoir is characterized by low to moderate matrix porosity much like most other Ellenburger reservoirs in the Permian Basin; (3) karst processes (cave formation, infill, and collapse) have substantially altered stratigraphic architecture and reservoir properties; (4) porosity and permeability increase with depth and may be associated with the degree of karst-related diagenesis; (5) tectonic fractures overprint the reservoir, improving overall connectivity; (6) oil-saturation profiles show that the oil-water contact (OWC) is as much as 125 ft lower than previous estimations; (7) production history and trends suggest that this reservoir is very similar to other solution-gas-drive reservoirs in the Permian Basin; and (8) reservoir simulation study showed that the Barnhart reservoir is a good candidate for HPAI and that application of horizontal-well technology can improve ultimate resource recovery from the reservoir.

  12. REVIVING ABANDONED RESERVOIRS WITH HIGH-PRESSURE AIR INJECTION: APPLICATION IN A FRACTURED AND KARSTED DOLOMITE RESERVOIR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Loucks; Steve Ruppel; Julia Gale; Jon Holder; Jon Olson; Deanna Combs; Dhiraj Dembla

    2004-06-01

    The Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) and Goldrus Producing Company have assembled a multidisciplinary team of geoscientists and engineers to evaluate the applicability of high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in revitalizing a nearly abandoned carbonate reservoir in the Permian Basin of West Texas. The characterization phase of the project is utilizing geoscientists and petroleum engineers from the Bureau of Economic Geology (BEG) and the Department of Petroleum and Geosystems Engineering (both at The University of Texas at Austin) to define the controls on fluid flow in the reservoir as a basis for developing a reservoir model. This model will be used to define a field deployment plan that Goldrus, a small independent oil company, will implement by drilling both vertical and horizontal wells during the demonstration phase of the project. Additional reservoir data were to be generated during the demonstration phase to improve the accuracy of the reservoir model. The demonstration phase has been delayed by Goldrus because of funding problems. Since the first of the year, Goldrus has been active in searching for partners to help finance the project. To this end it has commissioned several small consulting studies to technically support its effort to secure a partner. After financial support is obtained, the demonstration phase of the project will proceed. Since just after the beginning of the year, BEG has curtailed project activities and spending of DOE funds except for the continued support of one engineering student. This student has now completed his work and has written a thesis describing his research (titled ''Stimulating enhanced oil recovery (EOR) by high-pressure air injection (HPAI) in west Texas light oil reservoir''). We plan to recommence our work on the project as soon as the operator obtains necessary funding to carry out the demonstration phase of the project. In order to complete all activities specified in the proposal, it will be necessary to request an extension of the project from the originally defined completion date. We are confident that Goldrus will obtain the necessary funding to continue and that we can complete the project if an extension is granted. We strongly believe that the results of this study will provide the impetus for a new approach to enhanced oil recovery in the Permian Basin and elsewhere in the United States.

  13. Paint Rock and southwest Paint Rock fields, Concho County, Texas: Strawn analogs of modern island carbonate facies of Ambergris Cay, Belize

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, A.M.; Mazzullo, S.J.

    1987-02-01

    Lower Strawn (Desmoinesian Goen Limestone) reservoirs at Paint Rock and Southwest Paint Rock fields are a complex of carbonate and associated facies interpreted as having been deposited in various environments on and around large, emergent islands on shallow carbonate shelves. The origin and geometries of the component lithofacies in these fields, and their reservoir diagenetic histories, are similar to those presently accumulating on Ambergris Cay, a linear island complex on the northern shelf of Belize. Paint Rock field originated as a narrow, elongate Chaetetes reef trend that formed the foundation on which the overlying island facies were deposited. As on Ambergris Cay, these reef limestones developed extensive porosity during postdepositional subaerial exposure due to meteoric leaching. In contrast, Southwest Paint Rock field is cored by older island deposits rather than reef limestones. With ensuing stillstand or subsequent sea level rise, beach grainstones were deposited along the windward and leeward margins of the foundation highs in these fields. Tight lagoonal micrites and coals (peat-swamp facies) comprise the inner island facies, and are locally associated with porous supratidal dolomites. These island complexes are transected locally by tidal channels that are filled with nonporous micrites. Repeated sea level fluctuations during the history of these fields resulted in a characteristic cyclic stratigraphy of stacked island facies and reservoirs. The reservoirs in the field are developed in the bedrock or older island cores, as well as in the overlying beach facies and supratidal dolomites. These fields are mappable as linear stratigraphic traps with low-relief closure, and are readily identified by subsurface geologic and facies analyses. Similar shelf island-type fields analogous to these strawn and Holocene Belizean examples are found throughout the Midland basin and Eastern shelf.

  14. Engineering characteristics of bedrock for the proposed superconducting super collider in Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bauer, R.A.; Curry, B.; Vaiden, R.C.; Graese, A.M.; Dixon, W.; Su, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Sixteen test holes were drilled in a 36-township area in northeastern Illinois as part of a geological feasibility study for the proposed Superconducting Super Collider. Bedrock tunneling suitability is being characterized by comprehensive testing of continuous core of lower Silurian, Ordovician and upper Cambrian units. Tests include unconfined compressive (UCS) and indirect tensile strength (ITS), fracture spacing, rock quality designation, drilling rate and water injection tests. Preliminary results indicate that the 38-m thick Wise Lake Formation of the Ordovician Galena Group is best suited for tunnel construction. The Wise Lake is a vuggy, fossiliferous dolomite with subordinate limestone. Two joint sets oriented N50E and N50W are found in this unit with spacings between joints of about 0.8 m. The overlying Maquoketa Shale Group consists of basal shales from 1 to 22 m thick which are overlain by interbeds of dolomitic shale and dolomite. The Silurian Formations are composed chiefly of fine-grained cherty dolomite; engineering characteristics are similar to the Wise Lake Formation. The upper 3 to 4 m of bedrock can be severely jointed and weathered; permeability ranges from 1.0 x 10/sup -3/ to 1.0 x 10/sup -4/ cm/sec. Although the ring design and national location have not been decided, the geotechnical data indicate that the most favorable tunneling conditions at the Illinois site are 130 to 150 m below the ground surface in the Wise Lake Formation of the Galena Group. By comparison, conditions are more favorable than similar test data developed for the successful TARP project in Chicago.

  15. Lower Pennsylvanian reservoirs of Parkway-Empire south field area, Eddy County, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    The Parkway-Empire area is located on the Northwest shelf in central Eddy County, approximately 15 mi (24 km) northeast of Carlsbad, New Mexico. This area produces oil and gas from the lower and middle Morrow sandstones, Atoka sandstones, and Strawn limestones. Oil is also produced from the Queen and Seven Rivers sandstones, and the Grayburg, San Andres, and Wolfcamp dolomites. All of the these zones are productive from stratigraphic traps. The lower Morrow sandstones occur at a depth of about 11,400 ft (3,474 m). In the Parkway area, the middle Morrow sandstones are thought to be a transgressive series of marine beaches and submarine bars which trend toward the northeast, parallel to depositional strike. Stratigraphic traps are created in the lower and middle Morrow sandstones by variations in cementation and depositional patterns. Productive Atoka sandstones occur at a depth of approximately 10,700 ft (3,261 m). Strawn limestones produce from a series of small, low-relief algal banks developed along depositional strike to the northeast. The Strawn limestone is about 300 ft (91 m) thick and occurs between 10,250 and 10,500 ft (3,124 and 3,200 m). Wells in this area have typical ultimate recoveries of between 1.0 and 3.0 bcf of gas. The combination of stacked reservoirs and good production makes this area of the Morrow trend especially attractive.

  16. Cambrian pisolites as paleoenvironment and paleotectonic stress indicators, Rattlesnake Mountain, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neese, D.G.; Vernon, J.H.

    1987-05-01

    Pisolitic-rich carbonates occur within the uppermost 0.5 m of the Meagher Limestone member of the lower Gros Ventre formation in exposures near Cody, Wyoming. The Meagher Limestone is overlain by 51 m, and underlain by 63 m of dark gray Gros Ventre shale. Pisolites range in size from 2.0 to 18 mm in diameter and occur in lime grainstones associated with trilobite fragments, peloids, glauconite, fine-grained subangular quartz, and minor oolites. Girvanella grainstones 15-20 cm thick directly underlie the pisolite strata and have contributed to some of the carbonate material within pisolite nuclei. Dolomite and ankerite may occur within pisolitic rocks as finely crystalline irregular patches. Pisoliths commonly show an oblate ellipsoid shape, with maximum flattening perpendicular to bedding. Long-axis to short-axis ratios of these grains in fracture planes perpendicular to bedding average between 2.5 to 3.5, with the long axis parallel or subparallel to bedding. Grains observed in bedding planes have ratios averaging between 1.5 to 2.0. A paleostress state has produced a strain ellipsoid with long-axis ratios ranging from 1.7 to over 3.0. There appears to be little or no tectonic strain on the bedding plane, so the strain can be described as uniaxial, with maximum compression perpendicular to bedding. The majority of carbonate rocks in the Meagher Limestone were deposited in a normal marine subtidal setting, while ooid and pisolitic grain types are suggestive of subtidal-peritidal conditions. Because of the strain deformed pisoliths, a subaqueous versus subaerial environment of pisolite genesis is difficult to assess. A siliciclastic sandstone, 0.6 m thick with low-angle tabular crossbedding, is present immediately beneath the Meagher Limestone. The sandstone is composed of 94% fine to medium sand-size subangular quartz grains and is associated with glauconite, minor biotite, zircon, and ilmenite.

  17. Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, Trace Metal and Organic Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Limestone Aquifer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bacon, Diana H.; Dai, Zhenxue; Zheng, Liange

    2014-12-31

    An important risk at CO2 storage sites is the potential for groundwater quality impacts. As part of a system to assess the potential for these impacts a geochemical scaling function has been developed, based on a detailed reactive transport model of CO2 and brine leakage into an unconfined, oxidizing carbonate aquifer. Stochastic simulations varying a number of geochemical parameters were used to generate a response surface predicting the volume of aquifer that would be impacted with respect to regulated contaminants. The brine was assumed to contain several trace metals and organic contaminants. Aquifer pH and TDS were influenced by CO2more » leakage, while trace metal concentrations were most influenced by the brine concentrations rather than adsorption or desorption on calcite. Organic plume sizes were found to be strongly influenced by biodegradation.« less

  18. Failure mode analysis for lime/limestone FGD system. Volume III. Plant profiles. Part 1 of 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kenney, S.M.; Rosenberg, H.S.; Nilsson, L.I.O.; Oxley, J.H.

    1984-08-01

    This volume contains plant profiles for: Petersburg 3; Hawthorn 3, 4; La Cygne 1; Jeffry 1, 2; Lawrence 4, 5; Green River 1-3; Cane Run 4, 5; Mill Creek 1, 3; Paddy's Run 6; Clay Boswell 4; Milton R. Young 2; Pleasants 1, 2; and Colstrip 1, 2. (DLC)

  19. Decontamination of combustion gases in fluidized bed incinerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leon, Albert M.

    1982-01-01

    Sulfur-containing atmospheric pollutants are effectively removed from exit gas streams produced in a fluidized bed combustion system by providing a fluidized bed of particulate material, i.e. limestone and/or dolomite wherein a concentration gradient is maintained in the vertical direction. Countercurrent contacting between upwardly directed sulfur containing combustion gases and descending sorbent particulate material creates a concentration gradient across the vertical extent of the bed characterized in progressively decreasing concentration of sulfur, sulfur dioxide and like contaminants upwardly and decreasing concentration of e.g. calcium oxide, downwardly. In this manner, gases having progressively decreasing sulfur contents contact correspondingly atmospheres having progressively increasing concentrations of calcium oxide thus assuring optimum sulfur removal.

  20. Mineral Resource Information System for Field Lab in the Osage Mineral Reservation Estate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, H.B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    The Osage Mineral Reservation Estate is located in Osage County, Oklahoma. Minerals on the Estate are owned by members of the Osage Tribe who are shareholders in the Estate. The Estate is administered by the Osage Agency, Branch of Minerals, operated by the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). Oil, natural gas, casinghead gas, and other minerals (sand, gravel, limestone, and dolomite) are exploited by lessors. Operators may obtain from the Branch of Minerals and the Osage Mineral Estate Tribal Council leases to explore and exploit oil, gas, oil and gas, and other minerals on the Estate. Operators pay a royalty on all minerals exploited and sold from the Estate. A mineral Resource Information system was developed for this project to evaluate the remaining hydrocarbon resources located on the Estate. Databases on Microsoft Excel spreadsheets of operators, leases, and production were designed for use in conjunction with an evaluation spreadsheet for estimating the remaining hydrocarbons on the Estate.

  1. Depositional systems and hydrocarbon resource potential of the Pennsylvanian system, Palo Duro and Dalhart Basins, Testas Panhandle. Geological Circular 80-8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutton, S.P.

    1980-01-01

    Pennsylvanian clastic and carbonate strata were deposited in a variety of environments within the Palo Duro Basin. Maximum accumulation (totalling 750 m or 2400 ft) occurred along a northwest-southeast axis. Major facies include fan-delta sandstone and conglomerate, shelf and shelf-margin carbonate, deltaic sandstone and shale, and basinal shale and fine-grained sandstone. Erosion of Precambrian basement in the adjacent Amarillo and Sierra Grande Uplifts supplied arkosic sand (granite wash) to fan deltas along the northern margin of the basin. Distal fan-delta sandstones grade laterally and basinward into shallow-shelf limestone. Deep basinal shales were deposited only in a small area immediately north of the Matador Arch. Increased subsidence deepened and enlarged the basin throughout late Pennsylvanian time. Ultimately, the basin axis trended east-west with a narrow northwest extension. A carbonate shelf-margin complex having 60 to 120 m (200 to 400 ft) of depositional relief developed around the basin margin. The eastern shelf margin remained stationary, but the western shelf margin retreated landward throughout late Pennsylvanian time. Porous, dolomitized limestone occurs in a belt 16 to 32 km (10 to 20 mi) wide along the shelf margin. High-constructive elongate deltas prograded into the Palo Duro Basin from the east during late Pennsylvanian time. Prodelta mud and thin turbidite sands entered the basin through breaks in the eastern carbonate shelf margin. Potential hydrocarbon reservoirs re shelf-margin dolomite, fan-delta sandstone, and high-constructive delta sandstone. Basinal shales are fair to good hydrocarbon source rocks on the basis of total organic carbon content. Kerogen color and vitrinite reflectance data indicate that source beds may have reached the early stages of hydrocarbon maturation.

  2. Application of coiled-tubing-drilling technology on a deep underpressured gas reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-06-01

    The Upper-Mississippian Elkton formation is a dolomitized shallow-water carbonate consisting of dense limestones and porous dolomites. The Elkton was deposited in an open-shelf environment as crinoid grainstones, coral packstones, and lime muds. Deposition of impermeable shales and siltstones of the Lower Cretaceous created the lateral and updip seals. Reservoir thickness can be up to 20 m, with porosities reaching 20% and averaging 10%. The reservoir gas contains approximately 0.5% hydrogen sulfide. Well 11-18 was to be completed in the Harmatten Elkton pool. The pool went on production in 1967 at an initial pressure of 23,500 kPa. At the current pressure of 16,800 kPa, the remaining reserves are underpressured at 6.5 kPa/m, and underbalanced horizontal drilling was selected as the most suitable technique for exploiting remaining reserves. Coiled-tubing (CT) technology was selected to ensure continuous underbalanced conditions and maintain proper well control while drilling. The paper describes the equipment, CT drilling summary, and drilling issues.

  3. Eustatic and tectonic control on localization of porosity and permeability, Mid-Permian, Bighorn Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, S.P.; Scholle, P.A. )

    1990-05-01

    The Goose Egg Formation of the northeastern Bighorn basin was deposited in an arid shoreline (sabkha) environment during a time of global cyclic sea level variations and local tectonic uplift Eustatic sea level lows are represented by terrestrial red beds (seals), whereas highs resulted in the deposition of supratidal to shallow subtidal carbonates (reservoirs). Pennsylvanian and Permian differential uplift along the present basin margin localized a broken chain of barrier islands and shoals during deposition of the Ervay and earlier carbonate members, as recognized in outcrop at Sheep and Little Sheep Mountain anticlines. The Ervay Member on these paleohighs is typified by fenestral dolomite, containing abundant tepees and pisoids. This fabric is interpreted to have folded in the highest intertidal to supratidal sabkha environment which developed on the leeward shores of these islands. The fenestral carbonates grade basinward (westward) into narrow bioclastic grainstone beach deposits and then to open-shelf fossiliferous packstones and wackestone. To the east lie laminated lagoonal micritic limestones and dolomites. Outcrop and core study has shown the fenestral facies to be limited to areas coincident with present-day basin margin anticlines. Not only are these the locations of the most porous facies, but tight Laramide folding of the Goose Egg carbonates resulted in pervasive fracturing and thus very high permeabilities in the same structures. The close association of Laramide folds and productive Permian carbonate horizons in the northeast Bighorn basin could well be characteristic for other yet to be explored structures along the basin-margin trend.

  4. Platform/foreslope facies and buildup geometry resulting from short-term and long-term eustatic sea level fluctuations: latemar buildup (Middle Triassic), Dolomites, northern Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, M.T.; Goldhammer, R.

    1987-05-01

    Superimposed short-term and long-term eustatic sea level fluctuations directly controlled Latemar platform stratigraphy and indirectly influenced the deeper water facies and overall buildup geometry. Deeper water facies, the foreslope and toe of slope, are a function of platform submergence (highstand shedding) and subaerial exposure (lowstand lithification and erosion) and thus only indirectly reflect eustatic fluctuations. The Latemar consists of a platform core (3-4 km wide, 700 m thick) with a narrow margin, flanked by foreslope (30-35/sup 0/ dips), toe of slope, and basin deposits. The shallowing-upward platform sequence records a long-term (about 10 m.y.) eustatic sea level oscillation with an amplitude of about 150 m. The lower 250 m marks an initial catch-up phase (subtidal carbonates); the upper 450 m marks the sequential keep-up phase (meter-scale cyclic carbonates). These cycles record platform submergence and exposure caused by short-term (10/sup 4/-10/sup 5/ years) Milankovitch eustatic oscillations superimposed on the long-term trend. Platform submergence and exposure conditions result in contrasting foreslope deposits. During highstands, platform-derived sands bypass the foreslope, accumulating as toe-of-slope graded beds and basin turbidites. During lowstands, sand supply ceases, producing basin hard-grounds. Foreslope megabreccias contain margin-derived boundstone clasts, with only minor platform-derived sands (highstands) and lithified clasts (lowstands). As the platform margin/foreslope contact is nearly vertical, a progressively increasing volume of foreslope megabreccia was needed to maintain the depositional geometry. This coincides with the most commonly exposed platform interval, suggesting that platform exposure determines buildup flank geometry by controlling megabreccia clast production.

  5. LIMB Demonstration Project Extension and Coolside Demonstration. [Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goots, T.R.; DePero, M.J.; Nolan, P.S.

    1992-11-10

    This report presents results from the limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) Demonstration Project Extension. LIMB is a furnace sorbent injection technology designed for the reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. The testing was conducted on the 105 Mwe, coal-fired, Unit 4 boiler at Ohio Edison`s Edgewater Station in Lorain, Ohio. In addition to the LIMB Extension activities, the overall project included demonstration of the Coolside process for S0{sub 2} removal for which a separate report has been issued. The primary purpose of the DOE LIMB Extension testing, was to demonstrate the generic applicability of LIMB technology. The program sought to characterize the S0{sub 2} emissions that result when various calcium-based sorbents are injected into the furnace, while burning coals having sulfur content ranging from 1.6 to 3.8 weight percent. The four sorbents used included calcitic limestone, dolomitic hydrated lime, calcitic hydrated lime, and calcitic hydrated lime with a small amount of added calcium lignosulfonate. The results include those obtained for the various coal/sorbent combinations and the effects of the LIMB process on boiler and plant operations.

  6. LIMB Demonstration Project Extension and Coolside Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goots, T.R.; DePero, M.J.; Nolan, P.S.

    1992-11-10

    This report presents results from the limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) Demonstration Project Extension. LIMB is a furnace sorbent injection technology designed for the reduction of sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) and nitrogen oxides (NO[sub x]) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. The testing was conducted on the 105 Mwe, coal-fired, Unit 4 boiler at Ohio Edison's Edgewater Station in Lorain, Ohio. In addition to the LIMB Extension activities, the overall project included demonstration of the Coolside process for S0[sub 2] removal for which a separate report has been issued. The primary purpose of the DOE LIMB Extension testing, was to demonstrate the generic applicability of LIMB technology. The program sought to characterize the S0[sub 2] emissions that result when various calcium-based sorbents are injected into the furnace, while burning coals having sulfur content ranging from 1.6 to 3.8 weight percent. The four sorbents used included calcitic limestone, dolomitic hydrated lime, calcitic hydrated lime, and calcitic hydrated lime with a small amount of added calcium lignosulfonate. The results include those obtained for the various coal/sorbent combinations and the effects of the LIMB process on boiler and plant operations.

  7. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales -- Sulfur control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, M.J.; Abbasian, J.; Akin, C.; Lau, F.S.; Maka, A.; Mensinger, M.C.; Punwani, D.V.; Rue, D.M. ); Gidaspow, D.; Gupta, R.; Wasan, D.T. ); Pfister, R.M.: Krieger, E.J. )

    1992-05-01

    This topical report on Sulfur Control'' presents the results of work conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), and the Ohio State University (OSU) to develop three novel approaches for desulfurization that have shown good potential with coal and could be cost-effective for oil shales. These are (1) In-Bed Sulfur Capture using different sorbents (IGT), (2) Electrostatic Desulfurization (IIT), and (3) Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification (OSU and IGT). The objective of the task on In-Bed Sulfur Capture was to determine the effectiveness of different sorbents (that is, limestone, calcined limestone, dolomite, and siderite) for capturing sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) in the reactor during hydroretorting. The objective of the task on Electrostatic Desulfurization was to determine the operating conditions necessary to achieve a high degree of sulfur removal and kerogen recovery in IIT's electrostatic separator. The objectives of the task on Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification were to (1) isolate microbial cultures and evaluate their ability to desulfurize and denitrify shale, (2) conduct laboratory-scale batch and continuous tests to improve and enhance microbial removal of these components, and (3) determine the effects of processing parameters, such as shale slurry concentration, solids settling characteristics, agitation rate, and pH on the process.

  8. Pressurized fluidized-bed hydroretorting of Eastern oil shales -- Sulfur control. Topical report for Subtask 3.1, In-bed sulfur capture tests; Subtask 3.2, Electrostatic desulfurization; Subtask 3.3, Microbial desulfurization and denitrification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, M.J.; Abbasian, J.; Akin, C.; Lau, F.S.; Maka, A.; Mensinger, M.C.; Punwani, D.V.; Rue, D.M.; Gidaspow, D.; Gupta, R.; Wasan, D.T.; Pfister, R.M.: Krieger, E.J.

    1992-05-01

    This topical report on ``Sulfur Control`` presents the results of work conducted by the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), the Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT), and the Ohio State University (OSU) to develop three novel approaches for desulfurization that have shown good potential with coal and could be cost-effective for oil shales. These are (1) In-Bed Sulfur Capture using different sorbents (IGT), (2) Electrostatic Desulfurization (IIT), and (3) Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification (OSU and IGT). The objective of the task on In-Bed Sulfur Capture was to determine the effectiveness of different sorbents (that is, limestone, calcined limestone, dolomite, and siderite) for capturing sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) in the reactor during hydroretorting. The objective of the task on Electrostatic Desulfurization was to determine the operating conditions necessary to achieve a high degree of sulfur removal and kerogen recovery in IIT`s electrostatic separator. The objectives of the task on Microbial Desulfurization and Denitrification were to (1) isolate microbial cultures and evaluate their ability to desulfurize and denitrify shale, (2) conduct laboratory-scale batch and continuous tests to improve and enhance microbial removal of these components, and (3) determine the effects of processing parameters, such as shale slurry concentration, solids settling characteristics, agitation rate, and pH on the process.

  9. Development of a Geologic Exploration Model foe the Permo-Pennsylvanian Petroleum System in South-Central Montana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David A. Lopez

    2007-06-30

    Eolian sands are the main Pennsylvanian Tensleep Sandstone reservoir rocks, and were deposited in a near-shore environment interbedded with near-shore marine and sabkha calcareous and dolomitic rocks. Within the Tensleep, numerous cycles are characterized by basal marine or sabkha calcareous sandstone or dolomitic sandstone overlain by porous and permeable eolian sandstone, which in turn is capped by marine sandstone. The cycles represent the interplay of near-shore marine, sabkha, and eolian environments. On the west side of the project area, both the lower and upper Tensleep are present and the total thickness reaches a maximum of about 240 ft. The lower Tensleep is 100 to 120 ft thick and consists of a sequence of repeating cycles of limey shallow marine sandstone, sandy limestone, and sandy dolomite. The upper Tensleep is generally characterized by cycles of sandy limestone or dolomite, overlain by light-colored, eolian dune sandstone capped by marine limey sandstone. In the central and eastern parts of the project area, only the lower Tensleep is present, but here eolian sandstones are in cycles much like those in the west in the upper Tensleep. The lower Tensleep is quite variable in thickness, ranging from about 25 ft to over 200 ft. Oil accumulations in the Tensleep are best described as structurally modified paleostratigraphic accumulations. At Frannie Field, the irregular oil column can be explained by a post-Tensleep channel scour on the west flank of the anticline. On the Powder River Basin side of the project area, the Soap Creek and Lodge Grass Fields produce from the Permo-Pennsylvanian system. In these two fields, erosional remnants of eolian sandstone control the production, similar to the situation at Frannie Field. At Soap Creek the trap is enhanced by structural closure. In the Lodge Grass area, Tensleep oil is trapped in preserved dunes in the footwall of a Laramide reverse fault. Oil generation and migration was early. Two hypotheses have been

  10. Lithological influence of aggregate in the alkali-carbonate reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez-Buendia, A.M. . E-mail: angel.lopez@aidico.es; Climent, V. . E-mail: vcliment@grupogla.com; Verdu, P.

    2006-08-15

    The reactivity of carbonate rock with the alkali content of cement, commonly called alkali-carbonate reaction (ACR), has been investigated. Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) can also contribute in the alkali-aggregate reaction (AAR) in carbonate rock, mainly due to micro- and crypto-crystalline quartz or clay content in carbonate aggregate. Both ACR and ASR can occur in the same system, as has been also evidenced on this paper. Carbonate aggregate samples were selected using lithological reactivity criteria, taking into account the presence of dedolomitization, partial dolomitization, micro- and crypto-crystalline quartz. Selected rocks include calcitic dolostone with chert (CDX), calcitic dolostone with dedolomitization (CDD), limestone with chert (LX), marly calcitic dolostone with partial dolomitization (CD), high-porosity ferric dolostone with clays (FD). To evaluate the reactivity, aggregates were studied using expansion tests following RILEM AAR-2, AAR-5, a modification using LiOH AAR-5Li was also tested. A complementary study was done using petrographic monitoring with polarised light microscopy on aggregates immersed in NaOH and LiOH solutions after different ages. SEM-EDAX has been used to identify the presence of brucite as a product of dedolomitization. An ACR reaction showed shrinkage of the mortar bars in alkaline solutions explained by induced dedolomitization, while an ASR process typically displayed expansion. Neither shrinkage nor expansion was observed when mortar bars were immersed in solutions of lithium hydroxide. Carbonate aggregate classification with AAR pathology risk has been elaborated based on mechanical behaviours by expansion and shrinkage. It is proposed to be used as a petrographic method for AAR diagnosis to complement the RILEM AAR1 specifically for carbonate aggregate. Aggregate materials can be classified as I (non-reactive), II (potentially reactive), and III (probably reactive), considering induced dedolomitization ACR

  11. Wettability and Oil Recovery by Imbibition and Viscous Displacement from Fractured and Heterogeneous Carbonates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman R. Morrow; Jill Buckley

    2006-04-01

    About one-half of U.S. oil reserves are held in carbonate formations. The remaining oil in carbonate reservoirs is regarded as the major domestic target for improved oil recovery. Carbonate reservoirs are often fractured and have great complexity even at the core scale. Formation evaluation and prediction is often subject to great uncertainty. This study addresses quantification of crude oil/brine/rock interactions and the impact of reservoir heterogeneity on oil recovery by spontaneous imbibition and viscous displacement from pore to field scale. Wettability-alteration characteristics of crude oils were measured at calcite and dolomite surfaces and related to the properties of the crude oils through asphaltene content, acid and base numbers, and refractive index. Oil recovery was investigated for a selection of limestones and dolomites that cover over three orders of magnitude in permeability and a factor of four variation in porosity. Wettability control was achieved by adsorption from crude oils obtained from producing carbonate reservoirs. The induced wettability states were compared with those measured for reservoir cores. The prepared cores were used to investigate oil recovery by spontaneous imbibition and viscous displacement. The results of imbibition tests were used in wettability characterization and to develop mass transfer functions for application in reservoir simulation of fractured carbonates. Studies of viscous displacement in carbonates focused on the unexpected but repeatedly observed sensitivity of oil recovery to injection rate. The main variables were pore structure, mobility ratio, and wettability. The potential for improved oil recovery from rate-sensitive carbonate reservoirs by increased injection pressure, increased injectivity, decreased well spacing or reduction of interfacial tension was evaluated.

  12. Geology of the oil and gas bearing Permian formation in the Polish Lowlands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pokorski, J.; Wagner, R. )

    1993-09-01

    Permian rocks occur over more than 80% of the Polish territory and, in middle Poland, they occur at considerable depth, from 2 to 6 km. The Early Permian was a period of long-lasting intensive volcanic activity. The Late Permian and Zechstein began with desert deposition which was followed by evaporitic deposition of a shallow epicontinental sea. The middle Polish trough (MPT) constituted the central part of the late Permian basin and was the site of the earliest and longest deposition with the most intensive periodical subsidence not compensated by sedimentation. Subsidence rate and syndepositional faulting substantially controlled the paleogeographic pattern. The final structure of the oil and gas fields was caused by late diagenesis and Upper Cretaceous structural remodeling. The upper Rotliegendes have the biggest natural gas fields. Reservoir rocks are sandstone and sandstones interfingering with conglomerates in tectonically active zones. The most promising areas for hydrocarbon exploration are the marginal parts of the basin (UPL) and the contact zone between MPT and the adjacent platforms. In the central part of the basin, the most promising are sandstone complexes on elevated tectonic blocks. Zechstein hydrocarbon fields occur in carbonate horizons of the first three cycles (PZ1, PZ2, and PZ3). In some areas, the Zechstein limestones (Cal), constitute the natural gas reservoir. Main dolomite (Ca2), oil, gas, and condensate fields are connected with the carbonate platform or its slope. Source rocks for oil occur in the Ca2 basinal facies or in the deeper parts of the platform-type lagoons. Oil migration is short and lateral, from either the basin or lagoon, toward the carbonate platform. Gas in Ca2 derived from the sub-Zechstein basement and migrated vertically along fault zones. The most prospective areas are reservoir horizons of the carbonate platform occurring in the near source rocks. The play dolomite Ca3 is not very promising.

  13. Little Knife field - US Williston basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wittstrom, M.D.; Lindsay, R.F. )

    1991-03-01

    Little Knife field is a combination structural and stratigraphic trap located near the structural center of the Williston basin, North Dakota. The field is approximately 12 mi (19.3 km) long and 2.5 to 5.5 mi (4 to 8.9 km) wide. Little Knife was discovered by Gulf Oil in 1976 as part of a regional exploration play involving a transition from impermeable to porous carbonate rocks. In 1987, ultimate recovery from the Mission Canyon (Mississippian) reservoir was estimated to be 97.5 MMBO. This included 57.5 MMBO primary, 27 MMBO secondary, and 13 MMBO tertiary (CO{sub 2}) oil. At present the field is still under primary recovery, since utilization efforts have not been successful. Approximately one-third of Little Knife's 130 ft (39.6 m) oil column is trapped by structural closure beneath a regional anhydrite seal in a north-south-trending anticline. The remaining two-thirds of the oil column is trapped where the reservoir beds change facies from porous dolostones and dolomitic limestones to nonporous limestones. Structural entrapment accounts for approximately 50% (127 MMBO) of the OOIP, but covers only 30% of the producing area. Production is from the upper portions of the Mission Canyon Formation, a regressive, shoaling-upward carbonate-anhydrite sequence deposited in a slowly shrinking epeiric sea. The Mission Canyon in the Little Knife area is divided into six zones that record predominantly cyclic, subtidal deposition. These are overlain by prograding lagoonal, tidal flat, and sabkha beds. The source of Mission Canyon oil is thought to be the Bakken Formation, an organic-rich shale at the base of the Mississippian.

  14. Mesozoic stratigraphy and paleoenvironments of the Exxon 975-1 well, Georges Bank Basin, U. S. North Atlantic outer continental shelf

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poppe, L.J.; Poag, C.W. . Quissett Labs.)

    1993-03-01

    The Exxon 975--1 well, located in the southeastern part of the Georges Bank Basin, was drilled to a total depth of 4,452 m relative to the Kelly Bushing. The oldest sediments penetrated by the well are Middle Jurassic (Bajocian-Early Bathonian), but unambiguous seismic correlations with the COST G--1 and G--2 wells show that about 6,860 m of Mesozoic and Cenozoic sedimentary rocks rest on the Paleozoic basement at the 975--1 wellsite. The Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary in the well is placed at 1,673 m; the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary occurs at 384 m. Limestone is predominant below 3,966 m (Iroquois Formation), and at the intervals 3,810--3,246 m and 1,897--1,654 m (lower and upper tongues of the Abenaki Formation). Siliciclastics of the Mohican, undivided Mic Mac-Mohawk, Missisauga, Logan Canyon, and Dawson Canyon Formations dominate the remainder of the Mesozoic section. The Exxon 975--1 well penetrated updip, more terrestrial lithofacies than the COST G--2, Conoco 145--1, and Mobil 312--1 wells. Salt, anhydrite, dolomite, and the micritic textures of the carbonates in the Iroquois Formation of the Exxon 975--1 well suggest hypersaline restricted marine and supratidal depositional environments. The predominantly nonmarine deltaic siliciclastics of the Mohican, Misaine Shale, and Mic Mac-Mohawk units are thicker in the Exxon 975--1 well, whereas marine carbonates of the Scatarie and Bacarro Limestones are usually thinner than at the downdip (seaward) wellsites. Similarly, the Early Cretaceous Missisauga and Logan Canyon Formations represent lower delta plain (alluvial and swamp) and delta front (beach, bar, and lagoon) facies at the Exxon 975--1 wellsite, whereas correlative downdip facies represent shallow marine to delta front deposition.

  15. Pre-Leonardian geology of Midland Farms field area, Andrews County, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mear, C.E.; Dufurrena, C.K.

    1984-01-01

    The Midland Farms (Ellenburger) oil field was discovered on September 16, 1952, with the completion of Anderson-Pritchard's 1 Fasken-24 well, drilled on an indicated single-fold seismic structure. The field produces from vuggy, fractured Ellenburger dolomite with up to 310 ft (94 m) of gross and net pay. The Midland Farms (Ellenburger) field is part of a larger structure which incorporates not only Midland Farms field, but Midland Farms, West (Devonian), Inez (Ellenburger), and parts of the Fasken (Penn) and Block 41 (Wolfcamp) fields. The structure is a complex, uplifted block composed of two doubly plunging, asymmetric anticlines bisected by at least one wrench-type fault and several normal faults. Penecontemporaneous leaching produced oomoldic porosity in the limestones. Ellenburger oil production was established in the Midland Farms area in September 1952, and has amounted to 61.6 million bbl oil and 28.5 bcf of gas from 91 wells to January 1983. Major Fusselman and Wolfcamp oil accumulations were discovered during development of the Ellenburger field. Fusselman oil was first produced in June 1953, and has totaled 10.1 million bbl of oil and 5 bcf of gas from 33 wells to January 1983. Wolfcamp production was established in January 1954 and totals 10.7 million bbl of oil and 1 bcf of gas from 39 wells. Total production from all zones including post-Leonard beds in the Midland Farms field area to date has been 210 million bbl of oil and 84 bcf of gas.

  16. A 50-month gasifier mechanistic study and downstream unit process development program for the pressurized ash-agglomerating fluidized-bed gasification system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haldipur, G.B.; Schmidt, D.K.; Smith, K.J.

    1989-03-01

    This technology development program scope included studies of those processes and components necessary to convert coal, oxidant and steam into a clean fuel gas. The configuration of the processes and components constitutes a Gasifier Island which is a key concept in the application of the KRW gasification and cleanup technologies. This Gasifier Island typically consists of process units that perform the following functions: feedstock preparation, gasification, desulfurization, heat recovery, particulate removal, and solid waste treatment. The processing has been conducted in a variety of gasifier operating modes including air-blown and oxygen-blown, both with and without in-bed desulfurization which includes injection of limestone or dolomite sorbent. Process configurations downstream of the gasifier have included recycle and non-recycle cyclones, sintered filters, and zinc ferrite fixed beds. Because of the developmental nature of the KRW technology program and the flexibility of the pilot plant itself, a wide range of gasifier-cleanup process configurations has been investigated. The KRW pilot plant program evaluated a system comprised of the following major process elements: gasifier and in-bed desulfurizer, particulate cleanup train, external sulfur polishing bed, and solid waste disposal system.

  17. Hummingbird structure in southeastern Saskatchewan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.D.

    1985-05-01

    Saskatchewan's first Devonian oil pool was discovered September 1966, at Hummingbird, 45 mi (72 km) southwest of Weyburn, Saskatchewan. The Hummingbird structure, located on the northwest flank of the Williston basin, is domal is nature and covers approximately 1 mi/sup 2/ (2.6 km/sup 2/). Oil production is from two zones. The Ratcliffe Member of the Mississippian Charles Formation produces from an algal and bioclastic limestone averaging 49 ft (15 m) thick. The Devonian Birdbear Formation produces from a finely crystalline vuggy dolomite averaging 56 ft (17 m) thick. The Hummingbird structure is a sedimentary structure resulting from multiple-stage salt solution and collapse. Recurring local solution of Middle Devonian Prairie Evaporite during Late Devonian and Early Mississippian time resulted in collapse of overlying strata and deposition of compensating thicknesses of Souris River, Duperow, and Bakken sediments. Between Mississippian and Cretaceous time, solution of Prairie Evaporite in the surrounding area caused collapse of all super-Prairie evaporite beds. The extra Souris River, Duperow, and Bakken strata at Hummingbird created the structure. Vertical migration of formation waters along a high-angle fault is suggested as the cause of the local salt solution at Hummingbird.

  18. DILUTE SURFACTANT METHODS FOR CARBONATE FORMATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2004-01-01

    There are many carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil and fracture pressure below its minimum miscibility pressure (or reservoir may be naturally fractured). Many carbonate reservoirs are naturally fractured. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). Thermal and miscible tertiary recovery techniques are not effective in these reservoirs. Surfactant flooding (or huff-n-puff) is the only hope, yet it was developed for sandstone reservoirs in the past. The goal of this research is to evaluate dilute (hence relatively inexpensive) surfactant methods for carbonate formations and identify conditions under which they can be effective. Anionic surfactants (SS-6656, Alfoterra 35, 38, 63,65,68) have been identified which can change the wettability of the calcite surface to intermediate/water-wet condition as well or better than the cationic surfactant DTAB with a West Texas crude oil in the presence of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. All the carbonate surfaces (Lithographic Limestone, Marble, Dolomite and Calcite) show similar behavior with respect to wettability alteration with surfactant 4-22. Anionic surfactants (5-166, Alfoterra-33 and Alfoterra-38 and Alfoterra-68), which lower the interfacial tension with a West Texas crude oil to very low values (<10{sup -2} nM/m), have also been identified. Plans for the next quarter include conducting wettability, mobilization, and imbibition studies.

  19. Enigmatic uppermost Permian-lowermost Triassic stratigraphic relations in the northern Bighorn basin of Wyoming and Montana

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paull, R.A.; Paull, R.K. )

    1991-06-01

    Eighteen measured sections in the northern Bighorn basin of Wyoming and Montana provide the basis for an analysis of Permian-Triassic stratigraphic relations. This boundary is well defined to the south where gray calcareous siltstones of the Lower Triassic Dinwoody disconformably overlie the Upper Permian Ervay Member of the Park City Formation with little physical evidence of a significant hiatus. The Dinwoody is gradationally overlain by red beds of the Red Peak Formation. The Dinwoody this to zero near the state line. Northward, the erathem boundary is enigmatic because fossils are absent and there is no evidence of an unconformity. Poor and discontinuous exposures contribute to the problem. Up to 20 m of Permian or Triassic rocks or both overlie the Pennsylvanian Tensleep Sandstone in the westernmost surface exposures on the eastern flank of the Bighorn basin with physical evidence of an unconformity. East of the exposed Tensleep, Ervay-like carbonates are overlain by about 15 m of Dinwoody-like siltstones interbedded with red beds and thin dolomitic limestone. In both areas, they are overlain by the Red Peak Formation. Thin carbonates within the Dinwoody are silty, coarse algal laminates with associated peloidal micrite. Carbonates north of the Dinwoody termination and above probably Ervay are peloidal algal laminates with fenestral fabric and sparse coated shell fragments with pisoids. These rocks may be Dinwoody equivalents or they may be of younger Permian age than the Ervay. Regardless, revision of stratigraphic nomenclature in this area may bed required.

  20. Upper Permian lacustrine oil shales, southern Junggar basin, northwest China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, A.R.; Brassell, S.C.; Graham, S.A. )

    1992-12-01

    Upper Permian organic-rich lacustrine mudstones (oil shales) that crop out in the southern Junggar basin rank among the richest and thickest petroleum source rock intervals in the world, with maximum TOC values reaching 34% and Rock-Eval pyrolytic yields (S[sub 2]) up to 200 kg HC/t rock. Lacustrine sedimentary facies define an overall transgressive-regressive cycle of approximately 2000 m gross thickness, which includes approximately 800 m of source rocks averaging 4.1% TOC and 26.2 kg HC/t rock. Basinal facies comprise silicic, organic-rich, laminated lacustrine mudstones and interbedded siltstones; organic matter contained in the mudstones ranges in composition from type I to type III. Basinal facies were deposited in a deep, oxygen-deficient, stratified lake. Lake-margin facies consist of nonlaminated siliciclastic mudstones, rippled dolomitic silstones and sandstones, and minor limestones. Maximum TOC values are approximately 6%. Desiccation cracks are common in the marginal facies, but evaporite minerals are rare or absent. Biomarker correlation parameters measured from rock extracts exhibit significant stratigraphic variability, but strongly support the hypothesis that Upper Permian lacustrine oil shales charge the giant Karamay field in the northwestern Junggar basin. Karamay oils are characterized by high relative abundances of [beta]-carotane. This characteristic is restricted to desiccated facies in the outcrop sections, however. We therefore propose that an abundance of [beta]-carotane indicates elevated environmental salinities during deposition of the oil shales. 16 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. RPSEA Final Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... 1 Figure 2 Crossplot of permeability vs. porosity of the Arbuckle dolomite core samples from Ogallah unit...

  2. Marine carbonate embayment system in an Eolian dune terrain, Permian Upper Minnelusa Formation, Rozet Area, Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Achauer, C.W.

    1987-05-01

    The eolian origin for Minnelusa sandstones has been stressed in numerous published articles. However, the dolomites that are interbedded with the eolian sandstones have received little attention. Isopach mapping of one of the dolomite units (Dolomite I) reflects a marine embayment system whose individual embayments range from 1/2 to 1 mi in width and trend primarily in a northwest direction. Consistently the embayment dolomites pinch out against the flanks of reworked, low relief, broad, eolian dune ridges. So far, 108 mi/sup 2/ of the Dolomite I marine embayment system have been mapped, but the overall extent of the system is undoubtedly much greater. Dolomite I is rarely cored, but cores from stratigraphically higher embayment dolomites in the upper Minnelusa show that these dolomites display the following, shoaling-upward sequence: (1) subtidal, sparingly fossiliferous dolomite; (2) intertidal, algal-laminated or brecciated or mud-cracked dolomite; and (3) very thin, supratidal, nodular anhydrite. The embayments, therefore, became the sites of marine sabkhas located between eolian dunes. Two main conclusions emerge from this study: (1) the juxtaposition of eolian sandstones and marine dolomites in a tectonically stable area suggests that eustatic sea level changes and a very arid climate were responsible for the marked environmental and lithologic changes observed in the upper Minnelusa, and (2) arid, coastal, evaporitic sabkhas bordered by eolian dunes are known from a number of modern and ancient cases, but marine carbonate embayments and associated evaporitic sabkhas that penetrate deeply into eolian sandstone terrains are rare.

  3. THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY CO2 STORAGE PROJECT - PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF DEEP SALINE RESERVOIRS AND COAL SEAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael J. Mudd; Howard Johnson; Charles Christopher; T.S. Ramakrishnan, Ph.D.

    2003-08-01

    This report describes the geologic setting for the Deep Saline Reservoirs and Coal Seams in the Ohio River Valley CO{sub 2} Storage Project area. The object of the current project is to site and design a CO{sub 2} injection facility. A location near New Haven, WV, has been selected for the project. To assess geologic storage reservoirs at the site, regional and site-specific geology were reviewed. Geologic reports, deep well logs, hydraulic tests, and geologic maps were reviewed for the area. Only one well within 25 miles of the site penetrates the deeper sedimentary rocks, so there is a large amount of uncertainty regarding the deep geology at the site. New Haven is located along the Ohio River on the border of West Virginia and Ohio. Topography in the area is flat in the river valley but rugged away from the Ohio River floodplain. The Ohio River Valley incises 50-100 ft into bedrock in the area. The area of interest lies within the Appalachian Plateau, on the western edge of the Appalachian Mountain chain. Within the Appalachian Basin, sedimentary rocks are 3,000 to 20,000 ft deep and slope toward the southeast. The rock formations consist of alternating layers of shale, limestone, dolomite, and sandstone overlying dense metamorphic continental shield rocks. The Rome Trough is the major structural feature in the area, and there may be some faults associated with the trough in the Ohio-West Virginia Hinge Zone. The area has a low earthquake hazard with few historical earthquakes. Target injection reservoirs include the basal sandstone/Lower Maryville and the Rose Run Sandstone. The basal sandstone is an informal name for sandstones that overlie metamorphic shield rock. Regional geology indicates that the unit is at a depth of approximately 9,100 ft below the surface at the project site and associated with the Maryville Formation. Overall thickness appears to be 50-100 ft. The Rose Run Sandstone is another potential reservoir. The unit is located approximately 1

  4. Second-generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion plant: Phase 1, Task 2 topical report---Grimethorpe tube bundle E'' wastage evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kegel, W.

    1989-08-01

    Foster Wheeler Development Corporation (FWDC) took part in a pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) test program at the Grimethorpe PFBC facility in England. FWDC's participation included generating data to assess comparative wear rates and patterns on several different tubing alloys and surface protection techniques. The alloys and protection techniques are being used in, or are planned for, commercial atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed boilers. Tubular specimens which were grouped into ten classes: carbon steel; finned carbon steel; finned 2-1/4%Cr-1%Mo; finned and studded carbon steel; finned and studded 2-1/4%Cr-1%Mo; finned and studded Type 347H stainless steel; chromized carbon steel; chromized 2-1/4%Cr-1%Mo; finned, studded and chromized carbon steel; and finned, studded and chromized 2-1/4%Cr-1%Mo. The materials are typical of those normally used in boiler service for carrying water, generating steam, and superheating steam. The test program and spanned approximately 1400 operating hours and was composed of three test sequences. Each test in the A2 series was run with a different fuel feedstock. The first utilized a UK coal (dry); the second evaluated a US coal/water mixture (slurry); the third test employed a UK coal slurry. Test runs with UK coal included a limestone sorbent while dolomite was used in the second test sequence. Exposed test specimens were removed for independent surface scale analysis before FWDC began metal wastage evaluations. The specimens were then inspected visually, analyzed dimensionally, and examined metallographically. 5 refs., 75 figs., 14 tabs.

  5. Tracer-level radioactive pilot-scale test of in situ vitrification for the stabilization of contaminated soil sites at ORNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spalding, B.P.; Jacobs, G.K.; Naney, M.T.; Dunbar, N.W.; Tixier, J.S.; Powell, T.D.

    1992-11-01

    A field demonstration of in situ vitrification (ISV) was completed in May 1991, and produced approximately 12 Mg of melted earthen materials containing 12.7 mCi of radioactivity within 500 g of sludge in amodel of an old seepage trench waste disposal unit. Past waste disposal operations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have left several contaminated seepage sites. In planning for remediation of such sites, ISV technology has been identified as a leading candidate because of the high risks associated with any retrieval option and because of the usual high quality of vitreous waste form. Major isotopes placed in the test trench were {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr, with lesser amounts of {sup 6O}Co, {sup 241}Am, and {sup 239,240}Pu. A total of 29 MWh of electrical power was delivered to the ground over a 5-day period producing a melt depth of 8.5 ft. During melting, 2.4% of the {sup 137}Cs volatilized from the melt into an off-gas containment hood and was captured quantitatively on a high efficiency particulate air filter. No volatilization of {sup 90}Sr, {sup 241}Am, or {sup 239,240}Pu was detected and > 99.993% retention of these isotopes in the melt was estimated. The use of added rare earth tracers (Ce, La, and Nd), as surrogates for transuranic isotopes, led to estimated melt retentions of >99.9995% during the test. The molten material, composed of the native soil and dolomitic limestone used for filling the test trench, reached a processing temperature of 1500{degrees}C. Standardized leaching procedures using Product Consistency Testing indicated that the ISV product has excellent characteristics relative to other vitreous nuclear waste forms.

  6. Tracer-level radioactive pilot-scale test of in situ vitrification for the stabilization of contaminated soil sites at ORNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spalding, B.P.; Jacobs, G.K.; Naney, M.T. ); Dunbar, N.W. ); Tixier, J.S.; Powell, T.D. )

    1992-11-01

    A field demonstration of in situ vitrification (ISV) was completed in May 1991, and produced approximately 12 Mg of melted earthen materials containing 12.7 mCi of radioactivity within 500 g of sludge in amodel of an old seepage trench waste disposal unit. Past waste disposal operations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have left several contaminated seepage sites. In planning for remediation of such sites, ISV technology has been identified as a leading candidate because of the high risks associated with any retrieval option and because of the usual high quality of vitreous waste form. Major isotopes placed in the test trench were [sup 137]Cs and [sup 90]Sr, with lesser amounts of [sup 6O]Co, [sup 241]Am, and [sup 239,240]Pu. A total of 29 MWh of electrical power was delivered to the ground over a 5-day period producing a melt depth of 8.5 ft. During melting, 2.4% of the [sup 137]Cs volatilized from the melt into an off-gas containment hood and was captured quantitatively on a high efficiency particulate air filter. No volatilization of [sup 90]Sr, [sup 241]Am, or [sup 239,240]Pu was detected and > 99.993% retention of these isotopes in the melt was estimated. The use of added rare earth tracers (Ce, La, and Nd), as surrogates for transuranic isotopes, led to estimated melt retentions of >99.9995% during the test. The molten material, composed of the native soil and dolomitic limestone used for filling the test trench, reached a processing temperature of 1500[degrees]C. Standardized leaching procedures using Product Consistency Testing indicated that the ISV product has excellent characteristics relative to other vitreous nuclear waste forms.

  7. Composition and chemistry of particulates from the Tidd Clean Coal Demonstration Plant pressurized fluidized bed combustor, cyclone, and filter vessel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.H.; Grimm, U.; Haddad, G.

    1995-12-31

    In a Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC)/cyclone/filter system ground coal and sorbent are injected as pastes into the PFBC bed; the hot gases and entrained fine particles of ash and calcined or reacted sorbent are passed through a cyclone (which removes the larger entrained particles); and the very-fine particles that remain are then filtered out, so that the cleaned hot gas can be sent through a non-ruggedized hot-gas turbine. The 70 MWe Tidd PFBC Demonstration Plant in Brilliant, Ohio was completed in late 1990. The initial design utilized seven strings of primary and secondary cyclones to remove 98% of the particulate matter. However, the Plant also included a pressurized filter vessel, placed between the primary and secondary cyclones of one of the seven strings. Coal and dolomitic limestone (i.e, SO{sub 2} sorbent) of various nominal sizes ranging from 12 to 18 mesh were injected into the combustor operating at about 10 atm pressure and 925{degree}C. The cyclone removed elutriated particles larger than about 0.025 mm, and particles larger than ca. 0.0005 mm were filtered at about 750{degree}C by ceramic candle filters. Thus, the chemical reaction times and temperatures, masses of material, particle-size distributions, and chemical compositions were substantially different for particulates removed from the bed drain, the cyclone drain, and the filter unit. Accordingly, we have measured the particle-size distributions and concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sulfur, silicon, and aluminum for material taken from the three units, and also determined the chemical formulas and predominant crystalline forms of the calcium and magnesium sulfate compounds formed. The latter information is particularly novel for the filter-cake material, from which we isolated the ``new`` compound Mg{sub 2}Ca(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}.

  8. Completion Report for Well ER-12-3 Corrective Action Unit 99: Rainier Mesa - Shoshone Mountain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada Corporation

    2006-05-01

    Well ER-12-3 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in March and April 2005 as part of a hydrogeologic investigation program for the Rainier Mesa-Shoshone Mountain Corrective Action Unit. The overall purpose of the well was to gather subsurface data to better characterize the hydrogeology of central Rainier Mesa, especially in the older Tertiary volcanic rocks and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks. The main 47.0-centimeter hole was drilled to a depth of 799.2 meters and cased with 33.97-centimeter casing to 743.1 meters. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 centimeters, and the well was drilled to a total depth of 1,496.0 meters. The completion string consisted of 13.97-centimeter stainless steel casing, with two slotted intervals open to the lower carbonate aquifer, suspended from 19.37-centimeter carbon steel casing. A piezometer string was installed outside the 33.97-centimeter casing to a depth of 467.1 meters to monitor a zone of perched water within the Tertiary volcanic section. Data gathered during and shortly after hole construction include composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3 meters (extra cuttings samples were collected from the Paleozoic rocks for paleontological analyses), sidewall core samples from 35 depths, various geophysical logs, and water level measurements. These data indicate that the well penetrated 674.2 meters of Tertiary volcanic rocks and 821.7 meters of Paleozoic dolomite and limestone. Forty-nine days after the well was completed, but prior to well development and testing, the water level inside the main hole was tagged at the depth of 949.1 meters, and the water level inside the piezometer string was tagged at 379.9 meters.

  9. Evolution and petroleum potential of the pre-Dobrodian foredeep, northwest Black Sea region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larchenkov, E. )

    1993-09-01

    The pre-Dobrodian foredeep formed during the Paleozoic and early Triassic by some phases of crustal stretching. Throughout most of the Paleozoic, the area was dominated by relatively stable, shallow water shelf and/or lagoonal conditions, as indicated by the dominance of limestones, dolomites, shales, and evaporites. During the Permian and early Triassic, terrigenous, volcanic, and evaporitic series accumulated in individual, fault-controlled depocenters. Two phases of active contraction, regional uplift and folding, can be deduced from analysis of structural features. The southwestern part of the Dobrudian foredeep is characterized by the northeast-verging imbricate structures of the lower Prut and Tulcha zones which involve thick Paleozoic sequences. Variations in hydrocarbon generation, accumulation and retention in the Paleozoic rocks of the pre-Dobrudian foredeep result from repeated changes in its geodynamic setting. During the Late Paleozoic, conditions were favorable for petroleum generation in the Middle Devonian and Lower Carboniferous series in two areas located to the southwest and southeast of the foredeep. A second phase of hydrocarbon generation from these series occurred during the Permian and Triassic. Early Cretaceous contraction of the basin resulted in destruction of earlier hydrocarbon accumulations contained in Paleozoic reservoirs and development of new traps in Paleozoic strata. In the evaluation of the hydrocarbon potential of the Dobrudian foredeep, trap preservation plays an important role. On the basis of hydrocarbon gas-geochemical surveys, it is assumed that seal integrity is better in the imbricated lower Prut zone than in other areas of the pre-Dobrudian foredeep. This suggests that the generally negative views on the poor prospectivity of this basin should be revised, particularly regarding the potential of Devonian and Carboniferous reservoirs which extend in an autochthonous position beneath the lower Prut and Tulcha thrust zones.

  10. Diagenetic history and hydrocarbon potential of Upper Permian carbonate buildups, Wegener Halvoe area, Jameson Land basin, east Greenland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scholle, P.A.; Ulmer, D.S. ); Stemmerik, L. )

    1991-04-01

    The Upper Permian of Jameson Land includes two carbonate sequences, the Karstryggen and Wegener Halvoe formations. The Karstryggen Formation contains hypersaline carbonates and localized evaporites that were heavily weathered and dissected prior to deposition of the overlying strata. The overlying Wegener Halvoe Formation represents an abrupt and extensive marine inundation over the underlying karstified Karstryggen surface. Bryozoan-brachiopod-algal-cement buildups of the Wegener Halvoe Formation are localized on karstic highs, and show up to 150 m of depositional relief. The diagenetic histories of the core and flank facies are very different. Core facies porosity was initially obliterated by marine cements, but repeated meteoric exposure altered unstable core facies constituents. This alteration produced extensive secondary porosity through grain and cement leaching with local collapse brecciation. Flank strata, however, underwent little sea-floor diagenesis, and low permeability and mineralogically stable grain composition protected these strata from meteoric alteration. Subsequent fracturing and hydrothermal fluid flow, however, flushed hydrocarbons and filled pores with ferroan calcite, barite, fluorite, galena, and baroque dolomite. This heating and flushing is thought to have been especially intense in the Wegener Halvoe region; thus, more basinal areas may still have reservoirs containing significant oil in equivalent Upper Permian limestones. If, as is likely, the sea level changes affecting the Greenland Permian were eustatic, then this study may provide significant clues to porosity development throughout the largely unexplored northern Zechstein basin and the Arctic basin of the Barent Sea. This study also provides some important connections to the probably time-equivalent Guadalupian carbonate reservoir rocks of west Texas-New Mexico and Wyoming.

  11. High-resolution stratigraphic forward modeling: A case study of the lower-middle San Andres formation, Permian basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shuster, M.W. , Rijswijk ); Childers, D.W. )

    1993-09-01

    This study has attempted to calibrate Shell's two-dimensional (2-D) basin modeling program as an exploration tool by simulating the stratigraphy of a mixed carbonate/clastic third-order depositional sequence. The lower-middle San Andres Formation was selected because available log, core, and outcrop data from the Northwest Shelf area, Permian basin, provided an excellent calibration set. A regional stratigraphic cross section from the Cato-Chaveroo to the Wasson fields was constructed delineating lithology and porosity distribution. Approximately 10 shoaling-upward depositional cycles were interpreted. A higher frequency, five-in-one cyclicity was also interpreted based on core and outcrop data. The observed stratigraphy was simulated using a composite eustasy consisting of third-order (2,000,000 yr), fourth-order (100,000 yr), and fifth-order (20,000 yr) sinusoids each at five-meter amplitudes. Subsidence input was constrained by back-stripped tectonic subsidence curves calculated from well data. Sedimentation parameters were interactively derived. New empirically based algorithms were used to model Dunham lithofacies, environmental facies, and sabkha anhydrite distribution. Synthetic log and 2-D synthetic seismic profiles were constructed from the simulation output. The simulation results suggest that (1) relative sea level is the dominant control on the observed depositional cyclicity, (2) the distribution of regional seal facies (anhydrite) reflects falling sea level and prolonged exposure, (3) limestone-dolomite trends on the shelf are grossly related to environment and (4) the distribution of grainstones and packstones (potential reservoirs) occurs as fourth- and fifth-order offlapping and aggradational pods. The synthetic log signatures compared to [open quotes]real[close quotes] logs substantiate the interpreted depositional cyclicity, but also point out the difficulty in interpreting high-order cycles based on log data alone.

  12. TITLE AUTHORS SUBJECT SUBJECT RELATED DESCRIPTION PUBLISHER AVAILABILI...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CYCLONE OPTIMIZATON Gerald H Luttrell Chris J Barbee Peter J Bethell Chris J Wood COAL LIGNITE AND PEAT COAL DESIGN DIAMONDS DOLOMITE ECONOMICS EFFICIENCY EVALUATION...

  13. DENSE MEDIUM CYCLONE OPTIMIZATON Gerald H. Luttrell; Chris J...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    OPTIMIZATON Gerald H. Luttrell; Chris J. Barbee; Peter J. Bethell; Chris J. Wood 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; COAL; DESIGN; DIAMONDS; DOLOMITE; ECONOMICS; EFFICIENCY;...

  14. "Title","Creator/Author","Publication Date","OSTI Identifier...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report",,,,"Virginia Polytech Institute and State University","USDOE","01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; COAL; DESIGN; DIAMONDS; DOLOMITE; ECONOMICS; EFFICIENCY;...

  15. A record of uranium-series transport at Nopal I, Sierra Pena...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    goethite, kaolinite, calcite, dolomite and quartz) from one such analog; the Nopal I uranium ore deposit situated at Pea Blanca in the Chihuahua region of northern Mexico. ...

  16. Property:HostRockLithology | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Area + Basalt Amedee Geothermal Area + granite; granodiorite B Bac-Man Laguna Geothermal Area + Volcanic Bad Blumau Geothermal Area + Dolomite Beowawe Hot...

  17. NREL: Photovoltaics Research - David L. Young, Ph.D.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    p. 073502. Young, D.L., B. Egaas, S. Pinegar, and P. Stradins. A new real-time quantum efficiency measurement system. in 33rd IEEE PVSC 2008. San Diego, CA: IEEE. Young, D.L.,...

  18. ARM - Site Instruments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Disdrometer Surface Meteorology Browse Plots Browse Data Single installation DL Doppler Lidar Cloud Properties Browse Data Single installation GNDRAD Ground...

  19. Gas turbines and acid rain - Looking at some solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    May, W.

    1989-01-01

    This article examines the technology available for reducing the sulfur emissions of gas turbines that are implicated in the production of acid rain. The alternatives reviewed are limestone scrubbing, spray dryer absorption and limestone injection into boilers. The last process is not feasible for gas turbines and of the other two the author recommends limestone scrubbing.

  20. Carbonaceous fuel combustion with improved desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T. (Middle Island, NY); Shen, Ming-shing (Rocky Point, NY)

    1980-01-01

    Lime utilization for sulfurous oxides adsorption in fluidized combustion of carbonaceous fuels is improved by impregnation of porous lime particulates with iron oxide. The impregnation is achieved by spraying an aqueous solution of mixed iron sulfate and sulfite on the limestone before transfer to the fluidized bed combustor, whereby the iron compounds react with the limestone substrate to form iron oxide at the limestone surface. The iron oxide present in the spent limestone is found to catalyze the regeneration rate of the spent limestone in a reducing environment. Thus both the calcium and iron components may be recycled.

  1. Catalytic iron oxide for lime regeneration in carbonaceous fuel combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shen, Ming-Shing (Rocky Point, NY); Yang, Ralph T. (Middle Island, NY)

    1980-01-01

    Lime utilization for sulfurous oxides absorption in fluidized combustion of carbonaceous fuels is improved by impregnation of porous lime particulates with iron oxide. The impregnation is achieved by spraying an aqueous solution of mixed iron sulfate and sulfite on the limestone before transfer to the fluidized bed combustor, whereby the iron compounds react with the limestone substrate to form iron oxide at the limestone surface. It is found that iron oxide present in the spent limestone acts as a catalyst to regenerate the spent limestone in a reducing environment. With only small quantities of iron oxide the calcium can be recycled at a significantly increased rate.

  2. Geomechanical Analysis and Design Considerations for Thin-Bedded Salt Caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael S. Bruno

    2005-06-15

    The bedded salt formations located throughout the United States are layered and interspersed with non-salt materials such as anhydrite, shale, dolomite and limestone. The salt layers often contain significant impurities. GRI and DOE have initialized this research proposal in order to increase the gas storage capabilities by providing operators with improved geotechnical design and operating guidelines for thin bedded salt caverns. Terralog has summarized the geologic conditions, pressure conditions, and critical design factors that may lead to: (1) Fracture in heterogeneous materials; (2) Differential deformation and bedding plane slip; (3) Propagation of damage around single and multiple cavern; and (4) Improved design recommendations for single and multiple cavern configurations in various bedded salt environments. The existing caverns within both the Permian Basin Complex and the Michigan and Appalachian Basins are normally found between 300 m to 1,000 m (1,000 ft to 3,300 ft) depth depending on local geology and salt dissolution depth. Currently, active cavern operations are found in the Midland and Anadarko Basins within the Permian Basin Complex and in the Appalachian and Michigan Basins. The Palo Duro and Delaware Basins within the Permian Basin Complex also offer salt cavern development potential. Terralog developed a number of numerical models for caverns located in thin bedded salt. A modified creep viscoplastic model has been developed and implemented in Flac3D to simulate the response of salt at the Permian, Michigan and Appalachian Basins. The formulation of the viscoplastic salt model, which is based on an empirical creep law developed for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Program, is combined with the Drucker-Prager model to include the formation of damage and failure. The Permian salt lab test data provided by Pfeifle et al. 1983, are used to validate the assumptions made in the material model development. For the actual cavern simulations two

  3. Improving Gas Flooding Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid Grigg; Robert Svec; Zheng Zeng; Alexander Mikhalin; Yi Lin; Guoqiang Yin; Solomon Ampir; Rashid Kassim

    2008-03-31

    This study focuses on laboratory studies with related analytical and numerical models, as well as work with operators for field tests to enhance our understanding of and capabilities for more efficient enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Much of the work has been performed at reservoir conditions. This includes a bubble chamber and several core flood apparatus developed or modified to measure interfacial tension (IFT), critical micelle concentration (CMC), foam durability, surfactant sorption at reservoir conditions, and pressure and temperature effects on foam systems.Carbon dioxide and N{sub 2} systems have been considered, under both miscible and immiscible conditions. The injection of CO2 into brine-saturated sandstone and carbonate core results in brine saturation reduction in the range of 62 to 82% brine in the tests presented in this paper. In each test, over 90% of the reduction occurred with less than 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected, with very little additional brine production after 0.5 PV of CO{sub 2} injected. Adsorption of all considered surfactant is a significant problem. Most of the effect is reversible, but the amount required for foaming is large in terms of volume and cost for all considered surfactants. Some foams increase resistance to the value beyond what is practical in the reservoir. Sandstone, limestone, and dolomite core samples were tested. Dissolution of reservoir rock and/or cement, especially carbonates, under acid conditions of CO2 injection is a potential problem in CO2 injection into geological formations. Another potential change in reservoir injectivity and productivity will be the precipitation of dissolved carbonates as the brine flows and pressure decreases. The results of this report provide methods for determining surfactant sorption and can be used to aid in the determination of surfactant requirements for reservoir use in a CO{sub 2}-foam flood for mobility control. It also provides data to be used to determine rock permeability

  4. Completion Report for Well ER-16-1 Corrective Action Unit 99: Rainier Mesa - Shoshone Mountain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NSTec Geology Services

    2006-12-01

    of Paleozoic dolomite, quartzite, shale, and limestone. Three weeks after the monitoring string was installed, the water level was tagged at the drill hole depth of 1,271.9 meters, which equates to an estimated elevation of 761.7 meters, accounting for the borehole angle.

  5. UNBIASED MOMENT-RATE SPECTRA AND ABSOLUTE SITE EFFECTS IN THE KACHCHH BASIN, INDIA, FROM THE ANALYSIS OF THE AFTERSHOCKS OF THE 2001 Mw 7.6 BHUJ EARTHQUAKE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malagnini, L; Bodin, P; Mayeda, K; Akinci, A

    2005-05-04

    What can be learned about absolute site effects on ground motions and about earthquake source spectra from recordings at temporary seismic stations, none of which could be considered a 'reference' (hard rock) site, for which no geotechnical information is available, in a very poorly instrumented region? This challenge motivated our current study of aftershocks of the 2001 Mw 7.6 Bhuj earthquake, in Western India. Crustal attenuation and spreading relationships based on the same data used here were determined in an earlier study. In this paper we decouple the ambiguity between absolute source radiation and site effects by first computing robust estimates of moment-rate spectra of about 200 aftershocks in each of two depth ranges. Using these new estimates of sourcespectra, and our understanding of regional wave propagation, we extract the absolute site terms of the sites of the temporary deployment. Absolute site terms (one for each component of the ground motion, for each station) are computed in an average sense, via an L{sub 1}-norm minimization, and results for each site are averaged over wide ranges of azimuths and takeoff angles. The Bhuj deployment is characterized by a variable shallow geology, mostly of soft sedimentary units. Vertical site terms in the region were observed to be almost featureless and slightly < 1.0 within wide frequency ranges. As a result, H/V spectral ratios mimic the absolute behaviors of absolute horizontal site terms, and they generally overpredict them. On the contrary, with respect to the results for sedimentary rock sites (limestone, dolomite) obtained by Malagnini et al. (2004), H/V spectral ratios in their study did not have much in common with absolute horizontal site terms. Spectral ratios between the vector sum of the computed horizontal site terms for the temporary deployment with respect to the same quantity computed at the hardest rock station available, BAC1, are seriously biased by its non-flat, non-unitary site response

  6. Geologic reconnaissance of natural fore-reef slope and a large submarine rockfall exposure, Enewetak Atoll

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Halley, R.B.; Slater, R.A.

    1987-05-01

    In 1958 a submarine rockfall exposed a cross section through the reef and fore-reef deposits along the northwestern margin of Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands. Removal of more than 10/sup 8/ MT of rock left a cirque-shaped submarine scarp 220 m high, extending back 190 m into the modern reef, and 1000 m along the reef trend. The scarp exposed older, steeply dipping beds below 220 m along which the rockfall detached. They sampled this exposure and the natural fore-reef slope surrounding it in 1984 and 1985 using a manned submersible. The natural slope in this area is characterized by three zone: (1) the reef plate, crest, and near fore reef that extends from sea level to -16 m, with a slope of less than 10/sup 0/, (2) the bypass slope that extends from -16 to -275 m, with slopes of 55/sup 0/ decreasing to 35/sup 0/ near the base, and (3) a debris slope of less than 35/sup 0/ below -275 m. Vertical walls, grooves, and chutes, common on other fore-reef slopes, are sparse on the northwestern slope of Enewetak. The scarp exposes three stratigraphic units that are differentiated by surficial appearance: (1) a near-vertical wall from the reef crest to 76 m that appears rubbly, has occasional debris-covered ledges, and is composed mainly of coral; (2) a vertical to overhanging wall from -76 m to -220 m that is massive and fractured, and has smooth, blocky surfaces; and (3) inclined bedding below -220 m along which the slump block has fractured, exposing a dip slope of hard, dense, white limestone and dolomite that extends below -400 m. Caves occur in all three units. Open cement-lined fractures and voids layered with cements are most common in the middle unit, which now lies within the thermocline. Along the sides of the scarp are exposed fore-reef boulder beds dipping at 30/sup 0/ toward the open sea; the steeper (55/sup 0/) dipping natural surface truncates these beds, which gives evidence of the erosional nature of the bypass slope.

  7. Well ER-6-1 Tracer Test Analysis: Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg Ruskauff

    2006-09-01

    The ER-6-1 multiple-well aquifer test-tracer test (MWAT-TT) investigated groundwater flow and transport processes relevant to the transport of radionuclides from sources on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) through the lower carbonate aquifer (LCA) hydrostratigraphic unit (HSU). The LCA, which is present beneath much of the NTS, is the principal aquifer for much of southern Nevada. This aquifer consists mostly of limestone and dolomite, and is pervasively fractured. Groundwater flow in this aquifer is primarily in the fractures, and the hydraulic properties are primarily related to fracture frequency and fracture characteristics (e.g., mineral coatings, aperture, connectivity). The objective of the multiple-well aquifer test (MWAT) was to determine flow and hydraulic characteristics for the LCA in Yucca Flat. The data were used to derive representative flow model and parameter values for the LCA. The items of specific interest are: Hydraulic conductivity; Storage parameters; Dual-porosity behavior; and Fracture flow characteristics. The objective of the tracer transport experiment was to evaluate the transport properties and processes of the LCA and to derive representative transport parameter values for the LCA. The properties of specific interest are: Effective porosity; Matrix diffusion; Longitudinal dispersivity; Adsorption characteristics; and Colloid transport characteristics. These properties substantially control the rate of transport of contaminants in the groundwater system and concentration distributions. To best support modeling at the scale of the corrective action unit (CAU), these properties must be investigated at the field scale. The processes represented by these parameters are affected by in-situ factors that are either difficult to investigate at the laboratory scale or operate at a much larger scale than can be reproduced in the laboratory. Measurements at the field scale provide a better understanding of the effective average parameter values. The

  8. DOE and USDA Select Projects for more than $24 Million in Biomass...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon jointsolicitation2009dl.pdf More Documents & Publications Roadmap for Bioenergy and Biobased Products in the United States Feedstock Supply and Logistics:Biomass as a ...

  9. Ms. Maria Galanti Site Coordinator

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Galanti: TRANSMITTAL OF Dl CONSTRUCTION COMPLETION REPORT FOR PHASES I AND II OF THE ... from M. Galanti to J. Bradbume, "Construction Completion Report for Phases I and II ...

  10. P

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    P - . . - - 4 v - r REQUEST FOR RECORDS Dl To: NATIONAL ARCHIVES and RECORDS ADMINISTRATION (NIR) WASHINGTON, DC 20408 1. FROM (Agency or establishment) NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND ...

  11. Quality Assurance of ARM Program Climate Research Facility Data...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ; Eagan, RC ; Lijegren, JC ; Orr, BW ; Sisterson, DL ; Halter, TD ; Keck, NN ; Long, CN ; Macduff, MC ; Mather, JH ; Perez, RC ; Voyles, JW more ; Ivey, MD ; ...

  12. Quality Assurance of ARM Program Climate Research Facility Data...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    NN ; Long, CN ; Macduff, MC ; Mather, JH ; Perez, RC ; Voyles, JW more ; Ivey, MD ; Moore, ST ; Nitschke, DL ; Perkins, BD ; Turner, DD less + Show Author Affiliations BNL ...

  13. Fermi Observations of High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission from GRB...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Cruz ; Axelsson, M. ; Stockholm U., OKC Stockholm U. ; Baldini, L. ; INFN, Pisa ; Ballet, J. ; DAPNIA, Saclay ; Band, D.L. ; NASA, Goddard NASA, Goddard ; Barbiellini,...

  14. Fermi Observations of High-Energy Gamma-Ray Emission From GRB...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Cruz ; Axelsson, M. ; Stockholm U. Stockholm U., OKC ; Baldini, L. ; INFN, Pisa ; Ballet, J. ; DAPNIA, Saclay ; Band, D.L. ; NASA, Goddard ; Barbiellini, G. ; INFN, Trieste...

  15. Temperature coefficients for PV modules and arrays: Measurement...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    methods, difficulties, and results King, D.L.; Kratochvil, J.A.; Boyson, W.E. 14 SOLAR ENERGY; SOLAR CELL ARRAYS; SOLAR CELLS; MEASURING METHODS; TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE;...

  16. ARM - Site Instruments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Disdrometer Surface Meteorology Browse Plots Browse Data Single installation DL Doppler Lidar Cloud Properties Browse Plots Browse Data Single installation IAP...

  17. DOE/SC-ARM-15-035 Enhanced Soundings for Local Coupling Studies...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric temperature, moisture, and wind profiles: Microwave radiometer (MWR) Doppler lidar (DL) 915 MHz radar wind profiler (RWP) Atmospheric emitted radiance...

  18. ARM - Field Campaign - Observations and Modeling of the Green...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Particle Counter Browse Data Browse Plots CSPHOT Cimel Sunphotometer Browse Data DL Doppler Lidar Browse Data ECOR Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System Browse Data Browse...

  19. ARM - Site Instruments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Disdrometer Surface Meteorology Browse Plots Browse Data Single installation DL Doppler Lidar Cloud Properties Browse Plots Browse Data Installed at 2 facilities EBBR...

  20. ARM - Site Instruments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cimel Sunphotometer Aerosols, Radiometric Browse Data Installed at 2 facilities DL Doppler Lidar Cloud Properties Browse Data Single installation ECOR Eddy Correlation...

  1. ARM - Site Instruments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cimel Sunphotometer Aerosols, Radiometric Browse Data Installed at 2 facilities DL Doppler Lidar Cloud Properties Browse Data Single installation GNDRAD Ground...

  2. ARM - Site Instruments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    installation CSPHOT Cimel Sunphotometer Aerosols Browse Data Single installation DL Doppler Lidar Cloud Properties Browse Data Installed at 2 facilities ECOR Eddy...

  3. ARM - Site Instruments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CSPHOT Cimel Sunphotometer Aerosols, Radiometric Browse Data Single installation DL Doppler Lidar Cloud Properties Browse Data Single installation ECOR Eddy Correlation...

  4. ARM - Field Campaign - Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CPC Condensation Particle Counter Browse Data CSPHOT Cimel Sunphotometer Browse Data DL Doppler Lidar Browse Data ECOR Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System Browse Data GNDRAD...

  5. ARM - Site Instruments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Disdrometer Surface Meteorology Browse Plots Browse Data Single installation DL Doppler Lidar Cloud Properties Browse Data Single installation ECOR Eddy Correlation...

  6. ARM - Measurement - Backscatter depolarization ratio

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments DL : Doppler Lidar HSRL : High Spectral Resolution Lidar RL : Raman Lidar Field Campaign...

  7. A Unified Approach for Reporting ARM Measurement Uncertainties...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    0 A Unified Approach for Reporting ARM Measurement Uncertainties Technical Report E Campos DL Sisterson October 2015 DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work ...

  8. Using RSI format

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Phase detection techniques are employed for both the polarimetry and interferometry ... The interferometry measurement, n e dl, is made by determining phase changes on the 750 ...

  9. shaleusa1_letter.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Cooke Denton Bosque Tarrant San Saba Eastland McLennan Collin Stephens Montague Palo Pinto Hamilton Grayson Comanche Johnson Hood Limestone Navarro on Somervell Surface Locations ...

  10. Stratigraphic Boundaries | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tectonics Mississippian-Pennsylvanian; Pleistocene, 1.6 to 1.25 Ma Limestone-Madera Formation "MIPu"; Rhyolitic tuff-Intracaldera Bandelier Tuff (upper Tshirege "Qbt" and...

  11. Caldera Rim Margins | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Tectonics Mississippian-Pennsylvanian; Pleistocene, 1.6 to 1.25 Ma Limestone-Madera Formation "MIPu"; Rhyolitic tuff-Intracaldera Bandelier Tuff (upper Tshirege "Qbt" and...

  12. Mass Transfer Constraints On The Chemical Evolution Of An Active...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    component required to maintain observed calcite saturation and high Pco2 pressures was carbon presumably derived from underlying Paleozoic limestones. Phase rule constraints...

  13. Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, Trace Metal and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Carbon Dioxide, Brine, Trace Metal and Organic Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Limestone Aquifer Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Geochemical Impacts of Carbon ...

  14. 3.27 Why Dinosaurs Are Extinct

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Walter Alvarez discovered a layer of red clay between fossil- containing limestone deposits in Italy. His father, Nobel laureate Luis Alvarez, suggested how to analyze it. ...

  15. News Item

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbonate-the ubiquitous compound that is a major component of seashells, limestone, concrete, antacids and myriad other naturally and industrially produced substances-may...

  16. X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography for the Durability Characterization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography for the Durability Characterization of Limestone Aggregate Citation Details In-Document Search Title: X-Ray Microcomputed Tomography for...

  17. --No Title--

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    ... larger share in recent years, exceeding coal-fired generation in 2012, 2014, and 2015. ... at the Browns Ferry nuclear power plant in Limestone County have a combined ...

  18. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electronic Full Text1 Citations0 Multimedia0 Datasets0 Filter Results Filter by Subject coal (1) coal, lignite, and peat (1) design (1) diamonds (1) dolomite (1) economics (1)...

  19. DENSE MEDIUM CYCLONE OPTIMIZATON (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    that cannot be upgraded in static dense medium separators, can be found in most modern coal plants and in a variety of mineral plants treating iron ore, dolomite, diamonds, potash...

  20. Microsoft Word - SC0001929-Final-report_2013-Oct-16

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... polymorphic speciation and crystal growth mode of CaCO3 during carbonate mineralization. ... American Mineralogist, 97, 556-567. This paper is about growing dolomite and even Mg-rich ...

  1. E~ S*D3 Weldon Spring Site Environmental Repon lor Calendar...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... DATA SOURCES VARY. QUATERNARY UNIT TJCKNESS BASED ON ON-SITE DRILLING AND lR(NCH lNG. BURLINGTON AND KEOKUK THROUGH JOACHIM DOLOMITE BASED ON USGS *ELLS IIW-GS02 AND CSOS. ...

  2. Fuel gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T.; Shen, Ming-Shing

    1981-01-01

    A method for removing sulfurous gases such as H.sub.2 S and COS from a fuel gas is disclosed wherein limestone particulates containing iron sulfide provide catalytic absorption of the H.sub.2 S and COS by the limestone. The method is effective at temperatures of 400.degree. C. to 700.degree. C. in particular.

  3. DOSAGE DES ELEMENTS EN TRACE DES CALCAIRES AU SERVICE DE L'ARCHEOLOGIE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BLANC,A.; HOLMES,L.; HARBOTTLE,G.

    1998-05-01

    Numerous quarries in the Lutetian limestone formations of the Paris Basin provided stone for the building and the decoration of monuments from antiquity to the present. To determine the origin of stone used for masonry and sculptures in these monuments, a team of geologists and archaeologists has investigated 300 quarries and collected 2,300 samples. Petrographic and paleontologic examination of thin sections allows geologists to distinguish Lutetian limestones from Jurassic and Cretaceous limestones. Geologists also seek to formulate hypotheses regarding the origin of Lutetian limestones used for building and sculpture in the Paris region. In the search for the sources of building and sculptural stone, the analytical methods of geologists are limited because often several quarries produce the same lithofacies. A new tool is now available, however, to attack questions of provenance raised by art historians. Because limestones from different sources have distinctive patterns of trace-element concentrations, compositional analysis by neutron activation allows them to compare building or sculptural stone from one monument with stone from quarries or other monuments. This analytical method subjects a powdered limestone sample to standard neutron activation analysis procedures at Brookhaven National Laboratory. With the help of computer programs, the compositional fingerprints of Lutetian limestones can be determined and stored in a database. The limestone database contains data for approximately 2,100 samples from monuments, sculptures and quarries. It is particularly rich in samples from the Paris Basin.

  4. Ground Motion Studies at NuMI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayda M. Velasco; Michal Szleper

    2012-02-20

    Ground motion can cause significant deterioration in the luminosity of a linear collider. Vibration of numerous focusing magnets causes continuous misalignments, which makes the beam emittance grow. For this reason, understanding the seismic vibration of all potential LC sites is essential and related efforts in many sites are ongoing. In this document we summarize the results from the studies specific to Fermilab grounds as requested by the LC project leader at FNAL, Shekhar Mishra in FY04-FY06. The Northwestern group focused on how the ground motion effects vary with depth. Knowledge of depth dependence of the seismic activity is needed in order to decide how deep the LC tunnel should be at sites like Fermilab. The measurements were made in the NuMI tunnel, see Figure 1. We take advantage of the fact that from the beginning to the end of the tunnel there is a height difference of about 350 ft and that there are about five different types of dolomite layers. The support received allowed to pay for three months of salary of Michal Szleper. During this period he worked a 100% of his time in this project. That include one week of preparation: 2.5 months of data taking and data analysis during the full period of the project in order to guarantee that we were recording high quality data. We extended our previous work and made more systematic measurements, which included detailed studies on stability of the vibration amplitudes at different depths over long periods of time. As a consequence, a better control and more efficient averaging out of the daytime variation effects were possible, and a better study of other time dependences before the actual depth dependence was obtained. Those initial measurements were made at the surface and are summarized in Figure 2. All measurements are made with equipment that we already had (two broadband seismometers KS200 from GEOTECH and DL-24 portable data recorder). The offline data analysis took advantage of the full Fourier spectra

  5. IMPROVING CO2 EFFICIENCY FOR RECOVERING OIL IN HETEROGENEOUS RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid B. Grigg; Robert K. Svec

    2002-12-20

    This document is the First Annual Report for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract No., a three-year contract entitled: ''Improving CO{sub 2} Efficiency for Recovering Oil in Heterogeneous Reservoirs.'' The research improved our knowledge and understanding of CO{sub 2} flooding and includes work in the areas of injectivity and mobility control. The bulk of this work has been performed by the New Mexico Petroleum Recovery Research Center, a research division of New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology. This report covers the reporting period of September 28, 2001 and September 27, 2002. Injectivity continues to be a concern to the industry. During this period we have contacted most of the CO{sub 2} operators in the Permian Basin and talked again about their problems in this area. This report has a summary of what we found. It is a given that carbonate mineral dissolution and deposition occur in a formation in geologic time and are expected to some degree in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) floods. Water-alternating-gas (WAG) core flood experiments conducted on limestone and dolomite core plugs confirm that these processes can occur over relatively short time periods (hours to days) and in close proximity to each other. Results from laboratory CO{sub 2}-brine flow experiments performed in rock core were used to calibrate a reactive transport simulator. The calibrated model is being used to estimate in situ effects of a range of possible sequestration options in depleted oil/gas reservoirs. The code applied in this study is a combination of the well known TOUGH2 simulator, for coupled groundwater/brine and heat flow, with the chemistry code TRANS for chemically reactive transport. Variability in response among rock types suggests that CO{sub 2} injection will induce ranges of transient and spatially dependent changes in intrinsic rock permeability and porosity. Determining the effect of matrix changes on CO{sub 2} mobility is crucial in evaluating the efficacy

  6. Sub-crop geologic map of pre-Tertiary rocks in the Yucca Flat and northern Frenchman Flat areas, Nevada Test Site, southern Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, J.C.; Harris, A.G.; Wahl, R.R.

    1997-10-02

    for ground water flow through pre-Tertiary rocks beneath the Yucca Flat and northern Frenchman Flat areas, and has consequences for ground water modeling and model validation. Our data indicate that the Mississippian Chainman Shale is not laterally extensive confining unit in the western part of the basin because it is folded back onto itself by the convergent structures of the Belted Range and CP thrust systems. Early and Middle Paleozoic limestone and dolomite are present beneath most of both basins and, regardless of structural complications, are interpreted to form a laterally continuous and extensive carbonate aquifer. Structural culmination that marks the French Peak accommodation zone along the topographic divide between the two basins provides a lateral pathway through highly fractured rock between the volcanic aquifers of Yucca Flat and the regional carbonate aquifer. This pathway may accelerate the migration of ground-water contaminants introduced by underground nuclear testing toward discharge areas beyond the Nevada Test Site boundaries. Predictive three-dimensional models of hydrostratigraphic units and ground-water flow in the pre-Tertiary rocks of subsurface Yucca Flat are likely to be unrealistic due to the extreme structural complexities. The interpretation of hydrologic and geochemical data obtained from monitoring wells will be difficult to extrapolate through the flow system until more is known about the continuity of hydrostratigraphic units. 1 plate

  7. EXPLOITATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF RESERVOIR PERFORMANCE IN HUNTON FORMATION, OKLAHOMA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohan Kelkar

    2003-10-01

    This report presents the work done so far on Hunton Formation in West Carney Field in Lincoln County, Oklahoma. West Carney Field produces oil and gas from the Hunton Formation. The field was developed starting in 1995. Some of the unique characteristics of the field include decreasing water oil ratio over time, decreasing gas-oil ratio at the beginning of production, inability to calculate oil reserves in the field based on log data, and sustained oil rates over long periods of time. To understand the unique characteristics of the field, an integrated evaluation was undertaken. Production data from the field were meticulously collected, and over forty wells were cored and logged to better understand the petrophysical and engineering characteristics. Based on the work done in this budget period so far, some of the preliminary conclusions can be listed as follows: (1) Based on PVT analysis, the field most likely contains volatile oil with bubble point close to initial reservoir pressure of 1,900 psia. (2) The initial oil in place, which is contact with existing wells, can be determined by newly developed material balance technique. The oil in place, which is in communication, is significantly less than determined by volumetric analysis, indicating heterogeneous nature of the reservoir. The oil in place, determined by material balance, is greater than determined by decline curve analysis. This difference may lead to additional locations for in fill wells. (3) The core and log evaluation indicates that the intermediate pores (porosity between 2 and 6 %) are very important in determining production potential of the reservoir. These intermediate size pores contain high oil saturation. (4) The limestone part of the reservoir, although low in porosity (mostly less than 6 %) is much more prolific in terms of oil production than the dolomite portion of the reservoir. The reason for this difference is the higher oil saturation in low porosity region. As the average porosity

  8. Evaluating the Influence of Pore Architecture and Initial Saturation on Wettability and Relative Permeability in Heterogeneous, Shallow-Shelf Carbonates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan P. Byrnes; Saibal Bhattacharya; John Victorine; Ken Stalder

    2007-09-30

    Thin (3-40 ft thick), heterogeneous, limestone and dolomite reservoirs, deposited in shallow-shelf environments, represent a significant fraction of the reservoirs in the U.S. midcontinent and worldwide. In Kansas, reservoirs of the Arbuckle, Mississippian, and Lansing-Kansas City formations account for over 73% of the 6.3 BBO cumulative oil produced over the last century. For these reservoirs basic petrophysical properties (e.g., porosity, absolute permeability, capillary pressure, residual oil saturation to waterflood, resistivity, and relative permeability) vary significantly horizontally, vertically, and with scale of measurement. Many of these reservoirs produce from structures of less than 30-60 ft, and being located in the capillary pressure transition zone, exhibit vertically variable initial saturations and relative permeability properties. Rather than being simpler to model because of their small size, these reservoirs challenge characterization and simulation methodology and illustrate issues that are less apparent in larger reservoirs where transition zone effects are minor and most of the reservoir is at saturations near S{sub wirr}. These issues are further augmented by the presence of variable moldic porosity and possible intermediate to mixed wettability and the influence of these on capillary pressure and relative permeability. Understanding how capillary-pressure properties change with rock lithology and, in turn, within transition zones, and how relative permeability and residual oil saturation to waterflood change through the transition zone is critical to successful reservoir management and as advanced waterflood and improved and enhanced recovery methods are planned and implemented. Major aspects of the proposed study involve a series of tasks to measure data to reveal the nature of how wettability and drainage and imbibition oil-water relative permeability change with pore architecture and initial water saturation. Focus is placed on

  9. Coronal electron confinement by double layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, T. C.; Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M.

    2013-12-01

    In observations of flare-heated electrons in the solar corona, a longstanding problem is the unexplained prolonged lifetime of the electrons compared to their transit time across the source. This suggests confinement. Recent particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, which explored the transport of pre-accelerated hot electrons through ambient cold plasma, showed that the formation of a highly localized electrostatic potential drop, in the form of a double layer (DL), significantly inhibited the transport of hot electrons. The effectiveness of confinement by a DL is linked to the strength of the DL as defined by its potential drop. In this work, we investigate the scaling of the DL strength with the hot electron temperature by PIC simulations and find a linear scaling. We demonstrate that the strength is limited by the formation of parallel shocks. Based on this, we analytically determine the maximum DL strength, and also find a linear scaling with the hot electron temperature. The DL strength obtained from the analytic calculation is comparable to that from the simulations. At the maximum strength, the DL is capable of confining a significant fraction of hot electrons in the source.

  10. Lead in human blood from children living in Campania, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amodio-Cocchieri, R.; Arnese, A.; Prospero, E.; Roncioni, A.

    1996-03-01

    Blood lead (PbB) levels were determined in children living Campania (in Naples and in a rural zone in the district of Caserta). Atmospheric lead (PbA) concentration in these considered areas was monitored for 1 yr (1993-1994). The children tested were questioned about common sources of lead, other than atmospheric relating to their living and dietary habits. The PbB levels in children living in Naples were at the 50th percentile, 18.8 {mu}g/dl in males and 13.7 {mu}g/dl in females; in children living in the rural area the median PbB levels were 8.9{mu}g/dl in males, and 9.9 {mu}g/dl in females. The annual mean values of atmospheres lead were 1.15 {plus_minus} 0.24 {mu}g/dl in Naples and 0.23 {plus_minus} 0.07 {mu}g/dl in the rural area. Significant and congruent mean differences between urban and rural sites were found in children`s blood and concurrent air lead. Considering the PbB level of 10 {mu}g/dl as the maximum level that is not associated any known adverse effect in children, the Neapolitan group can be considered at risk of chronic intoxication by lead. 18 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Identification of an Archean marine oxygen oasis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riding, Dr Robert E; Fralick, Dr Philip; Liang, Liyuan

    2014-01-01

    The early Earth was essentially anoxic. A number of indicators suggest the presence of oxygenic photosynthesis 2700 3000 million years (Ma) ago, but direct evidence for molecular oxygen (O2) in seawater has remained elusive. Here we report rare earth element (REE) analyses of 2800 million year old shallowmarine limestones and deep-water iron-rich sediments at Steep Rock Lake, Canada. These show that the seawater from which extensive shallow-water limestones precipitated was oxygenated, whereas the adjacent deeper waters where iron-rich sediments formed were not. We propose that oxygen promoted limestone precipitation by oxidative removal of dissolved ferrous iron species, Fe(II), to insoluble Fe(III) oxyhydroxide, and estimate that at least 10.25 M oxygen concentration in seawater was required to accomplish this at Steep Rock. This agrees with the hypothesis that an ample supply of dissolved Fe(II) in Archean oceans would have hindered limestone formation. There is no direct evidence for the oxygen source at Steep Rock, but organic carbon isotope values and diverse stromatolites in the limestones suggest the presence of cyanobacteria. Our findings support the view that during the Archean significant oxygen levels first developed in protected nutrient-rich shallow marine habitats. They indicate that these environments were spatially restricted, transient, and promoted limestone precipitation. If Archean marine limestones in general reflect localized oxygenic removal of dissolved iron at the margins of otherwise anoxic iron-rich seas, then early oxygen oases are less elusive than has been assumed.

  12. Carbon Dioxide-Water Emulsions for Enhanced Oil Recovery and Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, David; Golomb, Dan; Shi, Guang; Shih, Cherry; Lewczuk, Rob; Miksch, Joshua; Manmode, Rahul; Mulagapati, Srihariraju; Malepati, Chetankurmar

    2011-09-30

    oilcontaining formations or saline aquifers. The term globule refers to the water or liquid carbon dioxide droplets sheathed with ultrafine particles dispersed in the continuous external medium, liquid CO{sub 2} or H{sub 2}O, respectively. The key to obtaining very small globules is the shear force acting on the two intermixing fluids, and the use of ultrafine stabilizing particles or nanoparticles. We found that using Kenics-type static mixers with a shear rate in the range of 2700 to 9800 s{sup -1} and nanoparticles between 100-300 nm produced globule sizes in the 10 to 20 μm range. Particle stabilized emulsions with that kind of globule size should easily penetrate oil-bearing formations or saline aquifers where the pore and throat size can be on the order of 50 μm or larger. Subsequent research focused on creating particle stabilized emulsions that are deemed particularly suitable for Permanent Sequestration of Carbon Dioxide. Based on a survey of the literature an emulsion consisting of 70% by volume of water, 30% by volume of liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide, and 2% by weight of finely pulverized limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) was selected as the most promising agent for permanent sequestration of CO{sub 2}. In order to assure penetration of the emulsion into tight formations of sandstone or other silicate rocks and carbonate or dolomite rock, it is necessary to use an emulsion consisting of the smallest possible globule size. In previous reports we described a high shear static mixer that can create such small globules. In addition to the high shear mixer, it is also necessary that the emulsion stabilizing particles be in the submicron size, preferably in the range of 0.1 to 0.2 μm (100 to 200 nm) size. We found a commercial source of such pulverized limestone particles, in addition we purchased under this DOE Project a particle grinding apparatus that can provide particles in the desired size range. Additional work focused on attempts to generate particle stabilized

  13. Basic Data Report for Drillhole SNL-3 (C-2949)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis W. Powers; Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2005-01-20

    SNL-3 (permitted by the New Mexico State Engineer as C-2949) was drilled to provide geological data and hydrological testing of the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Permian Rustler Formation within a dissolution reentrant north of the WIPP site and well east of Livingston Ridge. SNL-3 is located in the southeast quarter of section 34, T21S, R31E, in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico. SNL-3 was drilled to a total depth of 970 ft below ground level (bgl). Below surface dune sand, SNL-3 encountered, in order, the Mescalero caliche, Gatuna, Dewey Lake, Rustler, and upper Salado Formations. Two intervals were cored: (1) from the lower Forty-niner Member through the Magenta Dolomite and into the upper Tamarisk Member; and (2) from the lower Tamarisk Member through the Culebra Dolomite and Los Meda?os Members and into the uppermost Salado.

  14. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Treatment Using a Single-Column Model and ARM Observations Iacobellis, S.F. (a), Mitchell, D.L. (b), and Somerville, R.C.J. (a), Scripps Institution of Oceanography (a),...

  15. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Kehoe, KE (1) Lijegren, JC (1) Long, CN (1) Macduff, MC (1) Mather, JH (1) McCord, RA (1) Moore, ST (1) Nitschke, DL (1) Orr, BW (1) Peppler, RA (1) Perez, RC (1) Save Results Save ...

  16. Residential

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MacDonald and D.L. White. Oak Ridge National Laboratory. ORNLCON-304.(5-91) InfiltrationVentilation Measurements in RCDP Manufactured Homes. Pacific Northwest Laboratory, D....

  17. OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Aubert, B. (837) Wang, J. (713) Eigen, G. (638) Chen, Y. (607) Wang, Y. (606) Abbott, B. (601) Zhang, Y. (598) Liu, Y. (581) Smith, D.L. (563) Tisserand, V. (555) Filtering by ...

  18. ARM Data File Standards: Version 1.2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... (sss)(inst)(Fn).(dl).(yyyymmdd).(hhmmss).(xxx).(zzz).tar ARM Standards Committee, May ... the file or an instrument serial number. (xxx) is lower-case characters or numbers used ...

  19. Most Viewed Documents for Renewable Energy Sources: September...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    difficulties, and results King, D.L.; Kratochvil, J.A.; Boyson, W.E. (1997) 66 Solar radiation data manual for flat-plate and concentrating collectors Dunlap, M.A. ed.; ...

  20. April 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Renewable Energy Sources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    difficulties, and results King, D.L.; Kratochvil, J.A.; Boyson, W.E. (1997) 159 Solar radiation data manual for flat-plate and concentrating collectors Dunlap, M.A. ed.; ...

  1. MIT Plasma Science & Fusion Center: research, alcator, publications...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Winslow, D.L. - Edge Fluctuation Measurements with a Triple Probe on Alcator C-Mod, FRC, Univ. of TX Elder, J.D. - Univ. of Toronto Poster PDF (4.9MB) Terry, J.L. -...

  2. CamSemi | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CamSemi Jump to: navigation, search Name: CamSemi Place: Cambridge, United Kingdom Zip: CB4 1DL Product: CamSemi is developing a new generation of highly-intelligent, single chip...

  3. Most Viewed Documents - Materials | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    R.S.; McElroy, D.L. (1973) LITERATURE SURVEY ON DILUTE URANIUM ALLOYS FOR SANDIA BOOSTER CONCEPT TO SANDIA CORPORATION. Fackelmann, J.M.; Bauer, A.A.; Moak, D.P. (1969) Properties ...

  4. ASC eNews Quarterly Newsletter September 2012 | National Nuclear...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... a plasma: Results," Physical Review E, Vol. 86, No. 1. Brown, L.S., Preston, D.L., Singleton, R.L. (2012). "Electron-ion energy partition when a charged particle slows in a plasma: ...

  5. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Embrittlement Defects that do NOT recombine aggregate into vacancy or interstitial clusters D.L. Porter and F. A. Garner, J. Nuclear Materials, 159, p. 114 (1988) D.J. Bacon and ...

  6. June 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Environmental Sciences |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    National Climatic Data Center (1997) 81 Effects of PropaneNatural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions Straub, D.L.; Ferguson, D.H.; Casleton, K.H.; Richards, ...

  7. Most Viewed Documents for Environmental Sciences: December 2014...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    BRIAN POWELL, Ph.D. (2012) 23 Effects of PropaneNatural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions Straub, D.L.; Ferguson, D.H.; Casleton, K.H.; Richards, G.A. ...

  8. September 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Environmental Sciences...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SETS. KRISHNA,C.R. (1999) 73 Effects of PropaneNatural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions Straub, D.L.; Ferguson, D.H.; Casleton, K.H.; Richards, G.A. ...

  9. March 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Environmental Sciences ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    M.D.; Palumbo, A.V. (1995) 59 Effects of PropaneNatural Gas Blended Fuels on Gas Turbine Pollutant Emissions Straub, D.L.; Ferguson, D.H.; Casleton, K.H.; Richards, G.A. ...

  10. ARM Mentor Selection Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research DOE U.S. Department of Energy DQ data quality QA quality assurance QC quality control DL Sisterson, October 2015, DOESC-ARM-TR-171 1 Contents Acronyms and...

  11. AFV CoverSheet

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Avadh Mohite, Aditya Crooker, Scott Smith, Darryl Nie, Wanyi Ruden, P. Paul Provided ... Lett. 101 (2012) 023301. 10 12 W. Nie, G. Gupta, B.K. Crone, F. Liu, D.L. Smith, P.P. ...

  12. IDENTIFYING FRACTURES AND FLUID TYPES USING FLUID INCLUSION STRATIGRAP...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    affects the wall rock at distances of 5 to 10 feet beyond the fracture. Authors Dilley, L.M.; Newman, D.L. ; McCulloch and J.; Published PROCEEDINGS, Thirtieth Workshop on...

  13. Fluid Inclusion Stratigraphy: Interpretation of New Wells in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    to moderate producers, problem producers, injectors, and non producers Authors Dilley, L.M.; Newman, D.L. ; McCulloch, J.; Wiggett and G. Published Geothermal Resource Council...

  14. Newbie here. Is there any software/site which can poll my utility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Newbie here. Is there any softwaresite which can poll my utility to DL my green data file and email it to me? Home My provider is JEA. They only provide the Green Data download...

  15. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrared Radiative Properties Stackhouse, P.W., Jr. (a), Mitchell, D.L. (b), and Yang, P. (c), NASA Langley Research Center (a), Desert Research Institute (b), NASA Goddard...

  16. Docker File System Isolation By Darrin Schmitz David Huff Destiny...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Docker File System Isolation By Darrin Schmitz David Huff Destiny Velasquez 1 LA-UR-15-25911 Specifications * HP ProLiant DL380p Gen8 servers * Head node has 32 cores and 32 GB RAM...

  17. June 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Renewable Energy Sources...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    difficulties, and results King, D.L.; Kratochvil, J.A.; Boyson, W.E. (1997) 95 Water-lithium bromide double-effect absorption cooling analysis Vliet, G.C.; Lawson, M.B.; ...

  18. Center for Inverse Design Highlight: Enabling Practical p-Type...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and hence enable unopposed p-type doping in easily grown materials. Reference: J.D. Perkins, T.R. Paudel, A. Zakutayev, P.F. Ndione, P.A. Parilla, D.L. Young, S. Lany, D.S....

  19. Borehole geophysics evaluation of the Raft River geothermal reservoir...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    HYDROTHERMAL SYSTEMS; NORTH AMERICA; PACIFIC NORTHWEST REGION; USA Authors Applegate, J.K.; Donaldson, P.R.; Hinkley, D.L.; Wallace and T.L. Published Journal Geophysics, 21...

  20. Pi

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Pi .,,,..,,,,,E', EGG 10617-2195 ENERGY MEASUREMENTS uc-814 YUCCA MOUNTAIN ... Tortoise Section Section Section R. A. Green C.A. Wills D.L. Rakestraw Manager Manager ...

  1. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Retrieval of Ice Water Path, Ice Particle Size, and Shape Mitchell, D.L., Arnott, W.P., and Ivanova, D.C., Desert Research Institute Twelfth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM)...

  2. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Impact of a Revised Treatment of Cirrus Microphysics on the Radiation Budget of the Unified Model Edwards, J.M. (a), Mitchell, D.L. (b), Ivanova, D. (b), and Wilson, D.R. (a), ...

  3. ARM - Measurement - Radar Doppler

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments CSAPR : C-Band ARM Precipitation Radar DL : Doppler Lidar KAZR : Ka ARM Zenith Radar KASACR : Ka-Band Scanning ARM Cloud Radar MWACR :...

  4. The Sloan Digital Sky Survey Monitor Telescope Pipeline (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Tucker, D.L. ; Kent, S. ; Richmond, M.W. ; Annis, J. ; Smith, J.A. ; Allam, S.S. ; Rodgers, C.T. ; Stute, J.L. ; Adelman-McCarthy, Jennifer K. ; Brinkmann, J. ; Doi, M. ;...

  5. ILDS

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    003176IBMPC00 Intelligent Leak Detection System https://www.dropbox.com/sh/aycss2bffzmur10/AAAJvqH8IKmrA93kngsAy45qa?dl=0

  6. Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    DC, October 1995), Table DL-1B. 5. "Chained dollars" is a measure used to express real prices. Real prices are those that have been adjusted to remove the effect of changes...

  7. HOW TO OBTAIN EIA PRODUCTS AND SERVICES

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    DC, October 1995), Table DL-1B. 5. "Chained dollars" is a measure used to express real prices. Real prices are those that have been adjusted to remove the effect of changes...

  8. Laser Wakefield Particle Acceleration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in new capability for rapid data exploration and analysis. Investigators: Cameron Geddes, Jean-Luc Vay, Carl Schroeder, E. Cormier-Michel, E. Esarey, W.P. Leemans (LBNL); D.L....

  9. BPA-2011-00611-FOIA Request

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9, 2011 . C1IVEas tip' BPA OIA OFI "E THIS %TE:: 'f 1 Ms. Christina Munro :;L;E D."l s- FOIA Office Bonneville Power Administration ' Routing: DK-7 ,x ; P.O. Box 3621 f,4 ,...

  10. CX-012445: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Alstom's Limestone Chemical Looping Gasification Process for High Hydrogen Syngas Generation CX(s) Applied: A11Date: 41878 Location(s): IllinoisOffices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  11. Zeolitic Alteration | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Caldera Rim Margins Mississippian-Pennsylvanian; Pleistocene, 1.6 to 1.25 Ma Limestone-Madera Formation "MIPu"; Rhyolitic tuff-Intracaldera Bandelier Tuff (upper Tshirege "Qbt" and...

  12. ITP Mining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Mining...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    KB) Chapter 5 - Copper (378.34 KB) Chapter 6 - Lead and Zinc (422.35 KB) Chapter 7 - Gold and Silver (351.76 KB) Chapter 8 - Phosphate (325.04 KB) Chapter 9 - Limestone and ...

  13. CX-014033: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Improvement of Alstom's Limestone Chemical Looping Combustion Process CX(s) Applied: B3.6Date: 08/13/2015 Location(s): ConnecticutOffices(s): National Energy Technology Laboratory

  14. Pinch valves fight clogging, leaking and wear in FGD systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, L.

    1982-12-01

    Pinch valves can provide a non-sticking, non-leaking, low maintenance system capable of controlling the flow of abrasive limestone slurries such as are found in flue gas desulphurisation units.

  15. Alabama Profile

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for 83% of total exported coal. The three reactors at the Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant in Limestone County, Alabama ... Average Period Petroleum-Fired * 0.3 % May-16 find more ...

  16. Advanced emissions control development project. Phase I final report appendices, November 1, 1993--February 29, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farthing, G.A.

    1996-06-01

    Appendices are presented on the Advanced Emissions Control Development Project on the following: wet scrubber sampling and analysis; DBA/lime chemical analysis; limestone forced oxidation chemical analysis; benchmarking on baghouse conditions, electrostatic precipitators, and wet scrubber conditions.

  17. Tech Rpt draft

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... curve (track 2), interpreted as reddolostone and blue-green-orange limestone anhydrite. ... p. 1-244. 2. DOENETL (U.S. Department of EnergyNational Energy Technology Laboratory), ...

  18. INDIA

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARM instruments on top of the ARIES Observatory in Nainital Doppler Lidar (DL) Shortwave Array Spectroradiometers, both Hemispheric and Zenith (SASHE and SASZE) Shortwave Array Spectroradiometers, both Hemispheric and Zenith (SASHE and SASZE) Total Sky Imager (TSI) on the far left, Cimel Sunphotometer (CSPHOT) center, and Sky Radiometers on Stand for Downwelling Radiation (SKYRAD) to the right Sky Radiometers on Stand for Downwelling Radiation (SKYRAD) Total Sky Imager (TSI) Doppler Lidar (DL)

  19. Depositional and diagenetic controls on porosity permeability and oil production in McFarland/Magutex (Queen) reservoirs, Andrews County, west Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holtz, M.H. )

    1991-03-01

    The McFarland/Magutex Queen reservoir complex lies along the northeastern edge of the Central basin platform in the west Texas Permian basin and produces oil from the Permian Queen Formation. Current production from this complex totals 42 million stock-tank barrels (MMSTB) of an estimated 219 MMSTB of original oil in place, with an estimated 90 MMSTB of remaining mobile oil (RMO). The gross pay interval contains two parasequences consisting of progradational, 30-ft-thick, upward-shoaling facies packages. Facies include shoreface, mixed tidal channel and intertidal flat, and supratidal. Elongate shoreface facies are characterized by poorly consolidated, massive to thinly laminated sandstones. The supratidal facies, which act as permeability barriers, are characterized by algal-laminated dolostone and nodular, laminated, and massive anhydrite containing halite and gypsum pseudomorphs. Highest production and the largest amount of the 90 MMSTB of RMO is associated with the shoreface and tidal-channel facies. Bulk pore volume storage capacity and permeability are also highest within these two facies. Sandstones are arkosic, containing anhydrite and dolomite cements. Accessory minerals are clays, authigenic feldspar, and dolomite. Three main pore types are recognized: interparticle, moldic and intraconstituent, and micropores. Moldic and intraconstituent porosity is associated with leached feldspars and anhydrite cement dissolution. Microporosity is associated with syndepositional, grain-coating corrensite, dissolution-enhanced feldspar cleavage planes, and authigenic multifaceted dolomite. Microporosity derived from clays and dolomite is formed preferentially in tidal-channel and intertidal flat facies.

  20. Improved oil recovery in Mississippian carbonate reservoirs of Kansas - near term -- Class 2. Quarterly progress report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carr, T.; Green, D.W.; Willhite, G.P.

    1995-11-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate incremental reserves from Osagian and Meramecian dolomite reservoirs in western Kansas through application of reservoir characterization to identify areas of unrecovered mobile petroleum. Specific reservoirs targeted are the Schaben Field in Ness County and the Bindley Field in Hodgeman County.

  1. Diagenetic overprint of original depositional architecture in a shallow water carbonate reservoir, Permian Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruppel, S.C.; Lucia, F.J. )

    1996-01-01

    Permian shallow-water carbonate reservoirs are highly heterogeneous because of complex variations in depositional facies produced by high-frequency sea level rise and fall. Accordingly, establishment of a cycle stratigraphic framework is fundamental to defining reservoir heterogeneity. Because nearly all of these reservoirs have experienced multiple episodes of dolomitization and sulfate emplacement, however, permeability is a n of diagenetic overprint. The extent to which diagenesis can affect permeability development is dramatically displayed in the Grayburg Formation (middle Permian) at South Cowden field, Weit Texas. Three scales of cyclicity contribute to original depositional facies heterogeneity in the Grayburg; high-frequency cycles, averaging 3 meters in thickness, constitute the fundamental architectural element in the main reservoir interval. Despite original depositional heterogeneity due to this cyclicity, however, permeability development is substantially the result of two diagenetic events: (1) dolomite diagenesis in vertically burrowed wackestones and packstones and (2) late alteration and removal of anhydrite. Dolomite diagenesis in vertically burrowed wackestones and packstones has produced irregular vertical zones of higher permeability in mud-dominated bases of high-frequency cycles in leeward ramp-crest highstand successions. Because dolomite diagenesis is concentrated in burrowed highstand successions, the distribution of resultant permeability trends is partly constrained by patterns of longterm accommodation and high frequency cyclicity. Anhydrite diagenesis, which is characterized by conversion to gypsum or by complete removal of sulfate, is developed along basinward margins of the field and cross cuts original depositional framework.

  2. Diagenetic overprint of original depositional architecture in a shallow water carbonate reservoir, Permian Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruppel, S.C.; Lucia, F.J.

    1996-12-31

    Permian shallow-water carbonate reservoirs are highly heterogeneous because of complex variations in depositional facies produced by high-frequency sea level rise and fall. Accordingly, establishment of a cycle stratigraphic framework is fundamental to defining reservoir heterogeneity. Because nearly all of these reservoirs have experienced multiple episodes of dolomitization and sulfate emplacement, however, permeability is a n of diagenetic overprint. The extent to which diagenesis can affect permeability development is dramatically displayed in the Grayburg Formation (middle Permian) at South Cowden field, Weit Texas. Three scales of cyclicity contribute to original depositional facies heterogeneity in the Grayburg; high-frequency cycles, averaging 3 meters in thickness, constitute the fundamental architectural element in the main reservoir interval. Despite original depositional heterogeneity due to this cyclicity, however, permeability development is substantially the result of two diagenetic events: (1) dolomite diagenesis in vertically burrowed wackestones and packstones and (2) late alteration and removal of anhydrite. Dolomite diagenesis in vertically burrowed wackestones and packstones has produced irregular vertical zones of higher permeability in mud-dominated bases of high-frequency cycles in leeward ramp-crest highstand successions. Because dolomite diagenesis is concentrated in burrowed highstand successions, the distribution of resultant permeability trends is partly constrained by patterns of longterm accommodation and high frequency cyclicity. Anhydrite diagenesis, which is characterized by conversion to gypsum or by complete removal of sulfate, is developed along basinward margins of the field and cross cuts original depositional framework.

  3. The Bakken - An Unconventional Petroleum and Reservoir System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarg, J.

    2011-12-31

    An integrated geologic and geophysical study of the Bakken Petroleum System, in the Williston basin of North Dakota and Montana indicates that: (1) dolomite is needed for good reservoir performance in the Middle Bakken; (2) regional and local fractures play a significant role in enhancing permeability and well production, and it is important to recognize both because local fractures will dominate in on-structure locations; and (3) the organic-rich Bakken shale serves as both a source and reservoir rock. The Middle Bakken Member of the Bakken Formation is the target for horizontal drilling. The mineralogy across all the Middle Bakken lithofacies is very similar and is dominated by dolomite, calcite, and quartz. This Member is comprised of six lithofacies: (A) muddy lime wackestone, (B) bioturbated, argillaceous, calcareous, very fine-grained siltstone/sandstone, (C) planar to symmetrically ripple to undulose laminated, shaly, very fine-grained siltstone/sandstone, (D) contorted to massive fine-grained sandstone, to low angle, planar cross-laminated sandstone with thin discontinuous shale laminations, (E) finely inter-laminated, bioturbated, dolomitic mudstone and dolomitic siltstone/sandstone to calcitic, whole fossil, dolomitic lime wackestone, and (F) bioturbated, shaly, dolomitic siltstone. Lithofacies B, C, D, and E can all be reservoirs, if quartz and dolomite-rich (facies D) or dolomitized (facies B, C, E). Porosity averages 4-8%, permeability averages 0.001-0.01 mD or less. Dolomitic facies porosity is intercrystalline and tends to be greater than 6%. Permeability may reach values of 0.15 mD or greater. This appears to be a determinant of high productive wells in Elm Coulee, Parshall, and Sanish fields. Lithofacies G is organic-rich, pyritic brown/black mudstone and comprises the Bakken shales. These shales are siliceous, which increases brittleness and enhances fracture potential. Mechanical properties of the Bakken reveal that the shales have similar

  4. An Evaluation of the Carbon Sequestration Potential of the Cambro-Ordovician Strata of the Illinois and Michigan Basins. Part 1. Evaluation of Phase 2 CO2 Injection Testing in the Deep Saline Gunter Sandstone Reservoir (Cambro-Ordovician Knox Group), Marvin Blan No. 1 Hancock County, Kentucky Part 2. Time-lapse Three-Dimensional Vertical Seismic Profile (3D-VSP) of Sequestration Target Interval with Injected Fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowersox, Richard; Hickman, John; Leetaru, Hannes

    2012-12-20

    Part 1 of this report focuses on results of the western Kentucky carbon storage test, and provides a basis for evaluating injection and storage of supercritical CO2 in Cambro-Ordovician carbonate reservoirs throughout the U.S. Midcontinent. This test demonstrated that the Cambro- Ordovician Knox Group, including the Beekmantown Dolomite, Gunter Sandstone, and Copper Ridge Dolomite in stratigraphic succession from shallowest to deepest, had reservoir properties suitable for supercritical CO2 storage in a deep saline reservoir hosted in carbonate rocks, and that strata with properties sufficient for long-term confinement of supercritical CO2 were present in the deep subsurface. Injection testing with brine and CO2 was completed in two phases. The first phase, a joint project by the Kentucky Geological Survey and the Western Kentucky Carbon Storage Foundation, drilled the Marvin Blan No. 1 carbon storage research well and tested the entire Knox Group section in the open borehole – including the Beekmantown Dolomite, Gunter Sandstone, and Copper Ridge Dolomite – at 1152–2255 m, below casing cemented at 1116 m. During Phase 1 injection testing, most of the 297 tonnes of supercritical CO2 was displaced into porous and permeable sections of the lowermost Beekmantown below 1463 m and Gunter. The wellbore was then temporarily abandoned with a retrievable bridge plug in casing at 1105 m and two downhole pressure-temperature monitoring gauges below the bridge plug pending subsequent testing. Pressure and temperature data were recorded every minute for slightly more than a year, providing a unique record of subsurface reservoir conditions in the Knox. In contrast, Phase 2 testing, this study, tested a mechanically-isolated dolomitic-sandstone interval in the Gunter.

  5. Regeneration of FGD waste liquors: Production of ammonium and potassium sulfate mixed fertilizer. Quarterly technical report, April 1993--June 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randolph, A.D.; Kwon, T.M.

    1993-12-01

    Precipitation and hydrolysis of the N-S compounds in the waste scrubbing liquor provided by Dravo Lime Co. was investigated. Precipitation of N-S compounds by a metathetical reaction with potassium sulfate was performed in continuous crystallizers. A preliminary operation showed that compared to a typical Mixed-Suspension-Mixed-Product-Removal (MSMPR) crystallizer, the Double-Draw-Off (DDO) crystallizer was superior by increasing the average size of the precipitated crystals of N-S compounds from 173 {mu}m to 218 {mu}m. However, the hydrolysis characteristics of the precipitated crystals were not dependent upon crystallizer type. A brief description of a new process which uses lime/limestone for precipitation of N-S compounds in the scrubbing liquor is presented. Preliminary investigations showed the lime/limestone process is efficient in precipitating N-S compounds and the precipitated crystals were shown to be more easily hydrolyzed than potassium salts of N-S compounds. This lime/limestone process is a novel process which seems better than the K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} process because one does not need to purchase/introduce a new chemical additive to precipitate in the lime/limestone Fe-EDTA wet scrubbing processes. Up to the present, the authors focused on developing the K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} process following their original proposal. However, the new lime/limestone process seems more advantageous in terms of economy and environmental safety. Therefore, it seems desirable changing research phase and putting an emphasis on the development of the lime/limestone process. Future study will include investigation of the DDO crystallizer operation to increase the size of precipitated crystals and thus to enhance their processibility. This study seems to be essential to the new lime/limestone process since the precipitated crystals are relatively small in size and thus poor in filterability.

  6. Elastic properties, sp³ fraction, and Raman scattering in low and high pressure synthesized diamond-like boron rich carbides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinin, Pavel V.; Burgess, Katherine; Jia, Ruth; Sharma, Shiv; Ming, Li-Chung; Liu, Yongsheng; Ciston, Jim; Hong, Shiming

    2014-10-07

    Dense BC{sub x} phases with high boron concentration are predicted to be metastable, superhard, and conductors or superconductors depending on boron concentration. However, up to this point, diamond-like boron rich carbides BC{sub x} (dl-BC{sub x}) phases have been thought obtainable only through high pressure and high temperature treatment, necessitating small specimen volume. Here, we use electron energy loss spectroscopy combined with transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, surface Brillouin scattering, laser ultrasonics (LU) technique, and analysis of elastic properties to demonstrate that low pressure synthesis (chemical vapor deposition) of BC{sub x} phases may also lead to the creation of diamond-like boron rich carbides. The elastic properties of the dl-BC{sub x} phases depend on the carbon sp²versus sp³ content, which decreases with increasing boron concentration, while the boron bonds determine the shape of the Raman spectra of the dl-BC{sub x} after high pressure-high temperature treatment. Using the estimation of the density value based on the sp³ fraction, the shear modulus μ of dl-BC₄, containing 10% carbon atoms with sp³ bonds, and dl-B₃C₂, containing 38% carbon atoms with sp³ bonds, were found to be μ = 19.3 GPa and μ = 170 GPa, respectively. The presented experimental data also imply that boron atoms lead to a creation of sp³ bonds during the deposition processes.

  7. Tunable diode laser applications - CIS selected papers. SPIE Proceedings. Vol. 1724

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nadezhdinskii, A.I.; Prokhorov, A.M. )

    1992-01-01

    Various papers on tunable diode laser (DL) applications are presented. Individual topics addressed include: modern trends in DL spectroscopy (DLS), development of lead chalcogenide tunable DLS for 3-40 micron spectral region, semiconductor lasers and photodiodes of gas analysis in the 1-8-2.5 micron spectral range, linewidth of GaInAsSb DLs, spectral characteristics of quantum-well heterolasers, tunable DLS accessories based on middle IR halide and chalcogenide fibers, high-speed data acquisition and control system for DLS and DL-based analytical applications. Also discussed are: DLS in the nu1 and nu3 bands of SO2, study of NH2 radicals produced by flash photolysis of NH3, DL spectrometer for line profile measurements, injection lasers for far-IR spectral range, spectral gas analysis of polyatomic molecules by tunable DLs, DL-based open-path analyzer of atmospheric CO concentration, results of high-altitude open-path CO TDL monitoring in Moscow, vibrational excitation and rotational cooling of CO2 molecules adsorbed from titanium surface, and DLS investigation of filaments in microwave plasma in dense gas.

  8. Worker lead exposures during renovation of homes with lead-based paint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sussell, A.; Gittleman, J.; Singal, M.

    1998-11-01

    The authors evaluated lead exposures among full-time home renovators and part-time volunteers working primarily in pre-1960 homes with lead-based paint. Potentially hazardous lead exposures were measured during two tasks: exterior dry scraping and wet scraping. Maximum exposures were 120 and 63 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, respectively. Exposures during other tasks, including general repair, weatherization, exterior scraping/painting, window replacement, demolition, and plumbing, were low, as were all 13 full-shift personal exposures. Blood lead levels for full-time workers ranged up to 17.5 {micro}g/dl, with a GM of 5.2 {micro}g/dl; the GM for volunteers was 3.2 {micro}g/dl. All of the paint samples collected from work surfaces had detectable amounts of lead, with 65% of the work surfaces tested having an average lead concentration of >0.5%.

  9. Electric utility engineer`s FGD manual -- Volume 1: FGD process design. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-04

    Part 1 of the Electric Utility Engineer`s Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Manual emphasizes the chemical and physical processes that form the basis for design and operation of lime- and limestone-based FGD systems applied to coal- or oil-fired steam electric generating stations. The objectives of Part 1 are: to provide a description of the chemical and physical design basis for lime- and limestone-based wet FGD systems; to identify and discuss the various process design parameters and process options that must be considered in developing a specification for a new FGD system; and to provide utility engineers with process knowledge useful for operating and optimizing a lime- or limestone-based wet FGD system.

  10. Lithostratigraphy and environmental considerations of Cenomanian-Early Turonian shelf carbonates (Rumaila and Mishrif Formations) of Mesopotamian basin, middle and southern Iraq

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherwani, G.H.M.; Aqrawi, A.A.M.

    1987-05-01

    Rumaila and Mishrif Formations form the major part of the Cenomanian early Turonian deposits of middle and southern Iraq. The Rumaila Formation consists of lithographic chalky limestone at the lower part and marly limestone and marl at the upper part. The formation represents deep off-shelf deposits, whereas the overlying Mishrif Formation is composed of various types of shallow-shelf carbonates such as rudist-bearing patchy reefs and lagoonal and off-shelf limestones. An environmental model is suggested to delineate the stratigraphic relationships between the above mentioned two formations and to correlate them with their equivalents in central Iraq (i.e., Mahilban, Fahad, and Maotsi Formations). The gradational contact between the two formations and the intertonguing with their equivalents are considered to be the most important stratigraphic phenomena.

  11. Aerosols released during large-scale integral MCCI tests in the ACE Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fink, J.K.; Thompson, D.H.; Spencer, B.W.; Sehgal, B.R.

    1992-04-01

    As part of the internationally sponsored Advanced Containment Experiments (ACE) program, seven large-scale experiments on molten core concrete interactions (MCCIs) have been performed at Argonne National Laboratory. One of the objectives of these experiments is to collect and characterize all the aerosols released from the MCCIs. Aerosols released from experiments using four types of concrete (siliceous, limestone/common sand, serpentine, and limestone/limestone) and a range of metal oxidation for both BWR and PWR reactor core material have been collected and characterized. Release fractions were determined for UO{sup 2}, Zr, the fission-products: BaO, SrO, La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CeO{sub 2}, MoO{sub 2}, Te, Ru, and control materials: Ag, In, and B{sub 4}C. Release fractions of UO{sub 2} and the fission products other than Te were small in all tests. However, release of control materials was significant.

  12. Aerosols released during large-scale integral MCCI tests in the ACE Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fink, J.K.; Thompson, D.H.; Spencer, B.W. ); Sehgal, B.R. )

    1992-01-01

    As part of the internationally sponsored Advanced Containment Experiments (ACE) program, seven large-scale experiments on molten core concrete interactions (MCCIs) have been performed at Argonne National Laboratory. One of the objectives of these experiments is to collect and characterize all the aerosols released from the MCCIs. Aerosols released from experiments using four types of concrete (siliceous, limestone/common sand, serpentine, and limestone/limestone) and a range of metal oxidation for both BWR and PWR reactor core material have been collected and characterized. Release fractions were determined for UO{sup 2}, Zr, the fission-products: BaO, SrO, La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, CeO{sub 2}, MoO{sub 2}, Te, Ru, and control materials: Ag, In, and B{sub 4}C. Release fractions of UO{sub 2} and the fission products other than Te were small in all tests. However, release of control materials was significant.

  13. DISCLAIMER

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARM-TR-101 Doppler Lidar (DL) Handbook RK Newsom February 2012 Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research RK Newsom, February 2012, DOE/SC-ARM-TR-101 iii Acronyms and Abbreviations AGL above ground level AMF ARM Mobile Facility AMFDL AMF Doppler Lidar ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement DL Doppler Lidar DMF Data Management Facility DOE U.S. Department of Energy DQO Data Quality Office GVAX Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment

  14. Ms. Maria Galanti Site Coordinator

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ? 5 2011 PPPO-03-1251788-11 Ohio Environmental Protection Agency Southeast District Office 2195 Front Street Logan, Ohio 43138 Dear Ms. Galanti: TRANSMITTAL OF Dl CONSTRUCTION COMPLETION REPORT FOR PHASES I AND II OF THE REMOVAL OF THE X-760 CHEMICAL ENGINEERING BUILDING AT THE PORTSMOUTH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT, PIKETON, OHIO (DOE/PPPO/03-0196&Dl) Reference: Letter from M. Galanti to J. Bradbume, "Construction Completion Report for Phases I and II ofthe Removal of the X-760 Chemical

  15. Double layer -- a particle accelerator in the magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Xiangrong

    2015-07-16

    Slides present the material under the following topics: Introduction (What is a double layer (DL)? Why is it important? Key unsolved problems); Theory -- time-independent solutions of 1D Vlasov--Poisson system; Particle-in-cell simulations (Current-driven DLs); and Electron acceleration by DL (Betatron acceleration). Key problems include the generation mechanism, stability, and electron acceleration. In summary, recent observations by Van Allen Probes show large number of DLs in the outer radiation belt, associated with enhanced flux of relativistic electrons. Simulations show that ion acoustic double layers can be generated by field-aligned currents. Thermal electrons can gain energy via betatron acceleration in a dipole magnetic field.

  16. L I NATIONAL' LEAD COMPANY OF OHIO

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    L I NATIONAL' LEAD COMPANY OF OHIO tJw HEALTH AND SAFETY DI"ISION - ANALITICIL DEPT. ANALYTICAL DATA SHEET _I . . NATIONAL LEAD COMPANY O F OHIO HEALTH AND SAFETY DIY1SION - ANALYTICAL DEPT. ANALYTICAL DATA SHEET NATIONA-i LEn' D COMPANY OF OHIO HEALTH AND SAFETY Dl"lSlDN - m4ALITICAL DEPT. ANALYTICAL DATA SHEET NO. I DlSTRlBUTlON OF COPIES I I A,w,lytlc.al Loboratorr (RBCORD COPI) 2 Induswlol Hvalen. B Rodhtlon Dept. 3 1 Water Trsotmmt Plant c=.z w&w hnp,., Only, - . _. NATIONAL

  17. Wising Up Uncle Sam to Cybertricks | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wising Up Uncle Sam to Cybertricks Wising Up Uncle Sam to Cybertricks November 22, 2011 - 12:15pm Addthis Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s main entrance is marked by a limestone sign. Several new buildings visible in the background house more than 1,000 of the lab’s 4,300 employees. | Photo courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge National Laboratory's main entrance is marked by a limestone sign. Several new buildings visible in the background house more than 1,000 of the

  18. Formation of coke from heavy crude oils in the presence of calcium carbonate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kessick, M. A.; George, Z. M.; Schneider, L. G.

    1985-06-04

    The sulphur emissive capability, on combustion, of coke which is formed during upgrading of sulphur-containing heavy crude oils, including oil sands bitumen, and residua, is decreased by the addition of calcium carbonate, preferably in the form of limestone, to the heavy crude oil prior to coking. The presence of the limestone leads to an increased yield of liquid distillates from the coking process under preferred coking conditions. Ash remaining after combustion of the coke may be leached to recover nickel and vanadium values therefrom.

  19. Shell appraising deepwater discovery off Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scherer, M. ); Lambers, E.J.T.; Steffens, G.S. )

    1993-05-10

    Shell International Petroleum Co. Ltd. negotiated a farmout in 1990 from Occidental International Exploration and Production Co. for Block SC-38 in the South China Sea off Palawan, Philippines, following Oxy's discovery of gas in 1989 in a Miocene Nido limestone buildup. Under the terms of the farmout agreement, Shell became operator with a 50% share. Following the disappointing well North Iloc 1, Shell was successful in finding oil and gas in Malampaya 1. Water 700-1,000 m deep, remoteness, and adverse weather conditions have imposed major challenges for offshore operations. The paper describes the tectonic setting; the Nido limestone play; the Malampaya discovery; and Shell's appraisal studies.

  20. Method for enhancing the desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluid-bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grindley, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    A process and apparatus for providing additional desulfurization of the hot gas produced in a fluid-bed coal gasifier, within the gasifier. A fluid-bed of iron oxide is located inside the gasifier above the gasification bed in a fluid-bed coal gasifier in which in-bed desulfurization by lime/limestone takes place. The product gases leave the gasification bed typically at 1600.degree. to 1800.degree. F. and are partially quenched with water to 1000.degree. to 1200.degree. F. before entering the iron oxide bed. The iron oxide bed provides additional desulfurization beyond that provided by the lime/limestone.

  1. Method and apparatus for enhancing the desulfurization of hot coal gas in a fluid-bed coal gasifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grindley, T.

    1988-04-05

    A process and apparatus for providing additional desulfurization of the hot gas produced in a fluid-bed coal gasifier, within the gasifier is described. A fluid-bed of iron oxide is located inside the gasifier above the gasification bed in a fluid-bed coal gasifier in which in-bed desulfurization by lime/limestone takes place. The product gases leave the gasification bed typically at 1600 to 1800 F and are partially quenched with water to 1000 to 1200 F before entering the iron oxide bed. The iron oxide bed provides additional desulfurization beyond that provided by the lime /limestone. 1 fig.

  2. ADVANCED CHARACTERIZATION OF FRACTURED RESERVOIRS IN CARBONATE ROCKS: THE MICHIGAN BASIN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James R. Wood; William B. Harrison

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to collect and analyze existing data on the Michigan Basin for fracture patterns on scales ranging form thin section to basin. The data acquisition phase has been successfully concluded with the compilation of several large digital databases containing nearly all the existing information on formation tops, lithology and hydrocarbon production over the entire Michigan Basin. These databases represent the cumulative result of over 80 years of drilling and exploration. Plotting and examination of these data show that contrary to most depictions, the Michigan Basin is in fact extensively faulted and fractured, particularly in the central portion of the basin. This is in contrast to most of the existing work on the Michigan Basin, which tends to show relatively simple structure with few or minor faults. It also appears that these fractures and faults control the Paleozoic sediment deposition, the subsequent hydrocarbon traps and very likely the regional dolomitization patterns. Recent work has revealed that a detailed fracture pattern exists in the interior of the Central Michigan Basin, which is related to the mid-continent gravity high. The inference is that early Precambrian, ({approx}1 Ga) rifting events presumed by many to account for the gravity anomaly subsequently controlled Paleozoic sedimentation and later hydrocarbon accumulation. There is a systematic relationship between the faults and a number of gas and oil reservoirs: major hydrocarbon accumulations consistently occur in small anticlines on the upthrown side of the faults. The main tools used in this study to map the fault/fracture patterns are detailed, close-interval (CI = 10 feet) contouring of the formation top picks accompanied by a new way of visualizing the data using a special color spectrum to bring out the third dimension. In addition, recent improvements in visualization and contouring software were instrumental in the study. Dolomitization is common in the

  3. Effects of depositional facies and diagenesis on calculating petrophysical properties for wireline logs in Permian carbonate reservoirs of west Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holtz, M.H.; Major, R.P. )

    1994-03-01

    The complex interplay between depositional facies and diagenesis in carbonate rocks presents numerous problems for calculating petrophysical properties from wireline logs. If carbonate reservoirs are divided into flow units of similar depositional and diagenetic textures, empirical equations that apply specifically to that geologically identified flow unit can be developed to accurately measure porosity and water saturation. In Guadalupian and Leonardian reservoirs, carbonate mudstones deposited in subtidal marine settings are predominantly dolomite, although they contain some shale. The shale in these rocks can be detected with gamma-ray logs and empirical equations for calculation of porosity from log must include a gamma-ray component to compensate for the presence of shale. Because porosity in these rocks is dominantly intercrystalline, capillary pressure characteristics are predictable and saturations can be calculated with the Archie equation. Subtidal carbonate packstones and grainstones are composed of dolomite, anhydrite, and gypsum. The matrix acoustic transit times of these three minerals are similar, and acoustic logs are the best tool for measuring porosity. Neutron logs are the least accurate porosity tools if gypsum is present. Photo-electric density logs can distinguish gypsum from anhydrite. Because porosity in these rocks is dominantly interparticle and/or moldic, dual porosity cementation exponent corrections are needed to calculate saturations with the Archie equation, and capillary pressure saturation relationships are variable. Carbonates deposited in tidal-flat environments are generally composed of dolomite, sulfate minerals, and quartz silt, requiring a full suite of open-hole logs to make reliable porosity measurements. Diagenesis influences reservoir mineralogy and pore types. A common style of burial diagenesis in Guadalupian and Leonardian reservoirs is hydration of anhydrite to gypsum and leaching of sulfate cement and dolomite matrix.

  4. Groundwater flow, late cementation, and petroleum accumulation the Permian Lyons Sandstone, Denver basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, M.K.; Bethke, C.M. )

    1994-02-01

    The gray diagenetic facies of the Permian Lyons Sandstone, associated with all known petroleum accumulations in the formation, formed late in the history of the Denver basin as an alteration product of the formation's red facies. The red facies that makes up most of the sandstone contains iron oxide coating, quartz overgrowths and calcite cements. The gray facies, which occurs locally in the deep basin, is distinguished by pore-filling dolomite and anhydrite cements and by a lack of iron oxide and calcite. The dolomite and anhydrite cements overlie bitumen that was deposited by migrating oil, and hence formed after oil was first generated in the basin, late in the Cretaceous or early in the Tertiary. The isotopic composition of oxygen in the dolomite ranges to such light values that the cement must have formed deep in the basin in the presence of meteoric water. The gray facies likely formed in a regime of groundwater flow resulting from Laramide uplift of the Front Range during the Tertiary. In our model, saline groundwater flowed eastward through the Pennsylvanian Fountain Formation and then upwelled along the basin axis, where is discharged into the Lyons Sandstone. The saline water mixed with more dilute groundwater in the Lyons, driving a reaction that dissolved calcite and, by a common-ion effect, precipitated dolomite and anhydrite. The facies' gray color resulted from reduction of ferric oxide in the presence of migrating oil or the Fountain brine. Underlying source beds by this time had begun to generate petroleum, which migrated by buoyancy into the Lyons. The association of the gray facies with petroleum accumulations can be explained if the Fountain brines discharged across aquitards along the same fractures that transmitted oil. As petroleum accumulated in the Lyons, the newly formed cements prevented continued migration, as is observed in shallower strata, by sealing oil into the reservoirs from which it is produced today. 77 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Depositional environment of the Yates Formation in Kermit Field, Winkler County, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, S.G. (Mobil Exploration and Producing, Denver, CO (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The Yates Formation (Permian Guadalupian) is a series of alternating clastic and carbonate units deposited on a shallow marine shelf in repetitive cycles: (1) a mottled, anhydritic dolomite at the base, (2) an overlying oxidized wind-blown very fine-grained sand and silt, (3) a bioturbated, but otherwise massive, sandstone, and (4) an uppermost massive dolomite containing oolites or skeletal material. A typical cycle is 10-20 ft thick. Deposition of the Yates was controlled by fluctuations in sea level governed by glacial activity and local tectonics. During sea level low stands, carbonates were dolomitized and displaced by anhydrite. This was followed by deposition of wind-blown sediments creating planar horizontal laminae and exposure features (desiccation cracks, tepee structures, and adhesion ripples). During sea level high stands, dunes an the platform were deposited as sheet sands. Lastly, a carbonate layer was deposited before sea level dropped and another cycle began. Sands were transported to the Central Basin platform as eolian dunes from the Pedernal highlands of central New Mexico. Wind direction for the Permian is documented as south-southeast based on mapping of sand dunes in the southwestern US. Quartz size in the clastics ranges from 0.03-0.11 mm, averaging 0.07 mm. The sandstones are homogeneous, well sorted, and most quartz grains are frosted. Except for planar wind laminae, these units contain only indistinct primary sedimentary structures, constrained by small grain size and grain size uniformity within beds. The clastics are 52% monocrystalline quartz, 17% feldspar, 4% rock fragments, 5% other minerals, and 22% matrix (dolomite in the carbonates and authigenic clays in the clastics).

  6. Evaporite Caprock Integrity. An experimental study of reactive mineralogy and pore-scale heterogeneity during brine-CO2 exposure

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Smith, Megan M.; Sholokhova, Yelena; Hao, Yue; Carroll, Susan A.

    2012-07-25

    Characterization and geochemical data are presented from a core-flooding experiment on a sample from the Three Fingers evaporite unit forming the lower extent of caprock at the Weyburn-Midale reservoir, Canada. This low-permeability sample was characterized in detail using X-ray computed microtomography before and after exposure to CO 2-acidified brine, allowing mineral phase and voidspace distributions to be quantified in three dimensions. Solution chemistry indicated that CO 2-acidified brine preferentially dissolved dolomite until saturation was attained, while anhydrite remained unreactive. Dolomite dissolution contributed to increases in bulk permeability through the formation of a localized channel, guided by microfractures as well asmore » porosity and reactive phase distributions aligned with depositional bedding. An indirect effect of carbonate mineral reactivity with CO 2-acidified solution is voidspace generation through physical transport of anhydrite freed from the rock matrix following dissolution of dolomite. The development of high permeability fast pathways in this experiment highlights the role of carbonate content and potential fracture orientations in evaporite caprock formations considered for both geologic carbon sequestration and CO 2-enhanced oil recovery operations.« less

  7. Basic Data Report for Drillhole SNL-9 (C-2950)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis W. Powers; Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2005-01-19

    SNL-9 (permitted by the State Engineer as C-2950) was drilled to provide geological data and hydrological testing of the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Permian Rustler Formation within a proposed re-entrant of the margin of halite dissolved from the upper part of the Salado near Livingston Ridge. SNL-9 is located in the southeast quarter of section 23, T22S, R30E, in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico. SNL-9 was drilled to a total depth of 845 ft below the ground surface. Below surface dune sand and the Berino soil, SNL-9 encountered, in order, the Mescalero caliche, Gatuna, Dewey Lake, Rustler, and uppermost Salado Formations. Two intervals were cored: 1) from the lower Forty-niner Member through the Magenta Dolomite and into the upper Tamarisk Member; and 2) from the lower Tamarisk Member through the Culebra Dolomite and Los Meda?os Members and into the uppermost Salado Formation. Geophysical logs were acquired from the open hole to total depth, and the drillhole was successfully completed with a screened interval open across the Culebra.

  8. Significance of cyclic Pennsylvanian-Permian coral/algal buildups Snaky Canyon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canter, K.L. ); Isaacson, P.E. )

    1991-02-01

    Five cyclic algal, hydrozoan, and coral buildups occur within a thick sequence of Pennsylvanian-Permian (Virgilian through Wolfcampain) carbonates in south-central Idaho. The Juniper Gulch Member of the Snaky Canyon Formation, as described by Skipp and coworkers, is approximately 600 m thick and contains four depositional facies, including: (1) open circulation outer( ) platform, (2) hydrozoan and phylloid algal mound-dominated carbonate buildup, (3) backmound, restricted platform/lagoon, and (4) restricted inner platform facies. Several microlithofacies, including lime mud-rich bafflestone, diversely fossiliferous packstone and grainstone, bryozoan lime floatstone, and phylloid algal and hydrozoan (Palaeoaplysina) lime bindstone are described within the phylloid algal mounds. Successional faunal assemblage stages are recognized within the buildups. Colonial rugose corals comprise a stabilization stage. When the algal communities of the diversification stage reached wave base, because of their rapid upward growth, cross-bedded oolitic grainstone and occasional cross-bedded dolomite shoals developed. Supratidal to high intertidal platform sedimentation is represented by dolomitic Palaeoaplysina bindstone, algal mat bindstone, and vuggy dolomite. Five vertical sequences of buildup development, each terminate by intertidal, supratidal, or erosional events, are seen in the Juniper Gulch Member in the North Howe stratigraphic section of the southern Lost River Range. The carbonate platform was constructed within a depositional basin that includes an eroded highland to the west, and a mixed siliciclastic-carbonate inner platform with craton uplifts to the east.

  9. Basic Data Report for Drillhole SNL-5 (C-3002)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis W. Powers; Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2005-01-18

    SNL-5 (permitted by the New Mexico State Engineer as C-3002) was drilled to provide geological data and hydrological testing of the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Permian Rustler Formation in an area north of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site where data are sparse and where a pumping or monitoring well for the northern pumping test is needed. SNL-5 is located in the southeast quarter of section 6, T22S, R31E, in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico. SNL-5 was drilled to a total depth of 687 ft below ground level (bgl), based on driller's measurements. Below the caliche pad, SNL-5 encountered the Mescalero caliche, Gatu?a, Dewey Lake, and Rustler Formations. Two intervals of the Rustler were cored: (1) from the lower Forty-niner Member through the Magenta Dolomite and into the upper Tamarisk Member; and (2) from the lower Tamarisk Member through the Culebra Dolomite and into the upper Los Meda?os Members. Geophysical logs were acquired from the open hole to a depth of ~672 ft. No water was observed to flow into the open drillhole until the Culebra was penetrated. includes horizontal beds and laminae near the base, and the uppermost part shows some inclined bedding. The mudstone unit shows mostly reddish brown claystone and siltstone with some gray mottling. Clasts or intraclasts are also included in the unit. The upper Tamarisk sulfate is somewhat brecciated near the base.

  10. BPA-2011-00122-FOIA Request

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ry ,Laura M - DK-7 From: richard t k;CELVED BY B1 01A OFFICE Sent: Friday. October22, 2010 12:04 PM 11 To: FOIA DL E DATE: Subject: FOIA Request t The following is a New FOIA...

  11. Radioactive Lysine in Protein Metabolism Studies

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Miller, L. L.; Bale, W. F.; Yuile, C. L.; Masters, R. E.; Tishkoff, G. H.; Whipple,, G. H.

    1950-01-09

    Studies of incorporation of DL-lysine in various body proteins of the dog; the time course of labeled blood proteins; and apparent rate of disappearance of labeled plasma proteins for comparison of behavior of the plasma albumin and globulin fractions; shows more rapid turn over of globulin fraction.

  12. EX/P5-4 Two-Fluid Hall Effect on Plasma Relaxation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EXP5-4 Two-Fluid Hall Effect on Plasma Relaxation in a High-Temperature Plasma W.X. Ding 1,3), V. Mirnov 2,3), A. F. Almagri 2,3), D.L. Brower 1,3), D. Craig 2,3), B.H. Deng 1,3), ...

  13. Supplement Analysis of Environmental Effects of Changes in DOE...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    llkil:l,lrll?llc)l(F':llrll(F''rl:li of spent Nllhxi3a" III,JEI fiK1''lrll'Itlle ., ,.,.. ,.,P d . . u.. . l'< Ilhls'illlsatthe Iklr'likx'dl siliE,, lF,idllll:lllcll:, ...

  14. Direct Kinetic Measurements of a Criegee Intermediate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    J.D. Savee, D.L. Osborn, S.S. Vasu, C.J. Percival, D.E. Shallcross, and C.A. Taatjes, "Direct Kinetic Measurements of Criegee Intermediate (CH2OO) Formed by Reaction of CH2I...

  15. Search for: All records | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Matthews, D.L. (3) Maxwell, R (3) Singhal, P (3) Benett, W (2) Chinn, S C (2) Chinn, S. C. (2) Da Silva, L.B. (2) Dinh, L N (2) Gee, R. H. (2) Glascoe, E A (2) Heredia, N.J. (2) ...

  16. Polaron Coherence Condensation in Layered Colossal Resistive...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    when the temperature is close to the Curie point, TC 120 K, for LSMO and the critical point, Tc 83 K, for BiSCCO2212. BiSCCO2212 data from D.L. Feng et al., Science 289, 277...

  17. Atmospheric measurements of carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, and carbon disulfide using the electron capture sulfur detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, J.E.; Bates, T.S. [NOAA, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Measurements of atmospheric dimethyl sulfide (DMS), carbonyl sulfide (COS), and carbon disulfide (CS2) were conducted over the Atlantic Ocean on board the NASA Electra aircraft during the Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation (CITE 3) project using the electron capture sulfur detector (ECD-S). The system employed cryogenic preconcentration of air samples, gas chromatographic separation, catalytic fluorination, and electron capture detection. Samples collected for DMS analysis were scrubbed of oxidants with NaOH impregnated glass fiber filters to preconcentration. The detection limits (DL) of the system for COS, DMS, and CS2 were 5, 5, and 2 ppt, respectively. COS concentrations ranged from 404 to 603 ppt with a mean of 489 ppt for measurements over the North Atlantic Ocean (31 deg N to 41 deg N), and from 395 to 437 ppt with a mean of 419 ppt for measurements over the Tropical Atlantic Ocean (11 deg S to 2 deg N). DMS concentrations in the lower marine boundary layer, below 600-m altitude, ranged from below DL to 150 ppt from flights over the North Atlantic, and from 9 to 104 ppt over the Tropical Atlantic. CS2 concentrations ranged from below DL to 29 ppt over the North Atlantic. Almost all CS2 measurements over the Tropical Atlantic were below DL.

  18. V, Ii. Pat-SC&~, Ciructor, Elvision of Techdcal Jkitiseru

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    V, Ii. Pat-SC&, Ciructor, Elvision of Techdcal Jkitiseru I?. J. %.Ltl2, Jr., chief, 5isC81bleDU3 Cperstions jw;ta, Prodcc' s.on Giviaion S-A-fiCi : PC: 3JS:?dl please '& advised...

  19. I'

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    OF t.W IlB ?BTAL 'IC F'MNKFORD ARS3UL SfiEQL: PTS:DlX:mam (m-31) Please ship from iQA inventory,-& the earliest possible date, approximately 125 feet of 1316 inch uranium rod...

  20. Technical Basis Agreement Document for UGTA CAU 99 RM/SM

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    D.L. Finnegan, J.L. Thompson, C.M. Miller, P.L. Baca, L.F. Olivas, C.G. Geoffrion, D.K. Smith, W. Goishi, B.K. Esser, J.W. Meadows, N. Namboodiri, J.F. Wild. 2001. Nevada Test Site...

  1. Microsoft Word - APP VI, Rev 3 _03-19-20

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    ... Bowen, S.M., D.L. Finnegan, J.L. Thompson, C.M. Miller, P.L. Baca, L.F. Olivas, C.G. Geoffrion, D.K. Smith, W. Goishi, B.K. Esser, J.W. Meadows, N. Namboodiri, and J.F. Wild. 2001. ...

  2. Dynamics of double layers, ion acceleration, and heat flux suppression during solar flares

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, T. C.; Drake, J. F.; Swisdak, M.

    2014-09-20

    Observations of flare-heated electrons in the corona typically suggest confinement of electrons. The confinement mechanism, however, remains unclear. The transport of coronal hot electrons into ambient plasma was recently investigated by particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. Electron transport was significantly suppressed by the formation of a highly localized, nonlinear electrostatic potential in the form of a double layer (DL). In this work large-scale PIC simulations are performed to explore the dynamics of DLs in larger systems where, instead of a single DL, multiple DLs are generated. The primary DL accelerates return current electrons, resulting in high velocity electron beams that interact with ambient ions. This forms a Buneman unstable system that spawns more DLs. Trapping of heated return current electrons between multiple DLs strongly suppresses electron transport. DLs also accelerate ambient ions and produce strong ion flows over an extended region. This clarifies the mechanism by which hot electrons in the corona couple to and accelerate ions to form the solar wind. These new dynamics in larger systems reveal a more likely picture of DL development and their impact on the ambient plasma in the solar corona. They are applicable to the preparation for in situ coronal space missions like the Solar Probe Plus.

  3. I

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    the fir+ hamrd dmn d-l- with BCZ' C. mot 4-0 b. krpti io Rind* l;.r, Fienhar,thQ plant nana@, told ua thut tha kao WOr@ taW6mWt e&W+ xmt;i P6 sot thi: pwiblo tblle rffeatar of...

  4. Core-in-shell sorbent for hot coal gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheelock, Thomas D.; Akiti, Jr., Tetteh T.

    2004-02-10

    A core-in-shell sorbent is described herein. The core is reactive to the compounds of interest, and is preferably calcium-based, such as limestone for hot gas desulfurization. The shell is a porous protective layer, preferably inert, which allows the reactive core to remove the desired compounds while maintaining the desired physical characteristics to withstand the conditions of use.

  5. CX-006239: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Structure Replacement, Guernsey Rural Substation to Limestone Substation, Platte County, WyomingCX(s) Applied: B4.6Date: 10/02/2009Location(s): Platte County, WyomingOffice(s): Western Area Power Administration-Rocky Mountain Region

  6. New methods of nozzle attachment to FRP spray headers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boucher, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    The traditional method of attaching spray nozzles to FRP spray headers in the absorber tower of a wet limestone system has been through the use of 150 lb. Flanges. This paper will illustrate two additional methods (grooved adapters & adhesive bonded nozzles) and will demonstrate the cost saving associated versus the flanged option, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each system.

  7. Petrology of Eocene rocks, southeastern Georgia coastal plain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thayer, P.A.; Miller, J.A.

    1988-09-01

    Study of cores from a US Geological Survey test well in Wayne County indicates that Eocene strata represent an overall shallowing-upward, clastic-carbonate sequence. The 1397-ft (426-m) Eocene section is divided into three units: unnamed lower Eocene rocks, middle Eocene (Claibornian) Lisbon and Avon Park Formations, and upper Eocene (Jacksonian) Ocala Limestone.

  8. Geochemistry and sedimentation of organic matter in the Triassic-Liassic carbonate laminated source rocks of the Ragusa basin (Italy)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brosse, E.; Loreau, J.P.; Frixa, A.

    1988-08-01

    The Noto and Streppenosa formations of the Ragusa basin (southeastern Sicily) are considered the main source rocks for oil in this area. They display various styles of sedimentation in a generally carbonate context. The organic matter is basically of marine planktonic origin but with some variations, especially in terms of O/C ratio and kinetic behavior. Three main styles of sedimentation occurred within these formations: (1) laminates in a dominantly carbonate rock with thin recurrent interlayers of black shales; (2) alternating layers of marls and limestones, both containing interlayers of black shales and with occasional laminations in the limestones; and (3) silty shales, more or less rich in carbonates (30-70%). The highest petroleum potentials are neither strictly associated with the algal-sedimentary laminites nor with the basinal silty facies but with the black shales interbedded in the different facies or abruptly overlying limestones. In these black shales, oxygen-poor kerogens are dominant. Limestones of the alternated layers are generally organic lean (TOC < 1%), and oxygen-rich kerogens are dominant. The transition from one type of kerogen to the other occurs in the marly layers of the sequence. A tentative integration of both sedimentological and geochemical results is proposed, at the scale of the core, to interpret the respective influence of the depositional pattern and the diagenetic conditions on the content and nature of the kerogen in the source rocks.

  9. Method for the production of cementitious compositions and aggregate derivatives from said compositions, and cementitious compositions and aggregates produced thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Minnick, L. John

    1983-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for preparing synthetic shaped cementitious compositions having high quality even without the addition of high energy binders, such as portland cement, through the use of the spent residue from a fluidized combustion bed of the type wherein limestone particles are suspended in a fluidized medium and sulfur oxides are captured, and pulverized coal fly ash.

  10. Separation of Flue-Gas Scrubber Sludge into Marketable Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-02-28

    The reduction of sulfur oxides from high sulfur coal burning utility companies has resulted in the production of huge quantities of wet flue-gas desulfurization scrubber sludge. A typical 400 MW power station burning a coal containing 3.5% sulfur by weight and using a limestone absorbent would produce approximately 177,000 tons (dry weight) of scrubber sludge per year. This brownish colored, finely divided material contains calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 1/2 H{sub 2}O), calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O), unreacted limestone (CaCO{sub 3}), and various other impurities such as fly-ash and iron oxide particles. The physical separation of the components of scrubber sludge would result in the re-use of this material. The primary use would be conversion to a highly pure synthetic gypsum. This technical report concentrates on the effect of baffle configuration on the separation of calcium sulfite/sulfate from limestone. The position of the baffles as they related to the feed inlet, and the quantity of the baffles were examined. A clean calcium sulfite/sulfate (less than 2.0% limestone by weight) was achieved with the combination of water-only cyclone and horizontally baffled column.

  11. Maquoketa Shale Caprock Integrity Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leetaru, Hannes

    2014-09-30

    The Knox Project objective is to evaluate the potential of formations within the Cambrian-Ordovician strata above the Mt. Simon Sandstone (St. Peter Sandstone and Potosi Dolomite) as potential targets for carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration in the Illinois and Michigan Basins. The suitability of the St. Peter Sandstone and Potosi Dolomite to serve as reservoirs for CO2 sequestration is discussed in separate reports. In this report the data gathered from the Knox project, the Illinois Basin – Decatur Project (IBDP) and Illinois Industrial Carbon Capture and Sequestration project (IL-ICCS) are used to make some conclusions about the suitability of the Maquoketa shale as a confining layer for CO2 sequestration. These conclusions are then upscaled to basin-wide inferences based on regional knowledge. Data and interpretations (stratigraphic, petrophysical, fractures, geochemical, risk, seismic) applicable to the Maquoketa Shale from the above mentioned projects was inventoried and summarized. Based on the analysis of these data and interpretations, the Maquoketa Shale is considered to be an effective caprock for a CO2 injection project in either the Potosi Dolomite or St. Peter Sandstone because it has a suitable thickness (~200ft. ~61m), advantageous petrophysical properties (low effective porosity and low permeability), favorable geomechanical properties, an absence of observable fractures and is regionally extensive. Because it is unlikely that CO2 would migrate upward through the Maquoketa Shale, CO2, impact to above lying fresh water aquifers is unlikely. Furthermore, the observations indicate that CO2 injected into the St. Peter Sandstone or Potosi Dolomite may never even migrate up into the Maquoketa Shale at a high enough concentrations or pressure to threaten the integrity of the caprock. Site specific conclusions were reached by unifying the data and conclusions from the IBDP, ICCS and the Knox projects. In the Illinois Basin, as one looks further away from

  12. Volumetric-modulated arc therapy (RapidArc) vs. conventional fixed-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy for {sup 18}F-FDG-PET-guided dose escalation in oropharyngeal cancer: A planning study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teoh, May; Beveridge, Sabeena; Wood, Katie; Whitaker, Stephen; Adams, Elizabeth; Rickard, Donna; Jordan, Tom; Nisbet, Andrew; Clark, Catharine H.

    2013-04-01

    Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography ({sup 18}F-FDG-PET)–guided focal dose escalation in oropharyngeal cancer may potentially improve local control. We evaluated the feasibility of this approach using volumetric-modulated arc therapy (RapidArc) and compared these plans with fixed-field intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) focal dose escalation plans. Materials and methods: An initial study of 20 patients compared RapidArc with fixed-field IMRT using standard dose prescriptions. From this cohort, 10 were included in a dose escalation planning study. Dose escalation was applied to {sup 18}F-FDG-PET–positive regions in the primary tumor at dose levels of 5% (DL1), 10% (DL2), and 15% (DL3) above standard radical dose (65 Gy in 30 fractions). Fixed-field IMRT and double-arc RapidArc plans were generated for each dataset. Dose-volume histograms were used for plan evaluation and comparison. The Paddick conformity index (CI{sub Paddick}) and monitor units (MU) for each plan were recorded and compared. Both IMRT and RapidArc produced clinically acceptable plans and achieved planning objectives for target volumes. Dose conformity was significantly better in the RapidArc plans, with lower CI{sub Paddick} scores in both primary (PTV1) and elective (PTV2) planning target volumes (largest difference in PTV1 at DL3; 0.81 ± 0.03 [RapidArc] vs. 0.77 ± 0.07 [IMRT], p = 0.04). Maximum dose constraints for spinal cord and brainstem were not exceeded in both RapidArc and IMRT plans, but mean doses were higher with RapidArc (by 2.7 ± 1 Gy for spinal cord and 1.9 ± 1 Gy for brainstem). Contralateral parotid mean dose was lower with RapidArc, which was statistically significant at DL1 (29.0 vs. 29.9 Gy, p = 0.01) and DL2 (29.3 vs. 30.3 Gy, p = 0.03). MU were reduced by 39.8–49.2% with RapidArc (largest difference at DL3, 641 ± 94 vs. 1261 ± 118, p < 0.01). {sup 18}F-FDG-PET–guided focal dose escalation in oropharyngeal cancer is feasible with Rapid

  13. Reduced repair capacity of a DNA clustered damage site comprised of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine and 2-deoxyribonolactone results in an increased mutagenic potential of these lesions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cunniffe, Siobhan; O’Neill, Peter; Greenberg, Marc M.; Lomax, Martine E.

    2014-04-01

    A signature of ionizing radiation is the induction of DNA clustered damaged sites. Non-double strand break (DSB) clustered damage has been shown to compromise the base excision repair pathway, extending the lifetimes of the lesions within the cluster, compared to isolated lesions. This increases the likelihood the lesions persist to replication and thus increasing the mutagenic potential of the lesions within the cluster. Lesions formed by ionizing radiation include 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodGuo) and 2-deoxyribonolactone (dL). dL poses an additional challenge to the cell as it is not repaired by the short-patch base excision repair pathway. Here we show recalcitrant dL repairmore » is reflected in mutations observed when DNA containing it and a proximal 8-oxodGuo is replicated in Escherichia coli. 8-oxodGuo in close proximity to dL on the opposing DNA strand results in an enhanced frequency of mutation of the lesions within the cluster and a 20 base sequence flanking the clustered damage site in an E. coli based plasmid assay. In vitro repair of a dL lesion is reduced when compared to the repair of an abasic (AP) site and a tetrahydrofuran (THF), and this is due mainly to a reduction in the activity of polymerase β, leading to retarded FEN1 and ligase 1 activities. This study has given insights in to the biological effects of clusters containing dL.« less

  14. A case study of exploitation in the Lovington Strawn Trend, Permian Basin, Lea County, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shanks, K.A. ); Williams, M.C. )

    1990-05-01

    The Lovington New Mexico area, located in the northwest shelf of the Permian basin, produces oil from Pennsylvanian-age phylloid algal bioherms within the lower Strawn limestone. Strawn carbonates were deposited on the northwest flank of the Central Basin axis in a low-energy midramp setting. Algal bioherms developed as steep-sided, loaf-shaped buildups elongate in a dip direction. Mounds range from 20 to 180 ft (6-55 m) thick and average 112 mi (0.8 km) wide by 0.5 to 1 mi (0.8-1.6 km) long and occur at an average depth of 11,300 ft (3,444 m). Porosity occurs in the mound facies, usually in one massive zone with values ranging from 4 to 14%. Porous mounds are sealed by nonporous lime mudstones (intermound facies), the predominant facies within the Strawn limestone. A basinal black shale overlies the Strawn limestone across the play fairway and provides a source for Strawn oil. In the downflank portion of the play, skeletal grainstones occur beneath the Strawn shale, onlapping the mound and intermound facies. Areas of thick grainstone development are associated with poor production due to reduced porosity/permeability and possible loss of sealing facies. Prediction of undrilled mounds between well control is difficult from log, dipmeter, or drill cuttings data. Isolated Strawn limestone isopach thicks coincident with anomalous seismic character can be used to predict mound locations. Disrupted or anomalous seismic character is caused by thickening of the Strawn interval when porous and abrupt facies/velocity changes between mound and intermound limestone facies. Correct spatial imaging of the steep-sided algal mounds is critical in developing an accurate subsurface target. Once a prospect has been identified, a well-defined bottom-hole location is required to ensure a valid test of the prospect.

  15. Effects of heavy metals on biomarkers for oxidative stress in Griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Espn, Silvia; Martnez-Lpez, Emma; Jimnez, Pedro; Mara-Mojica, Pedro; Garca-Fernndez, Antonio J.

    2014-02-01

    Metals are involved in the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which may result in metal-related oxidative stress that can lead to oxidative damage to lipids, DNA and proteins. It is necessary to understand the mechanisms of metal toxicity in wild birds, and the concentrations that cause effects on oxidative stress biomarkers. The aim of this study is to assess the concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) with regards to oxidative stress in blood samples of 66 Griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) from two areas of the Autonomous Community of Valencia (East of Spain). The two study areas (Alcoy n=36 and Cinctorres n=30) were selected as random locations of interest that had not yet been studied, and are feeding stations where supplementary food, mainly of pork origin, is provided for vultures. Given that the two study areas are not considered polluted sites, we expected to find low metal concentrations. However, there are no known threshold concentrations at which metals can affect antioxidant systems, and low metal levels may have an effect on antioxidant biomolecules. In this study, since sampling was done at the beginning of the hunting season, the low Pb levels found in most Griffon vultures from Alcoy and Cinctorres (median=12.37 and 16.26 ?g/dl, respectively) are suggestive of background levels usually found in vultures that feed on pork carcasses all year round. The ingestion of game meat with bullet fragments in carcasses or with Pb shots embedded in the flesh could be the cause of the high blood Pb concentrations found in three vultures from Cinctorres (83, 290 and 362 ?g/dl). Griffon vultures feeding in Cinctorres had enhanced CAT and GST activities and tGSH concentrations, which may be interpreted as protective response against the higher TBARS levels. This study provides threshold concentrations at which metals affect antioxidant system derived from 66 samples of Griffon vulture. Blood Cd concentrations greater

  16. Chemical composition of interstitial waters from the Japan Sea, ODP Leg 128

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sturz, A. ); Von Breymann, M.; Dunbar, R. )

    1990-06-01

    During ODP Leg 128, interstitial waters were recovered from Oki Ridge (Site 798) and Kita-Yamato Trough (Site 799) sediment, Sea of Japan. Interstitial water chemical composition reflects diagenetic processes. Evidence indicating organic matter degradation processes includes sulfate depletion, high ammonium concentrations, and shallow maxima of dissolved phosphate. Rapid alkalinity increases in the uppermost sections of the sediments are accompanied by decreases in dissolved calcium, reflecting inorganic calcite precipitation. Authigenic dolomitization results in changes in slopes of the Mg/Ca molar ratios with depth. The opal-A/opal-CT transition is documented by the concentration depth profiles of dissolved silica and lithium. Dolomitization precedes the opal-A/opal-CT transition at both sites. Kita-Yamato Trough sediments show an abrupt change in the compositional character of the pore fluids below 435 mbsf, which coincides with the occurrence of low porosity and high bulk density layers composed of dolomite and opal-CT. These layers impede to some extent diffusional communication with the overlying interstitial waters. The interstitial waters in sediments below 435 mbsf have chloride concentrations of 504-515 mM, significantly lower than that of modern day Japan Sea water (540 mM). The presence of low chloride waters within Miocene age sediments may indicate: (1) diagenetic reactions that involve the release of exchangeable and structural bound water from clay minerals and/or opal-A, (2) Miocene connate brackish lake water, (3) phase separation of hydrothermal fluids associated with rifting, (4) potential effects of clay membrane filtration in a high pressure zone.

  17. Geological and reservoir characterization of shallow-shelf carbonate fields, Southern Paradox Basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chidsey, T.C. Jr.; Eby, D.E.

    1996-12-31

    The Paradox basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate mounds within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to three wells with primary per field production ranging from 700 MBO to 2 MMBO at a 15-20% recovery rate. Five fields (Anasazi, Mule, Blue Hogan, Heron North, and Runway) within the Navajo Nation of southeastern Utah have been evaluated for CO{sub 2}-flood projects based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling. Conventional cores from the five fields show that three compositional reservoir types are present: (1) phylloid algal, (2) bioclastic calcarenite, and (3) bryozoan-dominated. Phylloid algal mounds are abundant in four of the five fields, and exhibit the best overall porosity and permeability. This mound type developed where shallow water depths and low energy allowed establishment of calcareous algal colonies possibly on paleohighs. The principal reservoir rock is algal bafflestone composed mostly of the phylloid Ivanovia and occasionally dolomitized. The Heron North field is a bioclastic calcarenite reservoir. It represents high-energy conditions resulting in carbonate beaches developed over foreshore carbonate rubble. The principal reservoir rocks are grainstones and rudstones having grain-selective dissolution and complete dolomitization. Bryozoan-dominated mounds present in Runway field developed in quiet, below wave-base settings that appear to be localized along Mississippian fault blocks trends. The principal reservoir rocks are bindstone and framestone with no dolomitization. The resulting model suggests that CO{sub 2} miscible flooding of these and other small carbonate reservoirs in the Paradox basin could significantly increase ultimate recovery of oil.

  18. Geological and reservoir characterization of shallow-shelf carbonate fields, Southern Paradox Basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chidsey, T.C. Jr. ); Eby, D.E. )

    1996-01-01

    The Paradox basin of Utah, Colorado, and Arizona contains nearly 100 small oil fields producing from carbonate mounds within the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation. These fields typically have one to three wells with primary per field production ranging from 700 MBO to 2 MMBO at a 15-20% recovery rate. Five fields (Anasazi, Mule, Blue Hogan, Heron North, and Runway) within the Navajo Nation of southeastern Utah have been evaluated for CO[sub 2]-flood projects based upon geological characterization and reservoir modeling. Conventional cores from the five fields show that three compositional reservoir types are present: (1) phylloid algal, (2) bioclastic calcarenite, and (3) bryozoan-dominated. Phylloid algal mounds are abundant in four of the five fields, and exhibit the best overall porosity and permeability. This mound type developed where shallow water depths and low energy allowed establishment of calcareous algal colonies possibly on paleohighs. The principal reservoir rock is algal bafflestone composed mostly of the phylloid Ivanovia and occasionally dolomitized. The Heron North field is a bioclastic calcarenite reservoir. It represents high-energy conditions resulting in carbonate beaches developed over foreshore carbonate rubble. The principal reservoir rocks are grainstones and rudstones having grain-selective dissolution and complete dolomitization. Bryozoan-dominated mounds present in Runway field developed in quiet, below wave-base settings that appear to be localized along Mississippian fault blocks trends. The principal reservoir rocks are bindstone and framestone with no dolomitization. The resulting model suggests that CO[sub 2] miscible flooding of these and other small carbonate reservoirs in the Paradox basin could significantly increase ultimate recovery of oil.

  19. Habitat of oil in the Lindsborg field, Salina basin, north-central Kansas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newell, K.D. )

    1991-03-01

    The Lindsborg field was discovered in 1938, and is now 14 mi in length and 1-2 mi in width. It has a projected ultimate recovery of 16 MMBO. Three pay zones (5-20 ft thick) produce in the field. The Simpson pay zone (Middle Ordovician) is a well-rounded, quartzitic sandstone that is interpreted to be a paralic, high-energy shelf deposit. The Viola pay (Middle Ordovician) appears to be a dolomitic, lime grainstone but no cores are available to confirm this. The uppermost pay zone, the Upper Ordovician Maquoketa, is a finely laminated, vuggy, cherry dolomite interpreted to have been deposited as a subtidal lime mudstone in a restricted lagoon. The Simpson and Viola pays are structurally trapped in culminations along the crest of the Lindsborg anticline. Although the Maquoketa pay is structurally trapped with the other pay zones in the southern half of the field, its locus of production in the north half of the fields extends 100 ft vertically down the western flank of the anticline. The trapping mechanism is unclear due to lack of core control and modern logging suites, but it may be subtle updip diagenetic change from vuggy to nonvuggy dolomite. The Simpson and Maquoketa oils are geochemically distinct. Both may reflect efficient local source-to-reservoir migration from originally rich but marginally mature Ordovician and Devonian shales that contact each pay zone. If oil in the Lindsborg field is locally generated, the prospectivity of the relatively unproductive and underexplored Salina basin may be enhanced.

  20. Hydrological conditions at the 317/319 Area at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patton, T.L.; Pearl, R.H.; Tsai, S.Y.

    1990-08-01

    This study examined the hydrological conditions of the glacial till underlying the 317/319 Area at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) near Lemont, Illinois. The study's purpose was to review and summarize hydrological data collected by ANL's Environment, Safety, and Health Department and to characterize, based on these data, the groundwater movement and migration of potential contaminants in the area. Recommendations for further study have been made based on the findings of this review. The 317/319 Area is located between Meridian Road and the southern border of ANL. The 317 Area was commissioned in the late 1940s for the temporary storage of radioactive waste. Low- and high-level solid radioactive waste is stored in partially buried concrete vaults. Low-level radioactive waste awaiting shipment for off-site disposal is stored in aboveground steel bins north of the vaults. The 319 Area is an inactive landfill, located east of the 317 Area that was used for the disposal of general refuse, demolition debris, and laboratory equipment. Fluorescent light bulbs, chemical containers, and suspect waste were also placed in the landfill. Liquid chemical wastes were disposed of at each site in gravel-filled trenches called French drains.'' The 317/319 Area is underlain by a silty clay glacial till. Dolomite bedrock underlies the till at an average depth of about 19.5m. Organic contaminants and radionuclides have been detected in groundwater samples from wells completed in the till. Fractures in the clay as well as sand and gravel lenses present in the till could permit these contaminants to migrate downward to the dolomite aquifer. At the time of this report, no chemical quality analyses had been made on groundwater samples from the dolomite. The study found that existing information about subsurface characteristics at the site is inadequate to identify potential pathways for contaminant migration. 14 refs., 13 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Hydrological conditions at the 800 Area at Argonne National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patton, T.L.; Pearl, R.H.; Tsai, S.Y.

    1990-08-01

    This study examined the hydrological conditions of the glacial till underlying the 800 Area sanitary landfill at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) near Lemont, Illinois. The study's purpose was to review and summarize hydrological data collected by ANL's Environment, Safety, and Health Department and to characterize, on the basis of these data, the groundwater movement and migration of potential contaminants in the area. Recommendations for further study have been made based on the findings of this review. The 800 Area landfill is located on the western edge of ANL, just south of Westgate Road. It has been in operation since 1966 and has been used for the disposal of sanitary, general refuse. From 1969 through 1978, however, substantial quantities of liquid organic and inorganic wastes were disposed of in a French drain'' at the northeast corner of the landfill. The 800 Area landfill is underlain by a silty clay glacial till. Dolomite bedrock underlies the till at an average depth of about 45.6 m. Trace levels of organic contaminants and radionuclides have been detected in groundwater samples from wells completed in the till. Fractures in the clay as well as sand and gravel lenses present in the till could permit these contaminants to migrate downward to the dolomite aquifer. When this report was prepared, no chemical quality analysis have been made on groundwater samples from the dolomite. The study found that existing information about subsurface characteristics at the site is inadequate to identify potential pathways for contaminant migration. Recommended actions include installation of five new well clusters and one background well, thorough record-keeping, sample collection and analysis during borehole drilling, slug testing to measure hydraulic conductivity, topographic mapping, continued monitoring of groundwater levels and quality, and monitoring of the unsaturated zone. 17 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Precambrian oil and gas in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sisheng Hao; Guangdi Liu

    1989-03-01

    Abundant Precambrian oil and gas occurring mainly in two large basins, Sichuan basin in southwestern China and Bohai Bay basin in northern China, account for a considerable portion of the reserves and production in China. The Precambrian producing formations are all carbonates. Weiyuan gas field in Sichuan basin is one of the large gas fields in China. Its gas is produced primarily from the dolomite of the Dengying Formation (Sinian System) and was generated chiefly in the algal dolomite of the same system. However, a deeper origin for the gas cannot be ruled out. Renqiu oil field in Bohai Bay basin, a buried-hill oil field, is also one of the largest oil fields in China. The oil is produced primarily from the dolomite of the Wumishan Formation of the middle-upper Proterozoic and was generated chiefly in the Oligocene Shahejie Formation. It is also possible that the oil was partly sourced by middle-upper Proterozoic rocks. In addition, many oil and gas shows have been found in the middle-upper Proterozoic of the Yanshan fold-belt at the northern margin of the Bohai Bay basin. According to an organic geochemical study, the middle-upper Proterozoic in the area has a good potential for hydrocarbon generation, and formation conditions for indigenous hydrocarbon accumulation should exist in the Bohai Bay basin and nearby Yanshan foldbelt. From the analyses of hydrocarbon generation, reservoir, cap rock, trapping, and preservation, the presentation systematically describes the petroleum geological features and hydrocarbon prospects of the Precambrian in China.

  3. Coal pyrolysis by hot solids from a fluidized-bed combustor. Final technical report, June 1977-June 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longwell, J.P.; Evans, L.B.; Howard, J.B.; Peters, W.A.; Floess, J.K.; Fong, L.; Chen, C.; Yeboah, J.

    1982-06-01

    The effect of adding calcined dolomite stone to the fluidized-bed pyrolysis of coal and oil shale on product quality and product distribution has been studied. This work has provided information relevant to systems where heat is generated by fluidized-bed combustion in the presence of a sulfur acceptor (dolomite) and where the hot stone from the combustor is used in a second reactor to provide heat for pyrolysis. A scoping economic analysis indicated that, for coal, the pyrolysis gas and liquids produced are lower cost than gas and liquids produced by single-product gasification and liquefaction processes. The presence of calcium oxide during pyrolysis was found to improve gas heating value by CO/sub 2/ removal and to essentially eliminate H/sub 2/S. Gas yield was increased at the expense of liquid yield (20 to 30% reduction). Tar properties were improved by reduction of oxygen content, however, little sulfur or nitrogen removal was observed. Used stone from a fluidized-bed combustor gave results comparable to fresh stone with little reduction of the calcium sulfate present in the used stone. Since Colorado oil shale contains dolomite and calcite, stones from spent-shale combustion might be expected to have similar effects on product yields. CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S removal from the gas were observed. Fortunately, liquid yields were not reduced within the 5% experimental error of this work. It is indicated that CaO tends to remove phenols and polycyclic aromatics which are present in much lower concentration in shale oil than in coal tar.

  4. Heavy metal leaching from coal fly ash amended container substrates during Syngonium production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Q.S.; Chen, J.J.; Li, Y.C.

    2008-02-15

    Coal fly ash has been proposed to be an alternative to lime amendment and a nutrient source of container substrates for ornamental plant production. A great concern over this proposed beneficial use, however, is the potential contamination of surface and ground water by heavy metals. In this study, three fly ashes collected from Florida, Michigan, and North Carolina and a commercial dolomite were amended in a basal substrate. The formulated substrates were used to produce Syngonium podophyllum Schott 'Berry Allusion' in 15-cm diameter containers in a shaded greenhouse. Leachates from the containers were collected during the entire six months of plant production and analyzed for heavy metal concentrations. There were no detectable As, Cr, Hg, Pb, and Se in the leachates; Cd and Mo were only detected in few leachate samples. The metals constantly detected were Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn. The total amounts of Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn leached during the six-month production period were 95, 210, 44, and 337 {mu} g per container, indicating that such amounts in leachates may contribute little to contamination of surface and ground water. In addition, plant growth indices and fresh and dry weights of S. podophyllum 'Berry Allusion' produced from fly ash and dolomite-amended substrates were comparable except for the plants produced from the substrate amended with fly ash collected from Michigan which had reduced growth indices and fresh and dry weights. Thus, selected fly ashes can be alternatives to commercial dolomites as amendments to container substrates for ornamental plant production. The use of fly ashes as container substrate amendments should represent a new market for the beneficial use of this coal combustion byproduct.

  5. Basic Data Report for Drillhole SNL-2 (C-2948)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis W. Powers; Washington Regultory and Environmental Services

    2005-01-19

    SNL-2 was drilled in the northwest quarter of Section 12, T22S, R30E, in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico (Figure 2-1). It is located 574 ft from the north line (fnl) and 859 ft from the west line (fwl) of the section (Figure 2-2). This location places the drillhole east of the Livingston Ridge escarpment among oil wells of the Cabin Lake field. SNL-2 will be used to test hydraulic properties and to monitor ground water levels of the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Permian Rustler Formation. SNL-2 was permitted by the New Mexico State Engineer as C-2948. [Official correspondence regarding permitting and regulatory information must reference this permit number.] In the plan describing the integrated groundwater hydrology program (Sandia National Laboratories, 2003), SNL-2 is also codesignated WTS-1 because the location also satisfies needs for long-term monitoring of water quality and movement in the Culebra Dolomite for RCRA permitting; this program is under the management of Washington TRU Solutions LLC (WTS). In the event that additional wells are established on the SNL-2 drillpad to monitor other hydrological units (e.g., the Magenta Dolomite Member of the Permian Rustler Formation), the current drillhole will likely be referred to as SNL-2C because it is completed in the Culebra. Most drillholes at WIPP have been described after completion to provide an account of the geology, hydrology, or other basic data acquired during drilling and immediate completion of the drillhole. In addition, the basic data report provides an account of the drilling procedures and activities that may be helpful to later interpretations of data or for further work in the drillhole, including test activities and eventual plugging and abandoning activities. The basic data report also provides a convenient means of reporting information about administrative activities necessary to drill the hole.

  6. Structural and sedimentological controls and diagenesis in the Ravenspurn north gas reservoir United Kingdom southern North Sea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, P. ); Jones, M. ); Prosser, J. ); Williams, G. )

    1993-09-01

    The Ravenspurn area is divided into two main northwest-southeast-trending fault blocks which are markedly different in terms of their diagenetic evolution and reservoir performance. The northeasterly B structure contained gas earlier and was unaffected by Middle to Late Jurassic illitization. The southwesterly A structure was uplifted later and received accumulated gas after reservoir quality was reduced by pervasive illitization. The deposition of allogenic clay and the formation of early quartz, nonferroan dolomite, and anhydrite reduced the reservoir quality of fluvial sheetflood. Burial diagenesis resulted initially in ferroan dolomite, kaolinite, and later quartz precipitation in available primary and secondary porosity. Stable-isotope and fluid-inclusion studies indicate that Ferroan dolomite and later quartz precipitated at about 100[degrees]C in the Triassic-Early Jurassic from reduced fluids derived partly from the Carboniferous basement. Gas accumulation took place first in the northeasterly B structure, which had early closure. Elsewhere diagenetic fluids evolved to a more alkaline state, and widespread illitization took place which particularly affected more permeable eolian facies. The illitization reduced the reservoir quality of the lower Leman Sandstone and contributed to diagenetic sealing (to the northwest) of the field. K-Ar dating indicates that peak illitization took place between 150 and 170 Ma (Middle-Late Jurassic). Subsequent periods of uplift in the late Cimmerian and particularly during the early Tertiary-Miocene produced the final structure of Ravenspurn North and the spillage of gas into this structure. The combination of structural and diagenetic events explains the differences in reservoir quality and well performance of the two structural blocks in the field.

  7. Application of a selective phase extraction procedure to samples from the Adamello contact aureole (Italy)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Payne, T.E.; Lumpkin, G.R.; McGlinn, P.J.; Hart, K.P.

    1995-12-31

    Hydrothermal veins, rich in Ti, Zr, rare earth elements (REEs), and actinides, occur in the pure dolomitic marbles of the Adamello contact metamorphic aureole. A selective phase extraction using 9M HCl was applied to samples from within and near these veins to chemically separate acid-soluble phases from residual phases, and to study the associations of U, Th, and REEs with these phases. The samples were from the phlogopite, titanian clinohumite, and forsterite vein zones, and from the country rock. The effects of the extraction were studied by SEM/EDS and by chemical analysis. Isotopes of U and Th were analyzed by alpha-spectrometry. The chemical data and SEM/EDS results indicated that dolomite, calcite, apatite, and much of the pyrrhotite were dissolved by the 9M HCl, whereas spinel, phlogopite, titanite, chalcopyrite, and zirconolite were among the acid-resistant phases. In all vein samples, the REE-patterns of acid-soluble phases were consistent with the dissolution of REE-rich apatite. In samples from the phlogopite zone, the majority of U, Th, and REEs were in residual phases, and the REE pattern of the residue was similar to that of REE-rich titanite. In the titanian clinohumite zone, a substantial proportion of these elements were in acid-soluble phases, and the REE pattern of the residual phases resembled that of zirconolite. Clinohumite was partially dissolved by the HCl treatment. The sample from the forsterite zone contained substantial amounts of REEs in acid-soluble phases, whereas Th and U were mostly in residual phases. The dolomite (country rock) samples contained small amounts of an acid-resistant, uranium-rich phase which, while only comprising about 0.2% of the mass, accounted for 40--60% of the uranium present.

  8. Effect of oxidation state and ionic strength on sorption of actinides (Th, U, Np, Am) to geologic media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dittrich, Timothy M.; Richmann, Michael K.; Reed, Donald T.

    2015-10-30

    The degree of conservatism in the estimated sorption partition coefficients (Kds) used in a performance assessment model is being evaluated based on a complementary batch and column method. The main focus of this work is to investigate the role of ionic strength, solution chemistry, and oxidation state (III-VI) in actinide sorption to dolomite rock. Based on redox conditions and solution chemistry expected at the WIPP, possible actinide species include Pu(III), Pu(IV), U(IV), U(VI), Np(IV), Np(V), Am(III), and Th(IV).

  9. Deposition and diagenesis in a marine-to-evaporite sequence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, R.S.; Posey, H.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Wolfcamp-to-Wichita lithologic transition provides an excellent record of the depositional and diagenetic processes that occur as depositional environments change from normal marine to marine evaporite. In this book, depositional and diagenetic sequences were established from lithologic and mineralogic examinations of core and thin section, and geochemical conditions were interpreted from isotopic (C, O, S, and Sr) compositions of calcite, dolomite, and anhydrite. The age of the Wolfcamp-Wichita transition was determined using sulfur and strontium isotopic chronostratigraphy. The timing of formation of various types of anhydrite was inferred from textural and isotopic relations between anhydrite varieties and the host carbonate rocks.

  10. Thermal properties of Permian Basin evaporites to 493 K and 30 MPa confining pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durham, W.B.; Heard, H.C.; Boro, C.O.; Keller, K.T.; Ralph, W.E.; Trimmer, D.A.

    1987-01-26

    Laboratory measurements have been made of the thermal conductivity and diffusivity of four rock salts, two anhydrites, and two dolomites bordering the Cycle 4 and Cycle 5 bedded salt formations in the Permian Basin in Deaf Smith County, Texas. Measurement conditions ranged from 303 to 473 K in temperature, and 0.1 to 31.0 MPa in hydrostatic confining pressure. Within the +-5% measurement resolution neither conductivity nor diffusivity showed a dependence upon pressure in any of the rocks. Conductivity and diffusivity in all rocks had a negative temperature dependence. For the two Cycle 4 salt samples, conductivity over the temperature range explored fell from 5.5 to 3.75 W/m.K, and diffusivity fell from about 2.7 to 1.7 x 10/sup -6/ m/sup 2//s. One of the Cycle 5 salts was a single crystal which had anomalous results, but the other had a low conductivity, about 3.4 W/m.K, with very weak temperature dependence, and a high diffusivity, 3.8 to 2.5 x 10/sup -6/ m/sup 2//s over the temperature range. In the nonsalts, conductivity and diffusivity decreased 10 to 20% over the temperature range explored, which was 308 < T < 373 K. Typical values at 308 K for conductivity were 5.4 W/m.K for both anhydrites and 3.4 and 2.6 W/m.K for the two different dolomite samples. Approximate values at 308 K for diffusivity were 2.3 x 10/sup -6/ m/sup 2//s for the anhydrites and 1.4 x 10/sup -6/ m/sup 2//s for both the dolomites. The coefficient of thermal linear expansion was measured for the Cycle 5 salt and nonsalts over 308 < T < 493 and 0.1 < P < 30.0 MPa. Typically, the coefficient varied from about 12 x 10/sup -6/ K/sup -1/ at P = 3.0 MPa to 4 x 10/sup -6/ K/sup -1/ at P = 30 MPa for both nonsalt rocks. In anhydrite, it decreased with increasing temperature at a rate of roughly 5 x 10/sup -8/ K/sup -2/ at all pressures. In dolomite, the coefficient increased at roughly the same rate. Expansion of the salt ranged from 33 to 38 x 10/sup -6/ K/sup -1/ and was independent of pressure

  11. Geochemistry and migration of contaminants at the Weldon Spring chemical plant site, St. Charles County, Missouri, 1989--91

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schumacher, J.G.

    1993-12-31

    Investigations were conducted by the US Geological Survey in cooperation with the US Department of Energy at the Weldon Spring chemical plant site to determine the geochemistry of the shallow aquifer and geochemical controls on the migration of uranium and other constituents from the raffinate (waste) pits. Water-quality analyses from monitoring wells at the site and vicinity property indicate that water in the shallow aquifer is a calcium magnesium bicarbonate type that is at equilibrium with respect to calcite and slightly supersaturated with respect to dolomite.

  12. Dynamical consequences of a constraint on the Langevin thermostat in molecular cluster simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stinson, Jake L.; Kathmann, Shawn M.; Ford, Ian J.

    2014-11-17

    We investigate some unusual behaviour observed while performing molecular dynamics simulations with the DL_POLY_4.03 code. Under the standard Langevin thermostat, atoms appear to be thermalised to different temperatures, depending on their mass and on the total number of particles in the system. We find that an imposed constraint whereby no thermal noise acts on the centre of mass of the system is the cause of the unexpected behaviour. This is demonstrated by solving the stochastic dynamics for the constrained thermostat and comparing the results with simulation data. The effect of the constraint can be considerable for small systems with disparate masses. By removing the constraint the Langevin thermostat may be restored to its intended behaviour and this has been implemented as an option in DL_POLY_4.05. SMK was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences, and Biosciences.

  13. A double-layer based model of ion confinement in electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mascali, D. Neri, L.; Celona, L.; Castro, G.; Gammino, S.; Ciavola, G.; Torrisi, G.; Universit Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Dipartimento di Ingegneria dellInformazione, delle Infrastrutture e dellEnergia Sostenibile, Via Graziella, I-89100 Reggio Calabria ; Sorbello, G.; Universit degli Studi di Catania, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Elettrica Elettronica ed Informatica, Viale Andrea Doria 6, 95125 Catania

    2014-02-15

    The paper proposes a new model of ion confinement in ECRIS, which can be easily generalized to any magnetic configuration characterized by closed magnetic surfaces. Traditionally, ion confinement in B-min configurations is ascribed to a negative potential dip due to superhot electrons, adiabatically confined by the magneto-static field. However, kinetic simulations including RF heating affected by cavity modes structures indicate that high energy electrons populate just a thin slab overlapping the ECR layer, while their density drops down of more than one order of magnitude outside. Ions, instead, diffuse across the electron layer due to their high collisionality. This is the proper physical condition to establish a double-layer (DL) configuration which self-consistently originates a potential barrier; this barrier confines the ions inside the plasma core surrounded by the ECR surface. The paper will describe a simplified ion confinement model based on plasma density non-homogeneity and DL formation.

  14. Deletion of the paired [alpha]5(IV) and [alpha]6(IV) collagen genes in inherited smooth muscle tumors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, J.; Mochizuki, T.; Reeders, S.T. ); Smeets, H. ); Antignac, C. ); Laurila, P. ); Paepe, A. de ); Tryggvason, K. )

    1993-08-27

    The gene encoding [alpha]6(IV) collagen, COL4A6, was identified on the human X chromosome in a head-to-head arrangement and within 452 base pairs of the [alpha]5(IV) collagen gene, COL4A5. In earlier studies, intragenic deletions of COL4A5 were detected in a subset of patients with Alport syndrome (AS), a hereditary defect of basement membranes. In some families, AS cosegregates with diffuse leiomyomatosis (DL), a benign smooth muscle tumor diathesis. Here it is shown that patients with AS-DL harbor deletions that disrupt both COL4A5 and COL4A6. Thus, type IV collagen may regulate smooth muscle differentiation and morphogenesis.

  15. MODELING UNDERGROUND STRUCTURE VULNERABILITY IN JOINTED ROCK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. SWIFT; D. STEEDMAN

    2001-02-01

    The vulnerability of underground structures and openings in deep jointed rock to ground shock attack is of chief concern to military planning and security. Damage and/or loss of stability to a structure in jointed rock, often manifested as brittle failure and accompanied with block movement, can depend significantly on jointed properties, such as spacing, orientation, strength, and block character. We apply a hybrid Discrete Element Method combined with the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamics approach to simulate the MIGHTY NORTH event, a definitive high-explosive test performed on an aluminum lined cylindrical opening in jointed Salem limestone. Representing limestone with discrete elements having elastic-equivalence and explicit brittle tensile behavior and the liner as an elastic-plastic continuum provides good agreement with the experiment and damage obtained with finite-element simulations. Extending the approach to parameter variations shows damage is substantially altered by differences in joint geometry and liner properties.

  16. Soil stabilization using oil shale solid wastes: Laboratory evaluation of engineering properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Oil shale solid wastes were evaluated for possible use as soil stabilizers. A laboratory study was conducted and consisted of the following tests on compacted samples of soil treated with water and spent oil shale: unconfined compressive strength, moisture-density relationships, wet-dry and freeze-thaw durability, and resilient modulus. Significant increases in strength, durability, and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a silty sand with combusted western oil shale. Moderate increases in strength, durability, and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a highly plastic clay with combusted western oil shale. Solid waste from eastern shale can be used for soil stabilization if limestone is added during combustion. Without limestone, eastern oil shale waste exhibits little or no cementation. The testing methods, results, and recommendations for mix design of spent shale-stabilized pavement subgrades are presented. 11 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. Organic binders for iron ore pelletization and steelmaking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karkoska, D.; Sankey, E.; Anderson, R.

    1995-12-01

    Historically, bentonite has been used in the agglomeration process in North American iron ore plants. In 1986, Eveleth Mines replaced bentonite with Peridur, a carboxy methyl cellulose organic binder used in conjunction with 1% limestone. Since May of 1993, Allied Colloids` Alcotac FE8 has been used by Eveleth as the replacement for bentonite. This paper discusses the performance benefits obtained when bentonite was replaced with an organic binder. These totally synthetic binders are used in conjunction with limestone. The benefits of organic binders are: improved metallurgical parameters of the fired pellet, especially the reducibility, which results in more efficient use of gases in the blast furnace; reduced silica in the pellet, in the case of Eveleth Mines this was a reduction of 0.5%, a lower silica pellet reduces slag in the blast furnace; increased production in both the agglomeration/induration and steelmaking processes; and a decrease in coke consumption.

  18. Metallic species derived from fluidized bed coal combustion. [59 references

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natusch, D.F.S.; Taylor, D.R.

    1980-01-01

    Samples of fly ash generated by the combustion of Montana Rosebud coal in an experimental 18 inch fluidized bed combustor were collected. The use of a heated cascade impactor permitted collection of size fractionated material that avoided condensation of volatile gases on the particles. Elemental concentration trends were determined as a function of size and temperature and the results compared to published reports for conventional power plants. The behavior of trace metals appears to be substantially different in the two systems due to lower operating temperatures and the addition of limestone to the fluidized bed. Corrosion of the impactor plates was observed at the highest temperature and lowest limestone feed rate sampled during the study. Data from the elemental concentration and leaching studies suggest that corrosion is most likely due to reactions involving sodium sulfate. However, it is concluded that corrosion is less of a potential problem in fluidized-bed systems than in conventional coal-fired systems.

  19. Moving granular-bed filter development program, Option III: Development of moving granular-bed filter technology for multi-contaminant control. Task 14: Test plan; Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haas, J.C.; Olivo, C.A.; Wilson, K.B.

    1994-04-01

    An experimental test plan has been prepared for DOE/METC review and approval to develop a filter media suitable for multi-contaminant control in granular-bed filter (GBF) applications. The plan includes identification, development, and demonstration of methods for enhanced media morphology, chemical reactivity, and mechanical strength. The test plan includes media preparation methods, physical and chemical characterization methods for fresh and reacted media, media evaluation criteria, details of test and analytical equipment, and test matrix of the proposed media testing. A filter media composed of agglomerated limestone and clay was determined to be the best candidate for multi-contaminate control in GBF operation. The combined limestone/clay agglomerate has the potential to remove sulfur and alkali species, in addition to particulate, and possibly halogens and trace heavy metals from coal process streams.

  20. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Testing and Comparing the Modified Anomalous Diffraction Approximation Submitter: Mitchell, D. L., Desert Research Institute Area of Research: Cloud Distributions/Characterizations Working Group(s): Radiative Processes Journal Reference: Mitchell, D.L., A.J. Baran, W.P. Arnott, C. Schmitt, 2006: Testing and comparing the anomalous diffraction approximation. J. Atmos. Sci., 63, 2948-2962. Comparison of MADA and T-matrix with measured Qext. Regions without data were contaminated by water vapor or

  1. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Small Ice Crystals on Ice Sedimentation Rates in Cirrus Clouds and GCM Simulations Download a printable PDF Submitter: Mitchell, D. L., Desert Research Institute Rasch, P., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Ivanova, D., Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University McFarquhar, G., University of Illinois, Urbana Nousiainen, T. P., University of Helsinki Area of Research: General Circulation and Single Column Models/Parameterizations Working Group(s): Cloud Properties Journal Reference: Mitchell, DL, P

  2. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Surface Summertime Radiative Forcing by Shallow Cumuli at the ARM SGP Download a printable PDF Submitter: Berg, L., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Area of Research: Radiation Processes Working Group(s): Cloud Life Cycle Journal Reference: Berg LK, EI Kassianov, CN Long, and DL Mills. 2011. "Surface summertime radiative forcing by shallow cumuli at the ARM SGP." Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, 116, D01202, 10.1029/2010JD014593. Histogram of hourly average shortwave

  3. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Possible Impact of Homogeneous Freezing Nucleation on in Situ Measurements Download a printable PDF Submitter: Mitchell, D. L., Desert Research Institute Mishra, S., DOE - SunShot Initiative, AAAS S&T Policy Fellow Area of Research: Cloud Distributions/Characterizations Working Group(s): Cloud Life Cycle, Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation Interactions Journal Reference: Mitchell DL, S Mishra, and RP Lawson. 2011. Cirrus Clouds and Climate Engineering: New Findings on Ice Nucleation and Theoretical

  4. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Most Systematic Errors in Climate Models Appear in Only a Few Days of Model Integration Download a printable PDF Submitter: Ma, H., Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Area of Research: Cloud Distributions/Characterizations Working Group(s): Cloud Life Cycle Journal Reference: Ma H, S Xie, SA Klein, KD Williams, JS Boyle, S Bony, H Douville, S Fermepin, B Medeiros, S Tyteca, M Watanabe, and DL Williamson. 2014. "On the correspondence between mean forecast errors and climate errors in

  5. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Partial Mechanistic Understanding of the North American Monsoon Download a printable PDF Submitter: Erfani, E., Desert Research Institute Area of Research: Atmospheric Thermodynamics and Vertical Structures Working Group(s): Cloud-Aerosol-Precipitation Interactions Journal Reference: Erfani E and DL Mitchell. 2014. "A partial mechanistic understanding of the North American monsoon." Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, 119(23), 10.1002/2014JD022038. a) Dependence of

  6. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ice Particle Projected Area- and Mass-Dimension Expressions for Cirrus Clouds Download a printable PDF Submitter: Mitchell, D. L., Desert Research Institute Area of Research: Cloud Distributions/Characterizations Working Group(s): Cloud Life Cycle Journal Reference: Erfani E and DL Mitchell. 2015. "Developing and bounding ice particle mass- and area-dimension expressions for use in atmospheric models and remote sensing." Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 15(20),

  7. NMMSS News-October/November 2005

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    OCTOBER/NOVEMBER 2005 SPONSORED BY DOE AND NRC PREPARED BY NAC INTERNATIONAL Office of Security and Safety Performance Assurance Reorganized On October 21, 2005, the DOE Office of Security and Safety Performance Assurance (SSA) announced its new Office of Material Control and Accountability (SP-70) with D.L. Whaley as the acting director. The Office of Material Control and Accountability is responsible for all aspects of SSA's material control and accountability (MC&A) and sealed source

  8. Mr. Carl Schafer Director of Environmental Policy

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Designeoguns and nuclear projectiles. Radioactive material involvement in the operations is unknown. Believed to have assembled bomb compone$s. Identified on 1954 Accountable Station Lists. /,, i: .; ." , !: ' .. 12. 13. ENCLOSURE 2 (Cont'dl DEPARTMENT OF THE DEFENSE INSTALLATIONS/FACILITIES Installation/Facility MED/AEC Activity Naval Research Laboratory (Former Anacostia Naval Air Station) Washington,. DC Nellis Air Force,Base (*I Las Vegas, NV Conducted research and.development

  9. Ms. Maria Galanti Site Coordinator

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    3 0 2015 Ohio Environmental Protection Agency Southeast District Office 2195 Front Street Logan, Ohio 43138 Dear Ms. Galanti: PPP0-03-3065331-15 FINAL RECORD OF DECISION FOR THE PROCESS BUILDINGS AND COMPLEX FACILITIES DECONTAMINATION AND DECOMMISSIONING EVALUATION PROJECT AT THE PORTSMOUTH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT, PIKETON, OHIO (DOE/PPP0/03-0425&Dl) References: 1. Letter from W. Murphie to M. Galanti, "Record of Decision for the Process Buildings and Complex Facilities Decontamination

  10. EC Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    48 times Category Energy Security, Manual, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, Solar Energy, Technology Validation author D.L. King, W.E. Boyson, B.R. Hansen, and W.I. Bower, Sandia event 2nd World Conference and Exhibition on Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion location Vienna, Austria slide_template default Accurate measurements of broadband (full spectrum) solar irradiance are fundamental to the successful implementation of solar power systems, both photovoltaic and solar thermal. Historically,

  11. EC Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    115 times Category Energy Security, Manual, Photovoltaic, Renewable Energy, Solar Energy, Technology Validation event 2nd World Conference and Exhibition on Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion location Vienna, Austria year 1998 author D.L. King, W.E. Boyson, B.R. Hansen, W.I. Bower Thousands of photovoltaic systems, large and small, are now being installed worldwide. As a result, there is a growing demand for inexpensive devices for accurately monitoring the solar irradiance. Most often, the

  12. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Micropulse Lidar Slant Sensing Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Properties Powell, D.M., and Reagan, J.A., University of Arizona; Spinhirne, J.D., National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Goddard Space Flight Center; Campbell, J.R., and Hlavka, D.L., Science Systems and Applications Inc.; Ferrare, R.A., National Aeronautics and Space Administration-Langley Research Center; Turner, D.D., Flynn, C.J., and Mendosa, A., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Ninth Atmospheric Radiation Measurement

  13. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Retrieval of Ice Water Path Using Thermal Channels Mitchell, D.L. (a), d'Entremont, R.P. (b), Stackhouse, P.W., Jr. (c), and Heymsfield, A.J. (d), Desert Research Institute (a), Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (b), NASA Langley Research Center NCAR Eleventh Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Team Meeting Global information of ice water path (IWP) in ice clouds is urgently needed for testing of global climate models (GCMs) and other applications, but satellite retrievals

  14. Conditions for diffusion-limited and reaction-limited recombination in nanostructured solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ansari-Rad, Mehdi; Department of Physics, University of Shahrood, Shahrood ; Anta, Juan A.; Arzi, Ezatollah

    2014-04-07

    The performance of Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) and related devices made of nanostructured semiconductors relies on a good charge separation, which in turn is achieved by favoring charge transport against recombination. Although both processes occur at very different time scales, hence ensuring good charge separation, in certain cases the kinetics of transport and recombination can be connected, either in a direct or an indirect way. In this work, the connection between electron transport and recombination in nanostructured solar cells is studied both theoretically and by Monte Carlo simulation. Calculations using the Multiple-Trapping model and a realistic trap distribution for nanostructured TiO{sub 2} show that for attempt-to-jump frequencies higher than 10{sup 11}–10{sup 13} Hz, the system adopts a reaction limited (RL) regime, with a lifetime which is effectively independent from the speed of the electrons in the transport level. For frequencies lower than those, and depending on the concentration of recombination centers in the material, the system enters a diffusion-limited regime (DL), where the lifetime increases if the speed of free electrons decreases. In general, the conditions for RL or DL recombination depend critically on the time scale difference between recombination kinetics and free-electron transport. Hence, if the former is too rapid with respect to the latter, the system is in the DL regime and total thermalization of carriers is not possible. In the opposite situation, a RL regime arises. Numerical data available in the literature, and the behavior of the lifetime with respect to (1) density of recombination centers and (2) probability of recombination at a given center, suggest that a typical DSC in operation stays in the RL regime with complete thermalization, although a transition to the DL regime may occur for electrolytes or hole conductors where recombination is especially rapid or where there is a larger dispersion of energies of

  15. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Impact of Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe Measured Ice Crystals on the Community Atmospheric Model D.L. Mitchell, and D. Ivanova Desert Research Institute Reno, Nevada P. Rasch National Center for Atmospheric Research Boulder, Colorado G. McFarquhar and T. Nousiainen University of Illinois Urbana, Illinois Comparison of Mid-Latitude and Tropical Anvil Size Distribution Schemes There is growing evidence that the concentrations of small ice crystals (D < 70 μm) exceed peak concentrations

  16. 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Developments and Accomplishments at the ARM Climate Research Facility Southern Great Plains Site During 2005 B.W. Orr and D.L. Sisterson Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, Illinois D.J. Rusk ARM Climate Research Facility/Southern Great Plains Cherokee Nation Distributors Stilwell, Oklahoma New Instruments New instruments were installed at the ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF) in 2005. This paper discusses these developments as well as accomplishments that occurred during the year. W-Band

  17. Draft - DOE G 410.2-1, Nuclear Material Disposition

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    This document provides a roadmap for implementing the requirements for disposition of nuclear material as outlined in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 410.2, Management of Nuclear Materials, and DOE Order 474.2, Nuclear Material Control and Accountability. This Guide provides the basic framework for the nuclear material disposition process, includes information related to the Programmatic Value Determination (PVD) process, and identifies Discard Limits (DL) for specific low-equity nuclear materials.

  18. INDIA

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    IND About Counterterrorism NNSA provides expertise, practical tools, and technically informed policy recommendations required to advance U.S. nuclear counterterrorism and counterproliferation objectives. It executes a unique program of work focused solely on these missions and builds partnerships with U.S. government

    Instruments AERI Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer Measurement Type: Radiometric View Plots AOS Aerosol Observing System Measurement Type: Aerosol View Plots DL Doppler

  19. viennaking.PDF

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    IMPROVED ACCURACY FOR LOW-COST SOLAR IRRADIANCE SENSORS D.L. King, W.E. Boyson, B.R. Hansen, and W.I. Bower, Sandia National Laboratories Presented at the 2 nd World Conference and Exhibition on Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conversion, 6-10 July 1998, Vienna, Austria Sandia National Laboratories Sandia National Laboratories Photovoltaic Systems Department Post Office Box 5800 Albuquerque, NM 87185-0753 Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company,

  20. Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sensors and Sensing Technologies Sensors and Sensing Technologies Publications Journal articles on Sensors and Sensing Technologies Contact Institute Director Charles Farrar (505) 663-5330 Email UCSD EI Director Michael Todd (858) 534-5951 Professional Staff Assistant Ellie Vigil (505) 667-2818 Email Administrative Assistant Rebecca Duran (505) 665-8899 Email Journal Articles Stull, C.J., Taylor, S. G., Wren, J., Mascarenas, D.L., Farrar, C. R., "Real-Time Condition Assessment of the Raptor

  1. CONFIGURATION CHANGE PROPOSAL (CCP)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Change Request | Domain Name Server (DNS) Change | | This change request form is to share information on domain name server changes, new requirements, modifications, or enhancements within the DOE Headquarters programmatic and office management areas. This change request should be forwarded to the Domain Management Team (DL-Domain.Management@hq.doe.gov) for validation, review and discussion. Detailed instructions are available at https://powerpedia.energy.gov/wiki/Domain_change_process. |

  2. Simonis Sa7; and Steel. Company Occu?atisnal Exposure to Radioactive...

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ... The fo:-ge4za5mLng olxration mz3 vmy dmtr. ItiitidcaI gmm:I ak d?l3% 3ar;lplea cali3c-bd. In tl2s vfci?rir:y of th% for&IgJ 53 fxJn 75 to 260 t&338 th4 prY:fsrrw levd. ...

  3. DOE and USDA Select Projects for more than $24 Million in Biomass Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Development Grants | Department of Energy and USDA Select Projects for more than $24 Million in Biomass Research and Development Grants DOE and USDA Select Projects for more than $24 Million in Biomass Research and Development Grants The U.S. Departments of Agriculture and Energy today announcedprojects selected for more than $24 million in grants to research and develop technologiesto produce biofuels, bioenergy and high-value biobased products. joint_solicitation_2009_dl.pdf (89.64 KB)

  4. Method of feeding particulate material to a fluidized bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Borio, Richard W. (Somers, CT); Goodstine, Stephen L. (Windsor, CT)

    1984-01-01

    A centrifugal spreader type feeder that supplies a mixture of particulate limestone and coal to the top of a fluidized bed reactor having a flow of air upward therethrough. Large particles of particulate matter are distributed over the upper surface of the bed to utilize the natural mixing within the bed, while fine particles are adapted to utilize an independent feeder that separates them from the large particles and injects them into the bed.

  5. TRANS4: a computer code calculation of solid fuel penetration of a concrete barrier. [LMFBR; GCFR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ono, C. M.; Kumar, R.; Fink, J. K.

    1980-07-01

    The computer code, TRANS4, models the melting and penetration of a solid barrier by a solid disc of fuel following a core disruptive accident. This computer code has been used to model fuel debris penetration of basalt, limestone concrete, basaltic concrete, and magnetite concrete. Sensitivity studies were performed to assess the importance of various properties on the rate of penetration. Comparisons were made with results from the GROWS II code.

  6. Share Your Research!

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Shale in the United States Last Updated: August 10, 2016 Over the past decade, the combination of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing has provided access to large volumes of oil and natural gas that were previously uneconomic to produce from low permeability geological formations composed of shale, sandstone, and carbonate (e.g., limestone). Shale is a fine-grained sedimentary rock that forms from the compaction of silt and clay-size mineral particles. Black shale contains organic

  7. Method for producing H.sub.2 using a rotating drum reactor with a pulse jet heat source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paulson, Leland E. (Morgantown, WV)

    1990-01-01

    A method of producing hydrogen by an endothermic steam-carbon reaction using a rotating drum reactor and a pulse jet combustor. The pulse jet combustor uses coal dust as a fuel to provide reaction temperatures of 1300.degree. to 1400.degree. F. Low-rank coal, water, limestone and catalyst are fed into the drum reactor where they are heated, tumbled and reacted. Part of the reaction product from the rotating drum reactor is hydrogen which can be utilized in suitable devices.

  8. NCO-2016 LANS PNOV

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Representation of common equipment at a natural gas hydraulic fracturing drill pad. How is Shale Gas Produced? Shale gas formations are "unconventional" reservoirs - i.e., reservoirs of low "permeability." Permeability refers to the capacity of a porous, sediment, soil - or rock in this case - to transmit a fluid. This contrasts with a "conventional" gas reservoir produced from sands and carbonates (such as limestone). The bottom line is that in a conventional

  9. Proceedings of the international symposium on engineering in complex rock formations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This book contains over 100 papers. Some of the titles are: Rheology of rock-salt and its application for radioactive waste disposal purposes; A scale model study on the deformation around the drift in Korean inclined coal seam; Stabilization of a landslide in fractured marls and limestone; Dead Sea underground hydroelectric power station; and Rock mechanics in design of underground power house of lubuge hydropower project.

  10. Method for scavenging mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-ger; Liu, Shou-heng; Liu, Zhao-rong; Yan, Naiqiang

    2010-07-13

    Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

  11. Slide 1

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Center Hill Dam Safety Rehabilitation Status Update - Team Cumberland 6 April 2016 Linda H. Adcock Project Manager Nashville District BUILDING STRONG ® Rehabilitation Project Scope Main Embankment & Left Rim Grouting and Barrier Wall Legend Grouting FY08-11 Barrier Wall FY12-15 RCC Berm FY16-19 Saddle Dam RCC Berm BUILDING STRONG ® Alluvial Soils Grout Curtain and Barrier Wall Grout Curtains Concrete Barrier Wall Lake Limestone Foundation BUILDING STRONG ® Grouting and Barrier Wall

  12. DE-SC0004118 (Wong & Lindquist). Final Report: Changes of Porosity, Permeability and Mechanical Strength Induced by Carbon Dioxide Sequestration.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WONG, TENG-FONG; Lindquist, Brent

    2014-09-22

    In the context of CO{sub 2} sequestration, the overall objective of this project is to conduct a systematic investigation of how the flow of the acidic, CO{sub 2} saturated, single phase component of the injected/sequestered fluid changes the microstructure, permeability and strength of sedimentary rocks, specifically limestone and sandstone samples. Hydromechanical experiments, microstructural observations and theoretical modeling on multiple scales were conducted.

  13. NATURAL GAS FROM SHALE: Questions and Answers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Representation of common equipment at a natural gas hydraulic fracturing drill pad. How is Shale Gas Produced? Shale gas formations are "unconventional" reservoirs - i.e., reservoirs of low "permeability." Permeability refers to the capacity of a porous, sediment, soil - or rock in this case - to transmit a fluid. This contrasts with a "conventional" gas reservoir produced from sands and carbonates (such as limestone). The bottom line is that in a conventional

  14. Method for scavenging mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-ger; Liu, Shou-heng; Liu, Zhao-rong; Yan, Naiqiang

    2009-01-20

    Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting of flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

  15. Method for scavenging mercury

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Liu, Shou-Heng; Liu, Zhao-Rong; Yan, Naiqiang

    2011-08-30

    Disclosed herein is a method for removing mercury from a gas stream comprising contacting the gas stream with a getter composition comprising bromine, bromochloride, sulphur bromide, sulphur dichloride or sulphur monochloride and mixtures thereof. In one preferred embodiment the getter composition is adsorbed onto a sorbent. The sorbent may be selected from the group consisting of flyash, limestone, lime, calcium sulphate, calcium sulfite, activated carbon, charcoal, silicate, alumina and mixtures thereof. Preferred is flyash, activated carbon and silica.

  16. Results of High Velocity Tests at Tampa Electric Company`s Big Bend 4 FGD System.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeKraker, D.P.

    1997-10-15

    Test were conducted at the Big Bend Station to determine the feasibility of scrubbing gas from an additional boiler in the existing FGD system. Testing was accomplished by increasing the gas flow from the D absorber tower and measuring the performance of this module. Key performance aspects evaluated during the testing include mist eliminator performance, SO2 removal efficiency, oxidation of absorbed SO2, and limestone utilization.

  17. Preliminary results of Tc-99m Sulfur Colloid (SC) and glucoheptonate (GHP) surveillance of renal allografts (AG) on cyclosporin a (CSA) maintenance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George, F.A.; Brown, W.W.; Malone, J.D.; Naidu, R.; Carney, K.; Garvin, P.J.

    1985-05-01

    The potential nephro-toxicity of CSA complicates the therapeutic management of AG with unexplained reduced function. Seven living related donor (LRD) and 23 cadaver (C) AG maintained, at least initially, on CSA and low dose prednisone and functioning for at least 2 months were studied during a 10 month period; mean serum creatinine (Scr) was 1.5 mg/dl for LRD and 2.35 mg/dl for C AG recipients. A total of 12 biopsies were performed in 10 recipients (2 LRD, 10 C AG) for unexplained SCr levels above 3.0 mg/dl. SC-GHP surveillance was carried out in each recipient between 4 and 15 times. SC exam was analyzed by temporal quantitation (as previously reported) and GHP exam was evaluated visually for AG perfusion, uptake and excretion of GHP. Biopsies were examined with H and E and immunofluorescent staining. Results were compared to therapeutic outcome, subsequent biopsy or AG nephrectomy. In summary, the comparison of SC-GHP exam and biopsy diagnosis in 12 instances for the differential diagnosis of CSA toxicity versus AR demonstrated correct assessment by the SC-GHP exam 12/12. AG biopsy diagnosis was correct in 8/12 instances.

  18. Ion acoustic solitons in Earth's upward current region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Main, D. S.; Scholz, C.; Newman, D. L.; Ergun, R. E.

    2012-07-15

    The formation and evolution of ion acoustic solitons in Earth's auroral upward current region are studied using one- and two-dimensional (2D) electrostatic particle-in-cell simulations. The one-dimensional simulations are confined to processes that occur in the auroral cavity and include four plasma populations: hot electrons, H{sup +} and O{sup +} anti-earthward ion beams, and a hot H{sup +} background population. Ion acoustic solitons are found to form for auroral-cavity ion beams consistent with acceleration through double-layer (DL) potentials measured by FAST. A simplified one-dimensional model simulation is then presented in order to isolate the mechanisms that lead to the formation of the ion acoustic soliton. Results of a two-dimensional simulation, which include both the ionosphere and the auroral cavity, separated by a low-altitude DL, are then presented in order to confirm that the soliton forms in a more realistic 2D geometry. The 2D simulation is initialized with a U-shaped potential structure that mimics the inferred shape of the low altitude transition region based on observations. In this simulation, a soliton localized perpendicular to the geomagnetic field is observed to form and reside next to the DL. Finally, the 2D simulation results are compared with FAST data and it is found that certain aspects of the data can be explained by assuming the presence of an ion acoustic soliton.

  19. Rivesville multicell fluidized bed boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    One objective of the experimental MFB at Rivesville, WV, was the evaluation of alternate feed systems for injecting coal and limestone into a fluidized bed. A continuous, uniform feed flow to the fluid bed is essential in order to maintain stable operations. The feed system originally installed on the MFB was a gravity feed system with an air assist to help overcome the back pressure created by the fluid bed. The system contained belt, vibrating, and rotary feeders which have been proven adequate in other material handling applications. This system, while usable, had several operational and feeding problems during the MFB testing. A major portion of these problems occurred because the coal and limestone feed control points - a belt feeder and rotary feeder, respectively - were pressurized in the air assist system. These control points were not designed for pressurized service. An alternate feed system which could accept feed from the two control points, split the feed into six equal parts and eliminate the problems of the pressurized system was sought. An alternate feed system designed and built by the Fuller Company was installed and tested at the Rivesville facility. Fuller feed systems were installed on the north and south side of C cell at the Rivesville facility. The systems were designed to handle 10,000 lb/hr of coal and limestone apiece. The systems were installed in late 1979 and evaluated from December 1979 to December 1980. During this time period, nearly 1000 h of operating time was accumulated on each system.

  20. Conodont biostratigraphy and biofacies of the Lisburne Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, A.G.; Krumhardt, A.P.; Watts, K.F.

    1995-05-01

    Conodont data from the Lisburne Group are presented in three parts. Part 1 summarizes the thesis work of Andrea P. Krumhardt on the conodont biostratigraphy and biofacies of the Wahoo Limestone in the eastern Sadlerochit Mountains. This is virtually the same report as Krumhardt and others. A more detailed report on the Wahoo Limestone is in the final stages of preparation as a US Geological Survey Professional Paper. The major results of this study include the precise determination of the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian boundary within the lower member of the Wahoo Limestone and establishment of a conodont biostratigraphy for the Pennsylvanian part of the Wahoo that is applicable to northern Alaska. Conodont biofacies are related to depositional environments and compared with carbonate microfacies analyses; both indicate high-energy, chiefly normal-marine conditions in the northern part ANWR. Part 2 describes the conodont zonation used for the middle Carboniferous in northern Alaska and the criteria used for assigning ages. A series of chronostratigraphic diagrams illustrates age variations and correlation of the Lisburne Group in ANWR, at two localities in the central Brooks Range, and in wells in the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska. Part 3 includes a map showing conodont color alteration indices. Variations in the thermal history of different parts of ANWR are related to the tectonics of the northeastern Brooks Range.

  1. Regional stratigraphic framework of the Lisburne Group of ANWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watts, K.F.; Carlson, R.C.; Harris, A.G.

    1995-05-01

    The Carboniferous Lisburne Group, a major carbonate platform succession, is widely exposed in the Brooks Range and forms an extensive hydrocarbon target in the subsurface of the North Slope of Alaska. Gradationally beneath carbonates of the Lisburne Group, terrigenous sediments of the Mississippian Endicott Group (conglomerate and sandstone of the Kekiktuk Formation overlain by the Kayak Shale) were derived from local and northern (Ellesmerian) source areas. Locally, at the Endicott-Lisburne transition, sandy limestones of the Itkilyariak Formation record another phase of siliciclastic influx that lies above and/or is a lateral equivalent of the Kayak Shale and Lisburne Group in areas adjacent to paleotopographic highs. This siliciclastic to carbonate transition represents a major transgressive succession that onlaps northward over the sub-Mississippian unconformity, a regional angular unconformity and sequence boundary in northern Alaska. The age and nature of onlap depend upon the paleotopography of the underlying sub-Mississippian rocks and regional passive margin subsidence. The Lisburne Group is a thick succession of carbonate rocks subdivided into the Alapah Limestone and overlying Wahoo Limestone, both having informal members.

  2. Soro West: A non-seismically defined, fault cut-off prospect in the Papuan Fold and Thrust Belt, Papua New Guinea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, W.F. ); Swift, C.M. Jr. )

    1996-01-01

    Soro West is a fault cut-off prospect located in the frontal portion of the Papuan Fold and Thrust Belt. Prospective Toro and Imburu sandstones are interpreted to be in the hanging wall of the Soro Thrust. Truncation against the thrust, both updip and through lateral ramps, provides the trapping mechanism. The Soro West Prospect was defined using geological, geochemical, remote sensing, and geophysical data. The definition and location of the trap is a primary risk and work was focused on this aspect. Surface geological data (lithology, strikes, and dips) topography and synthetic aperture radar imagery were incorporated into the evaluation. Statistical curvature analysis techniques helped define the shape of the structure and the locations of the lateral ramps. Strontium isotope analyses of Darai Limestone surface samples refined erosional levels using a locally-derived reference curve. Severe karst precludes the acquisition of coherent surface seismic data, so the primary geophysical tool used was magnetotellurics (MT). A detailed, pre-survey feasibility study defined expected responses from alternative structural models. The MT data demonstrated that the limestone at surface is underlain by thick conductive clastics and not another Darai Limestone sheet. The data also constrained the range of fault cut-off positions significantly. Multiple, three-dimensionally consistent, restorable alternative structural models were created using results from all analyses. These led to a positive assessment of the prospect and an exploratory test is to be drilled in 1996.

  3. Soro West: A non-seismically defined, fault cut-off prospect in the Papuan Fold and Thrust Belt, Papua New Guinea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, W.F.; Swift, C.M. Jr.

    1996-12-31

    Soro West is a fault cut-off prospect located in the frontal portion of the Papuan Fold and Thrust Belt. Prospective Toro and Imburu sandstones are interpreted to be in the hanging wall of the Soro Thrust. Truncation against the thrust, both updip and through lateral ramps, provides the trapping mechanism. The Soro West Prospect was defined using geological, geochemical, remote sensing, and geophysical data. The definition and location of the trap is a primary risk and work was focused on this aspect. Surface geological data (lithology, strikes, and dips) topography and synthetic aperture radar imagery were incorporated into the evaluation. Statistical curvature analysis techniques helped define the shape of the structure and the locations of the lateral ramps. Strontium isotope analyses of Darai Limestone surface samples refined erosional levels using a locally-derived reference curve. Severe karst precludes the acquisition of coherent surface seismic data, so the primary geophysical tool used was magnetotellurics (MT). A detailed, pre-survey feasibility study defined expected responses from alternative structural models. The MT data demonstrated that the limestone at surface is underlain by thick conductive clastics and not another Darai Limestone sheet. The data also constrained the range of fault cut-off positions significantly. Multiple, three-dimensionally consistent, restorable alternative structural models were created using results from all analyses. These led to a positive assessment of the prospect and an exploratory test is to be drilled in 1996.

  4. Did the Mississippian Lodgepole buildup at Dickinson Field (North Dakota) form as a gas seep ({open_quotes}vent{close_quotes}) community?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Longman, M.W.

    1996-10-01

    The Lower Mississippian Lodgepole carbonate buildup reservoir at Dickinson Field in Stark County, North Dakota, has been widely reported as being a Waulsortian (or Waulsortian-like) mound. The term {open_quotes}Waulsortian mound{close_quotes} is used for a variety of Early Mississippian carbonate buildups that share a number of features including an abundance of carbonate mud, a {open_quotes}framework{close_quotes} of organisms such as fenestrate bryozoans and crinoids that tended to trap or baffle sediment, and a general absence of marine-cemented reef framework. Although the age of the Lodgepole mound at Dickinson Field qualifies it to be a Waulsortian mound, petrographic study of cores reveals that the reservoir rocks are quite unlike those in true Waulsortian mounds. Instead of being dominated by carbonate mud, the Lodgepole mound core is dominated by marine cement. Furthermore, ostracods and microbial limestones are common in the mound core where they occur with crinoid debris and small amounts of bryozoan, coral, and brachiopod debris. The abundant microbial limestones and marine cement indicate that the Dickinson mound formed as a lithified reef on the sea floor rather than as a Waulsortian mud mound. The microbial limestones, marine cement, and common ostracods in the mount core, and the fact that the mound nucleated almost directly o top of the Bakken Shale, suggest that the Dickinson Lodgepole mound formed at the site of a submarine spring and gas seep.

  5. Organic geochemical evaluations of bituminous rock and coals in Miocene Himmetoglu basin (Bolu, Turkey)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sari, A.; Geze, Y.

    2008-07-01

    The studied area is a lake basin located in Bolu basin in Turkey. In the basin, from Upper Cretaceous to Upper Miocene 3,000-m thickness sediments were deposited. Upper Miocene Himmetoglu formation consisted of sandstone, claystone, and marl. To the middle level of the formation are located coal, bituminous limestone, and bituminous shales. In the basin, there are two coal beds whose thicknesses range from 1 to 13 m. The coals are easily breakable and black in color. In the coal beds exists some bituminous limestone and bituminous shales, and their thicknesses are between 5 and 45 cm. The amount of organic matter of the bituminous rocks from the Upper Miocene Himmetoglu formation are between 6.83 and 56.34 wt%, and the amount of organic matter of the bituminous limestone from the formation are between 13.58 and 57.16 wt%. These values indicate that these rocks have very good source potential. According to hydrogen index (HI), S2/S3, HI-T{sub max}, and HI-OI (oxygen index) parameters, kerogen types of the bituminous rocks and coals belonging to Upper Miocene Himmetoglu formation are Type I, Type II, and Type III. In accordance with HI, S2/S3, HI-T{sub max}, and HI-OI parameters, the bituminous rocks and coals from the Upper Miocene Himmetoglu formation are mostly immature.

  6. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products. Fourth year, first quarterly technical progress report, September 1, 1996--December 31, 1996 (Quarter No. 13)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

    1996-12-01

    To reduce their sulfur emissions, many coal-fired electric power plants use wet flue-gas scrubbers. These scrubbers convert sulfur oxides into solid sulfate and sulfite sludge, which must then be disposed of. This sludge is a result of reacting limestone with sulfur dioxide to precipitate calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate. It consists of calcium sulfite (CaSO{sub 3}{circ}0.5H{sub 2}O), gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{circ}2H{sub 2}O), and unreacted limestone (CaCO{sub 3}) or lime (Ca(OH)2), with miscellaneous objectionable impurities such as iron oxides, silicates, and magnesium, sodium, and potassium oxides or salts. These impurities prevent many sludges from being utilized as a replacement for natural gypsum, and as a result they must be disposed of in landfills, which presents a serious disposal problem. Knowledge of scrubber sludge characteristics is necessary for the development of purification technologies which will make it possible to directly utilize scrubber sludges rather than landfilling them. This project is studying the use of minimal-reagent froth flotation as the purification process, using the surface properties of the particles of unreacted limestone to remove them and their associated impurities from the material, leaving a purified calcium sulfite/gypsum product.

  7. Laboratory-scale sodium-carbonate aggregate concrete interactions. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Westrich, H.R.; Stockman, H.W.; Suo-Anttila, A.

    1983-09-01

    A series of laboratory-scale experiments was made at 600/sup 0/C to identify the important heat-producing chemical reactions between sodium and carbonate aggregate concretes. Reactions between sodium and carbonate aggregate were found to be responsible for the bulk of heat production in sodium-concrete tests. Exothermic reactions were initiated at 580+-30/sup 0/C for limestone and dolostone aggregates as well as for hydrated limestone concrete, and at 540+-10/sup 0/C for dehydrated limestone concrete, but were ill-defined for dolostone concrete. Major reaction products included CaO, MgO, Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, Na/sub 2/O, NaOH, and elemental carbon. Sodium hydroxide, which forms when water is released from cement phases, causes slow erosion of the concrete with little heat production. The time-temperature profiles of these experiments have been modeled with a simplified version of the SLAM computer code, which has allowed derivation of chemical reaction rate coefficients.

  8. Geohydrologic study of the Michigan Basin for the applicability of Jack W. McIntyre`s patented process for simultaneous gas recovery and water disposal in production wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maryn, S.

    1994-03-01

    Geraghty & Miller, Inc. of Midland, Texas conducted a geohydrologic study of the Michigan Basin to evaluate the applicability of Jack McIntyre`s patented process for gas recovery and water disposal in production wells. A review of available publications was conducted to identify, (1) natural gas reservoirs which generate large quantities of gas and water, and (2) underground injection zones for produced water. Research efforts were focused on unconventional natural gas formations. The Antrim Shale is a Devonian gas shale which produces gas and large quantities of water. Total 1992 production from 2,626 wells was 74,209,916 Mcf of gas and 25,795,334 bbl of water. The Middle Devonian Dundee Limestone is a major injection zone for produced water. ``Waterless completion`` wells have been completed in the Antrim Shale for gas recovery and in the Dundee Limestone for water disposal. Jack McIntyre`s patented process has potential application for the recovery of gas from the Antrim Shale and simultaneous injection of produced water into the Dundee Limestone.

  9. Predicting susceptibility of alloy 600 to intergranular stress corrosion cracking using a modified electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahn, M.K.; Kwon, H.S.; Lee, J.H.

    1995-06-01

    Modified double-loop electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (DL-EPR) tests were applied to evaluate the degree of sensitization (DOS) for alloy 600 aged at 700 C. Results of the modified DL-EPR test were compared to intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC) susceptibilities determined in deaerated 0.01 M sodium tetrathionate under deformation at a constant strain rate of 0.93 {times} 10{sup {minus}6}/s. By analyzing the effects of solution concentration, temperature, and scan rate on the electrochemical response in the EPR tests and the morphologies, the optimal modified DL-EPR test condition for alloy 600 was obtained in 0.01 M sulfuric acid + 10 ppm potassium thiocyanate at 25 C and at a scan rate of 0.5 mV/s. The standard DL-EPR test, performed under conditions of 0.5 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} + 0.01 M KCNS at 30 C and a scan rate of 1.67 mV/s, provided very poor discriminating power for various DOS of alloy 600 because general and pitting corrosion occurred, in addition to intergranular corrosion. The modified test, however, was highly discriminating because of its highly selective corrosion attack at grain boundaries. IGSCC occurred in samples of alloy 600 aged for < 20 h, and susceptibility to IGSCC{sub s} increased with decreasing aging times up to 1 h, showing maximum IGSCC{sub s} in the sample aged for 1 h. IGSCC{sub s} for the alloy was found to be associated closely with the chromium-depleted profile across grain boundaries. The deeper and narrower chromium-depleted zone produced greater IGSCC{sub s}. It was demonstrated that DOS measured by the modified DL-EPR test was correlated more closely with IGSCC{sub s} than was DOS measured by the standard EPR test. This correlation resulted from the fact that the modified EPR test selectively attacked the more deeply chromium-depleted regions in comparison to the standard EPR test.

  10. Porosity reduction in Monterey Formation, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Compton, J.S.

    1987-05-01

    Porosity and grain density were determined for different lithologies from throughout a 1.2-km thick section of the Monterey and Sisquoc formations in the Santa Maria basin area, California. Porosity reduction by physical and chemical compaction in the predominantly siliceous sediment is controlled largely by the bulk sediment composition and silica phase transformations. Physical compaction of sediment grains from increasing overburden pressure is responsible for most of the gradual porosity reduction with increasing burial depth in opal-A siliceous ooze and diatomite. The porous, incompressible diatom frustule maintains a high porosity relative to clayey and calcareous sediment. Therefore, a positive correlation exists between porosity and biogenic silica (diatom) content of the sediment. During the opal-A to opal-CT silica phase transformation, solution of the porous diatom frustule and precipitation of cryptocrystalline opal-CT results in a porosity reduction that roughly correlates with the biogenic silica content of the sediment. Local porosity reduction occurs in pore-filling dolomite and chert nodules. Dry bulk density as well as porosity reduction tend to increase with sediment depth. Dolomite and organic matter have the most significant influence on the bulk density because of their respective high and low density. The maximum burial depth of the uplifted and eroded section is estimated by overlapping the porosity-depth relation of average deep-sea siliceous ooze.

  11. Maquoketa paleotopography key to reservoirs in western Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitaker, S.T.; Ledbetter, J.C.

    1996-08-12

    Shallow Silurian reservoirs in western Illinois have been a primary target for exploration since the late 1950s. It was not until the discovery and development of Buckhorn Consolidated field in the early 1980s, however, that significant drilling efforts for Silurian reservoirs were focused on western Illinois. At Buckhorn, 1.7 million bbl of oil have been produced from a basal Silurian dolomite at about 650 ft. Drawn by inexpensive drilling and available acreage, hundreds of operators flocked to western Illinois to try their luck. By the late 1980s, however, exploration efforts in western Illinois were curtailed due to the failure to locate additional significant reservoirs. Much of this failure was due to the lack of a suitable geologic model that could be used to explain the reason for reservoir development and thereby guide exploration efforts. An article by Whitaker and Howard in 1995 presented a geologic model explaining Silurian reservoir development and stratigraphic entrapment of oil at Buckhorn Consolidated field were formed as Silurian dolomite in-filled a shallow paleovalley cut into the underlying Ordovician Maquoketa shale. Some companies have recently initiated new exploration efforts in the area using this model. This paper discusses the efforts and results of several of these new areas.

  12. The Bakken-An Unconventional Petroleum and Reservoir System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarg, Frederick

    2012-03-01

    An integrated geologic and geophysical study of the Bakken Petroleum System, in the Williston basin of North Dakota and Montana indicates that: (1) dolomite is needed for good reservoir performance in the Middle Bakken; (2) regional and local fractures play a significant role in enhancing permeability and well production, and it is important to recognize both because local fractures will dominate in on-structure locations; and (3) the organic-rich Bakken shale serves as both a source and reservoir rock. Results from the lithofacies, mineral, and fracture analyses of this study were used to construct a dual porosity Petrel geo-model for a portion of the Elm Coulee Field. In this field, dolomitization enhances reservoir porosity and permeability. First year cumulative production helps locate areas of high well productivity and in deriving fracture swarm distribution. A fracture model was developed based on high productivity well distribution, and regional fracture distribution, and was combined with favorable matrix properties to build a dual porosity geo-model.

  13. Extent of water-rock interactions in Lower Permian Wolfcamp carbonates, Palo Duro Basin, Texas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, R.S.; Posey, H.H.

    1985-01-01

    A laterally-extensive permeable zone in upper Wolfcampian carbonate strata constitutes the first important transmissive unit below a thick evaporite sequence that is being considered for nuclear waste isolation. The extent of water-rock interaction was evaluated by comparing the chemical and isotopic composition of formation water and core collected at four DOE test wells. Wolfcamp mineralogy is dominantly calcite and dolomite with minor anhydrite at each of the four sites despite minor variations in depositional environment, diagenetic alteration, and abundance of clastic material. Isotopic compositions of calcite and dolomite and of anhydrite are within the ranges expected for Permian marine sediments altered by early diagenesis. Wolfcamp formation water compositions are more variable than host rock compositions, and are not completely controlled by local water-rock equilibria. Wolfcamp brines from two wells in the western part of the basin have depleted isotopic compositions relative to the two eastern wells and have not equilibrated with Wolfcamp carbonates, whereas the eastern fluids have. Strontium in the western samples is more radiogenic than that of the eastern samples, indicating a greater influence of clays or feldspars on the western fluids. Comparison of water and rock compositions suggests: (1) the western brines have interacted less with the carbonate host than the eastern brines due to shorter residence times or greater water: rock ratios, and (2) the minerals encountered along flow paths prior to entering the Wolfcamp are different for the western and eastern Wolfcamp brines.

  14. Dessicant materials screening for backfill in a salt repository

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, D.R.

    1980-10-01

    Maintaining an anhydrous environment around nuclear waste stored in a salt repository is a concern which can be alleviated by using a desiccant material for backfilling. Such a desiccant should desiccate a brine yet be non deliquescent, the hydrated product should have moderate thermal stability, and the desiccant should have a high capacity and be readily available. From a literature search MgO and CaO were identified for detailed study. These oxides, and an intimate mixture of the two obtained by calcining dolomite, were used in experiments to further determine their suitability. They proved to be excellent desiccants with a high water capacity. The hydrates of both have moderate thermal stability and a high water content. Both MgO and CaO react in an alkaline chloride brine forming oxychloride compounds with different waters of crystallization. Some of these compounds are the Sorel Cements. CaO hydrates to Ca(OH)/sub 2/ which carbonates with CO/sub 2/ in air to form CaCO/sub 3/ and release the hydrated water. Thus the intimate mixture of CaO and MgO from calcined dolomite may serve as a desiccant and remove CO/sub 2/ from the repository atmosphere.

  15. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-27

    The confined zone dispersion (CZD) process involves flue gas post-treatment, physically located between a boiler's outlet and its particulate collector, which in the majority of cases is an electrostatic precipitator. The features that distinguish this process from other similar injection processes are: Injection of an alkaline slurry directly into the duct, instead of injection of dry solids into the duct ahead of a fabric filter. Use of an ultrafine calcium/magnesium hydroxide, type S pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime. This commercial product is made from plentiful, naturally occurring dolomite. Low residence time, made possible by the high effective surface area of the Type S lime. Localized dispersion of the reagent. Slurry droplets contact only part of the gas while the droplets are drying, to remove up to 50 percent of the S0{sub 2} and significant amounts of NO{sub x}. The process uses dual fluid rather than rotary atomizers. Improved electrostatic precipitator performance via gas conditioning from the increased water vapor content, and lower temperatures. Supplemental conditioning with S0{sub 3} is not believed necessary for satisfactory removal of particulate matter.

  16. Confined zone dispersion flue gas desulfurization demonstration. Volume 1, Quarterly report No. 4, August 1, 1991--October 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-02-27

    The confined zone dispersion (CZD) process involves flue gas post-treatment, physically located between a boiler`s outlet and its particulate collector, which in the majority of cases is an electrostatic precipitator. The features that distinguish this process from other similar injection processes are: Injection of an alkaline slurry directly into the duct, instead of injection of dry solids into the duct ahead of a fabric filter. Use of an ultrafine calcium/magnesium hydroxide, type S pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime. This commercial product is made from plentiful, naturally occurring dolomite. Low residence time, made possible by the high effective surface area of the Type S lime. Localized dispersion of the reagent. Slurry droplets contact only part of the gas while the droplets are drying, to remove up to 50 percent of the S0{sub 2} and significant amounts of NO{sub x}. The process uses dual fluid rather than rotary atomizers. Improved electrostatic precipitator performance via gas conditioning from the increased water vapor content, and lower temperatures. Supplemental conditioning with S0{sub 3} is not believed necessary for satisfactory removal of particulate matter.

  17. Basic data report for drilling and hydrologic testing of drillhole DOE-2 at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIIP) site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mercer, J.W.; Beauheim, R.L.; Snyder, R.P.; Fairer, G.M.

    1987-04-01

    Drillhole DOE-2 was drilled to investigate a structural depression marked by the downward displacement of stratigraphic markers in the Salado Formation. Contrary to several hypotheses, halite layers were thicker in the lower part of the Salado, not thinner as a result of any removal of halite. The upper Castile anhydrite in Drillhole DOE-2 is anomalously thick and is strongly deformed relative to the anhydrite in adjacent drillholes. In contrast, the halite was <8 ft thick and significantly thinner than usually encountered. The lower Castile anhydrite appears to be normal. The depression within the correlated marker beds in the Salado Formation in Drillhole DOE-2 is interpreted as a result of gravity-driven deformation of the underlying Castile Formation. Several stratigraphic units were hydrologically tested in Drillhole DOE-2. Testing of the unsaturated lower portion of the Dewey Lake Red Beds was unsuccessful because of exceptionally small rates of fluid intake. Drill-stem tests were conducted in five intervals in the Rustler Formation, over the Marker Bed 138-139 interval in the Salado formation, and over three sandstone members of the Bell Canyon Formation. A pumping test was conducted in the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation. Pressure-pulse tests were conducted over the entire Salado Formation. Fluid samples were collected from the Culebra Dolomite Member and from the Hays Member of the Bell Canyon Formation. 31 refs., 31 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Sauk structural elements and depositional response in Ohio and northern Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coogan, A.H.; Peng, Shengfeng (Kent State Univ., OH (United States). Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Three area structural elements were inherited from Precambrian events--the Rome Trough, Middle Run trough at the Grenville Line, and the Ohio platform on part of the more stable Grenville Province. They strongly influence the type of basal Sauk clastic and non-clastic deposits as documented from hundreds of wells in Ohio and adjacent northern Kentucky. These elements and the topography resulting from erosion during the Lipalian Interval most directly influence sedimentation during the onlap phase of the basal Sauk Sequence. Clastic wedge-base deposits are the Mt. Simon, Rome'', and Eau Claire formations. Deposition of the middle Cambrian Conasauga Shale coincides with the maximum marine onlap and wedge middle position. Upper Sauk Sequence deposition of the Knox Group carbonate rocks (Cooper Ridge Dolomite, Beekmantown Dolomite) and their interbedded clastic units (Steam Corners and Rose Run formations) represents the shallowing upward, pulsating clastic depositional events which anticipate the differential uplift and erosion that occurred later during the Taconic Orogeny and Early Ordovician hiatus. New Taconic structural elements involve the uplift of the central Ohio platform on the western part of the Grenville Province along reactivated, pre-Grenville sutures identified by CoCorp seismic lines. Platform uplift exposes lower Knox rocks to erosion. Younger Knox rocks are preserved east of the fault line zone. The Appalachian Basin's western edge is marked at this time by the trend of the Rose Run and Beekmantown subcrop below the Knox Unconformity surface and by the edge of the high magnetic intensity basement.

  19. Analysis of solutes in groundwaters from the Rustler Formation at and near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, K.L.

    1997-09-01

    Between 1976 and 1986, groundwater samples from more than 60 locations in the vicinity of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site were collected and analyzed for a variety of major, minor, and trace solutes. Most of the samples were from the Rustler Formation (the Culebra Dolomite, the Magenta Dolomite, or the zone at the contact between the Rustler and underlying Salado Formations) or the Dewey Lake Red Beds. The analytical data from the laboratories are presented here with accompanying discussions of sample collection methods, supporting field measurements, and laboratory analytical methods. A comparison of four data sets and a preliminary evaluation of the data for the major solutes (Cl{sup {minus}}, SO{sub 4}{sup {minus}2}, Na, K, Ca, and Mg) shows that the data for samples analyzed by UNC/Bendix for SNL seem to be the most reliable, but that at some locations, samples representative of the native, unperturbed groundwater have not been collected. At other locations, the water chemistry has apparently changed between sampling episodes.

  20. Multiphase flow and multicomponent reactive transport model of the ventilation experiment in Opalinus clay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, L.; Samper, J.; Montenegro, L.; Major, J.C.

    2008-10-15

    During the construction and operational phases of a high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository constructed in a clay formation, ventilation of underground drifts will cause desaturation and oxidation of the rock. The Ventilation Experiment (VE) was performed in a 1.3 m diameter unlined horizontal microtunnel on Opalinus clay at Mont Terri underground research laboratory in Switzerland to evaluate the impact of desaturation on rock properties. A multiphase flow and reactive transport model of VE is presented here. The model accounts for liquid, vapor and air flow, evaporation/condensation and multicomponent reactive solute transport with kinetic dissolution of pyrite and siderite and local-equilibrium dissolution/precipitation of calcite, ferrihydrite, dolomite, gypsum and quartz. Model results reproduce measured vapor flow, liquid pressure and hydrochemical data and capture the trends of measured relative humidities, although such data are slightly overestimated near the rock interface due to uncertainties in the turbulence factor. Rock desaturation allows oxygen to diffuse into the rock and triggers pyrite oxidation, dissolution of calcite and siderite, precipitation of ferrihydrite, dolomite and gypsum and cation exchange. pH in the unsaturated rock varies from 7.8 to 8 and is buffered by calcite. Computed changes in the porosity and the permeability of Opalinus clay in the unsaturated zone caused by oxidation and mineral dissolution/precipitation are smaller than 5%. Therefore, rock properties are not expected to be affected significantly by ventilation of underground drifts during construction and operational phases of a HLW repository in clay.

  1. Yates field, west Texas: Geology of a Permian basin giant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heymans, M.J. ); Craig, D.H.

    1991-03-01

    Yates field, which produces oil largely from Late Permian San Andres dolomites, was discovered in 1926 and logged its billionth barrel in 1985. It is remarkable for the size of its original oil in place (four billion barrels estimated) and for its early ability to produce hundreds to thousands of barrels per hour from individual wells at depths of less than 2,000 ft. The high quality of the reservoir has been related to the following geologic characteristics: (1) a broad anticline with significant closure located at the apex of regional structure which formed a trap for large volumes of primary and secondary oil; (2) a vast integrated system of porosity (ranging from intergrain/intercrystal pores to joints, fractures, and small caves) that imparts high storage capacity and transmissivity to the reservoir dolomites; (3) a thick, efficient seal of anhydrite capping the reservoir sequence; and (4) high flowing pressures during much of the history of the field. The western area of the Yates field reservoir is dominated by peritidal to lagoonal mudstones and wackestones; the eastern area, by shallow subtidal packstones and grainstones. These depositional facies reflect both aggradation and eastward progradation of upper San Andres carbonates. Effective engineering management of the field has followed from a recognition of the quite different reservoir qualities in the two areas of the field and from adapting secondary and tertiary recovery techniques to constraints imposed by the geologic factors listed above.

  2. Depositional environments of Permian Phosphoria Formation and related rocks, Leach Mountains, northeast Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martindale, S.G. )

    1991-02-01

    In the Leach Mountains, northeastern Nevada, the Phosphoria Formation is represented by phosphatic rocks of the late Leonardian Meade Peak Phosphatic Shale Tongue. The Meade Peak is overlain by dolomitic siltstones and chert, including black bedded chert, of the upper Leonardian( ) to lower Guadalupian Murdock Mountain Formation. The black bedded chert is related to the Rex Chert Member of the Phosphoria Formation. There is little consensus regarding depositional environments of the Meade Peak. Also, little work has been presented on the origin of the black bedded cherts such as in the Murdock Mountain and Rex Chert. Locally, a shallow subtidal to perhaps partly intertidal depositional model for the Meade Peak is based upon characteristics of reworked phosphatic clasts, a crowded and mixed shallow-water fauna, oolite beds, and stratigraphic position between shallow subtidal to supratidal rocks. Supratidal deposition of dolomitic siltstones and units of black bedded chert in the Murdock Mountain is based largely on abundant cauliflower-shaped blebs of chalcedony with shapes resembling modern anhydrite nodules. Also, zebraic chalcedony in the black bedded chert is interpreted as a replacement product of evaporite deposits. The setting in this southwestern part of the depositional basin of the Phosphoria Formation, in the late Leonardian, during the deposition of the Meade Peak, is interpreted as a network of shallow to very shallow marine basins and intervening, perhaps periodically merged shoals. Subsequently, during the late Leonardian( ) to early Guadalupian, there was a marine regression and the supratidal environment of the Murdock Mountain Formation was established.

  3. Constraints on the diagenetic history of the Capitan shelf margin (Upper Permian) from magnetic and diagenetic studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darke, G. )

    1991-03-01

    Assemblages of magnetic minerals in sedimentary rocks are of depositional or diagenetic origin. Magnetic, diagenetic, and outcrop studies in rocks from the Capitan shelf margin (U. Permian), West Texas and New Mexico, show that the diagenetic history of these rocks was dominated by anhydrite cementation until uplift from Tertiary times onwards and that the magnetic minerals are of diagenetic origin. Diagenetic studies, including petrographic, cathodoluminescence and electron microprobe analysis, show that the diagenetic history can be divided into three main phases: (1) Pre-burial - cementation by calcium carbonate contemporary with deposition followed by anhydrite cementation and dolomitization. (2) Burial - continued cementation and replacement of some carbonate by anhydrite; accompanied by dolomitization. (3) uplift - minor calcitization of anhydrite accompanied by kaolinite formation. The mineralogy of magnetic particles and the age of remanence acquisition was deduced from thermal and alternating field demagnetization, despite the low magnetic mineral content of most samples. Pyrrhotite acquired remanence at around 190 Ma and from around 45 Ma to recent times. The formation of the oxides, hematite and geothite, from the oxidation of preexisting sulfides and by authigenic processes accompanied the dissolution of anhydrite and the precipitation of the calcite spar cements. These results shed new light on the diagenetic history of the Capitan shelf margin and illustrate the value of magnetic studies of sedimentary rocks when magnetic data are integrated with accompanying diagenetic studies.

  4. Dalhart's only Permian field gets best oil well

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-07-20

    This paper reports that activity is picking up in Proctor Ranch oil field in the northwestern Texas panhandle, the only Permian producing field in the lightly drilled Dalhart basin. During the last 2 1/2 months, the field has a new operator and a new producing well, the best of five drilled since discovery in 1990. Corlena Oil Co., Amarillo, acquired the field from McKinney Oil Co. in May and tested its first well in early July. The 1-64 Proctor, 18 miles west of Channing, pumped at rates as high as 178 bd of oil and 6 b/d of water from Permian Wolfcamp dolomite perforations at 4,016-29 ft. Corlena plans to drill another well south of the field soon. The lease requires that the next well be spudded by early November. The field appears to be combination structural-stratigraphic trap in which the dolomite pinches out against the Bravo Domes-Oldham nose to the west.

  5. Regeneration of FGD waste liquors: Production of ammonium and potassium sulfate mixed fertilizer. Quarterly technical report, October 1993--December 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randolph, A.D.

    1993-12-31

    In the 2nd quarterly report, we discussed the lime/limestone process which precipitates N-S containing compounds by adding lime/limestone in a narrow pH range, and which can be an alternative to the K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} process. In this report, we focused on investigations of the lime/limestone process. First, we established an overall flow diagram for the lime/limestone process. Based on the diagram, we performed preliminary experimental investigations to outline practical process conditions. Out major investigations concerned about effects of pH on precipitation of the N-S compounds and precipitation characteristics of N-S compounds in a continuous crystallization system. We also performed an experimental investigation to study crystallization characteristic of the ammonium sulfate in the hydrolysis liquor. In studying effects of pH, we performed batch precipitation of the N-S compounds in a broad range of pH and investigated the effects of pH on the amount of required lime, the amount of the precipitate, and the fraction of N-S compounds precipitated. The result revealed the optimum range for precipitation of N-S compounds to be pH = 7.6--8.6. In studying continuous crystallization characteristics of the N-S compounds, a bench scale 4-liter continuous crystallization system was built to compare a typical Mixed-Suspension-Mixed-Product-Removal (MSMPR) crystallizer and Double-Draw-Off (DDO) crystallizer. In a preliminary test, the DDO was shown to be superior by increasing the average size of the precipitated crystals of N-S compounds from 97 {mu}m to 142 {mu}m and thus enhancing the filterability. In order to obtain information for a practical design of the lime/limestone process, we also set up a material balance for a 300 MWe power plant facility. A preliminary calculation showed that a process on the scale could produce approximately 56 tons ammonium sulfate fertilizer per day.

  6. Separation of flue-gas scrubber sludge into marketable products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawatra, S.K.; Eisele, T.C.

    1997-08-31

    A tremendous amount of wet flue-gas desulfurization scrubber sludge (estimated 20 million metric tons per year in the US) is currently being landfilled at a huge cost to utility companies. Scrubber sludge is the solid precipitate produced during desulfurization of flue-gas from burning high sulfur coal. The amount of this sludge is expected to increase in the near future due to ever increasing governmental regulation concerning the amount of sulfur emissions. Scrubber sludge is a fine, grey colored powder that contains calcium sulfite hemihydrate (CaSO{sub 3} {center_dot} 1/2H{sub 2}), calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O), limestone (CaCO{sub 3}), silicates, and iron oxides. This material can continue to be landfilled at a steadily increasing cost, or an alternative for utilizing this material can be developed. This study explores the characteristics of a naturally oxidized wet flue-gas desulfurization scrubber sludge and uses these characteristics to develop alternatives for recycling this material. In order for scrubber sludge to be used as a feed material for various markets, it was necessary to process it to meet the specifications of these markets. A physical separation process was therefore needed to separate the components of this sludge into useful products at a low cost. There are several physical separation techniques available to separate fine particulates. These techniques can be divided into four major groups: magnetic separation, electrostatic separation, physico-chemical separation, and density-based separation. The properties of this material indicated that two methods of separation were feasible: water-only cycloning (density-based separation), and froth flotation (physico-chemical separation). These processes could be used either separately, or in combination. The goal of this study was to reduce the limestone impurity in this scrubber sludge from 5.6% by weight to below 2.0% by weight. The resulting clean calcium

  7. Numerical simulations used for a validity check on the laser induced photo-detachment diagnostic method in electronegative plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oudini, N.; Taccogna, F.; Aanesland, A.

    2014-06-15

    Laser photo-detachment is used as a method to measure or determine the negative ion density and temperature in electronegative plasmas. In essence, the method consists of producing an electropositive channel (negative ion free region) via pulsed laser photo-detachment within an electronegative plasma bulk. Electrostatic probes placed in this channel measure the change in the electron density. A second pulse might be used to track the negative ion recovery. From this, the negative ion density and temperature can be determined. We study the formation and relaxation of the electropositive channel via a two-dimensional Particle-In-Cell/Mote Carlo collision model. The simulation is mainly carried out in a Hydrogen plasma with an electronegativity of α = 1, with a parametric study for α up to 20. The temporal and spatial evolution of the plasma potential and the electron densities shows the formation of a double layer (DL) confining the photo-detached electrons within the electropositive channel. This DL evolves into two fronts that move in the opposite directions inside and outside of the laser spot region. As a consequence, within the laser spot region, the background and photo-detached electron energy distribution function relaxes/thermalizes via collisionless effects such as Fermi acceleration and Landau damping. Moreover, the simulations show that collisional effects and the DL electric field strength might play a non-negligible role in the negative ion recovery within the laser spot region, leading to a two-temperature negative ion distribution. The latter result might have important effects in the determination of the negative ion density and temperature from laser photo detachment diagnostic.

  8. Structure of Papuan foldbelt, emerging hydrocarbon province in Papua New Guinea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, K.C.

    1987-05-01

    The 500-km long, northwest-southeast-trending, Mio-Pliocene foldbelt of west-central Papua New Guinea is part of an extensive 2000-3000-m high mountain belt through New Guinea that is similar in structural style to the Canadian Rockies. The southwesterly thrust-faulted sediments of the foldbelt are bound to the northeast by major sinistral wrench faults, with allochthonous metamorphic terranes to the north. The sedimentary section comprises 3-4 km of Mesozoic clastics, containing the main hydrocarbon reservoir, overlain by 1-1.5 km of Tertiary limestone. The northeast two-thirds of the foldbelt has a Tertiary limestone duplex at surface and, by inference, Mesozoic duplex(es) beneath, with 70+ km of shortening. In the southwest foldbelt, there is considerable inversion of preexisting extensional faults and the limestone duplex is absent, implying deeper detachment. Shortening in the southwest was approximately 20 km. Along strike, the foldbelt is divided into three segments by major regional lateral ramps. These ramps connect areas with different basal detachments, particularly in the southwest. The northwest segment decollement is 10-12 km into basement along the mid-crustal detachment. The resultant 200-km long Mueller anticline exposes basement in the core and is prospective for hydrocarbons in the parasitic structures, such as the Juha gas-condensate field. The central segment prospective structures, such as the Mananda and Hides anticlines, are detached just above basement such that the entire sedimentary section is repeated. The southeast segment detachment is within the Mesozoic, but the structures, such as the Iagifu oil field, involve the sandstone reservoir and are prospective.

  9. Structure and time of deformation in the central Pancake Range, Nye County, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perry, W.J.; Grow, J.A. )

    1993-04-01

    In east-central Nevada, the Portuguese Mountain area of the central Pancake Range directly west of Railroad Valley contains mapped thrust' faults that form part of the basis of the central Nevada thrust-belt oil play. The authors have mapped and field checked the structure of this area to determine if thrust-style hydrocarbon traps are likely. In this region, previously mapped thrusts have been found to be (1) normal faults, dipping more than 60[degree], (2) landslide masses of both Oligocene igneous rocks and Paleozoic carbonate rocks, and (3) low-angle attenuation faults that omit rather than duplicate stratigraphic section. Locally, the first two types (mapped Portuguese Mountain thrust') involve Oligocene igneous rocks and are therefore younger. The third is represented by a low-angle detachment system northeast of Portuguese Mountain that was first differentially eroded and then overlapped by thin limestone-clast conglomerate and red clays (terra rosa) of the Sheep Pass( ) Formation and overlying volcanic rocks. The possible Sheep Pass correlation would imply that the detachment system is Paleogene or older. Farther north, near McClure Spring, a similar terra rosa and subjacent thin limestone-clast conglomerate sequence is underlain paraconformably by gray claystone containing dinosaur bone fragments, similar to the type Newark Canyon Formation (Cretaceous) to the north. Sheep Pass( ) terra rosa of the upper part of this sequence rest with profound unconformity (nearly 90[degree]) on mid-Pennsylvanian limestone of the east limb of the McClure Spring syncline, a major recumbent syncline cored by Permian to Triassic( ) synorogenic conglomerates. These rocks contain outcrop-scale synorogenic angular unconformities of as much as 15[degree] suggesting that folding began in Permian time. These preliminary results suggest that contractional deformation of the McClure Spring syncline may be pre-Sevier and possibly of Permian-Triassic age.

  10. AEC Lowman Station - coal switching and magnesium-enhanced lime scrubbing to lower operating costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Inkenhaus, W.; Babu, M.; Smith, K.; Loper, L.

    1997-12-31

    AEC`s Lowman Station is located in Leroy, Alabama. There are three coal-fired boilers at this station. Unit 1 is capable of generating 85 MW without a flue gas desulfurization, FGD, system. Units 2 and 3, with a total of 516 MW output capacity, are equipped with FGD systems. The FGD plant was designed for wet limestone FGD with natural oxidation. Lowman Station burned low sulfur, 1.3 to 1.8% sulfur, coal. In January of 1996 AEC switched Units 2 and 3 from limestone to magnesium-enhanced lime FGD operation. It was determined that the plant could take advantage of the higher SO{sub 2} removal efficiency of the magnesium-enhanced lime system. Major benefits resulting from this conversion were AEC`s ability to switch to a lower cost high sulfur coal while meeting the stringent SO{sub 2} emission requirements. Power cost savings resulted from the lower liquid to gas ratio required by the magnesium-enhanced lime process. Three recirculation pumps per module were reduced to a single operating pump per module, lowering the scrubber pressure drop. Significant cost reduction in the operating costs of the ball mill was realized due to modifications made to slake lime instead of grinding limestone. Prior to switching, personnel from AEC and Dravo Lime Company ran a four week test on magnesium-enhanced lime to obtain scrubber performance data including SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies on the modules while burning a 1.8% sulfur coal. This paper discusses the plant modifications that were needed to make the switch, cost justifications due to coal switching, and AEC`s operating experiences to date. AEC and Dravo Lime Company working together as a team conducted detailed cost studies, followed by extensive field tests and implemented the plant modifications. This plant continues to operate burning higher sulfur coal with the magnesium-enhanced lime FGD system.

  11. Flash hydropyrolysis of coal. Quarterly report No. 11, October 1-December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.; Bhatt, B.L.

    1980-02-01

    The following conclusions can be drawn from this work: (1) when the caking bituminous coals are used with diluents, only 20% Pittsburgh No. 8 coal can be added to the diluent swhile 40% Illinois No. 6 could be added due to the higher free swelling index of the Pittsburgh No. 8; (2) When limestone is used as a diluent, considerably more sulfur is retained in the char than when using sand; (3) when the char from an experiment using limestone is recycled as the diluent for another experiment, the char continually retains additional sulfur through at least three recycles; (4) decomposition of the limestone and reduction is indicated by the high concentrations of CO observed at 900/sup 0/C; (5) increasing the coal feed rate by a factor of 4 from 2.4 to 10.7 lb/hr at low H/sub 2//Coal ratios (approx. = 0.6) results in no appreciable change in gaseous HC yields (approx. = 27%) or concentration (approx. = 45%) but higher BTX yields (1.1% vs. 5.4%); (6) although only one experiment was conducted, it appears that hydrogasification of untreated New Mexico sub-bituminous coal at 950/sup 0/C does not give an increase in yield over hydrogasification at 900/sup 0/C; (7) the hydrogasification of Wyodak lignite gives approximately the same gaseous HC yields as that obtained from North Dakota lignite but higher BTX yields particularly at 900/sup 0/C and 1000 psi (9% vs. 2%); (8) treating New Mexico sub-bituminous coal with NaCO/sub 3/ does not increase its hydrogasification qualities between 600/sup 0/C and 900/sup 0/C at 1000 psi but does decrease the BTX yield.

  12. Pennsylvanian and Early Permian paleogeography of northwestern Colorado and northeastern Utah

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, S.Y. )

    1993-04-01

    Northwestern CO and northeastern UT include parts of four major sedimentary provinces active during the late Paleozoic ancestral Rocky Mountain orogeny: the Eagle basin (Eb), the northern Paradox basin (Pb), the southern Wyoming shelf (Ws), and the southeastern Oquirrh basin (Ob). Depositional patterns in these provinces were controlled by eustatic and climatic fluctuations, tectonism, and sediment supply. In general, regressive deposits consist of fluvial, deltaic, and eolian sandstone, and transgressive deposits consist of marine limestone and clastic rocks. Morrowan and lower Atokan strata in most of the region consist of fine-grained clastic rock and more abundant limestone. Significant Morrowan and early Atokan highlands include the Front Range and Sawatch uplifts; the Uncompahgre uplift began its rapid rise in the late Atokan to Desmoinesian. Late Atokan to Desmoinesian tectonic activity resulted in restricted circulation and low clastic sediment supply to the central Eb and Pb, leading to evaporite deposition during regression. During the Missourian and Virgilian, clastic sediments prograded into the central Eb and northern Pb, ending evaporite deposition. During regressions, fluvial and eolian deposition dominated in the Eb, and sabkha and (or) shallow marine-deposition dominated in the northern Pb. The Ws continued to serve as a throughway for clastic sediment moving to the deepening Ob. Deposition of limestone during transgressions was limited to the western part of the study region and a small area in the eastern Eb. Regionally, the rates and magnitude of subsidence were greatest in the Ob, intermediate and very similar in the Eb and northern Pb, and lowest in the Ws. In all four sedimentary provinces, rates of subsidence were lowest in the Early Pennsylvania, highest in the Middle Pennsylvanian, and intermediate in the Late Pennsylvanian and Early Permian.

  13. Mild gasification technology development process: Task 3, Bench-scale char upgrading study, February 1988--November 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carty, R.H.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Knight, R.A.; Wootten, J.M.; Duthie, R.G.

    1990-12-01

    The overall objective of this program is to develop mild gasification technology and co-product utilization. The objective of Task 3 was to investigate the necessary steps for upgrading the mild gasification char into potential high-market-value solid products. Recommendations of the Task 1 market survey section formed the basis for selecting three value-added solid products from mild gasification char: form coke, smokeless fuel, and activated adsorbent char. The formation and testing for the form coke co-product involved an evaluation of its briquette strength and reactivity. The measured tensile strength and reactivity of the form coke sample briquettes were in the range of commercial coke, and development tests on a larger scale are recommended. The reaction rate of the form coke carbon with carbon dioxide at 1825{degree}F was measured using a standard procedure. A smokeless fuel briquette with limestone added to control sulfur can be made from mild gasification char in a simple manner. Test results have shown that briquettes with limestone have a heating value comparable to other solid fuels and the limestone can retain up to 88% of the sulfur during combustion in a simple bench-scale combustion test, almost all of it as a stable calcium sulfate. Adsorbent chars were prepared with a standard steam activation procedure and tested for a variety of pertinent property and performance values. Such adsorbents may be better suited for use in some areas, such as the adsorption of low-molecular-weight substances, because of the smaller pore sizes measured in the char. 5 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  14. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Validating Single Column Models with ARM Data Submitter: Somerville, R. C., Scripps Institution of Oceanography Area of Research: General Circulation and Single Column Models/Parameterizations Working Group(s): Cloud Modeling Journal Reference: Iacobellis, S.F., McFarquhar, G.M., Mitchell, D.L., and Somerville, R.C.J., 2003: "The Sensitivity of Radiative Fluxes to Parameterized Cloud Microphysics," J. Climate 16(18): 2979-2996. Scientists validated the results of both models by

  15. Research Highlight

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Icy Business of Calculating Cirrus Clouds Submitter: Somerville, R. C., Scripps Institution of Oceanography Area of Research: General Circulation and Single Column Models/Parameterizations Working Group(s): Cloud Modeling Journal Reference: McFarquhar, G.M., S. Iacobellis, and R.C.J. Somerville, 2003: "SCM simulations of tropical ice clouds using observationally based parameterizations of microphysics," J. Climate 16(11):1643-1664. Iacobellis, S.F., G.M. McFarquhar, D.L. Mitchell, and

  16. Revised for pdf of instruments 8.5x11 (2)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RWP KA/WSACR KAZR MPL MWRHF SASHE AERI SWS CSPHOT VCEIL MWR3C MWR TSI RSS PWD 10IRT 10MFR SWATS EBBR ORG DISDROMETER VDIS WBRG SUOMINET BRS-BSRN NIMFR MFRN1 SIRS MFR USDA ARRAY SIRS TEST BED RAIN MET 10 METER TB TOWER 10 METER TOWER DL N W E S A R M S G P 60 METER TOWER (TWR) PGS RAMAN LIDAR AOS ACSM,APS,CCN,CLAP, CPC,NEPHELOMETER, PASS3,PSAP,TDMA. ECOR OPTICAL CLUSTER CCB OCO GIF OPTICAL TRAILER RCF ERL CULTIVATED GROUND SONDE CO2FLX,IRT, MFR,UIR. THWAPS IRT WACR CENTRAL CLUSTER SCALE

  17. GNU Bug Reports

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    GLADY CASSIT Y VANDALIA MURPHY CR EEK BU CKHN-CENT URY CLAY GLENVILLE N MINNORA JARVISVILLE FAR MINGTON PH ILIPPI BELIN GT ON WAYN ESBUR G PR UNT Y GLENVILLE S CAVE RUN TAYLOR DRAIN ROSEDALE ST MPT-N RMNT-SHK WESTON-JAN E LEW SWN DL-WID EN VADIS STANL EY DEKALB UNION TALLM AN SVILL E ASPINALL-FIN ST ER ZOLLARSVILLE WILBU R RAMSEY HEATER S BR IDGEPORT-PRUNT YTOWN ALEXAND ER LILLY FORK SH ERMAN HIRAM ST FK-BLST N CK BU RNS CH APEL S BR WN -LUM BER PORT CON INGS PR ATT BOSWELL REVEL ELK C REEK

  18. DOEIET5-0064

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOEIET5-0064 uc-z,11 Final Environmental lmpact (Final Statement to ERDA Statement 1545-Dl R(rcky Fhts Phnt slte Goldeh, Jeffetson Gounty, Golorado Ruth C. Clusen Assistant .Secretary for Environrnent U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Washington, D,C. 20585 APRIL 1980 Volume 3 of 3 RESPONSES TO PUBLIC GOMMENTS Responsible Official ,// 4-*q, ll;{ru:l-r,. SUMMARY OF CONTENTS VOLUI'{E I Table of Contents List of Tables List of Figures Abbreviations, Symbols and Acronyns Glossary Metric to English

  19. PLEAEERUSH ANALYTICAL DA-~-A SHEET

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ' PLEAEERUSH ANALYTICAL DA-~-A SHEET ' ANALYTICAL DEPT. - HEALTH AhD SAFETY DlVlSlON 1956 Industrial Hygiene or Medical Dept. 1. H.#~~Sample Nos. 3 --Date Collected~~by-CESS-.Route to CBS LocationTITANIUM Type of Sample airnalyzed for F Alpham Remarks NIAGARA pALI+S* N.Y. U Beta Bldg. 103 - furnace room - -NO, Ra Oil PH Be Th Sample No. Hour Sample Description I I I--- R ) T 1 Q I I I 7392 1100 GA Induction furnace area duri-nn ----l----- mDeriod;.02; 151 .3 while furnace was charged with UOT_-

  20. SITES ELIHlNAlED FRCil FUW' ~1WWk'l ffi LY

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    SITES ELIHlNAlED FRCil FUW' ~1WWk'l ffi LY Lfcfi0n 31, I?%7 STGTE m rtE!xm ICmFIED cm&B fi re3xf.H ROJECT TIM #% HER M JWDlCTICd Cf M W.&f&t ff NIF, Ml TtE FKILIIY If0 LICWSES TO WRE ffiDliXClIVE tt%iML. IVJ R&w mm IS h-m. STTE S#W MC&TED W P4DlOKTIVIN kmvi t+mi BkcTmam

  1. Microsoft PowerPoint - 02XEPO-0_Lustre.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lustre File System Lustre File System Customer Documentation and Training Cray XT/XE Systems I/O Support - The compute nodes usually hand off I/O to the SIO or XIO (service I/O) nodes Th li ti l h h dl tdi - The aprun application launcher handles stdin, stdout, and stderr Refer to the Cray XT Programming Environment User's Guide y g g (S-2396), "I/O Support" in the "Catamount Programming Considerations" section 10/18/2010 2 Cray Private Cray I/O Architecture A li ti Login

  2. Hemoglobin Labeled by Radioactive Lysine

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Bale, W. F.; Yuile, C. L.; DeLaVergne, L.; Miller, L. L.; Whipple, G. H.

    1949-12-08

    This paper reports on the utilization of tagged epsilon carbon of DL-lysine by a dog both anemic and hypoproteinemic due to repeated bleeding plus a diet low in protein. The experiment extended over period of 234 days, a time sufficient to indicate an erythrocyte life span of at least 115 days based upon the rate of replacement of labeled red cell proteins. The proteins of broken down red cells seem not to be used with any great preference for the synthesis of new hemoglobin.

  3. EIS-0391-FEIS-Volume3-Section4-2012

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    SECTION 4 REFERENCES 4-1 SECTION 4 REFERENCES Anderson, J.D., 1996, The History of the 200 Area Burial Ground Facilities, WHC-EP-0912, Westinghouse Hanford Company, Richland, Washington, September. Anderson, J.D., and D.L. Hagel, 1996, Summary of Radioactive Solid Waste Received in the 200 Areas During Calendar Year 1995, WHC-EP-0125-8, Westinghouse Hanford Company, Richland, Washington, June. Atkinson, A., and J.A. Hearne, 1984, An Assessment of the Long-Term Durability of Concrete in

  4. A case report of lead paint poisoning during renovation of a Victorian farmhouse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marino, P.E.; Landrigan, P.J.; Graef, J.; Nussbaum, A.; Bayan, G.; Boch, K.; Boch, S. )

    1990-10-01

    We describe a series of four cases of childhood lead poisoning and two cases of adult lead toxicity in a professional family exposed to lead dust and fume during renovation of a rural farmhouse. Initial blood lead levels in the children ranged from 2.70 to 4.20 microM/L (56 to 87 microns/dl) and all four required chelation therapy. Lead-based paint poisoning, a well recognized entity among young children in poor, urban neighborhoods, is not confined exclusively to such areas.

  5. GLADY CASSIT Y VANDALIA MURPHY CR EEK BU CKHN-CENT URY CLAY

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    GLADY CASSIT Y VANDALIA MURPHY CR EEK BU CKHN-CENT URY CLAY GLENVILLE N MINNORA JARVISVILLE FAR MINGTON PH ILIPPI BELIN GT ON WAYN ESBUR G PR UNT Y GLENVILLE S CAVE RUN TAYLOR DRAIN ROSEDALE ST MPT-N RMNT-SHK WESTON-JAN E LEW SWN DL-WID EN VADIS STANL EY DEKALB UNION TALLM AN SVILL E ASPINALL-FIN ST ER ZOLLARSVILLE WILBU R RAMSEY HEATER S BR IDGEPORT-PRUNT YTOWN ALEXAND ER LILLY FORK SH ERMAN HIRAM ST FK-BLST N CK BU RNS CH APEL S BR WN -LUM BER PORT CON INGS PR ATT BOSWELL REVEL ELK C REEK

  6. Appendix B - Control Points

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    B B Control Points B.1 Injector Control Points Qty Type Device 2 Magnet Bend magnet - DL1 bend 9 Magnet Quad magnet 10 Magnet X-Y Corrector Pair 2 Magnet Solenoid 2 Magnet Spectrometer 1 RF Gun 2 RF Accelerating Structure 1 RF Transverse RF Structure 1 TIMING Timing/Trigger System 1 Laser Gun Laser 1 Laser Alignment Laser 13 DIAG BPM 4 DIAG Wire Scanner 11 DIAG Profile Monitor 3 DIAG Toroid 1 DIAG Transverse RF BL Monitor 3 DIAG Faraday Cup 1 DIAG Energy Collimator 1 DIAG Tune-up Dump 1 VAC

  7. RFP_WhitePaper_v4

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    White paper for 2014 FESAC Strategic Planning Aug. 2014 1 Opportunities and Context for Reversed Field Pinch Research J.S. Sarff 1 , A.F. Almagri, J.K. Anderson, D.L. Brower, B.E. Chapman, D. Craig, D.R. Demers, D.J. Den Hartog, W. Ding, C.B. Forest, J.A. Goetz, K.J. McCollam, M.D. Nornberg, C.R. Sovinec, P.W. Terry, and Collaborators Research on reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasmas contributes in unique ways to the advancement of both fusion and basic plasma science. The behavior of RFP plasmas

  8. DOE/OR/07-2247&D1

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    f 8}.~11 Ohio Environmental Protection Agency Southeast District Office 2195 Front Street Logan, Ohio 43138 Dear Ms. Galanti: PPPO-03-1335655-12 REMOVAL ACTION COMPLETION REPORT FOR THE X-I03 AUXILIARY OFFICE BUILDING AT THE PORTSMOUTH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT, PIKETON, OHIO Enclosed for your review and concurrence, please find the Removal Action Completion Report for the X-J 03 Auxiliary Office Building at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Piketon, Ohio (DOE/PPPOI03-0223&Dl). This

  9. Slide 1

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Devereaux 1 NERSC 2/10 Collaborators - B. Moritz, Z.-X. Shen (SLAC/Stanford), J. K. Freericks (Georgetown), Z. Hussain (LBNL), R. T. Scalettar (UC-Davis). Machines used: Bassi, Jacquard, Franklin, Hopper. Synchrotron sources see : http://www.dl.ac.uk A field in expansion Free Electron Lasers (FEL) see : http://www.lightsources.org New technologies + New techniques  Better resolution 2 NERSC 2/10 Using x-rays to study materials science 3  Driving chemical transformations by controlled

  10. 2009_1112 HPC requirements workshop.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simulation of laser wakefield particle acceleration - M558 C.G.R. Geddes (M558 lead) LOASIS program, LBNL , http://loasis.lbl.gov W.P. Leemans, Program head; E. Esarey deputy & theory head C. Benedetti, M. Chen, E. Cormier-Michel, E. Esarey, C.B. Schroeder Tech-X, http://www.txcorp.com D.L. Bruhwiler, J.R. Cary, B.M. Cowan, C. Nieter, K. Paul, V. Ranjabar Oxford W. Andreas, S. Bajlekov, N. Bourgeois, T. Ibbotson, S.M. Hooker 1 1 NA-22/Nonproliferation R&D *cgrgeddes@lbl.gov Simulations

  11. Ed Jascevsky Safety Division ChIcago Operations Office MIT CONTFACT INFCE"ATION

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    ;/:4,4 (; . 1.; e octo: ' J : 18, 1976 Ed Jascevsky Safety Division ChIcago Operations Office MIT CONTFACT INFCE"ATION During the discussions on October 8, 1976, you iquired about information relative to work done by MIT as background infomation for survey planning. The enclosed information is parephrased frorc an unpublished history of program work carried out by the Process Eevclopncnt Group of the Dl.ti,si.on of Raw Katerids, I believe this work was done under contract nuder AT(30-1)956.

  12. L

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    c. : -* :. : 1 : : ; : s ' ;: ..:, --A,, -... ! : ' Q "3 _, ' ;' ,Z .2 , ., .- -2 ' 1 ' \A ' ., 3 \ * .' >,-' ;;' ;x., -.; t 1 ' .L i ' iq. ) :p 22T*+g~;s~ .r(,, , ~~::---y-~' -' --, ) ,;*; -,:;' L;e.-:.:.: ..,. >,.*L<seT,, :' .5 -1,; JI I,' ' <> ' I. ..; -_ : ,... :,-.;i __. PRODUCTXIN PJZPORT "* *_ ' L T I R(.XJXXG OF TT~C l!ftN D X m X3AZ~IEX INGCt.fS. A T * 2lI,mG~~-LuDL~~~ sTl2zEL coRPoR:!'"I9~~- -_. . _.. ,. .: ii .- _, . :. GN Ofiicial CkuiFcr??bn. d t!+

  13. Most Viewed Documents - Materials | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Scientific and Technical Information - Materials Phase diagrams of the elements Young, D.A. (1975) Use of instrumented charpy tests to determine onset of upper-shelf energy Canonico, D.A.; Stelzman, W.J.; Berggren, R.G.; et al. (1975) Thermal and electrical conductivities and Seebeck coefficients of unirradiated and irradiated graphites from 300 to 1000 K Moore, J.P.; Graves, R.S.; McElroy, D.L. (1973) LITERATURE SURVEY ON DILUTE URANIUM ALLOYS FOR SANDIA BOOSTER CONCEPT TO SANDIA

  14. Hybrid fluidized bed combuster

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kantesaria, Prabhudas P.; Matthews, Francis T.

    1982-01-01

    A first atmospheric bubbling fluidized bed furnace is combined with a second turbulent, circulating fluidized bed furnace to produce heat efficiently from crushed solid fuel. The bed of the second furnace receives the smaller sizes of crushed solid fuel, unreacted limestone from the first bed, and elutriated solids extracted from the flu gases of the first bed. The two-stage combustion of crushed solid fuel provides a system with an efficiency greater than available with use of a single furnace of a fluidized bed.

  15. Char separator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Matthews, Francis T.

    1979-01-01

    Particulates removed from the flue gases produced in a fluidized-bed furnace are separated into high-and low-density portions. The low-density portion is predominantly char, and it is returned to the furnace or burned in a separate carbon burnup cell. The high-density portion, which is predominantly limestone products and ash, is discarded or reprocessed. According to another version, the material drained from the bed is separated, the resulting high-and low-density portions being treated in a manner similar to that in which the flue-gas particulates are treated.

  16. Experimental results of core-concrete interactions using molten steel with zirconium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Copus, E.R.; Blose, R.E.; Brockmann, J.E.; Gomez, R.D.; Lucero, D.A. )

    1990-07-01

    Four inductively sustained experiments, QT-D, QT-E, SURC-3, and SURC-3A, were performed in order to investigate the additional effects of zirconium metal oxidation on core debris-concrete interactions using molten stainless steel as the core debris simulant. The QT-D experiment ablated 18 cm of concrete axially during 50 minutes of interaction on limestone-common sand concrete using a 10 kg charge of 304 stainless steel to which 2 kg of zirconium metal was added subsequent to the onset of erosion. The QT-E experiment ablated 10 cm of limestone-common sand concrete axially and 10 cm radially during 35 minutes of sustained interaction using 50 kg of stainless steel and 10 kg of zirconium. The SURC-3 experiment had a 45 kg charge of stainless steel to which 1.1 kg of zirconium was subsequently added. SURC-3 axially eroded 33 cm of limestone concrete during two hours of interaction. The fourth experiment, SURC-3A, eroded 25 cm of limestone concrete axially and 9 cm radially during 90 minutes of sustained interaction. It utilized 40 kg of stainless steel and 2.2 kg of added zirconium as the charge material. All four experiments showed in a large increase in erosion rate, gas production, and aerosol release following the addition of Zr metal to the melt. In the SURC-3 and SURC-3A tests the measured erosion rates increased from 14 cm/hr to 27 cm/hr, gas release increased from 50 slpm to 100 slpm, and aerosol release increased from .02 q/sec to .04 q/sec. The effluent gas was composed of 80% CO, 10% CO{sub 2}, and 2% H{sub 2} before Zr addition and 92% CO, 4% CO{sub 2}, 4% H{sub 2} during the Zr interactions which lasted 10--20 minutes. Addition measurements indicated that the melt pool temperature ranged from 1600{degree}C--1800{degree} and that the aerosols produced were comprised primarily of Te and Fe oxides. 21 refs., 120 figs., 51 tabs.

  17. Pueblo of Jemez Geothermal Feasibility Study Fianl Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.A. Kelley; N. Rogers; S. Sandberg; J. Witcher; J. Whittier

    2005-03-31

    This project assessed the feasibility of developing geothermal energy on the Pueblo of Jemez, with particular attention to the Red Rocks area. Geologic mapping of the Red Rocks area was done at a scale of 1:6000 and geophysical surveys identified a potential drilling target at a depth of 420 feet. The most feasible business identified to use geothermal energy on the reservation was a greenhouse growing culinary and medicinal herbs. Space heating and a spa were identified as two other likely uses of geothermal energy at Jemez Pueblo. Further geophysical surveys are needed to identify the depth to the Madera Limestone, the most likely host for a major geothermal reservoir.

  18. New interpretations of Paleozoic stratigraphy and history in the northern Laramie Range and vicinity, Southeast Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sando, W.J.; Sandberg, C.A.

    1987-01-01

    Biostratigraphic and lithostratigraphic studies of the Paleozoic sequence in Southeast Wyoming indicate the need for revision of the ages and nomenclature of Devonian, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian formations. The Paleozoic sequence begins with a quartzarenite of Devonian age referred to the newly named Fremont Canyon Sandstone, which is overlain by the Englewood Formation of Late Devonian and Early Mississippian age. The Englewood is succeeded by the Madison Limestone of Early and Late Mississippian age, which is overlain disconformably by the Darwin Sandstone Member (Pennsylvanian) of the Casper and Hartville formations. This sequence represents predominantly marine deposition in near-shore environments marginal to the ancient Transcontinental Arch.

  19. Trenton strata in western Illinois Basin, Brown and Schuyler Counties, Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pochel, R.M.

    1984-12-01

    Trenton strata in the western Illinois basin are very good prospects for oil exploration. Much drilling has been done in the area but, as yet, no producing wells have been completed. Oil stains and some tars have been found in some samples from most wells. The Trenton in the area of Brown and Schuyler Counties is a fine-grained limestone that underlies the Maquoketa Shale at an average depth of 800 ft (244 m). Because of its position near the edge of the Illinois basin, the stratigraphy varies considerably and inconsistencies are present in most samples viewed.

  20. Mesoscopic modeling of multi-physicochemical transport phenomena in porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Qinjin; Wang, Moran; Mukherjee, Partha P; Lichtner, Peter C

    2009-01-01

    We present our recent progress on mesoscopic modeling of multi-physicochemical transport phenomena in porous media based on the lattice Boltzmann method. Simulation examples include injection of CO{sub 2} saturated brine into a limestone rock, two-phase behavior and flooding phenomena in polymer electrolyte fuel cells, and electroosmosis in homogeneously charged porous media. It is shown that the lattice Boltzmann method can account for multiple, coupled physicochemical processes in these systems and can shed some light on the underlying physics occuning at the fundamental scale. Therefore, it can be a potential powerful numerical tool to analyze multi-physicochemical processes in various energy, earth, and environmental systems.

  1. ACOUSTICAL IMAGING AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SOFT ROCK AND MARINE SEDIMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thurman E. Scott, Jr., Ph.D.; Younane Abousleiman, Ph.D.; Musharraf Zaman, Ph.D., P.E.

    2001-07-01

    including: (a) Danian chalk, (b) Cordoba Cream limestone, (c) Indiana limestone, (d) Ekofisk chalk, (e) Oil Creek sandstone, (f) unconsolidated Oil Creek sand, and (g) unconsolidated Brazos river sand. During the second quarter experiments were begun on these rock types. A series of reconnaissance experiments have been carried out on all but the Ekofisk (for which there is a preliminary data set already inhouse). A series of triaxial tests have been conducted on the Danian chalk, the Cordoba Cream limestone, the Indiana limestone, and sand samples to make a preliminary determination of the deformational mechanisms present in these samples.

  2. Solid fuel feed system for a fluidized bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Brian C.

    1982-01-01

    A fluidized bed for the combustion of coal, with limestone, is replenished with crushed coal from a system discharging the coal laterally from a station below the surface level of the bed. A compartment, or feed box, is mounted at one side of the bed and its interior separated from the bed by a weir plate beneath which the coal flows laterally into the bed while bed material is received into the compartment above the plate to maintain a predetermined minimum level of material in the compartment.

  3. Solar Neutrinos. II. Experimental

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Davis, Raymond Jr.

    1964-01-01

    A method is described for observing solar neutrinos from the reaction Cl{sup 37}(nu,e{sup -})Ar{sup 37} in C{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}. Two 5 00-gal tanks of C{sub 2}Cl{sub 4} were placed in a limestone mine (1800 m.w.e.) and the resulting Ar{sup 37} activity induced by cosmic mesons( mu ) was measured to determine the necessary conditions for solar neutrino observations. (R.E.U.)

  4. Interactions between trace metals, sodium and sorbents in combustion. Quarterly report No. 3, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendt, J.O.L.

    1995-09-06

    The proposed research is directed at an understanding of how to exploit interactions between sodium, toxic metals and sorbents, in order to optimize sorbents injection procedures, which can be used to capture and transform these metals into environmentally benign forms. The research will use a 17kW downflow, laboratory combustor, to yield data that can be interpreted in terms of fundamental kinetic mechanisms. Metals to be considered are lead, cadmium, and arsenic. Sorbents will be kaolinite, bauxite, and limestone. The role of sulfur will also be determined.

  5. Characterizing toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant demonstrating the AFGD ICCT Project and a plant utilizing a dry scrubber/baghouse system: Bailly Station Units 7 and 8 and AFGD ICCT Project. Final report. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dismukes, E.B.

    1994-10-20

    This report describes results of assessment of the risk of emissions of hazardous air pollutants at one of the electric power stations, Bailly Station, which is also the site of a Clean Coal Technology project demonstrating the Pure Air Advanced Flue Gas Desulfurization process (wet limestone). This station represents the configuration of no NO{sub x} reduction, particulate control with electrostatic precipitators, and SO{sub 2} control with a wet scrubber. The test was conducted September 3--6, 1993. Sixteen trace metals were determined along with 5 major metals. Other inorganic substances and organic compounds were also determined.

  6. State of Illinois 1982 annual coal, oil and gas report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    This data compilation contains statistics from the coal industry and petroleum industry of Illinois. Data are given on the production, accidents, explosives, and mechanization of coal mines. Metal mines are only briefly described. The report from the Division of Oil and Gas contains data on oil well completions, oil wells plugged, water input wells, and salt water and waste disposal wells. The results of hearings in the division are included. The Land Reclamation Division reports data on permits and acreage affected by surface mining of coal, limestone, shale, clay, sand, and gravel. 2 figures, 76 tables.

  7. Method of production H/sub 2/ using a rotating drum reactor with a pulse jet heat source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paulson, L.E.

    1988-05-13

    A method of producing hydrogen by an endothermic steam-carbon reaction using a rotating drum reactor and a pulse jet combustor. The pulse jet combustor uses coal dust as a fuel to provide reaction temperatures of 1300/degree/ to 1400/degree/F. Low-rank coal, water, limestone and catalyst are fed into the drum reactor where they are heated, tumbled and reacted. Part of the reaction product from the rotating drum reactor is hydrogen which can be utilized in suitable devices. 1 fig.

  8. Pumped storage job is a rocky challenge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Setzer, S.W.

    1994-03-07

    Georgia mountain lives up to its rugged name as excavators fight some unexpected ground conditions. When settlers pushed into the remote valleys of far northwestern Georgia, they had no idea just how apt the name given one odd geologic formation would become to a new generation of pioneers. Rocky Mountain`s 700 ft of diagonally upthrusting limestone, shale and sandstone layers have become the main antagonists in a decade-long struggle to place an 848-Mw pumped storage power project in and around the mountain.

  9. Retrofit costs for SO sub 2 and NOx control options at 200 coal-fired plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    This 5-volume report gives the results of site-specific cost estimations for retrofitting six control technologies to coal-fired power plants. The six technologies were: lime/limestone flue gas desulfurization, lime spray drying, coal switching and cleaning, furnace and duct sorbent injection, low NOx combustion or natural gas reburning, and selective catalytic reduction. Volume 1 gives the methodology. The other four volumes each cover 5-7 specific states east of the Mississippi River. Maine, Vermont, Rhode Island, and Connecticut are not included.

  10. Performance and economics of a spray-dryer FGD system used with high-sulfur coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Livengood, C.D.; Farber, P.S.

    1986-04-01

    Flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems based on spray drying to offer advantages over wet lime/limestone systems in a number of areas: low energy consumption, low capital cost, high reliability, and production of a dry waste that is easily handled and disposed of. Uncertainties regarding the performance and economics of such systems for control of high-sulfur-coal emissions have slowed adoption of the technology in the Midwest and East. This paper summarizes 4 years, operating and research experience with that system and describes the current research program, which includes an indepth characterization of an industrial scale dry scrubber with 3.5% sulfur coal.

  11. FINITE ELEMENT CALCULATIONS OF THE MIGHTY NORTH EVENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steedman, D.; Swift, R.

    2000-12-01

    The MIGHTY NORTH event was a precision high explosive test performed in jointed Salem limestone for a modeling verification and validation program sponsored by DTRA. The test bed was subjected to a cylindrical shock front, making the response applicable for comparison to 2-D plane strain computations. While other investigators modeled the rock response with various elastic-plastic failure criteria, we demonstrate that simple elastic-perfectly brittle response with a tensile failure criterion replicates the experiment quite well. This paper provides comparisons between results of numerical simulations of the test event and the published test bed response.

  12. Loop-bed combustion apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer-Yu; Mei, Joseph S.; Slagle, Frank D.; Notestein, John E.

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a combustion apparatus in the configuration of a oblong annulus defining a closed loop. Particulate coal together with a sulfur sorbent such as sulfur or dolomite is introduced into the closed loop, ignited, and propelled at a high rate of speed around the loop. Flue gas is withdrawn from a location in the closed loop in close proximity to an area in the loop where centrifugal force imposed upon the larger particulate material maintains these particulates at a location spaced from the flue gas outlet. Only flue gas and smaller particulates resulting from the combustion and innerparticle grinding are discharged from the combustor. This structural arrangement provides increased combustion efficiency due to the essentially complete combustion of the coal particulates as well as increased sulfur absorption due to the innerparticle grinding of the sorbent which provides greater particle surface area.

  13. Biomass gasification for liquid fuel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Najser, Jan E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz; Peer, Václav E-mail: vaclav.peer@vsb.cz

    2014-08-06

    In our old fix-bed autothermal gasifier we tested wood chips and wood pellets. We make experiments for Czech company producing agro pellets - pellets made from agricultural waste and fastrenewable natural resources. We tested pellets from wheat and rice straw and hay. These materials can be very perspective, because they dońt compete with food production, they were formed in sufficient quantity and in the place of their treatment. New installation is composed of allothermal biomass fixed bed gasifier with conditioning and using produced syngas for Fischer - Tropsch synthesis. As a gasifying agent will be used steam. Gas purification will have two parts - separation of dust particles using a hot filter and dolomite reactor for decomposition of tars. In next steps, gas will be cooled, compressed and removed of sulphur and chlorine compounds and carbon dioxide. This syngas will be used for liquid fuel synthesis.

  14. FURNACE INJECTION OF ALKALINE SORBENTS FOR SULFURIC ACID REMOVAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary M. Blythe

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this project has been to demonstrate the use of alkaline reagents injected into the furnace of coal-fired boilers as a means of controlling sulfuric acid emissions. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-99FT40718, along with EPRI, the American Electric Power Company (AEP), FirstEnergy Corporation, the Tennessee Valley Authority, and Carmeuse North America. Sulfuric acid controls are becoming of increased interest for coal-fired power generating units for a number of reasons. In particular, sulfuric acid can cause plant operation problems such as air heater plugging and fouling, back-end corrosion, and plume opacity. These issues will likely be exacerbated with the retrofit of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) for NOX control, as SCR catalysts are known to further oxidize a portion of the flue gas SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3}. The project tested the effectiveness of furnace injection of four different magnesium-based or dolomitic alkaline sorbents on full-scale utility boilers. These reagents were tested during one- to two-week tests conducted on two FirstEnergy Bruce Mansfield Plant (BMP) units. One of the sorbents tested was a magnesium hydroxide slurry byproduct from a modified Thiosorbic{reg_sign} Lime wet flue gas desulfurization process. The other three sorbents are available commercially and include dolomite, pressure-hydrated dolomitic lime, and commercially available magnesium hydroxide. The dolomite reagent was injected as a dry powder through out-of-service burners. The other three reagents were injected as slurries through air-atomizing nozzles inserted through the front wall of the upper furnace. After completing the four one- to two-week tests, the most promising sorbents were selected for longer-term (approximately 25-day) full-scale tests on two different units. The longer-term tests were conducted to confirm sorbent effectiveness over extended operation on two

  15. Selective flotation of phosphate minerals with hydroxamate collectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Jan D.; Wang, Xuming; Li, Minhua

    2002-01-01

    A method is disclosed for separating phosphate minerals from a mineral mixture, particularly from high-dolomite containing phosphate ores. The method involves conditioning the mineral mixture by contacting in an aqueous in environment with a collector in an amount sufficient for promoting flotation of phosphate minerals. The collector is a hydroxamate compound of the formula; ##STR1## wherein R is generally hydrophobic and chosen such that the collector has solubility or dispersion properties it can be distributed in the mineral mixture, typically an alkyl, aryl, or alkylaryl group having 6 to 18 carbon atoms. M is a cation, typically hydrogen, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. Preferably, the collector also comprises an alcohol of the formula, R'--OH wherein R' is generally hydrophobic and chosen such that the collector has solubility or dispersion properties so that it can be distributed in the mineral mixture, typically an alkyl, aryl, or alkylaryl group having 6 to 18 carbon atoms.

  16. Enhanced oil recovery by CO/sub 2/ miscible displacement in the Little Knife Field, Billings County, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desch, J.B.; Larsen, W.K.; Lindsay, R.F.; Nettle, R.L.

    1984-09-01

    A CO/sub 2/ minitest involving the miscible displacement process was conducted in the Mission Canyon formation (lower Mississippian) at Little Knife field, ND. The Mission Canyon is a dolomitized carbonate reservoir at approximately 9,700 to 9,900 ft (2957 to 3018 m) subsurface, which is undergoing primary depletion. Four wells were drilled in an inverted four-spot configuration, covering 5 acres (20 234 m/sup 2/). The central well served as the injection well and was surrounded by three nonproducing observation wells. Oriented cores were cut in each well for detailed reservoir characterization and laboratory testing. In addition, a well test program was conducted that involved two pulse tests and injectivity tests on the individual wells. Results from these tests were used to upgrade two reservoir simulation models. Various parameters within the computer models were modified to determine the most efficient injection plan for the specific reservoir characteristics.

  17. Lower Permian facies of the Palo Duro Basin, Texas: depositional systems, shelf-margin evolution, paleogeography, and petroleum potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Handford, C.R.

    1980-01-01

    A Palo geological study suggests that potential hydrocarbon reservoirs occur in shelf-margin carbonates, delta-front sandstones, and fan-delta arkoses. Zones of porous (greater than 10 percent) dolomite are concentrated near shelf margins and have configurations similar to productive Lower Permian shelf-margin trends in New Mexico. Delta-front sandstones (log-computed porosity of 18 to 25 percent) are similar to producing deltaic sandstones of Morris Buie-Blaco Fields in North-Central Texas. Porous (18 percent) fan-delta sandstones along the south flank of the Amarillo Uplift may form reservoirs similiar to that of the Mobeetie Field on the north side of the Amarillo Uplife in Wheeler County, Texas. Potential hydrocarbon source beds occur in slope and basinal environments. Total organic carbon generally ranges from 1 to 2.3 percent by weight and averages 0.589 percent by weight.

  18. Petrographic report on clay-rich samples from Permian Unit 4 salt, G. Friemel No. 1 well, Palo Duro Basin, Deaf Smith County, Texas: unanalyzed data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fukui, L M

    1983-09-01

    This report presents the results of mineralogic and petrographic analyses performed on five samples of clay-rich rock from salt-bearing Permian strata sampled by drill core from G. Friemel No. 1 Well, Deaf Smith County, Texas. Five samples of clay-rich rock from depths of about 2457, 2458, 2521, 2548, and 2568 feet were analyzed to determine the amounts of soluble phase (halite) and the amounts and mineralogy of the insoluble phases. The amounts of halite found were 59, 79, 47, 40, and 4 weight percent, respectively, for the samples. The insoluble minerals are predominately clay (20 to 60 volume percent) and anhydrite (up to 17 volume percent), with minor (about 1.0%) and trace amounts of quartz, dolomite, muscovite, and gypsum. The clays include illite, chlorite, and interstratified chlorite-smectite. The results presented in this petrographic report are descriptive, uninterpreted data. 2 references, 7 tables.

  19. Mineralogical evaluation and industrial applications of the Triassic clay deposits, Southern Tunisia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baccour, H. Medhioub, M.; Jamoussi, F.; Mhiri, T.; Daoud, A.

    2008-11-15

    This study deals with the mineralogical and thermal analysis of Triassic clays in the south-Eastern Tunisia (Medenine area) in order to use them in the faience ceramic. That is why the study had recourse to several quantitative and qualitative research instruments: chemical analysis, mineralogical study, thermal analyses and analyses of geotechnical traits. The data collected from these techniques show that illite and kaolinite are the major clay phases. The accessory minerals detected in powdered rock are; quartz, dolomite and hematite. Geotechnical characterization was carried out on the three representative mixtures of Triassic clay samples. Each mixture is fired at three different temperatures 850,900 and 950 deg. C. Firing characteristics (shrinkage, water absorption, and mechanical resistance to the inflection) were measured and the neomineralization processes were investigated principally by X-ray diffraction. At the end of this study, one can affirm that these clays have qualities necessary for the manufacture of faience ceramic and earthenware production.

  20. Completion and workover fluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Block, J.

    1985-09-17

    An aqueous completion or workover fluid for oil or gas wells having at least two solid components. One component is a hydroxy containing aluminum compound represented by the formula AlO(OH).xH/sub 2/O. The second component is a fluid loss control agent which can be either a cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol or a cross-linked hydroxyalkyl cellulose reaction product. An acid soluble weighting agent can be added for wells having higher down hole pressures. Examples of the weighting agents include iron carbonates, iron oxides, calcium carbonates, dolomite, sodium or calcium chloride, zinc bromide and calcium bromide. After use, the fluid can be displaced from the well with acid, e.g. 15% HCl, and the cake previously deposited on the bore-hole wall is dissolved by the acid so that no damaging residue remains.

  1. Basic Data Report for Drillhole SNL-1 (C-2953)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dennis W. Powers; Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services

    2005-01-19

    SNL-1 (permitted by the New Mexico State Engineer as C-2953) was drilled to provide geological data and hydrological testing of the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Permian Rustler Formation near the margin of dissolution of halite in the upper Permian Salado Formation in the northeast arm of Nash Draw. SNL-1 is located in the northwest quarter of section 16, T21S, R31E, in eastern Eddy County, New Mexico, and it is adjacent to the tailings pile of Mississippi Potash Incorporated (now Intrepid) East mine to test for the presence of shallow zones that might include brine infiltrated from the tailings pile. SNL-1 was drilled to a total depth of 644 ft below ground level (bgl). Below surface wash, SNL-1 encountered, in order, the Mescalero caliche, Dewey Lake, and Rustler Formations.

  2. Interface Induced Carbonate Mineralization: A Fundamental Geochemical Process Relevant to Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teng, H. Henry; Xu, Huifang

    2013-07-17

    We have approached the long-standing geochemical question why anhydrous high-Mg carbonate minerals (i.e., magnesite and dolomite) cannot be formed at ambient conditions from a new perspective by exploring the formation of MgCO{sub 3} and Mg{sub x}Ca{sub (1-x)}CO{sub 3} in non-aqueous solutions. Data collected from our experiments in this funding period suggest that a fundamental barrier, other than cation hydration, exists that prevents Mg{sup 2+} and CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} ions from forming long-range ordered structures. We propose that this barrier mainly stems from the lattice limitation on the spatial configuration of CO{sub 3} groups in magnesite crystals. On the other hand, the measured higher distribution coefficients of Mg between magnesian calcites formed in the absence and presence of water give us a first direct proof to support and quantify the cation hydration effect.

  3. SURFACTANT BASED ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY AND FOAM MOBILITY CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George J. Hirasaki; Clarence A. Miller; Gary A. Pope; Richard E. Jackson

    2004-02-01

    Surfactant flooding has the potential to significantly increase recovery over that of conventional waterflooding. The availability of a large number of surfactant structures makes it possible to conduct a systematic study of the relation between surfactant structure and its efficacy for oil recovery. Also, the addition of an alkali such as sodium carbonate makes possible in situ generation of surfactant and significant reduction of surfactant adsorption. In addition to reduction of interfacial tension to ultra-low values, surfactants and alkali can be designed to alter wettability to enhance oil recovery. An alkaline surfactant process is designed to enhance spontaneous imbibition in fractured, oil-wet, carbonate formations. It is able to recover oil from dolomite core samples from which there was no oil recovery when placed in formation brine.

  4. Reactive transport modeling of the enhancement of density-driven CO2 convective mixing in carbonate aquifers and its potential implication on geological carbon sequestration

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Islam, Akand; Sun, Alexander Y.; Yang, Changbing

    2016-04-20

    We study the convection and mixing of CO2 in a brine aquifer, where the spread of dissolved CO2 is enhanced because of geochemical reactions with the host formations (calcite and dolomite), in addition to the extensively studied, buoyancy-driven mixing. The nonlinear convection is investigated under the assumptions of instantaneous chemical equilibrium, and that the dissipation of carbonate rocks solely depends on flow and transport and chemical speciation depends only on the equilibrium thermodynamics of the chemical system. The extent of convection is quantified in term of the CO2 saturation volume of the storage formation. Our results suggest that the densitymore » increase of resident species causes significant enhancement in CO2 dissolution, although no significant porosity and permeability alterations are observed. Furthermore, early saturation of the reservoir can have negative impact on CO2 sequestration.« less

  5. Pore scale modeling of reactive transport involved in geologic CO2 sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Qinjin; Lichtner, Peter C; Viswanathan, Hari S; Abdel-fattah, Amr I

    2009-01-01

    We apply a multi-component reactive transport lattice Boltzmann model developed in previolls studies to modeling the injection of a C02 saturated brine into various porous media structures at temperature T=25 and 80 C. The porous media are originally consisted of calcite. A chemical system consisting of Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, H+, CO2(aq), and CI-is considered. The fluid flow, advection and diHusion of aqueous species, homogeneous reactions occurring in the bulk fluid, as weB as the dissolution of calcite and precipitation of dolomite are simulated at the pore scale. The effects of porous media structure on reactive transport are investigated. The results are compared with continuum scale modeling and the agreement and discrepancy are discussed. This work may shed some light on the fundamental physics occurring at the pore scale for reactive transport involved in geologic C02 sequestration.

  6. Re-use of drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) sludge: Characterization and technological behaviour of cement mortars with atomized sludge additions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Husillos Rodriguez, N.; Martinez Ramirez, S.; Blanco Varela, M.T.; Guillem, M.; Puig, J.; Larrotcha, E.; Flores, J.

    2010-05-15

    This paper aims to characterize spray-dried DWTP sludge and evaluate its possible use as an addition for the cement industry. It describes the physical, chemical and micro-structural characterization of the sludge as well as the effect of its addition to Portland cements on the hydration, water demand, setting and mechanical strength of standardized mortars. Spray drying DWTP sludge generates a readily handled powdery material whose particle size is similar to those of Portland cement. The atomized sludge contains 12-14% organic matter (mainly fatty acids), while its main mineral constituents are muscovite, quartz, calcite, dolomite and seraphinite (or clinoclor). Its amorphous material content is 35%. The mortars were made with type CEM I Portland cement mixed with 10 to 30% atomized sludge exhibited lower mechanical strength than the control cement and a decline in slump. Setting was also altered in the blended cements with respect to the control.

  7. Little Knife Field CO/sub 2/ minitest, Billings County, North Dakota. Final report. Volume 1. Technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Upton, J.E.

    1983-07-01

    A carbon dioxide minitest was conducted in the Mission Canyon Formation (lower Mississippian) at Little Knife Field, North Dakota. The Mission Canyon is a dolomitized carbonate reservoir which is undergoing primary depletion. Four wells were drilled in an inverted four-spot configuration, covering five acres. The central well served as the injection well and was surrounded by three non-producing observation wells. Oriented cores were cut in each well for detailed reservoir characterization and laboratory testing. In addition, a well test program was conducted which involved two pulse tests and injectivity tests on the individual wells. Results from these tests were used as part of the input data for two reservoir simulation models. Various parameters in the computer models were varied to determine the most efficient injection plan for the specific reservoir characteristics. The pattern sweep efficiency for carbon dioxide approached 52 percent in the minitest area. Displacement efficiency, as indicated by simulation study, was 50 percent of the oil-in-place at the start of the project, compared with an efficiency of 37 percent for waterflood. Thirty-one hundred cubic feet of CO/sub 2/ were required per incremental barrel of displaced oil. The absence of producing wells and the fact that only one zone within the Mission Canyon Formation was flooded, favorably influenced these figures. The Little Knife CO/sub 2/ minitest confirmed, by field testing, the results of laboratory CO/sub 2/ miscible displacement tests. The minitest indicated that the CO/sub 2/ miscible displacement process has technical potential for commercialization in a dolomitized carbonate reservoir that has not been extensively waterflooded and has an indicated high remaining oil saturation. 159 figures, 46 tables.

  8. Assessment of hydrologic transport of radionuclides from the Gnome underground nuclear test site, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Earman, S.; Chapman, J.; Pohlmann, K.; Andricevic, R.

    1996-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is operating an environmental restoration program to characterize, remediate, and close non-Nevada Test Site locations that were used for nuclear testing. Evaluation of radionuclide transport by groundwater from these sites is an important part of the preliminary site risk analysis. These evaluations are undertaken to allow prioritization of the test areas in terms of risk, provide a quantitative basis for discussions with regulators and the public about future work at the sites, and provide a framework for assessing data needs to be filled by site characterization. The Gnome site in southeastern New Mexico was the location of an underground detonation of a 3.5-kiloton nuclear device in 1961, and a hydrologic tracer test using radionuclides in 1963. The tracer test involved the injection of tritium, {sup 90}Sr, and {sup 137}Cs directly into the Culebra Dolomite, a nine to ten-meter-thick aquifer located approximately 150 in below land surface. The Gnome nuclear test was carried out in the Salado Formation, a thick salt deposit located 200 in below the Culebra. Because salt behaves plastically, the cavity created by the explosion is expected to close, and although there is no evidence that migration has actually occurred, it is assumed that radionuclides from the cavity are released into the overlying Culebra Dolomite during this closure process. Transport calculations were performed using the solute flux method, with input based on the limited data available for the site. Model results suggest that radionuclides may be present in concentrations exceeding drinking water regulations outside the drilling exclusion boundary established by DOE. Calculated mean tritium concentrations peak at values exceeding the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking water standard of 20,000 pCi/L at distances of up to almost eight kilometers west of the nuclear test.

  9. Regional geology and petroleum potential of Bakken Formation, southwestern Manitoba

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martiniuk, C.D.

    1988-07-01

    The Bakken Formation has been documented as an excellent petroleum source rock within the Williston basin and has, in some localities, been established as a producing zone. Recent exploration in the Daly field of southwestern Manitoba has led to the discovery and subsequent development of several oil pools within the middle member of the Bakken. The 21 active wells within these pools have produced 20,773.8 m/sup 3/ (130,667.2 bbl) of oil (40.2/degrees/ API) as of December 31, 1987. Through much of the Williston basin, the Bakken typically consists of three members: a lower, highly radioactive, black shale member; a middle siltstone member; and an upper black shale member (identical to the lower member). In southwestern Manitoba, the lower member is absent in most areas due to nondeposition and overstep of the overlying middle member. In these areas, the middle member unconformably overlies eroded red dolomitic shales of the Devonian Lyleton (Three Forks) Formation. The middle member is a relatively uniform blanket deposit averaging 4 m (13 ft) thick. It consists of interbedded tan to greenish-gray, very fine to medium-grained, well-sorted dolomitic sandstone and siltstone with angular to subrounded grains. Oil accumulation in the middle member is largely the result of stratigraphic trapping and appears, in part, to be localized where a basal sandstone (associated with middle member thickening) is concentrated in minor erosional lows on the Lyleton surface. The black shales of the upper member form a thin (2 m or 6.6 ft average), uniform cap throughout the map area and are overlain by the carbonates of the Mississippian Lodgepole Formation (Souris Valley Beds). Maximum thickness of the Bakken reaches 32 m (105 ft) in the Waskada field area, where the lower shale member is locally present.

  10. The Zechsteinkalk reservoir of the Hewett field, southern North Sea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southwood, D.A.; Morgan, R.K. ); Hill, W.O.R. )

    1993-09-01

    The Zechsteinkalk of Hewett field is characterized by complex porosity and permeability distribution. Facies and diagenesis together control porosity distribution, while production rates are enhanced by subseismic [open quotes]megafractures.[open quotes] Highest porosities occur in the upper part of the sequence where dolomitized shoal and perishoal oolitic and peloidal grainstones predominate. Intershoal and main shoal facies show no significant differences in average porosity. Tidal-flat muds developed at the shoreward margin of shoals have only very low porosity. Extreme porosity variation within perishoal facies is caused by differential diagenesis. Porosity has been created by dolomitization and leaching but has been occluded by early carbonate cementation and anhydrite cementation. Anhydrite is volumetrically the most significant effect, destroying 20% porosity in many intervals and completely cementing many fractures. Its distribution is highly heterogeneous. Models for the origin of the anhydrite explain and predict gross distribution trends, but superimposed smaller scale trends are related to depositional grain size and the local development of evaporitic environment over subaerially exposed grainstones. Cementation took place in at least three phases, pre-, syn-, and postfracturing. Natural fracturing occurs throughout the field. Fractures are typically subvertical, planar, dilational, and completely or partially cemented by anhydrite. The cementation history of the fractures indicates formation prior to the development of the structure. Although fracture aperture porosity occurs in a significant proportion of fractures recorded in core (30-40%), DST results indicate fracture-enhanced flow from only a small number of fractured zones where individual fractures are sufficiently closely spaced to form an interconnected system or [open quotes]megafracture.[close quotes] The megafractures trend northwest-southwest oblique to the primary fracture trend.

  11. Sedimentology of Permian upper part of the Minnelusa Formation, eastern Powder River basin, Wyoming, and a comparison to the subsurface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schenk, C.J.; Schmoker, J.W.; Fox, J.E.

    1993-04-01

    Outcrops of the Permian upper part of the Minnelusa Formation near Beulah, Wyoming consist of dolomite, gypsum, and sandstone units deposited in transgressive-regressive cycles. Three depositional cycles are partly exposed in the Simons Ranch anticline near Beulah, and provide an opportunity to view fades of the upper Minnelusa Formation in three dimensions. The cycles observed in outcrop were informally labelled cycle 1, cycle 2, and cycle 3 in ascending stratigraphic order. Cycle 2 contains a basal, laterally extensive sabkha sandstone and an overlying, laterally restricted sandstone that represents a preserved eolian-dune complex. The eolian-dune sandstone of cycle 2 was partially reworked during the marine transgression that initiated cycle 3. The eolian-dune deposit grades laterally into an apron of contorted and massive-bedded sandstones that formed as water-saturated sands liquified and slumped from the margins of the eolian dune. The partially reworked eolian-dune topography was covered by gypsum beds of cycle 3. The sandstone of cycle 3 is interpreted as a laterally continuous sabkha sandstone. West Mellott field (secs. 8, 9, T52N, R68W) represents a subsurface example of the facies and facies relationships observed in outcrop. The eolian-dune sandstone of the C cycle, which was partially reworked by the transgression of the B cycle, produces oil at West Mellott. The draping of dolomite and anhydrite of the B cycle on the eolian-dune sandstone of the C cycle is analogous to the draping of gypsum on dune sand in cycle 2 in outcrop.

  12. Palomagnetic orientation of fractures and bedding in Rotliegende and Zechstein cores from the southern Permian basin, North Sea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Alstine, D.R.; Butterworth, J.E. )

    1993-09-01

    Fractures and bedding in Rotliegende sandstone and Zechstein dolomite cores of the southern Permian Basin can be accurately oriented using our standard paleomagnetic core-orientation technique. In recent project involving vertical, deviated, and horizontal wells, we have paleomagnetically oriented 1874 ft of Rotliegende and Zechstein cores from 113 intervals ranging in length from 8 in. to 119 ft. Accuracy of our paleomagnetic core-orientations can be demonstrated by (1) consistency in fracture patterns derived from vertical and horizontal cores near the same reservoir location, (2) consistency in Rotliegende paleowind directions derived from paleomagnetically oriented cores with paleowind directions derived from mechanically oriented cores from the southern Permian Basin, and (3) agreement between structural dip determined from paleomagnetically oriented interdune bedding planes with structural dip determined from paleomagnetically oriented strike-0parallel, strike-perpendicular, and bedding-plane fractures. Paleomagnetic orientation of Rotliegende cores can be especially cost effect. Excellent core recovery and use of long core barrels in the Rotliegende means that [open quotes]continuous intervals[close quotes] (defined as the maximum lengths of core that can be reliably reconstructed by fitting adjacent core pieces) of more than 100 ft long can be achieved by following our recommended core-handling procedures. We statistically average the same number of paleomagnetic plug samples regardless of the length of a [open quotes]continuous interval.[close quotes] The paleomagnetic signals in Rotliegende sandstone and Zechstein dolomite are sufficiently stable that fractures and bedding can be paleomagnetically oriented even in slabbed cores drilled decades ago.

  13. Integrated geological and engineering characterization of an Upper Permian, carbonate reservoir, South Cowden unit, Ector County Texas -- a work in progress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerard, M.G.; Johnson, J.V.; Snow, S.C.

    1995-09-01

    South Cowden Unit, located on the eastern margin of the Central Basin Platform, has produced 35 million barrels of oil since initial development in the late 1940`s. The Unit, under waterflood since 1965, has been proposed for a CO{sub 2} flood using horizontal injection wells. A team of geologists and engineers was formed to characterize the reservoir. The early and complete integration of geologic and engineering work has resulted in a detailed reservoir description to be used in reservoir simulation. Regional mapping and 3D seismic data indicate that sediments within the reservoir interval were draped over a paleohigh resulting in an unfaulted, anticlinal-like structure. A field-wide stratigraphic framework was developed using two to four-foot thick, gamma-ray log markers which correspond to low permeability, sandy dolomite layers recognized in core. These log correlations indicate fairly simple and uniform structure and stratigraphy. The gamma-ray markers delineate four zones within the 150 foot reservoir interval. Rocks composing these zones are extensively dolomitized and display a complex color mottling. This mottling is related most likely to bioturbation of carbonate sediments in a shallow, subtidal marine environment. Extensive and interconnected bioturbated areas have core analysis porosities averaging approximately 20% and permeabilities generally ranging from 2 to 350 md. The intervening, nonburrowed and unstained areas have porosities averaging 5% and permeabilities typically ranging form 0.01 to 2 md. Variations in the quality and thickness of the mottled facies are major parameters controlling oil recovery. A belt of better reservoir-quality rock runs roughly parallel to structure and results in an area of higher cumulative oil production. Good waterflood response and uniform pressure distribution indicate continuity of the pay zones within this belt.

  14. Twenty years of sedimentary change and diagenesis, Qatar Peninsula, Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shinn, E.A.

    1988-02-01

    Re-examination in February 1986 of areas studied by the author in 1966 and 1967 revealed rapid rates of sedimentation and diagenesis along the east coast of the Qatar Peninsula. At Ras Um Sa on the north-east side of Qatar, a series of chenier-like beaches and curved spits is building southward under the influence of longshore currents. Beach and spit growth increasingly protects the shoreline and allows tidal flats to form in their lee. As these spits accrete, they become armored on their lagoonal side by beachrock formation. In the last 20 years a spit approximately 1/2 km long has grown, and beachrock has already armored its recurved lagoonal side. At Umm Said on the southeast side of Qatar, seawardly accreting barchan dunes composed of quartz sand have built a 40-km long, 10-km wide sabkha as thick as 30 m. Aerial and ground photographs show that certain dunes near the seaward edge of the sabkha have migrated into the sea and have contributed to shoreline accretion. The observed rate of dune migration suggests that within approximately 100 years the remaining quartz sands will be depleted and blown into the sea because there is no replenishment of the dune field. Subsequently, the area will revert to one of carbonate deposition. Fine-grained dolomite is presently precipitating in interstitial brines in the landwardmost portions of this unusual sabkha. In the geologic record, such a deposit would be an anomalous, porous and permeable, cross-bedded, linear, 30-m thick, dolomite-cemented sandstone body encased in carbonate sediments. A modern model such as the one at Umm Said can provide useful clues for determining the origin of similar deposits in ancient rocks.

  15. Making web annotations persistent over time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanderson, Robert; Van De Sompel, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    As Digital Libraries (DL) become more aligned with the web architecture, their functional components need to be fundamentally rethought in terms of URIs and HTTP. Annotation, a core scholarly activity enabled by many DL solutions, exhibits a clearly unacceptable characteristic when existing models are applied to the web: due to the representations of web resources changing over time, an annotation made about a web resource today may no longer be relevant to the representation that is served from that same resource tomorrow. We assume the existence of archived versions of resources, and combine the temporal features of the emerging Open Annotation data model with the capability offered by the Memento framework that allows seamless navigation from the URI of a resource to archived versions of that resource, and arrive at a solution that provides guarantees regarding the persistence of web annotations over time. More specifically, we provide theoretical solutions and proof-of-concept experimental evaluations for two problems: reconstructing an existing annotation so that the correct archived version is displayed for all resources involved in the annotation, and retrieving all annotations that involve a given archived version of a web resource.

  16. Mineral accretion technology for coral reef restoration, shore protection, and adaptation to rising sea level

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goreau, T.J.; Hilbertz, W.

    1997-12-31

    Electrolysis of seawater is used to precipitate limestone on top of underwater steel structures to create growing artificial reefs to enhance coral growth, restore coral reef habitat, provide shelter for fish, shellfish, and other marine organisms, generate white sand for beach replenishment, and protect shore lines from wave erosion. Films and slides will be shown of existing structures in Jamaica, Panama, and the Maldives, and projects being developed in these and other locations will be evaluated. The method is unique because it creates the only artificial reef structures that generate the natural limestone substrate from which corals and coral reefs are composed, speeding the settlement and growth of calcareous organisms, and attracting the full range of other reef organisms. The structures are self-repairing and grow stronger with age. Power sources utilized include batteries, battery chargers, photovoltaic panels, and windmills. The cost of seawalls and breakwaters produced by this method is less than one tenth that of conventional technology. Because the technology is readily scaled up to build breakwaters and artificial islands able to keep pace with rising sea level it is capable of playing an important role in protecting low lying coastal areas from the effects of global climate change.

  17. Rhythmic bedding patterns for locating structural features, Niobrara Formation, United States western interior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laferriere, A.P.; Hattin, D.E.

    1989-05-01

    Milankovitch-type bedding cycles are well developed in the Upper Cretaceous Fort Hays Limestone Member, Niobrara Formation. These time-equivalent cycles can be correlated across much of Colorado, Kansas, and northeastern New Mexico by combining subsurface and outcrop data. Documentation of thickness variations within the regionally persistent Fort Hays bedding sequences furnishes a basis for fine-scale analysis of Late Cretaceous crustal movements within the eastern ramp region of the Western Interior foreland basin. Regional thickness changes in groups of shale-limestone couplets were correlated and mapped in outcrop and in the subsurface to locate structural elements that influenced Fort Hays deposition. In the Denver-Julesburg basin of Colorado and western Kansas, up to 6.1 m (20 ft) of thinning of the section occurs dominantly along northeastwardly trending belts formed during Late Cretaceous reactivation of the Transcontinental arch. Mapping of these small-scale thickness changes in the Fort Hays demonstrates that Cretaceous reactivation of the Transcontinental arch was not restricted to the northern part of the Denver-Julesburg basin. Additional structures may occur as far south as the Colorado-New Mexico border. A northwestwardly thinning trend is also apparent and may have resulted from increased compaction and diagenesis, reduction of sediment input during transgression, or from uplift in the vicinity of the Colorado Front Range. 8 figures.

  18. Summary and interpretive synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-05-01

    This chapter summarizes the major advances made through our integrated geological studies of the Lisburne Group in northern Alaska. The depositional history of the Lisburne Group is discussed in a framework of depositional sequence stratigraphy. Although individual parasequences (small-scale carbonate cycles) of the Wahoo Limestone cannot be correlated with certainty, parasequence sets can be interpreted as different systems tracts within the large-scale depositional sequences, providing insights on the paleoenvironments, paleogeography and platform geometry. Conodont biostratigraphy precisely established the position of the Mississippian-Pennsylvanian boundary within an important reference section, where established foraminiferal biostratigraphy is inconsistent with respect to conodont-based time-rock boundaries. However, existing Carboniferous conodont zonations are not readily applicable because most zonal indicators are absent, so a local zonation scheme was developed. Diagenetic studies of the Lisburne Group recognized nineteen subaerial exposure surfaces and developed a cement stratigraphy that includes: early cements associated with subaerial exposure surfaces in the Lisburne Group; cements associated with the sub-Permian unconformity; and later burial cements. Subaerial exposure surfaces in the Alapah Limestone are easily explained, being associated with peritidal environments at the boundaries of Sequence A. The Lisburne exposed in ANWR is generally tightly cemented and supermature, but could still be a good reservoir target in the adjacent subsurface of ANWR given the appropriate diagenetic, deformational and thermal history. Our ongoing research on the Lisburne Group will hopefully provide additional insights in future publications.

  19. Results and synthesis of integrated geologic studies of the carboniferous Lisburne Group of Northeastern Alaska. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watts, K.F.

    1995-05-01

    The primary objective of this project was to develop an integrated database to characterize reservoir heterogeneities resulting from numerous small-scale shallowing-upward cycles (parasequences) comprising the Pennsylvanian Wahoo 1imestone. The Wahoo Limestone is the upper part of an extensive carbonate platform sequence of the Carboniferous Lisburne Group which is widely exposed in the Brooks Range and is a widespread hydrocarbon reservoir unit in the subsurface of the North Slope of Alaska. A leading goal is to determine lateral and vertical variations in the complex mosaic of carbonate facies comprising the Wahoo. Aspects of rock units adjacent to the Wahoo, the underlying Endicott Group and Alapah Limestone and overlying Echooka Formation are also discussed. This report includes an overview of the regional geological framework; a discussion of biostratigraphic results; a summary of diagenetic studies; and preliminary results of comparative studies of a cored well in the Lisburne oil field. A computerized database system (the Wahoo database) was developed and is explained in a users manual. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  20. Search for oil in Papua New Guinea: Evolution of structural interpretations in a difficult physical environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matzke, R.H. )

    1990-09-01

    Chevron Nuigini Pty Ltd. and its partners are exploring for oil in the foreland folded belt of Papua New Guinea's Southern Highlands province, one of the remaining frontier areas of the world that offers the potential for the discovery of giant oil fields. The search has been focused on the Lower Cretaceous Toro sandstone, an excellent reservoir rock unit about 100 m thick. It is overlain by up to 1,200 m of Upper Cretaceous marine shales, siltstones, and fine sandstones (Ieru formation) and, finally, at the surface by the thick (1,000 m) Miocene Darai limestone. The entire stratigraphic sequence was folded during the Pliocene-Pleistocene into a broad belt of thrusted anticlines that have good surface expression throughout the highland valleys and ridges. The thick carapace of folded limestone is heavily karsted and extremely rugged, circumstances that have prohibited effective seismic surveying of the region. Prospecting for oil has consequently relied almost entirely on structural interpretation of surface geologic data, including images from satellites and airborne radar, and, most particularly, on the results of wildcat drilling. Fortunately, early drilling was rewarded with encouraging quantities of gas, gas condensate, and oil. Structural models and concepts are continuing to evolve as the results of successive wells become available, thus providing the critical insight into the habitat of hydrocarbons in this complex environment.

  1. Waste tires as auxiliary fuel for cement kilns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dodds, J.

    1987-01-01

    The subject I have been asked to speak about is the utilization of scrap tires as an auxiliary fuel for cement kilns. My experience with scrap tires began five years ago when we performed a technical and economic evaluation for tire pyrolysis. I work for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory which is supported by the Department of Energy. My interest in scrap tires continued; in 1984 the Department of Energy and the Portland Cement Association jointly sponsored a conference on the utilization of scrap tires in cement kilns. Most of my remarks today are based upon that conference along with some current information in the US. Mr. Sladek requested that I speak on the combustion process, the progress to date, and the factors that impede or encourage implementation of using scrap tires in cement kilns. For discussion purposes it would help if we had a common understanding of the cement manufacturing process. Cement is made by heating a mixture of finely ground limestone and silica from clay or sand to about 1450/degree/C in a large rotating kiln. The heat causes the limestone to decarbonate and subsequently react with the silica to form calcium silicates. 5 figs.

  2. Application of water jet assisted drag bit and pick cutter for the cutting of coal measure rocks. Final technical report. [Tests of combination in different rocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ropchan, D.; Wang, F.D.; Wolgamott, J.

    1980-04-01

    A laboratory investigation was made of the effects of high pressure water jets on the cutting forces of drag bit cutters in sedimentary rocks. A hard and soft sandstone, shale and limestone were tested with commercially obtainable conical and plow type drag bits on the EMI linear cutting machine. About 1200 cuts were made at different bit penetration, jet orientation, and water pressure to determine the reduction of cutting forces on the bit from the use of the water jet. Both independent and interactive cutting was used. The greatest reduction in cutting forces were with both of the sandstones; the drag forces were reduced about 30 percent and the normal forces about 60 percent at 5000 psi water pressure with the nozzle behind the bit. The method was less effective in the shale, except at 10,000 psi water pressure the reduction in drag force was about 55 percent. Of the rocks tested, the limestone was least affected by the water jet. The cutting forces for the plow bit showed continuous change with wear so a machined conical bit was used for most of the testing. Tests with the plow bit did show a large reduction in cutting forces by using the water jet with worn bits. An economic analysis of equipping a drag bit tunnel boring machine indicated that the water jet system could reduce costs per foot in sandstone by up to 40 percent.

  3. AFBC - operation of small scale demonstration for greenhouse heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashworth, R.A.; Plessinger, D.A.; Webner, R.L.; Machamer, T.

    1996-12-31

    A 2.2 million Btu/hr unit prototype AFBC system was installed in 1995 at Cedar Lane Farms, a commercial nursery in Ohio. The AFBC is in operation and is heating hot water for greenhouse temperature control. A team consisting of the Energy and Environmental Research Corporation, the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center of Ohio State University and the Will-Burt Company developed this technology with funding support from the Ohio Coal Development Office and the U.S. Department of Energy. The system is fully automated with little operator attention being required. Operating experience at Cedar Lane Farms has shown that only 2 hours per day of operation attention is required for the system. The system includes flyash/sorbent reinjection and underbed coal/limestone feed. These features provide for good limestone utilization; a Ca/S (in coal) ratio of 2.5 will maintain an SO{sub 2} emissions level of 1.2 lb/10{sup 6} Btu when burning high sulfur (3.2%) Ohio coal. A baghouse is used to control particulate emissions. Based on the success of the prototype unit, a design has been recently completed for a commercial size 10 x 10{sup 6} Btu/hr capacity range. Multiple AFBC units can be used to provide larger heat outputs. Potential coal-fired AFBC users include institutions (schools, hospitals, prisons, government), light industry (agricultural, food processing), commercial users (shopping centers), and large residential users (apartment complexes). 6 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Drilling fluids and lost circulation in hot dry rock geothermal wells at Fenton Hill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nuckols, E.B.; Miles, D.; Laney, R.; Polk, G.; Friddle, H.; Simpson, G.; Baroid, N.L.

    1981-01-01

    Geothermal hot dry rock drilling activities at Fenton Hill in the Jemez Mountains of northern New Mexico encountered problems in designing drilling fluids that will reduce catastrophic lost circulation. Four wells (GT-2, EE-1, EE-2, and EE-3) penetrated 733 m (2405 ft) of Cenozoic and Paleozoic sediments and Precambrian crystalline rock units to +4572 m (+15,000 ft). The Cenozoic rocks consist of volcanics (rhyolite, tuff, and pumice) and volcaniclastic sediments. Paleozoic strata include Permian red beds (Abo Formation) and the Pennsylvanian Madera and Sandia Formations, which consist of massive limestones and shales. Beneath the Sandia Formation are igneous and metamorphic rocks of Precambrian age. The drilling fluid used for the upper sedimentary formations was a polymeric flocculated bentonite drilling fluid. Severe loss of circulation occurred in the cavernous portions of the Sandia limestones. The resultant loss of hydrostatic head caused sloughing of the Abo and of some beds within the Madera Formation. Stuck pipe, repetitive reaming, poor casing cement jobs and costly damage to the intermediate casing resulted. The Precambrian crystalline portion of the EE-2 and EE-3 wells were directionally drilled at a high angle, and drilled with water as the primary circulating fluid. Due to high temperatures (approximately 320/sup 0/C (608/sup 0/F) BHT) and extreme abrasiveness of the deeper part of the Precambrian crystalline rocks, special problems of corrosion inhibition and of torque friction were incurred.

  5. Aquifer Characteristics Data Report for the Weldon Spring Site chemical plant/raffinate pits and vicinity properties for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    This report describes the procedures and methods used, and presents the results of physical testing performed, to characterize the hydraulic properties of the shallow Mississippian-Devonian aquifer beneath the Weldon Spring chemical plant, raffinate pits, and vicinity properties. The aquifer of concern is composed of saturated rocks of the Burlington-Keokuk Limestone which constitutes the upper portion of the Mississippian-Devonian aquifer. This aquifer is a heterogeneous anisotropic medium which can be described in terms of diffuse Darcian flow overlain by high porosity discrete flow zones and conduits. Average hydraulic conductivity for all wells tested is 9.6E-02 meters/day (3.1E-01 feet/day). High hydraulic conductivity values are representative of discrete flow in the fractured and weathered zones in the upper Burlington-Keokuk Limestone. They indicate heterogeneities within the Mississippian-Devonian aquifer. Aquifer heterogeneity in the horizontal plane is believed to be randomly distributed and is a function of fracture spacing, solution voids, and preglacial weathering phenomena. Relatively high hydraulic conductivities in deeper portions of the aquifer are though to be due to the presence of widely spaced fractures. 44 refs., 27 figs., 9 tabs.

  6. Molten iron oxysulfide as a superior sulfur sorbent. First and second quarters progress report, September 1, 1989--March 1, 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hepworth, M.T.

    1990-03-06

    Slagging combustors with injected lime or limestone are being considered as replacements for conventional coal burners. They have advantages in that they can be staged to reduce NO{sub x} and SO{sub X} emissions. Iron oxide, as an alternative to lime or limestone may be effective not only as a desulfurizing agent, but, under the right conditions of oxygen potential, it can act as a flux to produce a glassy slag. This glassy slag should be dense and environmentally inert. In this reporting period, the thermodynamic conditions for the operation of the first stage of a combustor operating on a Illinois No. 2 Coal have been examined with respect to the formation of the four phase equilibrium: FeO(wustite)/Fe/liquid/gas over the temperature 950{degrees} to 1300{degrees}C. The minimum dosages of iron oxide which are required at equilibrium and the calculated maximum percent sulfur removal are reported. Also given are the expected pounds of So, per million Btu of heat evolution calculated for complete combustion. These preliminary results indicate that higher temperatures, in the range studied, give better results approaching 96 percent sulfur removal from a coal containing (on a dry basis) 3.29% by weight sulfur. A comparison is made between iron oxide and lime as a desulfurizing agent.

  7. LIFAC flue gas desulfurization process an alternative SO{sub 2} control strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, J.G.; Vilala, J.

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses the results from two recently completed LIFAC flue gas desulfurization plants - 300 MW Shand lignite powered station owned by Saskatchewan Power Corporation and 60 MW Whitewater Valley high sulfur coal fired station owned by Richmond Powerand Light. LIFACis a dry FGD process in which limestone is injected into the upper regions of the boiler furnace and an activation reactor is used to humidify the unreacted limestone to achieve additional sulfur capture. The performance in both plants indicates that 70 to 80% sulfur is removed at a Ca/S ratio of 2. Cost performance data from these plants has shown that LI FAC both on construction cost and $/ton SO{sub 2} removed basis is very cost competitive compared to other SO{sub 2} control technologies. The Richmond plant has been realized under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology program. The Shand plant is the first commercial installation in North America. The paper also discusses highlights of operating and maintenance experience, availability and handling of the solid waste product.

  8. Technology transfer for the revegetation of phytotoxic, smelter-denuded soils -- The potential use of minimal amelioration and reciprocal transplantation of metal-tolerant grasses at Flin Flon, Manitoba

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winterhalder, K.

    1998-12-31

    Soils in the Sudbury mining and smelting region that have been rendered phytotoxic and barren by acidification and particulate copper and nickel contamination can be detoxified and revegetated by the surface application of ground limestone, an approach referred to as minimal amelioration. Soils at Flin Flon, Manitoba have been similarly denuded, in this case by acidification and particulate copper and zinc contamination. Field plot experiments carried out in Flin Flon, a more northerly location than Sudbury, with a more severe climate, have shown that the surface application of ground limestone to barren soil leads to colonization of birches, poplars and willows, as on the Sudbury barrens. Furthermore, it has been shown that the copper/nickel tolerant ecotype of Tufted Hairgrass (Deschampsia caevpitosa) found on the Sudbury barrens can be successfully transplanted onto the Flin Flon barrens, and that the copper/zinc tolerant ecotype of Browntop (Agrostis tenuis) found on the Flin Flon barrens can be successfully transplanted onto phytotoxic soils in Sudbury. The significance of these findings, and the possibility of extending such technology transfer to similar sites, such as the copper/zinc smelters of the Kola Peninsula in Russia, are discussed.

  9. Source rocks of the Sub-Andean basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raedeke, L.D. )

    1993-02-01

    Seven source rock systems were mapped using a consistent methodology to allow basin comparison from Trinidad to southern Chile. Silurian and Devonian systems, deposited in passive margin and intracratonic settings, have fair-good original oil/gas potential from central and northern Bolivia to southern Peru. Kerogens range from mature in the foreland to overmature in the thrust belt. Permian to Carboniferous deposition in local restricted basins formed organic-rich shales and carbonates with very good original oil/gas potential, principally in northern Bolivia and southern Peru. Late Triassic to early Jurassic marine shales and limestones, deposited in deep, narrow, basins from Ecuador to north-central maturity. Locally, in the Cuyo rift basin of northern Argentina, a Triassic lacustrine unit is a very good, mature oil source. Early Cretaceous to Jurassic marine incursions into the back-arc basins of Chile-Argentina deposited shales and limestones. Although time transgressive (younging to the south), this system is the principal source in southern back-arc basins, with best potential in Neuquen, where three intervals are stacked A late Cretaceous marine transgressive shale is the most important source in northern South America. The unit includes the La Luna and equivalents extending from Trinidad through Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and into northern Peru. Elsewhere in South America upper Cretaceous marine-lacustrine rocks are a possible source in the Altiplano and Northwest basins of Bolivia and Argentina. Middle Miocene to Oligocene source system includes shallow marine, deltaic, and lacustrine sediments from Trinidad to northern Peru.

  10. Bridging the Gap between Chemical Flooding and Independent Oil Producers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stan McCool; Tony Walton; Paul Whillhite; Mark Ballard; Miguel Rondon; Kaixu Song; Zhijun Liu; Shahab Ahmed; Peter Senior

    2012-03-31

    Ten Kanas oil reservoirs/leases were studied through geological and engineering analysis to assess the potential performance of chemical flooding to recover oil. Reservoirs/leases that have been efficiently waterflooded have the highest performance potential for chemical flooding. Laboratory work to identify efficient chemical systems and to test the oil recovery performance of the systems was the major effort of the project. Efficient chemical systems were identified for crude oils from nine of the reservoirs/leases. Oil recovery performance of the identified chemical systems in Berea sandstone rocks showed 90+ % recoveries of waterflood residual oil for seven crude oils. Oil recoveries increased with the amount of chemical injected. Recoveries were less in Indiana limestone cores. One formulation recovered 80% of the tertiary oil in the limestone rock. Geological studies for nine of the oil reservoirs are presented. Pleasant Prairie, Trembley, Vinland and Stewart Oilfields in Kansas were the most favorable of the studied reservoirs for a pilot chemical flood from geological considerations. Computer simulations of the performance of a laboratory coreflood were used to predict a field application of chemical flooding for the Trembley Oilfield. Estimates of field applications indicated chemical flooding is an economically viable technology for oil recovery.

  11. Expansion of the commercial output of Estonian oil shale mining and processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fraiman, J.; Kuzmiv, I. [Estonian Oil Shale State Co., Jyhvi (Estonia). Scientific Research Center

    1996-09-01

    Economic and ecological preconditions are considered for the transition from monoproduct oil shale mining to polyproduct Estonian oil shale deposits. Underground water, limestone, and underground heat found in oil shale mines with small reserves can be operated for a long time using chambers left after oil shale extraction. The adjacent fields of the closed mines can be connected to the operations of the mines that are still working. Complex usage of natural resources of Estonian oil shale deposits is made possible owing to the unique features of its geology and technology. Oil shale seam development is carried out at shallow depths (40--70 m) in stable limestones and does not require expensive maintenance. Such natural resources as underground water, carbonate rocks, heat of rock mass, and underground chambers are opened by mining and are ready for utilization. Room-and-pillar mining does not disturb the surface, and worked oil shale and greenery waste heaps do not breach its ecology. Technical decisions and economic evaluation are presented for the complex utilization of natural resources in the boundaries of mine take of the ``Tammiku`` underground mine and the adjacent closed mine N2. Ten countries have already experienced industrial utilization of oil shale in small volumes for many years. Usually oil shale deposits are not notable for complex geology of the strata and are not deeply bedded. Thus complex utilization of quite extensive natural resources of Estonian oil shale deposits is of both scientific and practical interest.

  12. Manilla Bay 1, 1A, 1A sidetrack; success against all odds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durkee, E.F.; Rillera, F.G. )

    1996-01-01

    The discovery of gas in Manila Bay is one of the more significant exploration discoveries in the Western Pacific in recent years. Within the Philippine Archipelago there is no better geographic or economic location to discover gas than at Manila Bay. Geologically, the well has proven that new concepts applied to old areas, in opposition to past beliefs and dogmas is still a valid way to find hydrocarbons. This is especially true re the western margin of the Central Valley of Luzon. New Venture reviewers (more than 100) were generally negative about the possibility of limestone objectives at this setting. The operators eventually drilled the prospect by themselves. The Manila Bay discovery well is on a large basement uplift with more than 2000 feet of vertical closure and 8,000 acres of areal closure at Miocene levels. The geological surprise was that the well drilled through a Pliocene Limestone (700 feet) charged with gas. An estimated in place resource of up to 2 TCF is possible. This is economically very significant for the Philippines as it is only 30 km from downtown Manila, a city of some 10 million people without any indigenous energy supply. Over-pressured fresh water sands induced drilling problems in the initial well MB-1AST and the deeper primary objectives in Middle to Lower Miocene, also predicted to be carbonates, were not reached. A second well to appraise the Pliocene and explore the deep zones will be drilled in early 1996.

  13. Manilla Bay 1, 1A, 1A sidetrack; success against all odds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durkee, E.F.; Rillera, F.G.

    1996-12-31

    The discovery of gas in Manila Bay is one of the more significant exploration discoveries in the Western Pacific in recent years. Within the Philippine Archipelago there is no better geographic or economic location to discover gas than at Manila Bay. Geologically, the well has proven that new concepts applied to old areas, in opposition to past beliefs and dogmas is still a valid way to find hydrocarbons. This is especially true re the western margin of the Central Valley of Luzon. New Venture reviewers (more than 100) were generally negative about the possibility of limestone objectives at this setting. The operators eventually drilled the prospect by themselves. The Manila Bay discovery well is on a large basement uplift with more than 2000 feet of vertical closure and 8,000 acres of areal closure at Miocene levels. The geological surprise was that the well drilled through a Pliocene Limestone (700 feet) charged with gas. An estimated in place resource of up to 2 TCF is possible. This is economically very significant for the Philippines as it is only 30 km from downtown Manila, a city of some 10 million people without any indigenous energy supply. Over-pressured fresh water sands induced drilling problems in the initial well MB-1AST and the deeper primary objectives in Middle to Lower Miocene, also predicted to be carbonates, were not reached. A second well to appraise the Pliocene and explore the deep zones will be drilled in early 1996.

  14. New hypothesis for formation of Lengguru foldbelt, Irian Jaya, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dow, D.B.; Robinson, G.P.; Ratman, N.

    1985-02-01

    The Lengguru foldbelt, an area 300 km (180 mi) long with a maximum width of 100 km (60 mi), is near the western end of the island of New Guinea. Sedimentary rocks of the belt include Mesozoic marine sandstone and shale, Tertiary deep-water limestone, Tertiary shelf limestone, and upper Miocene to Pleistocene detritus. The slab of folded platform sedimentary rocks making up the Lengguru foldbelt was originally at the northern margin of the Australian continent and was thrust southwestward over the undeformed continental crust of the western part of New Guinea. The slab was also rotated clockwise by about 30/sup 0/ about a pivot at its northern end. During rotation, thrusting and decollement within the foldbelt caused a repetition by stacking of the stratigraphic section, and the belt was dragged along transcurrent faults to the south. This foldbelt is of interest for oil exploration because of proximity to the Salawati and Bintuni oil fields on the westernmost tip of the island.

  15. Flue gas desulfurization: Physicochemical and biotechnological approaches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pandey, R.A.; Biswas, R.; Chakrabarti, T.; Devotta, S.

    2005-07-01

    Various flue gas desulfurization processes - physicochemical, biological, and chemobiological - for the reduction of emission of SO{sub 2} with recovery of an economic by-product have been reviewed. The physicochemical processes have been categorized as 'once-through' and 'regenerable.' The prominent once-through technologies include wet and dry scrubbing. The wet scrubbing technologies include wet limestone, lime-inhibited oxidation, limestone forced oxidation, and magnesium-enhanced lime and sodium scrubbing. The dry scrubbing constitutes lime spray drying, furnace sorbent injection, economizer sorbent injection, duct sorbent injection, HYPAS sorbent injection, and circulating fluidized bed treatment process. The regenerable wet and dry processes include the Wellman Lord's process, citrate process, sodium carbonate eutectic process, magnesium oxide process, amine process, aqueous ammonia process, Berglau Forchung's process, and Shell's process. Besides these, the recently developed technologies such as the COBRA process, the OSCAR process, and the emerging biotechnological and chemobiological processes are also discussed. A detailed outline of the chemistry, the advantages and disadvantages, and the future research and development needs for each of these commercially viable processes is also discussed.

  16. Pennsylvanian-Permian Antler foreland of eastern Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Snyder, W.S. . Dept. of Geosciences); Trexler, J.H. Jr. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    Models for the Antler foreland generally assume that it was a Mississippian feature dominated by a single, large basin (the Antler foredeep). Recent work indicates that the foreland, as a tectonic region, is longer-lived, and is better described as a series of sub-basins separated by intervening structural highs. Long sections reveal space/time changes in depositional facies and sedimentologic features indicative or suggestive of this repeated tectonism. For example, in the southern Pancake Range, the fluvial-deltaic clastic units of the Late Mississippian-earliest Pennsylvanian Neward Canyon sequence are overlain by 540 m of cyclical Pennsylvanian Ely Limestone. The flooding event that marks the boundary between these units occurs during a long-term 2nd order eustatic low stand and thus reflects the regional tectonism that created the Ely basin'. Further, tectonically driven subsidence seems necessary to sustain deposition of the thick of marginal marine-open shelf Ely Limestone at this locality. Regionally, Early Permian deposition within the Dry Mountain trough was dominated by a complex series of local tectonic controls. Within eastern Nevada, tectonic influences on the stratigraphy continued through at least the Middle Permian, and this tectonism perhaps merged with that of the classic Late Permian-Early Triassic Sonoma orogeny. One consequence of this protracted tectonism was development or reactivation of zones of structural weakness that fragmented the foreland into a series of basins and highs and that accommodated differing geometries and styles of deformation.

  17. Permian karst topography in the Wichita uplift, southwestern Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donovan, R.N. Busbey, A.B. . Geology Dept.)

    1993-02-01

    The Wichita uplift in southwestern Oklahoma is one part of a record of Pennsylvania and early Permian deformation that affected the Southern Oklahoma aulacogen. As a result of a partial inversion, the Lower Paleozoic section of this aulacogen was sequentially stripped off an uplift between the Wichita uplift and the Anadarko basin, resulting in the exposure of ultrabasic rocks deep in the Cambrian igneous fill of the aulacogen. Following the late Paleozoic tectonism, the topography of the uplift was entombed beneath Permian sediments and remained essentially undisturbed until exhumation during the present erosional cycle. Modern erosion is gradually exposing this topography, permitting morphometric analysis of the Permian hill forms. Because of the variation of lithology in the uplift, it is possible to isolate the effects of weathering processes such as intense hydrolysis of the igneous rocks (producing, among other features, or topography) and limestone dissolution, in the form of a surface and subsurface karst imprint. The latter process resulted in a network of small caves that are essentially fissures eroded along tectonic fractures. These small caves can be found in all the exposed areas of limestone. They are particularly noteworthy for three reasons: in at least five examples they contain a complex fauna of Permian vertebrates (mostly fragmentary), speleothems in some examples contain hydrocarbon inclusions, derived from the underlying Anadarko basin, some of the caves yield evidence of post burial evolution in the form of clay infiltration from the surface and brine flushing from the underlying Anadarko basin.

  18. Coolside waste management demonstration OCDO grant agreement No. CDO/D-902-9. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, M.; Winschel, R.A.

    1997-10-01

    The objectives of this project were to evaluate the potential utilization in road construction of wastes produced from the Coolside, LIMB (limestone injection multi-stage burner) and FBC (fluidized-bed combustion) processes, and to specify criteria for landfill disposal of waste from the Coolside process. These three processes are considered to be clean coal technologies. The Coolside process involves injecting an aqueous slurry of hydrated lime into the ductwork downstream of the air preheater in a coal-fired boiler. The hydrated lime captures sulfur dioxide from the flue gas producing anhydrous calcium sulfite and calcium sulfate, which are collected along with the unused hydrated lime and fly ash. The LIMB process involves injection of lime or hydrated lime directly into the furnace to capture sulfur dioxide. The waste consists principally of anhydrous calcium sulfate, lime, and fly ash. Both processes were demonstrated successfully at the Edgewater Station of Ohio Edison in Lorrain, OH, from 1989 to 1992. Circulating fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) is a commercial technology which combines steam generation with SO{sub 2} control by burning coal in a circulating bed of limestone. The waste, chemically similar to LIMB waste, is produced by bleed-off of the bed material and by collection of the flue dust. All three processes produce a dry solid waste, which must either be used or disposed of and managed to ensure environmental compliance and economic feasibility. The project was completed in June 1996.

  19. Carbon Dioxide Sealing Capacity: Textural or Compositional Controls?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cranganu, Constantin; Soleymani, Hamidreza; Sadiqua, Soleymani; Watson, Kieva

    2013-11-30

    This research project is aiming to assess the carbon dioxide sealing capacity of most common seal-rocks, such as shales and non-fractured limestones, by analyzing the role of textural and compositional parameters of those rocks. We hypothesize that sealing capacity is controlled by textural and/or compositional pa-rameters of caprocks. In this research, we seek to evaluate the importance of textural and compositional parameters affecting the sealing capacity of caprocks. The conceptu-al framework involves two testable end-member hypotheses concerning the sealing ca-pacity of carbon dioxide reservoir caprocks. Better understanding of the elements controlling sealing quality will advance our knowledge regarding the sealing capacity of shales and carbonates. Due to relatively low permeability, shale and non-fractured carbonate units are considered relatively imper-meable formations which can retard reservoir fluid flow by forming high capillary pres-sure. Similarly, these unites can constitute reliable seals for carbon dioxide capture and sequestration purposes. This project is a part of the comprehensive project with the final aim of studying the caprock sealing properties and the relationship between microscopic and macroscopic characteristics of seal rocks in depleted gas fields of Oklahoma Pan-handle. Through this study we examined various seal rock characteristics to infer about their respective effects on sealing capacity in special case of replacing reservoir fluid with super critical carbon dioxide (scCO{sub 2}). To assess the effect of textural and compositional properties on scCO{sub 2} maximum reten-tion column height we collected 30 representative core samples in caprock formations in three counties (Cimarron, Texas, Beaver) in Oklahoma Panhandle. Core samples were collected from various seal formations (e.g., Cherokee, Keys, Morrowan) at different depths. We studied the compositional and textural properties of the core samples using several techniques

  20. Major Oil Plays in Utah and Vicinity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas C. Chidsey; Craig D. Morgan; Kevin McClure; Douglas A. Sprinkel; Roger L. Bon; Hellmut H. Doelling

    2003-12-31

    Utah oil fields have produced over 1.2 billion barrels (191 million m{sup 3}). However, the 13.7 million barrels (2.2 million m{sup 3}) of production in 2002 was the lowest level in over 40 years and continued the steady decline that began in the mid-1980s. The Utah Geological Survey believes this trend can be reversed by providing play portfolios for the major oil-producing provinces (Paradox Basin, Uinta Basin, and thrust belt) in Utah and adjacent areas in Colorado and Wyoming. Oil plays are geographic areas with petroleum potential caused by favorable combinations of source rock, migration paths, reservoir rock characteristics, and other factors. The play portfolios will include: descriptions and maps of the major oil plays by reservoir; production and reservoir data; case-study field evaluations; locations of major oil pipelines; identification and discussion of land-use constraints; descriptions of reservoir outcrop analogs; and summaries of the state-of-the-art drilling, completion, and secondary/tertiary techniques for each play. This report covers research activities for the sixth quarter of the project (October 1 through December 31, 2003). This work included describing outcrop analogs for the Jurassic Twin Creek Limestone and Mississippian Leadville Limestone, major oil producers in the thrust belt and Paradox Basin, respectively, and analyzing best practices used in the southern Green River Formation play of the Uinta Basin. Production-scale outcrop analogs provide an excellent view of reservoir petrophysics, facies characteristics, and boundaries contributing to the overall heterogeneity of reservoir rocks. They can be used as a ''template'' for evaluation of data from conventional core, geophysical and petrophysical logs, and seismic surveys. In the Utah/Wyoming thrust belt province, the Jurassic Twin Creek Limestone produces from subsidiary closures along major ramp anticlines where the low-porosity limestone beds are extensively fractured and sealed