Sample records for djusted gro wth

  1. GroSolar | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are8COaBulkTransmissionSitingProcess.pdfGetec AG ContractingGreenOrderNebraska:Gridley, California:Iowa: EnergyGroSolar

  2. SOLAR CELLS FABRICATED WTH CuInS2 FILMS DEPOSITED USING SINGLE-SOURCE PRECURSORS Michael H. Jin1,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scofield, John H.

    in developing low-cost highly efficient solar cells on light-weight flexible substrates, which will ultimatelySOLAR CELLS FABRICATED WTH CuInS2 FILMS DEPOSITED USING SINGLE-SOURCE PRECURSORS Michael H. Jin1 report a chalcopyrite thin film solar cell fabrication process established at NASA Glenn Research Center

  3. A HYBRID MAGNETICALLY/THERMALLY DRIVEN WIND IN THE BLACK HOLE GRO J1655Ė40?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Homan, Jeroen

    During its 2005 outburst, GRO J1655-40 was observed twice with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer; the second observation revealed a spectrum rich with ionized absorption lines from elements ranging ...

  4. BeppoSAX observations of GRO J1744-28

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doroshenko, R; Doroshenko, V; Suleimanov, V; Piraino, S

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an analysis of BeppoSAX observations of the unique transient bursting X-ray pulsar GRO J1744-28. The observations took place in March 1997 during the decay phase of the outburst. We find that the persistent broadband X-ray continuum of the source is consistent with a cutoff power law typical for the accreting pulsars. We also detect the fluorescence iron line at 6.7 keV and an absorption feature at ~4.5 keV, which we interpret as a cyclotron line. The corresponding magnetic field strength in the line forming region is ~3.7 x 10^11 G. Neither line is detected in the spectra of the bursts. However, additional soft thermal component with kT ~2 keV was required to describe the burst spectrum. We briefly discuss the nature of this component and argue that among other possibilities it might be connected with thermonuclear flashes at the neutron star surface which accompany the accretion-powered bursts in the source.

  5. Exploring the structural dynamics of the E. coli chaperonin GroEL using translation-libration-screw crystallographic refinement of intermediate states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chaudhry, Charu; Horwich, Arthur L.; Brunger, Axel T.; Adams, Paul D.

    2004-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Large rigid-body domain movements are critical to GroEL-mediated protein folding, especially apical domain elevation and twist associated with the formation of a folding chamber upon binding ATP and co-chaperonin GroES. Here, we have modeled the anisotropic displacements of GroEL domains from various crystallized states, unliganded GroEL, ATP?S-bound, ADP-AlFx/GroES-bound, and ADP/GroES bound, using translation-libration-screw (TLS) analysis. Remarkably, the TLS results show that the inherent motions of unliganded GroEL, a polypeptide-accepting state, are biased along the transition pathway that leads to the folding-active state. In the ADP-AlFx/GroES-bound folding-active state the dynamic modes of the apical domains become reoriented and coupled to the motions of bound GroES. The ADP/GroES complex exhibits these same motions, but they are increased in magnitude, potentially reflecting the decreased stability of the complex after nucleotide hydrolysis. Our results have allowed the visualization of the anisotropic molecular motions that link the static conformations previously observed by X-ray crystallography. Application of the same analyses to other macromolecules where rigid body motions occur may give insight into the large scale dynamics critical for function and thus has the potential to extend our fundamental understanding of molecular machines.

  6. GroSolar formerly Global Resource Options Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORTEnergyFarms A SUKHydrogen CompanyGroSolar formerly Global

  7. The remarkable timing properties of a `hypersoft' state in GRO J1655-40

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uttley, Philip

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the identification and study of an unusual soft state of the black hole low-mass X-ray binary GRO J1655-40, observed during its 2005 outburst by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. Chandra X-ray grating observations have revealed a high mass-outflow accretion disc wind in this state, and we show that the broadband X-ray spectrum is remarkably similar to that observed in the so-called `hypersoft' state of the high mass X-ray binary Cyg X-3, which possesses a strong stellar wind from a Wolf-Rayet secondary. The power-spectral density (PSD) of GRO J1655-40 shows a bending power-law shape, similar to that of canonical soft states albeit with larger fractional rms. However, the characteristic bend-frequency of the PSD is strongly correlated with the X-ray flux, such that the bend-frequency increases by two decades for less than a factor 2 increase in flux. The strong evolution of PSD bend-frequency for very little change in flux or X-ray spectral shape seems to rule out the suppression of high-frequency var...

  8. Spectral Evolution of the Continuum and Disc Line in Dipping in GRO J1655-40

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Balucinska-Church

    2001-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The discovery is reported of emission features in the X-ray spectrum of GRO J1655-40 obtained using Rossi-XTE on 1997, Feb 26. The features have been fitted firstly by two Gaussian lines, which in four spectra have average energies of 5.85+/-0.08 keV and 7.32+/-0.13 keV, strongly suggestive that these are the red- and blueshifted wings of an iron disc line from material with velocity ~0.33 c. The blue wing is apparently less bright than expected for a disc line subject to Doppler boosting, however, known absorption in the spectrum of GRO J1655-40 at energies between ~7 and 8 keV can reduce the apparent brightness of the blue wing. The spectra have also been fitted well using the full relativistic disc line model of Laor, plus an absorption line. This gives a restframe energy between 6.4 and 6.8 keV indicating that the line is from highly ionized iron K_alpha. The Laor model also shows that the line originates at radii extending from ~10 Schwarzschild radii (r_S) outwards. The line is direct evidence for the black hole nature of the compact object. The continuum is well described by dominant disc blackbody emission plus Comptonized emission. During dipping, spectral evolution is well modelled by allowing progressive covering of the disc blackbody and simple absorption of the Comptonized emission showing that the thermal emission is more extended. Acceptable fits are only obtained by including the disc line in the covering term, indicating that it originates in the same inner disc region as the thermal continuum. Dip ingress times and durations are used to provide the radius of the disc blackbody emitter as 170-370 r_S, and the radius of the absorber.

  9. Discovery of a 450 Hz QPO from the Microquasar GRO J1655-40 with RXTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tod E. Strohmayer

    2001-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the discovery with the proportional counter array (PCA) onboard the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) of a 450 Hz quasiperiodic oscillation (QPO) in the hard X-ray flux from the galactic microquasar GRO J1655-40. This is the highest frequency QPO modulation seen to date from a black hole. The QPO is detected only in the hard X-ray band above 13 keV. It is both strong and narrow, with a typical rms amplitude of 4.5 % in the 13 - 27 keV range, and a width of 40 Hz (FWHM). For two observations in which we detect the 450 Hz QPO a previously known 300 Hz QPO is also observed in the 2 - 13 keV band. We show that these two QPO sometimes appear simultaneously, thus demonstrating the first detection of a pair of high frequency QPO in a black hole system. Prior to this, pairs of high frequency QPO have only been detected in neutron star systems. GRO J1655-40 is one of only a handful of black hole systems with a good dynamical mass constraint. For a non-rotating black hole with mass between 5.5 - 7.9 solar masses, the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) ranges from 45 - 70 km. For any mass in this range the radius at which the orbital frequency reaches 450 Hz is less than the ISCO radius, indicating that if the modulation is caused by Kepler motion, the black hole must have appreciable spin. If the QPO frequency is set by the orbital frequency of matter at the ISCO then for this mass range the dimensionless angular momentum lies between 0.15 < j < 0.5. Moreover, if the modulation is caused by oscillation modes in the disk or Lense-Thirring precession, then this would also require a rapidly rotating hole. We briefly discuss the implications of our findings for models of X-ray variability in black holes and neutron stars.

  10. Thermonuclear Burning on the Accreting X-Ray Pulsar GRO J1744-28

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lars Bildsten; Edward F. Brown

    1996-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the thermal stability of nuclear burning on the accreting X-ray pulsar GRO J1744-28. The neutron star's dipolar magnetic field is thermonuclear instabilities are unlikely causes of the hourly bursts seen at very high accretion rates. We then discuss how the stability of the thermonuclear burning depends on both the global accretion rate and the neutron star's magnetic field strength. We emphasize that the appearance of the instability (i.e., whether it looks like a Type I X-ray burst or a flare lasting a few minutes) will yield crucial information on the neutron star's surface magnetic field and the role of magnetic fields in convection. We suggest that a thermal instability in the accretion disk is the origin of the long (~300 days) outburst and that the recurrence time of these outbursts is >50 years. We also discuss the nature of the binary and point out that a velocity measurement of the stellar companion (most likely a Roche-lobe filling giant with m_K>17) will constrain the neutron star mass.

  11. Bodo Bauer, Rdiger Berlich, Daniel Bischof, Michael Burghart, Roland Dyroff, Christian Egle, Karl Eichwalder, Stefan Fent, Werner Fink, Klaus Franken, Fritz Ganter, Jrgen Geck, Carsten Gro,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bremen, Universität

    Bodo Bauer, R√ľdiger Berlich, Daniel Bischof, Michael Burghart, Roland Dyroff, Christian Egle, Karl Eichwalder, Stefan Fent, Werner Fink, Klaus Franken, Fritz Ganter, J√ľrgen Geck, Carsten Gro√?, Rolf Strattner, J√∂rg Strebel, Steve Tomlin, Klaus G. Wagner, Thorsten Wandersmann, Udo Weber, Michael Weyrauch

  12. Propagating Oscillatory Shock Model for QPOS in GRO J1655-40 During the March 2005 Outburst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sandip K. Chakrabarti; A. Nandi; D. Debnath; R. Sarkar; B. G. Datta

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GRO 1655-40, a well known black hole candidate, showed renewed X-ray activity in March 2005 after being dormant for almost eight years. It showed very prominent quasi-periodic oscillations. We analysed the data of two observations in this {\\it Rapid Communication}, one taken on March 2nd, 2005 and the other taken on the March 11th, 2005. On March 2nd, 2005 the shock was weak and the QPO was seen in roughly all energies. On March 11th, 2005 the power density spectra showed that quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) were exhibited in harder X-rays. On the first day, the QPO was seen at 0.13Hz and on the second day, the QPO was seen at $\\sim 6.5$Hz with a spectral break at $\\sim 0.1$Hz. We analysed the QPOs for the period 25th Feb. 2005 to 12th of March, 2005 and showed that the frequency of QPO increased monotonically from 0.088Hz to 15.01Hz. This agrees well if the oscillating shock is assumed to propagate with a constant velocity. On several days we also noticed the presence of very high frequency QPOs and for the first time we detected QPOs in the 600-700Hz range, the highest frequency range so far reported for any black hole candidate.

  13. activation analysis wth: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    treated cocoa, and untreatec, cocoa) and a total analyze'1 by activation sr'tn thermal reactor neutrons gamma ? ray spec . rometry . The ana' ysis o-. cccc- in... Analysis...

  14. Jefferson Lab Signs Contract Wth SensL For Silicon Photomultiplier

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12 InvestigationLabNew SafetyLabJeffersonLab

  15. 9 Science Service Feature Dec. 17, 1934 7 THE WThTEfZ ? Mailed Dec. 10, 1934

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on Meteorolog iviany o r all cyclones of the tempi-ate zone axe now thought t o ori;.inate in the interplsy of conflictin& air currents d o n g a t'frontl' separating masses Qf air diff erinL in direction, teiqerature and humidity. \\That doout tro.?ical cyclones? The l a t t e r are smgposed t o be formed exclusively i n

  16. A high efficiency even order frequency multiplier†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Harold Floyd

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , of the st. andard doubler. The power out of the tank c' ". cuit in eac, "! case Q v)!~ e!d the po?er into t, he tank is 34 Hence, the effic'ency will be Ebb and Coj vill b. . constan; ti!rou. . hcut Lh. entir test. If ib, for a -, iven 2& i. ?djusted...

  17. On the development of a GroEL based platform for identifying pharmacological chaperones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naik, Subhashchandra

    2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    1 CHAPTER 1: ON THE NEED FOR A PLATFORM FOR IDENTIFYING PHARMACOLOGICAL CHAPERONES 1.1 Protein misfolding and proteostasis. 1.1.1 Protein folding and misfolding. a Protein folding and function. Proteins are crucial for all essential life... years. Some of the initial studies in the field of protein folding were performed by Linus Pauling and E.J. Corey, who first discovered that polypeptides form secondary structure elements such as alpha helices and beta sheets (1). Later, Christian...

  18. A Short Biography of 'Gro-mgon Chos-rgyal 'Phags-pa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Densapa, Tashi

    entered Sgo-mang college (gra-tshang) of 'Bras-spungs monastery and received instruction from Mkhan-chen Sanga-rgyas Rdo-rje. He completed his Dge-bshes degree at Ne'u-tog. When he returned to A-mdo, he made great improvements at Bkra-shis 'khyil... in 1720. On the ninth month. of the Iron-Mouse year, he was brought to Lhasa and enthroned in the Potala. Then in the second month of the Iron-Sheep year (1751), the Seventh Dalai Lama assumed full spiritual and temporal powers over Tibet. For details...

  19. Structure of water layers on hydrogen-covered Pt electrodes Tanglaw Roman and Axel Gro

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulm, Universitšt

    - gies in energy conversion and storage. At the same time, modern electrochemistry becomes increasingly of Theoretical Chemistry, Ulm University, D-89069 Ulm, Germany The structure of water layers above hydrogen of Theoretical Chemistry Ulm University D-89069 Ulm/Germany Tel.: +49 (0)731 50 22810 Fax: +49 (0)731 50 22819

  20. Chesapeake Solar LLC a groSolar company | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORTEnergy Offshore Place: SpainGuajirugroSolar company Jump to:

  1. eww F engewF wthF wehF VH @PHHHA PD IIQIQT uEuoD vFY iiogluD sF uF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vu-Quoc, Loc

    pulished in the literture s prtiulr sesF sn uEuo nd heng PHD we present the omputtionl formultion for stti is disussed in uthors nd heng PSF e provide the omputE tionl formultion for dynmi nlysis of geometrillyEext sndwih ems in uEuo nd heng IWD PID toE gether with extensive numeril exmples tht involve lrge deformtion

  2. REU 2006: SCHEDULE FOR WEEKS THREE AND FOUR Morning talks (apprentice): Ryerson 251

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Babai, László

    REU 2006: SCHEDULE FOR WEEKS THREE AND FOUR Morning talks (apprentice): Ryerson 251 Afternoon talks: Eckhart 206 MWF Ryerson 251 TTh Date YSP Abert/Babai Abert Babai Farb Fiore Apprentice Problems Discrete: YSP: 9:30­2:30 WThF Abert/Babai (Apprentice): 9:30­12:00 WThF Abert (Problems and theorems): 2

  3. REU 2006: SCHEDULE FOR WEEKS THREE AND FOUR Morning talks (apprentice): Ryerson 251

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    May, J. Peter

    REU 2006: SCHEDULE FOR WEEKS THREE AND FOUR Morning talks (apprentice): Ryerson 251* * | | | | | | Apprentice |Problems | Discrete | | * * | | | | | | Ryerson 251 |R251/E in summary form: THIRD WEEK: YSP: 9:30-2:30 WThF Abert/Babai (Apprentice): 9:30-12:00 WThF Abert

  4. B y M E R E D I T H F R A N C O M The ground shakes. The gro-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seamons, Kent E.

    explained the proper procedure for safety dur- ing an earthquake has three steps: drop, cover and hold, the Wasatch fault is a series of over- lapping faults running from Malad City, Idaho, through Salt Lake City probability of a large earthquake on the Wasatch fault in the next 50 years. "It's possible we'll live and die

  5. MODELOS PARA PREVISO DE NOTAS DE AVALIAO SENSORIAL DE BEBIDA DE CAF ARBICA COM BASE NA COMPOSIO DO AROMA DO GRO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferreira, M√°rcia M. C.

    MODELOS PARA PREVIS√?O DE NOTAS DE AVALIA√?√?O SENSORIAL DE BEBIDA DE CAF√? AR√ĀBICA COM BASE NA atributos sensoriais com base no perfil cromatogr√°fico dos vol√°teis de gr√£os de caf√© ar√°bica torrado as ferramentas empregadas na an√°lise dos dados. As notas previstas pelos modelos gerados para acidez, amargor

  6. The Periplasmic Cavity of LacY Mutant Cys154 -> Gly: How Open Is Open?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, X; Driessen, AJM; Feringa, BL; Kaback, HR

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GroEL-GroES- mediated protein folding. Chem. Rev. 106, 1917Ėof chaperone-mediated protein folding in the cytosol. Nat.that impair membrane protein folding and generate a membrane

  7. YidC protein, a molecular chaperone for LacY protein folding via the SecYEG protein machinery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, L; Kaback, HR; Dalbey, RE

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GroEL-GroES- mediated protein folding. Chem. Rev. 106, 1917Ėof chaperone-mediated protein folding in the cytosol. Nat.that impair membrane protein folding and generate a membrane

  8. adolescents reporting high: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ARA Gro G520T Egrett high altitude research aircraft with three BAT probes. NOAA ARL Monthly Activity Report Geosciences Websites Summary: The ARA Gro G520T Egrett high...

  9. http://tti.tamu.edu > Variable message signs > Traffic actuated controllers > Traffic signals > Flashing traffic signals > Lane use control signals > Road markings > Rumble strips > Warrants (Traffic control devices) > Gro

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    agencies and private- sector companies on the design, construction, testing and evaluation of highway railings > Transportation corridors > Streambeds > Pipelin Street lighting > Freeways > Highways > Arterial > Light emitting diodes > Portable equipment > Construction equipment > Roadbuilding machinery

  10. Moletular Strucl,urt and Life (Ed. b1' f. Klogoku and T. Nishimura), pp. 207 276, Japan Sci. Soc. Prrs, Toklo/CRC Prus, Boca Raton (1992)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a t ATGACTCAT, althour permits strains to gro\\r DNA-binding exp binds more efficientlYtc protein. GCN4 binds

  11. als teil des: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1990: TBL prgt Begriff "World Wide Web" - Beginn eines gro?en Hypertext Zachmann, Gabriel 4 Whitehead's Ausdehnungslehre Die Kapitel II und III im Teil IV von...

  12. anlagentechnischen grundlagen des: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1990: TBL prgt Begriff "World Wide Web" - Beginn eines gro?en Hypertext Zachmann, Gabriel 8 STRUKTURELLE GRUNDLAGEN UND MECHANIK VON ZYTOGELEN Biology and Medicine...

  13. Thomas Hebbeker Der Tanz der

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hebbeker, Thomas

    von Tycho Brahe) Newton , 1684: Periode gro√?e Halbachse gemeinsame Zentralmasse 32 ~ aP 2 2 a mM Gam

  14. A stoichiometric model of Escherichia coli 's macromolecular synthesis machinery and its integration with metabolism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thiele, Ines

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Protein Folding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .of chaperonin-dependent protein folding in Escherichia coli.Chaperonin-mediated protein folding at the surface of groEL

  15. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE IV Colloque C5,suppltment au Journal de Physique 11, Volume 5,juin 1995

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    IS mass-spectrometry coupled wth mass-analyzed Ion h e b c energy spectrometry. Trad of Sciences of Ukraine, Prosp. Palladina 32/34, Kiev-142, UA-252142, Ukraine * Padua Research Area Mass-Spectrometry application for obtaining of functional coatings and materials. This technique allows to create advanced high

  16. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 356 (1995) l-4 INSTRUMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutz, Hartmut

    ELSEVIER Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 356 (1995) l-4 NUCLEAR INSTRUMENTS 8 METHODS IN PHYSICS REgtR?n Thermodynamics of dynamic nuclear polarization W.Th. Wenckebach Faculty ofApplied Physics, Delfr Unicersity of Technology, P.O.B. 5046, 2600 GA De& The Netherlands Abstract Dynamic nuclear

  17. High Heat Flux Erosion of Carbon Fibre Composite Materials in the TEXTOR Tokamak*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harilal, S. S.

    ,. 1. * . High Heat Flux Erosion of Carbon Fibre Composite Materials in the TEXTOR Tokamak Erosion of Carbon Fibre composite Materials in the TEXTOR Tokamak H. Bolt, T. Scholz, J. Boedo*, KH. The materials tested were carbon fibre reinforced materials w"th and without Si-addition. The probe w

  18. Factors contributing to carbon fluxes from bioenergy harvests in the U.S. Northeast: an analysis using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vermont, University of

    not statistically significant. Bioenergy harvests using WTH generated fewer wood products and resulted in more of fossil fuels for energy production (`bioenergy' such as combusting woodchips or pellets for electricity to the atmo- sphere) into and out of the forest system, as well as C transferred to wood products, the life

  19. Formal Verification and In-Situ Test of Analog and Mixed-Signal Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Leyi 1983-

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    many new in-situ test schemes in a mixed-signal environment. First, a novel two-level structure of GRO-PVDL is proposed for on-chip jitter testing of high-speed high-resolution applications with a gated ring oscillator (GRO) at the first level...

  20. Effect of Gaseous Impurities on Long-Term Thermal Cycling and Aging Properties of Complex Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandra, Dhanesh (Primary Contact); Lamb, Joshua; Chien, Wen-Ming; Talekar, Anjali; and Pal, Narendra.

    2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This program was dedicated to understanding the effect of impurities on Long-Term Thermal Cycling and aging properties of Complex Hydrides for Hydrogen Storage. At the start of the program we found reversibility between Li2NH+LiH ? LiH+LiNH2 (yielding ~5.8 wt.%H capacity). Then we tested the effect of impurity in H2 gas by pressure cycling at 255oC; first with industrial gas containing ppm levels of O2 and H2O as major impurities. Both these impurities had a significant impact on the reversibility and decreased the capacity by 2.65 wt.%H. Further increase in number of cycles from 500 to 1100 showed only a 0.2 wt%H more weight loss, showing some capacity is still maintained after a significant number of cycles. The loss of capacity is attributed to the formation of ~55 wt% LiH and ~30% Li2O, as major contaminant phases, along with the hydride Li2NH phase; suggesting loss of nitrogen during cycling. The effect of 100 ppm H2O in H2 also showed a decrease of ~2.5 wt.%H (after 560 cycles), and 100ppm O2 in H2; a loss of ~4.1 wt.%. Methane impurity (100 ppm, 100cycles), showed a very small capacity loss of 0.9 wt.%H under similar conditions. However, when Li3N was pressure cycled with 100ppmN2-H2 there were beneficial effects were observed (255oC); the reversible capacity increased to 8.4wt.%H after 853 cycles. Furthermore, with 20 mol.%N2-H2 capacity increased to ~10 wt.%H after 516 cycles. We attribute this enhancement to the reaction of nitrogen with liquid lithium during cycling as the Gibbs free energy of formation of Li3N (?Go = -98.7 kJ/mol) is more negative than that of LiH (?Go = -50.3 kJ/mol). We propose that the mitigation of hydrogen capacity losses is due to the destabilization of the LiH phase that tends to accumulate during cycling. Also more Li2NH phase was found in the cycled product. Mixed Alanates (3LiNH2:Li3AlH6) showed that 7 wt% hydrogen desorbed under dynamic vacuum. Equilibrium experiments (maximum 12 bar H2) showed up to 4wt% hydrogen reversibly stored in the material after the first desorption. The activation energy was found to be 51 kJ/mol, as compared to 81 kJ/mol for pure lithium alanate. It is proposed that based on the data obtained and CALPHAD modeling that the improvement in cycling is due to the formation of pure lithium (liquid at 255oC), which is able to react with nitrogen specifically forming Li3N. The presence of nitrogen in the 80/20 molar mixtures in a hydride bed along with hydrogen causes Li to form Li3N rather than LiH, and subsequently regenerates the Li2NH phase and yields a ~10 wt.%H reversibly.

  1. Heat Loading in ARIES Power Plants: Steady State, Transient and Off-Normal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    = 45 MW PSOL = 290 MW Wth = 690 MJ Wmag int = 140 MJ Ip = 15.0 MA R = 6.20 m a = 2.0 m V = 837 m3 Asurf localized modes (ELMs) The timescale for ELMs to deliver power to the divertor or the first wall is a few x-U #12;Transient Heat Loading, ELMs The amount of energy released by an ELM has been scaled to the energy

  2. Survey of large protein complexes D. vulgaris reveals great structural diversity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, B.-G.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GroEL, DVU1976); 14. Riboflavin synthase (DVU1198, DVU1200).S9. Purification of riboflavin synthase. Fractions from thearrow in A shows the riboflavin synthase and in B shows

  3. Tha rgyas Wedding Song 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sgrol ma lha skyid

    This collection contains two biographical songs, three dancing songs, three folk songs, one speech, seven weddings songs, and two welcoming songs collected in Tha rgyas Village, Rtsa zhol Township, Mol gro gung dkar County, Lhasa City, Tibet...

  4. Tha rgyas Biography 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sgrol ma lha skyid

    This collection contains two biographical songs, three dancing songs, three folk songs, one speech, seven weddings songs, and two welcoming songs collected in Tha rgyas Village, Rtsa zhol Township, Mol gro gung dkar County, Lhasa City, Tibet...

  5. Tha rgyas Wedding Song 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sgrol ma lha skyid

    This collection contains two biographical songs, three dancing songs, three folk songs, one speech, seven weddings songs, and two welcoming songs collected in Tha rgyas Village, Rtsa zhol Township, Mol gro gung dkar County, Lhasa City, Tibet...

  6. Tha rgyas Dancing Song 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sgrol ma lha skyid

    This collection contains two biographical songs, three dancing songs, three folk songs, one speech, seven weddings songs, and two welcoming songs collected in Tha rgyas Village, Rtsa zhol Township, Mol gro gung dkar County, Lhasa City, Tibet...

  7. Tha rgyas Dancing Song 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sgrol ma lha skyid

    This collection contains two biographical songs, three dancing songs, three folk songs, one speech, seven weddings songs, and two welcoming songs collected in Tha rgyas Village, Rtsa zhol Township, Mol gro gung dkar County, Lhasa City, Tibet...

  8. Tha rgyas Dancing Song 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sgrol ma lha skyid

    This collection contains two biographical songs, three dancing songs, three folk songs, one speech, seven weddings songs, and two welcoming songs collected in Tha rgyas Village, Rtsa zhol Township, Mol gro gung dkar County, Lhasa City, Tibet...

  9. Tha rgyas Folk Song 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sgrol ma lha skyid

    This collection contains two biographical songs, three dancing songs, three folk songs, one speech, seven weddings songs, and two welcoming songs collected in Tha rgyas Village, Rtsa zhol Township, Mol gro gung dkar County, Lhasa City, Tibet...

  10. Tha rgyas Biography 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sgrol ma lha skyid

    This collection contains two biographical songs, three dancing songs, three folk songs, one speech, seven weddings songs, and two welcoming songs collected in Tha rgyas Village, Rtsa zhol Township, Mol gro gung dkar County, Lhasa City, Tibet...

  11. Tha rgyas Welcoming Song 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sgrol ma lha skyid

    This collection contains two biographical songs, three dancing songs, three folk songs, one speech, seven weddings songs, and two welcoming songs collected in Tha rgyas Village, Rtsa zhol Township, Mol gro gung dkar County, Lhasa City, Tibet...

  12. Tha rgyas Folk Song 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sgrol ma lha skyid

    This collection contains two biographical songs, three dancing songs, three folk songs, one speech, seven weddings songs, and two welcoming songs collected in Tha rgyas Village, Rtsa zhol Township, Mol gro gung dkar County, Lhasa City, Tibet...

  13. (Dept. of Urban & Regional Planning) WICCI Science Council

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheridan, Jennifer

    Jim LaGro UW-Madison (Dept. of Urban & Regional Planning) WICCI Science Council October 28, 2011 Unlimited Wisconsin Citizen-Based Monitoring Network Wisconsin Environmental Initiative Wisconsin River

  14. aunapuu lle pechter: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    USerS groUp WorkShop LLE Review, Volume 124 205 The Second Omega, with significant NNSA support already allocated for studentpostdoctoral travel expenses. 12;The Second...

  15. Export is the default pathway for soluble unfolded polypeptides that accumulate during expression in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scotto-Lavino, E.; Freimuth, P.; Bai, M.; Zhang, Y.-B.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several E. coli endogenous, cytoplasmic proteins that are known clients of the chaperonin GroEL were overexpressed to examine the fate of accumulated unfolded polypeptides. Substantial fractions of about half of the proteins formed insoluble aggregates, consistent with the hypothesis that these proteins were produced at rates or in amounts that exceeded the protein-folding capacity of GroEL. In addition, large fractions of three overexpressed GroEL client proteins were localized in an extra-cytoplasmic, osmotically-sensitive compartment, suggesting they had initially accumulated in the cytoplasm as soluble unfolded polypeptides and thus were able to access a protein export pathway. Consistent with this model, an intrinsically unfoldable, hydrophilic, non-secretory polypeptide was quantitatively exported from the E. coli cytoplasm into an osmotically-sensitive compartment. Our results support the conclusion that a soluble, unfolded conformation alone may be sufficient to direct non-secretory polypeptides into a protein export pathway for signal peptide-independent translocation across the inner membrane, and that export rather than degradation by cytoplasmic proteases is the preferred fate for newly-synthesized, soluble, unfolded polypeptides that accumulate in the cytoplasm. The stable folded conformation of exported GroEL client proteins further suggests that the requirement for GroEL may be conditional on protein folding in the molecularly-crowded environment of the cytoplasm.

  16. The effect of unidentified factor supplements and trace minerals on the reproductive performance of turkeys and chickens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whiteside, Charles Hugh

    1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Unidentified Factor ". euces and Trace Minerals nn Egg Froonction 5 n ~ Hens During 20 Week Test ~ e o ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ 3g Table 3 Effect of Unidentified Factor Bonrces ?nd Trace Minerals on Weight of Eggs Lau ~inc Hens ~ ~ ~ o ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ ~ ~ e e ~ a 36... of foxnwxtation res14ua to the diet (group 4) vas 15. N carer th? basal group (Table 2), %hi the fexnantation residue vas fed in cmhLnation with condensed fiab solubles or Wth condensed fiab solubles and dried bracer's yeasty the hatchabilitg was increased...

  17. A hypothesis concerning the distribution of salt and salt structures in the Gulf of Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antoine, John Woodworth

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . oils an. l domes on abyssal plain anil in Bay ot' Cainp che as surveyei. '. by iA'orzel et al. (1968). Inse t is cioss-section A-A' bas d cn. seismic refracton me" sure- ments (Eiving et al. , 1960; Antoine and Ev:ing, 1963) 26 Known and inferred...) shows a re tricted oattern in the central and south!vest. rn parts of the G!!1! of !nf xico. Th= v'ell-defined caste" n and s out( em boundari. s o. th-. kr!oil-and-dome province apparently are associated, w"th th cutline of the Can peche Bank. Th...

  18. The characterization of bovine IgG1 allotypes using monoclonal antibodies in an Enzyme-linked Immunosorbant Assay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schutta, Christopher John

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . , 1979) and immunoflouresence (Abdi et al. , 1980) have been u ed to study immunoglobulin allot ypes . The Enzyme ? Linked Immunosorbcnt Assay or ELISA (Fig 3) is a pre cedvre that has been used in our laboratory for this purpose (Estes ct al. , 1990... the same locus. They do not appear to correlate w'th resistance to B. abortus infection, but assay"- foz the presence of these allotypes cn Bruce lla ? pecif ic ant ibodies remain to be per formed in order to conf'rm this. REFERENCES Abdi H. B...

  19. A study of the influence of boron diffusion sources on the material and electrical characteristics of silicon p-n junctions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Kuan-Chun Andrew

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    silicon wafers w'th 10-15 ohm-cm re- sistivity, 1$-17 mils thick, and a flat along (110). After initial c' eaning all wafers were subjected to 15 min. steam oxidation at 1100 C which yields approximately 3200 2 of oxide. The wsfers then went through... of the crystal can be deduced. The mask has been originally designed to allow an X-ray beam to scan across a 100x100 mil block of' diffused area 2 followed by a 100x100 mil block of undiffused area alterna- 2 tely. Due to the inevitable bowing of the wafer...

  20. Living cheilostome Bryozoa of West Flower Garden Bank, northwest Gulf of Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cropper, Dennis Anthony

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    zooecial series. Hyperstomial ovicell with frontal fenestra. R ~ p. Figure 5 CGLLECB'&01' FG7 20507B16, lzG7 20507820, 1 G72050782-", 1'G720507B23, F0720507825, FG720507B26, FG720507828, F& 720507B29: (8 colonies to tel) DISTRIBHTIGH: Gulf of Mexico...~ran iata Bus!, 1860: 284 0th, 1950:382; G ', 9P2. 171. Cook, 1968b: 208 (:0! LEC "ON: FG720507815, FG720507829; (2 colonies . ota!) DE'-'::P[FTION: Zoarium encrustin . Frontal smooth to graruslar w'th many orna!1. tremopores. Aperture semicircular...

  1. Examination of the Entry to Burn and Burn Control for the ITER 15 MA Baseline and Other Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kesse, Charles E. [PPPL; Kim, S-H. [ITER; Koechl, F. [EURATOM-OAW/ATI

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The entry to burn and flattop burn control in ITER will be a critical need from the first DT experiments. Simulations are used to address time-dependent behavior under a range of possible conditions that include injected power level, impurity content (W, Ar, Be), density evolution, H-mode regimes, controlled parameter (Wth, Pnet, Pfusion), and actuator (Paux, fueling, fAr), with a range of transport models. A number of physics issues at the L-H transition require better understanding to project to ITER, however, simulations indicate viable control with sufficient auxiliary power (up to 73 MW), while lower powers become marginal (as low as 43 MW).

  2. Geology of the Doss-North area, Mason and Gillespie Counties, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coughran, Theodore

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Subuttted to the Oruguute Sohool of ihe igrioultaral end Weohautoal Solfege of %slue M purtfel falfilluent of the reqafroueute for ihe degree of tuguet ~ l~ S'upon Suh~ jK5r'. '-"'. "V~C4~4m&~;. '. % 'f 84i ' ~'i' $gfg, ( 1', 1 'p Qg ":Wth...~ll) '$, HA . Xi*: '-. ' ' . '. . . . '&Clif '. :Q9 'f/% ' +6 fWLO &&Q LC+&&4ii'aal. ? ~;g:, AQUA'Cli ~f gt OSOLOOV OF TIS SOSS-ARTS JIBE, lIAMS ANI GTLLSSPIR COQSFKS4& TSS44 A Thesis August, l400 kyytsrel as se etF14. ae4 ?safest hFc seas...

  3. Shelling Percentage in Grain Sorghum.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conner, A. B. (Arthur Benjamin)

    1922-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . REINHARD, B. S., Entomolo~ist L. R. \\\\'atson, A. M., Apiculturist C. S. RUDE, B. S , EntornoIo~isf A. H. ALEX, B. S., Queen Breeder \\V P. TRICE. B. S., Assrstant Entomologist AGRONOMY A. B. CONNER R. S Chief- Crops . A. H. ~Ernrc,; B. s:: ~gro...

  4. Visiting a farm farmers' mar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in wash produc you remove t spoil faster. Wash all pro thoroughly w running wate f the peel the moistur e before plac the coating c duce with cool, er, even ormation: xas.com the Garden Gro grams: Food Saf xas A&M AgriLife n, dry, well t: bananas, toes, and store in the tarines, the ags

  5. Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Water Resources Research Center Annual Technical Report FY 1999 Introduction PROGRAM REPORT FLORIDA WATER RESOURCES RESEARCH CENTER FEDERAL GRANT NO. 1434-HQ-96-GRO2663 PERIOD: March 1, 1999 - February 29, 2000 The Water Resources Research Center (WRRC) was re-established as a separate entity from

  6. Evaluation of the Dairy/Yeast Prebiotic, Grobiotic-A, in the Diet of Juvenile Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peredo, Anjelica

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Two different feeding trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary supplementation with the dairy/yeast prebiotic GroBiotic-A (GBA) to Nile tilapia diets. A nutritionally complete basal diet was supplemented with GBA at either 1 or 2...

  7. Isotopic and microbial indicators of sewage pollution from Stone Town, Zanzibar, Tanzania

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harvell, Catherine Drew

    , such as Enterococcus (ENT) and Escherichia coli, as used by the USEPA (Gro, Washington, DC, USA c Institute of Marine Sciences, University of Dar es Salaam, Zanzibar, Tanzania a r t i c pro- vided by marine ecosystems, (Harvell et al., 2004; Pastorok and Bilyard, 1985

  8. 2. Klausur Kontinuumsmechanik -WS11/12, Prof. Dr. rer. nat. V. Popov Losungshinweise Seite 1 (a) p(y) = W gy (1)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    W gbR2 (8) N = Fy + G = 1 + 2 W gbR2 (9) Der Grenzfall tritt ein, wenn beide Seiten gleich gro√? - sinh l cosh l (37) Resonanz tritt auf wenn cos l = 0, z.B. l = 2 R = EI A 2l 2 (38) Aufgabe 4 (a) QD

  9. he College of Architecture and Design and the School of Art + Design are meeting the growing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bieber, Michael

    nonprofit group. The PREtty Fab house in Jersey City (left top row), designed by Assistant Professor Richard Goldman. The PREtty Fab house in Jersey City, designed by Assistant Professor Richard Garber, Nicole-on roles in designing the of the house at GRO. The geometry of the economical 1,600 square foot residence

  10. The effects of in vitro and greenhouse irradiance, fertility, and media on the growth of a hybrid Phalaenopsis orchid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konow, Elise Ann

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , 2ON-8.6-P-16.6K], DynaGro, and Wilder's, was applied to Phalaenopsis Atien Kaala 'TSC 22' plants grown in either fir bark alone or 70% fir bark and 3 0% Canadian sphagnum peat (bark/peat). Plants grown in the fir bark medium with 2ON-2.2P-I 5.8K...

  11. Solubilization and functional analysis of the lambda holin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deaton, John Franklin

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    -translationally into liposomes. This work will investigate the behavior of GroEL towards membrane proteins. The first of two membrane proteins studied in this respect is Bacteriorhodopsin (BR), a membrane proton pump, from H. halibium. The second is the105aa S protein, a...

  12. My Level of Please comp

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pfeifer, Holger

    a 973150 22 0 1 te orientation p .uniulm.de/io/ tation W Sep I want to s Pla Cla I want to si Pla Cla I want to si Intercultura City Tour (G Library Tou Movie I: " Movie III: I asses & Exam gn up for the acement Test asses & Exam gn up only fo al Training (Gro Group B) ur

  13. Operational Arome New Arome version in test Radar observation Report 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ribes, Aurťlien

    , a new version of our Earth-System model has been prepared to guarantee our contributions to the upcoming 5th IPCC report. Consultations with IPSL have started to share a larger part of the Earth System modelling infrastructure. Re- search has largely contributed to the gro- wing offer of Mťtťo

  14. Long-term ice sheetclimate interactions under anthropogenic greenhouse forcing simulated with a complex Earth System Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winguth, Arne

    with a complex Earth System Model Miren Vizcaiīno ∆ Uwe Mikolajewicz ∆ Matthias Gro®ger ∆ Ernst Maier-Reimer ∆-millennia simulations have been performed with a complex Earth System Model (ESM) for different anthropogenic climate climate change Ń Meridional overturning circulation Ń Earth system modelling Ń Sea level 1 Introduction

  15. HORTICULTURAL ENTOMOLOGY Tactics for Management of Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pappu, Hanu R.

    the use of reŖective plastic mulch (Greenough et al. 1990, Stavisky et al. 2002, Reitz et al. 2003), host Springs, FL) and the metallic reŖective plastic mulch RepelGro (ReŖecTec Foils Inc., Lake Zurich, IL). We,andsilverormetallicreŖectivemulch.Averagedoveralltests,theTSWV-resistanttomato‘BHN444 on silver mulch treatment had the largest effect in terms of reducing thrips and spotted wilt

  16. Measurement of the coefficients of coupling between a critical reactor and a subcritical lattice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandler, Ekillis Momon

    1966-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . D ' " Gro a ' "l i Ze gr 'Ol' "- SZZ Ce the -'= orp ion cro-s cctior '. grcpnit is loz!er tl n that or:later ~ I bo;h core positions . '. Slid . . ;. :zic. r!Ze s of gr, ?. e is the sa!ae~ Di t nne th -csness of cater is ciz z o" lit ~ viesJ ol...

  17. Isogeometric Simulation of Turbine Blades for Aircraft Engines David Gromann1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J√ľttler, Bert

    Isogeometric Simulation of Turbine Blades for Aircraft Engines David Gro√?mann1 , Bert J√ľttler2, in the challenging field of aircraft engines. We study the deformation of turbine blades under the assumption, manufacturing and repairing turbine engines for aircrafts. A challenging task in this field is the efficient

  18. Analyses of Commercial Fertilizers Sold during 1954-55.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fudge, J. F.

    1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Acres Texas Liquid Texas Longhorn Texaphos Tex-Hi Thorobred Tide Green Top Crop Top-0-Texas Top of the World Topper Umbaugh Uramite Uran v-C v-0 Versene Versen-01 Vertagreen Victory Vi goro Vito-Gro Vi t rea Walker's Water Feed...

  19. Analyses of Commercial Fertilizers Sold during 1955-56.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fudge, J. F.

    1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Longhorn Texaphos Tex-Hi Thorobred Tide Green Top Crop Top-0-Texas Top of the World Topper Tren Umbaugh Uramite Viking Ship v-C v-0 Versene Versen-01 Vertagreen Victory Vi goro Vito-Gro Vi trea W a1 ker's Water Feed Weber-King Wesco...

  20. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C6, supplment au n6, Tome h5, juin 198<) page C6-103

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    - perature has been used to compute the properties of hot, dense stellar matter in beta equilibrium of a gro- wing interest. Two are the main reasons for its study. Firstly, high energy heavy ion reactions are obtained by minimising the Free energy of the content of a sphe rical cell of radius Re, imposing charge

  1. Draft regulatory analysis: notice of proposed rulemaking motor gasoline allocation revisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Draft Regulatory Analysis is prepared for those proposed regulations which either may have a major impact on the general economy, individual industries, or geographic regions and levels of government, or may be significant in that they affect important DOE policy concerns and are the object of public interest. The problems and proposed solutions for the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking and Public Hearings on the Motor Gasoline Allocation Program are examined. The ERA's mandate for this program is set out in the Emergency Petroleum Allocation Act of 1973. Under this Act, the President is empowered to enforce, at his discretion, price and allocation controls on petroleum and petroleum products, including gasoline, through September 30, 1981. The Act sets the following allocation goals: protect public health; maintain public services and agricultural operations; foster competition in the petroleum industry; distribute petroleum among industry sectors and US regions equitably; and minimize economic disruption and unnecessary interference wth market mechanisms.

  2. Galactic Superluminal Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. A. Harmon

    1998-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A new class of X-ray sources was clearly established with the discovery of highly relativistic radio jets from the galactic sources GRS 1915+105 and GRO J1655-40. Both of these objects have given us a broader view of black holes and the formation of jets, yet they also show the complexity of the accretion environment near relativistic objects. The fast apparent motion of the jets, their luminosity and variability, their high energy spectrum, and approximate scaling to the behavior of active galactic nuclei, certainly warrant the description "microquasar". I present a review of the observational data on these sources, and discuss where we stand on a physical picture of GRS 1915+105 and GRO J1655-40 as taken from multi-wavelength studies. I also point out other galactic sources which share some of the properties of the microquasars, and what to look for as a high energy "signature" in future observations.

  3. Aggre gation ofth e ligh tm ode l In th e sim ulation runs th e canopy ve rsion ofLIGNUM is use d.LIGNUM -canopy sim ulate s a juve nile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurth, Winfried

    by a gap, using a de taile d radiation m ode l.GRO GRA use s a h e m isph e ricalcove ring ratio be tw e e re ph i is th e inclination angle of th e incom ing radiation (W CR). Re sults Th e aggre gation .Sch m idt.BW INPro Program m zur Bestandesanalyse und Prognose.H andbuch zur Ve rsion 5.1.Nie de rsšch

  4. Relativity at Action or Gamma-Ray Bursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsvi Piran

    1996-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Gamma ray Bursts (GRBs) - short bursts of few hundred keV $\\gamma$-rays - have fascinated astronomers since their accidental discovery in the sixties. GRBs were ignored by most relativists who did not expect that they are associated with any relativistic phenomenon. The recent observations of the BATSE detector on the Compton GRO satellite have revolutionized our ideas on these bursts and the picture that emerges shows that GRBs are the most relativistic objects discovered so far.

  5. Do X-ray Binary Spectral State Transition Luminosities Vary?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas J. Maccarone

    2003-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We tabulate the luminosities of the soft-to-hard state transitions of all X-ray binaries for which there exist good X-ray flux measurements at the time of the transition, good distance estimates, and good mass estimates for the compact star. We show that the state transition luminosities are at about 1-4% of the Eddington rate, markedly smaller than those typically quoted in the literature, with a mean value of 2%. Only the black hole candidate GRO J~1655-40 and the neutron star systems Aql X-1 and 4U 1728-34 have measured state transition luminosities inconsistent with this value at the 1$\\sigma$ level. GRO J~1655-40, in particular, shows a state transition luminosity below the mean value for the other sources at the $4\\sigma$ level. This result, combined with the known inner disk inclination angle (the disk is nearly parallel to the line of sight) from GRO J~1655-40's relativistic jets suggest that the hard X-ray emitting region in GRO J~1655-40 can have a velocity of no more than about $\\beta=0.68$, with a most likely value of about $\\beta=0.52$, and a minimum speed of $\\beta=0.45$, assuming that the variations in state transition luminosities are solely due to relativistic beaming effects. The variance in the state transition luminosities suggests an emission region with a velocity of $\\sim0.2c$. The results are discussed in terms of different emission models for the low/hard state. We also discuss the implications for measuring the dimensionless viscosity parameter $\\alpha$. We also find that if its state transitions occur at typical luminosities, then GX 339-4 is likely to be at a distance of at least 7.6 kpc, much further than typically quoted estimates.

  6. Vascular Plant Survey of the Canyonlands Unit of the Big Thicket National Preserve, Tyler County, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haile, Kelly

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    list with scientific name, authority and all compared entities for each plant species can be found in Appendix E. T A B LE 2. Definitio n of co des use d to indic ate o rigi n, longevity, and seaso n of gro w... for all the plants collected can be found in Appendix A. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Canyonlands Unit of the Big Thicket National Preserve Pteridophyta ASPLENIACEAE Asplenium platyneuron (L.) B.S.P N P W BLECHNACEAE...

  7. Observation of solar high energy gamma and X-ray emission and solar energetic particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Struminsky, Alexei

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We considered 18 solar flares observed between June 2010 and July 2012, in which high energy >100 MeV {\\gamma}-emission was registered by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard FermiGRO. We examined for these {\\gamma}-events soft X-ray observations by GOES, hard X-ray observations by the Anti-Coincidence Shield of the SPectrometer aboard INTEGRAL (ACS SPI) and the Gamma-Ray burst Monitor (GBM) aboard FermiGRO. Hard X-ray and {\\pi}0-decay {\\gamma}-ray emissions are used as tracers of electron and proton acceleration, respectively. Bursts of hard X-ray were observed by ACS SPI during impulsive phase of 13 events. Bursts of hard X-ray >100 keV were not found during time intervals, when prolonged hard {\\gamma}-emission was registered by LAT/FermiGRO. Those events showing prolonged high-energy gamma-ray emission not accompanied by >100 keV hard X-ray emission are interpreted as an indication of either different acceleration processes for protons and electrons or as the presence of a proton population accelerated du...

  8. Recreational conflict: an exploration of the role of tolerance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ivy, Mark Ian

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    d I u \\ / tidy 4 GII(f Pf Mexico v erglodes City sea&s, ~hugo oskee 's 's Evergludes National Parts \\ I I I I e~ I ssy I Flamingo s rtoridd d ~ d Miami jar Key West Scale 1" = 20 miles Atlantic Ocean ~i. Map of South Florida 23... at campsite areas . . . . . . . . I 2 3 4 5 i. cleanliness of restroom f cilities. . . , , , . . . . . . I 2 3 4 5 type of csmpsit area' 1) beach site. 1 2 3 4 5 2) gro nd site ( ith o b ach ares) 2 3 4 5 3) chickee (r ised platform) 1 2 3 4 5 2. IP...

  9. Production and Management of Small Grains for Forage.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holt, E. C.; Norris, M. J.; Lancaster, J. A.

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Rainfall excessive for maximum gro\\ytb may occur, especially in the coastal area. Reduced sunlight energy during the ~~inttr months apparently limits growth of small grain. Planting rates and methods do not seem to a1tt.r this response significantly... that the tillering ( zcteristic of small grains tends to comper For lower plant populations whether from 1( seeding rates or wider row spacings Treatment Pounds of Row spacing, Pounds of air-dry forage ~nches seed per acre per acre The growth of winter...

  10. Urinary kynurenic and xanthurenic acids of the dog before and after the injection of a convulsive dose of 1,1-dimethylhydrazine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dixon, Dock Franklin

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    'ferent structures. Disloc=tion theory is not directly a plicable bec use it does not explcin why most of the whis!. ers h. ;ve in- cre'. sin- cross a=etio=el -recs fromi b se to ti . Dis- loc"tion theory predicts that t' e cross sectional area of a wh1sl:er s... History of 11hislcers Di sloe, "-, ti on Theory. Importance of ManGanous Oxide 'Ahisl-ers. . . . 11 I I . GRO". lTR ApJ3 . rstus, ExDerimcntsi F "occdure Results, Groirth Mechanism. III. OPTICAL 1 1CRCSCOIE STDDI:S Cl=-s. . ific"-tion ;. nd...

  11. Predicting spin of compact objects from their QPOs: A global QPO model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banibrata Mukhopadhyay

    2008-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We establish a unified model to explain Quasi-Periodic-Oscillation (QPO) observed from black hole and neutron star systems globally. This is based on the accreting systems thought to be damped harmonic oscillators with higher order nonlinearity. The model explains multiple properties parallelly independent of the nature of the compact object. It describes QPOs successfully for several compact sources. Based on it, we predict the spin frequency of the neutron star Sco X-1 and the specific angular momentum of black holes GRO J1655-40, GRS 1915+105.

  12. Grupo Alfonso Gallardo | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORTEnergyFarms A SUKHydrogen CompanyGroSolar formerly

  13. Grupo Cobra | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORTEnergyFarms A SUKHydrogen CompanyGroSolar formerlyCobra Jump

  14. Grupo Enerpal | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORTEnergyFarms A SUKHydrogen CompanyGroSolar formerlyCobra

  15. Grupo Portocarrio S A | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORTEnergyFarms A SUKHydrogen CompanyGroSolar

  16. Grupo Samca | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORTEnergyFarms A SUKHydrogen CompanyGroSolarSamca Jump to:

  17. Grupo San Jose | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORTEnergyFarms A SUKHydrogen CompanyGroSolarSamca Jump to:Jose

  18. GuangZhou ZhongKe HengYuan Energy Tenchnology Co Ltd ZKenergy | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORTEnergyFarms A SUKHydrogen CompanyGroSolarSamca Jump

  19. Guangdong Baolihua New Energy Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORTEnergyFarms A SUKHydrogen CompanyGroSolarSamca JumpGuangdong

  20. Guangdong Fivestar Solar Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORTEnergyFarms A SUKHydrogen CompanyGroSolarSamca

  1. Guangdong Guohua New Energy Investment Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORTEnergyFarms A SUKHydrogen CompanyGroSolarSamcaGuohua New

  2. Guangdong Mingyang Wind Power Technology Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORTEnergyFarms A SUKHydrogen CompanyGroSolarSamcaGuohua

  3. Guangdong Yueneng Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORTEnergyFarms A SUKHydrogen CompanyGroSolarSamcaGuohuaYueneng Co

  4. Guanghui New Energy Co Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORTEnergyFarms A SUKHydrogen CompanyGroSolarSamcaGuohuaYueneng

  5. Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stettenheim, Joel [Norwich Technologies] [Norwich Technologies; McBride, Troy O. [Norwich Technologies] [Norwich Technologies; Brambles, Oliver J. [Norwich Technologies] [Norwich Technologies; Cashin, Emil A. [Norwich Technologies] [Norwich Technologies

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the successful results of our SunShot project, Advanced Low-Cost Receivers for Parabolic Troughs. With a limited budget of $252K and in only 12 months, we have (1) developed validated optical and thermal models and completed rigorous optimization analysis to identify key performance characteristics as part of developing first-generation laboratory prototype designs, (2) built optical and thermal laboratory prototypes and test systems with associated innovative testing protocols, and (3) performed extensive statistically relevant testing. We have produced fully functioning optical and thermal prototypes and accurate, validated models shown to capture important underlying physical mechanisms. The test results from the first-generation prototype establish performance exceeding the FOA requirement of thermal efficiency >90% for a CSP receiver while delivering an exit fluid temperature of > 650 įC and a cost < $150/kWth. Our vacuum-free SunTrap receiver design provides improvements over conventional vacuum-tube collectors, allowing dramatic reductions in thermal losses at high operating temperature.

  6. UFO (UnFold Operator) default data format

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kissel, L.; Biggs, F. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Marking, T.R. (Applied Physics, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The default format for the storage of x,y data for use with the UFO code is described. The format assumes that the data stored in a file is a matrix of values; two columns of this matrix are selected to define a function of the form y = f(x). This format is specifically designed to allow for easy importation of data obtained from other sources, or easy entry of data using a text editor, with a minimum of reformatting. This format is flexible and extensible through the use of inline directives stored in the optional header of the file. A special extension of the format implements encoded data which significantly reduces the storage required as compared wth the unencoded form. UFO supports several extensions to the file specification that implement execute-time operations, such as, transformation of the x and/or y values, selection of specific columns of the matrix for association with the x and y values, input of data directly from other formats (e.g., DAMP and PFF), and a simple type of library-structured file format. Several examples of the use of the format are given.

  7. How Small Can Fast-Spectrum Space Reactors Get?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatton, Steven A.; El-Genk, Mohamed S. [Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2006-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Fast neutron spectrum space reactors are an appropriate choice for high thermal powers, but for low powers, they may not satisfy the excess reactivity requirement while remaining sub-critical when immersed in wet sand and flooded with seawater following a launch abort accident. This paper identifies the smallest size fast spectrum, Sectored, Compact Reactor loaded with Single UN fuel pins (SCoRe-S7), which satisfy the requirements of cold clean excess reactivity > $4.00 and remains at least $1.00 subcritical at shutdown and in submersion conditions. Results indicate that increasing the diameter of the SCoRe-S core reduces its active height and the UN fuel enrichment, but increases the Spectrum-Shift Absorber (SSA) of 157GdN additive to the fuel. All SCoRe-S cores also have a 0.1 mm thick 157Gd2O3 SSA coating on the outer surface of the reactor vessel to reduce the effect of the wet sand reflector, while the SSA fuel additive reduces the effect on the criticality of the flooded reactor caused by thermal neutron fission. The active core height decreases from 42.4 cm for the smallest SCoRe-S7 to as much as to 37.4 cm for the largest core of SCoRe-S11. For a 1.8 MWth reactor thermal power the UN fuel specific power decreases from 17.0 in the SCoRe-S7 to 11.5 Wth/kg in the -S11. The corresponding reactor total mass, including the BeO reflector, increases from 440 kg to 512 kg.

  8. Survival probability and energy modification of hydrogen Energetic Neutral Atoms on their way from the termination shock to Earth orbit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Bzowski

    2008-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Context: With the forthcoming launch of a NASA SMEX mission IBEX devoted to imaging of heliospheric interface by in-situ detection of Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENA) an important issue becomes recognizing of transport of these atoms from the termination shock of the solar wind to Earth orbit. Aims: Investigate modifications of energy and of survival probability of the H ENA detectable by IBEX (0.01 -- 6 keV) between the termination shock and Earth orbit taking into account the influence of the variable and anisotropic solar wind and solar EUV radiation. Methods: Energy change of the atoms is calculated by numerical simulations of orbits of the H ENA atoms from ~100 AU from the Sun down to Earth orbit, taking into account solar gravity and Lyman-$\\alpha$ radiation pressure, which is variable in time and depends on radial velocity of the atom. To calculate survival probabilities of the atoms against onization, a detailed 3D and time-dependent model of H ENA ionization based on observations of the solar wind and EUV ionizing radiation is constructed, and wth the use of this model probabilities of survival of the atoms are calculated by numerical integration along the previously calculated orbits. Results: Owing to the radiation pressure, H ENA reach the Earth orbit practically without energy and direction change except the atoms with energy lower than 0.1 keV during high solar activity. For a given energy at Earth orbit one expects fluctuations of survival probability from ~20% at 0.01 keV down to just a few percent at 6 keV and a modulation of survival probability as a function of the location at Earth orbit, ecliptic latitude of the arrival direction, and the phase of solar cycle with an amplitude of a few dozen percent for 0.1 keV atoms at solar minimum to a few percent for 6 keV atoms at solar maximum.

  9. Health and environmental effects document for direct coal liquefaction - 1981.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mellinger, P.J.; Wilson, B.W.; Mahlum, D.D.; Sever, L.E.; Olsen, A.R.

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents initial estimates of potential human health effects from inhalation of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) that may be released from a future hypothetical industry producing about 600,000 bb1/day of synthetic fuel by direct liquefaction of coal. The assessment approach starts wth general assumptions that are then refined in a tiered sequence that considers available epidemiological, environmental and chemical data. The uncertainties involved in such an evaluation have been quantified where possible at this early stage of health risk analysis. Many surrogate data bases were considered for application to coal liquefaction including coke oven, British gas retort, roofing tar and asphalts, and cigarette smoke. The coke oven data base was selected for this assessment because the chemical and physical nature of coke oven emissions are judged to more closely approximate potential coal liquefaction emissions. Utilizing the extensive epidemiological data base for coke oven workers as a surrogate model, health effects from release of coal liquefaction NMHC may be quantified. This method results in estimates of about 1 x 10/sup -3/ excess cancer deaths/yr to an industrial work force of 7800 persons and 5 x 10/sup -2/ excess cancer deaths/yr in the U.S. population as a whole from NMHC that boil above 600/sup 0/F. Sources of uncertainty in the estimates are listed. Using these uncertainties, it is estimated that from 2 x 10/sup -4/ to 5 x 10/sup -3/ lung cancer deaths/yr may occur in the industrial work force and from 1 x 10/sup -2/ to 2.5 x 10/sup -1/ lung cancer deaths/yr in the U.S. population as a whole. On an individual basis, the excess lifetime risk to occupationally exposed workers is estimated to be 500 times greater than to members of the U.S. public.

  10. Operational Results of a Closed Brayton Cycle Test-Loop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, Steven A.; Lipinski, Ronald J.; Brown, Nicholas [Sandia National Laboratories, Org 6872 MS-1146, PO Box 5800 Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Fuller, Robert; Nichols, Kenneth [Barber Nichols 6325 W 55th Ave., Arvada, Colorado 80002 (United States)

    2005-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A number of space and terrestrial power system designs plan to use nuclear reactors that are coupled to Closed-loop Brayton Cycle (CBC) systems to generate electrical power. Because very little experience exists regarding the operational behavior of these systems, Sandia National Laboratories (through its Laboratory Directed Research and Development program) is developing a closed-loop test bed that can be used to determine the operational behavior of these systems and to validate models for these systems. Sandia has contracted Barber-Nichols Corporation to design, fabricate, and assemble a Closed-loop Brayton Cycle (CBC) system. This system was developed by modifying commercially available hardware. It uses a 30 kWe Capstone C-30 gas-turbine unit (www.capstoneturbine.com) with a modified housing that permits the attachment of an electrical heater and a water cooled chiller that are connected to the turbo-machinery in a closed loop. The test-loop reuses the Capstone turbine, compressor, and alternator. The Capstone system's nominal operating point is 1150 K turbine inlet temperature at 96,000 rpm. The annular recuperator and portions of the Capstone control system (inverter) and starter system are also reused. The rotational speed of the turbo-machinery is controlled either by adjusting the alternator load by either using the electrical grid or a separate load bank. This report describes the test-loop hardware SBL-30 (Sandia Brayton Loop-30kWe). Also presented are results of early testing and modeling of the unit. The SBL-30 hardware is currently configured with a heater that is limited to 80 kWth with a maximum outlet temperature of {approx}1000 K.

  11. Control of the Pyrimidine biosynthetic pathway in different strains of Salmonella typhimurium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Johnny Melven

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (2 (S121) 22 20 1. 1 1. 1 ~ able B. 1 r'si n Wrlo iype Levels of 0 I Case aq c B pacific fctiv'ty Specific Rc ivity Fold 0 repress'on LT2 (51) 119 17H u, i a, u. . ~l) 112 BB S+rains sere oro. . n on minimal media '. . ) S+raina were gro... ioe 3, 2 192 3. 0 a) 5tz'a '. ns w re crown nn minimal media:upplement d wi. "5 uraci 1, 5) 5t-sins growth were grown on 10 ug per ml of uracil and calle were harvested after had -e-, 'ad fc- 00 min. were grown on 50 uo per ml n u~ a . il and c...

  12. Towards 4U 1630-47: a black-hole soft X-ray transient odyssey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erik Kuulkers

    1998-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    4U 1630-47 is a black-hole X-ray transient with one of the shortest recurrence times. Despite its regular outburst behaviour little is known about this source. Only recently has attention to this system increased. I discuss there the basic known (X-ray) properties of 4U 1630-47 and report on X-ray and radio observations obtained during its recent outburst, starting in 1998 February. These observations strengthen some of the similarities seen between 4U 1630-47 and the Galactic superluminal sources GRO J1655-40 and GRS 1915+105, and provide the first detection of 4U 1630-47 in the radio. Using an updated outburst ephemeris I predict the next outburst to occur about a week before Christmas 1999.

  13. Opto-thermal analysis of a lightweighted mirror for solar telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banyal, Ravinder K; Chatterjee, S

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, an opto-thermal analysis of a moderately heated lightweighted solar telescope mirror is carried out using 3D finite element analysis (FEA). A physically realistic heat transfer model is developed to account for the radiative heating and energy exchange of the mirror with surroundings. The numerical simulations show the non-uniform temperature distribution and associated thermo-elastic distortions of the mirror blank clearly mimicking the underlying discrete geometry of the lightweighted substrate. The computed mechanical deformation data is analyzed with surface polynomials and the optical quality of the mirror is evaluated with the help of a ray-tracing software. The thermal print-through distortions are further shown to contribute to optical figure changes and mid-spatial frequency errors of the mirror surface. A comparative study presented for three commonly used substrate materials, namely, Zerodur, Pyrex and Silicon Carbide (SiC) is relevant to vast area of large optics requirements in gro...

  14. The pneumatic conveyor as a continuous-flow mixer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stipe, Dennis Ray

    1964-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ~onyeyev, , Mct Shooing ti~ gnetal1a?? ' j ' 444K ?'= Qe~$eaeieetev" %g"4g-'-Re1(no e:GRo-' f'fen$f olfe' Qy:etiam ~eh" fN'M ~" tO !' . . . -. . . the -Yeno~et&4'. - 4 p::y -. '4 e, . s-. . ~:, :?- s=-~-. '. -, ' =i=, - -. 'll -'-', ' J 3~;~ Fi'". r...Sn', seems to. ccdtrc3 the re~qdired. %fr aloof ty Xt xcbst be. pcinte3-. oct that. ;the veloc. 'ties recorded "-, --, " --. . fxere, "are' air-'-veto'c&4es, :@n8 mct=;~iso'iif aT' velocith, s ~, ; A2so, ? it is gmbable, t&mt-' the min'~a~z. air vole...

  15. Progress with the real-time GRB coordinates distribution network (BACODINE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barthelmy, S. D.; Butterworth, P. S.; Cline, T. L.; Gehrels, N.; Fishman, G. J.; Kouveliotou, C.; Meegan, C.; Hurley, K. [USRA NASA-GSFC, Code 661, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); STX NASA-GSFC, Code 661, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); NASA-GSFC, Code 661, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); NASA-MSFC, Code ES-81, Huntsville, Alabama 35812 (United States); UC Berkeley SSL, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The RA, Dec coordinates of gamma-ray burst (GRB) sources observed with BATSE on GRO are automatically determined and distributed in real time to members of the global scientific community. These data are now being used by 27 operations to enable searches for associated transients in a variety of other wavelength or energy regimes to identify the burst source objects. The minimum total delay time from the onset of a GRB to the receipt of its coordinates by distant experimenters can be under 4 sec, less than the duration of a typical GRB, and the maximum total delay is 7 sec, or longer, depending on the distribution method. Recent improvements to the BACODINE system and some future improvements are discussed. A summary of the follow-up observations made by the BACODINE sites is given.

  16. The Power of Space: The Acropolis, the Theatre of Dionysos, and Tragedy in the 5th Century BCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bondari, Katrina

    2011-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    :NRFNAhWHCRLWPD:PWNEFAPRF: WyPFOWLADBNABD:LW BDRFoWPFARuBRAOIW5BAWAC:WyELAW D:NEoFRnP5G:WAEWAC:WBFADPRF: W:O:WAE POWRLWAC:WHC:PAD:WEpWdREFOLELWACPAWD:LALWEFWAC: LEBACWLGEY:WEpWAC:WSNDEYEGRLWriGPA:Wbgh HCRLWLADBNABD:WPF WRALWGENPAREFWEFWAC:WLGEY:WEpWAC:WSNDEYEGRLWYRuB: Wy...:WLPAWEFWAC:WLGEY:WEpWAC:WslPervW FBNG:BLatCRG:WpBFNAREFRFoWPLWYPDAWEpWPWD:GRoREBLWYD:NRFNAhWlPURFoWsBLAWD:P WqPDURFW .PDGLEFvLWnPpEuralmanuimlidpIEu.a LuayudelteEralma Luptiua?iELetuEt?u?mWpEBF WAC: AC:PAD:vLWGENPAREFWRFWAC:WEU:DGPYW5:At::FWAC:WSNDEYEGRLWPF WAC:WdREFOLELWYD:NRFNAW b...

  17. On the Misalignment of Jets in Microquasars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas J. Maccarone

    2002-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the timescales for alignment of black hole and accretion disc spins in the context of binary systems. We show that for black holes that are formed with substantial angular momentum, the alignment timescales are likely to be at least a substantial fraction of the systems' lifetimes. This result explains the observed misalignment of the disc and the jet in the microquasar GRO J 1655-40 and in SAX J 1819-2525 as being likely due to the Bardeen-Petterson effect. We discuss the implications of these results on the mass estimate for GRS 1915+105, which has assumed the jet is perpendicular to the orbital plane of the system and may hence be an underestimate. We show that the timescales for the spin alignment in Cygnus X-3 are consistent with the likely misalignment of disc and jet in that system, and that this is suggested by the observational data.

  18. Interim Results from Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin L. Chandler; Paul Norton; Nigel Clark

    1999-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project, which is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), is to provide a comprehensive comparison of heavy-duty trucks operating on alternative fuels and diesel fuel. Data collection from up to eight sites is planned. Currently, the project has four sites: Raley's in Sacramento, CA (Kenworth, Cummins LlO-300G, liquefied natural gas - LNG); Pima Gro Systems, Inc. in Fontana, CA (White/GMC, Caterpillar 31768 Dual-Fuel, compressed natural gas - CNG); Waste Management in Washington, PA (Mack, Mack E7G, LNG); and United Parcel Service in Hartford, CT (Freightliner Custom Chassis, Cummins B5.9G, CNG). This paper summarizes current data collection and evaluation results from this project.

  19. The influence of temperatures and mechanical treatments on pre- and post-emergence growth of peach and plum seedlings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alsalih, Kamil Khidher

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , the possibility of variation between speoies SCAPI ICI ~ ~ IA NI A ~ ~ ~ 0 0 0 ~ ~ O IO Ch 33m R R CII CII CII ~ ~ A 4 SI S 0 0 0 '4l Q 4l Q s CII r 0 O ~ ~ as ~8 ~gA ICI IO 0 N Ill OE 0 CIA CIN Ch CO ~ ~ ~ t N ~ ~ 0 CCI ICI 0 0 0...W goeio4 oo ~. f As ooe ~ oero. eheea&eriheIL Q aeero%o areae ia i' piIaoale. Q4e oeaooivagg coal, 4 have hoea oaaee4 Q %he high O~erafeee, '()IIkaeee 4; ea4 0)? . gheee eee4lxlwge 4L4 aos groo ee sapL41p ehoa tirei Osaaeferro4 4e ~ gro hoaa? ?e 4L4...

  20. Structure of Glycerol Dehydratase Reactivase: A New Type of Molecular Chaperone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao, Der-Ing; Reiss, Lisa; Turner, Jr., Ivan; Dotson, Garry (Dupont)

    2010-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The function of glycerol dehydratase (GDH) reactivase is to remove damaged coenzyme B{sub 12} from GDH that has suffered mechanism-based inactivation. The structure of GDH reactivase from Klebsiella pneumoniae was determined at 2.4 {angstrom} resolution by the single isomorphous replacement with anomalous signal (SIR/AS) method. Each tetramer contains two elongated 63 kDa {alpha} subunits and two globular 14 kDa {beta} subunits. The {alpha} subunit contains structural features resembling both GroEL and Hsp70 groups of chaperones, and it appears chaperone like in its interactions with ATP. The fold of the {beta} subunit resembles that of the {beta} subunit of glycerol dehydratase, except that it lacks some coenzyme B12 binding elements. A hypothesis for the reactivation mechanism of reactivase is proposed based on these structural features.

  1. Global Analysis of Heat Shock Response in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chhabra, S.R.; He, Q.; Huang, K.H.; Gaucher, S.P.; Alm, E.J.; He,Z.; Hadi, M.Z.; Hazen, T.C.; Wall, J.D.; Zhou, J.; Arkin, A.P.; Singh, A.K.

    2005-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough belongs to a class ofsulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and is found ubiquitously in nature.Given the importance of SRB-mediated reduction for bioremediation ofmetal ion contaminants, ongoing research on D. vulgaris has been in thedirection of elucidating regulatory mechanisms for this organism under avariety of stress conditions. This work presents a global view of thisorganism's response to elevated growth temperature using whole-celltranscriptomics and proteomics tools. Transcriptional response (1.7-foldchange or greater; Z>1.5) ranged from 1,135 genes at 15 min to 1,463genes at 120 min for a temperature up-shift of 13oC from a growthtemperature of 37oC for this organism and suggested both direct andindirect modes of heat sensing. Clusters of orthologous group categoriesthat were significantly affected included posttranslationalmodifications; protein turnover and chaperones (up-regulated); energyproduction and conversion (down-regulated), nucleotide transport,metabolism (down-regulated), and translation; ribosomal structure; andbiogenesis (down-regulated). Analysis of the genome sequence revealed thepresence of features of both negative and positive regulation whichincluded the CIRCE element and promoter sequences corresponding to thealternate sigma factors ?32 and ?54. While mechanisms of heat shockcontrol for some genes appeared to coincide with those established forEscherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis, the presence of unique controlschemes for several other genes was also evident. Analysis of proteinexpression levels using differential in-gel electrophoresis suggestedgood agreement with transcriptional profiles of several heat shockproteins, including DnaK (DVU0811), HtpG (DVU2643), HtrA (DVU1468), andAhpC (DVU2247). The proteomics study also suggested the possibility ofposttranslational modifications in the chaperones DnaK, AhpC, GroES(DVU1977), and GroEL (DVU1976) and also several periplasmic ABCtransporters.

  2. Dose, exposure time, and resolution in Serial X-ray Crystallography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starodub, D; Rez, P; Hembree, G; Howells, M; Shapiro, D; Chapman, H N; Fromme, P; Schmidt, K; Weierstall, U; Doak, R B; Spence, J C

    2007-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Using detailed simulation and analytical models, the exposure time is estimated for serial crystallography, where hydrated laser-aligned proteins are sprayed across a continuous synchrotron beam. The resolution of X-ray diffraction microscopy is limited by the maximum dose that can be delivered prior to sample damage. In the proposed Serial Crystallography method, the damage problem is addressed by distributing the total dose over many identical hydrated macromolecules running continuously in a single-file train across a continuous X-ray beam, and resolution is then limited only by the available fluxes of molecules and X-rays. Orientation of the diffracting molecules is achieved by laser alignment. We evaluate the incident X-ray fluence (energy/area) required to obtain a given resolution from (1) an analytical model, giving the count rate at the maximum scattering angle for a model protein, (2) explicit simulation of diffraction patterns for a GroEL-GroES protein complex, and (3) the frequency cut off of the transfer function following iterative solution of the phase problem, and reconstruction of a density map in the projection approximation. These calculations include counting shot noise and multiple starts of the phasing algorithm. The results indicate the number of proteins needed within the beam at any instant for a given resolution and X-ray flux. We confirm an inverse fourth power dependence of exposure time on resolution, with important implications for all coherent X-ray imaging. We find that multiple single-file protein beams will be needed for sub-nanometer resolution on current third generation synchrotrons, but not on fourth generation designs, where reconstruction of secondary protein structure at a resolution of 7 {angstrom} should be possible with short (below 100 s) exposures.

  3. Coal Direct Chemical Looping Retrofit to Pulverized Coal Power Plants for In-Situ CO2 Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Liang; Li, Fanxing; Kim, Ray; Bayham, Samuel; McGiveron, Omar; Tong, Andrew; Connell, Daniel; Luo, Siwei; Sridhar, Deepak; Wang, Fei; Sun, Zhenchao; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) system is proposed to effectively capture CO2 from existing PC power plants. The work during the past three years has led to an oxygen carrier particle with satisfactory performance. Moreover, successful laboratory, bench scale, and integrated demonstrations have been performed. The proposed project further advanced the novel CDCL technology to sub-pilot scale (25 kWth). To be more specific, the following objectives attained in the proposed project are: 1. to further improve the oxygen carrying capacity as well as the sulfur/ash tolerance of the current (working) particle; 2. to demonstrate continuous CDCL operations in an integrated mode with > 99% coal (bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite) conversion as well as the production of high temperature exhaust gas stream that is suitable for steam generation in existing PC boilers; 3. to identify, via demonstrations, the fate of sulfur and NOx; 4. to conduct thorough techno-economic analysis that validates the technical and economical attractiveness of the CDCL system. The objectives outlined above were achieved through collaborative efforts among all the participants. CONSOL Energy Inc. performed the techno-economic analysis of the CDCL process. Shell/CRI was able to perform feasibility and economic studies on the large scale particle synthesis and provide composite particles for the sub-pilot scale testing. The experience of B&W (with boilers) and Air Products (with handling gases) assisted the retrofit system design as well as the demonstration unit operations. The experience gained from the sub-pilot scale demonstration of the Syngas Chemical Looping (SCL) process at OSU was able to ensure the successful handling of the solids. Phase 1 focused on studies to improve the current particle to better suit the CDCL operations. The optimum operating conditions for the reducer reactor such as the temperature, char gasification enhancer type, and flow rate were identified. The modifications of the existing bench scale reactor were completed in order to use it in the next phase of the project. In Phase II, the optimum looping medium was selected, and bench scale demonstrations were completed using them. Different types of coal char such as those obtained from bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite were tested. Modifications were made on the existing sub-pilot scale unit for coal injection. Phase III focused on integrated CDCL demonstration in the sub-pilot scale unit. A comprehensive ASPENģ simulations and economic analysis was completed by CONSOL t is expected that the CDCL process will be ready for further demonstrations in a scale up unit upon completion of the proposed project.

  4. The N-terminal domain determines the affinity and specificity of H1 binding to chromatin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oeberg, Christine, E-mail: christine.oberg@ki.se [Karolinska Institute, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, P.O. Box 285, SE-17177 Stockholm (Sweden)] [Karolinska Institute, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, P.O. Box 285, SE-17177 Stockholm (Sweden); Belikov, Sergey, E-mail: sergey.belikov@ki.se [Karolinska Institute, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, P.O. Box 285, SE-17177 Stockholm (Sweden)] [Karolinska Institute, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, P.O. Box 285, SE-17177 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer wt Human histone H1.4 and hH1.4 devoid of N-terminal domain, {Delta}N-hH1.4, were compared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both histones bind to chromatin, however, {Delta}N-hH1.4 displays lower binding affinity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Interaction of {Delta}N-hH1.4 with chromatin includes a significant unspecific component. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N-terminal domain is a determinant of specificity of histone H1 binding to chromatin. -- Abstract: Linker histone H1, one of the most abundant nuclear proteins in multicellular eukaryotes, is a key component of the chromatin structure mainly due to its role in the formation and maintenance of the 30 nm chromatin fiber. It has a three-domain structure; a central globular domain flanked by a short N-terminal domain and a long, highly basic C-terminal domain. Previous studies have shown that the binding abilities of H1 are at large determined by the properties of the C-terminal domain; much less attention has been paid to role of the N-terminal domain. We have previously shown that H1 can be reconstituted via cytoplasmic mRNA injection in Xenopus oocytes, cells that lack somatic H1. The heterologously expressed H1 proteins are incorporated into in vivo assembled chromatin at specific sites and the binding event is monitored as an increase in nucleosomal repeat length (NRL). Using this setup we have here compared the binding properties of wt-H1.4 and hH1.4 devoid of its N-terminal domain ({Delta}N-hH1.4). The {Delta}N-hH1.4 displays a drastically lower affinity for chromatin binding as compared to the wild type hH1.4. Our data also indicates that {Delta}N-hH1.4 is more prone to unspecific chromatin binding than the wild type. We conclude that the N-terminal domain of H1 is an important determinant of affinity and specificity of H1-chromatin interactions.

  5. X-RED: A Satellite Mission Concept To Detect Early Universe Gamma Ray Bursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krumpe, M; Cherix, M; Coffey, D; Deroo, P; Egger, G; Hasinger, G; Hoffmann, A I D; Lefever, K; Liermann, A; Lund, N; Parmar, A; Russo, P; Steiper, J; Strodl, T; Vilardell, F; Wahlin, R; Albrecht, Simon; Cherix, Marc; Coffey, Deirdre; Deroo, Pieter; Egger, Georg; Hasinger, Guenther; Hoffmann, Agnes I.D.; Krumpe, Mirko; Lefever, Karolien; Liermann, Adriane; Lund, Niels; Parmar, Arvind; Russo, Pedro; Steiper, Joerg; Strodl, Thomas; Vilardell, Francesc; Wahlin, Rurik

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gamma ray bursts (GRBs) are the most energetic eruptions known in the Universe. Instruments such as Compton-GRO/BATSE and the GRB monitor on BeppoSAX have detected more than 2700 GRBs and, although observational confirmation is still required, it is now generally accepted that many of these bursts are associated with the collapse of rapidly spinning massive stars to form black holes. Consequently, since first generation stars are expected to be very massive, GRBs are likely to have occurred in significant numbers at early epochs. X-red is a space mission concept designed to detect these extremely high redshifted GRBs, in order to probe the nature of the first generation of stars and hence the time of reionisation of the early Universe. We demonstrate that the gamma and x-ray luminosities of typical GRBs render them detectable up to extremely high redshifts (z~10-30), but that current missions such as HETE2 and SWIFT operate outside the observational range for detection of high redshift GRB afterglows. Therefo...

  6. Multi-wavelength identification of high-energy sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mignani, R P

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The nature of most of the ~300 high-energy gamma-ray sources discovered by the EGRET instrument aboard the Gamma-ray Observatory (GRO) between 1991 and 1999 is one of the greatest enigmas in high-energy astrophysics. While about half of the extragalactic sources have been optically identified with Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), only a meagre 10% of the galactic sources have a reliable identification. This low success rate has mainly to be ascribed to the local crowding of potential optical counterparts and to the large gamma-ray error boxes (of the order of one degree in radius) which prevented a straightforward optical identification. Indeed, a multi-wavelength identification strategy, based on a systematic coverage of the gamma-ray error boxes, has been the only do-able approach. The situation is now greatly improving thanks to the observations performed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope which, thanks to the LAT instrument, provides a factor of 50 improvement in sensitivity and a factor of 10 improvemen...

  7. Earth occultation technique with EGRET calorimeter data above 1 MeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dingus, Brenda L. [University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Bertsch, D. L. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Schneid, E. J. [Northrop-Grumman, Bethpage, New York 11714 (United States)

    1997-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The technique of earth occultation has produced many exciting results from the BATSE data. We examine the possibility of using this technique on the Total Absorption Shower Calorimeter (TASC) of EGRET. The TASC has an effective area of a few 1000 cm{sup 2} and is 8 radiation lengths deep. Spectra from 1-200 MeV are collected every 33 sec and the rate at 4 energies is monitored every 2 sec. The detector is unshielded and uncollimated so the background is large. The statistical error on the background measurements require several days of exposure to detect the Crab at the lowest energies. Longer exposures would be needed due to systematic errors in determining the background. However, the wide field of view (the effective area is nearly 1000 cm{sup 2} even through the back of the spacecraft) could be used to monitor variability and confirm fluxes of sources such as the black hole candidates, Cyg X-1 and GRO J0422+33.

  8. Kinematic Density Waves in Accretion Disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Svetlin Tassev; Edmund Bertschinger

    2008-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    When thin accretion disks around black holes are perturbed, the main restoring force is gravity. If gas pressure, magnetic stresses, and radiation pressure are neglected, the disk remains thin as long as orbits do not intersect. Intersections would result in pressure forces which limit the growth of perturbations. We find that a discrete set of perturbations is possible for which orbits remain non-intersecting for arbitrarily long times. These modes define a discrete set of frequencies. We classify all long-lived perturbations for arbitrary potentials and show how their mode frequencies are related to pattern speeds computed from the azimuthal and epicyclic frequencies. We show that modes are concentrated near radii where the pattern speed has vanishing radial derivative. We explore these modes around Kerr black holes as a possible explanation for the high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations of black hole binaries such as GRO J1655-40. The long-lived modes are shown to coincide with diskoseismic waves in the limit of small sound speed. While the waves have long lifetime, they have the wrong frequencies to explain the pairs of high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations observed in black hole binaries.

  9. New mechanism for lightning initiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roussel-Dupre, R.; Buchwald, M.; Gurevich, A. [Lebedev Institute of Physical Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). To distinguish radio-frequency (rf) signals generated by lightning from the electromagnetic pulse produced by a nuclear explosion, it is necessary to understand the fundamental nature of thunderstorm discharges. The recent debate surrounding the origin of transionospheric pulse pairs (TIPPs) detected by the BLACKBEARD experiment aboard the ALEXIS satellite illustrates this point. We have argued that TIPP events could originate from the upward propagating discharges recently identified by optical images taken from the ground, from airplanes, and from the space shuttle. In addition, the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) measurements of x-ray bursts originating from thunderstorms are almost certainly associated with these upward propagating discharges. When taken together, these three measurements point directly to the runaway electron mechanism as the source of the upward discharges. The primary goal of this research effort was to identify the specific role played by the runaway-air-breakdown mechanism in the general area of thunderstorm electricity and in so doing develop lightning models that predict the optical, rf, and x-ray emissions that are observable from space.

  10. Technical Analysis of Installed Micro-Combined Heat and Power Fuel-Cell System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brooks, Kriston P.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe

    2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Combined heat and power fuel cell systems (CHP-FCSs) provide consistent electrical power and hot water with greater efficiency and lower emissions than alternative sources. These systems can be used either as baseload, grid-connected, or as off-the-grid power sources. This report presents a technical analysis of 5 kWe CHP-FCSs installed in different locations in the U.S. At some sites as many as five 5 kWe system is used to provide up to 25kWe of power. Systems in this power range are considered ďmicroĒ-CHP-FCS. To better assess performance of micro-CHP-FCS and understand their benefits, the U.S. Department of Energy worked with ClearEdge Power to install fifteen 5-kWe PBI high temperature PEM fuel cells (CE5 models) in the commercial markets of California and Oregon. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated these systems in terms of their economics, operations, and technical performance. These units were monitored from September 2011 until June 2013. During this time, about 190,000 hours of data were collected and more than 17 billion data points were analyzed. Beginning in July 2013, ten of these systems were gradually replaced with ungraded systems (M5 models) containing phosphoric acid fuel cell technology. The new units were monitored until June 2014 until they went offline because ClearEdge was bought by Doosan at the time and the new manufacturer did not continue to support data collection and maintenance of these units. During these two phases, data was collected at once per second and data analysis techniques were applied to understand behavior of these systems. The results of this analysis indicate that systems installed in the second phase of this demonstration performed much better in terms of availability, consistency in generation, and reliability. The average net electrical power output increased from 4.1 to 4.9 kWe, net heat recovery from 4.7 to 5.4 kWth, and system availability improved from 94% to 95%. The average net system electric efficiency, average net heat recovery efficiency, and overall net efficiency of the system increased respectively from 33% to 36%, from 38% to 41%, and from 71% to 76%. The temperature of water sent to sit however reduced by about 16% from 51?C to 43 ?C. This was a control strategy and the temperature can be controlled depending on building heat demands. More importantly, the number of shutdowns and maintenance events required to keep the systems running at the manufacturerís rated performance specifications were substantially reduced by about 76% (for 8 to 10 units running over a one-year period). From July 2012 to June 2013, there were eight CE5 units in operation and a total of 134 scheduled and unscheduled shutdowns took place. From July 2013 to June 2014, between two to ten units were in operation and only 32 shutdowns were reported (all unscheduled). In summary, the number of shutdowns reduced from 10 shutdowns per month on average for eight CE5units to an average of 2.7 shutdowns per month for M5 units (between two to ten units).

  11. GRBs and Hypernova Explosions of Some Galactic Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. E. Brown; C. -H. Lee; E. Moreno Mendez

    2007-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Knowing the Kerr parameters we can make quantitative calculations of the rotational energy of black holes. We show that Nova Sco (GRO J1655 - 40), Il Lupi (4U 1543 - 47), XTE J1550 - 564 and GS 2023 + 338 are relics of gamma-ray burst (GRB) and Hypernova explosions. They had more than enough rotational energy to power themselves. In fact, they had so much energy that they would have disrupted the accretion disk of the black hole that powered them by the communicated rotational energy, so that the energy delivery was self limiting. The most important feature in producing high rotational energy in the binary is low donor (secondary star) mass. We suggest that V4641 Sgr (XTE J1819 - 254) and GRS 1915 + 105 underwent less energetic explosions; because of their large donor masses. These explosions were one or two orders of magnitude lower in energy than that of Nova Sco. Cyg X - 1 (1956 + 350) had an even less energetic explosion, because of an even larger donor mass. We find that in the evolution of the soft X-ray transient sources the donor (secondary star) is tidally locked with the helium star, which evolved from the giant, as the hydrogen envelope is stripped off in common envelope evolution. The tidal locking is transferred from the helium star to the black hole into which it falls. Depending on the mass of the donor, the black hole can be spun up to the angular momentum necessary to power the GRB and Hypernova explosion. The donor decouples, acting as a passive witness to the explosion which, for the given angular momentum, then proceeds as in the Woosley Collapsar model. High mass donors which tend to follow from low metallicity give long GRBs because their lower energy can be accepted by the central engine.

  12. X-RED: A Satellite Mission Concept To Detect Early Universe Gamma Ray Bursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mirko Krumpe; Deirdre Coffey; Georg Egger; Francesc Vilardell; Karolien Lefever; Adriane Liermann; Agnes I. D. Hoffmann; Joerg Steiper; Marc Cherix; Simon Albrecht; Pedro Russo; Thomas Strodl; Rurik Wahlin; Pieter Deroo; Arvind Parmar; Niels Lund; Guenther Hasinger

    2005-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Gamma ray bursts (GRBs) are the most energetic eruptions known in the Universe. Instruments such as Compton-GRO/BATSE and the GRB monitor on BeppoSAX have detected more than 2700 GRBs and, although observational confirmation is still required, it is now generally accepted that many of these bursts are associated with the collapse of rapidly spinning massive stars to form black holes. Consequently, since first generation stars are expected to be very massive, GRBs are likely to have occurred in significant numbers at early epochs. X-red is a space mission concept designed to detect these extremely high redshifted GRBs, in order to probe the nature of the first generation of stars and hence the time of reionisation of the early Universe. We demonstrate that the gamma and x-ray luminosities of typical GRBs render them detectable up to extremely high redshifts (z~10-30), but that current missions such as HETE2 and SWIFT operate outside the observational range for detection of high redshift GRB afterglows. Therefore, to redress this, we present a complete mission design from the science case to the mission architecture and payload, the latter comprising three instruments, namely wide field x-ray cameras to detect high redshift gamma-rays, an x-ray focussing telescope to determine accurate coordinates and extract spectra, and an infrared spectrograph to observe the high redshift optical afterglow. The mission is expected to detect and identify for the first time GRBs with z > 10, thereby providing constraints on properties of the first generation of stars and the history of the early Universe.

  13. Key residues for the oligomerization of A{beta}42 protein in Alzheimer's disease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ngo, Sam [Department of Neurology, Brain Research Institute, Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)] [Department of Neurology, Brain Research Institute, Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Guo, Zhefeng, E-mail: zhefeng@ucla.edu [Department of Neurology, Brain Research Institute, Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)] [Department of Neurology, Brain Research Institute, Molecular Biology Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2011-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A{beta} oligomers are neurotoxins and likely the causing agents for Alzheimer's disease. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A{beta}42 fusion protein form globular oligomers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A{beta}42 fusion protein oligomers contain SDS-resistant tetramers and hexamers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cysteine substitutions at residues 31, 32, 34, 39-41 disrupt A{beta}42 oligomerization. -- Abstract: Deposition of amyloid fibrils consisting of amyloid {beta} (A{beta}) protein as senile plaques in the brain is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. However, a growing body of evidence shows that soluble A{beta} oligomers correlate better with dementia than fibrils, suggesting that A{beta} oligomers may be the primary toxic species. The structure and oligomerization mechanism of these A{beta} oligomers are crucial for developing effective therapeutics. Here we investigated the oligomerization of A{beta}42 in the context of a fusion protein containing GroES and ubiquitin fused to the N-terminus of A{beta} sequence. The presence of fusion protein partners, in combination with a denaturing buffer containing 8 M urea at pH 10, is unfavorable for A{beta}42 aggregation, thus allowing only the most stable structures to be observed. Transmission electron microscopy showed that A{beta}42 fusion protein formed globular oligomers, which bound weakly to thioflavin T and Congo red. SDS-PAGE shows that A{beta}42 fusion protein formed SDS-resistant hexamers and tetramers. In contrast, A{beta}40 fusion protein remained as monomers on SDS gel, suggesting that the oligomerization of A{beta}42 fusion protein is not due to the fusion protein partners. Cysteine scanning mutagenesis at 22 residue positions further revealed that single cysteine substitutions of the C-terminal hydrophobic residues (I31, I32, L34, V39, V40, and I41) led to disruption of hexamer and tetramer formation, suggesting that hydrophobic interactions between these residues are most critical for A{beta}42 oligomerization.