National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for diverse animal populations

  1. Diversity waves in collapse-driven population dynamics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Maslov, Sergei; Sneppen, Kim

    2015-09-14

    Populations of species in ecosystems are often constrained by availability of resources within their environment. In effect this means that a growth of one population, needs to be balanced by comparable reduction in populations of others. In neutral models of biodiversity all populations are assumed to change incrementally due to stochastic births and deaths of individuals. Here we propose and model another redistribution mechanism driven by abrupt and severe collapses of the entire population of a single species freeing up resources for the remaining ones. This mechanism may be relevant e.g. for communities of bacteria, with strain-specific collapses caused e.g.more » by invading bacteriophages, or for other ecosystems where infectious diseases play an important role. The emergent dynamics of our system is cyclic ‘‘diversity waves’’ triggered by collapses of globally dominating populations. The population diversity peaks at the beginning of each wave and exponentially decreases afterwards. Species abundances are characterized by a bimodal time-aggregated distribution with the lower peak formed by populations of recently collapsed or newly introduced species while the upper peak - species that has not yet collapsed in the current wave. In most waves both upper and lower peaks are composed of several smaller peaks. This self-organized hierarchical peak structure has a long-term memory transmitted across several waves. It gives rise to a scale-free tail of the time-aggregated population distribution with a universal exponent of 1.7. We show that diversity wave dynamics is robust with respect to variations in the rules of our model such as diffusion between multiple environments, species-specific growth and extinction rates, and bet-hedging strategies.« less

  2. Diversity waves in collapse-driven population dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maslov, Sergei; Sneppen, Kim

    2015-09-14

    Populations of species in ecosystems are often constrained by availability of resources within their environment. In effect this means that a growth of one population, needs to be balanced by comparable reduction in populations of others. In neutral models of biodiversity all populations are assumed to change incrementally due to stochastic births and deaths of individuals. Here we propose and model another redistribution mechanism driven by abrupt and severe collapses of the entire population of a single species freeing up resources for the remaining ones. This mechanism may be relevant e.g. for communities of bacteria, with strain-specific collapses caused e.g. by invading bacteriophages, or for other ecosystems where infectious diseases play an important role. The emergent dynamics of our system is cyclic ‘‘diversity waves’’ triggered by collapses of globally dominating populations. The population diversity peaks at the beginning of each wave and exponentially decreases afterwards. Species abundances are characterized by a bimodal time-aggregated distribution with the lower peak formed by populations of recently collapsed or newly introduced species while the upper peak - species that has not yet collapsed in the current wave. In most waves both upper and lower peaks are composed of several smaller peaks. This self-organized hierarchical peak structure has a long-term memory transmitted across several waves. It gives rise to a scale-free tail of the time-aggregated population distribution with a universal exponent of 1.7. We show that diversity wave dynamics is robust with respect to variations in the rules of our model such as diffusion between multiple environments, species-specific growth and extinction rates, and bet-hedging strategies.

  3. Animations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The animations shown on this page are designed and meant to help understand basic geothermal concepts, and are not meant as exhaustive and detailed depictions of technical principles. Rather, they...

  4. Diversity

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 Guidance for Agency-Specific Diversity and Inclusion Strategic Plans 2 Table of Contents Introduction............................................................................................................................................3 Section 1 Operational Guidance...........................................................................................................................5 Section 2 Goal 1: Workforce Diversity; Priorities, Actions, and Sample

  5. diversity

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    policies. Prior to his current assignment, Dr. Sayles was the Director of Diversity Strategy and Implementation for the U.S. Army, where he developed and led implementation of...

  6. Diversity | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Diversity

  7. Population genomic analysis reveals differential evolutionary histories and patterns of diversity across subgenomes and subpopulations of Brassica napus L.

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gazave, Elodie; Tassone, Erica E.; Ilut, Daniel C.; Wingerson, Megan; Datema, Erwin; Witsenboer, Hanneke M. A.; Davis, James B.; Grant, David; Dyer, John M.; Jenks, Matthew A.; et al

    2016-04-21

    Here, the allotetraploid species Brassica napus L. is a global crop of major economic importance, providing canola oil (seed) and vegetables for human consumption and fodder and meal for livestock feed. Characterizing the genetic diversity present in the extant germplasm pool of B. napus is fundamental to better conserve, manage and utilize the genetic resources of this species. We used sequence-based genotyping to identify and genotype 30,881 SNPs in a diversity panel of 782 B. napus accessions, representing samples of winter and spring growth habits originating from 33 countries across Europe, Asia, and America. We detected strong population structure broadlymore » concordant with growth habit and geography, and identified three major genetic groups: spring (SP), winter Europe (WE), and winter Asia (WA). Subpopulation-specific polymorphism patterns suggest enriched genetic diversity within the WA group and a smaller effective breeding population for the SP group compared to WE. Interestingly, the two subgenomes of B. napus appear to have different geographic origins, with phylogenetic analysis placing WE and WA as basal clades for the other subpopulations in the C and A subgenomes, respectively. Finally, we identified 16 genomic regions where the patterns of diversity differed markedly from the genome-wide average, several of which are suggestive of genomic inversions. The results obtained in this study constitute a valuable resource for worldwide breeding efforts and the genetic dissection and prediction of complex B. napus traits.« less

  8. Recombination enhances HIV-1 envelope diversity by facilitating the survival of latent genomic fragments in the plasma virus population

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Immonen, Taina T.; Conway, Jessica M.; Romero-Severson, Ethan O.; Perelson, Alan S.; Leitner, Thomas; Kouyos, Roger Dimitri

    2015-12-22

    HIV-1 is subject to immune pressure exerted by the host, giving variants that escape the immune response an advantage. Virus released from activated latent cells competes against variants that have continually evolved and adapted to host immune pressure. Nevertheless, there is increasing evidence that virus displaying a signal of latency survives in patient plasma despite having reduced fitness due to long-term immune memory. We investigated the survival of virus with latent envelope genomic fragments by simulating within-host HIV-1 sequence evolution and the cycling of viral lineages in and out of the latent reservoir. Our model incorporates a detailed mutation process including nucleotide substitution, recombination, latent reservoir dynamics, diversifying selection pressure driven by the immune response, and purifying selection pressure asserted by deleterious mutations. We evaluated the ability of our model to capture sequence evolution in vivo by comparing our simulated sequences to HIV-1 envelope sequence data from 16 HIV-infected untreated patients. Empirical sequence divergence and diversity measures were qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those of our simulated HIV-1 populations, suggesting that our model invokes realistic trends of HIV-1 genetic evolution. Moreover, reconstructed phylogenies of simulated and patient HIV-1 populations showed similar topological structures. Our simulation results suggest that recombination is a key mechanism facilitating the persistence of virus with latent envelope genomic fragments in the productively infected cell population. Recombination increased the survival probability of latent virus forms approximately 13-fold. Prevalence of virus with latent fragments in productively infected cells was observed in only 2% of simulations when we ignored recombination, while the proportion increased to 27% of simulations when we allowed recombination. We also found that the selection pressures exerted by different fitness

  9. Battery of short-term tests in laboratory animals to corroborate the detection of human population exposures to genotoxic chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pereira, M.A.; Chang, L.W.; McMillan, L.; Ward, J.B.; Legator, M.S.

    1982-02-01

    The authors are conducting a battery of short-term tests in laboratory animals for comparison to a series of monitoring test they are evaluating for the detection of human population exposures to genotoxic chemicals. The human monitoring tests are described in a separate abstract. These assays include (1) hemoglobin (Hb) alkylation, (2) cytogenetic effects in bone marrow cells including chromosomal structural aberrations, sister chromatid exchange and micronucleus production, (3) DNA damage in bone marrow cells, (4) sperm morphology and (5) urine analysis for mutagens. Formaldehyde and methanol a metabolic precursor, are being evaluated in animals. The results are as follows: Hb Alkylation: the oral administration of carbon-14 radiolabeled formaldehyde or methanol to rats resulted in their covalent binding to Hb. Adducts to amino acids were separated after acid hydrolysis by an amino acid analyzer. The binding of both chemicals exhibited a linear relationship to dose between 10 and 100 umole/kg. The extent of methanol binding to Hb was greater than formaldehyde. Cytogenetic Analyses: the oral administration in mice of formaldehyde (100 mg/kg) or methanol (lg/kg) increased the incidence of chromosomal aberrations particularly aneuploidy and exchanges and the incidence of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes. Results of the Hb alkylation and cytogenetic analyses will be compared to the results obtained in the human monitors studies with formaldehyde.

  10. Recombination enhances HIV-1 envelope diversity by facilitating the survival of latent genomic fragments in the plasma virus population

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Immonen, Taina T.; Conway, Jessica M.; Romero-Severson, Ethan O.; Perelson, Alan S.; Leitner, Thomas; Kouyos, Roger Dimitri

    2015-12-22

    HIV-1 is subject to immune pressure exerted by the host, giving variants that escape the immune response an advantage. Virus released from activated latent cells competes against variants that have continually evolved and adapted to host immune pressure. Nevertheless, there is increasing evidence that virus displaying a signal of latency survives in patient plasma despite having reduced fitness due to long-term immune memory. We investigated the survival of virus with latent envelope genomic fragments by simulating within-host HIV-1 sequence evolution and the cycling of viral lineages in and out of the latent reservoir. Our model incorporates a detailed mutation processmore » including nucleotide substitution, recombination, latent reservoir dynamics, diversifying selection pressure driven by the immune response, and purifying selection pressure asserted by deleterious mutations. We evaluated the ability of our model to capture sequence evolution in vivo by comparing our simulated sequences to HIV-1 envelope sequence data from 16 HIV-infected untreated patients. Empirical sequence divergence and diversity measures were qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those of our simulated HIV-1 populations, suggesting that our model invokes realistic trends of HIV-1 genetic evolution. Moreover, reconstructed phylogenies of simulated and patient HIV-1 populations showed similar topological structures. Our simulation results suggest that recombination is a key mechanism facilitating the persistence of virus with latent envelope genomic fragments in the productively infected cell population. Recombination increased the survival probability of latent virus forms approximately 13-fold. Prevalence of virus with latent fragments in productively infected cells was observed in only 2% of simulations when we ignored recombination, while the proportion increased to 27% of simulations when we allowed recombination. We also found that the selection pressures exerted by different

  11. Diversity - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Diversity

  12. Scanning the landscape of genome architecture of non-O1 and non-O139 Vibrio cholerae by whole genome mapping reveals extensive population genetic diversity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chapman, Carol; Henry, Matthew; Bishop-Lilly, Kimberly A.; Awosika, Joy; Briska, Adam; Ptashkin, Ryan N.; Wagner, Trevor; Rajanna, Chythanya; Tsang, Hsinyi; Johnson, Shannon L.; et al

    2015-03-20

    Historically, cholera outbreaks have been linked to V. cholerae O1 serogroup strains or its derivatives of the O37 and O139 serogroups. A genomic study on the 2010 Haiti cholera outbreak strains highlighted the putative role of non O1/non-O139 V. cholerae in causing cholera and the lack of genomic sequences of such strains from around the world. Here we address these gaps by scanning a global collection of V. cholerae strains as a first step towards understanding the population genetic diversity and epidemic potential of non O1/non-O139 strains. Whole Genome Mapping (Optical Mapping) based bar coding produces a high resolution, orderedmore » restriction map, depicting a complete view of the unique chromosomal architecture of an organism. To assess the genomic diversity of non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae, we applied a Whole Genome Mapping strategy on a well-defined and geographically and temporally diverse strain collection, the Sakazaki serogroup type strains. Whole Genome Map data on 91 of the 206 serogroup type strains support the hypothesis that V. cholerae has an unprecedented genetic and genomic structural diversity. Interestingly, we discovered chromosomal fusions in two unusual strains that possess a single chromosome instead of the two chromosomes usually found in V. cholerae. We also found pervasive chromosomal rearrangements such as duplications and indels in many strains. The majority of Vibrio genome sequences currently in public databases are unfinished draft sequences. The Whole Genome Mapping approach presented here enables rapid screening of large strain collections to capture genomic complexities that would not have been otherwise revealed by unfinished draft genome sequencing and thus aids in assembling and finishing draft sequences of complex genomes. Furthermore, Whole Genome Mapping allows for prediction of novel V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 strains that may have the potential to cause future cholera outbreaks.« less

  13. Animation Requirements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Animations include dynamic elements such as interactive images and games. For developing animations, follow these design and coding requirements.

  14. ORISE: Diversity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Careers Career Opportunities Diversity Our Culture Scholarships, Fellowships, or Other ... a Best Diversity Company by DiversityCareers magazine in 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014. ...

  15. Plants & Animals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    products from animals (e.g., milk, honey, and eggs) Small and big game animals (e.g., rabbits, deer, and elk) on neighboring properties around LANL Deer and elk that are killed by...

  16. Diversity, Inclusion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Workplace Diversity, Inclusion Diversity, Inclusion Explore the multiple dimensions of a career at Los Alamos Lab: work with the best minds on the planet in an inclusive...

  17. Best Practices for Managing Organizational Diversity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreitz, Patricia; /SLAC

    2007-10-15

    Organizations with increasingly diverse workforces and customer populations face challenges in reaping diversity's benefits while managing its potentially disruptive effects. This article defines workplace diversity and identifies best practices supporting planned and positive diversity management. It explores how academic libraries can apply diversity management best practices and provides a reading list for leaders and human resource managers wishing to optimize their organization's approach to diversity.

  18. Adverse Diversity Analysis Guidance | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Adverse Diversity Analysis Guidance Adverse Diversity Analysis Guidance Attachment 8 - Adverse Diversity Analysis Guidance (124.04 KB) Attachment 8(a) - WFR disparate impact chart example completed (96.18 KB) Attachment 8(b) - WFR disparate impact chart clean (88.56 KB) More Documents & Publications Fact #922: April 25, 2016 Share of Older Population Holding Driver's Licenses is Up and Share of Younger Population Holding Driver's Licenses is Down - Dataset FAIR Act Inventory - FY13 Fayette

  19. Diversity and Inclusion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Diversity and Inclusion fosters a diverse and inclusive work environment that ensures equality of opportunity for applicants and employees through Departmental diversity policy...

  20. Forest Productivity and Diversity: Using Ecological Theory and Landscape Models to Guide Sustainable Forest Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huston, M.A.

    1998-11-01

    Sustainable forest management requires maintaining or increasing ecosystem productivity, while preserving or restoring natural levels of biodiversity. Application of general concepts from ecological theory, along with use of mechanistic, landscape-based computer models, can contribute to the successful achievement of both of these objectives. Ecological theories based on the energetics and dynamics of populations can be used to predict the general distribution of individual species, the diversity of different types of species, ecosystem process rates and pool sizes, and patterns of spatial and temporal heterogeneity over a broad range of environmental conditions. This approach requires subdivision of total biodiversity into functional types of organisms, primarily because different types of organisms respond very differently to the spatial and temporal variation of environmental conditions on landscapes. The diversity of species of the same functional type (particularly among plants) tends to be highest at relatively low levels of net primary productivity, while the total number of different functional types (particularly among animals) tends to be highest at high levels of productivity (e.g., site index or potential net primary productivity). In general, the diversity of animals at higher trophic levels (e.g., predators) reaches its maximum at much higher levels of productivity than the diversity of lower trophic levels (e.g., plants). This means that a single environment cannot support high diversity of all types of organisms. Within the framework of the general patterns described above, the distributions, population dynamics, and diversity of organisms in specific regions can be predicted more precisely using a combination of computer simulation models and GIS data based on satellite information and ground surveys. Biophysical models that use information on soil properties, climate, and hydrology have been developed to predict how the abundance and spatial

  1. Recombination enhances HIV-1 envelope diversity by facilitating...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    plasma virus population Prev Next Title: Recombination enhances HIV-1 envelope diversity by facilitating the survival of latent genomic fragments in the plasma virus ...

  2. Plants & Animals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plants & Animals Plants & Animals Plant and animal monitoring is performed to determine whether Laboratory operations are impacting human health via the food chain. February 2, 2015 A rabbit on LANL land. A rabbit on Los Alamos National Laboratory land. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email We sample many plants and animals, including wild and domestic crops, game animals, fish, and food products from

  3. Buckman Direct Diversion Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Buckman Direct Diversion Project Buckman Direct Diversion Project This project takes surface water from the Rio Grande, and then treats and distributes these waters to the city and county of Santa Fe through their drinking water distribution systems. August 1, 2013 Water flumes at Buckman Direct Diversion Project Water flumes at Buckman Direct Diversion Project The City of Santa Fe and Santa Fe County completed the construction of the Buckman Direct Diversion (BDD) Project in December 2010. The

  4. Genetic diversity of sockeye salmon (`oncorhynchus nerka`) of Cook Inlet, Alaska, and its application to restoration of injured populations of the Kenai River. Exxon Valdez Oil Spill Restoration Project 93012 and 94255-2. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seeb, L.W.; Habicht, C.; Templin, W.D.; Fetzner, J.W.; Gates, R.B.

    1995-11-01

    Genetic data from sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) were collected from all significant spawning populations contributing to mixed-stock harvests in Cook Inlet. A total of 68 allozyme loci were resolved from 37 populations. Mitochondrial DNA data from the NADH subunits 5 and 6 were collected from 19 of the populations. Mixed-stock analyses using maximum likelihood methods with 27 loci were evaluated to estimate the proportion of Kenai River populations in Central District drift fisheries. Simulations indicate that Kenai River populations can be identified in mixtures at a level of precision and accuracy useful for restoration and fishery management. Mixed-stock samples from Cook Inlet drift net fisheries were analyzed both inseason (48 hr) and post-season. Samples from fish wheels from the Kenai, Kasilof, Yentna, and Susitna River systems were also analyzed. Inclusion of mtDNA data in the analysis is being investigated to determine if it improves precision and accuracy. Results from this study are currently being used in the management and restoration of Kenai River sockeye salmon injured in the 1989 Exxon Valdex oil spill.

  5. Beware of migrating animals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Now that daylight is growing shorter and nights and evenings are cooler, large game animals have begun their seasonal migrations and are more likely to travel during...

  6. Best Practices for Managing Organizational Diversity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreitz, Patricia A.; /SLAC

    2007-05-18

    In the twentieth century, ecologists and agriculturists developed an increasingly sophisticated understanding of the value of biological diversity, specifically the resilience and adaptability it brings to ecosystems. In the twenty-first century, the ecosystem model has been applied to human systems, particularly to understanding how organizations are structured and how they operate. Twenty-first century organizations are challenged by diversity in many arenas. Demographic changes in workforce composition and customer populations, combined with globalized markets and international competition are increasing the amount of diversity organizations must manage, both internally and externally. Many diversity specialists and business leaders argue that businesses and organizations interested in surviving and thriving in the twenty-first century need to take competitive advantage of a diverse workplace (Soutar, 2004; Yang, 2005). But to do so successfully, leaders and human resources (HR) managers must redefine management and leadership (Jones, 1989). Just as mono-cropping destroys biological diversity, and, in extreme cases, such as the Irish potato famine--human as well as natural ecosystems (Keohane, n.d.), so does mono-managing similarly destroy diversity within organizations. Leaders wanting to build strong, diverse organizations will not be successful if they rely on one approach or solution. Single-threaded diversity solutions, such as focusing only on recruitment or single-approach management techniques, such as requiring every employee to take diversity training, do not create lasting change (Kossek & Lobel, 1996; McMahon, 2006; Thomas, 1990). Bringing about the changes needed to build and sustain diversity requires commitment, strategy, communication, and concrete changes in organizational structure and processes. How, then, can managers and leaders develop diverse organizations and ensure that they are managed to take optimum advantage of diversity? What role

  7. Environmentally friendly animal litter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chett, Boxley; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-08-20

    A method of making an animal litter that includes geopolymerized ash, wherein, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control may be accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  8. Diversity and Inclusion Related Documents

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Diversity and Inclusion fosters a diverse and inclusive work environment that ensures equality of opportunity for applicants and employees through Departmental diversity policy...

  9. Diversity and Inclusion Guidance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    All DOE diversity and inclusion policies, practices and programs must comply with Federal Equal Employment Opportunity laws, Merit Systems Principles, the foundation of the Civil Service, and not...

  10. WORKFORCE DIVERSITY TOWN HALL

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... fracturing our communities." Secretary Hillary Rodham Clinton WORKFORCE DIVERSITY TOWN HALL Agenda I. Welcome Mel Williams, Jr., Associate Deputy Secretary II. Opening Remarks Dr. ...

  11. EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL WATERING DEVICE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Finkel, M.P.

    1964-04-01

    A device for watering experimental animals confined in a battery of individual plastic enclosures is described. It consists of a rectangular plastic enclosure having a plurality of fluid-tight compartments, each with a drinking hole near the bottom and a filling hole on the top. The enclosure is immersed in water until filled, its drinking holes sealed with a strip of tape, and it is then placed in the battery. The tape sealing prevents the flow of water from the device, but permits animals to drink by licking the drinking holes. (AEC)

  12. Animation Requirements for the Web

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Animations include dynamic elements such as interactive images and games. For developing animations, follow the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's (EERE's) design and coding requirements.

  13. EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MAINTENANCE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Finkel, M.P.

    1962-01-22

    A method of housing experimental animals such as mice in individual tube- like plastic enclosures is described. Contrary to experience, when this was tried with metal the mice did not become panicky. Group housing, with its attendant difficulties, may thus be dispensed with. (AEC)

  14. Workforce Diversity Town Hall

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-08-18

    On August 18, 2011, President Obama issued an Executive Order, "Establishing a Coordinated Government-wide Initiative to Promote Diversity and Inclusion in the Federal Workforce," directing federal agencies to develop strategic plans to recruit and retain a more diverse workforce.

  15. Diversity Events Calendar

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Training, networking, and career-building conferences like the ones below are valuable ways to engage in diversity issues. Learn about upcoming events on the calendar below, and contact us at...

  16. Photovoltaics: A Diverse Technology

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This video illustrates the diversity of photovoltaic (PV) technology, which is due to innovations in PV materials, reductions in manufacturing costs, and expanding uses of the technology. A brief...

  17. Unveiled: Earth's Viral Diversity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Unveiled: Earth's Viral Diversity Unveiled: Earth's Viral Diversity NERSC Resources Help Researchers Identify 125,000 New Viral Sequences in Environmental Datasets August 17, 2016 Contact: David Gilbert, degilbert@lbl.gov, 925-296-5643 virome graphic art by Z Rostomian LBNL DOE JGI researchers utilized the largest collection of assembled metagenomic datasets from around the world to uncover over 125,000 partial and complete viral genomes, the majority of them infecting microbes. Graphic by Zosia

  18. Diversity and Inclusion | Careers | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Diversity and Inclusion NREL's world-class staff bring knowledge and expertise from across the globe. Our diverse backgrounds enable the laboratory to create clean energy solutions ...

  19. The Amphimedon queenslandica genome and the evolution of animal complexity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, Mansi; Simakov, Oleg; Chapman, Jarrod; Fahey, Bryony; Gauthier, Marie E.A.; Mitros, Therese; Richards, Gemma S.; Conaco, Cecilia; Dacre, Michael; Hellsten, Uffe; Larroux, Claire; Putnam, Nicholas H.; Stanke, Mario; Adamska, Maja; Darling, Aaron; Degnan, Sandie M.; Oakley, Todd H.; Plachetzki, David C.; Zhai, Yufeng; Adamski, Marcin; Calcino, Andrew; Cummins, Scott F.; Goodstein, David M.; Harris, Christina; Jackson, Daniel J.; Leys, Sally P.; Shu, Shengqiang; Woodcroft, Ben J.; Vervoort, Michel; Kosik, Kenneth S.; Manning, Gerard; Degnan, Bernard M.; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2010-07-01

    Sponges are an ancient group of animals that diverged from other metazoans over 600 million years ago. Here we present the draft genome sequence of Amphimedon queenslandica, a demosponge from the Great Barrier Reef, and show that it is remarkably similar to other animal genomes in content, structure and organization. Comparative analysis enabled by the sponge sequence reveals genomic events linked to the origin and early evolution of animals, including the appearance, expansion, and diversification of pan-metazoan transcription factor, signaling pathway, and structural genes. This diverse 'toolkit' of genes correlates with critical aspects of all metazoan body plans, and comprises cell cycle control and growth, development, somatic and germ cell specification, cell adhesion, innate immunity, and allorecognition. Notably, many of the genes associated with the emergence of animals are also implicated in cancer, which arises from defects in basic processes associated with metazoan multicellularity.

  20. U.S. Office of Personnel Management, Office of Diversity and Inclusion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Government-Wide Diversity and Inclusion Strategic Plan 2011 Our Nation derives strength from the diversity of its population and from its commitment to equal opportunity for all. We are at our best when we draw on the talents of all parts of our society, and our greatest accomplishments are achieved when diverse perspectives are brought to bear to overcome our greatest challenges. - President Obama, Executive Order 13583 U.S. Office of Personnel Management Office of Diversity and Inclusion 2

  1. Diversity Program Manager (Deputy Director, Office of Diversity & Inclusion)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Office of Economic Impact and Diversity (ED) is seeking a motivated and highly-qualified candidate for an exciting full-time permanent position located in the Office of Diversity &...

  2. Diversity and Inclusion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Inclusion Diversity and Inclusion At Los Alamos, you will work with the best minds on the planet in an inclusive environment rich in intellectual vitality and opportunity for growth. Lab named a Top 50 Best Workplace for Latinas Lab named a Top 50 Best Workplace for Latinas Highlighting, promoting, bringing recognition to Hispanic women READ MORE Michael Torrez Employee Spotlight: Michael Torrez Research technologist enjoys spending his free time tracing family lineages to colonial New Mexico.

  3. Secretary Chu's Diversity Action Letter

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In July 2011, the Office of Diversity Programs concluded a comprehensive review of DOE’s workforce diversity and inclusion policies and programs. The findings from this analysis, which have been...

  4. Director's commitment to diversity recognized

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Director's commitment to diversity recognized Director's commitment to diversity recognized Profiles in Diversity Journal is recognizing Director Michael Anastasio for his commitment to workplace diversity. March 11, 2011 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics and new materials. Los Alamos

  5. Cycles in fossil diversity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohde, Robert A.; Muller, Richard A.

    2004-10-20

    It is well-known that the diversity of life appears to fluctuate during the course the Phanerozoic, the eon during which hard shells and skeletons left abundant fossils (0-542 Ma). Using Sepkoski's compendium of the first and last stratigraphic appearances of 36380 marine genera, we report a strong 62 {+-} 3 Myr cycle, which is particularly strong in the shorter-lived genera. The five great extinctions enumerated by Raup and Sepkoski may be an aspect of this cycle. Because of the high statistical significance, we also consider contributing environmental factors and possible causes.

  6. Diversity & Inclusion at Argonne | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Diversity & Inclusion at Argonne Share Duration 2:50 Topic Operations Human Resources Diversity Argonne Diversity & Inclusion Advisory Council members discuss the value and...

  7. Enclosure for small animals during awake animal imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goddard, Jr., James S

    2013-11-26

    An enclosure or burrow restrains an awake animal during an imaging procedure. A tubular body, made from a radiolucent material that does not attenuate x-rays or gamma rays, accepts an awake animal. A proximal end of the body includes an attachment surface that corresponds to an attachment surface of an optically transparent and optically uniform window. An anti-reflective coating may be applied to an inner surface, an outer surface, or both surfaces of the window. Since the window is a separate element of the enclosure and it is not integrally formed as part of the body, it can be made with optically uniform thickness properties for improved motion tracking of markers on the animal with a camera during the imaging procedure. The motion tracking information is then used to compensate for animal movement in the image.

  8. Environmentally-friendly animal litter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boxley, Chett; McKelvie, Jessica

    2013-09-03

    An animal litter composition that includes geopolymerized ash particulates having a network of repeating aluminum-silicon units is described herein. Generally, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. This geopolymerization reaction may occur within a pelletizer. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it may be dried and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates may be used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter or other absorbing material. Aluminum sulfate, clinoptilolite, silica gel, sodium alginate and mineral oil may be added as additional ingredients.

  9. Environmentally-friendly animal litter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boxley, Chett; McKelvie, Jessica

    2012-08-28

    An animal litter composition including geopolymerized ash particulates having a network of repeating aluminum-silicon units is described herein. Generally, the animal litter is made from a quantity of a pozzolanic ash mixed with a sufficient quantity of water and an alkaline activator to initiate a geopolymerization reaction that forms geopolymerized ash. After the geopolymerized ash is formed, it is dried, broken into particulates, and sieved to a desired size. These geopolymerized ash particulates are used to make a non-clumping or clumping animal litter. Odor control is accomplished with the addition of a urease inhibitor, pH buffer, an odor eliminating agent, and/or fragrance.

  10. Estimate Radiological Dose for Animals

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1997-12-18

    Estimate Radiological dose for animals in ecological environment using open literature values for parameters such as body weight, plant and soil ingestion rate, rad. halflife, absorbed energy, biological halflife, gamma energy per decay, soil-to-plant transfer factor, ...etc

  11. Why Hydrogen? Hydrogen from Diverse Domestic Resources

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from Diverse Domestic Resources Hydrogen from Diverse Domestic Resources Distributed Generation Transportation HIGH EFFICIENCY HIGH EFFICIENCY & RELIABILITY & RELIABILITY ZERONEAR...

  12. diversity | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    diversity One for the history books: NNSA Fellow sets the bar high and never gives up NNSA Fellow April Gillens has made history as the first African-American to receive a doctorate in Environmental Engineering and Science from Clemson University. This advanced degree is a great achievement for Gillens, but she says her motivation began in early childhood. When Gillens was a little... NSC employees celebrate diversity The National Security Campus culminated its Diversity Among Us-themed

  13. Diversity & Flexibility Key to Sustainability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Plenary V: Biofuels and Sustainability: Acknowledging Challenges and Confronting MisconceptionsDiversity & Flexibility Key to SustainabilityDavid Babson, Senior Fuels Engineer, Union of...

  14. Plasmas: Diversity, pervasiveness and potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eastman, Timothy E.

    1998-01-01

    When considered inclusively, plasma science and technology encompass immense diversity, pervasiveness and potential: diversity through numerous topical areas (see list of nearly 200 in Table II); pervasiveness with examples covering the full range of energy, time and spatial scale; and potential through innumerable current and future applications.

  15. Diversity & Inclusion | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Diversity & Inclusion Advisory Council Demographics Leadership Institute Workforce Pipeline Mentoring Policies & Practices Business Diversity Educational Programs Directory Argonne National Laboratory About Safety News Careers Education Community Diversity Directory Energy Environment Security User Facilities Science Work with Argonne Diversity Diversity & Inclusion Advisory Council Demographics Leadership Institute Workforce Pipeline Mentoring Policies & Practices Business

  16. Fuel Cell Animation | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Animation Fuel Cell Animation This fuel cell animation demonstrates how a fuel cell uses hydrogen to produce electricity, with only water and heat as byproducts. Hydrogen fuel cell vehicles emit approximately the same amount of water per mile as conventional vehicles powered by internal combustion engines. Learn more about water emissions from fuel cell vehicles. View text version of animation.

  17. Diverse Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Place: United Kingdom Zip: RH13 0SZ Product: UK-based manufacturer of module fuel cell systems for remote power requirements. References: Diverse Energy1 This article is a...

  18. Business Diversity | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In the News Video: Lab-Corps Third Cohort Graduates in Washington, D.C. Energy.gov Argonne Discovers Self-healing Diamond-like Carbon insideHPC Argonne team discovers self-regenerating DLC tribofilm Green Car Congress Business Diversity Argonne is committed to expanding opportunities with local and small businesses, including veteran-, female- and minority-owned businesses. Diversity is integrated into Argonne's business model, both in the way in which we procure goods and services, as well as

  19. Economy Through Product Diversity: Integrated Biorefineries ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Economy Through Product Diversity: Integrated Biorefineries Economy Through Product Diversity: Integrated Biorefineries Achieving national energy and climate goals will require an...

  20. Elementary tetrahelical protein design for diverse oxidoreductase...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Elementary tetrahelical protein design for diverse oxidoreductase functions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Elementary tetrahelical protein design for diverse...

  1. Diversity & Inclusion Advisory Council | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... for Science (OTD) Harry Weerts, Associate Laboratory Director (PSE) Emily Zvolanek, GIS Senior Analyst (EVS) Resources Diversity & Inclusion Initiative: At a Glance Diversity & ...

  2. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Plants and Animals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Plants & Animals NNSANFO Language Options U.S. DOENNSA - Nevada Field Office Click to subscribe to NNSS News Plants and Animals Wild Horses at the NNSS Because of its physical ...

  3. Smart Grid Animation | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Smart Grid Animation Smart Grid Animation Addthis An error occurred. Try watching this video on www.youtube.com, or enable JavaScript if it is disabled in your browser....

  4. Diversity and Inclusion redux | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Diversity Employment and Recruitment Sources Diversity Employment and Recruitment Sources Guide to resources for diversity employment Diversity Employment and Recruitment Sources Guide (569.94 KB) Responsible Contacts Waldmann, George Director Employment Solutions Division E-mail george.waldmann@hq.doe.gov Phone 202-586-9904 More Documents & Publications Public Meeting Attendee List: Sustainable Design Standards for Federal Buildings StateActivity.pdf DOE-TSL-2-2002 Energy

    Diversity

  5. Lab Specific Waste Diversion Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation will describe the different recycling programs that the University of Colorado (CU) Boulder has in place, how they are maintained, and how they have been a great tool for engaging lab members to support waste diversion and create opportunities between CU Green Labs and lab members for further collaboration towards energy and water savings.

  6. Diversity

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... Leave Bank, and Emergency Leave Transfer, available ... are trained in strategic planning, workforce planning, ... and seemingly intractable problems many agencies face today. ...

  7. Diversity employment and recruitment sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    Effective human resources management has been identified as one of four critical success factors in the Department of Energy Strategic Plan. The Plan states relative to this factor: ``The Department seeks greater alignment of resources with agency priorities and increased diversification of the workforce, including gender, ethnicity, age, and skills. This diversification will bring new thinking and perspectives that heretofore have not had a voice in departmental decision-making.`` This Guide has been developed as a key tool to assist Department of Energy management and administrative staff in achieving Goal 2 of this critical success factor, which is to ``Ensure a diverse and talented workforce.`` There are numerous sources from which to recruit minorities, women and persons with disabilities. Applying creativity and proactive effort, using traditional and non-traditional approaches, and reaching out to various professional, academic and social communities will increase the reservoir of qualified candidates from which to make selections. In addition, outreach initiatives will undoubtedly yield further benefits such as a richer cultural understanding and diversity awareness. The resource listings presented in this Guide are offered to encourage active participation in the diversity recruitment process. This Guide contains resource listings by state for organizations in the following categories: (1) African American Recruitment Sources; (2) Asian American/Pacific Islander Recruitment Sources; (3) Hispanic Recruitment Sources; (4) Native American/Alaskan Native Recruitment Sources; (5) Persons with Disabilities Recruitment Sources; and (6) Women Recruitment Sources.

  8. Report of the second Human Genome Diversity workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-12-31

    The Second Human Genome Diversity Workshop was successfully held at Penn State University from October 29--31, 1992. The Workshop was essentially organized around 7 groups, each comprising approximately 10 participants, representing the sampling issues in different regions of the world. These groups worked independently, using a common format provided by the organizers; this was adjusted as needed by the individual groups. The Workshop began with a presentation of the mandate to the participants, and of the procedures to be followed during the workshop. Dr. Feldman presented a summary of the results from the First Workshop. He and the other organizers also presented brief comments giving their perspective on the objectives of the Second Workshop. Dr. Julia Bodmer discussed the study of European genetic diversity, especially in the context of the HLA experience there, and of plans to extend such studies in the coming years. She also discussed surveys of world HLA laboratories in regard to resources related to Human Genome Diversity. Dr. Mark Weiss discussed the relevance of nonhuman primate studies for understanding how demographic processes, such as mate exchange between local groups, affected the local dispersion of genetic variation. Primate population geneticists have some relevant experience in interpreting variation at this local level, in particular, with various DNA fingerprinting methods. This experience may be relevant to the Human Genome Diversity Project, in terms of practical and statistical issues.

  9. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library Animals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Animals NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - Animals Coyotes, kit foxes, pronghorn antelope, desert tortoises, sidewinder snakes, bald eagles, kangaroo rats and peregrine falcons are just a few of the more than 1,500 animal species found on the Nevada National Security Site. Instructions: Click the document THUMBNAIL to view the photograph details. Click the Category, Number, or Date table header links to sort the information. Thumbnail Category Number

  10. Diversity and Inclusion | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Diversity and Inclusion Argonne is home to a vibrant, diverse community. When we bring together groups of people whose cultural and intellectual backgrounds equip them to look at a...

  11. Diversity Action Letter from Secretary Chu

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In July 2011, the Office of Diversity Programs concluded a comprehensive review of DOE’s workforce diversity and inclusion policies and programs. The findings from this analysis, which have been...

  12. Hydrogen-Fueled Vehicle Safety Systems Animation | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen-Fueled Vehicle Safety Systems Animation Hydrogen-Fueled Vehicle Safety Systems Animation This animation demonstrates the multiple safety systems in hydrogen-fueled ...

  13. Video, Animation, and Audio Requirements for the Web | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Video, Animation, and Audio Requirements for the Web Video, Animation, and Audio Requirements for the Web When producing videos, animations, and audio for the Web, consider the ...

  14. Quality Assurance Checklists for Video, Animations, and Audio...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Videos, Animations, & Audio Quality Assurance Checklists for Video, Animations, and Audio Web Requirements Quality Assurance Checklists for Video, Animations, and Audio Web ...

  15. Video, Audio, and Animation Text Versions for Web Accessibility...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Videos, Animations, & Audio Video, Audio, and Animation Text Versions for Web Accessibility Video, Audio, and Animation Text Versions for Web Accessibility For accessibility, ...

  16. Fuel Cell Animation- Chemical Process (Text Version)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This text version of the fuel cell animation demonstrates how a fuel cell uses hydrogen to produce electricity, with only water and heat as byproducts.

  17. Diversity and Flexibility: Key to Sustainability

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Babson, Ph.D. Senior Engineer Union of Concerned Scientists Diversity & Flexibility Key to Sustainability Biofuels Pathways are Diverse * General perception of biofuels are limited to corn ethanol and soybean biodiesel Biofuels Pathways are Diverse * General perception of biofuels are limited to corn ethanol and soybean biodiesel * Biofuels are important and they are so much more than corn ethanol and soybean biodiesel Biofuels Pathways are Diverse * General perception of biofuels are

  18. Announcement of the Office of Diversity Programs

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2011-03-28

    The Department recognizes that embracing diversity in all aspects of our operations is crucial to achieving DOE's critical mission.

  19. Microbial Populations in CAVES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Microbial Populations in CAVES: A Comparison of Sulfur Biosignatures Annette Summers Engel, Department of Geology and Geophysics Compare Frasassi (Italy) and Lower Kane (Wyoming) CAVES

  20. The Human Genome Diversity Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavalli-Sforza, L.

    1994-12-31

    The Human Genome Diversity Project (HGD Project) is an international anthropology project that seeks to study the genetic richness of the entire human species. This kind of genetic information can add a unique thread to the tapestry knowledge of humanity. Culture, environment, history, and other factors are often more important, but humanity`s genetic heritage, when analyzed with recent technology, brings another type of evidence for understanding species` past and present. The Project will deepen the understanding of this genetic richness and show both humanity`s diversity and its deep and underlying unity. The HGD Project is still largely in its planning stages, seeking the best ways to reach its goals. The continuing discussions of the Project, throughout the world, should improve the plans for the Project and their implementation. The Project is as global as humanity itself; its implementation will require the kinds of partnerships among different nations and cultures that make the involvement of UNESCO and other international organizations particularly appropriate. The author will briefly discuss the Project`s history, describe the Project, set out the core principles of the Project, and demonstrate how the Project will help combat the scourge of racism.

  1. Abundance, diversity, and resource use in an assemblage of Conus species in Enewetak lagoon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kohn, A.J.

    1980-10-01

    Eight species of the gastropod genus Conus co-occur in sand substrate and an adjacent meadow of Halimeda stuposa in Enewetak lagoon, an unusually diverse assemblage for this type of habitat. Population density is high, and large species predominate; they represent all major feeding groups in the genus: predators on polychaetes, enteropneusts, gastropods, and fishes. Although the two most common Conus species eat primarily the same prey species, they mainly take prey of different sizes in different microhabitats. The results suggest that sufficient microhabitat heterogeneity and prey diversity exist to permit spatial segregation and specialization on different prey resources by the different Conus species present. Between-species dissimilarity in resource use thus agrees with previous observations on more diverse Conus assemblages of subtidal coral reef platforms. Prey species diversity is inversely related to body size, confirming and extending a previously identified pattern among Conus species that prey on sedentary polychaetes.

  2. Parallel grid population

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wald, Ingo; Ize, Santiago

    2015-07-28

    Parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. One example embodiment is a method for parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. The method includes a first act of dividing a grid into n distinct grid portions, where n is the number of processors available for populating the grid. The method also includes acts of dividing a plurality of objects into n distinct sets of objects, assigning a distinct set of objects to each processor such that each processor determines by which distinct grid portion(s) each object in its distinct set of objects is at least partially bounded, and assigning a distinct grid portion to each processor such that each processor populates its distinct grid portion with any objects that were previously determined to be at least partially bounded by its distinct grid portion.

  3. NSC employees celebrate diversity | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration | (NNSA) celebrate diversity Wednesday, March 19, 2014 - 2:00pm The National Security Campus culminated its Diversity Among Us-themed celebration with a special guest speaker on March 13. Dr. Andres Sayles, DOE Principal Deputy Director of the Office of Economic Impact and Diversity, spoke to employees about inclusion and fostering mentorships. He praised employees' passion for encouraging STEM education and volunteering in the classroom. Dr. Sayles joined the Office of

  4. Diversity and Inclusion | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Diversity and Inclusion Many Voices, One Future is Princeton's institutional movement toward greater diversity and inclusion. We're continually working to make the University a place where everyone's perspectives are welcomed and valued, resulting in a positive and more successful future for the institution and the members of our community. We believe having a diverse community is the only way to maintain our position as a world-class university. This effort is for all members of the campus

  5. PROCESS FOR CONTROLLING ANIMAL GROWTH RATE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visek, W.J.

    1962-04-10

    A method of injecting growing animals with the enzyme urease subcutaneously in increasing dosages is described; this generates within the blood anti-urease which enters the intestinal tract and inhibits the enzymatic decomposition of urea by urease in that location. Ammonia, one of the decomposition products, is thereby kept from diffusing through the intestinal walls into the blood, and this greatly reduces the energy requirements of the liver for removing the ammonia, thereby increasing the feeding efficiency of the animals. (AEC)

  6. PROGRAM REACHES DIVERSE NORTH CAROLINA COMMUNITY

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The City of Greensboro, North Carolina, sought to reach a diverse community with energy efficiency improvements through the BetterBuildings for Greensboro Program. While all residential and...

  7. Addressing Challenges of Identifying Geometrically Diverse Sets...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Addressing Challenges of Identifying Geometrically Diverse Sets of Crystalline Porous Materials Previous Next List R. L. Martin, B. Smit, and M. Haranczyk, J. Chem Inf. Model. 52...

  8. Equal Employment Opportunity and Diversity Policy Statement ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Policy Statement on Equal Employment Opportunity, Harassment, and Retaliation NO FEAR Act Notice Diversity and Inclusion Strategic Plan 2012 - 2015

  9. Diversity-- Recruiting the Best and the Brightest

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Associate Deputy Secretary Mel Williams visits the Black Engineer of the Year STEM conference, one of many national groups advancing diversity in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics.

  10. SECTION J, APPENDIX L - DIVERSITY PLAN GUIDANCE

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    L, Page 1 SECTION J APPENDIX L [Note: The Diversity Plan shall be submitted to the Contracting Officer in accordance with DEAR 970.5226-1] DIVERSITY PLAN GUIDANCE 12/1/10 In accordance with the Contract's Section I Clause entitled "DEAR 970.5226-1, Diversity Plan," this Appendix provides guidance to assist the Contractor in understanding the information being sought by the Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) for each of the clause's Diversity

  11. Asteroid diversion considerations and comparisons of diversion techniques

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Owen, J. Michael; Miller, Paul; Rovny, Jared; Wasem, Joe; Howley, Kirsten; Herbold, Eric B.

    2015-05-19

    The threat of asteroid impacts on Earth poses a low-probability but high consequence risk, with possible outcomes ranging from regional to global catastrophe. However, unique amongst such global threats we have the capability of averting such disasters. Diversion approaches by either kinetic impactor or nuclear energy deposition are the two most practical technologies for mitigating hazardous near Earth asteroids. One of the greatest challenges in understanding our options is the uncertain response of asteroids to such impulsive techniques, due both to our lack of knowledge of the composition and structure of these objects as well as their highly varied nature.more » Predicting whether we will simply divert or break up a given object is a crucial: the weak self-gravity and inferred weak structure of typical asteroids present the strong possibility the body will fragment for modest impulses. Predictive modeling of failure and fragmentation is one important tool for such studies. In this paper we apply advances in modeling failure and fracture using Adaptive Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (ASPH) to understand mega-cratering on asteroids as a validation exercise, and show examples of diverting the near Earth asteroid Bennu using both a kinetic impactor and ablative blow-off due to nuclear energy deposition.« less

  12. Asteroid diversion considerations and comparisons of diversion techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Owen, J. Michael; Miller, Paul; Rovny, Jared; Wasem, Joe; Howley, Kirsten; Herbold, Eric B.

    2015-05-19

    The threat of asteroid impacts on Earth poses a low-probability but high consequence risk, with possible outcomes ranging from regional to global catastrophe. However, unique amongst such global threats we have the capability of averting such disasters. Diversion approaches by either kinetic impactor or nuclear energy deposition are the two most practical technologies for mitigating hazardous near Earth asteroids. One of the greatest challenges in understanding our options is the uncertain response of asteroids to such impulsive techniques, due both to our lack of knowledge of the composition and structure of these objects as well as their highly varied nature. Predicting whether we will simply divert or break up a given object is a crucial: the weak self-gravity and inferred weak structure of typical asteroids present the strong possibility the body will fragment for modest impulses. Predictive modeling of failure and fragmentation is one important tool for such studies. In this paper we apply advances in modeling failure and fracture using Adaptive Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (ASPH) to understand mega-cratering on asteroids as a validation exercise, and show examples of diverting the near Earth asteroid Bennu using both a kinetic impactor and ablative blow-off due to nuclear energy deposition.

  13. Visualizing Diurnal Population Change in Urban Areas for Emergency Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Medina, Richard M; Cova, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing need for a quick, simple method to represent diurnal population change in metropolitan areas for effective emergency management and risk analysis. Many geographic studies rely on decennial U.S. Census data that assume that urban populations are static in space and time. This has obvious limitations in the context of dynamic geographic problems. The U.S. Department of Transportation publishes population data at the transportation analysis zone level in fifteen-minute increments. This level of spatial and temporal detail allows for improved dynamic population modeling. This article presents a methodology for visualizing and analyzing diurnal population change for metropolitan areas based on this readily available data. Areal interpolation within a geographic information system is used to create twenty-four (one per hour) population surfaces for the larger metropolitan area of Salt Lake County, Utah. The resulting surfaces represent diurnal population change for an average workday and are easily combined to produce an animation that illustrates population dynamics throughout the day. A case study of using the method to visualize population distributions in an emergency management context is provided using two scenarios: a chemical release and a dirty bomb in Salt Lake County. This methodology can be used to address a wide variety of problems in emergency management.

  14. Languages and interfaces for facial animation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magnenat-Thalmann, N.

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes high-level tools for specifying, controlling, and synchronizing temporal and spatial characteristics for 3D animation of facial expressions. The proposed approach consists of hierarchical levels of controls. Specification of expressions, phonemes, emotions, sentences, and head movements by means of a high-level language is shown. The various aspects of synchronization are also emphasized. Then, association of the control different interactive devices and media which allows the animator greater flexibility and freedom, is discussed. Experiments with input accessories such as the keyboard of a music synthesizer and gestures from the DataGlove are illustrated.

  15. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources 1983 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    ILAR serves as a coordinating agency and a national and international resource for compiling and disseminating information on laboratory animals, promoting education, planning and conducting conferences and symposia, surveying facilities and resources, upgrading laboratory animal resources, and promoting high quality, humane care of laboratory animals in the US. This report diseases activities conducted in 1983, including committees on animal models and genetic stocks, infectious diseases of mice and rats, environmental conditions in animal rooms, and care and use of laboratory animals. (ACR)

  16. Methods for the survey and genetic analysis of populations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, Matthew

    2003-09-02

    The present invention relates to methods for performing surveys of the genetic diversity of a population. The invention also relates to methods for performing genetic analyses of a population. The invention further relates to methods for the creation of databases comprising the survey information and the databases created by these methods. The invention also relates to methods for analyzing the information to correlate the presence of nucleic acid markers with desired parameters in a sample. These methods have application in the fields of geochemical exploration, agriculture, bioremediation, environmental analysis, clinical microbiology, forensic science and medicine.

  17. Traces of natural radionuclides in animal food

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Merli, Isabella Desan; Guazzelli da Silveira, Marcilei A.; Medina, Nilberto H.

    2014-11-11

    Naturally occurring radioactive materials are present everywhere, e.g., in soil, air, housing materials, food, etc. Therefore, human beings and animals receive internal exposure from radioactive elements inside their bodies through breathing and alimentation. Gamma radiation has enough energy to remove an electron from the atom and compromise the rearrangement of electrons in the search for a more stable configuration which can disturb molecule chemical bonding. Food ingestion is one of the most common forms of radioisotopes absorption. The goal of this work is the measurement of natural gamma radiation rates from natural radioisotopes present in animal food. To determine the concentration of natural radionuclides present in animal food gamma-ray spectrometry was applied. We have prepared animal food samples for poultry, fish, dogs, cats and cattle. The two highest total ingestion effective doses observed refers to a sample of mineral salt cattle, 95.3(15) ?Sv/year, rabbit chow, with a value of 48(5) ?Sv/year, and cattle mineral salt, with a value of 69(7) ?Sv/year, while the annual total dose value from terrestrial intake radionuclide is of the order of 290 ?Sv/year.

  18. Population attribute compression

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, James M.; Faber, Vance; Saltzman, Jeffrey S.

    1995-01-01

    An image population having a large number of attributes is processed to form a display population with a predetermined smaller number of attributes that represent the larger number of attributes. In a particular application, the color values in an image are compressed for storage in a discrete look-up table (LUT). Color space containing the LUT color values is successively subdivided into smaller volumes until a plurality of volumes are formed, each having no more than a preselected maximum number of color values. Image pixel color values can then be rapidly placed in a volume with only a relatively few LUT values from which a nearest neighbor is selected. Image color values are assigned 8 bit pointers to their closest LUT value whereby data processing requires only the 8 bit pointer value to provide 24 bit color values from the LUT.

  19. Equal Employment Opportunity and Diversity Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2003-02-12

    Provides a centralized, comprehensive source of information for DOE/NNSA employees and applicants regarding the requirements of the Department's equal employment opportunity and diversity program. Supersedes DOE O 311.1A.

  20. Equal Opportunity Publications’ STEM Diversity Career Expo

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Meet qualified job candidates face-to-face at EOP’s STEM Diversity Career Expo hosted by Equal Opportunity Publications (EOP). EOP publishes of seven nationally recognized career guidance and...

  1. GUIDANCE ON CONDUCTING ADVERSE DIVERSITY ANALYSIS

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Tecom, Inc., 566 F.3d 1037 (Fed. Cir. 2009), the Federal Circuit held that a government ... results of any Office of General Counsel review of the contractor's diversity analysis. ...

  2. Integrated Diversity and Inclusion Management! | Jefferson Lab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Integrated Diversity and Inclusion Management! Integrated Diversity and Inclusion Management! September 8, 2015 Those of us who are moderately long in the tooth remember the bad old days of (un)safety. One occasion that I recall involved siphoning liquid scintillator with a rubber tube and a mouth, mine. Another was the inappropriate use of magnetic tools in a magnetic field. All that has changed; we are now proud of a safety record and performance, which limits the accidents that do damage to

  3. Peptoid Nanosheets Offer a Diversity of Functionalities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Peptoid Nanosheets Offer a Diversity of Functionalities Peptoid Nanosheets Offer a Diversity of Functionalities Print Wednesday, 29 April 2015 00:00 Researchers at the ALS have recently observed peptoid nanosheets-two-dimensional biomimetic materials with customizable properties-as they self-assemble at an oil-water interface. These nanosheets are an emerging class of two-dimensional nanomaterials that have the potential for use in a variety of applications ranging from molecular sensors to

  4. Secretary Chu's Statement on Workforce Diversity

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    We can do more to create a culture that values diversity, which in turn will make the Department an employer of choice and enhance our mission effectiveness. I believe that we are at our best when we draw on the talents of all parts of our society, and our mission accomplishments are achieved when diverse perspectives are brought to bear to overcome our greatest challenges.

  5. USA National Phenology Network: Plant and Animal Life-Cycle Data Related to Climate Change

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Phenology refers to recurring plant and animal life cycle stages, such as leafing and flowering, maturation of agricultural plants, emergence of insects, and migration of birds. It is also the study of these recurring plant and animal life cycle stages, especially their timing and relationships with weather and climate. Phenology affects nearly all aspects of the environment, including the abundance and diversity of organisms, their interactions with one another, their functions in food webs, and their seasonable behavior, and global-scale cycles of water, carbon, and other chemical elements. Phenology records can help us understand plant and animal responses to climate change; it is a key indicator. The USA-NPN brings together citizen scientists, government agencies, non-profit groups, educators, and students of all ages to monitor the impacts of climate change on plants and animals in the United States. The network harnesses the power of people and the Internet to collect and share information, providing researchers with far more data than they could collect alone.[Extracts copied from the USA-NPN home page and from http://www.usanpn.org/about].

  6. Population genomics of the Anthropocene: Urbanization is negatively associated with genome-wide variation in white-footed mouse populations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Munshi-South, Jason; Zolnik, Christine P.; Harris, Stephen E.

    2016-02-11

    Urbanization results in pervasive habitat fragmentation and reduces standing genetic variation through bottlenecks and drift. Loss of genomewide variation may ultimately reduce the evolutionary potential of animal populations experiencing rapidly changing conditions. In this study, we examined genomewide variation among 23 white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus) populations sampled along an urbanization gradient in the New York City metropolitan area. Genomewide variation was estimated as a proxy for evolutionary potential using more than 10000 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers generated by ddRAD-Seq. We found that genomewide variation is inversely related to urbanization as measured by percent impervious surface cover, and to amore » lesser extent, human population density. We also report that urbanization results in enhanced genomewide differentiation between populations in cities. There was no pattern of isolation by distance among these populations, but an isolation by resistance model based on impervious surface significantly explained patterns of genetic differentiation. Isolation by environment modeling also indicated that urban populations deviate much more strongly from global allele frequencies than suburban or rural populations. Lastly, this study is the first to examine loss of genomewide SNP variation along an urban-to-rural gradient and quantify urbanization as a driver of population genomic patterns.« less

  7. EIS-0526: Lower Yellowstone Intake Diversion Dam Fish Passage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6: Lower Yellowstone Intake Diversion Dam Fish Passage Project; near Glendive, Montana EIS-0526: Lower Yellowstone Intake Diversion Dam Fish Passage Project; near Glendive, Montana ...

  8. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) Guidance on Diversity and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Office of Personnel Management (OPM) Guidance on Diversity and Inclusion Office of Personnel Management (OPM) Guidance on Diversity and Inclusion The following documents are from ...

  9. Mentoring and Educating to Increase Diversity in Science, Tech...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Mentoring and Educating to Increase Diversity in Science, Tech, Engineering and Math Mentoring and Educating to Increase Diversity in Science, Tech, Engineering and Math October ...

  10. Lower Yellowstone Intake Diversion Dam Fish Passage Project,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lower Yellowstone Intake Diversion Dam Fish Passage Project, Montana DRAFT - Appendix E ... Lower Yellowstone Intake Diversion Dam Fish Passage Project Appendix E Monitoring and ...

  11. Addendum: Lower Yellowstone Intake Diversion Dam Fish Passage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Yellowstone Intake Diversion Dam Fish Passage Project, Montana Draft Environmental Impact Statement- Addendum June 2016 1 Addendum: Lower Yellowstone Intake Diversion Dam Fish ...

  12. Lower Yellowstone Intake Diversion Dam Fish Passage Project,...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lower Yellowstone Intake Diversion Dam Fish Passage Project, Montana DRAFT - Appendix F Correspondence Lower Yellowstone Intake Diversion Dam Correspondence Fish Passage Project ...

  13. Government-Wide Diversity and Inclusion Strategic Plan (2011...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Government-Wide Diversity and Inclusion Strategic Plan (2011), Office of Personnel Management Government-Wide Diversity and Inclusion Strategic Plan (2011), Office of Personnel ...

  14. Alternative Fuels Data Center: CNG Vehicle Fueling Animation

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Natural Gas Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: CNG Vehicle Fueling Animation to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: CNG Vehicle Fueling Animation on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: CNG Vehicle Fueling Animation on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: CNG Vehicle Fueling Animation on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: CNG Vehicle Fueling Animation on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data

  15. Bacterial Population Genetics in a Forensic Context

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Velsko, S P

    2009-11-02

    This report addresses the recent Department of Homeland Security (DHS) call for a Phase I study to (1) assess gaps in the forensically relevant knowledge about the population genetics of eight bacterial agents of concern, (2) formulate a technical roadmap to address those gaps, and (3) identify new bioinformatics tools that would be necessary to analyze and interpret population genetic data in a forensic context. The eight organisms that were studied are B. anthracis, Y. pestis, F. tularensis, Brucella spp., E. coli O157/H7, Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia pseudomallei, and C. botulinum. Our study focused on the use of bacterial population genetics by forensic investigators to test hypotheses about the possible provenance of an agent that was used in a crime or act of terrorism. Just as human population genetics underpins the calculations of match probabilities for human DNA evidence, bacterial population genetics determines the level of support that microbial DNA evidence provides for or against certain well-defined hypotheses about the origins of an infecting strain. Our key findings are: (1) Bacterial population genetics is critical for answering certain types of questions in a probabilistic manner, akin (but not identical) to 'match probabilities' in DNA forensics. (2) A basic theoretical framework for calculating likelihood ratios or posterior probabilities for forensic hypotheses based on microbial genetic comparisons has been formulated. This 'inference-on-networks' framework has deep but simple connections to the population genetics of mtDNA and Y-STRs in human DNA forensics. (3) The 'phylogeographic' approach to identifying microbial sources is not an adequate basis for understanding bacterial population genetics in a forensic context, and has limited utility, even for generating 'leads' with respect to strain origin. (4) A collection of genotyped isolates obtained opportunistically from international locations augmented by phylogenetic representations

  16. POPULATION III HYPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smidt, Joseph; Whalen, Daniel J.; Wiggins, Brandon K.; Even, Wesley; Fryer, Chris L.; Johnson, Jarrett L.

    2014-12-20

    Population III supernovae have been of growing interest of late for their potential to directly probe the properties of the first stars, particularly the most energetic events that are visible near the edge of the observable universe. Until now, hypernovae, the unusually energetic Type Ib/c supernovae that are sometimes associated with gamma-ray bursts, have been overlooked as cosmic beacons at the highest redshifts. In this, the latest of a series of studies on Population III supernovae, we present numerical simulations of 25-50 M {sub ☉} hypernovae and their light curves done with the Los Alamos RAGE and SPECTRUM codes. We find that they will be visible at z = 10-15 to the James Webb Space Telescope and z = 4-5 to the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope, tracing star formation rates in the first galaxies and at the end of cosmological reionization. If, however, the hypernova crashes into a dense shell ejected by its progenitor, it is expected that a superluminous event will occur that may be seen at z ∼ 20 in the first generation of stars.

  17. Population Density by County, 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-18

    Map showing a United States profile including race, population by sex and age, housing tenure, and more.

  18. Real-Time Bioluminescent Tracking of Cellular Population Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Close, Dan; Sayler, Gary Steven; Xu, Tingting; Ripp, Steven Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Cellular population dynamics are routinely monitored across many diverse fields for a variety of purposes. In general, these dynamics are assayed either through the direct counting of cellular aliquots followed by extrapolation to the total population size, or through the monitoring of signal intensity from any number of externally stimulated reporter proteins. While both viable methods, here we describe a novel technique that allows for the automated, non-destructive tracking of cellular population dynamics in real-time. This method, which relies on the detection of a continuous bioluminescent signal produced through expression of the bacterial luciferase gene cassette, provides a low cost, low time-intensive means for generating additional data compared to alternative methods.

  19. Chapter 70.26: The Diversity Plan | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    26: The Diversity Plan Chapter 70.26: The Diversity Plan Acquisition Guide Chapter 70.26: The Diversity Plan Chapter 70.26: The Diversity Plan (97.96 KB) More Documents & Publications Policy Flash 2016-33 Microsoft Word - Matrixpart2.doc Microsoft Word - Chapter12_2006_Jun

  20. Video and Animation Requests | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Video and Animation Requests Please fill in the form below. Videographer Brian Marczewski will contact you to discuss your project needs in more detail. Name * Phone Number * E-mail Address * Request * Needed by * Month Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Day Day 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 Year Year 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 Open popup calendar File Upload Files must be less than 2 MB. Allowed file types: gif jpg jpeg png

  1. Diversity and Inclusion Town Hall Program Book | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Town Hall Program Book Diversity and Inclusion Town Hall Program Book As part of a larger effort to create a culture that values diversity, we have been conducting focus groups to engage in a dialog and hear feedback on how diversity can be improved. At the Town Hall, DOE employees will hear the results of these discussions. View the program booklet from the Diversity and Inclusion Town Hall below. For more information about the Department's diversity and inclusion programs, visit

  2. Lighted display devices for producing static or animated visual displays, including animated facial features

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heilbron, Valerie J; Clem, Paul G; Cook, Adam Wade

    2014-02-11

    An illuminated display device with a base member with a plurality of cavities therein. Illumination devices illuminate the cavities and emit light through an opening of the cavities in a pattern, and a speaker can emit sounds in synchronization with the pattern. A panel with translucent portions can overly the base member and the cavities. An animated talking character can have an animated mouth cavity complex with multiple predetermined mouth lighting configurations simulative of human utterances. The cavities can be open, or optical waveguide material or positive members can be disposed therein. Reflective material can enhance internal reflectance and light emission.

  3. Method and apparatus for animal positioning in imaging systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hadjioannou, Arion-Xenofon; Stout, David B.; Silverman, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    An apparatus for imaging an animal includes a first mounting surface, a bed sized to support the animal and releasably secured to or integral with the first mounting surface. The apparatus also includes a plurality of straps, each having a first end in a fixed position relative to the bed and a second end for tightening around a limb of the animal. A method for in-vivo imaging of an animal includes providing an animal that has limbs, providing a first mounting surface, and providing a bed removably secured to or integral with the mounting surface and sized to support the animal as well as being coupled to a plurality of straps. The method also includes placing the animal on the bed between the plurality of straps and tightening at least two of the plurality of straps around at least two of the limbs such that the animal is substantially secured in place relative to the bed.

  4. Prehistoric Animal Bones Found at Pantex | National Nuclear Security...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Home NNSA Blog Prehistoric Animal Bones Found at Pantex Prehistoric Animal Bones Found at Pantex Keck A sharp eye and a lot of luck led to an interesting discovery at Pantex ...

  5. ATHENA desktop human "body" could reduce need for animal drug...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ATHENA could reduce need for animal drug tests ATHENA desktop human "body" could reduce need for animal drug tests ATHENA project team is developing four human organ constructs that ...

  6. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources 1982 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    ILAR serves as a coordinating agency and a national and international resource for compiling and disseminating information on laboratory animals, promoting education, planning and conducting conferences and symposia, surveying existing and required facilities and resources, upgrading laboratory animal resources, and promoting high-quality, humane care of laboratory animals in the United States. This report discusses activities conducted in 1982. (ACR)

  7. Compact conscious animal positron emission tomography scanner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schyler, David J.; O'Connor, Paul; Woody, Craig; Junnarkar, Sachin Shrirang; Radeka, Veljko; Vaska, Paul; Pratte, Jean-Francois; Volkow, Nora

    2006-10-24

    A method of serially transferring annihilation information in a compact positron emission tomography (PET) scanner includes generating a time signal for an event, generating an address signal representing a detecting channel, generating a detector channel signal including the time and address signals, and generating a composite signal including the channel signal and similarly generated signals. The composite signal includes events from detectors in a block and is serially output. An apparatus that serially transfers annihilation information from a block includes time signal generators for detectors in a block and an address and channel signal generator. The PET scanner includes a ring tomograph that mounts onto a portion of an animal, which includes opposing block pairs. Each of the blocks in a block pair includes a scintillator layer, detection array, front-end array, and a serial encoder. The serial encoder includes time signal generators and an address signal and channel signal generator.

  8. An improved criterion for new particle formation in diverse environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuang, C.; Riipinen, I.; Sihto, S.-L.; Kulmala, M.; McCormick, A.; McMurry, P.

    2010-03-15

    A dimensionless theory for new particle formation (NPF) was developed, using an aerosol population balance model incorporating recent developments in nucleation rates and measured particle growth rates. Based on this theoretical analysis, it was shown that a dimensionless parameter Lg, characterizing the ratio of the particle scavenging loss rate to the particle growth rate, exclusively determined whether or not NPF would occur on a particular day. This parameter determines the probability that a nucleated particle will grow to a detectable size before being lost by coagulation with the pre-existing aerosol. Cluster-cluster coagulation was shown to contribute negligibly to this survival probability under conditions pertinent to the atmosphere. Data acquired during intensive measurement campaigns in Tecamac (MILAGRO), Atlanta (ANARChE), Boulder, and Hyytiala (QUEST II, QUEST IV, and EUCAARI) were used to test the validity of Lg as an NPF criterion. Measurements included aerosol size distributions down to 3 nm and gas-phase sulfuric acid concentrations. The model was applied to 77 NPF events and 19 non-events (characterized by growth of pre-existing aerosol without NPF) measured in diverse environments with broad ranges in sulfuric acid concentrations, ultrafine number concentrations, aerosol surface areas, and particle growth rates (nearly two orders of magnitude). Across this diverse data set, a nominal value of Lg = 0.7 was found to determine the boundary for the occurrence of NPF, with NPF occurring when Lg < 0.7 and being suppressed when Lg > 0.7. Moreover, nearly 45% of measured Lg values associated with NPF fell in the relatively narrow range of 0.1 < Lg < 0.3.

  9. Energy policy: Comparative effects on minority population groups

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poyer, D.A.; Henderson, L.

    1995-06-01

    For a number of years, analyses of minority household energy demand have been supported by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Economic Impact and Diversity (formerly the Office of Minority Economic Impact). The intention of these analyses has been to characterize patterns of energy demand by various demographic, regional and socioeconomic groups and to develop analytical tools to assess the distributive impact of energy prices and policy on these groups. The model supports strategic objectives outlined by the Department of Energy to explicitly recognize and promote equity in state public utility commission decisions and to assess the potential impact of federal and state energy policy on demographically diverse groups as reported in the Department`s Annual Energy Outlook and the upcoming National Energy Policy Plan. The legislation mandating the Office of Economic Impact and Diversity had been premised on the assumption that patterns of energy demand for minority households are different from the population as a whole. Determining the validity of this premise and its potential economic impact on different population groups has been a major objective of these analyses. Consequently, the recripriocal impacts of energy policy on demographic groups and energy consumption and expenditure dynamics on policy formulation and strategy is a central objective of these studies. Residential energy demand research has been substantial in the past twenty years. Insightful and useful research has been done in this area. However, none of this research has addressed the potential differences in the residential energy demand structure among various population groups. Recent work does compare energy and electricity demand elasticities for non-Latino Whites, with the demand elasticities for Latinos and Blacks. This research is particularly important for examination of questions related to the economic welfare implications of national energy policy.

  10. Peptoid Nanosheets Offer a Diversity of Functionalities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Peptoid Nanosheets Offer a Diversity of Functionalities Print Researchers at the ALS have recently observed peptoid nanosheets-two-dimensional biomimetic materials with customizable properties-as they self-assemble at an oil-water interface. These nanosheets are an emerging class of two-dimensional nanomaterials that have the potential for use in a variety of applications ranging from molecular sensors to artificial enzymes. Because peptoids are highly designable polymers, nanosheets provide a

  11. GUIDANCE ON CONDUCTING ADVERSE DIVERSITY ANALYSIS

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    GUIDANCE ON CONDUCTING ADVERSE DIVERSITY ANALYSIS The Uniform Guidelines for Employee Selection Procedures adopted by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), Department of Labor's Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs (OFCCP), and U.S. Department of Justice in 1978 set out accepted statistical tests for assessing possible discriminatory impact of employment actions on protected classifications of employees. See 29 CFR Part 1607. Agencies and litigants commonly use

  12. Peptoid Nanosheets Offer a Diversity of Functionalities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Peptoid Nanosheets Offer a Diversity of Functionalities Print Researchers at the ALS have recently observed peptoid nanosheets-two-dimensional biomimetic materials with customizable properties-as they self-assemble at an oil-water interface. These nanosheets are an emerging class of two-dimensional nanomaterials that have the potential for use in a variety of applications ranging from molecular sensors to artificial enzymes. Because peptoids are highly designable polymers, nanosheets provide a

  13. Peptoid Nanosheets Offer a Diversity of Functionalities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Peptoid Nanosheets Offer a Diversity of Functionalities Print Researchers at the ALS have recently observed peptoid nanosheets-two-dimensional biomimetic materials with customizable properties-as they self-assemble at an oil-water interface. These nanosheets are an emerging class of two-dimensional nanomaterials that have the potential for use in a variety of applications ranging from molecular sensors to artificial enzymes. Because peptoids are highly designable polymers, nanosheets provide a

  14. Peptoid Nanosheets Offer a Diversity of Functionalities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Peptoid Nanosheets Offer a Diversity of Functionalities Print Researchers at the ALS have recently observed peptoid nanosheets-two-dimensional biomimetic materials with customizable properties-as they self-assemble at an oil-water interface. These nanosheets are an emerging class of two-dimensional nanomaterials that have the potential for use in a variety of applications ranging from molecular sensors to artificial enzymes. Because peptoids are highly designable polymers, nanosheets provide a

  15. Energy demand and population changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, E.L.; Edmonds, J.A.

    1980-12-01

    Since World War II, US energy demand has grown more rapidly than population, so that per capita consumption of energy was about 60% higher in 1978 than in 1947. Population growth and the expansion of per capita real incomes have led to a greater use of energy. The aging of the US population is expected to increase per capita energy consumption, despite the increase in the proportion of persons over 65, who consume less energy than employed persons. The sharp decline in the population under 18 has led to an expansion in the relative proportion of population in the prime-labor-force age groups. Employed persons are heavy users of energy. The growth of the work force and GNP is largely attributable to the growing participation of females. Another important consequence of female employment is the growth in ownership of personal automobiles. A third factor pushing up labor-force growth is the steady influx of illegal aliens.

  16. Method of detoxifying animal suffering from overdose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mehlhorn, Rolf J.

    1997-01-01

    A method for accumulating drugs or other chemicals within synthetic, lipid-like vesicles by means of a pH gradient imposed on the vesicles just prior to use is described. The method is suited for accumulating molecules with basic or acid moieties which are permeable to the vesicles membranes in their uncharged form and for molecules that contain charge moieties that are hydrophobic ions and can therefore cross the vesicle membranes in their charged form. The method is advantageous over prior art methods for encapsulating biologically active materials within vesicles in that it achieves very high degrees of loading with simple procedures that are economical and require little technical expertise, furthermore kits which can be stored for prolonged periods prior to use without impairment of the capacity to achieve drug accumulation are described. A related application of the method consists of using this technology to detoxify animals that have been exposed to poisons with basic, weak acid or hydrophobic charge groups within their molecular structure.

  17. Diverse Power- Energy Efficient New Construction Rebate Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Diverse Power is a member-owned electric cooperative that provides electric service to customers in Troup, Harris, Heard, Meriwether, Muscogee and Coweta counties in Georgia. Diverse Power offers...

  18. Two Sample T-Test for Comparing Genetic Sequence Diversity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Two Sample T-Test for Comparing Genetic Sequence Diversity Two Sample T-Test for Comparing Genetic Sequence Diversity Given two samples of sequences the program performs a t-test...

  19. Energy Production from Zoo Animal Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klasson, KT

    2003-04-07

    Elephant and rhinoceros dung was used to investigate the feasibility of generating methane from the dung. The Knoxville Zoo produces 30 cubic yards (23 m{sup 3}) of herbivore dung per week and cost of disposal of this dung is $105/week. The majority of this dung originates from the Zoo's elephant and rhinoceros population. The estimated weight of the dung is 20 metric tons per week and the methane production potential determined in experiments was 0.033 L biogas/g dung (0.020 L CH{sub 4}/g dung), and the digestion of elephant dung was enhanced by the addition of ammonium nitrogen. Digestion was better overall at 37 C when compared to digestion at 50 C. Based on the amount of dung generated at the Knoxville Zoo, it is estimated that two standard garden grills could be operated 24 h per day using the gas from a digester treating 20 metric ton herbivore dung per week.

  20. Mentoring to Increase Diversity in Science, Tech, Engineering and Math |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Mentoring to Increase Diversity in Science, Tech, Engineering and Math Mentoring to Increase Diversity in Science, Tech, Engineering and Math Mentoring is particularly suited in STEM to help with diversity because STEM is a social networking activity. The Department provides mentoring through programs at colleges/Universities, research internshipa, and professional societies. Read this presentation to learn more. mentoring for diversity October 2011.pptx (7.97 MB) More

  1. Sponsoring, Mentoring and Guiding Cultural Diverse Young Scientists...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sponsoring, Mentoring and Guiding Cultural Diverse Young Scientists and Engineers Presentation on successful mentoring. PDF icon Partnership meeting presentation 020711...

  2. Assessment of aquatic animal communities in the vicinity of the Palmerton, Pennsylvania, zinc smelters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carline, R.F.; Jobsis, G.J. . Pennsylvania Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit)

    1993-09-01

    Emissions from zinc smelters in Palmerton, Pennsylvania, deposited large quantities of heavy metals, predominantly Zn, Pb, Cu, and Cd, on the surrounding landscape from 1898 to 1980. From 1986 to 1987 the authors studied four small headwater streams that were about 8 to 25 km downwind of the smelters to determine if long-term deposition of heavy metals had any pronounced effects on aquatic communities. Although metal concentrations in soils tended to decrease with increasing distance from the smelters, this trend was not particularly evident in stream sediments, insects, or fish. Diversities of macroinvertebrates and fish were similar among sites. Densities and growth of trout varied among streams, but no in relation to distance from the smelters. They concluded that long-term deposition of heavy metals has not had pronounced effects on aquatic animal communities six to seven years after cessation of primary smelting.

  3. Microbial diversity in restored wetlands of San Francisco Bay

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theroux, Susanna; Hartman, Wyatt; He, Shaomei; Tringe, Susannah

    2013-12-09

    Wetland ecosystems may serve as either a source or a sink for atmospheric carbon and greenhouse gases. This delicate carbon balance is influenced by the activity of belowground microbial communities that return carbon dioxide and methane to the atmosphere. Wetland restoration efforts in the San Francisco Bay-Delta region may help to reverse land subsidence and possibly increase carbon storage in soils. However, the effects of wetland restoration on microbial communities, which mediate soil metabolic activity and carbon cycling, are poorly studied. In an effort to better understand the underlying factors which shape the balance of carbon flux in wetland soils, we targeted the microbial communities in a suite of restored and historic wetlands in the San Francisco Bay-Delta region. Using DNA and RNA sequencing, coupled with greenhouse gas monitoring, we profiled the diversity and metabolic potential of the wetland soil microbial communities along biogeochemical and wetland age gradients. Our results show relationships among geochemical gradients, availability of electron acceptors, and microbial community composition. Our study provides the first genomic glimpse into microbial populations in natural and restored wetlands of the San Francisco Bay-Delta region and provides a valuable benchmark for future studies.

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Animation of a Hydrogen Fueling Station

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Example Layout (Text Version) Hydrogen Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Animation of a Hydrogen Fueling Station Example Layout (Text Version) to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Animation of a Hydrogen Fueling Station Example Layout (Text Version) on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Animation of a Hydrogen Fueling Station Example Layout (Text Version) on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center:

  5. DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- Billings Hospital - Small Animal

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Facility - University of Chicago - IL 01 Billings Hospital - Small Animal Facility - University of Chicago - IL 01 FUSRAP Considered Sites Site: Billings Hospital, Small Animal Facility, University of Chicago (IL 01) Eliminated from consideration under FUSRAP due to limited scope of activities and 15 day half-life of P-32 Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: Small Animal Facility, U. of Chicago IL.01-1 Location: University of Chicago , Chicago , Illinois IL.01-1 Evaluation Year:

  6. Fuel Cell Animation- Fuel Cell Stack (Text Version)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This text version of the fuel cell animation demonstrates how a fuel cell uses hydrogen to produce electricity, with only water and heat as byproducts.

  7. Fuel Cell Animation- Fuel Cell Components (Text Version)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This text version of the fuel cell animation demonstrates how a fuel cell uses hydrogen to produce electricity, with only water and heat as byproducts.

  8. Radio controlled release apparatus for animal data acquisition devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stamps, James Frederick

    2000-01-01

    A novel apparatus for reliably and selectively releasing a data acquisition package from an animal for recovery. The data package comprises two parts: 1) an animal data acquisition device and 2) a co-located release apparatus. One embodiment, which is useful for land animals, the release apparatus includes two major components: 1) an electronics package, comprising a receiver; a decoder comparator, having at plurality of individually selectable codes; and an actuator circuit and 2) a release device, which can be a mechanical device, which acts to release the data package from the animal. To release a data package from a particular animal, a radio transmitter sends a coded signal which is decoded to determine if the code is valid for that animal data package. Having received a valid code, the release device is activated to release the data package from the animal for subsequent recovery. A second embodiment includes floatation means and is useful for releasing animal data acquisition devices attached to sea animals. This embodiment further provides for releasing a data package underwater by employing an acoustic signal.

  9. ATHENA desktop human "body" reduces need for animal drug tests

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ATHENA desktop human "body" ATHENA desktop human "body" reduces need for animal drug tests ATHENA project team is developing four human organ constructs that are based on a ...

  10. Jefferson Lab's Detector Group builds small-animal imaging device...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Detector Group builds small-animal imaging device for the German Cancer Research Center March Smith Mark Smith, Detector Group Biomedical Imaging Physicist and project manager for ...

  11. Quality Assurance Checklists for Video, Animations, and Audio Web Requirements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Use these quality assurance (QA) checklists to ensure your audio files, flash animations, podcasts, and videos meet all Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) standards.

  12. Diversity and Inclusion Events Calendar | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diversity and Inclusion Events Calendar Diversity and Inclusion Events Calendar Training, networking, and career-building conferences like the ones below are valuable ways to engage in diversity issues. Learn about upcoming events on the calendar below, and contact us at diversity@hq.doe.gov to let us know about other upcoming events. To learn more about the Department's diversity initiatives, visit this page. August 2016 < prev next > Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat 31 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

  13. International Council for Laboratory Animal Science: International activities. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources annual report, 1993--1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    In late 1987, the Interagency Research Animal Committee (IRAC) requested that the Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources (ILAR), National Research Council (NRC), National Academy of Sciences, reestablish US national membership in the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS). The ICLAS is the only worldwide organization whose goal is to foster the humane use of animals in medical research and testing. ILAR`s Mission Statement reflects its commitment to producing highly respected documents covering a wide range of scientific issues, including databases in genetic stocks, species specific management guides, guidelines for humane care of animals, and position papers on issues affecting the future of the biological sciences. As such, ILAR is recognized nationally and internationally as an independent, scientific authority in the development of animal sciences in biomedical research.

  14. Diverse Power Iteration Embeddings and Its Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang H.; Yoo S.; Yu, D.; Qin, H.

    2014-12-14

    Abstract—Spectral Embedding is one of the most effective dimension reduction algorithms in data mining. However, its computation complexity has to be mitigated in order to apply it for real-world large scale data analysis. Many researches have been focusing on developing approximate spectral embeddings which are more efficient, but meanwhile far less effective. This paper proposes Diverse Power Iteration Embeddings (DPIE), which not only retains the similar efficiency of power iteration methods but also produces a series of diverse and more effective embedding vectors. We test this novel method by applying it to various data mining applications (e.g. clustering, anomaly detection and feature selection) and evaluating their performance improvements. The experimental results show our proposed DPIE is more effective than popular spectral approximation methods, and obtains the similar quality of classic spectral embedding derived from eigen-decompositions. Moreover it is extremely fast on big data applications. For example in terms of clustering result, DPIE achieves as good as 95% of classic spectral clustering on the complex datasets but 4000+ times faster in limited memory environment.

  15. Design and implementation of a marine animal alert system to support Marine Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Zhiqun; Carlson, Thomas J.; Fu, Tao; Ren, Huiying; Martinez, Jayson J.; Myers, Joshua R.; Matzner, Shari; Choi, Eric Y.; Copping, Andrea E.

    2013-08-08

    Power extracted from fast moving tidal currents has been identified as a potential commercial-scale source of renewable energy. Device developers and utilities are pursuing deployment of prototype tidal turbines to assess technology viability, site feasibility, and environmental interactions. Deployment of prototype turbines requires permits from a range of regulatory authorities. Ensuring the safety of marine animals, particularly those under protection of the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA) and the Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 has emerged as a key regulatory challenge for initial MHK deployments. The greatest perceived risk to marine animals is from strike by the rotating blades of tidal turbines. Development of the marine mammal alert system (MAAS) was undertaken to support monitoring and mitigation requirements for tidal turbine deployments. The prototype system development focused on Southern Resident killer whales (SRKW), an endangered population of killer whales that frequents Puget Sound and is intermittently present in the part of the sound where deployment of prototype tidal turbines is being considered. Passive acoustics were selected as the primary means because of the vocal nature of these animals. The MAAS passive acoustic system consists of two-stage process involving the use of an energy detector and a spectrogram-based classifier to distinguish between SKRW’s calls and noise. A prototype consisting of two 2D symmetrical star arrays separated by 20 m center to center was built and evaluated in the waters of Sequim Bay using whale call playback.

  16. Animal Welfare Act (7 U.S.C. 2031 et seq.)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Animal Welfare Act of 1966 regulates the treatment of animals in research, exhibition, transport, and by dealers.

  17. Animal Welfare Act (7 U.S.C. 2031 et seq.) (1966)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Animal Welfare Act of 1966 regulates the treatment of animals in research, exhibition, transport, and by dealers.

  18. Diversity and Inclusion Strategic Plan 2012 - 2015 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Strategic Plan 2012 - 2015 Diversity and Inclusion Strategic Plan 2012 - 2015 Our Diversity and Inclusion Strategic Plan is designed to create a culture which values trust and human dignity and provides the opportunity for personal development and self- fulfillment in the attainment of DOE's mission and goals. The 2012- 2015 strategic plan has three essential pillars - mission focus, accountability, and continual learning. It also: Creates a universal definition of diversity and inclusion.

  19. Office of Economic Impact and Diversity | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Office of Economic Impact and Diversity Minorities in Energy Initiative: Our Ambassadors Minorities in Energy Initiative: Our Ambassadors The Minorities in Energy Initiative, guided by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Economic Impact and Diversity, seeks to create a substantive, sustainable model that connects diverse stakeholders together to address challenges and opportunities for minority engagement in energy economic participation, STEM education, and climate change. Read more

  20. Animation: How a Wind Turbine Works | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Resources » Energy Basics » Animation: How a Wind Turbine Works Animation: How a Wind Turbine Works Content on this page requires a newer version of Adobe Flash Player. Get Adobe Flash player A wind turbine works on a simple principle. This animation shows how energy in the wind turns two or three propeller-like blades around a rotor. The rotor is connected to the main shaft, which spins a generator to create electricity. Wind turbines are mounted on a tower to capture the most energy. At 100

  1. Animation: How a Wind Turbine Works | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Animation: How a Wind Turbine Works Animation: How a Wind Turbine Works Content on this page requires a newer version of Adobe Flash Player. Get Adobe Flash player A wind turbine works on a simple principle. This animation shows how energy in the wind turns two or three propeller-like blades around a rotor. The rotor is connected to the main shaft, which spins a generator to create electricity. Wind turbines are mounted on a tower to capture the most energy. At 100 feet (30 meters) or more above

  2. Corn fiber hulls as a food additive or animal feed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbas, Charles; Beery, Kyle E.; Cecava, Michael J.; Doane, Perry H.

    2010-12-21

    The present invention provides a novel animal feed or food additive that may be made from thermochemically hydrolyzed, solvent-extracted corn fiber hulls. The animal feed or food additive may be made, for instance, by thermochemically treating corn fiber hulls to hydrolyze and solubilize the hemicellulose and starch present in the corn fiber hulls to oligosaccharides. The residue may be extracted with a solvent to separate the oil from the corn fiber, leaving a solid residue that may be prepared, for instance by aggolmerating, and sold as a food additive or an animal feed.

  3. Genome-wide Selective Sweeps in Natural Bacterial Populations Revealed by Time-series Metagenomics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, Leong-Keat; Bendall, Matthew L.; Malfatti, Stephanie; Schwientek, Patrick; Tremblay, Julien; Schackwitz, Wendy; Martin, Joel; Pati, Amrita; Bushnell, Brian; Foster, Brian; Kang, Dongwan; Tringe, Susannah G.; Bertilsson, Stefan; Moran, Mary Ann; Shade, Ashley; Newton, Ryan J.; Stevens, Sarah; McMcahon, Katherine D.; Mamlstrom, Rex R.

    2014-05-12

    Multiple evolutionary models have been proposed to explain the formation of genetically and ecologically distinct bacterial groups. Time-series metagenomics enables direct observation of evolutionary processes in natural populations, and if applied over a sufficiently long time frame, this approach could capture events such as gene-specific or genome-wide selective sweeps. Direct observations of either process could help resolve how distinct groups form in natural microbial assemblages. Here, from a three-year metagenomic study of a freshwater lake, we explore changes in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequencies and patterns of gene gain and loss in populations of Chlorobiaceae and Methylophilaceae. SNP analyses revealed substantial genetic heterogeneity within these populations, although the degree of heterogeneity varied considerably among closely related, co-occurring Methylophilaceae populations. SNP allele frequencies, as well as the relative abundance of certain genes, changed dramatically over time in each population. Interestingly, SNP diversity was purged at nearly every genome position in one of the Chlorobiaceae populations over the course of three years, while at the same time multiple genes either swept through or were swept from this population. These patterns were consistent with a genome-wide selective sweep, a process predicted by the ecotype model? of diversification, but not previously observed in natural populations.

  4. The Drive for Energy Diversity and Sustainability: The Impact...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sustainability: The Impact on Transportation Fuels and Propulsion System Portfolios The Drive for Energy Diversity and Sustainability: The Impact on Transportation Fuels and...

  5. Lower Yellowstone Intake Diversion Dam Fish Passage Project,...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... The Corps (2015) analysis used acreages in the Yellowstone River from Intake Diversion Dam to Cartersville Dam available from GIS data developed for the Yellowstone River ...

  6. Diversity and Inclusion Events Calendar | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Training, networking, and career-building conferences like the ones below are valuable ways to engage in diversity issues. Learn about upcoming events on the calendar below, and...

  7. OAR - Division 100-Wildlife Diversity Plan | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    availability: http:crossref.org Citation Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleOAR-Division100-WildlifeDiversityPlan&oldid792434" Feedback Contact...

  8. Jordan Malheur Resource Area Jonesboro Diversion Dam Replacement...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The proposed replacement would help improve fish passage and facilitate continued ... the existing diversion dam to help improve fish passage and facilitate continued ...

  9. Sponsoring, Mentoring and Guiding Cultural Diverse Young Scientists and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Engineers | Argonne National Laboratory Sponsoring, Mentoring and Guiding Cultural Diverse Young Scientists and Engineers Presentation on successful mentoring. PDF icon Partnership meeting presentation 020711

  10. Rapid quantification of mutant fitness in diverse bacteria by...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Rapid quantification of mutant fitness in diverse bacteria by sequencing randomly bar-coded transposons Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rapid quantification of mutant...

  11. EA-1994: Malheur Resource Area Jonesboro Diversion Dam Replacement...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Burns Paiute Tribe for replacement of an existing diversion dam and installation of a fish passage structure. BPA's proposed action was to fund the project. PUBLIC COMMENT...

  12. Diversity Strategies for Nuclear Power Plant Instrumentation and Control Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, Richard Thomas; Belles, Randy; Cetiner, Mustafa Sacit; Holcomb, David Eugene; Korsah, Kofi; Loebl, Andy; Mays, Gary T; Muhlheim, Michael David; Mullens, James Allen; Poore III, Willis P; Qualls, A L; Wilson, Thomas L; Waterman, Michael E.

    2010-02-01

    This report presents the technical basis for establishing acceptable mitigating strategies that resolve diversity and defense-in-depth (D3) assessment findings and conform to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements. The research approach employed to establish appropriate diversity strategies involves investigation of available documentation on D3 methods and experience from nuclear power and nonnuclear industries, capture of expert knowledge and lessons learned, determination of best practices, and assessment of the nature of common-cause failures (CCFs) and compensating diversity attributes. The research described in this report does not provide guidance on how to determine the need for diversity in a safety system to mitigate the consequences of potential CCFs. Rather, the scope of this report provides guidance to the staff and nuclear industry after a licensee or applicant has performed a D3 assessment per NUREG/CR-6303 and determined that diversity in a safety system is needed for mitigating the consequences of potential CCFs identified in the evaluation of the safety system design features. Succinctly, the purpose of the research described in this report was to answer the question, 'If diversity is required in a safety system to mitigate the consequences of potential CCFs, how much diversity is enough?' The principal results of this research effort have identified and developed diversity strategies, which consist of combinations of diversity attributes and their associated criteria. Technology, which corresponds to design diversity, is chosen as the principal system characteristic by which diversity criteria are grouped to form strategies. The rationale for this classification framework involves consideration of the profound impact that technology-focused design diversity provides. Consequently, the diversity usage classification scheme involves three families of strategies: (1) different technologies, (2) different approaches within the same

  13. Fuel Cell Animation (Text Version) | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    This text version of the fuel cell animation demonstrates how a fuel cell uses hydrogen to produce electricity, with only water and heat as byproducts. Fuel cell shown with its ...

  14. Video, Audio, and Animation Text Versions for Web Accessibility

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    For accessibility, Section 508 requires text versions of video, audio, and animations.  Follow the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy's (EERE's) requirements for developing a text...

  15. Diversity Based on Race, Ethnicity, and Sex, of the US Radiation Oncology Physician Workforce

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, Christina H.; Hwang, Wei-Ting; Deville, Curtiland

    2013-03-15

    Purpose: To assess the current diversity of the US radiation oncology (RO) physician workforce by race, ethnicity, and sex. Methods and Materials: Publicly available American Medical Association, American Association of Medical Colleges, and US census registries were used to assess differences by race, ethnicity, and sex for 2010 among RO practicing physicians, academic faculty, residents, and residency applicants. RO resident diversity was compared to medical school graduates and medical oncology (MO) fellows. Significant differences in diversity of RO residents by race, ethnicity, and sex were evaluated between 2003 and 2010 academic years. Results: Females and traditionally underrepresented minorities in medicine (URM), blacks, Hispanics, American Indians, Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiian, and Pacific Islanders are underrepresented as RO residents (33.3% and 6.9%, respectively), faculty (23.8%, 8.1%), and practicing physicians (25.5%, 7.2%) levels compared with the US population (50.8%, 30.0%; P<.01). Although females and URMs remain underrepresented at the resident trainee level compared with their proportions as medical school graduates (48.3%, 15.6%) and MO fellows (45.0%, 10.8%; P<.01), females are significantly increased in proportion as RO residents compared with RO practicing physicians (P<.01), whereas representation of individual URM groups as RO residents is no different than current practicing physicians. There is no trend toward increased diversification for female or URM trainees over 8 years, suggesting underrepresentation is not diminishing. Conclusions: Females and URM are underrepresented in the RO physician workforce. Given existing cancer disparities, further research and efforts are needed to ensure that the field is equipped to meet the needs of an increasingly diverse society.

  16. Anatomic and Functional Imaging of Tagged Molecules in Animals - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Anatomic and Functional Imaging of Tagged Molecules in Animals Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility Contact TJNAF About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryA novel functional imaging system for use in the imaging of unrestrained and non-anesthetized small animals or other subjects and a method for acquiring such images and further registering them with anatomical X-ray images previously or subsequently acquired.DescriptionThe apparatus comprises a

  17. Hydrogen-Fueled Vehicle Safety Systems Animation (Text Version) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Hydrogen-Fueled Vehicle Safety Systems Animation (Text Version) Hydrogen-Fueled Vehicle Safety Systems Animation (Text Version) Hydrogen fueled vehicles have multiple safety systems that detect and prevent the accidental release of hydrogen. There are sensors that detect leaks, a computer that monitors fuel flow, and an excess flow shut-off valve. Hydrogen tanks also have a pressure release device, much like those on natural gas water heaters in our homes. If a leak is

  18. Fungal diversity within the Populus rhizosphere and endosphere | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Fungal diversity within the Populus rhizosphere and endosphere Fungal diversity within the Populus rhizosphere and endosphere This presentation was given by Gerald Tuskan at the Symbiosis Conference. symbiosis_conference_tuskan.pdf (1.76 MB) More Documents & Publications Symbiosis Conference Speaker and Attendee List Consent Order, UT-Battelle, LLC Integrating Environmental, Safety, and Quality Management System Audits

  19. Recovering complete and draft population genomes from metagenome datasets

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sangwan, Naseer; Xia, Fangfang; Gilbert, Jack A.

    2016-03-08

    Assembly of metagenomic sequence data into microbial genomes is of fundamental value to improving our understanding of microbial ecology and metabolism by elucidating the functional potential of hard-to-culture microorganisms. Here, we provide a synthesis of available methods to bin metagenomic contigs into species-level groups and highlight how genetic diversity, sequencing depth, and coverage influence binning success. Despite the computational cost on application to deeply sequenced complex metagenomes (e.g., soil), covarying patterns of contig coverage across multiple datasets significantly improves the binning process. We also discuss and compare current genome validation methods and reveal how these methods tackle the problem ofmore » chimeric genome bins i.e., sequences from multiple species. Finally, we explore how population genome assembly can be used to uncover biogeographic trends and to characterize the effect of in situ functional constraints on the genome-wide evolution.« less

  20. Scientific documentary animation: How much accuracy is enough

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Max, N.L.

    1992-02-06

    Scientific documentary animation presents final results, and thus has a somewhat different purpose than the scientific visualization used in their discovery. For an audience of non-specialists, production quality in the graphics, pacing, narration, music, and story-telling are important. However, the animation need only be qualitatively correct in order to communicate the desired information. When physical simulations are used to produce animated movement, the laws of motion can be adjusted to give a nicer appearance, to allow for easier programming, to compensate for incompatible time or size scales, or to artifically push things in a desired direction. Graphic tricks may even be used to disguise inadequacies in the simulation. Biological structures which are not yet completely understood may be given an arbitrary or approximate form in order to show their function. But in illustrating mathematics, it is often easy to be completely accurate.

  1. Scientific documentary animation: How much accuracy is enough?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Max, N.L.

    1992-02-06

    Scientific documentary animation presents final results, and thus has a somewhat different purpose than the scientific visualization used in their discovery. For an audience of non-specialists, production quality in the graphics, pacing, narration, music, and story-telling are important. However, the animation need only be qualitatively correct in order to communicate the desired information. When physical simulations are used to produce animated movement, the laws of motion can be adjusted to give a nicer appearance, to allow for easier programming, to compensate for incompatible time or size scales, or to artifically push things in a desired direction. Graphic tricks may even be used to disguise inadequacies in the simulation. Biological structures which are not yet completely understood may be given an arbitrary or approximate form in order to show their function. But in illustrating mathematics, it is often easy to be completely accurate.

  2. ARM - Field Campaign - M-PACE - Polarization Diversity Lidar (PDL)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Polarization Diversity Lidar (PDL) Campaign Links M-PACE Website ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : M-PACE - Polarization Diversity Lidar (PDL) 2004.09.01 - 2004.10.21 Lead Scientist : Kenneth Sassen For data sets, see below. Abstract In support of M-PACE, a Polarization Diversity Lidar (PDL), was deployed to the NSA. Unlike the micro pulses of the MPL (micropulse lidar) present at NSA, the

  3. Population Structure of Columbia River Basin Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout, Technical Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brannon, E.L.; National Science Foundation

    2002-08-01

    The population structure of chinook salmon and steelhead trout is presented as an assimilation of the life history forms that have evolved in synchrony with diverse and complex environments over their Pacific range. As poikilotherms, temperature is described as the overwhelming environmental influence that determines what life history options occur and where they are distributed. The different populations represent ecological types referred to as spring-, summer-, fall, and winter-run segments, as well as stream- and ocean-type, or stream- and ocean-maturing life history forms. However, they are more correctly described as a continuum of forms that fall along a temporal cline related to incubation and rearing temperatures that determine spawn timing and juvenile residence patterns. Once new habitats are colonized, members of the founding populations spread through adaptive evolution to assume complementary life history strategies. The related population units are collectively referred to as a metapopulation, and members most closely associated within common temporal and geographic boundaries are designated as first-order metapopulations. Population structure of chinook salmon and steelhead in the Columbia Basin, therefore, is the reflection of the genetic composition of the founding source or sources within the respective region, shaped by the environment, principally temperature, that defines life history evolutionary strategy to maximize fitness under the conditions delineated. The complexity of structure rests with the diversity of opportunities over the elevations that exist within the Basin. Consistent with natural selection, rather than simply attempting to preserve populations, the challenge is to provide opportunities to expand their range to new or restored habitat that can accommodate genetic adaptation as directional environmental changes are elaborated. Artificial propagation can have a critical role in this process, and the emphasis must be placed on

  4. International radiobiology archives of long-term animal studies. I. Descriptions of participating institutions and studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, G.B.; Watson, C.R.; Sugahara, T.; Okada, S.

    1996-07-01

    This document describes archived radiobiology animal studies. Information is presented on experimental details, pathology, radioactivity, results, dosimetry, status, and animal type employed.

  5. OAR 635-100 - Wildlife Diversity Plans | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    for Wildlife Diversity Plans used to guide the State of Oregon's Department of Fish and Wildlife when managing non-game wildlife. Published NA Year Signed or Took Effect...

  6. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) Guidance on Diversity and Inclusion

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The following documents are from the Office of Personnel Management (OMP)'s Office of Diversity and Inclusion, which is responsible for reviewing and evaluating plans, reports, and programs for...

  7. Acquisition Guide Chapter 70.26, The Diversity Plan

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Acquisition Guide chapter 70.7, Chapter 12, The Diversity Plan, Equal Employment Opportunity, and Small Business (June 2006) is deleted and re-issued as a new chapter, 70.26.

  8. The Gut Microbiota of Rural Papua New Guineans: Composition, Diversity

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patterns, and Ecological Processes (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: The Gut Microbiota of Rural Papua New Guineans: Composition, Diversity Patterns, and Ecological Processes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Gut Microbiota of Rural Papua New Guineans: Composition, Diversity Patterns, and Ecological Processes Comparisons between the fecal microbiota of humans from industrialized and non-industrialized communities indicate a pronounced impact of westernization

  9. Self-protecting transistor oscillator for treating animal tissues

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doss, James D.

    1980-01-01

    A transistor oscillator circuit wherein the load current applied to animal tissue treatment electrodes is fed back to the transistor. Removal of load is sensed to automatically remove feedback and stop oscillations. A thermistor on one treatment electrode senses temperature, and by means of a control circuit controls oscillator transistor current.

  10. Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cockburn, Andrew; Brambilla, Gianfranco; Fernndez, Maria-Luisa; Arcella, Davide; Peteghem, Carlos van; Dorne, Jean-Lou

    2013-08-01

    Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also

  11. Mentoring and Educating to Increase Diversity in Science, Tech, Engineering and Math

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    "The next two decades of global diversity and inclusion will present unprecedented opportunities and challenges," began the description of one of yesterday's panels at the 2011 National Diversity...

  12. Graphical User Interface Color Display Animation Interaction Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-10-05

    The Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA) is a highly flexible graphical user interface for displaying the results of a calculation, typically generated by RELAP5 or other code. This display consists of one or more picture, called masks, that mimic the host code input. This mask can be animated to display user-specified code output information mapped as colors, dials, moving arrows, etc., on the mask. The user can also interact with the control systems of the hostmore » input file as the execution progresses, thereby controlling aspects of the calculation. The Computer Visual System (CVS) creates, edits, and animates the the masks for use in the NPA.« less

  13. Population Sensitivity Evaluation of Two Candidate Locations...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Population Sensitivity Evaluation of Two Candidate Locations for Possible Small Modular Reactor Siting (3.84 MB) More Documents & Publications Evaluation of Proposed Hampton Roads ...

  14. Wrapping Up: Our Conversation on Increasing Diversity in STEM Education and the Workforce

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A recap of our discussion on increasing diversity in science, technology, engineering and math fields.

  15. Office of Economic Impact and Diversity 2003 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2004-05-01

    This report covers a one-year period in which the Office successfully completed several major activities. The Office of Economic Impact and Diversity (ED) is responsible for the development and implementation of Department-wide polices in the areas of small business, diversity and minority economic development. ED oversees civil rights laws, rules, and regulations, and establishes Department-wide civil rights policy. Additionally, ED promotes excellence in the workplace and adheres to the objectives stated below relative to the Presidents Management Agenda (PMA): Strategic management of human capital; Competitive sourcing; Improved financial performance; Expanded electronic government, and Budget and performance integration

  16. Summer investigations into the metabolic diversity of the microbial world

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breznak, J.; Dworkin, M.

    1993-05-17

    The philosophy of the course described here is to underscore the essence of microbiology which is diversity>: diversity of morphology and cellular development, behavior, and metabolic and physiological functions. Emphasis is on microbes other than those customarily covered in conventional microbiology courses and includes: the archaebacteria, extremophiles, and array of obligate anaerobes, various phototrophs, and those microbes exhibiting complex developmental cycles. Also included are microbes carrying out a variety of transformations of organic and inorganic compounds, as well as those which normally occur in symbiotic association with other microbes or with higher forms of life.

  17. Special Population Planner for Emergency Management

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-04-17

    The SPP is a tool for use by emergency management agencies in creating plans for possible events requiring their attention. It incorporates extensive data including those on special needs populations so that this segment of the population will be considered in general plans.

  18. Covered Sites/Populations | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Covered Sites/Populations Covered Sites/Populations Construction Worker Screening Projects Construction Worker Projects, Former Worker Medical Screening Program (FWP) Production Worker Screening Projects Production Worker Projects, Former Worker Medical Screening Program (FWP) National Supplemental Screening Program National Supplemental Screening Program Beryllium Vendor Screening Program Defunct Beryllium Vendor Screening Program

  19. Hanford Area 2000 Population (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; HANFORD RESERVATION; POPULATION DYNAMICS; HUMAN POPULATIONS; DISTRIBUTION; PUBLIC HEALTH HANFORD SITE; HANFORD AREA DEMOGRAPHICS; ...

  20. Energy Systems and Population Health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ezzati, Majid; Bailis, Rob; Kammen, Daniel M.; Holloway, Tracey; Price, Lynn; Cifuentes, Luis A.; Barnes, Brendon; Chaurey, Akanksha; Dhanapala, Kiran N.

    2004-04-12

    to rural and urban health facilities allows increased delivery and coverage of 3 various health services and interventions such as tests and treatments, better storage of medicine and vaccines, disinfection of medical equipment by boiling or radiation, and more frequent and efficient health system encounters through mobile clinics or longer working hours; and so on. In fact, while the dominant view of development-energy-health linkages has been that improvements in energy and health are outcomes of the socioeconomic development process (e.g., the ''energy ladder'' framework discussed below), it has even been argued that access to higher quality energy sources and technologies can initiate a chain of demographic, health, and development outcomes by changing the household structure and socioeconomic relationships. For example, in addition to increased opportunities for food and income production, reduced infant mortality as a result of transition to cleaner fuels or increased coverage of vaccination with availability of refrigerators in rural clinics may initiate a process of ''demographic transition'' to low-mortality and low-fertility populations (14). Such a transition has historically been followed with further improvements in maternal and child health and increased female participation in the labor markets and other economic activities.

  1. Ethnic Diversity in Materials Science and Engineering. A report on the workshop on ethnic diversity in materials science and engineering.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, Justin

    2014-06-30

    The immediate goal of the workshop was to elevate and identify issues and challenges that have impeded participation of diverse individuals in MSE. The longerterm goals are to continue forward by gathering and disseminating data, launching and tracking initiatives to mitigate the impediments, and increase the number of diverse individuals pursuing degrees and careers in MSE. The larger goal, however, is to create over time an ever-increasing number of role models in science fields who will, in turn, draw others in to contribute to the workforce of the future.

  2. Energy Supply- Production of Fuel from Agricultural and Animal Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabriel Miller

    2009-03-25

    The Society for Energy and Environmental Research (SEER) was funded in March 2004 by the Department of Energy, under grant DE-FG-36-04GO14268, to produce a study, and oversee construction and implementation, for the thermo-chemical production of fuel from agricultural and animal waste. The grant focuses on the Changing World Technologies (CWT) of West Hempstead, NY, thermal conversion process (TCP), which converts animal residues and industrial food processing biproducts into fuels, and as an additional product, fertilizers. A commercial plant was designed and built by CWT, partially using grant funds, in Carthage, Missouri, to process animal residues from a nearby turkey processing plant. The DOE sponsored program consisted of four tasks. These were: Task 1 Optimization of the CWT Plant in Carthage - This task focused on advancing and optimizing the process plant operated by CWT that converts organic waste to fuel and energy. Task 2 Characterize and Validate Fuels Produced by CWT - This task focused on testing of bio-derived hydrocarbon fuels from the Carthage plant in power generating equipment to determine the regulatory compliance of emissions and overall performance of the fuel. Task 3 Characterize Mixed Waste Streams - This task focused on studies performed at Princeton University to better characterize mixed waste incoming streams from animal and vegetable residues. Task 4 Fundamental Research in Waste Processing Technologies - This task focused on studies performed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) on the chemical reformation reaction of agricultural biomass compounds in a hydrothermal medium. Many of the challenges to optimize, improve and perfect the technology, equipment and processes in order to provide an economically viable means of creating sustainable energy were identified in the DOE Stage Gate Review, whose summary report was issued on July 30, 2004. This summary report appears herein as Appendix 1, and the findings of the report

  3. Methane recovery from animal manures: A current opportunities casebook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-08-01

    This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal manures US livestock operations currently employ four types of anaerobic digester technology: Slurry, plug flow, complete mix, and covered lagoon. An introduction to the engineering economies of these technologies is provided, and possible end-use applications for the methane gas generated by the digestion process are discussed. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models, which can be used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return, are developed from the evaluations.

  4. Savannah River Ecology Laboratory - Touch An Animal Day 2016

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Return to Photo Album Savannah River Ecology Laboratory's 8th Annual "Touch An Animal Day!" August 20, 2016 Once again a fun day was had by all! Click on an image for a larger view. Special thanks to the following individuals for their help with this event: Matt Baker Dr. I. Lehr Brisbin Dr. Kurt Buhlmann Joseph Colbert Zoë Cooper Fanny Coutelot Mackenzie Dix Carol Eldridge Larry Eldridge Dean Fletcher Wes Flynn Dr. Whit Gibbons Judy Greene-McLeod Matt Hamilton David Keiter Linda Lee

  5. Greater fuel diversity needed to meet growing US electricity demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burt, B.; Mullins, S.

    2008-01-15

    Electricity demand is growing in the USA. One way to manage the uncertainty is to diversity fuel sources. Fuel sources include coal, natural gas, nuclear and renewable energy sources. Tables show actual and planned generation projects by fuel types. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  6. Diversity Town Hall Draws a Crowd at the Energy Department

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    “For our own good, we want as wide of a talent pool as we can get,” Secretary Steven Chu said in his remarks to employees. “[Diversity] is a good thing and an important thing to do. It’s also the right thing to do.”

  7. The biology of novel animal genes: Mouse APEX gene knockout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacInnes, M.; Altherr, M.R.; Ludwig, D.; Pedersen, R.; Mold, C.

    1997-07-01

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The controlled breeding of novel genes into mice, including the gene knockout (KO), or conversely by adding back transgenes provide powerful genetic technologies that together suffice to determine in large part the biological role(s) of novel genes. Inbred mouse remains the best understood and most useful mammalian experimental system available for tackling the biology of novel genes. The major mammalian apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) endonuclease (APE), is involved in a key step in the repair of spontaneous and induced AP sites in DNA. Efficient repair of these lesions is imperative to prevent the stable incorporation of mutations into the cellular genome which may lead to cell death or transformation. Loss or modulation of base excison repair activity in vivo may elevate the spontaneous mutation rate in cells, and may lead to a substantial increase in the incidence of cancer. Despite extensive biochemical analysis, however, the significance of these individual APE functions in vivo has not been elucidated. Mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells heterozygous for a deletion mutation in APE have been generated and whole animals containing the APE mutation have been derived from these ES cells. Animals homozygous for the APE null mutation die early in gestation, underscoring the biological significance of this DNA repair gene.

  8. Small animal electric and magnetic field exposure systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patterson, R.C.; Dietrich, F.M.

    1993-10-01

    Laboratory evaluation of electric and magnetic fields (EMF) and cancer in animals requires exposure of relatively large numbers of animals, usually rats or mice, to 60-Hz fields under very well controlled conditions for periods of up to two years. This report describes two exposure systems, the first of which is based on modifications of an existing electric field exposure system to include magnetic field exposure capability. In this system, each module houses 576--768 mice, which can be exposed to electric field levels of up to 100 kV/m and magnetic field levels of up to 10 Gauss. When a module was operated at 10 Gauss, measured levels of noise and vibration fell substantially below the detection threshold for humans. Moreover, temperature rise in the coils did not exceed 12{degrees}C at the 10 Gauss level. Specifications and test results for the second system, which provides magnetic field exposure capability only, are similar, except that each module houses 624--780 mice. After installation of the second system at the West Los Angeles Veterans Medical Center in Los Angeles, California, additional results were obtained. This report provides a complete description of the engineering design, specifications, and test results for the completed systems.

  9. Hanford Site Regional Population - 2010 Census

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, Erin L.; Snyder, Sandra F.

    2011-08-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy conducts radiological operations in south-central Washington State. Population dose estimates must be performed to provide a measure of the impact from site radiological releases. Results of the U.S. 2010 Census were used to determine counts and distributions for the residential population located within 50-miles of several operating areas of the Hanford Site. Year 2010 was the first census year that a 50-mile population of a Hanford Site operational area exceeded the half-million mark.

  10. Estimating Traveler Populations at Airport and Cruise Terminals for Population Distribution and Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jochem, Warren C; Sims, Kelly M; Bright, Eddie A; Urban, Marie L; Rose, Amy N; Coleman, Phil R; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, uses of high-resolution population distribution databases are increasing steadily for environmental, socioeconomic, public health, and disaster-related research and operations. With the development of daytime population distribution, temporal resolution of such databases has been improved. However, the lack of incorporation of transitional population, namely business and leisure travelers, leaves a significant population unaccounted for within the critical infrastructure networks, such as at transportation hubs. This paper presents two general methodologies for estimating passenger populations in airport and cruise port terminals at a high temporal resolution which can be incorporated into existing population distribution models. The methodologies are geographically scalable and are based on, and demonstrate how, two different transportation hubs with disparate temporal population dynamics can be modeled utilizing publicly available databases including novel data sources of flight activity from the Internet which are updated in near-real time. The airport population estimation model shows great potential for rapid implementation for a large collection of airports on a national scale, and the results suggest reasonable accuracy in the estimated passenger traffic. By incorporating population dynamics at high temporal resolutions into population distribution models, we hope to improve the estimates of populations exposed to or at risk to disasters, thereby improving emergency planning and response, and leading to more informed policy decisions.

  11. Genetic Structure of Chum Salmon (Oncorhynchus Keta) Populations in the Lower Columbia River: Are Chum Salmon in Cascade Tributaries Remnant Populations?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Small, Maureen P.; Pichahchy, A.E.; Von Bargen, J.F.; Young, S.F.

    2004-09-01

    Prior to the 1950's, the lower Columbia River drainage supported a run of over a million chum salmon composed of at least 16 populations. By the late 1950's, over-fishing and habitat destruction had decreased the run to as little as a few hundred fish. With the exception of Grays River in the coastal region of the Columbia River and an aggregation of chum salmon spawning in creeks and the mainstem near Bonneville Dam in the Columbia Gorge region, most populations were considered extinct. However, over the years, WDFW biologists detected chum salmon spawning in tributaries originating in the Cascade Range: the Cowlitz, Lewis, and Washougal rivers. Further, chum salmon in the Cowlitz River appeared to have summer and fall run-timings. To assess whether Cascade spawners were strays from Grays River and Gorge regions or remnants of former populations, chum salmon from the Coastal, Cascade and Gorge regions were characterized genetically at 17 microsatellite loci. With the exception of Washougal River chum salmon, which grouped strongly with the Gorge genetic group, significant heterogeneity in genotype distributions were detected between regions and genotype distributions overlapped among collections within regions. In a neighbor-joining consensus tree, regional groups occupied branches with over 77% bootstrap support. In assignment tests, over 63% of individuals were correctly assigned back to region of origin although an average of 29% assigned to river of origin. Genetic distinction of Cascade region chum salmon was similar to distinction of Coastal and Gorge chum salmon and the Cascade region chum salmon had twice the number of private regional alleles. Further, the Cowlitz River supports the only summer chum salmon run in the Columbia River drainage. We propose that chum salmon in the Cascade region are remnants of original populations. We attribute the strong divergence between regional groups to diverse ecological conditions in each region, which promoted

  12. Method for spatially distributing a population

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bright, Edward A; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Coleman, Phillip R; Dobson, Jerome E

    2007-07-24

    A process for spatially distributing a population count within a geographically defined area can include the steps of logically correlating land usages apparent from a geographically defined area to geospatial features in the geographically defined area and allocating portions of the population count to regions of the geographically defined area having the land usages, according to the logical correlation. The process can also include weighing the logical correlation for determining the allocation of portions of the population count and storing the allocated portions within a searchable data store. The logically correlating step can include the step of logically correlating time-based land usages to geospatial features of the geographically defined area. The process can also include obtaining a population count for the geographically defined area, organizing the geographically defined area into a plurality of sectors, and verifying the allocated portions according to direct observation.

  13. Assessment of Technologies Used to Characterize Wildlife Populations in the Offshore Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duberstein, Corey A.; Tagestad, Jerry D.; Larson, Kyle B.

    2011-12-09

    Wind energy development in the offshore environment can have both direct and indirect effects on wildlife, yet little is known about most species that use near-shore and offshore waters due in part to the difficulty involved in studying animals in remote, challenging environments. Traditional methods to characterize offshore wildlife populations include shipboard observations. Technological advances have provided researches with an array of technologies to gather information about fauna from afar. This report describes the use and application of radar, thermal and optical imagery, and acoustic detection technologies for monitoring birds, bats, and marine mammals in offshore environments.

  14. Bioconversion of animal manure into electricity and a liquid fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, J.R.; Iannotti, E.L.; Stahl, T.; Garcia, A. III; Harris, F.D.

    1983-01-01

    The integrated farm energy system operating at Columbia, Missouri converted animal manure into thermal and electrical energy and a liquid fuel. An anaerobic digester converted 510 kg of volatile solids into 285 m/sup 3/ of biogas consisting of 55% methane. An internal combustion engine coupled to an electrical generator produced 408 kWh/day of electricity and 3 GJ/day of thermal energy. An ethanol production plant converted thermal and electrical energy into 85 liters of ethanol. Subtracting the thermal and electrical demands of the digester and ethanol plant, the system produced a net energy of 277 kWh of electricity, 750 MJ of thermal energy and 85 liters of ethanol. 9 references, 6 figures, 2 tables.

  15. Methane Recovery from Animal Manures The Current Opportunities Casebook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lusk, P.

    1998-09-22

    Growth and concentration of the livestock industry create opportunities for the proper disposal of the large quantities of manures generated at dairy, swine, and poultry farms. Pollutants from unmanaged livestock wastes can degrade the environment, and methane emitted from decomposing manure may contribute to global climate change. One management system not only helps prevent pollution but can also convert a manure problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially viable conversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable coproducts, including a cost-effective renewable fuel for livestock production operations. This casebook examines some of the current opportunities for recovering methane from anaerobic digestion animal manures.

  16. Methane recovery from animal manures: A current opportunities casebook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lusk, P.

    1994-12-01

    One manure management system provides not only pollution prevention but also converts a manure management problem into a new profit center. Economic evaluations and case studies of operating systems indicate that the anaerobic digestion of livestock manures is a commercially-available bioconversion technology with considerable potential for providing profitable co-products including a cost-effective renewable fuel for livestock production operations. This Casebook examines some of the current opportunities for the recovery of methane from the anaerobic digestion of animal manures. The economic evaluations are based on engineering studies of digesters that generate electricity from the recovered methane. Regression models, which can be used to estimate digester cost and internal rate of return, are developed from the evaluations. Finally, anaerobic digestion has considerable potential beyond agribusiness. Examples of digesters currently employed by other industries are provided.

  17. Workshop on Excellence Empowered by a Diverse Academic Workforce: Achieving Racial & Ethnic Equity in Chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassan. B. Ali

    2008-02-13

    The purpose of the Workshop 'Excellence Empowered by a Diverse Academic Workforce: Achieving Racial & Ethnic Equity in Chemistry' was to promote the development of a cadre of academic leaders who create, implement and promote programs and strategies for increasing the number of racial and ethnic minorities to equitable proportions on the faculties of departments throughout the academic chemistry community. An important objective of the workshop was to assist in creating an informed and committed community of chemistry leaders who will create, implement and promote programs and strategies to advance racial and ethnic equity in both the faculty and the student body with the goal of increasing the number of U.S. citizen underrepresented minorities (URM) participating in academic chemistry at all levels, with particular focus on the pipeline to chemistry faculty. This objective was met by (1) presentations of detailed data describing current levels of racial and ethnic minorities on the faculties of chemistry departments; (2) frank discussion of the obstacles to and benefits of racial/ethnic diversity in the chemistry professoriate; (3) summary of possible effective interventions and actions; and (4) promotion of the dissemination and adoption of initiatives designed to achieve racial/ethnic equity. Federal programs over the past thirty years have been instrumental in delivering to our universities URM students intending to major in the physical sciences such as chemistry. However, the near absence of URM faculty means that there is also an absence of URM as role models for aspiring students. For example, citing 2003 as a representative year, some statistics reveal the severity of the pipeline shrinkage for U. S. citizen URM starting from chemistry B.S. degrees awarded to the appointment to chemistry faculty. Compared to the URM population of approximately 30% for that year, 67% of the B.S. degrees in chemistry were awarded to white citizens and 17% were awarded to URM

  18. Diversity in computing technologies and strategies for dynamic resource allocation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Garzoglio, G.; Gutsche, O.

    2015-01-01

    Here, High Energy Physics (HEP) is a very data intensive and trivially parallelizable science discipline. HEP is probing nature at increasingly finer details requiring ever increasing computational resources to process and analyze experimental data. In this paper, we discuss how HEP provisioned resources so far using Grid technologies, how HEP is starting to include new resource providers like commercial Clouds and HPC installations, and how HEP is transparently provisioning resources at these diverse providers.

  19. Diversity in Computing Technologies and Strategies for Dynamic Resource Allocation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garzoglio, G.; Gutsche, O.

    2015-12-23

    High Energy Physics (HEP) is a very data intensive and trivially parallelizable science discipline. HEP is probing nature at increasingly finer details requiring ever increasing computational resources to process and analyze experimental data. In this paper, we discuss how HEP provisioned resources so far using Grid technologies, how HEP is starting to include new resource providers like commercial Clouds and HPC installations, and how HEP is transparently provisioning resources at these diverse providers.

  20. New Ionic Liquids with Diverse Properties - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Storage Energy Storage Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search New Ionic Liquids with Diverse Properties Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryHundreds of new ionic liquids can be synthesized using a method invented by ORNL researchers. This innovation makes it possible to produce ionic liquids and ionic compounds with a variety of tunable chemical properties, and provides ion liquids that are nonvolatile

  1. THIS IS CANCELLED - COLLOQUIUM: Toward Diversity in Flatland: Controlled

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synthesis of 2D Alloys & Heterostructures | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab April 17, 2014, 4:00pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium THIS IS CANCELLED - COLLOQUIUM: Toward Diversity in Flatland: Controlled Synthesis of 2D Alloys & Heterostructures Dr. Peter Sutter Brookhaven National Laboratory THIS COLLOQUIUM HAS BEEN CANCELLED..... The ability to tailor materials properties by alloying or in heterostructures with controlled interfaces has become one of the foundations of modern

  2. 2001 New York State NHTS: Travel Patterns of Special Populations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Patricia S; Reuscher, Tim

    2010-03-01

    pertinent to geographic areas that are significantly smaller than what the national NHTS data allowed. The final sample size for New York State was 13,423 usable households. In this report, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) identifies and analyzes differences, if any, in travel patterns that are attributable to demographic characteristics (e.g., gender, age, race and ethnicity), household characteristics (e.g., low income households, zero and one car households), modal characteristics and geographic location. Travel patterns of those who work at home are examined and compared to those of conventional workers, as well as those who do not work. Focus is given to trip frequency, travel by time of day, trip purpose, and mode choice. For example, included in this analysis is the mobility of the elderly population in New York State. The American society is undergoing a major demographic transformation that is resulting in a greater percentage of older individuals in the population. In addition to demographic changes, recent travel surveys show that an increasing number of older individuals are licensed to drive and that they drive more than their same age cohort did a decade ago. Cohort differences in driving are particularly apparent - not only are more of today's elderly population licensed to drive than their age cohort two decades ago, they also drive more. Equally important are the increase in immigration and in racial and cultural diversity. This report also discusses vehicle availability, socioeconomic characteristics, travel trends (e.g., miles travelled, distance driven, commute patterns), and the transportation accessibility of these populations. Specifically, this report addresses in detail the travel behavior of the following special populations: (1) the elderly, defined as those who were 65 years old or older, (2) low-income households, (3) ethnic groups and immigrants, and (4) those who worked at home.

  3. Appreciating HIV-1 diversity: subtypic differences in ENV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gnanakaran, S; Shen, Tongye; Lynch, Rebecca M; Derdeyn, Cynthia A

    2008-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) group M is responsible for the current AIDS pandemic and exhibits exceedingly high levels of viral genetic diversity around the world, necessitating categorization of viruses into distinct lineages, or subtypes. These subtypes can differ by around 35% in the envelope (Env) glycoproteins of the virus, which are displayed on the surface of the virion and are targets for both neutralizing antibody and cell-mediated immune responses. This diversity reflects the remarkable ability of the virus to adapt to selective pressures, the bulk of which is applied by the host immune response, and represents a serious obstacle for developing an effective vaccine with broad coverage. Thus, it is important to understand the underlying biological consequences of inter-subtype diversity. Recent studies have revealed that the HIV-1 subtypes exhibit phenotypic differences that result from subtle differences in Env structure, particularly within the highly immunogenic V3 domain, which participates directly in viral entry. This review will therefore explore current research that describes subtypic differences in Env at the genetic and phenotypic level, focusing in particular on V3, and highlighting recent discoveries about the unique features of subtype C Env, which is the most prevalent subtype globally.

  4. Isolation of a significant fraction of non-phototroph diversity from a desert Biological Soil Crust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nunes da Rocha, Ulisses; Cadillo-Quiroz, Hinsby; Karaoz, Ulas; Rajeev, Lara; Klitgord, Niels; Dunn, Sean; Truong, Viet; Buenrostro, Mayra; Bowen, Benjamin P.; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Northen, Trent R.; Brodie, Eoin L.

    2015-04-14

    Biological Soil Crusts (BSCs) are organosedimentary assemblages comprised of microbes and minerals in topsoil of terrestrial environments. BSCs strongly impact soil quality in dryland ecosystems (e.g., soil structure and nutrient yields) due to pioneer species such as Microcoleus vaginatus; phototrophs that produce filaments that bind the soil together, and support an array of heterotrophic microorganisms. These microorganisms in turn contribute to soil stability and biogeochemistry of BSCs. Non-cyanobacterial populations of BSCs are less well known than cyanobacterial populations. Therefore, we attempted to isolate a broad range of numerically significant and phylogenetically representative BSC aerobic heterotrophs. Combining simple pre-treatments (hydration of BSCs under dark and light) and isolation strategies (media with varying nutrient availability and protection from oxidative stress) we recovered 402 bacterial and one fungal isolate in axenic culture, which comprised 116 phylotypes (at 97% 16S rRNA gene sequence homology), 115 bacterial and one fungal. Each medium enriched a mostly distinct subset of phylotypes, and cultivated phylotypes varied due to the BSC pre-treatment. The fraction of the total phylotype diversity isolated, weighted by relative abundance in the community, was determined by the overlap between isolate sequences and OTUs reconstructed from metagenome or metatranscriptome reads. Together, more than 8% of relative abundance of OTUs in the metagenome was represented by our isolates, a cultivation efficiency much larger than typically expected from most soils. We conclude that simple cultivation procedures combined with specific pre-treatment of samples afford a significant reduction in the culturability gap, enabling physiological and metabolic assays that rely on ecologically relevant axenic cultures.

  5. Isolation of a significant fraction of non-phototroph diversity from a desert Biological Soil Crust

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Nunes da Rocha, Ulisses; Cadillo-Quiroz, Hinsby; Karaoz, Ulas; Rajeev, Lara; Klitgord, Niels; Dunn, Sean; Truong, Viet; Buenrostro, Mayra; Bowen, Benjamin P.; Garcia-Pichel, Ferran; et al

    2015-04-14

    Biological Soil Crusts (BSCs) are organosedimentary assemblages comprised of microbes and minerals in topsoil of terrestrial environments. BSCs strongly impact soil quality in dryland ecosystems (e.g., soil structure and nutrient yields) due to pioneer species such as Microcoleus vaginatus; phototrophs that produce filaments that bind the soil together, and support an array of heterotrophic microorganisms. These microorganisms in turn contribute to soil stability and biogeochemistry of BSCs. Non-cyanobacterial populations of BSCs are less well known than cyanobacterial populations. Therefore, we attempted to isolate a broad range of numerically significant and phylogenetically representative BSC aerobic heterotrophs. Combining simple pre-treatments (hydration ofmore » BSCs under dark and light) and isolation strategies (media with varying nutrient availability and protection from oxidative stress) we recovered 402 bacterial and one fungal isolate in axenic culture, which comprised 116 phylotypes (at 97% 16S rRNA gene sequence homology), 115 bacterial and one fungal. Each medium enriched a mostly distinct subset of phylotypes, and cultivated phylotypes varied due to the BSC pre-treatment. The fraction of the total phylotype diversity isolated, weighted by relative abundance in the community, was determined by the overlap between isolate sequences and OTUs reconstructed from metagenome or metatranscriptome reads. Together, more than 8% of relative abundance of OTUs in the metagenome was represented by our isolates, a cultivation efficiency much larger than typically expected from most soils. We conclude that simple cultivation procedures combined with specific pre-treatment of samples afford a significant reduction in the culturability gap, enabling physiological and metabolic assays that rely on ecologically relevant axenic cultures.« less

  6. Diversity in Science and Technology Advances National Clean Energy in Solar

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Photovoltaics » Diversity in Science and Technology Advances National Clean Energy in Solar Diversity in Science and Technology Advances National Clean Energy in Solar The SunShot Diversity in Science and Technology Advances National Clean Energy in Solar (DISTANCE-Solar) program pairs science and technology research advances with the development of a diverse and innovative workforce. Launched in Octoboer 2013, DISTANCE-Solar aims to drive solar innovation among

  7. Anatomic and functional imaging of tagged molecules in animals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Majewski, Stanislaw; Paulus, Michael J.; Gleason, Shaun S.

    2007-04-24

    A novel functional imaging system for use in the imaging of unrestrained and non-anesthetized small animals or other subjects and a method for acquiring such images and further registering them with anatomical X-ray images previously or subsequently acquired. The apparatus comprises a combination of an IR laser profilometry system and gamma, PET and/or SPECT, imaging system, all mounted on a rotating gantry, that permits simultaneous acquisition of positional and orientational information and functional images of an unrestrained subject that are registered, i.e. integrated, using image processing software to produce a functional image of the subject without the use of restraints or anesthesia. The functional image thus obtained can be registered with a previously or subsequently obtained X-ray CT image of the subject. The use of the system described herein permits functional imaging of a subject in an unrestrained/non-anesthetized condition thereby reducing the stress on the subject and eliminating any potential interference with the functional testing that such stress might induce.

  8. Modeling fatty acid relationships in animal waste anaerobic digesters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, D.T.; Bolte, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    Volatile fatty acid (VFA) relationships are important in the anaerobic digestion of animal wastes as they (acetic, propionic and butyric) are direct precursors of methane, either through direct conversion of acetate or through the intermediate formation of hydrogen and carbon dioxide. Thus, they are essential compounds in the biological conversion of heterogenous wastes to useable products. VFA's are also known inhibitors in the biological conversion process if their concentrations are sufficiently high. Thus, VFA's are simultaneously essential for the process and can be toxic agents should they be present in excess quantities. This relationship makes quantifying VFA's in the modeling studies essential to accurately predicting digester failure or success. A highly correlated relationship between the level of acetic acid and/or the propionic to acetic acid ratio in digesters that were successful and in digesters that failed has been shown. These data have been used to calibrate an original comprehensive methanogenesis model and along with the addition of dual-use substrate kinetics for the simultaneous catalysis of propionate and butyrate, have produced a much improved prediction of the VFA relationships observed in operating anaerobic digesters. This manuscript describes the addition of the dual-use substrate kinetics and the modification of the kinetic parameters of the original methanogenic model and compared the simulated output of the original and modified models to demonstrate the improved predictive ability. (Refs. 12).

  9. Core-Collapse Supernovae and Host Galaxy Stellar Populations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Core-Collapse Supernovae and Host Galaxy Stellar Populations Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Core-Collapse Supernovae and Host Galaxy Stellar Populations Authors: Kelly, ...

  10. EO 12898: Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EO 12898: Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations To focus Federal attention on the environmental and human health conditions in minority ...

  11. Femtosecond Population Inversion and Stimulated Emission of Dense...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Femtosecond Population Inversion and Stimulated Emission of Dense Dirac Fermions in Graphene Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Femtosecond Population Inversion and...

  12. The Other 15%: Expanding Energy Efficiency to Rural Populations...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    The Other 15%: Expanding Energy Efficiency to Rural Populations The Other 15%: Expanding Energy Efficiency to Rural Populations Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange ...

  13. Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater Prairie-Chickens Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater ...

  14. Toward the Routine Analysis of Diverse Data Types

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitney, Paul D.; Cox, Dennis; Daly, Don S.; Foote, Harlan P.; McQuerry, Dennis L.; Sloughter, James M.

    2003-12-01

    It is a great time to be a data analyst. The variety and quantity of data, in digitized forms, are increasing. The growth of computer networking and the corresponding use of the network via the World Wide Web have provided, in the form of text, a large dynamic information store. There is wide access to more financial data than can typically be understood. Digital imagery is on the rise; an explosion in the amount of digital video is forthcoming. And, information from scientific instruments is provided across a network with increasing frequency. However, data analysis tools and the corresponding theory are not keeping pace with this scale and diversity of data.

  15. Energy implications of an aging population

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    This study provides various demographic, medical, and economic information relative to energy usage on a segment of the population, the elderly, which is growing in absolute numbers and relative population percentage. This growth is expected to continue well into the twenty-first century. The US aging population numbered 3.1 million in 1900, and by 1977 it had climbed to 23.5 million. It can be stated with reasonable certainty that this figure will rise to 31 million in the year 2000 and 43 million in the year 2020. These figures, corresponding to more than 10% of our population, are by no means insignificant. As our fossil-fuel reserves are being depleted and the cost of energy mounts, it becomes apparent that the elderly will become increasingly vulnerable to the energy crisis, primarily beause of their physical tendency to infirmity, their economic and social situation, and their susceptibility to psychological depression. This white paper concentrates on those aspects of aging and the nation's energy problem which are not usually related in our everyday consideration of these as separable problems. It seeks to identify the peculiar energy problems of the aged and to consider alternatives in the solution of these problems in light of modern technology.

  16. Characteristics of polymorphism at a VNTR locus 3[prime] to the apolipoprotein B gene in five human populations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deka, R.; DeCroo, S.; Ferrell, R.E. ); Chakraborty, R.; Barton, S.A. ); Rothhammer, F. )

    1992-12-01

    The authors have analyzed the allele frequency distribution at the hypervariable locus 3[prime] to the apolipoprotein B gene (ApoB 3[prime] VNTR) in five well-defined human populations (Kacharis of northeast India, New Guinea Highlanders of Papua New Guinea, Dogrib Indians of Canada, Pehuenche Indians of Chile, and a relatively homogeneous Caucasian population of northern German extraction) by using the PCR technique. A total of 12 segregating alleles were detected in the pooled sample of 319 individuals. A fairly consistent bimodal pattern of allele frequency distribution, apparent in most of these geographically and genetically diverse populations, suggests that the ApoB 3[prime] VNTR polymorphism predates the geographic dispersal of ancestral human populations. In spite of the observed high degree of polymorphism at this locus (expected heterozygosity levels 55%-78%), the genotype distributions in all populations (irrespective of their tribal or cosmopolitan nature) conform to their respective Hardy-Weinberg predictions. Furthermore, analysis of the congruence between expected heterozygosity and the observed number of alleles reveals that, in general, the allele frequency distributions at this locus are in agreement with the predictions of the classical mutation-drift models. The data also show that alleles that are shared by all populations have the highest average frequency within populations. These findings demonstrate the potential utility of highly informative hypervariable loci such as the ApoB 3[prime] VNTR locus in population genetic research, as well as in forensic medicine and determination of biological relatedness of individuals. 38 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Eco-Evolutionary Dynamics of Episomes among Ecologically Cohesive Bacterial Populations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xue, Hong; Cordero, Otto X.; Camas, Francisco M.; Trimble, William; Meyer, Folker; Guglielmini, Julien; Rocha, Eduardo P. C.; Polz, Martin F.

    2015-05-05

    Although plasmids and other episomes are recognized as key players in horizontal gene transfer among microbes, their diversity and dynamics among ecologically structured host populations in the wild remain poorly understood. Here, we show that natural populations of marine Vibrionaceae bacteria host large numbers of families of episomes, consisting of plasmids and a surprisingly high fraction of plasmid-like temperate phages. Episomes are unevenly distributed among host populations, and contrary to the notion that high-density communities in biofilms act as hot spots of gene transfer, we identified a strong bias for episomes to occur in free-living as opposed to particle-attached cells. Mapping of episomal families onto host phylogeny shows that, with the exception of all phage and a few plasmid families, most are of recent evolutionary origin and appear to have spread rapidly by horizontal transfer. Such high eco-evolutionary turnover is particularly surprising for plasmids that are, based on previously suggested categorization, putatively nontransmissible, indicating that this type of plasmid is indeed frequently transferred by currently unknown mechanisms. Finally, analysis of recent gene transfer among plasmids reveals a network of extensive exchange connecting nearly all episomes. Genes functioning in plasmid transfer and maintenance are frequently exchanged, suggesting that plasmids can be rapidly transformed from one category to another. The broad distribution of episomes among distantly related hosts and the observed promiscuous recombination patterns show how episomes can offer their hosts rapid assembly and dissemination of novel functions.

  18. Eco-Evolutionary Dynamics of Episomes among Ecologically Cohesive Bacterial Populations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xue, Hong; Cordero, Otto X.; Camas, Francisco M.; Trimble, William; Meyer, Folker; Guglielmini, Julien; Rocha, Eduardo P. C.; Polz, Martin F.

    2015-05-05

    Although plasmids and other episomes are recognized as key players in horizontal gene transfer among microbes, their diversity and dynamics among ecologically structured host populations in the wild remain poorly understood. Here, we show that natural populations of marine Vibrionaceae bacteria host large numbers of families of episomes, consisting of plasmids and a surprisingly high fraction of plasmid-like temperate phages. Episomes are unevenly distributed among host populations, and contrary to the notion that high-density communities in biofilms act as hot spots of gene transfer, we identified a strong bias for episomes to occur in free-living as opposed to particle-attached cells.more » Mapping of episomal families onto host phylogeny shows that, with the exception of all phage and a few plasmid families, most are of recent evolutionary origin and appear to have spread rapidly by horizontal transfer. Such high eco-evolutionary turnover is particularly surprising for plasmids that are, based on previously suggested categorization, putatively nontransmissible, indicating that this type of plasmid is indeed frequently transferred by currently unknown mechanisms. Finally, analysis of recent gene transfer among plasmids reveals a network of extensive exchange connecting nearly all episomes. Genes functioning in plasmid transfer and maintenance are frequently exchanged, suggesting that plasmids can be rapidly transformed from one category to another. The broad distribution of episomes among distantly related hosts and the observed promiscuous recombination patterns show how episomes can offer their hosts rapid assembly and dissemination of novel functions.« less

  19. Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources annual progress report, January 1-December 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    ILAR serves as a coordinating agency and a national and international resource for compiling and disseminating information on laboratory anaimals, promoting education, planning and conducting conferences and symposia, surveying facilities and resources, upgrading laboratory animal resources, and promoting high quality, humane care of laboratory animals in the US. This report discusses activities conducted in 1981, including committees, a task force on Ectromelia, and the Animal Models and Genetic Stocks Information Exchange Program. (ACR)

  20. Improved techniques for fluid diversion in oil recovery. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seright, R.

    1996-01-01

    This three-year project had two technical objectives. The first objective was to compare the effectiveness of gels in fluid diversion (water shutoff) with those of other types of processes. Several different types of fluid-diversion processes were compared, including those using gels, foams, emulsions, particulates, and microorganisms. The ultimate goals of these comparisons were to (1) establish which of these processes are most effective in a given application and (2) determine whether aspects of one process can be combined with those of other processes to improve performance. Analyses and experiments were performed to verify which materials are the most effective in entering and blocking high-permeability zones. The second objective of the project was to identify the mechanisms by which materials (particularly gels) selectively reduce permeability to water more than to oil. A capacity to reduce water permeability much more than oil or gas permeability is critical to the success of gel treatments in production wells if zones cannot be isolated during gel placement. Topics covered in this report include (1) determination of gel properties in fractures, (2) investigation of schemes to optimize gel placement in fractured systems, (3) an investigation of why some polymers and gels can reduce water permeability more than oil permeability, (4) consideration of whether microorganisms and particulates can exhibit placement properties that are superior to those of gels, and (5) examination of when foams may show placement properties that are superior to those of gels.

  1. Microbial diversity and carbon cycling in San Francisco Bay wetlands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theroux, Susanna; Hartman, Wyatt; He, Shaomei; Tringe, Susannah

    2014-03-21

    Wetland restoration efforts in San Francisco Bay aim to rebuild habitat for endangered species and provide an effective carbon storage solution, reversing land subsidence caused by a century of industrial and agricultural development. However, the benefits of carbon sequestration may be negated by increased methane production in newly constructed wetlands, making these wetlands net greenhouse gas (GHG) sources to the atmosphere. We investigated the effects of wetland restoration on below-ground microbial communities responsible for GHG cycling in a suite of historic and restored wetlands in SF Bay. Using DNA and RNA sequencing, coupled with real-time GHG monitoring, we profiled the diversity and metabolic potential of wetland soil microbial communities. The wetland soils harbor diverse communities of bacteria and archaea whose membership varies with sampling location, proximity to plant roots and sampling depth. Our results also highlight the dramatic differences in GHG production between historic and restored wetlands and allow us to link microbial community composition and GHG cycling with key environmental variables including salinity, soil carbon and plant species.

  2. Awake Animal Imaging at BNL | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Applications of Nuclear Science Archives Awake Animal Imaging at BNL Print Text Size: A A ... The Biomedical Engineering program which is part of the Center for Translational ...

  3. Contrasting diversity patterns of soil mites and nematodes in secondary succession

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kardol, Paul; Newton, Jeffrey S.; Bezemer, T Martijn; Maraun, Mark; van der Putten, Wim H.

    2009-01-01

    Soil biodiversity has been recognized as a key feature of ecosystem functioning and stability. However, soil biodiversity is strongly impaired by agriculture and relatively little is known on how and at what spatial and temporal scales soil biodiversity is restored after the human disturbances have come to an end. Here, a multi-scale approach was used to compare diversity patterns of soil mites and nematodes at four stages (early, mid, late, reference site) along a secondary succession chronosequence from abandoned arable land to heath land. In each field four soil samples were taken during four successive seasons. We determined soil diversity within samples ({alpha}-diversity), between samples ({beta}-diversity) and within field sites ({gamma}-diversity). The patterns of {alpha}- and {gamma}-diversity developed similarly along the chronosequence for oribatid mites, but not for nematodes. Nematode {alpha}-diversity was highest in mid- and late-successional sites, while {gamma}-diversity was constant along the chronosequence. Oribatid mite {beta}-diversity was initially high, but decreased thereafter, whereas nematode {beta}-diversity increased when succession proceeded; indicating that patterns of within-site heterogeneity diverged for oribatid mites and nematodes. The spatio-temporal diversity patterns after land abandonment suggest that oribatid mite community development depends predominantly on colonization of new taxa, whereas nematode community development depends on shifts in dominance patterns. This would imply that at old fields diversity patterns of oribatid mites are mainly controlled by dispersal, whereas diversity patterns of nematodes are mainly controlled by changing abiotic or biotic soil conditions. Our study shows that the restoration of soil biodiversity along secondary successional gradients can be both scale- and phylum-dependent.

  4. Thermodynamic Database Population Software (DBCreate) - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Geothermal Geothermal Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Find More Like This Return to Search Thermodynamic Database Population Software (DBCreate) DOE Grant Recipients Contact GRANT About This Technology <span id="Caption"><span id="ctl00_MainContentHolder_zoomimage_defaultCaption">Geochemical modeling relies on accurate and up to date thermodynamic databases.</span></span> Geochemical modeling relies on accurate and up to date thermodynamic

  5. Obstacle to populating the string theory landscape

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Matthew C; Larfors, Magdalena

    2008-12-15

    We construct domain walls and instantons in a class of models with coupled scalar fields, determining, in agreement with previous studies, that many such solutions contain naked timelike singularities. Vacuum bubble solutions of this type do not contain a region of true vacuum, obstructing the ability of eternal inflation to populate other vacua. We determine a criterion that potentials must satisfy to avoid the existence of such singularities and show that many domain wall solutions in type IIB string theory are singular.

  6. Compound-specific effects of diverse neurodevelopmental toxicants on global gene expression in the neural embryonic stem cell test (ESTn)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theunissen, P.T.; Robinson, J.F.; Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht; Netherlands Toxicogenomics Centre, Maastricht ; Pennings, J.L.A.; Netherlands Toxicogenomics Centre, Maastricht ; Herwijnen, M.H. van; Kleinjans, J.C.S.; Netherlands Toxicogenomics Centre, Maastricht ; Piersma, A.H.; Netherlands Toxicogenomics Centre, Maastricht; Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Utrecht University, Utrecht

    2012-08-01

    Alternative assays for developmental toxicity testing are needed to reduce animal use in regulatory toxicology. The in vitro murine neural embryonic stem cell test (ESTn) was designed as an alternative for neurodevelopmental toxicity testing. The integration of toxicogenomic-based approaches may further increase predictivity as well as provide insight into underlying mechanisms of developmental toxicity. In the present study, we investigated concentration-dependent effects of six mechanistically diverse compounds, acetaldehyde (ACE), carbamazepine (CBZ), flusilazole (FLU), monoethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP), penicillin G (PENG) and phenytoin (PHE), on the transcriptome and neural differentiation in the ESTn. All compounds with the exception of PENG altered ESTn morphology (cytotoxicity and neural differentiation) in a concentration-dependent manner. Compound induced gene expression changes and corresponding enriched gene ontology biological processes (GO–BP) were identified after 24 h exposure at equipotent differentiation-inhibiting concentrations of the compounds. Both compound-specific and common gene expression changes were observed between subsets of tested compounds, in terms of significance, magnitude of regulation and functionality. For example, ACE, CBZ and FLU induced robust changes in number of significantly altered genes (≥ 687 genes) as well as a variety of GO–BP, as compared to MEHP, PHE and PENG (≤ 55 genes with no significant changes in GO–BP observed). Genes associated with developmentally related processes (embryonic morphogenesis, neuron differentiation, and Wnt signaling) showed diverse regulation after exposure to ACE, CBZ and FLU. In addition, gene expression and GO–BP enrichment showed concentration dependence, allowing discrimination of non-toxic versus toxic concentrations on the basis of transcriptomics. This information may be used to define adaptive versus toxic responses at the transcriptome level.

  7. Estimating Source Terms for Diverse Spent Nuclear Fuel Types

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brett Carlsen; Layne Pincock

    2004-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program is responsible for developing a defensible methodology for determining the radionuclide inventory for the DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF) to be dispositioned at the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository at the Yucca Mountain Site. SNF owned by DOE includes diverse fuels from various experimental, research, and production reactors. These fuels currently reside at several DOE sites, universities, and foreign research reactor sites. Safe storage, transportation, and ultimate disposal of these fuels will require radiological source terms as inputs to safety analyses that support design and licensing of the necessary equipment and facilities. This paper summarizes the methodology developed for estimating radionuclide inventories associated with DOE-owned SNF. The results will support development of design and administrative controls to manage radiological risks and may later be used to demonstrate conformance with repository acceptance criteria.

  8. Diverse ages and origins of basement complexes, Luzon, Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geary, E.E.; Harrison, T.M.; Heizler, M.

    1988-04-01

    Geological field investigations and /sup 40/Ar//sup 39/Ar ages from two basement complexes in southeast Luzon document the first known occurrences of pre-Late Cretaceous age rocks in the eastern Philippines. However, individual components within the two complexes vary in age from Late Jurassic (Caramoan basement complex) to Early Cretaceous and early Miocene (Camarines Norte-Calaguas Islands basement complex). These and other data show that southeast Luzon basement complexes are genetically diverse, and they indicate that the concept of an old, autochthonous basement in the Philippines is open to question. This supports the hypothesis that the Philippine Archipelago is an amalgamation of allochthonous Mesozoic and Cenozoic island-arc, ocean-basin, and continental fragments that were assembled during the Tertiary.

  9. Possible Improvements of the ACE Diversity Interchange Methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Etingov, Pavel V.; Zhou, Ning; Makarov, Yuri V.; Ma, Jian; Guttromson, Ross T.; McManus, Bart; Loutan, Clyde

    2010-07-26

    North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) grid is operated by about 131 balancing authorities (BA). Within each BA, operators are responsible for managing the unbalance (caused by both load and wind). As wind penetration levels increase, the challenges of managing power variation increases. Working independently, balancing area with limited regulating/load following generation and high wind power penetration faces significant challenges. The benefits of BA cooperation and consolidation increase when there is a significant wind energy penetration. To explore the benefits of BA cooperation, this paper investigates ACE sharing approach. A technology called ACE diversity interchange (ADI) is already in use in the western interconnection. A new methodology extending ADI is proposed in the paper. The proposed advanced ADI overcoming some limitations existing in conventional ADI. Simulations using real statistical data of CAISO and BPA have shown high performance of the proposed advanced ADI methodology.

  10. Diversity combining in laser Doppler vibrometry for improved signal reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dräbenstedt, Alexander

    2014-05-27

    Because of the speckle nature of the light reflected from rough surfaces the signal quality of a vibrometer suffers from varying signal power. Deep signal outages manifest themselves as noise bursts and spikes in the demodulated velocity signal. Here we show that the signal quality of a single point vibrometer can be substantially improved by diversity reception. This concept is widely used in RF communication and can be transferred into optical interferometry. When two statistically independent measurement channels are available which measure the same motion on the same spot, the probability for both channels to see a signal drop-out at the same time is very low. We built a prototype instrument that uses polarization diversity to constitute two independent reception channels that are separately demodulated into velocity signals. Send and receive beams go through different parts of the aperture so that the beams can be spatially separated. The two velocity channels are mixed into one more reliable signal by a PC program in real time with the help of the signal power information. An algorithm has been developed that ensures a mixing of two or more channels with minimum resulting variance. The combination algorithm delivers also an equivalent signal power for the combined signal. The combined signal lacks the vast majority of spikes that are present in the raw signals and it extracts the true vibration information present in both channels. A statistical analysis shows that the probability for deep signal outages is largely decreased. A 60 fold improvement can be shown. The reduction of spikes and noise bursts reduces the noise in the spectral analysis of vibrations too. Over certain frequency bands a reduction of the noise density by a factor above 10 can be shown.

  11. Executive Order 13583, Establishing a Coordinated Government-Wide Initiative to Promote Diversity and Inclusion in the Federal Workforce

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Establishes a "coordinated government-wide initiative to promote diversity and inclusion in the federal workforce".

  12. Addendum: Lower Yellowstone Intake Diversion Dam Fish Passage Project, Montana - Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Yellowstone Intake Diversion Dam Fish Passage Project, Montana Draft Environmental Impact Statement- Addendum June 2016 1 Addendum: Lower Yellowstone Intake Diversion Dam Fish Passage Project, Montana Draft Environmental Impact Statement Introduction The Corps of Engineers (Corps) and the Bureau of Reclamation (Reclamation) have prepared this addendum to the Lower Yellowstone Intake Diversion Dam Fish Passage Project Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) to provide the public with the

  13. Lower Yellowstone Intake Diversion Dam Fish Passage Project, Montana. Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lower Yellowstone Intake Diversion Dam Modification Project, Montana DRAFT APPENDIX D Lower Yellowstone Intake Fish Passage EIS Fish Passage Connectivity Index and Cost Effectiveness and Incremental Cost Analysis MAY 2016 Lower Yellowstone Intake Diversion Dam Fish Passage Project, Montana APPENDIX D Lower Yellowstone Intake Fish Passage EIS Fish Passage Connectivity Index and Cost Effectiveness and Incremental Cost Analysis Lower Yellowstone Intake Diversion Dam Fish Passage Project Draft

  14. Recruiting a Local and Diverse Workforce and Mitigating Barriers to Entry |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Recruiting a Local and Diverse Workforce and Mitigating Barriers to Entry Recruiting a Local and Diverse Workforce and Mitigating Barriers to Entry Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Workforce Peer Exchange Call: Recruiting a Local and Diverse Workforce and Mitigating Barriers to Entry, Call Slides and Discussion Summary, August 25, 2011. Call Slides and Discussion Summary (879.9 KB) More Documents & Publications Better Buildings Workforce Peer Exchange Call:

  15. Government-Wide Diversity and Inclusion Strategic Plan (2011), Office of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Personnel Management | Department of Energy Government-Wide Diversity and Inclusion Strategic Plan (2011), Office of Personnel Management Government-Wide Diversity and Inclusion Strategic Plan (2011), Office of Personnel Management This document, required by Executive Order 13583, provides a shared direction, encourages commitment, and creates alignment so agencies can approach their workplace diversity and inclusion efforts in a coordinated, collaborative, and integrated manner. Three key

  16. Extension of DOE O 311.1A, Equal Employment Opportunity and Diversity Program

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2000-12-21

    This Notice extends DOE O 311.1A, Equal Employment Opportunity and Diversity Program, dated 12-30-96 until 12-30-01, unless sooner rescinded.

  17. DOE Ups the Ante for Diversity and Inclusion at the Department of Energy |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Ups the Ante for Diversity and Inclusion at the Department of Energy DOE Ups the Ante for Diversity and Inclusion at the Department of Energy April 17, 2012 - 8:25am Addthis DOE Ups the Ante for Diversity and Inclusion at the Department of Energy Bill Valdez Bill Valdez Director of Workforce Management "We will treat our people as our greatest asset." This phrase is not only one of DOE's management principles, but it is also the rock behind our new Diversity

  18. The reionization of galactic satellite populations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ocvirk, P.; Gillet, N.; Aubert, D.; Chardin, J.; Knebe, A.; Yepes, G.; Libeskind, N.; Gottlöber, S.; Hoffman, Y.

    2014-10-10

    We use high-resolution simulations of the formation of the local group, post-processed by a radiative transfer code for UV photons, to investigate the reionization of the satellite populations of an isolated Milky Way-M31 galaxy pair in a variety of scenarios. We use an improved version of ATON which includes a simple recipe for radiative feedback. In our baseline models, reionization is initiated by low-mass, radiatively regulated halos at high redshift, until more massive halos appear, which then dominate and complete the reionization process. We investigate the relation between reionization history and present-day positions of the satellite population. We find that the average reionization redshift (z {sub r}) of satellites is higher near galaxy centers (MW and M31). This is due to the inside out reionization patterns imprinted by massive halos within the progenitor during the epoch of reionization, which end up forming the center of the galaxy. Due to incomplete dynamical mixing during galaxy assembly, these early patterns survive to present day, resulting in a clear radial gradient in the average satellite reionization redshift, up to the virial radius of MW and M31 and beyond. In the lowest emissivity scenario, the outer satellites are reionized about 180 Myr later than the inner satellites. This delay decreases with increasing source model emissivity, or in the case of external reionization by Virgo or M31, because reionization occurs faster overall and becomes spatially quasi-uniform at the highest emissivity.

  19. Fine-scale ecological and genetic population structure of two whitefish (Coregoninae) species in the vicinity of industrial thermal emissions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Graham, Carly F.; Eberts, Rebecca L.; Morgan, Thomas D.; Boreham, Douglas R.; Lance, Stacey L.; Manzon, Richard G.; Martino, Jessica A.; Rogers, Sean M.; Wilson, Joanna Y.; Somers, Christopher M.; et al

    2016-01-25

    Thermal pollution from industrial processes can have negative impacts on the spawning and development of cold-water fish. Point sources of thermal effluent may need to be managed to avoid affecting discrete populations. Correspondingly, we examined fine-scale ecological and genetic population structure of two whitefish species (Coregonus clupeaformis and Prosopium cylindraceum) on Lake Huron, Canada, in the immediate vicinity of thermal effluent from nuclear power generation. Niche metrics using δ13C and δ15N stable isotopes showed high levels of overlap (48.6 to 94.5%) in resource use by adult fish captured in areas affected by thermal effluent compared to nearby reference locations. Isotopicmore » niche size, a metric of resource use diversity, was 1.3- to 2.8-fold higher than reference values in some thermally affected areas, indicative of fish mixing. Microsatellite analyses of genetic population structure (Fst, STRUCTURE and DAPC) indicated that fish captured at all locations in the vicinity of the power plant were part of a larger population extending beyond the study area. In concert, ecological and genetic markers do not support the presence of an evolutionarily significant unit in the vicinity of the power plant. Furthermore, future research should focus on the potential impacts of thermal emissions on development and recruitment.« less

  20. A Population Health Model for Integrated Assessment Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitcher, Hugh M.; Ebi, Kristie L.; Brenkert, Antoinette L.

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents the initial results of a project to develop a population health model so we can extend the scenarios included in the IPCC's Special Report on Emissions Scenarios to include population health status.

  1. Population Sensitivity Evaluation of Two Candidate Locations for Possible

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Small Modular Reactor Siting | Department of Energy Population Sensitivity Evaluation of Two Candidate Locations for Possible Small Modular Reactor Siting Population Sensitivity Evaluation of Two Candidate Locations for Possible Small Modular Reactor Siting This report documents population density studies of selected sites in the Hampton Roads, Virginia area. Population Sensitivity Evaluation of Two Candidate Locations for Possible Small Modular Reactor Siting (3.84 MB) More Documents &

  2. The Other 15%: Expanding Energy Efficiency to Rural Populations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Discussion Are there other examples of successful residential energy efficiency program implementation in rural populations? What energy efficiency ...

  3. Executive Order 12898: Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations (1994)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Executive Order 12898: Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations (1994).  Directs each federal agency to make environmental justice part of...

  4. The theory of diversity and redundancy in information system security : LDRD final report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayo, Jackson R.; Torgerson, Mark Dolan; Walker, Andrea Mae; Armstrong, Robert C.; Allan, Benjamin A.; Pierson, Lyndon George

    2010-10-01

    The goal of this research was to explore first principles associated with mixing of diverse implementations in a redundant fashion to increase the security and/or reliability of information systems. Inspired by basic results in computer science on the undecidable behavior of programs and by previous work on fault tolerance in hardware and software, we have investigated the problem and solution space for addressing potentially unknown and unknowable vulnerabilities via ensembles of implementations. We have obtained theoretical results on the degree of security and reliability benefits from particular diverse system designs, and mapped promising approaches for generating and measuring diversity. We have also empirically studied some vulnerabilities in common implementations of the Linux operating system and demonstrated the potential for diversity to mitigate these vulnerabilities. Our results provide foundational insights for further research on diversity and redundancy approaches for information systems.

  5. Multimodality imaging of reporter gene expression using a novel fusion vector in living cells and animals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gambhir, Sanjiv; Pritha, Ray

    2015-07-14

    Novel double and triple fusion reporter gene constructs harboring distinct imagable reporter genes are provided, as well as applications for the use of such double and triple fusion constructs in living cells and in living animals using distinct imaging technologies.

  6. Multimodality imaging of reporter gene expression using a novel fusion vector in living cells and animals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gambhir, Sanjiv; Pritha, Ray

    2011-06-07

    Novel double and triple fusion reporter gene constructs harboring distinct imagable reporter genes are provided, as well as applications for the use of such double and triple fusion constructs in living cells and in living animals using distinct imaging technologies.

  7. Multimodality imaging of reporter gene expression using a novel fusion vector in living cells and animals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gambhir; Sanjiv , Pritha; Ray

    2009-04-28

    Novel double and triple fusion reporter gene constructs harboring distinct imageable reporter genes are provided, as well as applications for the use of such double and triple fusion constructs in living cells and in living animals using distinct imaging technologies.

  8. 6.19 MicroPET Enhances Studies of Small Animals

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is now a standard method for studying the metabolism of the brain, the heart, and cancer. ... R.W., Meadors, K., Phelps, M.E., "Brain imaging in small animals with MircoPET," ...

  9. The role of plants and animals in isolation barriers at Hanford, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Link, S.O.; Cadwell, L.L.; Petersen, K.L.; Sackschewsky, M.R.; Landeen, D.S.

    1995-09-01

    The Hanford Site Surface Barrier Development Program was organized in 1985 to test the effectiveness of various barrier designs in minimizing the effects of water infiltration; plant, animal, and human intrusion; and wind and water erosion on buried wastes, and in minimizing the emanation of noxious gases. Plants will serve to minimize drainage and erosion, but present,the potential for growing roots into wastes. Animals burrow holes into the soil, and the burrow holes could allow water to preferentially drain into the waste. They also bring soil to the surface which, if wastes are incorporated, could present a risk for the dispersion of wastes into the environment. This report reviews work done to assess the role of plants and animals in isolation barriers at Hanford. It also reviews work done to understand the potential effects from climate change on the plants and animals that may inhabit barriers in the future.

  10. "Human-on-a-Chip" Technology Could Replace Animal Testing | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Maren Hunsberger takes us "Inside the Lab" to learn about the "human-on-a-chip" project. | ... viruses, or drugs on human beings without resorting to animal or even human test subjects? ...

  11. Electrical signal analysis to assess the physical condition of a human or animal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, Daryl F.; Hochanadel, Charles D.; Haynes, Howard D.

    2010-06-15

    The invention is a human and animal performance data acquisition, analysis, and diagnostic system for fitness and therapy devices having an interface box removably disposed on incoming power wiring to a fitness and therapy device, at least one current transducer removably disposed on said interface box for sensing current signals to said fitness and therapy device, and a means for analyzing, displaying, and reporting said current signals to determine human and animal performance on said device using measurable parameters.

  12. Magnetic Fields in Population III Star Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turk, Matthew J.; Oishi, Jeffrey S.; Abel, Tom; Bryan, Greg

    2012-02-22

    We study the buildup of magnetic fields during the formation of Population III star-forming regions, by conducting cosmological simulations from realistic initial conditions and varying the Jeans resolution. To investigate this in detail, we start simulations from identical initial conditions, mandating 16, 32 and 64 zones per Jeans length, and studied the variation in their magnetic field amplification. We find that, while compression results in some amplification, turbulent velocity fluctuations driven by the collapse can further amplify an initially weak seed field via dynamo action, provided there is sufficient numerical resolution to capture vortical motions (we find this requirement to be 64 zones per Jeans length, slightly larger than, but consistent with previous work run with more idealized collapse scenarios). We explore saturation of amplification of the magnetic field, which could potentially become dynamically important in subsequent, fully-resolved calculations. We have also identified a relatively surprising phenomena that is purely hydrodynamic: the higher-resolved simulations possess substantially different characteristics, including higher infall-velocity, increased temperatures inside 1000 AU, and decreased molecular hydrogen content in the innermost region. Furthermore, we find that disk formation is suppressed in higher-resolution calculations, at least at the times that we can follow the calculation. We discuss the effect this may have on the buildup of disks over the accretion history of the first clump to form as well as the potential for gravitational instabilities to develop and induce fragmentation.

  13. Longwall population holds steady at 52

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2007-02-15

    The overall population stands at 48 mines operating 53 longwalls. CONSOL Energy remains the leading US longwall operator with 12 installations. With the acquisition of the Andalex properties in Utah, Robert E Murray now owns eight longwall mines followed by Arch Coal (5) and Massey Energy (4). West Virginia remains the leading longwall mining state with 14 faces in 2005, followed by Pennsylvania (8), Alabama (6), Utah (6) and Colorado (5). A detailed table gives for each longwall installation, the ownership, seam height, cutting height, panel width and length, overburden, number of gate entries, depth of cut, model of equipment used (shearer, haulage system, roof support, face conveyor, stage loader, crusher, electrical controls and voltage to face). The most striking difference between the 2007 US Longwall Census and past reports carried out by Coal Age is the increased number of longwall operators that believe they have the most productive operation. Several operators have purchased or intend to purchase new equipment or upgrade the technology of the faces. Longwall mining in the US has reached a balanced state. 1 photo., 1 tab.

  14. NEW METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF ACTINIDES AND STRONTIUM IN ANIMAL TISSUE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxwell, S; Jay Hutchison, J; Don Faison, D

    2007-05-07

    The analysis of actinides in animal tissue samples is very important for environmental monitoring. There is a need to measure actinide isotopes with very low detection limits in animal tissue samples, including fish, deer, hogs, beef and shellfish. A new, rapid actinide separation method has been developed and implemented that allows the measurement of plutonium, neptunium, uranium, americium, curium and strontium isotopes in large animal tissue samples (100-200 g) with high chemical recoveries and effective removal of matrix interferences. This method uses stacked TEVA Resin{reg_sign}, TRU Resin{reg_sign} and DGA-Resin{reg_sign} cartridges from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) that allows the rapid separation of plutonium (Pu), neptunium (Np), uranium (U), americium (Am), and curium (Cm) using a single multi-stage column combined with alpha spectrometry. Sr-90 is collected on Sr Resin{reg_sign} from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA). After acid digestion and furnace heating of the animal tissue samples, the actinides and Sr-89/90 are separated using column extraction chromatography. This method has been shown to be effective over a wide range of animal tissue matrices. By using vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates, sample preparation time is minimized.

  15. The Other 15%: Expanding Energy Efficiency to Rural Populations |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy The Other 15%: Expanding Energy Efficiency to Rural Populations The Other 15%: Expanding Energy Efficiency to Rural Populations Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: The Other 15%: Expanding Energy Efficiency to Rural Populations, call slides and discussion summary. Call Slides and Discussion Summary (3.17 MB) More Documents & Publications Staged Upgrades - Homeowner-focused Strategies for Encouraging Energy Upgrades over Time Strengthening

  16. LandScan 2013 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-07-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30"x30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on land cover, slope, road proximity, high-resolution imagery, and other data sets. The LandScan data set was developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient populations at risk.

  17. Simulated population responses of common carp to commercial exploitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, Michael J.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Brown, Michael L.

    2011-12-01

    Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread invasive species that can become highly abundant and impose deleterious ecosystem effects. Thus, aquatic resource managers are interested in controlling common carp populations. Control of invasive common carp populations is difficult, due in part to the inherent uncertainty of how populations respond to exploitation. To understand how common carp populations respond to exploitation, we evaluated common carp population dynamics (recruitment, growth, and mortality) in three natural lakes in eastern South Dakota. Common carp exhibited similar population dynamics across these three systems that were characterized by consistent recruitment (ages 3 to 15 years present), fast growth (K = 0.37 to 0.59), and low mortality (A = 1 to 7%). We then modeled the effects of commercial exploitation on size structure, abundance, and egg production to determine its utility as a management tool to control populations. All three populations responded similarly to exploitation simulations with a 575-mm length restriction, representing commercial gear selectivity. Simulated common carp size structure modestly declined (9 to 37%) in all simulations. Abundance of common carp declined dramatically (28 to 56%) at low levels of exploitation (0 to 20%) but exploitation >40% had little additive effect and populations were only reduced by 49 to 79% despite high exploitation (>90%). Maximum lifetime egg production was reduced from 77 to 89% at a moderate level of exploitation (40%), indicating the potential for recruitment overfishing. Exploitation further reduced common carp size structure, abundance, and egg production when simulations were not size selective. Our results provide insights to how common carp populations may respond to exploitation. Although commercial exploitation may be able to partially control populations, an integrated removal approach that removes all sizes of common carp has a greater chance of controlling population abundance

  18. LandScan 2003 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  19. LandScan 2004 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  20. LandScan 2000 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2001-12-31

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" X 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. The LandScan data set was developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient populations at risk.

  1. LandScan 2002 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  2. LandScan 2006 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  3. LandScan 2005 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  4. LandScan 2009 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-07-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  5. LandScan 2007 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  6. LandScan 2011 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-11-19

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  7. LandScan 2010 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  8. LandScan 2008 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  9. Special population planner, version 4.0.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuiper, J.; Tanzman, E.; Metz, W.

    2007-03-26

    Emergencies happen every day. Many are caused by storms or auto accidents and can be planned for, if not predicted. Emergencies resulting from natural hazards often affect a large number of people, and planning for them can be difficult, since knowledge of the needs of the people involved is generally unavailable. Emergencies resulting from accidents at industrial and military facilities can also be large scale in nature if people must be evacuated or sheltered in place. Federal planning for large scale emergencies is the responsibility of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), which provides assistance to various emergency management agencies at the national, state and local level. More information about FEMA is available at http://www.fema.gov/. The purpose of the Special Population Planner (SPP) is to help emergency planners address the needs of persons with special needs. The exact definition of 'special population' is a policy decision. Policymakers have included a variety of groups in this term, such as persons with disabilities, those who do not have vehicles with which to evacuate, children who are unattended at times (latchkey children), and many others. The SPP was developed initially for the Alabama Emergency Management Agency as part of its Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP), which aids emergency planning and preparedness in communities surrounding military installations across the United States where chemical weapons are stored pending their destruction under federal law. Like that specialized application, this open-source version contains a set of specialized Geographic Information System (GIS) tools to facilitate emergency planning on behalf of persons with special needs, regardless of how the term is defined. While the original SPP system was developed for emergency planning relating to chemical hazards, it can be applied to other threats as well. It is apparent from Hurricane Katrina and other natural and man

  10. Lower Yellowstone Intake Diversion Dam Fish Passage Project, Montana. Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lower Yellowstone Intake Diversion Dam Fish Passage Project, Montana DRAFT - Appendix E Monitoring and Adaptive Management i Contents 1.0 Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 1 Project Goal and Objectives ................................................................................................... 1 2.0 Rock

  11. I.C. 42-222 - Appeals -- Change in Point of Diversion, Place...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    2 - Appeals -- Change in Point of Diversion, Place of Use, Period of Use, or Nature of Use Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document-...

  12. Real-Time Bioluminescent Tracking of Cellular Population Dynamics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    cellular aliquots followed by extrapolation to the total population size, or through the monitoring of signal intensity from any number of externally stimulated reporter proteins. ...

  13. United Nations Population Information Network | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Focus Area: People and Policy Resource Type: Dataset Website: www.un.orgpopin Cost: Free United Nations Population Information Network Screenshot References: United Nations...

  14. Greater Sage-Grouse Populations and Energy Development in Wyoming...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    development affects greater sage-grouse populations in Wyoming. Authors Renee C. Taylor, Matthew R. Dzialak and Larry D. Hayden-Wing Published Taylor, Dzialak and...

  15. Diverse Lifestyles and Strategies of Plant Pathogenesis Encoded in the Genomes of Eighteen Doethideomycetes Fungi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohm, Robin A.; Feau, Nicolas; Henrissat, Bernard; Schoch, Conrad L.; Horwitz, Benjamin A.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Condon, Bradford J.; Copeland, Alex C.; Dhillon, Braham; Glaser, Fabien; Hesse, Cedar N.; Kosti, Idit; LaButti, Kurt; Lindquist, Erika A.; Lucas, Susan; Salamov, Asaf A.; Bradshaw, Rosie E.; Ciuffetti, Lynda; Hamelin, Richard C.; Kema, Gert H. J.; Lawrence, Christopher; Scott, James A.; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Turgeon, B. Gillian; de Wit, Pierre J. G. M.; Zhong, Shaobin; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2012-03-13

    The class of Dothideomycetes is one of the largest and most diverse groups of fungi. Many are plant pathogens and pose a serious threat to agricultural crops grown for biofuel, food or feed. Most Dothideomycetes have only a single host and related species can have very diverse host plants. Eighteen genomes of Dothideomycetes have currently been sequenced by the Joint Genome Institute and other sequencing centers. Here we describe the results of comparative analyses of the fungi in this group.

  16. Lower Yellowstone Intake Diversion Dam Fish Passage Project, Montana. Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lower Yellowstone Intake Diversion Dam Fish Passage Project, Montana DRAFT - Appendix F Correspondence Lower Yellowstone Intake Diversion Dam Correspondence Fish Passage Project Appendix F Attachment 1 Correspondence Distributed DEPARTM ENT OF THE ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS, OMAHA DISTRICT 1616 CAPITOL AVENUE OMAHA NE 68102-4901 April 5, 2016 District Commander Mr. Lester Randall, Chairman Kickapoo Tribe in Kansas PO Box 271 1107 Goldfinch Road Horton, Kansas 66439 Dear Chairman Randall: The U.S.

  17. CNS contributes to UT's College of Engineering Diversity Program | Y-12

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Security Complex contributes to UT's ... CNS contributes to UT's College of Engineering Diversity Program Posted: June 8, 2015 - 5:30pm Mike Beck (center), Consolidated Nuclear Security, LLC, Vice President of Mission Engineering, presents a check to Wayne Davis (left), Dean of the College of Engineering, and Travis Griffin (right), Director of UT's Office of Diversity Programs for the College of Engineering. Earlier this year Consolidated Nuclear Security Vice President of Mission

  18. Being WISE. I. Validating stellar population models and M {sub *}/L ratios at 3.4 and 4.6 μm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norris, Mark A.; Meidt, Sharon; Van de Ven, Glenn; Schinnerer, Eva; Groves, Brent; Querejeta, Miguel

    2014-12-10

    Using data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mission, we have measured near infra-red (NIR) photometry of a diverse sample of dust-free stellar systems (globular clusters, dwarf and giant early-type galaxies) which have metallicities that span the range -2.2 < [Fe/H] (dex) < 0.3. This dramatically increases the sample size and broadens the metallicity regime over which the 3.4 (W1) and 4.6 μm (W2) photometry of stellar populations have been examined. We find that the W1 – W2 colors of intermediate and old (>2 Gyr) stellar populations are insensitive to the age of the stellar population, but that the W1 – W2 colors become bluer with increasing metallicity, a trend not well reproduced by most stellar population synthesis (SPS) models. In common with previous studies, we attribute this behavior to the increasing strength of the CO absorption feature located in the 4.6 μm bandpass with metallicity. Having used our sample to validate the efficacy of some of the SPS models, we use these models to derive stellar mass-to-light ratios in the W1 and W2 bands. Utilizing observational data from the SAURON and ATLAS3D surveys, we demonstrate that these bands provide extremely simple, yet robust stellar mass tracers for dust free older stellar populations that are freed from many of the uncertainties common among optical estimators.

  19. Dynamic Response of Large Wind Power Plant Affected by Diverse Conditions at Individual Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Lu, Shuai; Lin, Guang; Wang, Shaobu

    2014-07-31

    Diverse operating conditions at individual wind turbine generators (WTG) within wind power plants (WPPs) can affect the WPP dynamic response to system faults. For example, individual WTGs can experience diverse terminal voltage and power output caused by different wind direction and speed, affecting the response of protection and control limiters. In this paper, we present a study to investigate the dynamic response of a detailed WPP model under diverse power outputs of its individual WTGs. Wake effect is considered as the reason for diverse power outputs. The diverse WTG power output is evaluated in a test system where a large 168-machine test WPP is connected to the IEEE-39-bus system. The power output from each WTG is derived from a wake effect model that uses realistic statistical data for incoming wind speed and direction. The results show that diverse WTG output due to wake effect can affect the WPP dynamic response activating specialized control in some turbines. In addition, transient stability is affected by exhibiting uncertainty in critical clearing time calculation.

  20. Neutron activation analysis of NBS oyster tissue (SRM 1566) and IAEA animal bone (H-5)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lepel, E.A.; Laul, J.C.

    1984-03-01

    Instrumental and radiochemical neutron activation analysis (INAA and RNAA) were employed to measure about 37 major, minor, and trace elements in two standard reference materials: oyster tissue (SRM 1566) supplied by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) and animal bone (H-5) supplied by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Wherever the comparison exists, our data show excellent agreement with accepted values for each SRM. These SRM's are useful as reference standards for the analysis of biological materials. Additionally, the chondritic normalized rare earth element pattern of animal bone behaves as a smooth function of the ionic radii, as previously observed for biological materials.

  1. LandCast 2030 High-Resolution Population Projection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-01-01

    The LandCast 2030 data set is an empirically-informed spatial distribution of projected population of the contiguous U.S. for 2030 compiled on a 30" x 30" latitute/longitude grid. Population projections of county level numbers were developed using a modified version of the U.S. Census's projection methodology - with the U.S. Census's official projection as the benchmark. Projected census counts were apportioned to each grid cell based on locally adaptive likelihood coefficients, which are based on land cover, slope, road proximity, distances to larger cities, a moving average of current population, and other data sets. The LandCast 2030 data set was developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient populations at risk.

  2. LandCast 2050 High-Resolution Population Projection

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-01-01

    The LandCast 2050 data set is an empirically-informed spatial distribution of projected population of the contiguous U.S. for 2050 compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Population projections of county level numbers were developed using a modified version of the U.S. Census's projection methodology - with the U.S. Census's official projection as the benchmark. Projected census counts were apportioned to each grid cell based on locally adaptive likelihood coefficients, which are based on landmore » cover, slope, road proximity, distances to larger cities, a moving average of current population, and other data sets. The LandCast data set was developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient populations at risk.« less

  3. LandCast 2030 High-Resolution Population Projection

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-01-01

    The LandCast 2030 data set is an empirically-informed spatial distribution of projected population of the contiguous U.S. for 2030 compiled on a 30" x 30" latitute/longitude grid. Population projections of county level numbers were developed using a modified version of the U.S. Census's projection methodology - with the U.S. Census's official projection as the benchmark. Projected census counts were apportioned to each grid cell based on locally adaptive likelihood coefficients, which are based on landmore » cover, slope, road proximity, distances to larger cities, a moving average of current population, and other data sets. The LandCast 2030 data set was developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient populations at risk.« less

  4. Animal Spirits: How Human Psychology Drives the Economy, and Why It Matters for Global Capitalism

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Shiller, Robert J [Yale University

    2010-09-01

    In his lecture, Shiller discusses the premise of his 2009 book, coauthored with the Nobel Prize-winning economist George A. Akerlof. The book discusses how ?animal spirits,? or human emotions such as confidence, fear, and a concern for fairness, drive financial events, including today?s global financial crisis.

  5. Livestock grazing for management of reclaimed land at Navajo Mine: Animal response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gamble, D.C.; Gadzia, K.L.; Raisbeck, M.F.

    1997-12-31

    Livestock responses dining grazing of reclaimed land were monitored at the Navajo Mine since 1994. The Navajo Mine Grazing Management Program (GNP) began in 1991 to prepare for bond release and return of reclaimed land to the Navajo Nation by demonstrating the ability of the land to sustain the post-mining land use of livestock grazing. Local Navajos, whose livestock are used in the GMP, are interested in the ability of the land to sustain their livestock. Sustainable livestock grazing implies the ability of animals to thrive, successfully reproduce and maintain the health of the land. Daily care and monitoring of livestock health was carried out by herders hired by the mining company. General animal health parameters including blood selenium levels were monitored quarterly. Livestock responses to grazing reclaimed land have been largely positive. Cows have produced healthy offspring and owners indicate satisfaction with calf size, and overall performance of the cows. Selenium and other blood testing parameters indicate no adverse effect on animal health to date. Hazards associated with reclamation and ongoing mining activities are important considerations for lands being reclaimed for livestock grazing as a post-mining land use and must be monitored carefully during any grazing program. Preliminary results indicate that planned grazing by cattle on reclaimed land at Navajo Mine is feasible and does not adversely affect animal health.

  6. Investigation of exposure to Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric fields: Ongoing animal studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, L.E.

    1994-03-01

    There is now convincing evidence from a large number of laboratories, that exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic and electric fields produces biological responses in animals. Many of the observed effects appear to be directly or indirectly associated with the neural or neuroendocrine systems. Such effects include increased neuronal excitability, chemical and hormonal changes in the nervous system, altered behavioral responses, some of which are related to sensing the presence of the field, and changes in endogenous biological rhythms. Additional indices of general physiological status appear relatively unaffected by exposure, although effects have occasionally been described in bone growth and fracture repair, reproduction and development, and immune system function. A major current emphasis in laboratory research is to determine whether or not the reported epidemiological studies that suggest an association between EMF exposure and risk of cancer are supported in studies using animal models. Three major challenges exist for ongoing research: (1) knowledge about the mechanisms underlying observed bioeffects is incomplete, (2) researchers do not as yet understand what physical aspects of exposure produce biological responses, and (3) health consequences resulting from ELF exposure are unknown. Although no animal studies clearly demonstrate deleterious effects of ELF fields, several are suggestive of potential health impacts. From the perspective of laboratory animal studies, this paper will discuss biological responses to ELF magnetic and/or electric field exposures.

  7. Recent advances in the risk assessment of melamine and cyanuric acid in animal feed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dorne, Jean Lou; Vandenbroeck, Marc; Mennes, Wim; Knutsen, Helle K.; Vernazza, Francesco; Edler, Lutz; Benford, Diane

    2013-08-01

    Melamine can be present at low levels in food and feed mostly from its legal use as a food contact material in laminates and plastics, as a trace contaminant in nitrogen supplements used in animal feeds, and as a metabolite of the pesticide cyromazine. The mechanism of toxicity of melamine involves dose-dependent formation of crystals with either endogenous uric acid or a structural analogue of melamine, cyanuric acid, in renal tubules resulting in potential acute kidney failure. Co-exposure to melamine and cyanuric acid in livestock, fish, pets and laboratory animals shows higher toxicity compared with melamine or cyanuric acid alone. Evidence for crystal formation between melamine and other structural analogs i.e. ammelide and ammeline is limited. Illegal pet food adulterations with melamine and cyanuric acid and adulteration of milk with melamine resulted in melaminecyanuric acid crystals, kidney damage and deaths of cats and dogs and melamineuric acid stones, hospitalisation and deaths of children in China respectively. Following these incidents, the tolerable daily intake for melamine was re-evaluated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the World Health Organisation, and the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This review provides an overview of toxicology, the adulteration incidents and risk assessments for melamine and its structural analogues. Particular focus is given to the recent EFSA risk assessment addressing impacts on animal and human health of background levels of melamine and structural analogues in animal feed. Recent research and future directions are discussed. - Highlights: ? Melamine in food and feed. ? Forms crystals in kidney with uric acid or cyanuric acid. ? Toxicity higher with cyanuric acid. ? Recent EFSA risk assessment. ? Animal and human health.

  8. EXPLORING THE z = 3-4 MASSIVE GALAXY POPULATION WITH ZFOURGE: THE PREVALENCE OF DUSTY AND QUIESCENT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spitler, Lee R.; Rees, Glen; Straatman, Caroline M. S.; Labb, Ivo; Glazebrook, Karl; Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Nanayakkara, Themiya; Tran, Kim-Vy H.; Papovich, Casey; Kawinwanichakij, Lalitwadee; Mehrtens, Nicola; Tilvi, Vithal; Tomczak, Adam R.; Quadri, Ryan F.; Persson, S. Eric; Kelson, Daniel D.; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Monson, Andrew J.; Van Dokkum, Pieter; Allen, Rebecca

    2014-06-01

    Our understanding of the redshift z > 3 galaxy population relies largely on samples selected using the popular ''dropout'' technique, typically consisting of UV-bright galaxies with blue colors and prominent Lyman breaks. As it is currently unknown if these galaxies are representative of the massive galaxy population, we here use the FOURSTAR Galaxy Evolution (ZFOURGE) survey to create a stellar mass-limited sample at z = 3-4. Uniquely, ZFOURGE uses deep near-infrared medium-bandwidth filters to derive accurate photometric redshifts and stellar population properties. The mass-complete sample consists of 57 galaxies with log M>10.6, reaching below M {sup *} at z = 3-4. On average, the massive z = 3-4 galaxies are extremely faint in the observed optical with median R{sub tot}{sup AB}=27.480.41 (rest-frame M {sub 1700} = 18.05 0.37). They lie far below the UV luminosity-stellar mass relation for Lyman break galaxies and are about ?100 fainter at the same mass. The massive galaxies are red (R K {sub s} {sub AB} = 3.9 0.2; rest-frame UV-slope ? = 0.2 0.3) likely from dust or old stellar ages. We classify the galaxy spectral energy distributions by their rest-frame UV and VJ colors and find a diverse population: 46{sub ?6?17}{sup +6+10}% of the massive galaxies are quiescent, 40{sub ?6?5}{sup +6+7}% are dusty star-forming galaxies, and only 14{sub ?3?4}{sup +3+10}% resemble luminous blue star-forming Lyman break galaxies. This study clearly demonstrates an inherent diversity among massive galaxies at higher redshift than previously known. Furthermore, we uncover a reservoir of dusty star-forming galaxies with 4 lower specific star-formation rates compared to submillimeter-selected starbursts at z > 3. With 5 higher numbers, the dusty galaxies may represent a more typical mode of star formation compared to submillimeter-bright starbursts.

  9. CHARACTERIZING ULTRAVIOLET AND INFRARED OBSERVATIONAL PROPERTIES FOR GALAXIES. I. INFLUENCES OF DUST ATTENUATION AND STELLAR POPULATION AGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mao Yewei; Kong Xu [Center for Astrophysics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Kennicutt, Robert C. Jr. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Hao, Cai-Na [Tianjin Astrophysics Center, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Zhou Xu, E-mail: owen81@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: xkong@ustc.edu.cn [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2012-09-20

    The correlation between infrared-to-ultraviolet luminosity ratio and ultraviolet color (or ultraviolet spectral slope), i.e., the IRX-UV (or IRX-{beta}) relation, found in studies of starburst galaxies is a prevalent recipe for correcting extragalactic dust attenuation. Considerable dispersion in this relation discovered for normal galaxies, however, complicates its usability. In order to investigate the cause of the dispersion and to have a better understanding of the nature of the IRX-UV relation, in this paper, we select five nearby spiral galaxies, and perform spatially resolved studies on each of the galaxies, with a combination of ultraviolet and infrared imaging data. We measure all positions within each galaxy and divide the extracted regions into young and evolved stellar populations. By means of this approach, we attempt to discover separate effects of dust attenuation and stellar population age on the IRX-UV relation for individual galaxies. In this work, in addition to dust attenuation, stellar population age is interpreted to be another parameter in the IRX-UV function, and the diversity of star formation histories is suggested to disperse the age effects. At the same time, strong evidence shows the need for more parameters in the interpretation of observational data, such as variations in attenuation/extinction law. Fractional contributions of different components to the integrated luminosities of the galaxies suggest that the integrated measurements of these galaxies, which comprise different populations, would weaken the effect of the age parameter on IRX-UV diagrams. The dependence of the IRX-UV relation on luminosity and radial distance in galaxies presents weak trends, which offers an implication of selective effects. The two-dimensional maps of the UV color and the infrared-to-ultraviolet ratio are displayed and show a disparity in the spatial distributions between the two galaxy parameters, which offers a spatial interpretation of the scatter

  10. Electricity Demand Evolution Driven by Storm Motivated Population Movement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, Melissa R; Fernandez, Steven J; Fu, Joshua S; Walker, Kimberly A

    2014-01-01

    Managing the risks posed by climate change to energy production and delivery is a challenge for communities worldwide. Sea Level rise and increased frequency and intensity of natural disasters due to sea surface temperature rise force populations to move locations, resulting in changing patterns of demand for infrastructure services. Thus, Infrastructures will evolve to accommodate new load centers while some parts of the network are underused, and these changes will create emerging vulnerabilities. Combining climate predictions and agent based population movement models shows promise for exploring the universe of these future population distributions and changes in coastal infrastructure configurations. In this work, we created a prototype agent based population distribution model and developed a methodology to establish utility functions that provide insight about new infrastructure vulnerabilities that might result from these patterns. Combining climate and weather data, engineering algorithms and social theory, we use the new Department of Energy (DOE) Connected Infrastructure Dynamics Models (CIDM) to examine electricity demand response to increased temperatures, population relocation in response to extreme cyclonic events, consequent net population changes and new regional patterns in electricity demand. This work suggests that the importance of established evacuation routes that move large populations repeatedly through convergence points as an indicator may be under recognized.

  11. SECPOP90: Sector population, land fraction, and economic estimation program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Humphreys, S.L.; Rollstin, J.A.; Ridgely, J.N.

    1997-09-01

    In 1973 Mr. W. Athey of the Environmental Protection Agency wrote a computer program called SECPOP which calculated population estimates. Since that time, two things have changed which suggested the need for updating the original program - more recent population censuses and the widespread use of personal computers (PCs). The revised computer program uses the 1990 and 1992 Population Census information and runs on current PCs as {open_quotes}SECPOP90.{close_quotes} SECPOP90 consists of two parts: site and regional. The site provides population and economic data estimates for any location within the continental United States. Siting analysis is relatively fast running. The regional portion assesses site availability for different siting policy decisions; i.e., the impact of available sites given specific population density criteria within the continental United States. Regional analysis is slow. This report compares the SECPOP90 population estimates and the nuclear power reactor licensee-provided information. Although the source, and therefore the accuracy, of the licensee information is unknown, this comparison suggests SECPOP90 makes reasonable estimates. Given the total uncertainty in any current calculation of severe accidents, including the potential offsite consequences, the uncertainty within SECPOP90 population estimates is expected to be insignificant. 12 refs., 55 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Integrating community perceptions and cultural diversity in social impact assessment in Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nzeadibe, Thaddeus Chidi; Ajaero, Chukwuedozie Kelechukwu; Okonkwo, Emeka Emmanuel; Okpoko, Patrick Uche; Akukwe, Thecla Iheoma; Njoku-Tony, Roseline Feechi

    2015-11-15

    The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Act of 1992 aimed to make the environment a central theme in development in Nigeria. Nevertheless, the extent of engagement with local cultures in the Nigerian EIA process is not statutorily guaranteed. While most EIAs in Nigeria have been for oil and gas projects in the Niger Delta, and have focused strongly on the biophysical environment, socio-economic and cultural aspects have remained marginal. The palpable neglect of community perceptions and cultural diversity in social impact assessment (SIA) in this region prone to conflict has tended to alienate the people in the decision-making process. Thus, despite claims to compliance with regulatory requirements for EIAs, and numerous purported sustainable development initiatives by international oil companies (IOCs), the region continues to face multiple sustainability challenges. This paper situates local perceptions and cultural diversity in participatory development and canvasses the integration of community perceptions and cultural diversity into SIA in the Niger Delta region. It is argued that doing this would be critical to ensuring acceptance and success of development actions within the context of local culture while also contributing to sustainable development policy in the region. - Highlights: • Nigeria EIA Act aimed to make the environment central to development in Nigeria. • Engagement with local communities in the process is not statutorily guaranteed. • SIAs in Nigeria neglect community perceptions and cultural diversity. • Article canvasses integrating community perceptions and cultural diversity in SIA. • Local acceptance in context of culture would yield sustainable development outcomes.

  13. Framework for projecting employment and population changes accompanying energy development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stenehjem, E.J.; Metzger, J.E.

    1980-05-01

    This report provides a framework which energy planners can use to readily estimate the size and timing of the population and employment changes associated with energy development. The direct employment requirements for eight different technologies are listed. This direct employment requirement can be combined with the set of employment multipliers and other information provided to obtain practical estimates of the employment and population impacts of new energy development. Some explanation is given for the variation of the multipliers among counties in the same region. A description is presented of a demographic model for deriving the annual population changes that can be expected as a result of in-migrating workers and their families. Several hypothetical examples of the procedure for making the calculations are discussed as practical exercises in using the multipliers. The necessary data are provided for obtaining estimates of population and employment changes in any county in the US.

  14. The effect of climate change, population distribution, and climate...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and China Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The effect of climate change, population distribution, and climate mitigation on building energy use in the U.S. and China A ...

  15. Sandia Energy - CFD-Populated Empirical Turbine Wake Model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    parameters that effect tidal turbine wakes, such as yaw angle to incident flow and vertical blockage ratio, may be incorporated as part of future revisions of the CFD populated...

  16. Nuclear Astrophysics Animations from the Nuclear Astrophysics Group at Clemson University

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Meyer, Bradley; The, Lih-Sin

    The nuclear astrophysics group at Clemson University in South Carolina develops on-line tools and computer programs for astronomy, nuclear physics, and nuclear astrophysics. They have also done short animations that illustrate results from research with some of their tools. The animations are organized into three sections. The r-Process Movies demonstrate r-Process network calculations from the paper "Neutrino Capture and the R-Process" Meyer, McLaughlin, and Fuller, Phys. Rev. C, 58, 3696-3710 (1998). The Alpha-Rich Freezeout Movies are related to the reference: Standard alpha-rich freezeout calculation from The, Clayton, Jin, and Meyer 1998, Astrophysical Journal, "Reaction Rates Governing the Synthesis of 44Ti" At the current writing, the category for Low Metallicity s-Process Movies has only one item called n, p, 13C, 14N, 54Fe, and 88Sr Time evolution in convective zone.

  17. Effects of the Chernobyl accident on animal husbandry and production, from a Swedish perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, B.E.

    1989-04-01

    About 20% of the Swedish land area was considerably contaminated by radionuclides released by the nuclear accident at Chernobyl, Ukraine, in April 1986. However, less than 10% of the arable land was contaminated. The heavy contamination was closely correlated with the amount of rain received during the first days of May 1986. Immediate restrictions on grazing limited the early uptake of contaminants in animal products. Changes in management of animals, especially sheep, goats, and reindeer in the contaminated areas have effectively reduced the transfer of radionuclides to human beings. One important factor was the possibility of obtaining uncontaminated feeds from unaffected parts of the country. The direct costs during the first 2 years after the accident were approximately +10 million for analyses and +90 million for compensation to farmers for condemned products (milk, mutton, and reindeer meat) and reimbursement for purchase of uncontaminated feeds from other parts of the country.

  18. Ultra-spatial synchrotron radiation for imaging molecular chemical structure: Applications in plant and animal studies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Peiqiang

    2007-01-01

    Synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (S-FTIR) has been developed as a rapid, direct, non-destructive, bioanalytical technique. This technique takes advantage of synchrotron light brightness and small effective source size and is capable of exploring the molecular chemical features and make-up within microstructures of a biological tissue without destruction of inherent structures at ultra-spatial resolutions within cellular dimension. To date there has been very little application of this advanced synchrotron technique to the study of plant and animal tissues' inherent structure at a cellular or subcellular level. In this article, a novel approach was introduced to show the potential of themore » newly developed, advanced synchrotron-based analytical technology, which can be used to reveal molecular structural-chemical features of various plant and animal tissues.« less

  19. Neutron activation analysis of NBS oyster tissue (SRM 1566) and IAEA animal bone (H-5)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lepel, E.A.; Laul, J.C.

    1983-10-01

    Data have been presented for 35 elements determined by INAA for NBS oyster tissue (SRM 1566) and for 38 elements determined by INAA and RNAA for IAEA animal bone (H-5). The experimental data showed excellent agreement with published values wherever the comparison exists. Additional trace-element data in the ppb range have been presented for the elements Sc, Sb, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, W and Th in NBS oyster tissue. Also, additional trace-element data for IAEA animal bone (H-5) in the ppb range for the elements Al, Sc, Co, Rb, Cs, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Tm, Yb, lu, Hf, Ta and Th have been presented.

  20. Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Greater Prairie-Chickens | Department of Energy Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater Prairie-Chickens Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater Prairie-Chickens This report summarizes the results of a seven-year, DOE-funded research project, conducted by researchers from Kansas State University and the National Wind Coordinating Collaborative, to assess the effects of wind energy development in

  1. Report for the Office of Scientific and Technical Information: Population

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Modeling of the Emergence and Development of Scientific Fields (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Report for the Office of Scientific and Technical Information: Population Modeling of the Emergence and Development of Scientific Fields Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Report for the Office of Scientific and Technical Information: Population Modeling of the Emergence and Development of Scientific Fields The accelerated development of digital libraries and

  2. Unlocking the Promise of a Clean Energy Future by Boosting Diversity in

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    STEM | Department of Energy Unlocking the Promise of a Clean Energy Future by Boosting Diversity in STEM Unlocking the Promise of a Clean Energy Future by Boosting Diversity in STEM December 11, 2012 - 10:56am Addthis There is a critical need for more minorities to enter the energy industry. Hands-on activities like the workshop pictured above at the Spelman Girls Institute (Nov 17, 2012) help provide these entry points. There is a critical need for more minorities to enter the energy

  3. U.S. Energy Secretary Highlights Need for Energy Diversity at 20th World

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Congress Ministerial Forum in Rome | Department of Energy Highlights Need for Energy Diversity at 20th World Energy Congress Ministerial Forum in Rome U.S. Energy Secretary Highlights Need for Energy Diversity at 20th World Energy Congress Ministerial Forum in Rome November 13, 2007 - 4:31pm Addthis Welcomes Italy as 17th Nation to Join Global Nuclear Energy Partnership ROME, ITALY - U.S. Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman today will deliver remarks at the 20th World Energy Congress

  4. EIS-0526: Lower Yellowstone Intake Diversion Dam Fish Passage Project; near Glendive, Montana

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the Bureau of Reclamation are jointly preparing an EIS that analyzes the potential environmental impacts of the proposed Lower Yellowstone Intake Diversion Dam Fish Passage Project. The proposed project is to improve passage for endangered pallid sturgeon and other native fish at the Intake Diversion Dam in the lower Yellowstone River while continuing the operation of the Lower Yellowstone Irrigation Project. DOE’s Western Area Power Administration is a cooperating agency in preparing the EIS because some alternatives include power interconnection, transmission, and/or delivery options. Additional information is available at http://www.usbr.gov/gp/mtao/loweryellowstone/.

  5. Global diversity and geography of soil fungi. Minus one widespread group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schadt, Christopher Warren; Rosling, Anna

    2015-04-15

    In their research article Global diversity and geography of soil fungi Tedersoo et al. (28 November, 2014) present a compelling study regarding patterns of biodiversity of fungi, at a scale unprecedented to date for fungal biogeographical studies. The study demonstrates strong global biogeographic patterns in richness and community composition of soil fungi, what concerns us with the study is what we don t see. Unfortunately this study underestimates fungal diversity of at least one key group of soil fungi due to reliance on a single traditional primer with known flaws, and as a consequence the overall relative abundance of fungal groups may also be skewed.

  6. Global diversity and geography of soil fungi. Minus one widespread group

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schadt, Christopher Warren; Rosling, Anna

    2015-04-15

    In their research article Global diversity and geography of soil fungi Tedersoo et al. (28 November, 2014) present a compelling study regarding patterns of biodiversity of fungi, at a scale unprecedented to date for fungal biogeographical studies. The study demonstrates strong global biogeographic patterns in richness and community composition of soil fungi, what concerns us with the study is what we don t see. Unfortunately this study underestimates fungal diversity of at least one key group of soil fungi due to reliance on a single traditional primer with known flaws, and as a consequence the overall relative abundance of fungalmore » groups may also be skewed.« less

  7. Awake Animal Imaging at BNL | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Awake Animal Imaging at BNL Nuclear Physics (NP) NP Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of NP Applications of Nuclear Science Applications of Nuclear Science Archives Small Business Innovation Research / Small Business Technology Transfer Funding Opportunities Nuclear Science Advisory Committee (NSAC) Community Resources Contact Information Nuclear Physics U.S. Department of Energy SC-26/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3613

  8. Animal feed compositions containing phytase derived from transgenic alfalfa and methods of use thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Austin-Phillips, Sandra; Koegel, Richard G.; Straub, Richard J.; Cook, Mark

    2001-01-01

    A value-added composition of matter containing plant matter from transgenic alfalfa which expresses exogenous phytase activity is disclosed. The phytase activity is a gene product of an exogenous gene encoding for phytase which has been stably incorporated into the genome of alfalfa plants. The transgenic alfalfa expresses phytase activity in nutritionally-significant amounts, thereby enabling its use in animal feeds to eliminate the need for phosphorous supplementation of livestock, poultry, and fish feed rations.

  9. Animal feed compositions containing phytase derived from transgenic alfalfa and methods of use thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Austin-Phillips, Sandra; Koegel, Richard G.; Straub, Richard J.; Cook, Mark

    1999-01-01

    A value-added composition of matter containing plant matter from transgenic alfalfa which expresses exogenous phytase activity is disclosed. The phytase activity is a gene product of an exogenous gene encoding for phytase which has been stably incorporated into the genome of alfalfa plants. The transgenic alfalfa expresses phytase activity in nutritionally-significant amounts, thereby enabling its use in animal feeds to eliminate the need for phosphorous supplementation of livestock, poultry, and fish feed rations.

  10. Jefferson Lab's Detector Group builds small-animal imaging device for the

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    German Cancer Research Center | Jefferson Lab Detector Group builds small-animal imaging device for the German Cancer Research Center March Smith Mark Smith, Detector Group Biomedical Imaging Physicist and project manager for this effort, holds the tungsten box encasing the detector head for the mini gamma camera that Jefferson Lab's Detector Group built for the German Cancer Research Center. This photo was taken in December 2004 before the imaging device was disassembled for shipment to

  11. Short Narrative About Promising Practices The National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Diversity and Inclusion Implementation Plan was

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    2 Short Narrative About Promising Practices The National Nuclear Security Administration's (NNSA) Diversity and Inclusion Implementation Plan was approved and submitted to the Department on April 13, 2013. NNSA's Office of Human Capital Management participated on a regular basis with the Department of Energy's (DOE) Diversity and Inclusion (D&I) Council in FY 2013. NNSA continues to establish a partnership with the DOE Office of Diversity Programs (ODP) to share information, collaborate and

  12. Cell wall composition and biomass recalcitrance differences within a genotypically diverse set of Brachypodium distachyon inbred lines

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Cass, Cynthia L.; Lavell, Anastasiya A.; Santoro, Nicholas; Foster, Cliff E.; Karlen, Steven D.; Smith, Rebecca A.; Ralph, John; Garvin, David F.; Sedbrook, John C.

    2016-05-26

    Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium) has emerged as a useful model system for studying traits unique to graminaceous species including bioenergy crop grasses owing to its amenability to laboratory experimentation and the availability of extensive genetic and germplasm resources. Considerable natural variation has been uncovered for a variety of traits including flowering time, vernalization responsiveness, and above-ground growth characteristics. However, cell wall composition differences remain underexplored. Therefore, we assessed cell wall-related traits relevant to biomass conversion to biofuels in seven Brachypodium inbred lines that were chosen based on their high level of genotypic diversity as well as available genome sequences and recombinantmore » inbred line (RIL) populations. Senesced stems plus leaf sheaths from these lines exhibited significant differences in acetyl bromide soluble lignin (ABSL), cell wall polysaccharide-derived sugars, hydroxycinnamates content, and syringyl:guaiacyl:p-hydroxyphenyl (S:G:H) lignin ratios. Free glucose, sucrose, and starch content also differed significantly in senesced stems, as did the amounts of sugars released from cell wall polysaccharides (digestibility) upon exposure to a panel of thermochemical pretreatments followed by hydrolytic enzymatic digestion. Correlations were identified between inbred line lignin compositions and plant growth characteristics such as biomass accumulation and heading date (HD), and between amounts of cell wall polysaccharides and biomass digestibility. Finally, stem cell wall p-coumarate and ferulate contents and free-sugars content changed significantly with increased duration of vernalization for some inbred lines. Taken together, these results show that Brachypodium displays substantial phenotypic variation with respect to cell wall composition and biomass digestibility, with some compositional differences correlating with growth characteristics. Moreover, besides influencing HD

  13. Literature Review and Assessment of Plant and Animal Transfer Factors Used in Performance Assessment Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, David E.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Napier, Bruce A.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Sasser, Lyle B.

    2003-07-20

    A literature review and assessment was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to update information on plant and animal radionuclide transfer factors used in performance-assessment modeling. A group of 15 radionuclides was included in this review and assessment. The review is composed of four main sections, not including the Introduction. Section 2.0 provides a review of the critically important issue of physicochemical speciation and geochemistry of the radionuclides in natural soil-water systems as it relates to the bioavailability of the radionuclides. Section 3.0 provides an updated review of the parameters of importance in the uptake of radionuclides by plants, including root uptake via the soil-groundwater system and foliar uptake due to overhead irrigation. Section 3.0 also provides a compilation of concentration ratios (CRs) for soil-to-plant uptake for the 15 selected radionuclides. Section 4.0 provides an updated review on radionuclide uptake data for animal products related to absorption, homeostatic control, approach to equilibration, chemical and physical form, diet, and age. Compiled transfer coefficients are provided for cow’s milk, sheep’s milk, goat’s milk, beef, goat meat, pork, poultry, and eggs. Section 5.0 discusses the use of transfer coefficients in soil, plant, and animal modeling using regulatory models for evaluating radioactive waste disposal or decommissioned sites. Each section makes specific suggestions for future research in its area.

  14. Animal Spirits: How Human Psychology Drives the Economy, and Why it Matters for Global Capitalism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiller, Robert J.

    2010-03-02

    In his lecture, Shiller will discuss the premise of his 2009 book, coauthored with the Nobel Prize-winning economist George A. Akerlof. Winner of the getAbstract International Book Award and the 2009 TIAA-CREF Paul A. Samuelson Award for Outstanding Scholarly Writing on Lifelong Financial Security, the book, which has the same title as Shiller's lecture, discusses how "animal spirits," or human emotions such as confidence, fear, and a concern for fairness, drive financial events, including today's global financial crisis. John Maynard Keynes coined the phrase "animal spirits" to describe the changing psychology that led to the Great Depression and the recovery from it. Like Keynes, Shiller and Akerlof believe that government intervention is necessary to overcome the adverse effects on the economy brought about by unruly and irrational human emotions. In his talk, Shiller will explain how "animal spirits" lead to adverse economic effects, and he will outline his insights on how the global economy can recover from its recent setbacks.

  15. Inspection Report- Alleged Waste and Abuse in the Office of Economic Impact and Diversity, INS-L-12-07

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Energy's (Department) Office of Economic Impact and Diversity (ED) develops and executes Department-wide policies affecting equal employment opportunities, small and disadvantaged...

  16. Lower Yellowstone Intake Diversion Dam Fish Passage Project, Montana. Draft Environmental Impact Statement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    C - SECTION 404(b)(1) Lower Yellowstone Intake Fish Passage EIS Draft Section 404(b)(1) Analysis Lower Yellowstone Intake Diversion Dam Fish Passage Project Draft Appendix C Section 404(b)(1) Analysis May 2016 i Contents 1 Introduction ..............................................................................................................................1 1.1 Background .......................................................................................................................1

  17. Lower Yellowstone Intake Diversion Dam Fish Passage Project, Montana. Draft Environmental Inpact Statement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    B - COST ENGINEERING Lower Yellowstone Intake Fish Passage EIS Lower Yellowstone Intake Diversion Dam Fish Project Draft Cost Engineering Appendix May 2016 ii Contents 1.0 Alternative Construction Cost Estimates ................................................................................ 1 1.1 General ........................................................................................................................ 1 1.2 Purpose

  18. EA-1994: Malheur Resource Area Jonesboro Diversion Dam Replacement Project, Malheur County, Oregon

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Bureau of Land Management, with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as a cooperating agency, prepared an EA that assesses the potential environmental impacts of the proposed authorization of a right of way to the Burns Paiute Tribe for replacement of an existing diversion dam and installation of a fish passage structure. BPA’s proposed action was to fund the project

  19. DIVERSITY. EDUCATION. SCIENCE. The 2016 Minority Educational Institution Student Partnership Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DIVERSITY. EDUCATION. SCIENCE. The 2016 Minority Educational Institution Student Partnership Program (MEISPP) offers talented high school, undergraduate and graduate students summer internship positions with the U.S. Department of Energy and its National Laboratories. MEISPP seeks students interested in a variety of academic fields, including, but not limited to: Engineering-Biomedical, Chemical, Civil, Computer, Electrical, Environmental, Industrial, Material, Mechanical, Metallurgical,

  20. Value of Geographic Diversity of Wind and Solar: Stochastic Geometry Approach; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diakov, V.

    2012-08-01

    Based on the available geographically dispersed data for the continental U.S. (excluding Alaska), we analyze to what extent the geographic diversity of these resources can offset their variability. A geometric model provides a convenient measure for resource variability, shows the synergy between wind and solar resources.

  1. The tale of a modern animal plague: Tracing the evolutionary history and determining the time-scale for foot and mouth disease virus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tully, Damien C. Fares, Mario A.

    2008-12-20

    Despite significant advances made in the understanding of its epidemiology, foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is among the most unexpected agricultural devastating plagues. While the disease manifests itself as seven immunologically distinct strains their origin, population dynamics, migration patterns and divergence times remain unknown. Herein we have assembled a comprehensive data set of gene sequences representing the global diversity of the disease and inferred the time-scale and evolutionary history for FMDV. Serotype-specific rates of evolution and divergence times were estimated using a Bayesian coalescent framework. We report that an ancient precursor FMDV gave rise to two major diversification events spanning a relatively short interval of time. This radiation event is estimated to have taken place towards the end of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th century giving us the present circulating Euro-Asiatic and South African viral strains. Furthermore our results hint that Europe acted as a possible hub for the disease from where it successfully dispersed elsewhere via exploration and trading routes.

  2. The environmental comparison of landfilling vs. incineration of MSW accounting for waste diversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Assamoi, Bernadette; Lawryshyn, Yuri

    2012-05-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Residential waste diversion initiatives are more successful with organic waste. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Using a incineration to manage part of the waste is better environmentally. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incineration leads to more power plant emission offsets. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Landfilling all of the waste would be preferred financially. - Abstract: This study evaluates the environmental performance and discounted costs of the incineration and landfilling of municipal solid waste that is ready for the final disposal while accounting for existing waste diversion initiatives, using the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Parameters such as changing waste generation quantities, diversion rates and waste composition were also considered. Two scenarios were assessed in this study on how to treat the waste that remains after diversion. The first scenario is the status quo, where the entire residual waste was landfilled whereas in the second scenario approximately 50% of the residual waste was incinerated while the remainder is landfilled. Electricity was produced in each scenario. Data from the City of Toronto was used to undertake this study. Results showed that the waste diversion initiatives were more effective in reducing the organic portion of the waste, in turn, reducing the net electricity production of the landfill while increasing the net electricity production of the incinerator. Therefore, the scenario that incorporated incineration performed better environmentally and contributed overall to a significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions because of the displacement of power plant emissions; however, at a noticeably higher cost. Although landfilling proves to be the better financial option, it is for the shorter term. The landfill option would require the need of a replacement landfill much sooner. The financial and environmental effects of this expenditure have yet to be considered.

  3. Response of mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) populations to seasonally unpredictable perturbations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horn, M.J.; Stewart, A.J.

    1990-07-01

    Many questions remain unresolved about the linkages between life history attributes of fishes and the tactics that these organisms employ in response to environmental uncertainty. Such questions include (1). If a perturbation affects the entire ecosystem, what are the consequences for a given population of fish (2) What tactics can a fish employ to increase its chances of leaving offspring (3) Do fish respond differently to such perturbations depending on the season (4) How do these changes relate to the overall resilience of the population The research reported here was designed to address such questions. Mosquito fish (Gambusia affinis) populations in thirteen experimental ponds at Oak Ridge National Laboratory were sampled ten times between June 1988, and July 1989 in response to a series of chemical disturbances. During each sampling period the population size and total biomass of Gambusia in each pond was estimated using photographs and a length weight regression. Size-frequency histograms were used to examine seasonal and dose-related changes in population structure. Lipid content and reproductive allotment were measured for a series of fish from each pond on all dates to explore the energy allocation patterns at the individual. 106 refs., 38 figs., 16 tabs.

  4. Human and animal health risk assessments of chemicals in the food chain: Comparative aspects and future perspectives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dorne, J.L.C.M.; Fink-Gremmels, J.

    2013-08-01

    Chemicals from anthropogenic and natural origins enter animal feed, human food and water either as undesirable contaminants or as part of the components of a diet. Over the last five decades, considerable efforts and progress to develop methodologies to protect humans and animals against potential risks associated with exposure to such potentially toxic chemicals have been made. This special issue presents relevant methodological developments and examples of risk assessments of undesirable substances in the food chain integrating the animal health and the human health perspective and refers to recent Opinions of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM) of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This introductory review aims to give a comparative account of the risk assessment steps used in human health and animal health risk assessments for chemicals in the food chain and provides a critical view of the data gaps and future perspectives for this cross-disciplinary field. - Highlights: ? Principles of human and animal health risk assessment. ? Data gaps for each step of animal health risk assessment. ? Implications of animal risk assessment on human risk assessment. ? Future perspectives on chemical risk assessment.

  5. Stochastic resonance in a generalized Von Foerster population growth model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumi, N.; Mankin, R.

    2014-11-12

    The stochastic dynamics of a population growth model, similar to the Von Foerster model for human population, is studied. The influence of fluctuating environment on the carrying capacity is modeled as a multiplicative dichotomous noise. It is established that an interplay between nonlinearity and environmental fluctuations can cause single unidirectional discontinuous transitions of the mean population size versus the noise amplitude, i.e., an increase of noise amplitude can induce a jump from a state with a moderate number of individuals to that with a very large number, while by decreasing the noise amplitude an opposite transition cannot be effected. An analytical expression of the mean escape time for such transitions is found. Particularly, it is shown that the mean transition time exhibits a strong minimum at intermediate values of noise correlation time, i.e., the phenomenon of stochastic resonance occurs. Applications of the results in ecology are also discussed.

  6. Session: What do we know about cumulative or population impacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerlinger, Paul; Manville, Al; Kendall, Bill

    2004-09-01

    This session at the Wind Energy and Birds/Bats workshop consisted of a panel discussion followed by a discussion/question and answer period. The panelists were Paul Kerlinger, Curry and Kerlinger, LLC, Al Manville, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, and Bill Kendall, US Geological Service. The panel addressed the potential cumulative impacts of wind turbines on bird and bat populations over time. Panel members gave brief presentations that touched on what is currently known, what laws apply, and the usefulness of population modeling. Topics addressed included which sources of modeling should be included in cumulative impacts, comparison of impacts from different modes of energy generation, as well as what research is still needed regarding cumulative impacts of wind energy development on bird and bat populations.

  7. Vermicomposting as manure management strategy for urban small-holder animal farms – Kampala case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lalander, Cecilia Helena; Komakech, Allan John; Vinnerås, Björn

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Poor manure management can increase burden of disease and environmental impact. • A low-maintenance vermicompost reactor was set-up in Kampala, Uganda. • High material reduction (45.9%) and waste-to-biomass conversion (3.6% on a TS basis). • Five year return on investment of 275% of system in Uganda. • Technically and economically viable system for improved urban manure management. - Abstract: Inadequate organic waste management can contribute to the spread of diseases and have negative impacts on the environment. Vermicomposting organic waste could have dual beneficial effects by generating an economically viable animal feed protein in the form of worm biomass, while alleviating the negative effects of poor organic waste management. In this study, a low-maintenance vermicomposting system was evaluated as manure and food waste management system for small-holder farmers. A vermicomposting system using the earthworm species Eudrilus eugeniae and treating cow manure and food waste was set up in Kampala, Uganda, and monitored for 172 days. The material degradation and protein production rates were evaluated after 63 days and at the end of the experiment. The material reduction was 45.9% and the waste-to-biomass conversion rate was 3.5% in the vermicomposting process on a total solids basis. A possible increase in the conversion rate could be achieved by increasing the frequency of worm harvesting. Vermicomposting was found to be a viable manure management method in small-scale urban animal agriculture; the return of investment was calculated to be 280% for treating the manure of a 450 kg cow. The vermicompost was not sanitised, although hygiene quality could be improved by introducing a post-stabilisation step in which no fresh material is added. The value of the animal feed protein generated in the process can act as an incentive to improve current manure management strategies.

  8. Assessing the Impact of Animal Waste Lagoon Seepage on the Geochemistry of an Underlying Shallow Aquifer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNab, W W; Singleton, M J; Moran, J E; Esser, B K

    2006-03-07

    Dairy facilities and similar confined animal operation settings pose a significant nitrate contamination threat via oxidation of animal wastes and subsequent transport to shallow groundwater. While nitrate contamination resulting from application of animal manure as fertilizer to fields is well recognized, the impact of manure lagoon leakage on groundwater quality is less well characterized. In this study, a dairy facility located in the southern San Joaquin Valley of California has been instrumented with monitoring wells as part of a two-year multidisciplinary study to evaluate nitrate loading and denitrification associated with facility operations. Among multiple types of data collected from the site, groundwater and surface water samples have been analyzed for major cations, anions, pH, oxidation-reduction potential, dissolved organic carbon, and selected dissolved gases (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}, Ar, Ne). Modeling of putative geochemical processes occurring within the dairy site manure lagoons shows substantial off-gassing of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} in response to mineralization of organic matter. The gas ebullition appears to strip dissolved gases, including Ar and Ne, from the lagoon water leaving concentrations that are undersaturated with respect to the atmosphere. The resulting fractionated dissolved gas signature serves as an effective tracer for the lagoon water in the underlying shallow groundwater and can be used to constrain inverse geochemical models that assess mixing fractions of lagoon water and local groundwater water. Together with ion exchange and mineral equilibria reactions, identification of lagoon seepage helps explain key attributes of the local groundwater chemistry, including input and cycling of nitrogen, across the site.

  9. Animal intrusion studies for protective barriers: Status report for FY 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cadwell, L.L.; Eberhardt, L.E.; Simmons, M.A.

    1989-05-01

    The objective of the Biointrusion Control Task is to provide technical support to Westinghouse Hanford Company's Protective Barrier Development Program for evaluating and predicting potential impacts of animal burrowing on long-term barrier performance. This document reviews the major accomplishments for FY 1988, which is the initial year of the work. The scope of work includes a literature review, field studies, and modeling to assess burrowing impacts as they may contribute to increased infiltration of surface water through barriers, increased quantities of soil available for erosion because of surface soil disturbance, and direct physical transport of contaminants to the surface. 68 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Award-Winning Animation Helps Scientists See Nature at Work - News Feature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | NREL Award-Winning Animation Helps Scientists See Nature at Work August 8, 2008 A computer-aided image combines a photo of a man with a three-dimensional, computer-generated image. The man has long brown hair and a long beard. He is wearing a blue shirt. He is standing behind a projected image of the molecular structure of an enzyme that digests the tough cellulosic fibers in plants. He points to the image with his finger. The molecule is shaped like a long-necked dinosaur. Its components

  11. Nuclear Astrophysics Animations from the Nuclear Astrophysics Group at Clemson University

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Meyer, Bradley; The, Lih-Sin

    The animations are organized into three sections. The r-Process Movies demonstrate r-Process network calculations from the paper "Neutrino Capture and the R-Process" Meyer, McLaughlin, and Fuller, Phys. Rev. C, 58, 3696-3710 (1998). The Alpha-Rich Freezeout Movies are related to the reference: Standard alpha-rich freezeout calculation from The, Clayton, Jin, and Meyer 1998, Astrophysical Journal, "Reaction Rates Governing the Synthesis of 44Ti" At the current writing, the category for Low Metallicity s-Process Movies has only one item called n, p, 13C, 14N, 54Fe, and 88Sr Time evolution in convective zone.

  12. Fact #922: April 25, 2016 Share of Older Population Holding Driver's

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Licenses is Up and Share of Younger Population Holding Driver's Licenses is Down | Department of Energy 2: April 25, 2016 Share of Older Population Holding Driver's Licenses is Up and Share of Younger Population Holding Driver's Licenses is Down Fact #922: April 25, 2016 Share of Older Population Holding Driver's Licenses is Up and Share of Younger Population Holding Driver's Licenses is Down SUBSCRIBE to the Fact of the Week Examining the share of population holding driver's licenses in

  13. "Table HC15.8 Water Heating Characteristics by Four Most Populated...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Water Heating Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"Housing Units (millions)","Four Most Populated States" "Water Heating ...

  14. Tailored Marketing for Low-income and Under-Represented Population...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tailored Marketing for Low-income and Under-Represented Population Segments (201) Tailored Marketing for Low-income and Under-Represented Population Segments (201) Better Buildings ...

  15. Atmospheric Data, Images, and Animations from Lidar Instruments used by the University of Wisconsin Lidar Group

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Space Science and Engineering Center is a research and development center affiliated with the University of Wisconsin-Madisons Graduate School. Its primary focus is on geophysical research and technology to enhance understanding of the atmosphere of Earth, the other planets in the Solar System, and the cosmos. SSEC develops new observing tools for spacecraft, aircraft, and ground-based platforms, and models atmospheric phenomena. The Center receives, manages and distributes huge amounts of geophysical data and develops software to visualize and manipulate these data for use by researchers and operational meteorologists all over the world.[Taken from About SSEC at http://www.ssec.wisc.edu/overview/] A huge collection of data products, images, and animations comes to the SSEC from the University of Wisconsin Lidar Group. Contents of this collection include: An archive of thousands of Lidar images acquired before 2004 Arctic HSRL, MMCR, PAERI, MWR, Radiosonde, and CRAS forecast data Data after May 1, 2004 MPEG animations and Lidar Multiple Scattering Models

  16. Atmospheric Data, Images, and Animations from Lidar Instruments used by the University of Wisconsin Lidar Group

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Space Science and Engineering Center is a research and development center affiliated with the University of Wisconsin-Madison’s Graduate School. Its primary focus is on geophysical research and technology to enhance understanding of the atmosphere of Earth, the other planets in the Solar System, and the cosmos. SSEC develops new observing tools for spacecraft, aircraft, and ground-based platforms, and models atmospheric phenomena. The Center receives, manages and distributes huge amounts of geophysical data and develops software to visualize and manipulate these data for use by researchers and operational meteorologists all over the world.[Taken from About SSEC at http://www.ssec.wisc.edu/overview/] A huge collection of data products, images, and animations comes to the SSEC from the University of Wisconsin Lidar Group. Contents of this collection include: • An archive of thousands of Lidar images acquired before 2004 • Arctic HSRL, MMCR, PAERI, MWR, Radiosonde, and CRAS forecast data Data after May 1, 2004 • MPEG animations and Lidar Multiple Scattering Models

  17. Similarities of host defense mechanisms against pulmonary infectious disease in animals and man

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Evidence linking exposure to air pollutants with increased susceptibility to infectious diseases in humans comes from epidemiological, clinical, and experimental laboratory studies. The data suggest that the most common, and perhaps the most sensitive, index of the pulmonary effect of air pollutant exposure is on post upper respiratory infection, prolonged cough, phlegm, and purulent sputum. Experimental models of these relationships for extrapolation to humans should be able to measure such minor changes in symptomatology and physiology rather than require major lethal events. The bacterial aerosol model for quantifying nonspecific defense mechanisms of the bronchopulmonary tree utilizing nonpathogenic organisms fulfills this criterion. The function of the six major components of pulmonary antimicrobial defense mechanisms - including aerodynamic filtration, secretory respiratory tract fluid, fluid transport at the alveolar and bronchial levels, the phagocytic function of alveolar macrophages, the augmenting mechanisms of blood-derived inflammatory cells, and the secretory and cellular-specific immune mechanisms and their mediator products - can all be quantified by this experimental animal model system. The defensive functions are remarkably similar across animal species, and available human data suggest that findings obtained using the model may be extrapolatred to humans.

  18. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-54 Animal Farm Pastures, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-015

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. M. Capron

    2008-04-17

    The 100-F-54 waste site, part of the 100-FR-2 Operable Unit, is the soil associated with the former pastures for holding domestic farm animals used in experimental toxicology studies. Evaluation of historical information resulted in identification of the experimental animal farm pastures as having potential residual soil contamination due to excrement from experimental animals. The 100-F-54 animal farm pastures confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of this site to No Action. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  19. Populations Voss, R.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE; Ajello...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    study the populations of X-ray sources in the Milky Way in the 15-55 keV band using a deep survey with the BAT instrument aboard the Swift observatory. We present the logN-logS...

  20. TWO POPULATIONS OF GAMMA-RAY BURST RADIO AFTERGLOWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hancock, P. J.; Gaensler, B. M.; Murphy, T., E-mail: Paul.Hancock@Sydney.edu.au [Also at Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO), The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia. (Australia)

    2013-10-20

    The detection rate of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows is ?30% at radio wavelengths, much lower than in the X-ray (?95%) or optical (?70%) bands. The cause of this low radio detection rate has previously been attributed to limited observing sensitivity. We use visibility stacking to test this idea, and conclude that the low detection rate is instead due to two intrinsically different populations of GRBs: radio-bright and radio-faint. We calculate that no more than 70% of GRB afterglows are truly radio-bright, leaving a significant population of GRBs that lack a radio afterglow. These radio-bright GRBs have higher gamma-ray fluence, isotropic energies, X-ray fluxes, and optical fluxes than the radio-faint GRBs, thus confirming the existence of two physically distinct populations. We suggest that the gamma-ray efficiency of the prompt emission is responsible for the difference between the two populations. We also discuss the implications for future radio and optical surveys.

  1. Special population planner 4 : an open source release.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuiper, J.; Metz, W.; Tanzman, E.

    2008-01-01

    Emergencies like Hurricane Katrina and the recent California wildfires underscore the critical need to meet the complex challenge of planning for individuals with special needs and for institutionalized special populations. People with special needs and special populations often have difficulty responding to emergencies or taking protective actions, and emergency responders may be unaware of their existence and situations during a crisis. Special Population Planner (SPP) is an ArcGIS-based emergency planning system released as an open source product. SPP provides for easy production of maps, reports, and analyses to develop and revise emergency response plans. It includes tools to manage a voluntary registry of data for people with special needs, integrated links to plans and documents, tools for response planning and analysis, preformatted reports and maps, and data on locations of special populations, facility and resource characteristics, and contacts. The system can be readily adapted for new settings without programming and is broadly applicable. Full documentation and a demonstration database are included in the release.

  2. Electrical signature analysis to quantify human and animal performance on fitness and therapy equipment such as a treadmill

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, Daryl F.; Hochanadel, Charles D.; Haynes, Howard D.

    2010-05-18

    The invention is a human and animal performance data acquisition, analysis, and diagnostic system for fitness and therapy devices having an interface box removably disposed on incoming power wiring to a fitness and therapy device, at least one current transducer removably disposed on said interface box for sensing current signals to said fitness and therapy device, and a means for analyzing, displaying, and reporting said current signals to determine human and animal performance on said device using measurable parameters.

  3. Landscape corridors can increase invasion by an exotic species and reduce diversity of native species.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Resasco, Julian; et al,

    2014-04-01

    Abstract. Landscape corridors are commonly used to mitigate negative effects of habitat fragmentation, but concerns persist that they may facilitate the spread of invasive species. In a replicated landscape experiment of open habitat, we measured effects of corridors on the invasive fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, and native ants. Fire ants have two social forms: polygyne, which tend to disperse poorly but establish at high densities, and monogyne, which disperse widely but establish at lower densities. In landscapes dominated by polygyne fire ants, fire ant abundance was higher and native ant diversity was lower in habitat patches connected by corridors than in unconnected patches. Conversely, in landscapes dominated by monogyne fire ants, connectivity had no influence on fire ant abundance and native ant diversity. Polygyne fire ants dominated recently created landscapes, suggesting that these corridor effects may be transient. Our results suggest that corridors can facilitate invasion and they highlight the importance of considering species traits when assessing corridor utility.

  4. The biological diversity conservation district: A rain forest conservation tool for the future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simons, M.

    1995-12-01

    Over the next twenty years, the Earth`s rain forests may decrease by forty percent! This paper presents a revolutionary corporate entity for the protection of those forests, the biological diversity conservation district (biodistricts). The underlying cause of rain forest destruction is unfettered competition for limited resources. The competitors are many: farmers, business, local and national governments, the biotechnology and ecotourism industries, multinational companies, public utilities, and indigenous groups. To varying degrees, all compete within the marketplace. biodistricts will bring together two forces once thought to be antithetical: conservation an development. They will be set up in corporate form, owned and controlled by groups claiming access to the forest resources. Because the various groups will fight for the same resources habitats, ecosystems, and genetic diversity-each will prevent the others from destroying them. The district members will ensure that all businesses maintain sustainable development practices because the economic success of the district depends upon the area`s natural beauty and biological diversity. This paper analyzes the effects on the culture, politics, economy and conservation there. It will conclude that the comprehensive approach taken by biodistricts is the only method for solving the problem of rain forest destruction; that it is economically feasible, culturally viable, and ethically defensible. By March 1, 1995, the paper will represent not only the culmination of eighteen months of research, writing and interviews regarding biological diversity conservation, but also the impetus to push the thinking of environmentalists and business persons in a new direction, perhaps the only direction that will allow the nations of the world to protect their forests for the next twenty years and beyond.

  5. Predicting carcinogenicity of diverse chemicals using probabilistic neural network modeling approaches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Kunwar P.; Gupta, Shikha; Rai, Premanjali

    2013-10-15

    Robust global models capable of discriminating positive and non-positive carcinogens; and predicting carcinogenic potency of chemicals in rodents were developed. The dataset of 834 structurally diverse chemicals extracted from Carcinogenic Potency Database (CPDB) was used which contained 466 positive and 368 non-positive carcinogens. Twelve non-quantum mechanical molecular descriptors were derived. Structural diversity of the chemicals and nonlinearity in the data were evaluated using Tanimoto similarity index and BrockDechertScheinkman statistics. Probabilistic neural network (PNN) and generalized regression neural network (GRNN) models were constructed for classification and function optimization problems using the carcinogenicity end point in rat. Validation of the models was performed using the internal and external procedures employing a wide series of statistical checks. PNN constructed using five descriptors rendered classification accuracy of 92.09% in complete rat data. The PNN model rendered classification accuracies of 91.77%, 80.70% and 92.08% in mouse, hamster and pesticide data, respectively. The GRNN constructed with nine descriptors yielded correlation coefficient of 0.896 between the measured and predicted carcinogenic potency with mean squared error (MSE) of 0.44 in complete rat data. The rat carcinogenicity model (GRNN) applied to the mouse and hamster data yielded correlation coefficient and MSE of 0.758, 0.71 and 0.760, 0.46, respectively. The results suggest for wide applicability of the inter-species models in predicting carcinogenic potency of chemicals. Both the PNN and GRNN (inter-species) models constructed here can be useful tools in predicting the carcinogenicity of new chemicals for regulatory purposes. - Graphical abstract: Figure (a) shows classification accuracies (positive and non-positive carcinogens) in rat, mouse, hamster, and pesticide data yielded by optimal PNN model. Figure (b) shows generalization and predictive abilities

  6. Advances in explosives analysis—part I. animal, chemical, ion, and mechanical methods

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Brown, Kathryn E.; Greenfield, Margo T.; McGrane, Shawn D.; Moore, David S.

    2015-10-13

    The number and capability of explosives detection and analysis methods have increased substantially since the publication of the Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry special issue devoted to Explosives Analysis (Moore and Goodpaster, Anal Bioanal Chem 395(2):245–246, 2009). We review and critically evaluate the latest (the past five years) important advances in explosives detection, with details of the improvements over previous methods, and suggest possible avenues towards further advances in, e.g., stand-off distance, detection limit, selectivity, and penetration through camouflage or packaging. The review consists of two parts. Moreover, Part I, reviews methods based on animals, chemicals (including colorimetry, molecularly imprinted polymers,more » electrochemistry, and immunochemistry), ions (both ion-mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry), and mechanical devices. Part II will review methods based on photons, from very energetic photons including X-rays and gamma rays down to the terahertz range, and neutrons.« less

  7. Advances in explosives analysis—part I. animal, chemical, ion, and mechanical methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Kathryn E.; Greenfield, Margo T.; McGrane, Shawn D.; Moore, David S.

    2015-10-13

    The number and capability of explosives detection and analysis methods have increased substantially since the publication of the Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry special issue devoted to Explosives Analysis (Moore and Goodpaster, Anal Bioanal Chem 395(2):245–246, 2009). We review and critically evaluate the latest (the past five years) important advances in explosives detection, with details of the improvements over previous methods, and suggest possible avenues towards further advances in, e.g., stand-off distance, detection limit, selectivity, and penetration through camouflage or packaging. The review consists of two parts. Moreover, Part I, reviews methods based on animals, chemicals (including colorimetry, molecularly imprinted polymers, electrochemistry, and immunochemistry), ions (both ion-mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry), and mechanical devices. Part II will review methods based on photons, from very energetic photons including X-rays and gamma rays down to the terahertz range, and neutrons.

  8. A checklist of plant and animal species at Los Alamos National Laboratory and surrounding areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hinojosa, H.

    1998-02-01

    Past and current members of the Biology Team (BT) of the Ecology Group have completed biological assessments (BAs) for all of the land that comprises Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Within these assessments are lists of plant and animal species with the potential to exist on LANL lands and the surrounding areas. To compile these lists, BT members examined earlier published and unpublished reports, surveys, and data bases that pertained to the biota of this area or to areas that are similar. The species lists that are contained herein are compilations of the lists from these BAs, other lists that were a part of the initial research for the performance of these BAs, and more recent surveys.

  9. An Evaluation of Parametric and Nonparametric Models of Fish Population Response.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haas, Timothy C.; Peterson, James T.; Lee, Danny C.

    1999-11-01

    Predicting the distribution or status of animal populations at large scales often requires the use of broad-scale information describing landforms, climate, vegetation, etc. These data, however, often consist of mixtures of continuous and categorical covariates and nonmultiplicative interactions among covariates, complicating statistical analyses. Using data from the interior Columbia River Basin, USA, we compared four methods for predicting the distribution of seven salmonid taxa using landscape information. Subwatersheds (mean size, 7800 ha) were characterized using a set of 12 covariates describing physiography, vegetation, and current land-use. The techniques included generalized logit modeling, classification trees, a nearest neighbor technique, and a modular neural network. We evaluated model performance using out-of-sample prediction accuracy via leave-one-out cross-validation and introduce a computer-intensive Monte Carlo hypothesis testing approach for examining the statistical significance of landscape covariates with the non-parametric methods. We found the modular neural network and the nearest-neighbor techniques to be the most accurate, but were difficult to summarize in ways that provided ecological insight. The modular neural network also required the most extensive computer resources for model fitting and hypothesis testing. The generalized logit models were readily interpretable, but were the least accurate, possibly due to nonlinear relationships and nonmultiplicative interactions among covariates. Substantial overlap among the statistically significant (P<0.05) covariates for each method suggested that each is capable of detecting similar relationships between responses and covariates. Consequently, we believe that employing one or more methods may provide greater biological insight without sacrificing prediction accuracy.

  10. A DYNAMICAL SIGNATURE OF MULTIPLE STELLAR POPULATIONS IN 47 TUCANAE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richer, Harvey B.; Heyl, Jeremy; Anderson, Jay; Kalirai, Jason S.; Shara, Michael M.; Dotter, Aaron; Fahlman, Gregory G.; Rich, R. Michael E-mail: heyl@phas.ubc.ca E-mail: jkalarai@stsci.edu E-mail: aaron.dotter@gmail.com E-mail: rmr@astro.ucla.edu

    2013-07-01

    Based on the width of its main sequence, and an actual observed split when viewed through particular filters, it is widely accepted that 47 Tucanae contains multiple stellar populations. In this contribution, we divide the main sequence of 47 Tuc into four color groups, which presumably represent stars of various chemical compositions. The kinematic properties of each of these groups are explored via proper motions, and a strong signal emerges of differing proper-motion anisotropies with differing main-sequence color; the bluest main-sequence stars exhibit the largest proper-motion anisotropy which becomes undetectable for the reddest stars. In addition, the bluest stars are also the most centrally concentrated. A similar analysis for Small Magellanic Cloud stars, which are located in the background of 47 Tuc on our frames, yields none of the anisotropy exhibited by the 47 Tuc stars. We discuss implications of these results for possible formation scenarios of the various populations.

  11. Constructive polarization modulation for coherent population trapping clock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yun, Peter Danet, Jean-Marie; Holleville, David; Clercq, Emeric de; Guérandel, Stéphane

    2014-12-08

    We propose a constructive polarization modulation scheme for atomic clocks based on coherent population trapping (CPT). In this scheme, the polarization of a bichromatic laser beam is modulated between two opposite circular polarizations to avoid trapping the atomic populations in the extreme Zeeman sublevels. We show that if an appropriate phase modulation between the two optical components of the bichromatic laser is applied synchronously, the two CPT dark states which are produced successively by the alternate polarizations add constructively. Measured CPT resonance contrasts up to 20% in one-pulse CPT and 12% in two-pulse Ramsey-CPT experiments are reported, demonstrating the potential of this scheme for applications to high performance atomic clocks.

  12. ORISE: Worker Health Studies - Testing Beryllium Vendor Populations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education Beryllium Testing Vendor Populations When former employees at 25 closed U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) beryllium vendor companies needed an entity to provide medical screening and tests related to their beryllium exposure, the agency chose the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) to manage the program. ORISE administers a brief health questionnaire and a blood test known as the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) to

  13. Reconnecting fragmented sturgeon populations in North American rivers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jager, Yetta; Forsythe, Patrick S.; McLaughlin, Robert L.; Joseph J. Cech, Jr.; Parsley, Michael; Elliott, Robert F.; Pracheil, Brenda M.

    2016-02-24

    The majority of large North American rivers are fragmented by dams that interrupt migrations of wide-ranging fishes like sturgeons. Reconnecting habitat is viewed as an important means of protecting sturgeon species in U.S. rivers because these species have lost between 5% and 60% of their historical ranges. Unfortunately, facilities designed to pass other fishes have rarely worked well for sturgeons. The most successful passage facilities were sized appropriately for sturgeons and accommodated bottom-oriented species. For upstream passage, facilities with large entrances, full-depth guidance systems, large lifts, or wide fishways without obstructions or tight turns worked well. However, facilitating upstream migrationmore » is only half the battle. Broader recovery for linked sturgeon populations requires safe round-trip passage involving multiple dams. The most successful downstream passage facilities included nature-like fishways, large canal bypasses, and bottom-draw sluice gates. We outline an adaptive approach to implementing passage that begins with temporary programs and structures and monitors success both at the scale of individual fish at individual dams and the scale of metapopulations in a river basin. The challenge will be to learn from past efforts and reconnect North American sturgeon populations in a way that promotes range expansion and facilitates population recovery.« less

  14. Wood-Producing Sunflower? Mining Genetic Diversity in Desert-Dwelling Wild Species (2010 JGI User Meeting)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Knapp, Steve

    2011-04-26

    Steve Knapp from Monsanto on "Wood-Producing Sunflower? Mining Genetic Diversity in Desert-Dwelling Wild Species" on March 25, 2010 at the 5th Annual DOE JGI User Meeting

  15. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweeten, John M; Annamalai, Kalyan; Auvermann, Brent; Mukhtar, Saqib; Capareda, Sergio C.; Engler, Cady; Harman, Wyatte; Reddy, J N; DeOtte, Robert; Parker, David B.; Stewart, B. A.

    2012-05-03

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the "Cattle Feeding Capital of the World", producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure/year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco -- the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development. Category 1

  16. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John M. Sweeten, Kalyan Annamalai Brent Auvermann Saqib Mukhtar Sergio C. Capareda Cady Engler Wyatte Harman J.N. Reddy, Robert DeOtte David B. Parker Dr. B.A. Stewart

    2012-05-03

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the 'Cattle Feeding Capital of the World', producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure/year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco - the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development. Category 1

  17. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sweeten, John; Annamalai, Kalyan; Auvermann, Brent; Mukhtar, Saqib; Capareda, Sergio C; Engler, Cady; Harman, Wyatte; Reddy, J N; DeOtte, Robert; Parker, David B; Stewart, B A

    2012-05-02

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the "Cattle Feeding Capital of the World", producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure /year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco—the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development. Category 1

  18. RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SUSTAINABILITY USING BIOMASS FROM DAIRY AND BEEF ANIMAL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalyan Annamalai, John M. Sweeten, Brent W. Auvermann, Saqib Mukhtar, Sergio Caperada Cady R. Engler, Wyatte Harman Reddy JN Robert Deotte

    2012-05-03

    The Texas Panhandle is regarded as the 'Cattle Feeding Capital of the World', producing 42% of the fed beef cattle in the United States within a 200-mile radius of Amarillo generating more than 5 million tons of feedlot manure/year. Apart from feedlots, the Bosque River Region in Erath County, just north of Waco, Texas with about 110,000 dairy cattle in over 250 dairies, produces 1.8 million tons of manure biomass (excreted plus bedding) per year. While the feedlot manure has been used extensively for irrigated and dry land crop production, most dairies, as well as other concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFO's), the dairy farms utilize large lagoon areas to store wet animal biomass. Water runoff from these lagoons has been held responsible for the increased concentration of phosphorus and other contaminates in the Bosque River which drains into Lake Waco - the primary source of potable water for Waco's 108,500 people. The concentrated animal feeding operations may lead to land, water, and air pollution if waste handling systems and storage and treatment structures are not properly managed. Manure-based biomass (MBB) has the potential to be a source of green energy at large coal-fired power plants and on smaller-scale combustion systems at or near confined animal feeding operations. Although MBB particularly cattle biomass (CB) is a low quality fuel with an inferior heat value compared to coal and other fossil fuels, the concentration of it at large animal feeding operations can make it a viable source of fuel. The overall objective of this interdisciplinary proposal is to develop environmentally benign technologies to convert low-value inventories of dairy and beef cattle biomass into renewable energy. Current research expands the suite of technologies by which cattle biomass (CB: manure, and premature mortalities) could serve as a renewable alternative to fossil fuel. The work falls into two broad categories of research and development. Category 1

  19. An Introduction to Risk with a Focus on Design Diversity in the Stockpile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noone, Bailey C

    2012-08-13

    The maintenance and security of nuclear weapons in the stockpile involves decisions based on risk analysis and quantitative measures of risk. Risk is a factor in all decisions, a particularly important factor in decisions of a large scale. One example of high-risk decisions we will discuss is the risk involved in design diversity within the stockpile of nuclear weapons arsenal. Risk is defined as 'possibility of loss or injury' and the 'degree of probability of such loss' (Kaplan and Garrick 12). To introduce the risk involved with maintaining the weapons stockpile we will draw a parallel to the design and maintenance of Southwest Airlines fleet of Boeing 737 planes. The clear benefits for cost savings in maintenance of having a uniform fleet are what historically drove Southwest to have only Boeing 737s in their fleet. Less money and resources are need for maintenance, training, and materials. Naturally, risk accompanies those benefits. A defect in a part of the plane indicates a potential defect in that same part in all the planes of the fleet. As a result, safety, business, and credibility are at risk. How much variety or diversity does the fleet need to mitigate that risk? With that question in mind, a balance is needed to accommodate the different risks and benefits of the situation. In a similar way, risk is analyzed for the design and maintenance of nuclear weapons in the stockpile. In conclusion, risk must be as low as possible when it comes to the nuclear weapons stockpile. Design and care to keep the stockpile healthy involves all aspects of risk management. Design diversity is a method that helps to mitigate risk, and to help balance options in stockpile stewardship.

  20. The HARNESS Workbench: Unified and Adaptive Access to Diverse HPC Platforms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sunderam, Vaidy S.

    2012-03-20

    The primary goal of the Harness WorkBench (HWB) project is to investigate innovative software environments that will help enhance the overall productivity of applications science on diverse HPC platforms. Two complementary frameworks were designed: one, a virtualized command toolkit for application building, deployment, and execution, that provides a common view across diverse HPC systems, in particular the DOE leadership computing platforms (Cray, IBM, SGI, and clusters); and two, a unified runtime environment that consolidates access to runtime services via an adaptive framework for execution-time and post processing activities. A prototype of the first was developed based on the concept of a 'system-call virtual machine' (SCVM), to enhance portability of the HPC application deployment process across heterogeneous high-end machines. The SCVM approach to portable builds is based on the insertion of toolkit-interpretable directives into original application build scripts. Modifications resulting from these directives preserve the semantics of the original build instruction flow. The execution of the build script is controlled by our toolkit that intercepts build script commands in a manner transparent to the end-user. We have applied this approach to a scientific production code (Gamess-US) on the Cray-XT5 machine. The second facet, termed Unibus, aims to facilitate provisioning and aggregation of multifaceted resources from resource providers and end-users perspectives. To achieve that, Unibus proposes a Capability Model and mediators (resource drivers) to virtualize access to diverse resources, and soft and successive conditioning to enable automatic and user-transparent resource provisioning. A proof of concept implementation has demonstrated the viability of this approach on high end machines, grid systems and computing clouds.

  1. Development of Integrated Online Monitoring Systems for Detection of Diversion at Natural Uranium Conversion Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dewji, Shaheen A; Lee, Denise L; Croft, Stephen; McElroy, Robert Dennis; Hertel, Nolan; Chapman, Jeffrey Allen; Cleveland, Steven L

    2013-01-01

    Recent work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has focused on some source term modeling of uranyl nitrate (UN) as part of a comprehensive validation effort employing gamma-ray detector instrumentation for the detection of diversion from declared conversion activities. Conversion, the process by which natural uranium ore (yellowcake) is purified and converted through a series of chemical processes into uranium hexafluoride gas (UF6), has historically been excluded from the nuclear safeguards requirements of the 235U-based nuclear fuel cycle. The undeclared diversion of this product material could potentially provide feedstock for a clandestine weapons program for state or non-state entities. Given the changing global political environment and the increased availability of dual-use nuclear technology, the International Atomic Energy Agency has evolved its policies to emphasize safeguarding this potential feedstock material in response to dynamic and evolving potential diversion pathways. To meet the demand for instrumentation testing at conversion facilities, ORNL developed the Uranyl Nitrate Calibration Loop Equipment (UNCLE) facility to simulate the full-scale operating conditions of a purified uranium-bearing aqueous stream exiting the solvent extraction process in a natural uranium conversion plant. This work investigates gamma-ray signatures of UN circulating in the UNCLE facility and evaluates detector instrumentation sensitivity to UN for safeguards applications. These detector validation activities include assessing detector responses to the UN gamma-ray signatures for spectrometers based on sodium iodide, lanthanum bromide, and germanium detectors. The results of measurements under static and dynamic operating conditions at concentrations ranging from 10-90g U/L of naturally enriched UN will be presented. A range of gamma-ray lines was examined and self-attenuation factors were calculated, in addition to attenuation for transmission measurement of

  2. Surveys of arthropod and gastropod diversity in the geothermal resource subzones, Puna, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, S.E.; Burgett, J.; Bruegmann, M.

    1995-04-01

    The invertebrate surveys reported here were carried out as part of ecological studies funded by the Department of Energy in support of their environmental impact statement (EIS) for the Hawaii Geothermal Project. Currently, preparation of the EIS has been suspended, and all supporting information is being archived and made available to the public. The invertebrate surveys reported here assessed diversity and abundance of the arthropod and gastropod fauna in forested habitat and lava tubes in or near the three geothermal resource subzones. Recommendations for conservation of these organisms are given in this report. Surveys were conducted along three 100-m transect lines at each of the six forested locations. Malaise traps, baited pitfall traps, yellow pan traps, baited sponge lures, and visual examination of vegetation were used to assess invertebrate diversity along each transect line. Three of these locations were adjacent to roads, and three were adjacent to lava flows. Two of these lava-forest locations (Keauohana Forest Reserve and Pu`u O`o) were relatively remote from direct human impacts. The third location (Southeast Kula) was near a low-density residential area. Two lava tubes were surveyed. The forest over one of these tubes (Keokea tube) had recently been burned away. This tube was used to assess the effects of loss of forest habitat on the subterranean fauna. An undisturbed tube (Pahoa tube) was used as a control. Recommendations offered in this report direct geothermal development away from areas of high endemic diversity and abundance, and toward areas where natural Hawaiian biotic communities have already been greatly disturbed. These disturbed areas are mainly found in the lower half of the Kamaili (middle) geothermal subzone and throughout most of the Kapoho (lower) geothermal subzone. These recommendation may also generally apply to other development projects in the Puna District.

  3. Rapid quantification of mutant fitness in diverse bacteria by sequencing randomly bar-coded transposons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetmore, Kelly M.; Price, Morgan N.; Waters, Robert J.; Lamson, Jacob S.; He, Jennifer; Hoover, Cindi A.; Blow, Matthew J.; Bristow, James; Butland, Gareth; Arkin, Adam P.; Deutschbauer, Adam

    2015-05-12

    Transposon mutagenesis with next-generation sequencing (TnSeq) is a powerful approach to annotate gene function in bacteria, but existing protocols for TnSeq require laborious preparation of every sample before sequencing. Thus, the existing protocols are not amenable to the throughput necessary to identify phenotypes and functions for the majority of genes in diverse bacteria. Here, we present a method, random bar code transposon-site sequencing (RB-TnSeq), which increases the throughput of mutant fitness profiling by incorporating random DNA bar codes into Tn5 and mariner transposons and by using bar code sequencing (BarSeq) to assay mutant fitness. RB-TnSeq can be used with any transposon, and TnSeq is performed once per organism instead of once per sample. Each BarSeq assay requires only a simple PCR, and 48 to 96 samples can be sequenced on one lane of an Illumina HiSeq system. We demonstrate the reproducibility and biological significance of RB-TnSeq with Escherichia coli, Phaeobacter inhibens, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Shewanella amazonensis, and Shewanella oneidensis. To demonstrate the increased throughput of RB-TnSeq, we performed 387 successful genome-wide mutant fitness assays representing 130 different bacterium-carbon source combinations and identified 5,196 genes with significant phenotypes across the five bacteria. In P. inhibens, we used our mutant fitness data to identify genes important for the utilization of diverse carbon substrates, including a putative D-mannose isomerase that is required for mannitol catabolism. RB-TnSeq will enable the cost-effective functional annotation of diverse bacteria using mutant fitness profiling. A large challenge in microbiology is the functional assessment of the millions of uncharacterized genes identified by genome sequencing. Transposon mutagenesis coupled to next-generation sequencing (TnSeq) is a powerful approach to assign phenotypes and functions to genes

  4. Rapid quantification of mutant fitness in diverse bacteria by sequencing randomly bar-coded transposons

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wetmore, Kelly M.; Price, Morgan N.; Waters, Robert J.; Lamson, Jacob S.; He, Jennifer; Hoover, Cindi A.; Blow, Matthew J.; Bristow, James; Butland, Gareth; Arkin, Adam P.; et al

    2015-05-12

    Transposon mutagenesis with next-generation sequencing (TnSeq) is a powerful approach to annotate gene function in bacteria, but existing protocols for TnSeq require laborious preparation of every sample before sequencing. Thus, the existing protocols are not amenable to the throughput necessary to identify phenotypes and functions for the majority of genes in diverse bacteria. Here, we present a method, random bar code transposon-site sequencing (RB-TnSeq), which increases the throughput of mutant fitness profiling by incorporating random DNA bar codes into Tn5 and mariner transposons and by using bar code sequencing (BarSeq) to assay mutant fitness. RB-TnSeq can be used with anymore » transposon, and TnSeq is performed once per organism instead of once per sample. Each BarSeq assay requires only a simple PCR, and 48 to 96 samples can be sequenced on one lane of an Illumina HiSeq system. We demonstrate the reproducibility and biological significance of RB-TnSeq with Escherichia coli, Phaeobacter inhibens, Pseudomonas stutzeri, Shewanella amazonensis, and Shewanella oneidensis. To demonstrate the increased throughput of RB-TnSeq, we performed 387 successful genome-wide mutant fitness assays representing 130 different bacterium-carbon source combinations and identified 5,196 genes with significant phenotypes across the five bacteria. In P. inhibens, we used our mutant fitness data to identify genes important for the utilization of diverse carbon substrates, including a putative D-mannose isomerase that is required for mannitol catabolism. RB-TnSeq will enable the cost-effective functional annotation of diverse bacteria using mutant fitness profiling. A large challenge in microbiology is the functional assessment of the millions of uncharacterized genes identified by genome sequencing. Transposon mutagenesis coupled to next-generation sequencing (TnSeq) is a powerful approach to assign phenotypes and functions to genes. However, the current strategies for TnSeq are

  5. A WFC3/HST VIEW OF THE THREE STELLAR POPULATIONS IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 6752

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milone, A. P.; Marino, A. F.; Yong, D. E-mail: amarino@mso.anu.edu.au; and others

    2013-04-20

    Multi-band Hubble Space Telescope photometry reveals that the main sequence, sub-giant, and the red-giant branch of the globular cluster NGC 6752 splits into three main components in close analogy with the three distinct segments along its horizontal branch stars. These triple sequences are consistent with three stellar groups: a stellar population with a chemical composition similar to field-halo stars (Population a), a Population (c) with enhanced sodium and nitrogen, depleted carbon and oxygen, and an enhanced helium abundance ({Delta}Y {approx} 0.03), and a Population (b) with an intermediate (between Populations a and c) chemical composition and slightly enhanced helium ({Delta}Y {approx} 0.01). These components contain {approx}25% (Population a), {approx}45% (Population b), and {approx}30% (Population c) of the stars. No radial gradient for the relative numbers of the three populations has been identified out to about 2.5 half-mass radii.

  6. Impact of extraneous mispositioned events on motion-corrected brain SPECT images of freely moving animals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Angelis, Georgios I. Ryder, William J.; Bashar, Rezaul; Meikle, Steven R.; Fulton, Roger R.

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) brain imaging of freely moving small animals would allow a wide range of important neurological processes and behaviors to be studied, which are normally inhibited by anesthetic drugs or precluded due to the animal being restrained. While rigid body motion of the head can be tracked and accounted for in the reconstruction, activity in the torso may confound brain measurements, especially since motion of the torso is more complex (i.e., nonrigid) and not well correlated with that of the head. The authors investigated the impact of mispositioned events and attenuation due to the torso on the accuracy of motion corrected brain images of freely moving mice. Methods: Monte Carlo simulations of a realistic voxelized mouse phantom and a dual compartment phantom were performed. Each phantom comprised a target and an extraneous compartment which were able to move independently of each other. Motion correction was performed based on the known motion of the target compartment only. Two SPECT camera geometries were investigated: a rotating single head detector and a stationary full ring detector. The effects of motion, detector geometry, and energy of the emitted photons (hence, attenuation) on bias and noise in reconstructed brain regions were evaluated. Results: The authors observed two main sources of bias: (a) motion-related inconsistencies in the projection data and (b) the mismatch between attenuation and emission. Both effects are caused by the assumption that the orientation of the torso is difficult to track and model, and therefore cannot be conveniently corrected for. The motion induced bias in some regions was up to 12% when no attenuation effects were considered, while it reached 40% when also combined with attenuation related inconsistencies. The detector geometry (i.e., rotating vs full ring) has a big impact on the accuracy of the reconstructed images, with the full ring detector being more

  7. SU-E-T-457: Design and Characterization of An Economical 192Ir Hemi-Brain Small Animal Irradiator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grams, M; Wilson, Z; Sio, T; Beltran, C; Tryggestad, E; Gupta, S; Blackwell, C; McCollough, K; Sarkaria, J; Furutani, K

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To describe the design and dosimetric characterization of a simple and economical small animal irradiator. Methods: A high dose rate 192Ir brachytherapy source from a commercially available afterloader was used with a 1.3 centimeter thick tungsten collimator to provide sharp beam penumbra suitable for hemi-brain irradiation of mice. The unit is equipped with continuous gas anesthesia to allow robust animal immobilization. Dosimetric characterization of the device was performed with Gafchromic film. The penumbra from the small animal irradiator was compared under similar collimating conditions to the penumbra from 6 MV photons, 6 MeV electrons, and 20 MeV electrons from a linear accelerator as well as 300 kVp photons from an orthovoltage unit and Monte Carlo simulated 90 MeV protons. Results: The tungsten collimator provides a sharp penumbra suitable for hemi-brain irradiation, and dose rates on the order of 200 cGy/minute were achieved. The sharpness of the penumbra attainable with this device compares favorably to those measured experimentally for 6 MV photons, and 6 and 20 MeV electron beams from a linear accelerator. Additionally, the penumbra was comparable to those measured for a 300 kVp orthovoltage beam and a Monte Carlo simulated 90 MeV proton beam. Conclusions: The small animal irradiator described here can be built for under $1,000 and used in conjunction with any commercial brachytherapy afterloader to provide a convenient and cost-effective option for small animal irradiation experiments. The unit offers high dose rate delivery and sharp penumbra, which is ideal for hemi-brain irradiation of mice. With slight modifications to the design, irradiation of sites other than the brain could be accomplished easily. Due to its simplicity and low cost, the apparatus described is an attractive alternative for small animal irradiation experiments requiring a sharp penumbra.

  8. Noncompetitive microbial diversity patterns in soils: their causes and implications for bioremediation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James M. Tiedje; Jizhong Zhou; Anthony Palumbo; Nathaniel Ostrom; Terence L. Marsh

    2007-07-05

    This funding provided support for over nine years of research on the structure and function of microbial communities in subsurface environments. The overarching goal during these years was to understand the impact of mixed contaminants, particularly heavy metals like uranium, on the structure and function of microbial communities. In addition we sought to identify microbial populations that were actively involved in the reduction of metals because these species of bacteria hold the potential for immobilizing soluble metals moving in subsurface water. Bacterial mediated biochemical reduction of metals like uranium, technetium and chromium, greatly reduces their mobility through complexation and precipitation. Hence, by taking advantage of natural metabolic capabilities of subsurface microbial populations it is possible to bioremediate contaminated subsurface environments with a cost-effective in situ approach. Towards this end we have i.) identified bacterial populations that have thrived under the adverse conditions at the contaminated FRC site, ii.) phylogenetically identified populations that respond to imposed remediation conditions at the FRC, iii.) used metagenomics to begin a reconstruction of the metabolic web in a contaminated subsurface zone, iv.) investigated the metal reducing attributes of a Gram-positive spore forming rod also capable of dechlorination.

  9. Bioturbating animals control the mobility of redox-sensitive trace elements in organic-rich mudstone

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harazim, Dario; McIlroy, Duncan; Edwards, Nicholas P.; Wogelius, Roy A.; Manning, Phillip L.; Poduska, Kristin M.; Layne, Graham D.; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Bergmann, Uwe

    2015-10-07

    Bioturbating animals modify the original mineralogy, porosity, organic content, and fabric of mud, thus affecting the burial diagenetic pathways of potential hydrocarbon source, seal, and reservoir rocks. High-sensitivity, synchrotron rapid scanning X-ray fluorescence elemental mapping reveals that producers of phycosiphoniform burrows systematically partition redox-sensitive trace elements (i.e., Fe, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and As) in fine-grained siliciclastic rocks. Systematic differences in organic carbon content (total organic carbon >1.5 wt%) and quality (Δ13Corg~0.6‰) are measured between the burrow core and host sediment. The relative enrichment of redox-sensitive elements in the burrow core does not correlate with significant neo-formation of early diagenetic pyrite (via trace metal pyritization), but is best explained by physical concentration of clay- and silt-sized components. A measured loss (~–15%) of the large-ionic-radius elements Sr and Ba from both burrow halo and core is most likely associated with the release of Sr and Ba to pore waters during biological (in vivo) weathering of silt- to clay-sized lithic components and feldspar. In conclusion, this newly documented effect has significant potential to inform the interpretation of geochemical proxy and rock property data, particularly from shales, where elemental analyses are commonly employed to predict reservoir quality and support paleoenvironmental analysis.

  10. The Animated Gamma-ray Sky Revealed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Isabelle Grenier

    2010-01-08

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has been observing the sky in gamma-rays since August 2008.  In addition to breakthrough capabilities in energy coverage (20 MeV-300 GeV) and angular resolution, the wide field of view of the Large Area Telescope enables observations of 20% of the sky at any instant, and of the whole sky every three hours. It has revealed a very animated sky with bright gamma-ray bursts flashing and vanishing in minutes, powerful active galactic nuclei flaring over hours and days, many pulsars twinkling in the Milky Way, and X-ray binaries shimmering along their orbit. Most of these variable sources had not been seen by the Fermi predecessor, EGRET, and the wealth of new data already brings important clues to the origin of the high-energy emission and particles powered by the compact objects. The telescope also brings crisp images of the bright gamma-ray emission produced by cosmic-ray interactions in the interstellar medium, thus allowing to measure the cosmic nuclei and electron spectra across the Galaxy, to weigh interstellar clouds, in particular in the dark-gas phase. The telescope sensitivity at high energy will soon provide useful constraints on dark-matter annihilations in a variety of environments. I will review the current results and future prospects of the Fermi mission.

  11. Bioturbating animals control the mobility of redox-sensitive trace elements in organic-rich mudstone

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Harazim, Dario; McIlroy, Duncan; Edwards, Nicholas P.; Wogelius, Roy A.; Manning, Phillip L.; Poduska, Kristin M.; Layne, Graham D.; Sokaras, Dimosthenis; Alonso-Mori, Roberto; Bergmann, Uwe

    2015-10-07

    Bioturbating animals modify the original mineralogy, porosity, organic content, and fabric of mud, thus affecting the burial diagenetic pathways of potential hydrocarbon source, seal, and reservoir rocks. High-sensitivity, synchrotron rapid scanning X-ray fluorescence elemental mapping reveals that producers of phycosiphoniform burrows systematically partition redox-sensitive trace elements (i.e., Fe, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and As) in fine-grained siliciclastic rocks. Systematic differences in organic carbon content (total organic carbon >1.5 wt%) and quality (Δ13Corg~0.6‰) are measured between the burrow core and host sediment. The relative enrichment of redox-sensitive elements in the burrow core does not correlate with significant neo-formation ofmore » early diagenetic pyrite (via trace metal pyritization), but is best explained by physical concentration of clay- and silt-sized components. A measured loss (~–15%) of the large-ionic-radius elements Sr and Ba from both burrow halo and core is most likely associated with the release of Sr and Ba to pore waters during biological (in vivo) weathering of silt- to clay-sized lithic components and feldspar. In conclusion, this newly documented effect has significant potential to inform the interpretation of geochemical proxy and rock property data, particularly from shales, where elemental analyses are commonly employed to predict reservoir quality and support paleoenvironmental analysis.« less

  12. The Dark Energy Survey: Prospects for resolved stellar populations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rossetto, Bruno M.; Santiago, Basílio X.; Girardi, Léo; Camargo, Julio I. B.; Balbinot, Eduardo; da Costa, Luiz N.; Yanny, Brian; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Makler, Martin; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; Pellegrini, Paulo S.; Ramos, Beatriz; de Simoni, Fernando; Armstrong, R.; Bertin, E.; Desai, S.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lin, H.; Mohr, J. J.; Tucker, D. L.

    2011-05-06

    Wide angle and deep surveys, regardless of their primary purpose, always sample a large number of stars in the Galaxy and in its satellite system. We here make a forecast of the expected stellar sample resulting from the Dark Energy Survey and the perspectives that it will open for studies of Galactic structure and resolved stellar populations in general. An estimated 1.2 x 108 stars will be sampled in DES grizY filters in the southern equatorial hemisphere. This roughly corresponds to 20% of all DES sources. Most of these stars belong to the stellar thick disk and halo of the Galaxy.

  13. THE DARK ENERGY SURVEY: PROSPECTS FOR RESOLVED STELLAR POPULATIONS

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rossetto, Bruno M.; Santiago, Baslio X.; Girardi, Lo; Camargo, Julio I. B.; Balbinot, Eduardo; da Costa, Luiz N.; Yanny, Brian; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Makler, Martin; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; et al

    2011-06-01

    Wide angle and deep surveys, regardless of their primary purpose, always sample a large number of stars in the Galaxy and in its satellite system. We here make a forecast of the expected stellar sample resulting from the Dark Energy Survey and the perspectives that it will open for studies of Galactic structure and resolved stellar populations in general. An estimated 1.2 x 108 stars will be sampled in DES grizY filters in the southern equatorial hemisphere. This roughly corresponds to 20% of all DES sources. Most of these stars belong to the stellar thick disk and halo of themoreGalaxy.less

  14. Population of 195Os via a deep-inelastic reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valiente-Dobon, J.J.; Wheldon, C.; Regan, P.H.; Langdown, S.D.; Yamamoto, A.D.; Wu, C.Y.; Cline, D.; Hayes, A.; Hua, H.; Teng, R.; Andreoiu, C.; Svensson, C.E.; Chapman, R.; Liang, X.; Fallon, P.; Lee, I.Y.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Ward, D.; Freeman, S. J.; Smith, J.F.

    2004-09-13

    The present work reports on the {sub 76}{sup 195}Os isotope, which is the most neutron-rich osmium isotope for which transitions have been measured. It has been populated following a multi-nucleon transfer reaction between a thin {sub 78}{sup 198}Pt target and an 850-MeV {sub 54}{sup 136}Xe beam. Evidence from {gamma}-ray coincidences has been found for an I{sup {pi}} = ((27/2){sup -}) isomeric state with a measured half-life of 26 {+-} 9ns.

  15. Regional population and employment adjustments to rising coal production. [USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myers, P.R.

    1983-11-01

    Annual U.S. coal production rose by nearly 17 percent in the years following the oil crisis of 1973. This increase induced slight gains in population in the Nation's 289 coal counties but greater gains in employment--both in coal mining and in other industries. Coal counties in the West increased production and employment more than those in the Interior and East. Increased coal mining caused employment to expand in secondary industries (contract construction, transportation, finance), but had little effect on agriculture (employment down) and manufacturing (employment up slightly).

  16. Population viability analysis of the Endangered shortnose sturgeon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jager, Yetta; Bevelhimer, Mark S; Peterson, Douglas L.

    2011-07-01

    This study used population viability analysis (PVA) to partition the influences of potential threats to the endangered shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum). A workshop brought together experts to help identify potential threats including groundwater withdrawal, poor water quality, saltwater intrusion, mercury effects, harvest as by-catch, and sedimentation of spawning habitat. During the course of the project, we eliminated some threats and added new ones. Groundwater withdrawal was dismissed after a study failed to identify connection with groundwater and the majority of pumping is from a confined aquifer. We also eliminated activities on Fort Stewart as influences on spawning habitat because any successful spawning must occur upstream of Fort Stewart. We added climate change to the list of threats based on our assessment of temperature effects and expectations of sea-level rise. Our study highlighted the role of populations in nearby rivers in providing metapopulation support, raising the concern that the population in the Ogeechee River acts as a demographic sink. As part of this study, we carried out a field sampling study to analyze effects of training activities on headwater streams. We developed a new methodology for sampling design as part of this effort and used a mixed-modeling approach to identify relationships between land cover-land use, including those associated with military training activity and water quality. We found that tank training was associated with higher suspended sediment and equipment training was associated with higher organic carbon) and water quality. We detected effects of training on suspended sediment and organic carbon. We also carried out a field sampling effort in the Canoochee and Ogeechee Rivers. In the Ogeechee River, we found that dissolved oxygen in 40% of measurements during summer were below 4 mg L-1. To evaluate mercury as a potential threat, we developed a mercury uptake model and analyzed mercury levels in

  17. Population and community ecology of the rare plant amsinckia grandiflora

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlsen, T.M.

    1996-11-01

    Research was conducted between the fall of 1992 and the spring on the population and community ecology of the rare annual plant, Amsinckia glandiflora (Gray) Kleeb. ex Greene (Boraginaceae). The research goal was to investigate the causes of the species rarity, data useful to restorative efforts. The work focused on the examination of competitive suppression by exotic annual grasses; comparisons with common, weedy congener; and the role of litter cover and seed germination and seedling establishment. Annual exotic grasses reduced A. grandiflora reproductive output to a greater extent than did the native perennial bunch grass.

  18. Atomic clock based on transient coherent population trapping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo Tao; Deng Ke; Chen Xuzong; Wang Zhong

    2009-04-13

    We proposed a scheme to implement coherent population trapping (CPT) atomic clock based on the transient CPT phenomenon. We proved that the transient transmitted laser power in a typical {lambda} system near CPT resonance features as a damping oscillation. Also, the oscillating frequency is exactly equal to the frequency detuning from the atomic hyperfine splitting. Therefore, we can directly measure the frequency detuning and then compensated to the output frequency of microwave oscillator to get the standard frequency. By this method, we can further simplify the structure of CPT atomic clock, and make it easier to be digitized and miniaturized.

  19. THE ROLE OF DEAD WOOD IN MAINTAINING ARTHROPOD DIVERSITY ON THE FOREST FLOOR.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanula, James L.; Horn, Scott; Wade, Dale D.

    2006-08-01

    AbstractDead wood is a major component of forests and contributes to overall diversity, primarily by supporting insects that feed directly on or in it. Further, a variety of organisms benefit by feeding on those insects. What is not well known is how or whether dead wood influences the composition of the arthropod community that is not solely dependent on it as a food resource, or whether woody debris influences prey available to generalist predators. One group likely to be affected by dead wood is ground-dwelling arthropods. We studied the effect of adding large dead wood to unburned and frequently burned pine stands to determine if dead wood was used more when the litter and understory plant community are removed. We also studied the effect of annual removal of dead wood from large (10-ha) plots over a 5-year period on ground-dwelling arthropods. In related studies, we examined the relationships among an endangered woodpecker that forages for prey on live trees, its prey, and dead wood in the forest. The results of these and other studies show that dead wood can influence the abundance and diversity of the ground-dwelling arthropod community and of prey available to generalist predators not foraging directly on dead trees.

  20. The Gut Microbiota of Rural Papua New Guineans: Composition, Diversity Patterns, and Ecological Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martínez, Inés; Stegen, James C.; Maldonado-Gómez, Maria X.; Eren, A. Murat; Siba, Peter M.; Greenhill, Andrew R.; Walter, Jens

    2015-04-01

    Comparisons between the fecal microbiota of humans from industrialized and non-industrialized communities indicate a pronounced impact of westernization on the diversity and composition of the human gut microbiota. However, the exact consequences of westernization on community characteristics are still insufficiently understood, and the ecological processes that drive differences have not been elucidated. Here we have compared the fecal microbiota of adults from two non-industrialized regions in Papua New Guinea (PNG) with that of United States (US) residents. Papua New Guineans harbor communities with greater bacterial diversity but lower inter-individual variation. Although the fecal microbiota in PNG and US was largely dominated by shared bacterial lineages, the relative abundance of 25 families, 45 genera, and 230 species-level OTUs differed, and 47 core OTUs in PNG were undetectable in US residents. To gain insight into the ecological mechanisms that cause the observed differences, we quantified community assembly processes in PNG and US microbiomes using a null modeling approach. This analysis demonstrated a significant higher rate of bacterial dispersal in PNG and divergent selective environments in the US. Interestingly, equivalent findings were obtained for other datasets comparing industrialized and non-industrialized microbiomes. Overall, the findings demonstrate a dominant role for microbial dispersal in shaping the human gut microbiota in non-industrialized societies, and point to differential selection pressures across individuals as a major factor shaping microbiomes associated with modern lifestyle.

  1. Computational Cell Environment: A Problem Solving Environment for integrating diverse biological data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klicker, Kyle R.; Singhal, Mudita; Stephan, Eric G.; Trease, Lynn L.; Gracio, Deborah K.

    2004-06-22

    Biologists and bioinformaticists face the ever-increasing challenge of managing large datasets queried from diverse data sources. Genomics and proteomics databases such as the National Center for Biotechnology (NCBI), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG), and the European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL) are becoming the standard biological data department stores that biologists visit on a regular basis to obtain the supplies necessary for conducting their research. However, much of the data that biologists retrieve from these databases needs to be further managed and organized in a meaningful way so that the researcher can focus on the problem that they are trying to investigate and share their data and findings with other researchers. We are working towards developing a problem-solving environment called the Computational Cell Environment (CCE) that provides connectivity to these diverse data stores and provides data retrieval, management, and analysis through all aspects of biological study. In this paper we discuss the system and database design of CCE. We also outline a few problems encountered at various stages of its development and the design decisions taken to resolve them.

  2. The Gut Microbiota of Rural Papua New Guineans: Composition, Diversity Patterns, and Ecological Processes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Martínez, Inés; Stegen, James C.; Maldonado-Gómez, Maria X.; Eren, A. Murat; Siba, Peter M.; Greenhill, Andrew R.; Walter, Jens

    2015-04-01

    Comparisons between the fecal microbiota of humans from industrialized and non-industrialized communities indicate a pronounced impact of westernization on the diversity and composition of the human gut microbiota. However, the exact consequences of westernization on community characteristics are still insufficiently understood, and the ecological processes that drive differences have not been elucidated. Here we have compared the fecal microbiota of adults from two non-industrialized regions in Papua New Guinea (PNG) with that of United States (US) residents. Papua New Guineans harbor communities with greater bacterial diversity but lower inter-individual variation. Although the fecal microbiota in PNG and US was largelymore » dominated by shared bacterial lineages, the relative abundance of 25 families, 45 genera, and 230 species-level OTUs differed, and 47 core OTUs in PNG were undetectable in US residents. To gain insight into the ecological mechanisms that cause the observed differences, we quantified community assembly processes in PNG and US microbiomes using a null modeling approach. This analysis demonstrated a significant higher rate of bacterial dispersal in PNG and divergent selective environments in the US. Interestingly, equivalent findings were obtained for other datasets comparing industrialized and non-industrialized microbiomes. Overall, the findings demonstrate a dominant role for microbial dispersal in shaping the human gut microbiota in non-industrialized societies, and point to differential selection pressures across individuals as a major factor shaping microbiomes associated with modern lifestyle.« less

  3. Diverse Lifestyles and Strategies of Plant Pathogenesis Encoded in the Genomes of Eighteen Dothideomycetes Fungi

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohm, Robin A.; Feau, Nicolas; Henrissat, Bernard; Schoch, Conrad L.; Horwitz, Benjamin A.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Condon, Bradford J.; Copeland, Alex C.; Dhillon, Braham; Glaser, Fabian; Hesse, Cedar N.; Kosti, Idit; LaButti, Kurt; Lindquist, Erika A.; Lucas, Susan; Salamov, Asaf A.; Bradshaw, Rosie E.; Ciuffetti, Lynda; Hamelin, Richard C.; Kema, Gert H. J.; Lawrence, Christopher; Scott, James A.; Spatafora, Joseph W.; Turgeon, B. Gillian; Wit, Pierre J. G. M. de; Zhong, Shaobin; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Grigoriev, Igor V.

    2012-02-29

    The class Dothideomycetes is one of the largest groups of fungi with a high level of ecological diversity including many plant pathogens infecting a broad range of hosts. Here, we compare genome features of 18 members of this class, including 6 necrotrophs, 9 (hemi)biotrophs and 3 saprotrophs, to analyze genome structure, evolution, and the diverse strategies of pathogenesis. The Dothideomycetes most likely evolved from a common ancestor more than 280 million years ago. The 18 genome sequences differ dramatically in size due to variation in repetitive content, but show much less variation in number of (core) genes. Gene order appears to have been rearranged mostly within chromosomal boundaries by multiple inversions, in extant genomes frequently demarcated by adjacent simple repeats. Several Dothideomycetes contain one or more gene-poor, transposable element (TE)-rich putatively dispensable chromosomes of unknown function. The 18 Dothideomycetes offer an extensive catalogue of genes involved in cellulose degradation, proteolysis, secondary metabolism, and cysteine-rich small secreted proteins. Ancestors of the two major orders of plant pathogens in the Dothideomycetes, the Capnodiales and Pleosporales, may have had different modes of pathogenesis, with the former having fewer of these genes than the latter. Many of these genes are enriched in proximity to transposable elements, suggesting faster evolution because of the effects of repeat induced point (RIP) mutations. A syntenic block of genes, including oxidoreductases, is conserved in most Dothideomycetes and upregulated during infection in L. maculans, suggesting a possible function in response to oxidative stress.

  4. MULTIWAVELENGTH CONSTRAINTS ON PULSAR POPULATIONS IN THE GALACTIC CENTER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wharton, R. S.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M.; Deneva, J. S.; Lazio, T. J. W.

    2012-07-10

    The detection of radio pulsars within the central few parsecs of the Galaxy would provide a unique probe of the gravitational and magneto-ionic environments in the Galactic center (GC) and, if close enough to Sgr A*, precise tests of general relativity in the strong-field regime. While it is difficult to find pulsars at radio wavelengths because of interstellar scattering, the payoff from detailed timing of pulsars in the GC warrants a concerted effort. To motivate pulsar surveys and help define search parameters for them, we constrain the pulsar number and spatial distribution using a wide range of multiwavelength measurements. These include the five known radio pulsars within 15' of Sgr A*, non-detections in high-frequency pulsar surveys of the central parsec, radio and gamma-ray measurements of diffuse emission, a catalog of radio point sources from an imaging survey, infrared observations of massive star populations in the central few parsecs, candidate pulsar wind nebulae in the inner 20 pc, and estimates of the core-collapse supernova rate based on X-ray measurements. We find that under current observational constraints, the inner parsec of the Galaxy could harbor as many as {approx}10{sup 3} active radio pulsars that are beamed toward Earth. Such a large population would distort the low-frequency measurements of both the intrinsic spectrum of Sgr A* and the free-free absorption along the line of sight of Sgr A*.

  5. Fact #922: April 25, 2016 Share of Older Population Holding Driver...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    922: April 25, 2016 Share of Older Population Holding Driver's Licenses is Up and Share of Younger Population Holding Driver's Licenses is Down Fact 922: April 25, 2016 Share of ...

  6. Implications of Wide-Area Geographic Diversity for Short- Term Variability of Solar Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mills, Andrew; Wiser, Ryan

    2010-08-23

    Worldwide interest in the deployment of photovoltaic generation (PV) is rapidly increasing. Operating experience with large PV plants, however, demonstrates that large, rapid changes in the output of PV plants are possible. Early studies of PV grid impacts suggested that short-term variability could be a potential limiting factor in deploying PV. Many of these early studies, however, lacked high-quality data from multiple sites to assess the costs and impacts of increasing PV penetration. As is well known for wind, accounting for the potential for geographic diversity can significantly reduce the magnitude of extreme changes in aggregated PV output, the resources required to accommodate that variability, and the potential costs of managing variability. We use measured 1-min solar insolation for 23 time-synchronized sites in the Southern Great Plains network of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program and wind speed data from 10 sites in the same network to characterize the variability of PV with different degrees of geographic diversity and to compare the variability of PV to the variability of similarly sited wind. The relative aggregate variability of PV plants sited in a dense 10 x 10 array with 20 km spacing is six times less than the variability of a single site for variability on time scales less than 15-min. We find in our analysis of wind and PV plants similarly sited in a 5 x 5 grid with 50 km spacing that the variability of PV is only slightly more than the variability of wind on time scales of 5-15 min. Over shorter and longer time scales the level of variability is nearly identical. Finally, we use a simple approximation method to estimate the cost of carrying additional reserves to manage sub-hourly variability. We conclude that the costs of managing the short-term variability of PV are dramatically reduced by geographic diversity and are not substantially different from the costs for managing the short-term variability of similarly sited wind in

  7. The impacts of population change on carbon emissions in China during 1978-2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu Qin Peng Xizhe

    2012-09-15

    This study examines the impacts of population size, population structure, and consumption level on carbon emissions in China from 1978 to 2008. To this end, we expanded the stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence, and technology model and used the ridge regression method, which overcomes the negative influences of multicollinearity among independent variables under acceptable bias. Results reveal that changes in consumption level and population structure were the major impact factors, not changes in population size. Consumption level and carbon emissions were highly correlated. In terms of population structure, urbanization, population age, and household size had distinct effects on carbon emissions. Urbanization increased carbon emissions, while the effect of age acted primarily through the expansion of the labor force and consequent overall economic growth. Shrinking household size increased residential consumption, resulting in higher carbon emissions. Households, rather than individuals, are a more reasonable explanation for the demographic impact on carbon emissions. Potential social policies for low carbon development are also discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examine the impacts of population change on carbon emissions in China. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We expand the STIRPAT model by containing population structure factors in the model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The population structure includes age structure, urbanization level, and household size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ridge regression method is used to estimate the model with multicollinearity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The population structure plays a more important role compared with the population size.

  8. Diversity of [beta]-globin mutations in Israeli ethnic groups reflects recent historic events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Filon, D.; Oron, V.; Krichevski, S.; Shaag, A.; Goldfarb, A.; Aker, M.; Rachmilewitz, E.A.; Rund, D.; Oppenheim, A. )

    1994-05-01

    The authors characterized nearly 500 [beta]-thalassemia genes from the Israeli population representing a variety of ethnic subgroups. They found 28 different mutations in the [beta]-globin gene, including three mutations ([beta][sup S], [beta][sup C], and [beta][sup O-Arab]) causing hemoglobinopathies. Marked genetic heterogeneity was observed in both the Arab (20 mutations) and Jewish (17 mutations) populations. On the other hand, two ethnic isolates - Druze and Samaritans - had a single mutation each. Fifteen of the [beta]-thalassemia alleles are Mediterranean in type, 5 originated in Kurdistan, 2 are of Indian origin, and 2 sporadic alleles came from Europe. Only one mutant allele-nonsense codon 37-appears to be indigenous to Israel. While human habitation in Israel dates back to early prehistory, the present-day spectrum of [beta]-globin mutations can be largely explained by migration events that occurred in the past millennium. 26 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Microbial diversity and dynamics during methane production from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bareither, Christopher A.; Wolfe, Georgia L.; McMahon, Katherine D.; Benson, Craig H.

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Similar bacterial communities developed following different start-up operation. ► Total methanogens in leachate during the decelerated methane phase reflected overall methane yield. ► Created correlations between methanogens, methane yield, and available substrate. ► Predominant bacteria identified with syntrophic polysaccharide degraders. ► Hydrogenotrophic methanogens were dominant in the methane generation process. - Abstract: The objectives of this study were to characterize development of bacterial and archaeal populations during biodegradation of municipal solid waste (MSW) and to link specific methanogens to methane generation. Experiments were conducted in three 0.61-m-diameter by 0.90-m-tall laboratory reactors to simulate MSW bioreactor landfills. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes was used to characterize microbial communities in both leachate and solid waste. Microbial assemblages in effluent leachate were similar between reactors during peak methane generation. Specific groups within the Bacteroidetes and Thermatogae phyla were present in all samples and were particularly abundant during peak methane generation. Microbial communities were not similar in leachate and solid fractions assayed at the end of reactor operation; solid waste contained a more abundant bacterial community of cellulose-degrading organisms (e.g., Firmicutes). Specific methanogen populations were assessed using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Methanomicrobiales, Methanosarcinaceae, and Methanobacteriales were the predominant methanogens in all reactors, with Methanomicrobiales consistently the most abundant. Methanogen growth phases coincided with accelerated methane production, and cumulative methane yield increased with increasing total methanogen abundance. The difference in methanogen populations and corresponding methane yield is attributed to different initial cellulose and hemicellulose contents of the MSW. Higher initial cellulose and

  10. Fluid Diversion and Sweep Improvement with Chemical Gels in Oil Recovery Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seright, R.S.; Martin, F.D.

    1991-11-01

    This report describes progress made during the second year of the three-year project, Fluid diversion and Sweep Improvement with Chemical Gels in Oil Recovery Processes.'' The objectives of this project are to identify the mechanisms by which gel treatments divert fluids in reservoirs and to establish where and how gel treatments are best applied. Several different types of gelants are being examined. This research is directed at gel applications in water injection wells, in production wells, and in high-pressure gasfloods. The work examines how the flow properties of gels and gelling agents are influenced by permeability, lithology, and wettability. Other goals include determining the proper placement of gelants, the stability of in-place gels, and the types of gels required for the various oil recovery processes and for different scales of reservoir heterogeneity. 93 refs., 39 figs., 43 tabs.

  11. Scenario driven data modelling: a method for integrating diverse sources of data and data streams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brettin, Thomas S.; Cottingham, Robert W.; Griffith, Shelton D.; Quest, Daniel J.

    2015-09-08

    A system and method of integrating diverse sources of data and data streams is presented. The method can include selecting a scenario based on a topic, creating a multi-relational directed graph based on the scenario, identifying and converting resources in accordance with the scenario and updating the multi-directed graph based on the resources, identifying data feeds in accordance with the scenario and updating the multi-directed graph based on the data feeds, identifying analytical routines in accordance with the scenario and updating the multi-directed graph using the analytical routines and identifying data outputs in accordance with the scenario and defining queries to produce the data outputs from the multi-directed graph.

  12. Global vegetation model diversity and the risks of climate-driven ecosystem shifts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin

    2013-11-08

    Climate change is modifying global biogeochemical cycles, and is expected to exert increasingly large effects in the future. How these changes will in turn affect and interact with the structure and function of particular ecosystems is unclear, however, both because of scientific uncertainties and the very diversity of global vegetation models in use. Writing in Environmental Research Letters, Warszawski et al. (1) aggregate results from a group of models, across a range of emissions scenarios and climate data, to investigate these risks. Although the models frequently disagree about which specific regions are at risk, they consistently predict a greater chance of ecosystem restructuring with more warming; this risk roughly doubles between 2 and 3 °C increases in global mean temperature. The innovative work of Warszawski et al. represents an important first step towards fully consistent multi-model, multi-scenario assessments of the future risks to global ecosystems.

  13. Structural Diversity in Free and Bound States of Intrinsically Disordered Protein Phosphatase 1 Regulators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marsh, J.A.; Allaire, M.; Dancheck, B.; Ragusa, M.J.; Forman-Kay, J.D.; Peti, Wolfgang

    2010-09-08

    Complete folding is not a prerequisite for protein function, as disordered and partially folded states of proteins frequently perform essential biological functions. In order to understand their functions at the molecular level, we utilized diverse experimental measurements to calculate ensemble models of three nonhomologous, intrinsically disordered proteins: I-2, spinophilin, and DARPP-32, which bind to and regulate protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). The models demonstrate that these proteins have dissimilar propensities for secondary and tertiary structure in their unbound forms. Direct comparison of these ensemble models with recently determined PP1 complex structures suggests a significant role for transient, preformed structure in the interactions of these proteins with PP1. Finally, we generated an ensemble model of partially disordered I-2 bound to PP1 that provides insight into the relationship between flexibility and biological function in this dynamic complex.

  14. Practical Methods for Locating Abandoned Wells in Populated Areas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veloski, G.A.; Hammack, R.W.; Lynn, R.J.

    2007-09-01

    An estimated 12 million wells have been drilled during the 150 years of oil and gas production in the United States. Many old oil and gas fields are now populated areas where the presence of improperly plugged wells may constitute a hazard to residents. Natural gas emissions from wells have forced people from their houses and businesses and have caused explosions that injured or killed people and destroyed property. To mitigate this hazard, wells must be located and properly plugged, a task made more difficult by the presence of houses, businesses, and associated utilities. This paper describes well finding methods conducted by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) that were effective at two small towns in Wyoming and in a suburb of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

  15. Population exposure dose reconstruction for the Urals Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Degteva, M.O.; Kozheurov, V.P.; Vorobiova, M.I.; Burmistrov, D.S.; Khokhryakov, V.V.; Suslova, K.G.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Napier, B.A.; Bouville, A.

    1996-06-01

    This presentation describes the first preliminary results of an ongoing joint Russian-US pilot feasibility study. Many people participated in workshops to determine what Russian and United States scientists could do together in the area of dose reconstruction in the Urals population. Most of the results presented here came from a joint work shop in St. Petersburg, Russia (11-13 July 1995). The Russians at the workshop represented the Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (URCRM), the Mayak Industrial Association, and Branch One of the Moscow Biophysics Institute. The US Collaborators were Dr. Anspaugh of LLNL, Dr. Nippier of PNL, and Dr. Bouville of the National Cancer Institute. The objective of the first year of collaboration was to look at the source term and levels of radiation contamination, the historical data available, and the results of previous work carried out by Russian scientists, and to determine a conceptual model for dose reconstruction.

  16. Population doses from environmental gamma radiation in Iraq

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marouf, B.A.; Mohamad, A.S.; Taha, J.S.; al-Haddad, I.K. )

    1992-05-01

    The exposure rates due to external gamma radiation were measured in 11 Iraqi governerates. Measurements were performed with an Environmental Monitoring System (RSS-111) in open air 1 m above the ground. The average absorbed dose rate in each governerate was as follows (number x 10(-2) microGy h-1): Babylon (6.0), Kerbala (5.3), Al-Najaf (5.4), Al-Kadysia (6.5), Wasit (6.5), Diala (6.5), Al-Anbar (6.5), Al-Muthana (6.6), Maisan (6.8), Thee-Kar (6.6), and Al-Basrah (6.5). The collective doses to the population living in these governerates were 499, 187, 239, 269, 262, 458, 384, 153, 250, 450, and 419 person-Sv, respectively.

  17. Inference of tumor evolution during chemotherapy by computational modeling and in situ analysis of genetic and phenotypic cellular diversity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Almendro, Vanessa; Cheng, Yu -Kang; Randles, Amanda; Itzkovitz, Shalev; Marusyk, Andriy; Ametller, Elisabet; Gonzalez-Farre, Xavier; Muñoz, Montse; Russnes, Hege  G.; Helland, Åslaug; et al

    2014-02-01

    Cancer therapy exerts a strong selection pressure that shapes tumor evolution, yet our knowledge of how tumors change during treatment is limited. Here, we report the analysis of cellular heterogeneity for genetic and phenotypic features and their spatial distribution in breast tumors pre- and post-neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We found that intratumor genetic diversity was tumor-subtype specific, and it did not change during treatment in tumors with partial or no response. However, lower pretreatment genetic diversity was significantly associated with pathologic complete response. In contrast, phenotypic diversity was different between pre- and post-treatment samples. We also observed significant changes in the spatialmore » distribution of cells with distinct genetic and phenotypic features. We used these experimental data to develop a stochastic computational model to infer tumor growth patterns and evolutionary dynamics. Our results highlight the importance of integrated analysis of genotypes and phenotypes of single cells in intact tissues to predict tumor evolution.« less

  18. Inference of tumor evolution during chemotherapy by computational modeling and in situ analysis of genetic and phenotypic cellular diversity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Almendro, Vanessa; Cheng, Yu -Kang; Randles, Amanda; Itzkovitz, Shalev; Marusyk, Andriy; Ametller, Elisabet; Gonzalez-Farre, Xavier; Muñoz, Montse; Russnes, Hege  G.; Helland, Åslaug; Rye, Inga  H.; Borresen-Dale, Anne -Lise; Maruyama, Reo; van Oudenaarden, Alexander; Dowsett, Mitchell; Jones, Robin  L.; Reis-Filho, Jorge; Gascon, Pere; Gönen, Mithat; Michor, Franziska; Polyak, Kornelia

    2014-02-01

    Cancer therapy exerts a strong selection pressure that shapes tumor evolution, yet our knowledge of how tumors change during treatment is limited. Here, we report the analysis of cellular heterogeneity for genetic and phenotypic features and their spatial distribution in breast tumors pre- and post-neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We found that intratumor genetic diversity was tumor-subtype specific, and it did not change during treatment in tumors with partial or no response. However, lower pretreatment genetic diversity was significantly associated with pathologic complete response. In contrast, phenotypic diversity was different between pre- and post-treatment samples. We also observed significant changes in the spatial distribution of cells with distinct genetic and phenotypic features. We used these experimental data to develop a stochastic computational model to infer tumor growth patterns and evolutionary dynamics. Our results highlight the importance of integrated analysis of genotypes and phenotypes of single cells in intact tissues to predict tumor evolution.

  19. Structural insight into mechanism and diverse substrate selection strategy of L-ribulokinase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwal R.; Swaminathan S.; Burley, S. K.

    2012-01-01

    The araBAD operon encodes three different enzymes required for catabolism of L-arabinose, which is one of the most abundant monosaccharides in nature. L-ribulokinase, encoded by the araB gene, catalyzes conversion of L-ribulose to L-ribulose-5-phosphate, the second step in the catabolic pathway. Unlike other kinases, ribulokinase exhibits diversity in substrate selectivity and catalyzes phosphorylation of all four 2-ketopentose sugars with comparable k{sub cat} values. To understand ribulokinase recognition and phosphorylation of a diverse set of substrates, we have determined the X-ray structure of ribulokinase from Bacillus halodurans bound to L-ribulose and investigated its substrate and ATP co-factor binding properties. The polypeptide chain is folded into two domains, one small and the other large, with a deep cleft in between. By analogy with related sugar kinases, we identified {sup 447}{und GG}LPQ{und K}{sup 452} as the ATP-binding motif within the smaller domain. L-ribulose binds in the cleft between the two domains via hydrogen bonds with the side chains of highly conserved Trp126, Lys208, Asp274, and Glu329 and the main chain nitrogen of Ala96. The interaction of L-ribulokinase with L-ribulose reveals versatile structural features that help explain recognition of various 2-ketopentose substrates and competitive inhibition by L-erythrulose. Comparison of our structure to that of the structures of other sugar kinases revealed conformational variations that suggest domain-domain closure movements are responsible for establishing the observed active site environment.

  20. Improved techniques for fluid diversion in oil recovery. First annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seright, R.S.

    1993-12-01

    This three-year project has two general objectives. The first objective is to compare the effectiveness of gels in fluid diversion with those of other types of processes. Several different types of fluid-diversion processes are being compared, including those using gels, foams, emulsions, and particulates. The ultimate goals of these comparisons are to (1) establish which of these processes are most effective in a given application, and (2) determine whether aspects of one process can be combined with those of other processes to improve performance. Analyses and experiments are being performed to verify which materials are the most effective in entering and blocking high-permeability zones. Another objective of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which materials (particularly gels) selectively reduce permeability to water more than to oil. This report describes work performed during the first year of the project. Following the introduction, Chapters 2 through 5 present several surveys concerning field applications of gel treatments. Based on the results of the surveys, guidelines are proposed in Chapter 5 for the selection of candidates for gel treatments (both injection wells and production wells). Chapters 6, 7, 8, and 11 discuss theoretical work that was performed during the project. Chapter 6 examines whether Hall plots indicated selectivity during gelant placement. Chapter 7 discusses several important theoretical aspects of gel treatments in production wells with water-coning problems. Chapter 8 considers exploitation of density differences during gelant placement. Chapter 11 presents a preliminary consideration of the use of precipitates as blocking agents. Chapters 9 and 10 detail the experimental work for the project. Chapter 9 describes an experimental investigation of gelant placement in fractured systems. Chapter 10 describes experiments that probe the mechanisms for disproportionate permeability reduction by gels.

  1. The RR Lyrae variable population in the Phoenix dwarf galaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ordoñez, Antonio J.; Sarajedini, Ata; Yang, Soung-Chul E-mail: ata@astro.ufl.edu

    2014-05-10

    We present the first detailed study of the RR Lyrae variable population in the Local Group dSph/dIrr transition galaxy, Phoenix, using previously obtained HST/WFPC2 observations of the galaxy. We utilize template light curve fitting routines to obtain best fit light curves for RR Lyrae variables in Phoenix. Our technique has identified 78 highly probable RR Lyrae stars (54 ab-type; 24 c-type) with about 40 additional candidates. We find mean periods for the two populations of (P {sub ab}) = 0.60 ± 0.03 days and (P{sub c} ) = 0.353 ± 0.002 days. We use the properties of these light curves to extract, among other things, a metallicity distribution function for ab-type RR Lyrae. Our analysis yields a mean metallicity of ([Fe/H]) = –1.68 ± 0.06 dex for the RRab stars. From the mean period and metallicity calculated from the ab-type RR Lyrae, we conclude that Phoenix is more likely of intermediate Oosterhoff type; however the morphology of the Bailey diagram for Phoenix RR Lyraes appears similar to that of an Oosterhoff type I system. Using the RRab stars, we also study the chemical enrichment law for Phoenix. We find that our metallicity distribution is reasonably well fitted by a closed-box model. The parameters of this model are compatible with the findings of Hidalgo et al., further supporting the idea that Phoenix appears to have been chemically enriched as a closed-box-like system during the early stage of its formation and evolution.

  2. Oncorhynchus nerka population monitoring in the Sawtooth Valley Lakes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teuscher, D.M.; Taki, D.; Ariwite, K.

    1996-05-01

    Critical habitat for endangered Snake River sockeye salmon includes five rearing lakes located in the Sawtooth Valley of central Idaho. Most of the lakes contain either introduced or endemic kokanee populations. Snake River sockeye occur naturally in Redfish Lake, and are being stocked in Redfish and Pettit Lakes. Because kokanee compete with sockeye for limited food resources, understanding population characteristics of both species such as spawn timing, egg-to-fry survival, distribution and abundance are important components of sockeye recovery. This chapter describes some of those characteristics. In 1995, hydroacoustic estimates of O. nerka densities in the Sawtooth Valley Lakes ranged from 57 to 465 fish/ha. Densities were greatest in Pettit followed by Redfish (167), Alturas (95), and Stanley Lakes. O. nerka numbers increased from 1994 values in Pettit and Alturas Lakes, but declined in Redfish and Stanley. Despite a decline in total lake abundance, O. nerka biomass estimates in Redfish Lake increased. Approximately 144,000 kokanee fry recruited to Redfish Lake from Fishhook Creek. O. nerka fry recruitment to Stanley and Alturas lake was 5,000 and 30,000 fry, respectively. Egg-to-fry survival was 14% in Fishhook and 7% in Stanley Lake Creek. In Fishhook Creek, kokanee spawning escapement was estimated using stream surveys and a weir. Escapement estimates were 4,860 from weir counts, and 7,000 from stream surveys. As part of the kokanee reduction program, 385 of the spawning female kokanee were culled. Escapement for Stanley Lake Creek was only 60 fish, a ten fold decrease from 1994. In Alturas Lake, kokanee spawners dropped by 50% to 1,600.

  3. Electrostatic analyzer measurements of ionospheric thermal ion populations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fernandes, P. A.; Lynch, K. A.

    2016-07-09

    Here, we define the observational parameter regime necessary for observing low-altitude ionospheric origins of high-latitude ion up ow/out ow. We present measurement challenges and identify a new analysis technique which mitigates these impediments. To probe the initiation of auroral ion up ow, it is necessary to examine the thermal ion population at 200{350 km, where typical thermal energies are tenths of eV. Interpretation of the thermal ion distribution function measurement requires removal of payload sheath and ram effects. We use a 3-D Maxwellian model to quantify how observed ionospheric parameters such as density, temperature, and flows affect in situ measurementsmore » of the thermal ion distribution function. We define the viable acceptance window of a typical top-hat electrostatic analyzer in this regime and show that the instrument's energy resolution prohibits it from directly observing the shape of the particle spectra. To extract detailed information about measured particle population, we define two intermediate parameters from the measured distribution function, then use a Maxwellian model to replicate possible measured parameters for comparison to the data. Liouville's theorem and the thin-sheath approximation allow us to couple the measured and modeled intermediate parameters such that measurements inside the sheath provide information about plasma out- side the sheath. We apply this technique to sounding rocket data to show that careful windowing of the data and Maxwellian models allows for extraction of the best choice of geophysical parameters. More widespread use of this analysis technique will help our community expand its observational database of the seed regions of ionospheric outflows.« less

  4. Multi-institutional dosimetric and geometric commissioning of image-guided small animal irradiators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindsay, P. E.; Granton, P. V.; Hoof, S. van; Hermans, J.; Gasparini, A.; Jelveh, S.; Clarkson, R.; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1; Mid-South Radiation Physics, Inc., 1801 South 54th Street, Paragould, Arkansas 72450 ; Kaas, J.; Wittkamper, F.; Sonke, J.-J.; Verhaegen, F.; Medical Physics Unit, Department of Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Qubec H3G 1A4 ; Jaffray, D. A.; Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 1A1; The TECHNA Institute for the Advancement of Technology for Health, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: To compare the dosimetric and geometric properties of a commercial x-ray based image-guided small animal irradiation system, installed at three institutions and to establish a complete and broadly accessible commissioning procedure. Methods: The system consists of a 225 kVp x-ray tube with fixed field size collimators ranging from 1 to 44 mm equivalent diameter. The x-ray tube is mounted opposite a flat-panel imaging detector, on a C-arm gantry with 360 coplanar rotation. Each institution performed a full commissioning of their system, including half-value layer, absolute dosimetry, relative dosimetry (profiles, percent depth dose, and relative output factors), and characterization of the system geometry and mechanical flex of the x-ray tube and detector. Dosimetric measurements were made using Farmer-type ionization chambers, small volume air and liquid ionization chambers, and radiochromic film. The results between the three institutions were compared. Results: At 225kVp, with 0.3 mm Cu added filtration, the first half value layer ranged from 0.9 to 1.0 mm Cu. The dose-rate in-air for a 40 40 mm{sup 2} field size, at a source-to-axis distance of 30 cm, ranged from 3.5 to 3.9 Gy/min between the three institutions. For field sizes between 2.5 mm diameter and 40 40 mm{sup 2}, the differences between percent depth dose curves up to depths of 3.5 cm were between 1% and 4% on average, with the maximum difference being 7%. The profiles agreed very well for fields >5 mm diameter. The relative output factors differed by up to 6% for fields larger than 10 mm diameter, but differed by up to 49% for fields ?5 mm diameter. The mechanical characteristics of the system (source-to-axis and source-to-detector distances) were consistent between all three institutions. There were substantial differences in the flex of each system. Conclusions: With the exception of the half-value layer, and mechanical properties, there were significant differences between the

  5. IMPROVED BIOREFINERY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL, CHEMICALS, ANIMAL FEED AND BIOMATERIALS FROM SUGAR CANE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Donal F. Day

    2009-01-29

    The Audubon Sugar Institute (ASI) of Louisiana State University’s Agricultural Center (LSU AgCenter) and MBI International (MBI) sought to develop technologies that will lead to the development of a sugar-cane biorefinery, capable of supplying fuel ethanol from bagasse. Technology development focused on the conversion of bagasse, cane-leaf matter (CLM) and molasses into high value-added products that included ethanol, specialty chemicals, biomaterials and animal feed; i.e. a sugar cane-based biorefinery. The key to lignocellulosic biomass utilization is an economically feasible method (pretreatment) for separating the cellulose and the hemicellulose from the physical protection provided by lignin. An effective pretreatment disrupts physical barriers, cellulose crystallinity, and the association of lignin and hemicellulose with cellulose so that hydrolytic enzymes can access the biomass macrostructure (Teymouri et al. 2004, Laureano-Perez, 2005). We chose to focus on alkaline pretreatment methods for, and in particular, the Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) process owned by MBI. During the first two years of this program a laboratory process was established for the pretreatment of bagasse and CLM using the AFEX process. There was significant improvement of both rate and yield of glucose and xylose upon enzymatic hydrolysis of AFEX-treated bagasse and CLM compared with untreated material. Because of reactor size limitation, several other alkaline pretreatment methods were also co-investigated. They included, dilute ammonia, lime and hydroxy-hypochlorite treatments. Scale-up focused on using a dilute ammonia process as a substitute for AFEX, allowing development at a larger scale. The pretreatment of bagasse by an ammonia process, followed by saccharification and fermentation produced ethanol from bagasse. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) allowed two operations in the same vessel. The addition of sugarcane molasses to the hydrolysate

  6. Summer investigations into the metabolic diversity of the microbial world. Progress report, May 5, 1992--April 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breznak, J.; Dworkin, M.

    1993-05-17

    The philosophy of the course described here is to underscore the essence of microbiology which is diversity>: diversity of morphology and cellular development, behavior, and metabolic and physiological functions. Emphasis is on microbes other than those customarily covered in conventional microbiology courses and includes: the archaebacteria, extremophiles, and array of obligate anaerobes, various phototrophs, and those microbes exhibiting complex developmental cycles. Also included are microbes carrying out a variety of transformations of organic and inorganic compounds, as well as those which normally occur in symbiotic association with other microbes or with higher forms of life.

  7. Locally-Adaptive, Spatially-Explicit Projection of U.S. Population for 2030 and 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKee, Jacob J; Rose, Amy N; Bright, Eddie A; Huynh, Timmy N; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2015-01-01

    Localized adverse events, including natural hazards, epidemiological events, and human conflict, underscore the criticality of quantifying and mapping current population. Moreover, knowing the spatial distribution of future population allows for increased preparation in the event of an emergency. Building on the spatial interpolation technique previously developed for high resolution population distribution data (LandScan Global and LandScan USA), we have constructed an empirically-informed spatial distribution of the projected population of the contiguous U.S. for 2030 and 2050. Whereas most current large-scale, spatially explicit population projections typically rely on a population gravity model to determine areas of future growth, our projection model departs from these by accounting for multiple components that affect population distribution. Modelled variables, which included land cover, slope, distances to larger cities, and a moving average of current population, were locally adaptive and geographically varying. The resulting weighted surface was used to determine which areas had the greatest likelihood for future population change. Population projections of county level numbers were developed using a modified version of the U.S. Census s projection methodology with the U.S. Census s official projection as the benchmark. Applications of our model include, but are not limited to, suitability modelling, service area planning for governmental agencies, consequence assessment, mitigation planning and implementation, and assessment of spatially vulnerable populations.

  8. Remarkable waxing, waning, and wandering of populations of Mimulus guttatus: An unexpected example of global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vickery, R.K. Jr.

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the dynamics of a meta-population of Mimulus guttatus. Changes in size and location of 16 original populations and the new populations established in their vicinities in Big Cottonwood Canyon, Salt Lake county, Utah, were observed for 25 yr. Twenty-three new populations appeared. Seven original populations and 13 new populations had become extinct by the end of the observation period in 1996. Many populations died out and were reestablished, often repeatedly, during the observation period. Altogether there were 54 population disappearances and 34 reappearances. Many populations changed size as much as 100-fold or more from year to year. There were spectacular examples of populations expanding to fill newly available, large habitats. Frequent extinctions were due overwhelmingly to the canyon drying trend, which led to the drying up of most Mill D North drainage springs, creeks, and ponds. Precipitation and minimum temperatures increased moderately during the observation period. The growing season lengthened almost 50%, a typical consequence of global warming. The drying trend, lengthened growing season, and disappearance of Mimulus populations in Big Cottonwood Canyon appear to be a clear, local example of global warming.

  9. Locally-Adaptive, Spatially-Explicit Projection of U.S. Population for 2030 and 2050

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McKee, Jacob J.; Rose, Amy N.; Bright, Eddie A.; Huynh, Timmy N.; Bhaduri, Budhendra L.

    2015-02-03

    Localized adverse events, including natural hazards, epidemiological events, and human conflict, underscore the criticality of quantifying and mapping current population. Moreover, knowing the spatial distribution of future population allows for increased preparation in the event of an emergency. Building on the spatial interpolation technique previously developed for high resolution population distribution data (LandScan Global and LandScan USA), we have constructed an empirically-informed spatial distribution of the projected population of the contiguous U.S. for 2030 and 2050. Whereas most current large-scale, spatially explicit population projections typically rely on a population gravity model to determine areas of future growth, our projection modelmore » departs from these by accounting for multiple components that affect population distribution. Modelled variables, which included land cover, slope, distances to larger cities, and a moving average of current population, were locally adaptive and geographically varying. The resulting weighted surface was used to determine which areas had the greatest likelihood for future population change. Population projections of county level numbers were developed using a modified version of the U.S. Census s projection methodology with the U.S. Census s official projection as the benchmark. Applications of our model include, but are not limited to, suitability modelling, service area planning for governmental agencies, consequence assessment, mitigation planning and implementation, and assessment of spatially vulnerable populations.« less

  10. Data Driven Approach for High Resolution Population Distribution and Dynamics Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Bright, Eddie A; Rose, Amy N; Liu, Cheng; Urban, Marie L; Stewart, Robert N

    2014-01-01

    High resolution population distribution data are vital for successfully addressing critical issues ranging from energy and socio-environmental research to public health to human security. Commonly available population data from Census is constrained both in space and time and does not capture population dynamics as functions of space and time. This imposes a significant limitation on the fidelity of event-based simulation models with sensitive space-time resolution. This paper describes ongoing development of high-resolution population distribution and dynamics models, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, through spatial data integration and modeling with behavioral or activity-based mobility datasets for representing temporal dynamics of population. The model is resolved at 1 km resolution globally and describes the U.S. population for nighttime and daytime at 90m. Integration of such population data provides the opportunity to develop simulations and applications in critical infrastructure management from local to global scales.

  11. Memorandums of Understanding Between the Department of Energy and the Buckman Direct Diversion Board Regarding Water Quality Monitoring and Surface Water Protection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    At the April 27, 2016 Combined Committee Meeting: The Department of Energy and Los Alamos National Laboratory gave a presentation on the Buckman Direct Diversion.

  12. Farm scale electrical power production from animal waste. Volume I. Final report, 30 June 1981-30 December 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, P.A.

    1984-01-31

    A 1 1/2 (dry) tons per day biodigester cogeneration plant has been designed and constructed. This project is part of a federal program to promote energy conservation and the use of non-conventional energy resources. The main purpose of the project is to demonstrate that a dairy farm can generate its own power and supply excess power to a local utility. Such a facility can produce significant energy savings to livestock farms and small communities by allowing them to get energy from raw animal and human waste. Also, an odorless by-product is produced that is nearly pathogenically free and has the possibility of several end uses such as: fertilizer and soil conditioner, protein-rich animal refeed, livestock bedding material, and aquatic food for fish farming. 53 references, 18 figures, 4 tables.

  13. Fact #922: April 25, 2016 Share of Older Population Holding Driver’s Licenses is Up and Share of Younger Population Holding Driver’s Licenses is Down- Dataset

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file and dataset for Share of Older Population Holding Driver’s Licenses is Up and Share of Younger Population Holding Driver’s Licenses is Down

  14. Nuisance Source Population Modeling for Radiation Detection System Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sokkappa, P; Lange, D; Nelson, K; Wheeler, R

    2009-10-05

    A major challenge facing the prospective deployment of radiation detection systems for homeland security applications is the discrimination of radiological or nuclear 'threat sources' from radioactive, but benign, 'nuisance sources'. Common examples of such nuisance sources include naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), medical patients who have received radioactive drugs for either diagnostics or treatment, and industrial sources. A sensitive detector that cannot distinguish between 'threat' and 'benign' classes will generate false positives which, if sufficiently frequent, will preclude it from being operationally deployed. In this report, we describe a first-principles physics-based modeling approach that is used to approximate the physical properties and corresponding gamma ray spectral signatures of real nuisance sources. Specific models are proposed for the three nuisance source classes - NORM, medical and industrial. The models can be validated against measured data - that is, energy spectra generated with the model can be compared to actual nuisance source data. We show by example how this is done for NORM and medical sources, using data sets obtained from spectroscopic detector deployments for cargo container screening and urban area traffic screening, respectively. In addition to capturing the range of radioactive signatures of individual nuisance sources, a nuisance source population model must generate sources with a frequency of occurrence consistent with that found in actual movement of goods and people. Measured radiation detection data can indicate these frequencies, but, at present, such data are available only for a very limited set of locations and time periods. In this report, we make more general estimates of frequencies for NORM and medical sources using a range of data sources such as shipping manifests and medical treatment statistics. We also identify potential data sources for industrial source frequencies, but leave the task of

  15. Final Report - Epigenetics of low dose radiation effects in an animal model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kovalchuk, Olga

    2014-10-22

    This project sought mechanistic understanding of the epigenetic response of tissues as well as the consequences of those responses, when induced by low dose irradiation in a well-established model system (mouse). Based on solid and extensive preliminary data we investigated the molecular epigenetic mechanisms of in vivo radiation responses, particularly – effects of low, occupationally relevant radiation exposures on the genome stability and adaptive response in mammalian tissues and organisms. We accumulated evidence that low dose irradiation altered epigenetic profiles and impacted radiation target organs of the exposed animals. The main long-term goal was to dissect the epigenetic basis of induction of the low dose radiation-induced genome instability and adaptive response and the specific fundamental roles of epigenetic changes (i.e. DNA methylation, histone modifications and miRNAs) in their generation. We hypothesized that changes in global and regional DNA methylation, global histone modifications and regulatory microRNAs played pivotal roles in the generation and maintenance low-dose radiation-induced genome instability and adaptive response. We predicted that epigenetic changes influenced the levels of genetic rearrangements (transposone reactivation). We hypothesized that epigenetic responses from low dose irradiation were dependent on exposure regimes, and would be greatest when organisms are exposed in a protracted/fractionated manner: fractionated exposures > acute exposures. We anticipated that the epigenetic responses were correlated with the gene expression levels. Our immediate objectives were: • To investigate the exact nature of the global and locus-specific DNA methylation changes in the LDR exposed cells and tissues and dissect their roles in adaptive response • To investigate the roles of histone modifications in the low dose radiation effects and adaptive response • To dissect the roles of regulatory microRNAs and their targets in low

  16. Pair instability supernovae of very massive population III stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Ke-Jung; Woosley, Stan; Heger, Alexander; Almgren, Ann; Whalen, Daniel J.

    2014-09-01

    Numerical studies of primordial star formation suggest that the first stars in the universe may have been very massive. Stellar models indicate that non-rotating Population III stars with initial masses of 140-260 M {sub ☉} die as highly energetic pair-instability supernovae. We present new two-dimensional simulations of primordial pair-instability supernovae done with the CASTRO code. Our simulations begin at earlier times than previous multidimensional models, at the onset of core contraction, to capture any dynamical instabilities that may be seeded by core contraction and explosive burning. Such instabilities could enhance explosive yields by mixing hot ash with fuel, thereby accelerating nuclear burning, and affect the spectra of the supernova by dredging up heavy elements from greater depths in the star at early times. Our grid of models includes both blue supergiants and red supergiants over the range in progenitor mass expected for these events. We find that fluid instabilities driven by oxygen and helium burning arise at the upper and lower boundaries of the oxygen shell ∼20-100 s after core bounce. Instabilities driven by burning freeze out after the SN shock exits the helium core. As the shock later propagates through the hydrogen envelope, a strong reverse shock forms that drives the growth of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. In red supergiant progenitors, the amplitudes of these instabilities are sufficient to mix the supernova ejecta.

  17. Assessment of plutonium exposure in the Enewetak population by urinalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, L.C.; Meinhold, C.B.; Moorthy, A.R.

    1997-07-01

    Since 1980, the inhabitants of Enewetak Atoll have been monitored periodically by scientists from Brookhaven National Laboratory for internally deposited radioactive material. In 1989, the establishment of fission track analysis and of a protocol for shipboard collection of 24-h urine samples significantly improved our ability to assess the internal uptake of plutonium. The purpose of this report is to show the distribution of plutonium concentrations in urine collected in 1989 and 1991, and to assess the associated committed effective doses for the Enewetak population based on a long-term chronic uptake of low-level plutonium. To estimate dose, we derived the plutonium dose-per-unit-uptake coefficients based on the dosimetric system of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Assuming a continuous uptake, an integrated Jones`s plutonium urine excretion function was developed to interpret the Enewetak urine data. The Appendix shows how these values were derived. The committed effective doses were 0.2 mSv, calculated from the 1991 average plutonium content in 69 urine samples. 29 refs., 3 tabs.

  18. Climate change and health: Indoor heat exposure in vulnerable populations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White-Newsome, Jalonne L.; Sanchez, Brisa N.; Jolliet, Olivier; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Parker, Edith A.; Timothy Dvonch, J.; O'Neill, Marie S.

    2012-01-15

    Introduction: Climate change is increasing the frequency of heat waves and hot weather in many urban environments. Older people are more vulnerable to heat exposure but spend most of their time indoors. Few published studies have addressed indoor heat exposure in residences occupied by an elderly population. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between outdoor and indoor temperatures in homes occupied by the elderly and determine other predictors of indoor temperature. Materials and methods: We collected hourly indoor temperature measurements of 30 different homes; outdoor temperature, dewpoint temperature, and solar radiation data during summer 2009 in Detroit, MI. We used mixed linear regression to model indoor temperatures' responsiveness to weather, housing and environmental characteristics, and evaluated our ability to predict indoor heat exposures based on outdoor conditions. Results: Average maximum indoor temperature for all locations was 34.85 Degree-Sign C, 13.8 Degree-Sign C higher than average maximum outdoor temperature. Indoor temperatures of single family homes constructed of vinyl paneling or wood siding were more sensitive than brick homes to outdoor temperature changes and internal heat gains. Outdoor temperature, solar radiation, and dewpoint temperature predicted 38% of the variability of indoor temperatures. Conclusions: Indoor exposures to heat in Detroit exceed the comfort range among elderly occupants, and can be predicted using outdoor temperatures, characteristics of the housing stock and surroundings to improve heat exposure assessment for epidemiological investigations. Weatherizing homes and modifying home surroundings could mitigate indoor heat exposure among the elderly.

  19. Negative terahertz conductivity in disordered graphene bilayers with population inversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Svintsov, D.; Otsuji, T.; Ryzhii, V.; Mitin, V.; Shur, M. S.

    2015-03-16

    The gapless energy band spectra make the structures based on graphene and graphene bilayer with the population inversion to be promising media for the interband terahertz (THz) lasing. However, a strong intraband absorption at THz frequencies still poses a challenge for efficient THz lasing. In this paper, we show that in the pumped graphene bilayer, the indirect interband radiative transitions accompanied by scattering of carriers by disorder can provide a substantial negative contribution to the THz conductivity (together with the direct interband transitions). In the graphene bilayer on high-? substrates with point charged defects, these transitions substantially compensate the losses due to the intraband (Drude) absorption. We also demonstrate that the indirect interband contribution to the THz conductivity in a graphene bilayer with the extended defects (such as the charged impurity clusters) can surpass by several times the fundamental limit associated with the direct interband transitions, and the Drude conductivity as well. These predictions can affect the strategy of the graphene-based THz laser implementation.

  20. Targeted intervention strategies to optimise diversion of BMW in the Dublin, Ireland region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Purcell, M.; Magette, W.L.

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > Previous research indicates that targeted strategies designed for specific areas should lead to improved diversion. > Survey responses and GIS model predictions from previous research were the basis for goal setting. > Then logic modelling and behavioural research were employed to develop site-specific management intervention strategies. > Waste management initiatives can be tailored to specific needs of areas rather than one size fits all means currently used. - Abstract: Urgent transformation is required in Ireland to divert biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) from landfill and prevent increases in overall waste generation. When BMW is optimally managed, it becomes a resource with value instead of an unwanted by-product requiring disposal. An analysis of survey responses from commercial and residential sectors for the Dublin region in previous research by the authors proved that attitudes towards and behaviour regarding municipal solid waste is spatially variable. This finding indicates that targeted intervention strategies designed for specific geographic areas should lead to improved diversion rates of BMW from landfill, a requirement of the Landfill Directive 1999/31/EC. In the research described in this paper, survey responses and GIS model predictions from previous research were the basis for goal setting, after which logic modelling and behavioural research were employed to develop site-specific waste management intervention strategies. The main strategies devised include (a) roll out of the Brown Bin (Organics) Collection and Community Workshops in Dun Laoghaire Rathdown, (b) initiation of a Community Composting Project in Dublin City (c) implementation of a Waste Promotion and Motivation Scheme in South Dublin (d) development and distribution of a Waste Booklet to promote waste reduction activities in Fingal (e) region wide distribution of a Waste Booklet to the commercial sector and (f) Greening Irish Pubs Initiative. Each of these

  1. A Universal Model for Nanoporous Carbon Supercapacitors Applicable to Diverse Pore Regimes, Carbons, and Electrolyte

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sumpter, Bobby G; Huang, Jingsong; Meunier, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Supercapacitors, commonly called electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs), are emerging as a novel type of energy storage device with the potential to substitute batteries in applications requiring high power densities. In response to the latest experimental breakthrough in nanoporous carbon supercapacitors, we propose a heuristic theoretical model that takes pore curvature into account as a replacement for the EDLC model which is based on a traditional parallel-plate capacitor. When the pore size is in the mesopore regime (2-50 nm), counterions enter mesoporous carbons and approach the pore wall to form an electric double-cylinder capacitor (EDCC); in the micropore regime (< 2 nm), solvated/desolvated counterions line up along the pore axis to form an electric wire-in-cylinder capacitor (EWCC). In the macropore regime (> 50 nm) where pores are large enough so that the pore curvature is no longer significant, the EDCC model can be reduced naturally to the EDLC model. We present density functional theory calculations and detailed analyses of available experimental data in various pore regimes, showing the significant effects of pore curvature on the supercapacitor properties of nanoporous carbons. It is shown that the EDCC/EWCC model is universal to carbon supercapacitors with diverse carbon materials including activated carbons, template carbons, and novel carbide-derived carbons, and with diverse electrolytes including organic electrolytes such as tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEABF4), tetraethylammonium methyl-sulfonate (TEAMS) in acetonitrile, aqueous H2SO4 and KOH electrolytes, and even ionic liquid electrolyte such as 1-ethyl-3-methylimmidazolium bis(trifluromethane-sulfonyl)imide (EMI-TFSI). The EDCC/EWCC model allows the supercapacitor properties to be correlated with pore size, specific surface area, Debye length, electrolyte concentration and dielectric constant, and solute ion size, and may lend a support for the systematic optimization of the

  2. Genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium in Drosophila melanogaster with different rates of development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marinkovic, D.; Tucic, N.; Moya, A.; Ayala, F.J.

    1987-11-01

    The authors examined eight enzyme polymorphisms in groups of Drosophila melanogaster flies with fast, intermediate and slow development. The allelic frequencies are similar in all three developmental classes, but the distribution of the genotypes among the class is significantly heterogeneous for the three loci on the second chromosome. When the total sample of 300 individuals is examined, significant gametic disequilibrium appears in 3 out of 13 pairs of genes located on the same chromosome and in 4 out of 15 pairs of genes located on different chromosomes. This 25% incidence of disequilibrium between pairs of genes is larger than previously observed in other natural populations (but similar to the incidence observed in laboratory populations). The greater frequency of significant gametic disequilibrium in our study is probably due to the large number of genomes sampled. Some models specifically predict that individuals with faster rates of development (i.e., greater fitness) should be more heterozygous (and exhibit more linkage disequilibrium) than individuals with slower development. This hypothesis is not supported by our results.

  3. Reliability enhancement of APR + diverse protection system regarding common cause failures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oh, Y. G.; Kim, Y. M.; Yim, H. S.; Lee, S. J.

    2012-07-01

    The Advanced Power Reactor Plus (APR +) nuclear power plant design has been developed on the basis of the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400 MWe) to further enhance safety and economics. For the mitigation of Anticipated Transients Without Scram (ATWS) as well as Common Cause Failures (CCF) within the Plant Protection System (PPS) and the Emergency Safety Feature - Component Control System (ESF-CCS), several design improvement features have been implemented for the Diverse Protection System (DPS) of the APR + plant. As compared to the APR1400 DPS design, the APR + DPS has been designed to provide the Safety Injection Actuation Signal (SIAS) considering a large break LOCA accident concurrent with the CCF. Additionally several design improvement features, such as channel structure with redundant processing modules, and changes of system communication methods and auto-system test methods, are introduced to enhance the functional reliability of the DPS. Therefore, it is expected that the APR + DPS can provide an enhanced safety and reliability regarding possible CCF in the safety-grade I and C systems as well as the DPS itself. (authors)

  4. Phylum-wide comparative genomics unravel the diversity of secondary metabolism in Cyanobacteria

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Calteau, Alexandra; Fewer, David P.; Latifi, Amel; Coursin, Thérèse; Laurent, Thierry; Jokela, Jouni; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.; Sivonen, Kaarina; Piel, Jörn; Gugger, Muriel

    2014-11-18

    Cyanobacteria are an ancient lineage of photosynthetic bacteria from which hundreds of natural products have been described, including many notorious toxins but also potent natural products of interest to the pharmaceutical and biotechnological industries. Many of these compounds are the products of non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) or polyketide synthase (PKS) pathways. However, current understanding of the diversification of these pathways is largely based on the chemical structure of the bioactive compounds, while the evolutionary forces driving their remarkable chemical diversity are poorly understood. We carried out a phylum-wide investigation of genetic diversification of the cyanobacterial NRPS and PKS pathways formore » the production of bioactive compounds. 452 NRPS and PKS gene clusters were identified from 89 cyanobacterial genomes, revealing a clear burst in late-branching lineages. Our genomic analysis further grouped the clusters into 286 highly diversified cluster families (CF) of pathways. Some CFs appeared vertically inherited, while others presented a more complex evolutionary history. Only a few horizontal gene transfers were evidenced amongst strongly conserved CFs in the phylum, while several others have undergone drastic gene shuffling events, which could result in the observed diversification of the pathways. In addition to toxin production, several NRPS and PKS gene clusters are devoted to important cellular processes of these bacteria such as nitrogen fixation and iron uptake. The majority of the biosynthetic clusters identified here have unknown end products, highlighting the power of genome mining for the discovery of new natural products.« less

  5. Phylum-wide comparative genomics unravel the diversity of secondary metabolism in Cyanobacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calteau, Alexandra; Fewer, David P.; Latifi, Amel; Coursin, Thrse; Laurent, Thierry; Jokela, Jouni; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.; Sivonen, Kaarina; Piel, Jrn; Gugger, Muriel

    2014-11-18

    Cyanobacteria are an ancient lineage of photosynthetic bacteria from which hundreds of natural products have been described, including many notorious toxins but also potent natural products of interest to the pharmaceutical and biotechnological industries. Many of these compounds are the products of non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) or polyketide synthase (PKS) pathways. However, current understanding of the diversification of these pathways is largely based on the chemical structure of the bioactive compounds, while the evolutionary forces driving their remarkable chemical diversity are poorly understood. We carried out a phylum-wide investigation of genetic diversification of the cyanobacterial NRPS and PKS pathways for the production of bioactive compounds. 452 NRPS and PKS gene clusters were identified from 89 cyanobacterial genomes, revealing a clear burst in late-branching lineages. Our genomic analysis further grouped the clusters into 286 highly diversified cluster families (CF) of pathways. Some CFs appeared vertically inherited, while others presented a more complex evolutionary history. Only a few horizontal gene transfers were evidenced amongst strongly conserved CFs in the phylum, while several others have undergone drastic gene shuffling events, which could result in the observed diversification of the pathways. In addition to toxin production, several NRPS and PKS gene clusters are devoted to important cellular processes of these bacteria such as nitrogen fixation and iron uptake. The majority of the biosynthetic clusters identified here have unknown end products, highlighting the power of genome mining for the discovery of new natural products.

  6. H{sub ?} SPECTRAL DIVERSITY OF TYPE II SUPERNOVAE: CORRELATIONS WITH PHOTOMETRIC PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gutirrez, Claudia P.; Hamuy, Mario; Gonzlez-Gaitn, Santiago [Millennium Institute of Astrophysics, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Anderson, Joseph P. [Departamento de Astronoma, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Folatelli, Gastn [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (IPMU), University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Morrell, Nidia I.; Phillips, Mark M.; Thomas-Osip, Joanna [Carnegie Observatories, Las Campanas Observatory, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Stritzinger, Maximilian D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); McCarthy, Patrick [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Suntzeff, Nicholas B., E-mail: cgutierr@das.uchile.cl [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2014-05-10

    We present a spectroscopic analysis of the H{sub ?} profiles of hydrogen-rich Type II supernovae. A total of 52 Type II supernovae having well-sampled optical light curves and spectral sequences were analyzed. Concentrating on the H{sub ?} P-Cygni profile we measure its velocity from the FWHM of the emission and the ratio of absorption to emission (a/e) at a common epoch at the start of the recombination phase, and search for correlations between these spectral parameters and photometric properties of the V-band light curves. Testing the strength of various correlations we find that a/e appears to be the dominant spectral parameter in terms of describing the diversity in our measured supernova properties. It is found that supernovae with smaller a/e have higher H{sub ?} velocities, more rapidly declining light curves from maximum during the plateau and radioactive tail phase, are brighter at maximum light, and have shorter optically thick phase durations. We discuss possible explanations of these results in terms of physical properties of Type II supernovae, speculating that the most likely parameters that influence the morphologies of H{sub ?} profiles are the mass and density profile of the hydrogen envelope, together with additional emission components due to circumstellar interaction.

  7. Diversity, Function and Evolution of Genes Coding for Putative Ni-Containing Superoxide Dismutases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dupont,C.; Neupane, K.; Shearer, J.; Palenik, B.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the phylogenetic distribution, functionality and evolution of the sodN gene family, which has been shown to code for a unique Ni-containing isoform of superoxide dismutase (Ni-SOD) in Streptomyces. Many of the putative sodN sequences retrieved from public domain genomic and metagenomic databases are quite divergent from structurally and functionally characterized Ni-SOD. Structural bioinformatics studies verified that the divergent members of the sodN protein family code for similar three-dimensional structures and identified evolutionarily conserved amino acid residues. Structural and biochemical studies of the N-terminus 'Ni-hook' motif coded for by the putative sodN sequences confirmed both Ni (II) ligating and superoxide dismutase activity. Both environmental and organismal genomes expanded the previously noted phylogenetic distribution of sodN, and the sequences form four well-separated clusters, with multiple subclusters. The phylogenetic distribution of sodN suggests that the gene has been acquired via horizontal gene transfer by numerous organisms of diverse phylogenetic background, including both Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes. The presence of sodN correlates with the genomic absence of the gene coding for Fe-SOD, a structurally and evolutionarily distinct isoform of SOD. Given the low levels of Fe found in the marine environment from where many sequences were attained, we suggest that the replacement of Fe-SOD with Ni-SOD may be an evolutionary adaptation to reduce iron requirements.

  8. Prokaryotic diversity, distribution, and insights into their role in biogeochemical cycling in marine basalts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mason, Olivia U.; Di Meo-Savoie, Carol A.; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong; Fisk, Martin R.; Giovannoni, Stephen J.

    2008-09-30

    We used molecular techniques to analyze basalts of varying ages that were collected from the East Pacific Rise, 9 oN, from the rift axis of the Juan de Fuca Ridge, and from neighboring seamounts. Cluster analysis of 16S rDNA Terminal Restriction Fragment Polymorphism data revealed that basalt endoliths are distinct from seawater and that communities clustered, to some degree, based on the age of the host rock. This age-based clustering suggests that alteration processes may affect community structure. Cloning and sequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes revealed twelve different phyla and sub-phyla associated with basalts. These include the Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, the candidate phylum SBR1093 in the c, andin the Archaea Marine Benthic Group B, none of which have been previously reported in basalts. We delineated novel ocean crust clades in the gamma-Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Actinobacteria that are composed entirely of basalt associated microflora, and may represent basalt ecotypes. Finally, microarray analysis of functional genes in basalt revealed that genes coding for previously unreported processes such as carbon fixation, methane-oxidation, methanogenesis, and nitrogen fixation are present, suggesting that basalts harbor previously unrecognized metabolic diversity. These novel processes could exert a profound influence on ocean chemistry.

  9. Diverse properties of interstellar medium embedding gamma-ray bursts at the epoch of reionization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cen, Renyue; Kimm, Taysun

    2014-10-10

    Analysis is performed on ultra-high-resolution large-scale cosmological radiation-hydrodynamic simulations to quantify, for the first time, the physical environment of long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) at the epoch of reionization. We find that, on parsec scales, 13% of GRBs remain in high-density (?10{sup 4} cm{sup 3}) low-temperature star-forming regions, whereas 87% of GRBs occur in low-density (?10{sup 2.5} cm{sup 3}) high-temperature regions heated by supernovae. More importantly, the spectral properties of GRB afterglows, such as the neutral hydrogen column density, total hydrogen column density, dust column density, gas temperature, and metallicity of intervening absorbers, vary strongly from sight line to sight line. Although our model explains extant limited observationally inferred values with respect to circumburst density, metallicity, column density, and dust properties, a substantially larger sample of high-z GRB afterglows would be required to facilitate a statistically solid test of the model. Our findings indicate that any attempt to infer the physical properties (such as metallicity) of the interstellar medium (ISM) of the host galaxy based on a very small number (usually one) of sight lines would be precarious. Utilizing high-z GRBs to probe the ISM and intergalactic medium should be undertaken properly, taking into consideration the physical diversities of the ISM.

  10. Single-shot high-resolution characterization of optical pulses by temporal phase diversity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dorrer, C.; Waxer, L. J.; Kalb, A.; Hill, E. M.; Bromage, J.

    2015-01-01

    The concept of temporal phase diversity is proposed and applied to the temporal characterization of optical pulses. The experimental trace is composed of the measured power of a plurality of ancillary optical pulses derived from the pulse under test by adding known amounts of chromatic dispersion. The spectral phase of the pulse under test is retrieved by minimizing the error between the experimental trace and a trace calculated from the optical spectrum using the known diagnostic parameters. An assembly composed of splitters and dispersive delay fibers has been used to generate 64 ancillary pulses whose instantaneous power can be detectedmorein a single shot with a high-bandwidth photodiode and oscilloscope. Pulse-shape reconstruction for pulses shorter than the photodetection impulse response has been demonstrated.The diagnostic is experimentally shown to accurately characterize pulses from a chirped-pulseamplification system when its stretcher is detuned from the position for optimal recompression. Various investigations of the performance with respect to the number of ancillary pulses and the range of chromatic dispersion generated in the diagnostic are presented.less

  11. Comparison of environmental and isolate Sulfobacillus genomes reveals diverse carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, and hydrogen metabolisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Justice, Nicholas B.; Norman, Anders; Brown, Christopher T.; Singh, Andrea; Thomas, Brian C.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2014-12-15

    Bacteria of the genus Sulfobacillus are found worldwide as members of microbial communities that accelerate sulfide mineral dissolution in acid mine drainage environments (AMD), acid-rock drainage environments (ARD), as well as in industrial bioleaching operations. Despite their frequent identification in these environments, their role in biogeochemical cycling is poorly understood. Here we report draft genomes of five species of the Sulfobacillus genus (AMDSBA1-5) reconstructed by cultivation-independent sequencing of biofilms sampled from the Richmond Mine (Iron Mountain, CA). Three of these species (AMDSBA2, AMDSBA3, and AMDSBA4) have no cultured representatives while AMDSBA1 is a strain of S. benefaciens, and AMDSBA5 a strain of S. thermosulfidooxidans. We analyzed the diversity of energy conservation and central carbon metabolisms for these genomes and previously published Sulfobacillus genomes. Pathways of sulfur oxidation vary considerably across the genus, including the number and type of subunits of putative heterodisulfide reductase complexes likely involved in sulfur oxidation. The number and type of nickel-iron hydrogenase proteins varied across the genus, as does the presence of different central carbon pathways. Only the AMDSBA3 genome encodes a dissimilatory nitrate reducatase and only the AMDSBA5 and S. thermosulfidooxidans genomes encode assimilatory nitrate reductases. Lastly, within the genus, AMDSBA4 is unusual in that its electron transport chain includes a cytochrome bc type complex, a unique cytochrome c oxidase, and two distinct succinate dehydrogenase complexes. Overall, the results significantly expand our understanding of carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, and hydrogen metabolism within the Sulfobacillus genus.

  12. LandScan 2014 High-Resolution Global Population Data Set

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" X 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on land cover, slope, road proximity, high-resolution imagery, and other data sets. The LandScan data set was developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient populations at risk.

  13. Chemical constraints on the contribution of population III stars to cosmic reionization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulkarni, Girish; Hennawi, Joseph F. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Knigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Rollinde, Emmanuel; Vangioni, Elisabeth, E-mail: girish@mpia-hd.mpg.de [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095, UPMC, Paris VI, 98 bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2014-05-20

    Recent studies have highlighted that galaxies at z = 6-8 fall short of producing enough ionizing photons to reionize the intergalactic medium, and suggest that Population III stars could resolve this tension, because their harder spectra can produce ?10 more ionizing photons than Population II. We use a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation, which tracks galactic chemical evolution, to gauge the impact of Population III stars on reionization. Population III supernovae produce distinct metal abundances, and we argue that the duration of the Population III era can be constrained by precise relative abundance measurements in high-z damped Ly? absorbers (DLAs), which provide a chemical record of past star formation. We find that a single generation of Population III stars can self-enrich galaxies above the critical metallicity Z {sub crit} = 10{sup 4} Z {sub ?} for the Population III-to-II transition, on a very short timescale t {sub self-enrich} ? 10{sup 6} yr, owing to the large metal yields and short lifetimes of Population III stars. This subsequently terminates the Population III era, so they contribute ? 50% of the ionizing photons only for z ? 30, and at z = 10 contribute <1%. The Population III contribution can be increased by delaying metal mixing into the interstellar medium. However, comparing the resulting metal abundance pattern to existing measurements in z ? 6 DLAs, we show that the observed [O/Si] ratios of absorbers rule out Population III stars being a major contributor to reionization. Future abundance measurements of z ? 7-8 QSOs and gamma-ray bursts should probe the era when the chemical vestiges of Population III star formation become detectable.

  14. LandScan 2001 High-Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  15. The Dark Side of the Mushroom Spring Microbial Mat: Life in the Shadow of Chlorophototrophs. I. Microbial Diversity Based on 16S rRNA Gene Amplicons and Metagenomic Sequencing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Thiel, Vera; Wood, Jason M.; Olsen, Millie T.; Tank, Marcus; Klatt, Christian G.; Ward, David M.; Bryant, Donald A.

    2016-06-17

    Microbial-mat communities in the effluent channels of Octopus and Mushroom Springs within the Lower Geyser Basin at Yellowstone National Park have been studied for nearly 50 years. The emphasis has mostly focused on the chlorophototrophic bacterial organisms of the phyla Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi. In contrast, the diversity and metabolic functions of the heterotrophic community in the microoxic/anoxic region of the mat are not well understood. In this study we analyzed the orange-colored undermat of the microbial community of Mushroom Spring using metagenomic and rRNA-amplicon (iTag) analyses. Our analyses disclosed a highly diverse community exhibiting a high degree of unevenness, stronglymore » dominated by a single taxon, the filamentous anoxygenic phototroph, Roseiflexus spp. The second most abundant organisms belonged to the Thermotogae, which have been hypothesized to be a major source of H-2 from fermentation that could enable photomixotrophic metabolism by Chloroflexus and Roseiflexus spp. Other abundant organisms include two members of the Armatimonadetes (OP10); Thermocrinis sp.; and phototrophic and heterotrophic members of the Chloroflexi. Further, an Atribacteria (OP9/JS1) member; a sulfate-reducing Therrnodesulfovibrio sp.; a Planctomycetes member; a member of the EM3 group tentatively affiliated with the Thermotogae, as well as a putative member of the Arrninicenantes (OP8) represented ≥ 1% of the reads. Archaea were not abundant in the iTag analysis, and no metagenomic bin representing an archaeon was identified. A high microdiversity of 16S rRNA gene sequences was identified for the dominant taxon, Roseiflexus spp. Previous studies demonstrated that highly similar Synechococcus variants in the upper layer of the mats represent ecological species populations with specific ecological adaptations. In conclusion, this study suggests that similar putative ecotypes specifically adapted to different niches occur within the undermat community

  16. Tailored Marketing for Low-income and Under-Represented Population Segments (201)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Tailored Marketing for Low-Income and Under-Represented Population Segments (201), call slides and discussion summary.

  17. Predation, Competition, and Abiotic Disturbance: Population Dynamics of Small Mammals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yunger, John A.; /Northern Illinois U. /Northern Illinois U.

    1996-01-01

    Predation and food availability have been implicated in annual non-cyclic fluctuations of vertebrate prey at mid-latitudes. The timing and magnitude of these factors are unclear due to a lack of large-scale field experiments, little attention to interactions, and a failure to closely link vertebrate predators with their prey. From October 1992 to January 1996, small mammal populations were censused on eight 0.6 ha plots at monthly intervals in a 32-ha prairie restoration at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Illinois. Terrestrial vertebrate predators were excluded after July 1993 from four of the eight plots and canid diets monitored. Both terrestrial and avian vertebrate predators were excluded in March 1994. During 1993 small mammal densities (i.e., Microtus Pennsylvanicus, Peromyscus leucopus, and P. maniculatus) were relatively high. Following peak densities in late summer, Microtus numbers wer 2-3x greater on exclusion plots relative to controls due to preferential selection of Microtus by canids, as reflected in dits. Following an ice-storm and crash in small mammal numbers (particularly Microtus), vertebrate predator exclusion had no detectable effect on P. leucopus numbers, probably due to an abundance of alternative prey (i.e., Sylvilagus floridanus). Meadow vole numbers began to increase in Fall 1995, and a numerical effect of predator exclusion, similar to that in 1993, was observed. Predator exclusion had no detectable effect on the movements and spatial patterns of Microtus during 1993. There was a significant decrease in home range and a significant increase in home range overlap for P. leucopus on the predator exclusion plots. The change in spatial behavior may be due to interspecific competition with Microtus resulting from increased densities on exclusion plots. Thus, predators had an indirect effect on P. leucopus spatial patterns mediated through M. Pennsylvanicus. The role of food limitation was studied using natural and manipulative

  18. Spatial regulation of a common precursor from two distinct genes generates metabolite diversity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Guo, Chun -Jun; Sun, Wei -Wen; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Oakley, Berl R.; Keller, Nancy P.; Wang, Clay C. C.

    2015-07-13

    In secondary metabolite biosynthesis, core synthetic genes such as polyketide synthase genes usually encode proteins that generate various backbone precursors. These precursors are modified by other tailoring enzymes to yield a large variety of different secondary metabolites. The number of core synthesis genes in a given species correlates, therefore, with the number of types of secondary metabolites the organism can produce. In our study, heterologous expression of all the A. terreus NRPSlike genes showed that two NRPS-like proteins, encoded by atmelA and apvA, release the same natural product, aspulvinone E. In hyphae this compound is converted to aspulvinones whereas inmore » conidia it is converted to melanin. The genes are expressed in different tissues and this spatial control is probably regulated by their own specific promoters. Comparative genomics indicates that atmelA and apvA might share a same ancestral gene and the gene apvA is located in a highly conserved region in Aspergillus species that contains genes coding for life-essential proteins. Our data reveal the first case in secondary metabolite biosynthesis in which the tissue specific production of a single compound directs it into two separate pathways, producing distinct compounds with different functions. Our data also reveal that a single trans-prenyltransferase, AbpB, prenylates two substrates, aspulvinones and butyrolactones, revealing that genes outside of contiguous secondary metabolism gene clusters can modify more than one compound thereby expanding metabolite diversity. Our study raises the possibility of incorporation of spatial, cell-type specificity in expression of secondary metabolites of biological interest and provides new insight into designing and reconstituting their biosynthetic pathways.« less

  19. Water quality in the shingle creek basin, Florida, before and after wastewater diversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Dell, K.M.

    1994-05-01

    Shingle Creek is a major inflow to Lake Tohopekaliga, Florida. Water quality and the trophic status of Lake Tohopekaliga are affected strongly by the water quality of Shingle Creek. This report documents 10 yr of water quality data in Shingle Creek at the lake outfall; for a pre- (October 1981-December 1986) and a post-wastewater discharge (January 1987-September 1991) removal period. Nutrient budgets for the subbasins were calculated from an intense research program (January 1983-December 1985) to document instream impacts attributable to wastewater, determine the role of the cypress swamp in the middle subbasin, and document relationships between water quality and land uses. Rapid urbanization converted forested uplands and agricultural lands to housing and commercial land use during the study. Stormwater runoff in Florida has been identified as a major pollution source. Treatment of stormwater pollution, through Best Management Practices (BMPs), has been regulated by the State of Florida in this area since 1982. By 1988, 84% of the urban landuse in the upper basin was subject to stormwater treatment prior to being discharged to the creek. Potential increases in urban derived nutrient inputs were offset by stormwater management, and alum treatment and diversion of municipal wastewater. Nitrogen loading and P loads and variance decreased significantly during the 10-yr period, despite rapid urbanization in the northern and central subbasins. Nutrient export from the subbasins was influenced by the dominant land use. The middle subbasin contains a swamp that contributed the greatest P and Cl{sup -} loads because of the increase in discharge to the swamp from sources other than the canal. The northern urban subbasin received the wastewater discharges and served as a net sink for N and P exported from the subbasin. 24 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Phylogenetic beta diversity in bacterial assemblages across ecosystems: deterministic versus stochastic processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jianjun; Shen, Jianhaua; Wu, Yucheng; Tu, Chen; Soininen , Janne; Stegen, James C.; He, Jizheng; Liu, Xingqi; Zhang, Lu; Zhang, Enlou

    2013-02-28

    Increasing evidence emerged for non-random spatial distributions for microbes, but the underlying processes resulting in microbial assemblage variation among and within Earths ecosystems is still lacking. For instance, some studies showed that the deterministic processes by habitat specialization are important, while other studies hold that bacterial communities are assembled by neutral forces. Here we examine the relative importance of deterministic and stochastic processes for bacterial communities from subsurface environments, as well as stream biofilm, lake water, lake sediment and soil using pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene. We show that there is a general pattern in phylogenetic signal in species niches across recent evolutionary time for all studied habitats, enabling us to infer the influences of community assembly processes from patterns of phylogenetic turnover in community composition. The phylogenetic dissimilarities among habitat types were significantly higher than within them, and the communities were clustered according to their original habitat types. For communities within habitat types, the highest phylogenetic turnover rate through space was observed in subsurface environments, followed by stream biofilm on mountainsides, whereas the sediment assemblages across regional scales showed the lowest turnover rate. Quantifying phylogenetic turnover as the deviation from a null expectation suggested that measured environmental variables imposed strong selection on bacterial communities for nearly all sample groups, and for three sample groups, that spatial distance reflects unmeasured environmental variables that impose selection, as opposed to spatial isolation. Such characterization of spatial and environmental variables proved essential for proper interpretation of partial mantel results based on observed beta diversity metrics. In summary, our results clearly indicate a dominant role of deterministic processes on bacterial assemblages and highlight

  1. Origin of the Diverse Behavior of Oxygen Vacancies in ABO3 Perovskites: A Symmetry Based Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yin, W. J.; Wei, S. H.; Al-Jassim, M. M.; Yan, Y. F.

    2012-05-15

    Using band symmetry analysis and density functional theory calculations, we reveal the origin of why oxygen vacancy (V{sub O}) energy levels are shallow in some ABO{sub 3} perovskites, such as SrTiO{sub 3}, but are deep in some others, such as LaAlO{sub 3}. We show that this diverse behavior can be explained by the symmetry of the perovskite structure and the location (A or B site) of the metal atoms with low d orbital energies, such as Ti and La atoms. When the conduction band minimum (CBM) is an antibonding {Gamma}12 state, which is usually associated with the metal atom with low d orbital energies at the A site (e.g., LaAlO{sub 3}), then the V{sub O} energy levels are deep inside the gap. Otherwise, if the CBM is the nonbonding {Gamma}25{prime} state, which is usually associated with metal atoms with low d orbital energies at the B site (e.g., SrTiO{sub 3}), then the V{sub O} energy levels are shallow and often above the CBM. The V{sub O} energy level is also deep for some uncommon ABO{sub 3} perovskite materials that possess a low s orbital, or large-size cations, and an antibonding {Gamma}{sub 1} state CBM, such as ZnTiO{sub 3}. Our results, therefore, provide guidelines for designing ABO{sub 3} perovskite materials with desired functional behaviors.

  2. Comparison of environmental and isolate Sulfobacillus genomes reveals diverse carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, and hydrogen metabolisms

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Justice, Nicholas B.; Norman, Anders; Brown, Christopher T.; Singh, Andrea; Thomas, Brian C.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2014-12-15

    Bacteria of the genus Sulfobacillus are found worldwide as members of microbial communities that accelerate sulfide mineral dissolution in acid mine drainage environments (AMD), acid-rock drainage environments (ARD), as well as in industrial bioleaching operations. Despite their frequent identification in these environments, their role in biogeochemical cycling is poorly understood. Here we report draft genomes of five species of the Sulfobacillus genus (AMDSBA1-5) reconstructed by cultivation-independent sequencing of biofilms sampled from the Richmond Mine (Iron Mountain, CA). Three of these species (AMDSBA2, AMDSBA3, and AMDSBA4) have no cultured representatives while AMDSBA1 is a strain of S. benefaciens, and AMDSBA5 amore » strain of S. thermosulfidooxidans. We analyzed the diversity of energy conservation and central carbon metabolisms for these genomes and previously published Sulfobacillus genomes. Pathways of sulfur oxidation vary considerably across the genus, including the number and type of subunits of putative heterodisulfide reductase complexes likely involved in sulfur oxidation. The number and type of nickel-iron hydrogenase proteins varied across the genus, as does the presence of different central carbon pathways. Only the AMDSBA3 genome encodes a dissimilatory nitrate reducatase and only the AMDSBA5 and S. thermosulfidooxidans genomes encode assimilatory nitrate reductases. Lastly, within the genus, AMDSBA4 is unusual in that its electron transport chain includes a cytochrome bc type complex, a unique cytochrome c oxidase, and two distinct succinate dehydrogenase complexes. Overall, the results significantly expand our understanding of carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, and hydrogen metabolism within the Sulfobacillus genus.« less

  3. Spatial regulation of a common precursor from two distinct genes generates metabolite diversity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Chun -Jun; Sun, Wei -Wen; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Oakley, Berl R.; Keller, Nancy P.; Wang, Clay C. C.

    2015-07-13

    In secondary metabolite biosynthesis, core synthetic genes such as polyketide synthase genes usually encode proteins that generate various backbone precursors. These precursors are modified by other tailoring enzymes to yield a large variety of different secondary metabolites. The number of core synthesis genes in a given species correlates, therefore, with the number of types of secondary metabolites the organism can produce. In our study, heterologous expression of all the A. terreus NRPSlike genes showed that two NRPS-like proteins, encoded by atmelA and apvA, release the same natural product, aspulvinone E. In hyphae this compound is converted to aspulvinones whereas in conidia it is converted to melanin. The genes are expressed in different tissues and this spatial control is probably regulated by their own specific promoters. Comparative genomics indicates that atmelA and apvA might share a same ancestral gene and the gene apvA is located in a highly conserved region in Aspergillus species that contains genes coding for life-essential proteins. Our data reveal the first case in secondary metabolite biosynthesis in which the tissue specific production of a single compound directs it into two separate pathways, producing distinct compounds with different functions. Our data also reveal that a single trans-prenyltransferase, AbpB, prenylates two substrates, aspulvinones and butyrolactones, revealing that genes outside of contiguous secondary metabolism gene clusters can modify more than one compound thereby expanding metabolite diversity. Our study raises the possibility of incorporation of spatial, cell-type specificity in expression of secondary metabolites of biological interest and provides new insight into designing and reconstituting their biosynthetic pathways.

  4. A Qualitative Assessment of Diversion Scenarios for an Example Sodium Fast Reactor Using the GEN IV PR&PP Methodology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zentner, Michael D.; Coles, Garill A.; Therios, Ike

    2012-01-20

    FAST REACTORS;NUCLEAR ENERGY;NUCLEAR MATERIALS MANAGEMENT;PROLIFERATION;SAFEGUARDS;THEFT; A working group was created in 2002 by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF) for the purpose of developing an internationally accepted methodology for assessing the Proliferation Resistance of a nuclear energy system (NES) and its individual elements. A two year case study is being performed by the experts group using this methodology to assess the proliferation resistance of a hypothetical NES called the Example Sodium Fast Reactor (ESFR). This work demonstrates how the PR and PP methodology can be used to provide important information at various levels of details to NES designers, safeguard administrators and decision makers. The study analyzes the response of the complete ESFR nuclear energy system to different proliferation and theft strategies. The challenges considered include concealed diversion, concealed misuse and 'break out' strategies. This paper describes the work done in performing a qualitative assessment of concealed diversion scenarios from the ESFR.

  5. Estimating Small-area Populations by Age and Sex Using Spatial Interpolation and Statistical Inference Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qai, Qiang; Rushton, Gerald; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Bright, Eddie A; Coleman, Phil R

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research is to compute population estimates by age and sex for small areas whose boundaries are different from those for which the population counts were made. In our approach, population surfaces and age-sex proportion surfaces are separately estimated. Age-sex population estimates for small areas and their confidence intervals are then computed using a binomial model with the two surfaces as inputs. The approach was implemented for Iowa using a 90 m resolution population grid (LandScan USA) and U.S. Census 2000 population. Three spatial interpolation methods, the areal weighting (AW) method, the ordinary kriging (OK) method, and a modification of the pycnophylactic method, were used on Census Tract populations to estimate the age-sex proportion surfaces. To verify the model, age-sex population estimates were computed for paired Block Groups that straddled Census Tracts and therefore were spatially misaligned with them. The pycnophylactic method and the OK method were more accurate than the AW method. The approach is general and can be used to estimate subgroup-count types of variables from information in existing administrative areas for custom-defined areas used as the spatial basis of support in other applications.

  6. Perspective: The Climate-Population-Infrastructure Modeling and Simulation Fertile Area for New Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, Melissa R; Fernandez, Steven J; Walker, Kimberly A; Fu, Joshua S

    2014-01-01

    Managing the risks posed by climate change and extreme weather to energy production and delivery is a challenge to communities worldwide. As climate conditions change, populations will shift, and demand will re-locate; and networked infrastructures will evolve to accommodate new load centers, and, hopefully, minimize vulnerability to natural disaster. Climate effects such as sea level rise, increased frequency and intensity of natural disasters, force populations to move locations. Displaced population creates new demand for built infrastructure that in turn generates new economic activity that attracts new workers and associated households to the new locations. Infrastructures and their interdependencies will change in reaction to climate drivers as the networks expand into new population areas and as portions of the networks are abandoned as people leave. Thus, infrastructures will evolve to accommodate new load centers while some parts of the network are underused, and these changes will create emerging vulnerabilities. Forecasting the location of these vulnerabilities by combining climate predictions and agent based population movement models shows promise for defining these future population distributions and changes in coastal infrastructure configurations. By combining climate and weather data, engineering algorithms and social theory it has been only recently possible to examine electricity demand response to increased climactic temperatures, population relocation in response to extreme cyclonic events, consequent net population changes and new regional patterns in electricity demand. These emerging results suggest a research agenda of coupling these disparate modelling approaches to understand the implications of climate change for protecting the nation s critical infrastructure.

  7. High Bacterial Diversity of Biological Soil Crusts in Water Tracks over Permafrost in the High Arctic Polar Desert

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Steven, Blaire; Lionard, Marie; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Vincent, Warwick F.

    2013-08-13

    In this paper we report the bacterial diversity of biological soil crusts (biocrusts) inhabiting polar desert soils at the northern land limit of the Arctic polar region (83° 05 N). Employing pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes this study demonstrated that these biocrusts harbor diverse bacterial communities, often as diverse as temperate latitude communities. The effect of wetting pulses on the composition of communities was also determined by collecting samples from soils outside and inside of permafrost water tracks, hill slope flow paths that drain permafrost-affected soils. The intermittent flow regime in the water tracks was correlated with altered relativemore » abundance of phylum level taxonomic bins in the bacterial communities, but the alterations varied between individual sampling sites. Bacteria related to the Cyanobacteria and Acidobacteria demonstrated shifts in relative abundance based on their location either inside or outside of the water tracks. Among cyanobacterial sequences, the proportion of sequences belonging to the family Oscillatoriales consistently increased in relative abundance in the samples from inside the water tracks compared to those outside. Acidobacteria showed responses to wetting pulses in the water tracks, increasing in abundance at one site and decreasing at the other two sites. Subdivision 4 acidobacterial sequences tended to follow the trends in the total Acidobacteria relative abundance, suggesting these organisms were largely responsible for the changes observed in the Acidobacteria. Finally, taken together, these data suggest that the bacterial communities of these high latitude polar biocrusts are diverse but do not show a consensus response to intermittent flow in water tracks over high Arctic permafrost.« less

  8. Structural and functional diversity of soil bacterial and fungal communities following woody plant encroachment in the southern Great Plains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollister, Emily B; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Palumbo, Anthony Vito; Ansley, R J; Boutton, Thomas W

    2010-01-01

    In the southern Great Plains (USA), encroachment of grassland ecosystems by Prosopis glandulosa (honey mesquite) is widespread. Mesquite encroachment alters net primary productivity, enhances stores of C and N in plants and soil, and leads to increased levels of soil microbial biomass and activity. While mesquite's impact on the biogeochemistry of the region is well established, it effects on soil microbial diversity and function are unknown. In this study, soils associated with four plant types (C{sub 3} perennial grasses, C{sub 4} midgrasses, C{sub 4} shortgrasses, and mesquite) from a mesquite-encroached mixed grass prairie were surveyed to in an attempt to characterize the structure, diversity, and functional capacity of their soil microbial communities. rRNA gene cloning and sequencing were used in conjunction with the GeoChip functional gene array to evaluate these potential differences. Mesquite soil supported increased bacterial and fungal diversity and harbored a distinct fungal community relative to other plant types. Despite differences in composition and diversity, few significant differences were detected with respect to the potential functional capacity of the soil microbial communities. These results may suggest that a high level of functional redundancy exists within the bacterial portion of the soil communities; however, given the bias of the GeoChip toward bacterial functional genes, potential functional differences among soil fungi could not be addressed. The results of this study illustrate the linkages shared between above- and belowground communities and demonstrate that soil microbial communities, and in particular soil fungi, may be altered by the process of woody plant encroachment.

  9. Marine Animal Alert System -- Task 2.1.5.3: Development of Monitoring Technologies -- FY 2011 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, Thomas J.; Deng, Zhiqun; Myers, Joshua R.; Matzner, Shari; Copping, Andrea E.

    2011-09-30

    The Marine Animal Alert System (MAAS) in development by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is focused on providing elements of compliance monitoring to support deployment of marine hydrokinetic energy devices. An initial focus is prototype tidal turbines to be deployed in Puget Sound in Washington State. The MAAS will help manage the risk of injury or mortality to marine animals from blade strike or contact with tidal turbines. In particular, development has focused on detection, classification, and localization of listed Southern Resident killer whales within 200 m of prototype turbines using both active and passive acoustic approaches. At the close of FY 2011, a passive acoustic system consisting of a pair of four-element star arrays and parallel processing of eight channels of acoustic receptions has been designed and built. Field tests of the prototype system are scheduled for the fourth quarter of calendar year 2011. Field deployment and testing of the passive acoustic prototype is scheduled for the first quarter of FY 2012. The design of an active acoustic system that could be built using commercially available off-the-shelf components from active acoustic system vendors is also in the final stages of design and specification.

  10. Photoautotrophic symbiont and geography are major factors affecting highly structured and diverse bacterial communities in the lichen microbiome

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodkinson, Brendan P; Gottel, Neil R; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Lutzoni, Francois

    2011-01-01

    Although common knowledge dictates that the lichen thallus is formed solely by a fungus (mycobiont) that develops a symbiotic relationship with an alga and/or cyanobacterium (photobiont), the non-photoautotrophic bacteria found in lichen microbiomes are increasingly regarded as integral components of lichen thalli. For this study, comparative analyses were conducted on lichen-associated bacterial communities to test for effects of photobiont-types (i.e. green algal vs. cyanobacterial), mycobiont-types and large-scale spatial distances (from tropical to arctic latitudes). Amplicons of the 16S (SSU) rRNA gene were examined using both Sanger sequencing of cloned fragments and barcoded pyrosequencing. Rhizobiales is typically the most abundant and taxonomically diverse order in lichen microbiomes; however, overall bacterial diversity in lichens is shown to be much higher than previously reported. Members of Acidobacteriaceae, Acetobacteraceae, Brucellaceae and sequence group LAR1 are the most commonly found groups across the phylogenetically and geographically broad array of lichens examined here. Major bacterial community trends are significantly correlated with differences in large-scale geography, photobiont-type and mycobiont-type. The lichen as a microcosm represents a structured, unique microbial habitat with greater ecological complexity and bacterial diversity than previously appreciated and can serve as a model system for studying larger ecological and evolutionary principles.

  11. The LandScan Global Population Distribution Project: Current State of the Art and Prospective Innovation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, Amy N; Bright, Eddie A

    2014-01-01

    Advances in remote sensing, dasymetric mapping techniques, and the ever-increasing availability of spatial datasets have enhanced global human population distribution databases. These datasets demonstrate an enormous improvement over the conventional use of choropleth maps to represent population distribution and are vital for analysis and planning purposes including humanitarian response, disease mapping, risk analysis, and evacuation modeling. Dasymetric mapping techniques have been employed to address spatial mismatch, but also to develop finer resolution population distributions in areas of the world where subnational census data are coarse or non-existent. One such implementation is the LandScan Global model which provides a 30 arc-second global population distribution based on ancillary datasets such as land cover, slope, proximity to roads, and settlement locations. This work will review the current state of the LandScan model, future innovations aimed at increasing spatial and demographic resolution, and situate LandScan within the landscape of other global population distribution datasets.

  12. The differing magnitude distributions of the two Jupiter Trojan color populations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, Ian; Brown, Michael E.; Emery, Joshua P.

    2014-12-01

    The Jupiter Trojans are a significant population of minor bodies in the middle solar system that have garnered substantial interest in recent years. Several spectroscopic studies of these objects have revealed notable bimodalities with respect to near-infrared spectra, infrared albedo, and color, which suggest the existence of two distinct groups among the Trojan population. In this paper, we analyze the magnitude distributions of these two groups, which we refer to as the red and less red color populations. By compiling spectral and photometric data from several previous works, we show that the observed bimodalities are self-consistent and categorize 221 of the 842 Trojans with absolute magnitudes in the range H<12.3 into the two color populations. We demonstrate that the magnitude distributions of the two color populations are distinct to a high confidence level (>95%) and fit them individually to a broken power law, with special attention given to evaluating and correcting for incompleteness in the Trojan catalog as well as incompleteness in our categorization of objects. A comparison of the best-fit curves shows that the faint-end power-law slopes are markedly different for the two color populations, which indicates that the red and less red Trojans likely formed in different locations. We propose a few hypotheses for the origin and evolution of the Trojan population based on the analyzed data.

  13. The increase in animal mortality risk following exposure to sparsely ionizing radiation is not linear quadratic with dose

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Haley, Benjamin M.; Paunesku, Tatjana; Grdina, David J.; Woloschak, Gayle E.; Aravindan, Natarajan

    2015-12-09

    The US government regulates allowable radiation exposures relying, in large part, on the seventh report from the committee to estimate the Biological Effect of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR VII), which estimated that most contemporary exposures- protracted or low-dose, carry 1.5 fold less risk of carcinogenesis and mortality per Gy than acute exposures of atomic bomb survivors. This correction is known as the dose and dose rate effectiveness factor for the life span study of atomic bomb survivors (DDREFLSS). As a result, it was calculated by applying a linear-quadratic dose response model to data from Japanese atomic bomb survivors and a limitedmore » number of animal studies.« less

  14. The increase in animal mortality risk following exposure to sparsely ionizing radiation is not linear quadratic with dose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haley, Benjamin M.; Paunesku, Tatjana; Grdina, David J.; Woloschak, Gayle E.; Aravindan, Natarajan

    2015-12-09

    The US government regulates allowable radiation exposures relying, in large part, on the seventh report from the committee to estimate the Biological Effect of Ionizing Radiation (BEIR VII), which estimated that most contemporary exposures- protracted or low-dose, carry 1.5 fold less risk of carcinogenesis and mortality per Gy than acute exposures of atomic bomb survivors. This correction is known as the dose and dose rate effectiveness factor for the life span study of atomic bomb survivors (DDREFLSS). As a result, it was calculated by applying a linear-quadratic dose response model to data from Japanese atomic bomb survivors and a limited number of animal studies.

  15. Spatial Estimation of Populations at Risk from Radiological Dispersion Device Terrorism Incidents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Regens, J.L.; Gunter, J.T.

    2008-07-01

    Delineation of the location and size of the population potentially at risk of exposure to ionizing radiation is one of the key analytical challenges in estimating accurately the severity of the potential health effects associated with a radiological terrorism incident. Regardless of spatial scale, the geographical units for which population data commonly are collected rarely coincide with the geographical scale necessary for effective incident management and medical response. This paper identifies major government and commercial open sources of U.S. population data and presents a GIS-based approach for allocating publicly available population data, including age distributions, to geographical units appropriate for planning and implementing incident management and medical response strategies. In summary: The gravity model offers a straight-forward, empirical tool for estimating population flows, especially when geographical areas are relatively well-defined in terms of accessibility and spatial separation. This is particularly important for several reasons. First, the spatial scale for the area impacted by a RDD terrorism event is unlikely to match fully the spatial scale of available population data. That is, the plume spread typically will not uniformly overlay the impacted area. Second, the number of people within the impacted area varies as a function whether an attack occurs during the day or night. For example, the population of a central business district or industrial area typically is larger during the day while predominately residential areas have larger night time populations. As a result, interpolation techniques that link population data to geographical units and allocate those data based on time-frame at a spatial scale that is relevant to enhancing preparedness and response. The gravity model's main advantage is that it efficiently allocates readily available, open source population data to geographical units appropriate for planning and implementing

  16. To tag or not to tag: animal welfare, conservation and stakeholder considerations in fish tracking studies that use electronic tags

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooke, Steven J.; Nguyen, Vivian M.; Murchie, Karen J.; Thiem, Jason D.; Donaldson, Michael R.; Hinch, Scott G.; Brown, Richard S.; Fisk, Aaron

    2013-11-01

    The advent and widespread adoption of electronic tags (including biotelemetry and biologging devices) for tracking animals has provided unprecedented information on the biology, management, and conservation of fish in the world’s oceans and inland waters. However, use of these tools is not without controversy. Even when scientific and management objectives may best be achieved using electronic tags, it is increasingly important to further consider other factors such as the welfare of tagged animals (i.e., the role of training and science-based surgical guidelines, anesthetic use, inability to maintain sterile conditions in field environments), the ethics of tagging threatened species vs. using surrogates, stakeholder perspectives on tagging (including aboriginals), as well as use of data emanating from such studies (e.g., by fishers to facilitate exploitation). Failure to do so will have the potential to create conflict and undermine scientific, management and public confidence in the use of this powerful tool. Indeed, there are already a number of examples of where tracking studies using electronic tags have been halted based on concerns raised by researchers, authorities, or stakeholders. Here we present a candid evaluation of several factors that should be considered when determining when to tag or not to tag fish with electronic devices. It is not our objective to judge the merit of previous studies. Rather, we hope to stimulate debate and discussion regarding the use of electronic tags to study fish. Relatedly, there is a need for more research to address these questions (e.g., what level of cleanliness is needed when conducting surgeries, what type of training should be required for fish surgery) including human dimensions studies to understand perspectives of different actors including society as a whole with respect to tagging and tracking studies.

  17. SU-E-T-376: 3-D Commissioning for An Image-Guided Small Animal Micro- Irradiation Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qian, X; Wuu, C; Admovics, J

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: A 3-D radiochromic plastic dosimeter has been used to cross-test the isocentricity of a high resolution image-guided small animal microirradiation platform. In this platform, the mouse stage rotating for cone beam CT imaging is perpendicular to the gantry rotation for sub-millimeter radiation delivery. A 3-D dosimeter can be used to verify both imaging and irradiation coordinates. Methods: A 3-D dosimeter and optical CT scanner were used in this study. In the platform, both mouse stage and gantry can rotate 360 with rotation axis perpendicular to each other. Isocentricity and coincidence of mouse stage and gantry rotations were evaluated using star patterns. A 3-D dosimeter was placed on mouse stage with center at platform isocenter approximately. For CBCT isocentricity, with gantry moved to 90, the mouse stage rotated horizontally while the x-ray was delivered to the dosimeter at certain angles. For irradiation isocentricity, the gantry rotated 360 to deliver beams to the dosimeter at certain angles for star patterns. The uncertainties and agreement of both CBCT and irradiation isocenters can be determined from the star patterns. Both procedures were repeated 3 times using 3 dosimeters to determine short-term reproducibility. Finally, dosimeters were scanned using optical CT scanner to obtain the results. Results: The gantry isocentricity is 0.9 0.1 mm and mouse stage rotation isocentricity is about 0.91 0.11 mm. Agreement between the measured isocenters of irradiation and imaging coordinates was determined. The short-term reproducibility test yielded 0.5 0.1 mm between the imaging isocenter and the irradiation isocenter, with a maximum displacement of 0.7 0.1 mm. Conclusion: The 3-D dosimeter can be very useful in precise verification of targeting for a small animal irradiation research. In addition, a single 3-D dosimeter can provide information in both geometric and dosimetric uncertainty, which is crucial for translational studies.

  18. Evolutionary Perspectives on Diversity of Lignocellulose Decay Mechanisms in Basidionycetes (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Hibbett, David [Clark University

    2013-01-15

    David Hibbett from Clark University on "Evolutionary Perspectives on Diversity of Lignocellulose Decay Mechanisms in Basidiomycetes" at the 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 21, 2012 in Walnut Creek, California.

  19. Natural variation in Brachypodium disctachyon: Deep Sequencing of Highly Diverse Natural Accessions (2013 DOE JGI Genomics of Energy and Environment 8th Annual User Meeting)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, Sean

    2013-03-01

    Sean Gordon of the USDA on "Natural variation in Brachypodium disctachyon: Deep Sequencing of Highly Diverse Natural Accessions" at the 8th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 27, 2013 in Walnut Creek, Calif.

  20. Evolutionary Perspectives on Diversity of Lignocellulose Decay Mechanisms in Basidionycetes (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hibbett, David [Clark University] [Clark University

    2012-03-21

    David Hibbett from Clark University on "Evolutionary Perspectives on Diversity of Lignocellulose Decay Mechanisms in Basidiomycetes" at the 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 21, 2012 in Walnut Creek, California.

  1. Predicting the impacts of climate change on animal distributions: the importance of local adaptation and species' traits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HELLMANN, J. J.; LOBO, N. F.

    2011-12-20

    The geographic range limits of many species are strongly affected by climate and are expected to change under global warming. For species that are able to track changing climate over broad geographic areas, we expect to see shifts in species distributions toward the poles and away from the equator. A number of ecological and evolutionary factors, however, could restrict this shifting or redistribution under climate change. These factors include restricted habitat availability, restricted capacity for or barriers to movement, or reduced abundance of colonists due the perturbation effect of climate change. This research project examined the last of these constraints - that climate change could perturb local conditions to which populations are adapted, reducing the likelihood that a species will shift its distribution by diminishing the number of potential colonists. In the most extreme cases, species ranges could collapse over a broad geographic area with no poleward migration and an increased risk of species extinction. Changes in individual species ranges are the processes that drive larger phenomena such as changes in land cover, ecosystem type, and even changes in carbon cycling. For example, consider the poleward range shift and population outbreaks of the mountain pine beetle that has decimated millions of acres of Douglas fir trees in the western US and Canada. Standing dead trees cause forest fires and release vast quantities of carbon to the atmosphere. The beetle likely shifted its range because it is not locally adapted across its range, and it appears to be limited by winter low temperatures that have steadily increased in the last decades. To understand range and abundance changes like the pine beetle, we must reveal the extent of adaptive variation across species ranges - and the physiological basis of that adaptation - to know if other species will change as readily as the pine beetle. Ecologists tend to assume that range shifts are the dominant

  2. Research on impacts of population-related factors on carbon emissions in Beijing from 1984 to 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Yayun; Zhao, Tao; Wang, Yanan Shi, Zhaohui

    2015-11-15

    Carbon emissions related to population factors have aroused great attention around the world. A multitude of literature mainly focused on single demographic impacts on environmental issues at the national level, and comprehensive studies concerning population-related factors at a city level are rare. This paper employed STIRPAT (Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology) model incorporating PLS (Partial least squares) regression method to examine the influence of population-related factors on carbon emissions in Beijing from 1984 to 2012. Empirically results manifest that urbanization is the paramount driver. Changes in population age structure have significantly positive impacts on carbon emissions, and shrinking young population, continuous expansion of working age population and aging population will keep on increasing environmental pressures. Meanwhile, shrinking household size and expanding floating population boost the discharge of carbon emissions. Besides, per capita consumption is an important contributor of carbon emissions, while industry energy intensity is the main inhibitory factor. Based upon these findings and the specific circumstances of Beijing, policies such as promoting clean and renewable energy, improving population quality and advocating low carbon lifestyles should be enhanced to achieve targeted emissions reductions. - Highlights: • We employed the STIRPAT model to identify population-related factors of carbon emissions in Beijing. • Urbanization is the paramount driver of carbon emissions. • Changes in population age structure exert significantly positive impacts on carbon emissions. • Shrinking household size, expanding floating population and improving consumption level increase carbon emissions. • Industry energy intensity decreases carbon emissions.

  3. Establishment of a viable population of red-cockaded woodpeckers at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, D.H.

    1989-01-01

    In 1985 the Southeastern Forest Experiment Station in cooperation with the Department of Energy (DOE), the Savannah River Forest Station (SRFS) and the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory (SREL) initiated a research/management program to restore a viable population of red-cockaded woodpeckers (RCW) to the Savannah River Site (SRS). The program has progresses in two phases. The first phase (1985-1987) focused on stabilizing the declining RCW population at SRS. The second phase (1988-present) has focused on facilitating population expansion. In 1989 we have focused our efforts on development of techniques for excavating new RCW cavities, identification of old-growth stands with the potential of providing new nesting habitat to support population expansion, continued flying squirrel control, continued translocations of RCW's as needed, and monitoring clan composition and reproduction.

  4. Relationship between population dynamics and the self-energy in driven non-equilibrium systems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kemper, Alexander F.; Freericks, James K.

    2016-05-13

    We compare the decay rates of excited populations directly calculated within a Keldysh formalism to the equation of motion of the population itself for a Hubbard-Holstein model in two dimensions. While it is true that these two approaches must give the same answer, it is common to make a number of simplifying assumptions, within the differential equation for the populations, that allows one to interpret the decay in terms of hot electrons interacting with a phonon bath. Furthermore, we show how care must be taken to ensure an accurate treatment of the equation of motion for the populations due tomore » the fact that there are identities that require cancellations of terms that naively look like they contribute to the decay rates. In particular, the average time dependence of the Green's functions and self-energies plays a pivotal role in determining these decay rates.« less

  5. Membership and Behavior of Ultra-Low-Diversity Pathogen Communities Present in the Gut of Humans during Prolonged Critical Illness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaborin, A.; Smith, D.; Garfield, K.; Quensen, J.; Shakhsheer, B.; Kade, M.; Tirrell, M.; Tiedje, J.; Gilbert, J. A.; Zaborina, O.; Alverdy, J. C.

    2014-09-23

    We analyzed the 16S rRNA amplicon composition in fecal samples of selected patients during their prolonged stay in an intensive care unit (ICU) and observed the emergence of ultra-low-diversity communities (1 to 4 bacterial taxa) in 30% of the patients. Bacteria associated with the genera Enterococcus and Staphylococcus and the family Enterobacteriaceae comprised the majority of these communities. The composition of cultured species from stool samples correlated to the 16S rRNA analysis and additionally revealed the emergence of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata in ~75% of cases. Four of 14 ICU patients harbored 2-member pathogen communities consisting of one Candida taxon and one bacterial taxon. Bacterial members displayed a high degree of resistance to multiple antibiotics. The virulence potential of the 2-member communities was examined in C. elegans during nutrient deprivation and exposure to opioids in order to mimic local conditions in the gut during critical illness. Under conditions of nutrient deprivation, the bacterial members attenuated the virulence of fungal members, leading to a “commensal lifestyle.” However, exposure to opioids led to a breakdown in this commensalism in 2 of the ultra-low-diversity communities. Application of a novel antivirulence agent (phosphate-polyethylene glycol [Pi-PEG]) that creates local phosphate abundance prevented opioid-induced virulence among these pathogen communities, thus rescuing the commensal lifestyle. To conclude, the gut microflora in critically ill patients can consist of ultra-low-diversity communities of multidrug-resistant pathogenic microbes. Local environmental conditions in gut may direct pathogen communities to adapt to either a commensal style or a pathogenic style.

  6. Membership and Behavior of Ultra-Low-Diversity Pathogen Communities Present in the Gut of Humans during Prolonged Critical Illness

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zaborin, A.; Smith, D.; Garfield, K.; Quensen, J.; Shakhsheer, B.; Kade, M.; Tirrell, M.; Tiedje, J.; Gilbert, J. A.; Zaborina, O.; et al

    2014-09-23

    We analyzed the 16S rRNA amplicon composition in fecal samples of selected patients during their prolonged stay in an intensive care unit (ICU) and observed the emergence of ultra-low-diversity communities (1 to 4 bacterial taxa) in 30% of the patients. Bacteria associated with the genera Enterococcus and Staphylococcus and the family Enterobacteriaceae comprised the majority of these communities. The composition of cultured species from stool samples correlated to the 16S rRNA analysis and additionally revealed the emergence of Candida albicans and Candida glabrata in ~75% of cases. Four of 14 ICU patients harbored 2-member pathogen communities consisting of one Candidamore » taxon and one bacterial taxon. Bacterial members displayed a high degree of resistance to multiple antibiotics. The virulence potential of the 2-member communities was examined in C. elegans during nutrient deprivation and exposure to opioids in order to mimic local conditions in the gut during critical illness. Under conditions of nutrient deprivation, the bacterial members attenuated the virulence of fungal members, leading to a “commensal lifestyle.” However, exposure to opioids led to a breakdown in this commensalism in 2 of the ultra-low-diversity communities. Application of a novel antivirulence agent (phosphate-polyethylene glycol [Pi-PEG]) that creates local phosphate abundance prevented opioid-induced virulence among these pathogen communities, thus rescuing the commensal lifestyle. To conclude, the gut microflora in critically ill patients can consist of ultra-low-diversity communities of multidrug-resistant pathogenic microbes. Local environmental conditions in gut may direct pathogen communities to adapt to either a commensal style or a pathogenic style.« less

  7. Climatically Diverse Data Set for Flat-Plate PV Module Model Validations (Presentation), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Climatically Diverse Data Set for Flat-Plate PV Module Model Validations Bill Marion 2013 Sandia PV Performance Modeling Workshop Santa Clara, CA, May 1-2, 2013 NREL/PR-5200-58600 2 Background * Work began in FY2011 to fulfill a FY2014 milestone for DOE's System Integration Technology Validation Project o "Comprehensive data set, with low measurement uncertainty, of I-V curves and associated meteorological data for PV modules representing all flat-plate technologies and for weather

  8. Characterization of the U.S. Industrial/Commercial Boiler Population -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Final Report, May 2005 | Department of Energy U.S. Industrial/Commercial Boiler Population - Final Report, May 2005 Characterization of the U.S. Industrial/Commercial Boiler Population - Final Report, May 2005 The U.S. industrial and commercial sectors consume large quantities of energy. Much of this energy is used in boilers to generate steam and hot water. This 2005 report characterizes the boilers in the industrial and commercial sector in terms of number of units, aggregate capacity,

  9. Disaggregating measurement uncertainty from population variability and Bayesian treatment of uncensored results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strom, Daniel J.; Joyce, Kevin E.; Maclellan, Jay A.; Watson, David J.; Lynch, Timothy P.; Antonio, Cheryl L.; Birchall, Alan; Anderson, Kevin K.; Zharov, Peter

    2012-04-17

    In making low-level radioactivity measurements of populations, it is commonly observed that a substantial portion of net results are negative. Furthermore, the observed variance of the measurement results arises from a combination of measurement uncertainty and population variability. This paper presents a method for disaggregating measurement uncertainty from population variability to produce a probability density function (PDF) of possibly true results. To do this, simple, justifiable, and reasonable assumptions are made about the relationship of the measurements to the measurands (the 'true values'). The measurements are assumed to be unbiased, that is, that their average value is the average of the measurands. Using traditional estimates of each measurement's uncertainty to disaggregate population variability from measurement uncertainty, a PDF of measurands for the population is produced. Then, using Bayes's theorem, the same assumptions, and all the data from the population of individuals, a prior PDF is computed for each individual's measurand. These PDFs are non-negative, and their average is equal to the average of the measurement results for the population. The uncertainty in these Bayesian posterior PDFs is all Berkson with no remaining classical component. The methods are applied to baseline bioassay data from the Hanford site. The data include 90Sr urinalysis measurements on 128 people, 137Cs in vivo measurements on 5,337 people, and 239Pu urinalysis measurements on 3,270 people. The method produces excellent results for the 90Sr and 137Cs measurements, since there are nonzero concentrations of these global fallout radionuclides in people who have not been occupationally exposed. The method does not work for the 239Pu measurements in non-occupationally exposed people because the population average is essentially zero.

  10. OGLE-ing the Magellanic system: stellar populations in the Magellanic Bridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skowron, D. M.; Jacyszyn, A. M.; Udalski, A.; Szymański, M. K.; Skowron, J.; Poleski, R.; Kozłowski, S.; Kubiak, M.; Pietrzyński, G.; Soszyński, I.; Mróz, P.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.

    2014-11-10

    We report the discovery of a young stellar bridge that forms a continuous connection between the Magellanic Clouds. This finding is based on number density maps for stellar populations found in data gathered by OGLE-IV that fully cover over 270 deg{sup 2} of the sky in the Magellanic Bridge area. This is the most extensive optical survey of this region to date. We find that the young population is present mainly in the western half of the MBR, which, together with the newly discovered young population in the eastern Bridge, form a continuous stream of stars connecting both galaxies along δ ∼ –73.5 deg. The young population distribution is clumped, with one of the major densities close to the SMC and the other fairly isolated and located approximately mid-way between the Clouds, which we call the OGLE island. These overdensities are well matched by H I surface density contours, although the newly found young population in the eastern Bridge is offset by ∼2 deg north from the highest H I density contour. We observe a continuity of red clump stars between the Magellanic Clouds which represent an intermediate-age population. Red clump stars are present mainly in the southern and central parts of the Magellanic Bridge, below its gaseous part, and their presence is reflected by a strong deviation from the radial density profiles of the two galaxies. This may indicate either a tidal stream of stars, or that the stellar halos of the two galaxies overlap. On the other hand, we do not observe such an overlap within an intermediate-age population represented by the top of the red giant branch and the asymptotic giant branch stars. We also see only minor mixing of the old populations of the Clouds in the southern part of the Bridge, represented by the lowest part of the red giant branch.

  11. Evolution in Cloud Population Statistics of the MJO. From AMIE Field

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Observations to Global-Cloud Permitting Models final report Version 1 (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Evolution in Cloud Population Statistics of the MJO. From AMIE Field Observations to Global-Cloud Permitting Models final report Version 1 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Evolution in Cloud Population Statistics of the MJO. From AMIE Field Observations to Global-Cloud Permitting Models final report Version 1 Methods of convective/stratiform precipitation classification and

  12. Modeling tracers of young stellar population age in star-forming galaxies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levesque, Emily M.; Leitherer, Claus

    2013-12-20

    The young stellar population of a star-forming galaxy is the primary engine driving its radiative properties. As a result, the age of a galaxy's youngest generation of stars is critical for a detailed understanding of its star formation history, stellar content, and evolutionary state. Here we present predicted equivalent widths for the H?, H?, and Br? recombination lines as a function of stellar population age. The equivalent widths are produced by the latest generations of stellar evolutionary tracks and the Starburst99 stellar population synthesis code, and are the first to fully account for the combined effects of both nebular emission and continuum absorption produced by the synthetic stellar population. Our grid of model stellar populations spans six metallicities (0.001 < Z < 0.04), two treatments of star formation history (a 10{sup 6} M {sub ?} instantaneous burst and a continuous star formation rate of 1 M {sub ?} yr{sup 1}), and two different treatments of initial rotation rate (v {sub rot} = 0.0v {sub crit} and 0.4v {sub crit}). We also investigate the effects of varying the initial mass function. Given constraints on galaxy metallicity, our predicted equivalent widths can be applied to observations of star-forming galaxies to approximate the age of their young stellar populations.

  13. Letter report: Population estimates by age, sex and race for 10-county study area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pittenger, D B

    1992-02-01

    The Hanford Environmental Does Reconstruction (HEDR) Project was established to estimate radiation doses that people could have received from nuclear operations at the Hanford Site since 1944. To identify groups that may have received doses, population estimates containing age, race, and sex detail for ten counties in Washington and Oregon for the years 1940 to 1980 were prepared by the Demographics Laboratory under a subcontract with the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). A data base of population information was developed from census reports and published and unpublished collections from the Washington State Office of Financial Management and Center for Population Research. Three estimation methods were then explored: the cohort-component model, cohort interpolation, and age-group interpolation. The estimates generated through cohort and age-group interpolation are considered adequate for initial use in the HEDR Project. Results are presented in two forms: (1) county populations by sex and single year of age and (2) county populations by sex and race for age groupings. These results are made available to the HEDR Project for further refinement into population estimates by county census divisions.

  14. Fact #936: August 1, 2016 California Had the Highest Concentration of Plug-in Vehicles Relative to Population in 2015

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Excel file and dataset for California Had the Highest Concentration of Plug-in Vehicles Relative to Population in 2015

  15. Animations/simulations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Numeric data Data plots and figures Genomegenetics data Interactive data maps Animationssimulations Still images and photos Find scientific research data resulting from...

  16. Establishing a process of irradiating small animal brain using a CyberKnife and a microCT scanner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Haksoo; Welford, Scott; Fabien, Jeffrey; Zheng, Yiran; Yuan, Jake; Brindle, James; Yao, Min; Lo, Simon; Wessels, Barry; Machtay, Mitchell; Sohn, Jason W.; Sloan, Andrew

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Establish and validate a process of accurately irradiating small animals using the CyberKnife G4 System (version 8.5) with treatment plans designed to irradiate a hemisphere of a mouse brain based on microCT scanner images. Methods: These experiments consisted of four parts: (1) building a mouse phantom for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) quality assurance (QA), (2) proving usability of a microCT for treatment planning, (3) fabricating a small animal positioning system for use with the CyberKnife's image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) system, and (4)in vivo verification of targeting accuracy. A set of solid water mouse phantoms was designed and fabricated, with radiochromic films (RCF) positioned in selected planes to measure delivered doses. After down-sampling for treatment planning compatibility, a CT image set of a phantom was imported into the CyberKnife treatment planning system—MultiPlan (ver. 3.5.2). A 0.5 cm diameter sphere was contoured within the phantom to represent a hemispherical section of a mouse brain. A nude mouse was scanned in an alpha cradle using a microCT scanner (cone-beam, 157 × 149 pixels slices, 0.2 mm longitudinal slice thickness). Based on the results of our positional accuracy study, a planning treatment volume (PTV) was created. A stereotactic body mold of the mouse was “printed” using a 3D printer laying UV curable acrylic plastic. Printer instructions were based on exported contours of the mouse's skin. Positional reproducibility in the mold was checked by measuring ten CT scans. To verify accurate dose delivery in vivo, six mice were irradiated in the mold with a 4 mm target contour and a 2 mm PTV margin to 3 Gy and sacrificed within 20 min to avoid DNA repair. The brain was sliced and stained for analysis. Results: For the IMRT QA using a set of phantoms, the planned dose (6 Gy to the calculation point) was compared to the delivered dose measured via film and analyzed using Gamma analysis (3% and 3 mm). A

  17. Establishing a process of irradiating small animal brain using a CyberKnife and a microCT scanner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Haksoo; Welford, Scott; Fabien, Jeffrey; Zheng, Yiran; Yuan, Jake; Brindle, James; Yao, Min; Lo, Simon; Wessels, Barry; Machtay, Mitchell; Sohn, Jason W.; Sloan, Andrew

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: Establish and validate a process of accurately irradiating small animals using the CyberKnife G4 System (version 8.5) with treatment plans designed to irradiate a hemisphere of a mouse brain based on microCT scanner images. Methods: These experiments consisted of four parts: (1) building a mouse phantom for intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) quality assurance (QA), (2) proving usability of a microCT for treatment planning, (3) fabricating a small animal positioning system for use with the CyberKnife's image guided radiotherapy (IGRT) system, and (4)in vivo verification of targeting accuracy. A set of solid water mouse phantoms was designed and fabricated, with radiochromic films (RCF) positioned in selected planes to measure delivered doses. After down-sampling for treatment planning compatibility, a CT image set of a phantom was imported into the CyberKnife treatment planning systemMultiPlan (ver. 3.5.2). A 0.5 cm diameter sphere was contoured within the phantom to represent a hemispherical section of a mouse brain. A nude mouse was scanned in an alpha cradle using a microCT scanner (cone-beam, 157 149 pixels slices, 0.2 mm longitudinal slice thickness). Based on the results of our positional accuracy study, a planning treatment volume (PTV) was created. A stereotactic body mold of the mouse was printed using a 3D printer laying UV curable acrylic plastic. Printer instructions were based on exported contours of the mouse's skin. Positional reproducibility in the mold was checked by measuring ten CT scans. To verify accurate dose delivery in vivo, six mice were irradiated in the mold with a 4 mm target contour and a 2 mm PTV margin to 3 Gy and sacrificed within 20 min to avoid DNA repair. The brain was sliced and stained for analysis. Results: For the IMRT QA using a set of phantoms, the planned dose (6 Gy to the calculation point) was compared to the delivered dose measured via film and analyzed using Gamma analysis (3% and 3 mm). A passing rate

  18. Trace rare earth element analysis of IAEA hair (HH-1), animal bone (H-5) and other biological standards by radiochemical neutron activation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lepel, E.A.; Laul, J.C.

    1986-03-01

    A radiochemical neutron activation analysis using a rare earth group separation scheme has been used to measure ultratrace levels of rare earth elements (REE) in IAEA Human Hair (HH-1), IAEA Animal Bone (H-5), NBS Bovine Liver (SRM 1577), and NBS Orchard Leaf (SRM 1571) standards. The REE concentrations in Human Hair and Animal Bone range from 10/sup -8/g/g to 10/sup -11/g/g and their chondritic normalized REE patterns show a negative Eu anomaly and follow as a smooth function of the REE ionic radii. The REE patterns for NBS Bovine Liver and Orchard Leaf are identical except that their concentrations are higher. The similarity among the REE patterns suggest that the REE do not appear to be fractionated during the intake of biological materials by animals or humans. 14 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Quantification of the epitope diversity of HIV-1-specific binding antibodies by peptide microarrays for global HIV-1 vaccine development

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stephenson, Kathryn E.; Neubauer, George H.; Reimer, Ulf; Pawlowski, Nikolaus; Knaute, Tobias; Zerweck, Johannes; Korber, Bette T.; Barouch, Dan H.

    2014-11-14

    An effective vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) will have to provide protection against a vast array of different HIV-1 strains. Current methods to measure HIV-1-specific binding antibodies following immunization typically focus on determining the magnitude of antibody responses, but the epitope diversity of antibody responses has remained largely unexplored. Here we describe the development of a global HIV-1 peptide microarray that contains 6564 peptides from across the HIV-1 proteome and covers the majority of HIV-1 sequences in the Los Alamos National Laboratory global HIV-1 sequence database. Using this microarray, we quantified the magnitude, breadth, and depth ofmore » IgG binding to linear HIV-1 sequences in HIV-1-infected humans and HIV-1-vaccinated humans, rhesus monkeys and guinea pigs. The microarray measured potentially important differences in antibody epitope diversity, particularly regarding the depth of epitope variants recognized at each binding site. Our data suggest that the global HIV-1 peptide microarray may be a useful tool for both preclinical and clinical HIV-1 research.« less

  20. Quantification of the epitope diversity of HIV-1-specific binding antibodies by peptide microarrays for global HIV-1 vaccine development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephenson, Kathryn E.; Neubauer, George H.; Reimer, Ulf; Pawlowski, Nikolaus; Knaute, Tobias; Zerweck, Johannes; Korber, Bette T.; Barouch, Dan H.

    2014-11-14

    An effective vaccine against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) will have to provide protection against a vast array of different HIV-1 strains. Current methods to measure HIV-1-specific binding antibodies following immunization typically focus on determining the magnitude of antibody responses, but the epitope diversity of antibody responses has remained largely unexplored. Here we describe the development of a global HIV-1 peptide microarray that contains 6564 peptides from across the HIV-1 proteome and covers the majority of HIV-1 sequences in the Los Alamos National Laboratory global HIV-1 sequence database. Using this microarray, we quantified the magnitude, breadth, and depth of IgG binding to linear HIV-1 sequences in HIV-1-infected humans and HIV-1-vaccinated humans, rhesus monkeys and guinea pigs. The microarray measured potentially important differences in antibody epitope diversity, particularly regarding the depth of epitope variants recognized at each binding site. Our data suggest that the global HIV-1 peptide microarray may be a useful tool for both preclinical and clinical HIV-1 research.