National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for district heat boilers

  1. Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

  2. Specifying Waste Heat Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganapathy, V.

    1992-01-01

    HEAT BOILERS V.Ganapathy.ABCO Industries Abilene,Texas ABSTRACT Waste heat boilers or Heat Recovery Steam 'Generators(HRSGs) as they are often called are used to recover energy from waste gas streams in chemical plants, refineries... stream_source_info ESL-IE-92-04-42.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 11937 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-92-04-42.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 SPECIFYING WASTE...

  3. Optimal control of a multi-energy district boiler: a case study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Optimal control of a multi-energy district boiler: a case study J. Eynard S. Grieu M. Polit of a multi-energy district boiler (La Rochelle, France) which supplies domestic hot water and heats optimizing the use of both the tank and the wood boiler. As a result, fossil energy consumption and CO2

  4. Recover Heat from Boiler Blowdown, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0 Recover Heat from Boiler Blowdown Heat can be recovered from boiler blowdown by using a heat exchanger to preheat boiler makeup water. Any boiler with continuous blowdown...

  5. Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low...

  6. City of Klamath Falls District Heating District Heating Low Temperatur...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    City of Klamath Falls District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name City of Klamath Falls District Heating District Heating...

  7. San Bernardino District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    San Bernardino District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name San Bernardino District Heating District Heating Low...

  8. Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  9. Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  10. Boise City Geothermal District Heating District Heating Low Temperatur...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Boise City Geothermal District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Boise City Geothermal District Heating District Heating...

  11. Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  12. Recover Heat from Boiler Blowdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    This revised ITP tip sheet on recovering heat from boiler blowdown provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  13. Modular approach for modelling a multi-energy district boiler Julien Eynard, Stphane Grieu1 and Monique Polit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Modular approach for modelling a multi-energy district boiler Julien Eynard, Stéphane Grieu1 with the modelling of a district boiler (city of La Rochelle, west coast of France), as part of the OptiEnR research project. This "multi- energy" boiler supplies domestic hot water and heats residential and public

  14. Heat Recovery Boilers for Process Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganapathy, V.; Rentz, J.; Flanagan, D.

    1985-01-01

    Heat recovery boilers are widely used in process plants for recovering energy from various waste gas streams, either from the consideration of process or of economy. Sulfuric, as well as nitric, acid plant heat recovery boilers are examples...

  15. Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature...

  16. Elko County School District District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Elko County School District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Elko County School District District Heating Low Temperature...

  17. Clean Firetube Boiler Waterside Heat Transfer Surfaces, Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7 Clean Firetube Boiler Waterside Heat Transfer Surfaces The prevention of scale formation in firetube boilers can result in substantial energy savings. Scale deposits occur when...

  18. ABSORPTION HEAT PUMP IN THE DISTRICT HEATING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;ABSORPTION HEAT PUMP IN THE DISTRICT HEATING PLANT Dr.sc.ing. Agnese Lickrastina M.Sc. Normunds European Heat Pump Summit 2013, Nuremberg, 15-16.10.2013 · Riga District Heating company · Operation of the DH plant Imanta · Selection of the heat pump/chiller · Operation of the heat pump/chiller · Summary

  19. District heating strategy model: community manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrabak, R. A.; Kron, Jr., N. F.; Pferdehirt, W. P.

    1981-10-01

    The US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) cosponsor a program aimed at increasing the number of district heating and cooling systems. Twenty-eight communities have received HUD cooperative agreements to aid in a national feasibility assessment of district heating and cooling systems. The HUD/DOE program includes technical assistance provided by Argonne National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Part of this assistance is a computer program, called the district heating strategy model, that performs preliminary calculations to analyze potential district heating and cooling systems. The model uses information about a community's physical characteristics, current electricity-supply systems, and local economic conditions to calculate heat demands, heat supplies from existing power plants and a new boiler, system construction costs, basic financial forecasts, and changes in air-pollutant emissions resulting from installation of a district heating and cooling system. This report explains the operation of the district heating strategy model, provides simplified forms for organizing the input data required, and describes and illustrates the model's output data. The report is written for three groups of people: (1) those in the HUD/DOE-sponsored communities who will be collecting input data, and studying output data, to assess the potential for district heating and cooling applications in their communiites; (2) those in any other communities who may wish to use the model for the same purpose; and (3) technical-support people assigned by the national laboratories to explain to community personnel how the model is used.

  20. Low Temperature Heat Recovery for Boiler Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shook, J. R.; Luttenberger, D. B.

    1986-01-01

    stream_source_info ESL-IE-86-06-70.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 27871 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-86-06-70.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 LOW TEMPERATURE HEAT... RECOVERY FOR BOILER SYSTEMS James R. Shook & David B. Luttenberger FLUE GAS RESOURCES, INC. Toledo, Ohio ABSTRACT Low temperature corrosion proof heat exchangers desbgned to reduce boiler flue gas temperatures to 170 F or lower are now being...

  1. Waste Heat Boilers for Incineration Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ganapathy, V.

    1998-01-01

    . The steam thus generated may be saturated or superheated and could be used for process applications or for power generation via a steam turbine. This paper describes the major component of any incineration system, namely the waste heat boiler, and describes...

  2. EA-0923: Winnett School District Boiler Replacement Project, Winnett, Montana

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal to replace the Winnett School District complex's existing oil-fired heating system with a new coal-fired heating system with funds...

  3. ,"Total District Heat Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"District...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Heat Consumption (trillion Btu)",,,,,"District Heat Energy Intensity (thousand Btusquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  4. Predictive control and thermal energy storage for optimizing a multi-energy district boiler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Predictive control and thermal energy storage for optimizing a multi- energy district boiler Julien energy storage. 1. Introduction Managing energy demand, promoting renewable energy and finding ways

  5. Value of electrical heat boilers and heat pumps for wind power integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Value of electrical heat boilers and heat pumps for wind power integration Peter Meibom Juha of using electrical heat boilers and heat pumps as wind power integration measures relieving the link\\ZRUGV wind power, integration, heat pumps, electric heat boilers ,QWURGXFWLRQ 3UREOHP RYHUYLHZ The Danish

  6. Litchfield Correctional Center District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Litchfield Correctional Center District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Litchfield Correctional Center District Heating Low Temperature...

  7. Boise geothermal district heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanson, P.J.

    1985-10-01

    This document describes the Boise geothermal district heating project from preliminary feasibility studies completed in 1979 to a fully operational system by 1983. The report includes information about the two local governments that participated in the project - the City of Boise, Idaho and the Boise Warm Springs Water District. It also discusses the federal funding sources; the financial studies; the feasibility studies conducted; the general system planning and design; design of detailed system components; the legal issues involved in production; geological analysis of the resource area; distribution and disposal; the program to market system services; and the methods of retrofitting buildings to use geothermal hot water for space heating. Technically this report describes the Boise City district heating system based on 170/sup 0/F water, a 4000 gpm production system, a 41,000 foot pipeline system, and system economies. Comparable data are also provided for the Boise Warm Springs Water District. 62 figs., 31 tabs.

  8. Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and Operators Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and Operators This guide presents useful information for...

  9. First university owned district heating system using biomass heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    Highlights · First university owned district heating system using biomass heat · Capacity: 15 MMBtu Main Campus District Heating Performance · Avoided: 3500 tonnes of CO2 · Particulate: less than 10 mg District Heating Goals To displace 85% of natural gas used for core campus heating. Fuel Bunker Sawmill

  10. Heat Recovery Consideration for Process Heaters and Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, A.

    1983-01-01

    The largest single area for industrial energy conservation is in the improvement of combustion efficiencies for heaters and boilers. A number of methods can be employed to recover heat. The most common are by use of ...

  11. Recover Heat from Boiler Blowdown - Steam Tip Sheet #10

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on recovering heat from boiler blowdown provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  12. Cold End Inserts for Process Gas Waste Heat Boilers Air Products, operates hydrogen production plants, which utilize large waste heat boilers (WHB)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    Cold End Inserts for Process Gas Waste Heat Boilers Overview Air Products, operates hydrogen production plants, which utilize large waste heat boilers (WHB) to cool process syngas. The gas enters satisfies all 3 design criteria. · Correlations relating our experimental results to a waste heat boiler

  13. New configurations of a heat recovery absorption heat pump integrated with a natural gas boiler for boiler efficiency improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qu, Ming; Abdelaziz, Omar; Yin, Hongxi

    2014-11-01

    Conventional natural gas-fired boilers exhaust flue gas direct to the atmosphere at 150 200 C, which, at such temperatures, contains large amount of energy and results in relatively low thermal efficiency ranging from 70% to 80%. Although condensing boilers for recovering the heat in the flue gas have been developed over the past 40 years, their present market share is still less than 25%. The major reason for this relatively slow acceptance is the limited improvement in the thermal efficiency of condensing boilers. In the condensing boiler, the temperature of the hot water return at the range of 50 60 C, which is used to cool the flue gas, is very close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas. Therefore, the latent heat, the majority of the waste heat in the flue gas, which is contained in the water vapor, cannot be recovered. This paper presents a new approach to improve boiler thermal efficiency by integrating absorption heat pumps with natural gas boilers for waste heat recovery (HRAHP). Three configurations of HRAHPs are introduced and discussed. The three configurations are modeled in detail to illustrate the significant thermal efficiency improvement they attain. Further, for conceptual proof and validation, an existing hot water-driven absorption chiller is operated as a heat pump at operating conditions similar to one of the devised configurations. An overall system performance and economic analysis are provided for decision-making and as evidence of the potential benefits. These three configurations of HRAHP provide a pathway to achieving realistic high-efficiency natural gas boilers for applications with process fluid return temperatures higher than or close to the dew point of the water vapor in the flue gas.

  14. Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with Geothermal Heat Pumpsand Ground Source Water Loops Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and...

  15. Protecting the Investment in Heat Recovery with Boiler Economizers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roethe, L. A.

    1985-01-01

    THE INVESTMENT IN HEAT RECOVERY WITH BOILER ECONOMIZERS Lester A. Roethe, Consultant Kentube Division Tulsa, Oklahoma ABSTRACT Many people consider energy to be a crlS1S in re mission -- even with continuing high fuel costs. Some voice concern over... the long term security of an investment in flue gas heat recovery equipment. The concern generally involves the ability of an economizer or air heater to continue to perform efficiently without corrosion. The recognized economic advantages of an econo...

  16. Results of heat tests of the TGE-435 main boiler in the PGU-190/220 combined-cycle plant of the Tyumen' TETs-2 cogeneration plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.V. Kurochkin; A.L. Kovalenko; V.G. Kozlov; A.I. Krivobok

    2007-01-15

    Special features of operation of a boiler operating as a combined-cycle plant and having its own furnace and burner unit are descried. The flow of flue gases on the boiler is increased due to feeding of exhaust gases of the GTU into the furnace, which intensifies the convective heat exchange. In addition, it is not necessary to preheat air in the convective heating surfaces (the boiler has no air preheater). The convective heating surfaces of the boiler are used for heating the feed water, thus replacing the regeneration extractions of the steam turbine (HPP are absent in the circuit) and partially replacing the preheating of condensate (the LPP in the circuit of the unit are combined with preheaters of delivery water). Regeneration of the steam turbine is primarily used for the district cogeneration heating purposes. The furnace and burner unit of the exhaust-heat boiler (which is a new engineering solution for the given project) ensures utilization of not only the heat of the exhaust gases of the GTU but also of their excess volume, because the latter contains up to 15% oxygen that oxidizes the combustion process in the boiler. Thus, the gas temperature at the inlet to the boiler amounts to 580{sup o}C at an excess air factor a = 3.50; at the outlet these parameters are utilized to T{sub out} = 139{sup o}C and a{sub out} = 1.17. The proportions of the GTU/boiler loads that can actually be organized at the generating unit (and have been checked by testing) are presented and the proportions of loads recommended for the most efficient operation of the boiler are determined. The performance characteristics of the boiler are presented for various proportions of GTU/boiler loads. The operating conditions of the superheater and of the convective trailing heating surfaces are presented as well as the ecological parameters of the generating unit.

  17. New Mexico State University District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    New Mexico State University District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name New Mexico State University District Heating Low Temperature...

  18. Oregon Institute of Technology District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Oregon Institute of Technology District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Oregon Institute of Technology District Heating Low Temperature...

  19. Fort Boise Veteran's Hospital District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fort Boise Veteran's Hospital District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Fort Boise Veteran's Hospital District Heating Low Temperature...

  20. Fluid Bed Waste Heat Boiler Operating Experience in Dirty Gas Streams 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kreeger, A. H.

    1986-01-01

    BOILER OPERATING EXPERIENCE IN DIRTY GAS STREAMS Alan H. Kreeger. Aerojet Energy Conversion Company. Sacramento. California ABSTRACT The first industrial fluid bed waste heat boiler in the U. S. is operating on an aluminium melting furnace...

  1. Woodfuel community heating at Kielder A wood-fired district heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is the use of a centralised boiler to provide heat for a number of buildings. Woodfuel heating from electrical power in combined heat and power (CHP) installations. Woodfuel boiler The 300 kilowatt Austrian woodfuel boiler at Kielder is fuelled by locally-grown Sitka spruce. The trees are felled, stacked

  2. Low Cost Polymer heat Exchangers for Condensing Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butcher, Thomas; Trojanowski, Rebecca; Wei, George; Worek, Michael

    2015-09-30

    Work in this project sought to develop a suitable design for a low cost, corrosion resistant heat exchanger as part of a high efficiency condensing boiler. Based upon the design parameters and cost analysis several geometries and material options were explored. The project also quantified and demonstrated the durability of the selected polymer/filler composite under expected operating conditions. The core material idea included a polymer matrix with fillers for thermal conductivity improvement. While the work focused on conventional heating oil, this concept could also be applicable to natural gas, low sulfur heating oil, and biodiesel- although these are considered to be less challenging environments. An extruded polymer composite heat exchanger was designed, built, and tested during this project, demonstrating technical feasibility of this corrosion-resistant material approach. In such flue gas-to-air heat exchangers, the controlling resistance to heat transfer is in the gas-side convective layer and not in the tube material. For this reason, the lower thermal conductivity polymer composite heat exchanger can achieve overall heat transfer performance comparable to a metal heat exchanger. However, with the polymer composite, the surface temperature on the gas side will be higher, leading to a lower water vapor condensation rate.

  3. Analysis of Heating Systems and Scale of Natural Gas-Condensing Water Boilers in Northern Zones 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Y.; Wang, S.; Pan, S.; Shi, Y.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, various heating systems and scale of the natural gas-condensing water boiler in northern zones are discussed, based on a technical-economic analysis of the heating systems of natural gas condensing water boilers in northern zones...

  4. Predictive control of supply temperature in district heating systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Predictive control of supply temperature in district heating systems Torben Skov Nielsen Henrik This report considers a new concept for controlling the supply temperature in district heating systems using stochastic modelling, prediction and control. A district heating systems is a di#30;cult system to control

  5. CONTROL OF SUPPLY TEMPERATURE IN DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CONTROL OF SUPPLY TEMPERATURE IN DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEMS T.S. Nielsen, H. Madsen Informatics the supply temperature in district heating systems using stochastic modelling, prediction and control at Roskilde Varmeforsyning. The results obtained for the Roskilde district heating utility are evaluated

  6. Solar heat storages in district heating Klaus Ellehauge Thomas Engberg Pedersen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    July 2007 . #12;#12;Solar heat storages in district heating networks July 2007 Klaus Ellehauge 97 22 11 tep@cowi.dk www.cowi.com #12;#12;Solar heat storages in district heating networks 5 References 45 Appendix 1 Danish companies 48 #12;6/50 Solar heat storages in district heating networks

  7. Alternative institutional vehicles for geothermal district heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bressler, S.; Gardner, T.C.; King, D.; Nimmons, J.T.

    1980-06-01

    The attributes of various institutional entities which might participate in various phases of geothermal heating applications are described. Public entities considered include cities, counties, and special districts. Private entities discussed include cooperative organizations and non-member-owned private enterprises. The powers, authority and manner of operation of each of the institutional entities are reviewed. Some of the public utility regulatory implications which may affect choices among available alternatives are considered. (MHR)

  8. Clean Firetube Boiler Waterside Heat Transfer Surfaces, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam Tip Sheet #7 (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    A steam energy tip sheet for the Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO). The prevention of scale formation in firetube boilers can result in substantial energy savings. Scale deposits occur when calcium, magnesium, and silica, commonly found in most water supplies, react to form a continuous layer of material on the waterside of the boiler heat exchange tubes. Scale creates a problem because it typically possesses a thermal conductivity, an order of magnitude less than the corresponding value for bare steel. Even thin layers of scale serve as an effective insulator and retard heat transfer. The result is overheating of boiler tube metal, tube failures, and loss of energy efficiency. Fuel consumption may increase by up to 5% in firetube boilers because of scale. The boilers steam production may be reduced if the firing rate cannot be increased to compensate for the decrease in combustion efficiency. Energy losses as a function of scale thickness and composition are given. Any scale in a boiler is undesirable. The best way to deal with scale is not to let it form in the first place. Prevent scale formation by: (1) Pretreating of boiler makeup water (using water softeners, demineralizers, and reverse osmosis to remove scale-forming minerals); (2) Injecting chemicals into the boiler feedwater; and (3) Adopting proper boiler blowdown practices.

  9. Extension and improvement of Central Station District heating budget period 1 and 2, Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    Project aim was to reduce pollution levels in the City of Krakow through the retirement of coal-fired (hand and mechanically-stoked) boiler houses. This was achieved by identifying attractive candidates and connecting them to the Krakow district heating system, thus permitting them to eliminate boiler operations. Because coal is less costly than district hot water, the district heating company Miejskie Przedsiebiorstwo Energetyki Cieplnej S.A., henceforth identified as MPEC, needed to provide potential customers with incentives for purchasing district heat. These incentives consisted of offerings which MPEC made to the prospective client. The offerings presented the economic and environmental benefits to district heating tie-in and also could include conservation studies of the facilities, so that consumption of energy could be reduced and the cost impact on operations mitigated. Because some of the targeted boiler houses were large, the capacity of the district heating network required enhancement at strategic locations. Consequently, project construction work included both enhancement to the district piping network as well as facility tie-ins. The process of securing new customers necessitated the strengthening of MPEC`s competitive position in Krakow`s energy marketplace, which in turn required improvements in marketing, customer service, strategic planning, and project management. Learning how US utilities address these challenges became an integral segment of the project`s scope.

  10. March 1, 2013. Campus Wide District Heating & Cooling System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ____________________________ March 1, 2013. Campus Wide District Heating & Cooling System. Today · Decentralisation of the heating plant · Introduction of an Energy Loop · Geothermal 4. Results 5 · Decentralisation of the heating plant · Introduction of an Energy Loop · Geothermal 4. Results 5. Tomorrow 6

  11. Clean Boiler Water-side Heat Transfer Surfaces - Steam Tip Sheet #7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on cleaning boiler water-side heat transfer surfaces provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  12. Effects of installing economizers in boilers used in space heating applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzalez, M.A.; Medina, M.A.; Schruben, D.L.

    1999-07-01

    This paper discusses how the performance of a boiler can be improved by adding an economizer to preheat the boiler's feedwater. An energy analysis was applied to a boiler and then to both a boiler and an economizer (water pre-heater) to evaluate the benefits of heat recovery. Exergy rates calculated for both the boiler and the economizer determined that the temperature of the stack gases had primary effects on the performance of a boiler. The results from this study showed that 57% of the heat rejected at the boiler's stack could be recovered by installing an economizer to preheat the feedwater. As a result, the average cost savings that would be realized for a 36,400 kg/h (80,000 lbm/h) boiler averages US$8 per hour. The cost savings to steam production averaged US$0.20 per 455 kg (1,000 lbm) of steam and the ration between the cost savings to stack temperature averaged $0.02 per C (1.8 F). For this case, the fuel and the cost savings realized from using an economizer were averaged at 3.8% and 3.7%, respectively. These results translated to total cost savings, for an eight-day period considered, of US$940.

  13. Improved Heat Recovery in Biomass-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-11-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to reduce corrosion and improve the life span of boiler superheater tubes operating at temperatures above the melting point of ash deposits.

  14. November 20, 2012 Webinar: District Heating with Renewable Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This webinar was held November 20, 2012, and provided information on Indiana's Ball State University geothermal heat pump system, and a hot-water district heating system in St. Paul, Minnesota....

  15. U.S. geothermal district heating : barriers and enablers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thorsteinsson, Hildigunnur H

    2008-01-01

    Geothermal district heating experience in the U.S. is reviewed and evaluated to explore the potential impact of utilizing this frequently undervalued renewable energy resource for space and hot water heating. Although the ...

  16. Building America Case Study: Boiler Control Replacement for Hydronically Heated Multifamily Buildings, Cambridge, Massachusetts (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    The ARIES Collaborative, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team, partnered with NeighborWorks America affiliate Homeowners' Rehab Inc. (HRI) of Cambridge, Massachusetts, to study improvements to the central hydronic heating system in one of the nonprofit's housing developments. The heating controls in the three-building, 42-unit Columbia Cambridge Alliance for Spanish Tenants housing development were upgraded. Fuel use in the development was excessive compared to similar properties. A poorly insulated thermal envelope contributed to high energy bills, but adding wall insulation was not cost-effective or practical. The more cost-effective option was improving heating system efficiency. Efficient operation of the heating system faced several obstacles, including inflexible boiler controls and failed thermostatic radiator valves. Boiler controls were replaced with systems that offer temperature setbacks and one that controls heat based on apartment temperature in addition to outdoor temperature. Utility bill analysis shows that post-retrofit weather-normalized heating energy use was reduced by 10%-31% (average of 19%). Indoor temperature cutoff reduced boiler runtime (and therefore heating fuel consumption) by 28% in the one building in which it was implemented. Nearly all savings were obtained during night which had a lower indoor temperature cut off (68 degrees F) than day (73 degrees F). This implies that the outdoor reset curve was appropriately adjusted for this building for daytime operation. Nighttime setback of heating system supply water temperature had no discernable impact on boiler runtime or gas bills.

  17. Hydronic Heating Retrofits for Low-Rise Multifamily Buildings: Boiler Control Replacement and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dentz, J.; Henderson, H.; Varshney, K.

    2014-09-01

    The ARIES Collaborative, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team, partnered with NeighborWorks America affiliate Homeowners' Rehab Inc. (HRI) of Cambridge, Massachusetts, to study improvements to the central hydronic heating system in one of the nonprofit's housing developments. The heating controls in the three-building, 42-unit Columbia Cambridge Alliance for Spanish Tenants housing development were upgraded. Fuel use in the development was excessive compared to similar properties. A poorly insulated thermal envelope contributed to high energy bills, but adding wall insulation was not cost-effective or practical. The more cost-effective option was improving heating system efficiency. Efficient operation of the heating system faced several obstacles, including inflexible boiler controls and failed thermostatic radiator valves. Boiler controls were replaced with systems that offer temperature setbacks and one that controls heat based on apartment temperature in addition to outdoor temperature. Utility bill analysis shows that post-retrofit weather-normalized heating energy use was reduced by 10%-31% (average of 19%). Indoor temperature cutoff reduced boiler runtime (and therefore heating fuel consumption) by 28% in the one building in which it was implemented. Nearly all savings were obtained during night which had a lower indoor temperature cut off (68 degrees F) than day (73 degrees F). This implies that the outdoor reset curve was appropriately adjusted for this building for daytime operation. Nighttime setback of heating system supply water temperature had no discernable impact on boiler runtime or gas bills.

  18. Combined Heat and Power Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    This factsheet describes a project that will seamlessly integrate a gas-fired simple-cycle 100 kWe microturbine with a new ultra-low NOx gas-fired burner to develop a CHP assembly called the Boiler Burner Energy System Technology.

  19. Technology Solutions Case Study: Boiler Control Replacement for Hydronically Heated Multifamily Buildings, Cambridge, Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-11-01

    The ARIES Collaborative, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team, partnered with NeighborWorks America affiliate Homeowners' Rehab Inc. (HRI) of Cambridge, Massachusetts, to study improvements to the central hydronic heating system in one of the nonprofit's housing developments. The heating controls in the three-building, 42-unit Columbia Cambridge Alliance for Spanish Tenants housing development were upgraded. Fuel use in the development was excessive compared to similar properties. A poorly insulated thermal envelope contributed to high energy bills, but adding wall insulation was not cost-effective or practical. The more cost-effective option was improving heating system efficiency, which faced several obstacles, including inflexible boiler controls and failed thermostatic radiator valves. Boiler controls were replaced with systems that offer temperature setbacks and one that controls heat based on apartment temperature in addition to outdoor temperature. Utility bill analysis shows that post-retrofit weather-normalized heating energy use was reduced by 10%-31% (average of 19%). Indoor temperature cutoff reduced boiler runtime (and therefore heating fuel consumption) by 28% in the one building in which it was implemented. Nearly all savings were obtained during night which had a lower indoor temperature cut off (68°F) than day (73° F). This implies that the outdoor reset curve was appropriately adjusted for this building for daytime operation. Nighttime setback of heating system supply water temperature had no discernable impact on boiler runtime or gas bills.

  20. Energy Accounting for District Heating and Cooling Plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barrett, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    FOR DISTRICT HEATING AND COOLING PLANTS John A. Barrett, P.E. Manager, Central Plant Utilities University of Houston Houston, Texas Introduction Energy accounting combines engineering science with the insights of cost accoupting theory. It requires...-25, 1979 The Science of Plant Utilities Control While the Weiss papers are not as specific to district heating and cooling plants as the preceding papers, they do treat other problem areas of interest. Undoubtedly the northeastern United States, which...

  1. Simulation and analysis of district-heating and -cooling systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloomster, C.H.; Fassbender, L.L.

    1983-03-01

    A computer simulation model, GEOCITY, was developed to study the design and economics of district heating and cooling systems. GEOCITY calculates the cost of district heating based on climate, population, energy source, and financing conditions. The principal input variables are minimum temperature, heating degree-days, population size and density, energy supply temperature and distance from load center, and the interest rate. For district cooling, maximum temperature and cooling degree-hours are required. From this input data the model designs the fluid transport and district heating systems. From this design, GEOCITY calculates the capital and operating costs for the entire system. GEOCITY was originally developed to simulate geothermal district heating systems and thus, in addition to the fluid transport and distribution models, it includes a reservoir model to simulate the production of geothermal energy from geothermal reservoirs. The reservoir model can be adapted to simulate the supply of hot water from any other energy source. GEOCITY has been used extensively and has been validated against other design and cost studies. GEOCITY designs the fluid transport and distribution facilities and then calculates the capital and operating costs for the entire system. GEOCITY can simulate nearly any financial and tax structure through varying the rates of return on equity and debt, the debt-equity ratios, and tax rates. Both private and municipal utility systems can be simulated.

  2. Influence of Transfer Efficiency of the Outdoor Pipe Network and Boiler Operating Efficiency on the Building Heat Consumption Index 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fang, X.; Wang, Z.; Liu, H.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the influence of transfer efficiency of the outdoor pipe network and operating efficiency of the boiler on the building heat consumption index, on the premise of saving up to 65 percent energy in different climates. The results...

  3. Expert Meeting: Optimized Heating Systems Using Condensing Boilers and Baseboard Convectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, L.

    2013-01-01

    On August 11, 2011, in Denver, CO, a Building America Expert Meeting was held in conjunction with the Building America Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting, to review and discuss results and future plans for research to improve the performance of hydronic heating systems using condensing boilers and baseboard convectors. A meeting objective was to provide an opportunity for other Building America teams and industry experts to provide feedback and specific suggestions for the planned research.

  4. Expert Meeting. Optimized Heating Systems Using Condensing Boilers and Baseboard Convectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, L.

    2013-01-01

    On August 11, 2011, in Denver, CO, a Building America Expert Meeting was held in conjunction with the Building America Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting, to review and discuss results and future plans for research to improve the performance of hydronic heating systems using condensing boilers and baseboard convectors. A meeting objective was to provide an opportunity for other Building America teams and industry experts to provide feedback and specific suggestions for the planned research.

  5. 1992 National census for district heating, cooling and cogeneration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    District energy systems are a major part of the energy use and delivery infrastructure of the United States. With nearly 6,000 operating systems currently in place, district energy represents approximately 800 billion BTU per hour of installed thermal production capacity, and provides over 1.1 quadrillion BTU of energy annually -- about 1.3% of all energy used in the US each year. Delivered through more that 20,000 miles of pipe, this energy is used to heat and cool almost 12 billion square feet of enclosed space in buildings that serve a diverse range of office, education, health care, military, industrial and residential needs. This Census is intended to provide a better understanding of the character and extent of district heating, cooling and cogeneration in the United States. It defines a district energy system as: Any system that provides thermal energy (steam, hot water, or chilled water) for space heating, space cooling, or process uses from a central plant, and that distributes the energy to two or more buildings through a network of pipes. If electricity is produced, the system is a cogenerating facility. The Census was conducted through surveys administered to the memberships of eleven national associations and agencies that collectively represent the great majority of the nation`s district energy system operators. Responses received from these surveys account for about 11% of all district systems in the United States. Data in this report is organized and presented within six user sectors selected to illustrate the significance of district energy in institutional, community and utility settings. Projections estimate the full extent of district energy systems in each sector.

  6. Recover Heat from Boiler Blowdown | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nAandSummary From: JuliaDepartment-8-2008RSS AprilDeliveryrecovering heat from

  7. Community Renewable Energy Success Stories Webinar: District Heating with Renewable Energy (text version)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Below is the text version of the webinar titled "District Heating with Renewable Energy," originally presented on November 20, 2012.

  8. Skyscrapers and District Heating, an inter-related History 1876-1933.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Skyscrapers and District Heating, an inter-related History 1876-1933. Introduction: The aim, and an equally new urban infrastructure, district heating, both of witch were born in the north-east United example in Europe of skyscrapers and district heating planned together, at Villeurbanne near Lyons

  9. A Functional Regression Approach for Prediction in a District-Heating System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A Functional Regression Approach for Prediction in a District-Heating System Aldo Goia Dipartimento in a district heating sys- tem. Our dataset consists of four separated periods, with 198 days each period and 24 load forecasting, district heat- ing system Introduction Among the activities of support

  10. School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment Delta T optimisation of district heating network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Paul

    School of Architecture, Design and the Built Environment Delta T optimisation of district heating of any network. Most existing district heating systems work at small (10-15 C) delta T. Although for the conventional and optimised design of the district heating network. The network operation will be simulated

  11. Simple models of district heating systems for load and demand side management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simple models of district heating systems for load and demand side management and operational Energiforskningsprogrammet EFP ENS J.nr. 1373/01-0041 December 2004 #12;Simple models of district heating systems for load 87-7475-323-1 #12;Preface The research project "Simple models of district heating systems for load

  12. Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6 Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses Boiler "short cycling" occurs when an oversized boiler quickly satisfies process or space heating demands, and then shuts down until heat is...

  13. Promising Technology: Condensing Gas Boilers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Condensing boilers achieve higher efficiencies than conventional boilers by capturing the latent heat from water vapor contained in the flue gases.

  14. Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and Operators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oland, CB

    2004-08-19

    Combined heat and power (CHP) or cogeneration is the sequential production of two forms of useful energy from a single fuel source. In most CHP applications, chemical energy in fuel is converted to both mechanical and thermal energy. The mechanical energy is generally used to generate electricity, while the thermal energy or heat is used to produce steam, hot water, or hot air. Depending on the application, CHP is referred to by various names including Building Cooling, Heating, and Power (BCHP); Cooling, Heating, and Power for Buildings (CHPB); Combined Cooling, Heating, and Power (CCHP); Integrated Energy Systems (IES), or Distributed Energy Resources (DER). The principal technical advantage of a CHP system is its ability to extract more useful energy from fuel compared to traditional energy systems such as conventional power plants that only generate electricity and industrial boiler systems that only produce steam or hot water for process applications. By using fuel energy for both power and heat production, CHP systems can be very energy efficient and have the potential to produce electricity below the price charged by the local power provider. Another important incentive for applying cogeneration technology is to reduce or eliminate dependency on the electrical grid. For some industrial processes, the consequences of losing power for even a short period of time are unacceptable. The primary objective of the guide is to present information needed to evaluate the viability of cogeneration for new or existing industrial, commercial, and institutional (ICI) boiler installations and to make informed CHP equipment selection decisions. Information presented is meant to help boiler owners and operators understand the potential benefits derived from implementing a CHP project and recognize opportunities for successful application of cogeneration technology. Topics covered in the guide follow: (1) an overview of cogeneration technology with discussions about benefits of applying cogeneration technology and barriers to implementing cogeneration technology; (2) applicable federal regulations and permitting issues; (3) descriptions of prime movers commonly used in CHP applications, including discussions about design characteristics, heat-recovery options and equipment, fuels and emissions, efficiency, maintenance, availability, and capital cost; (4) electrical generators and electrical interconnection equipment; (5) cooling and dehumidification equipment; (6) thermodynamic cycle options and configurations; (7) steps for evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of applying cogeneration technology; and (8) information sources.

  15. Combined Heat and Power, Waste Heat, and District Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation—given at the Fall 2011 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—covers combined heat and power (CHP) technologies and their applications.

  16. Life cycle assessment of base-load heat sources for district heating system options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghafghazi, Saeed [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sowlati, T. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine [ORNL; Melin, Staffan [Delta Research Corporation

    2011-03-01

    Purpose There has been an increased interest in utilizing renewable energy sources in district heating systems. District heating systems are centralized systems that provide heat for residential and commercial buildings in a community. While various renewable and conventional energy sources can be used in such systems, many stakeholders are interested in choosing the feasible option with the least environmental impacts. This paper evaluates and compares environmental burdens of alternative energy source options for the base load of a district heating center in Vancouver, British Columbia (BC) using the life cycle assessment method. The considered energy sources include natural gas, wood pellet, sewer heat, and ground heat. Methods The life cycle stages considered in the LCA model cover all stages from fuel production, fuel transmission/transportation, construction, operation, and finally demolition of the district heating system. The impact categories were analyzed based on the IMPACT 2002+ method. Results and discussion On a life-cycle basis, the global warming effect of renewable energy options were at least 200 kgeqCO2 less than that of the natural gas option per MWh of heat produced by the base load system. It was concluded that less than 25% of the upstream global warming impact associated with the wood pellet energy source option was due to transportation activities and about 50% of that was resulted from wood pellet production processes. In comparison with other energy options, the wood pellets option has higher impacts on respiratory of inorganics, terrestrial ecotoxicity, acidification, and nutrification categories. Among renewable options, the global warming impact of heat pump options in the studied case in Vancouver, BC, were lower than the wood pellet option due to BC's low carbon electricity generation profile. Ozone layer depletion and mineral extraction were the highest for the heat pump options due to extensive construction required for these options. Conclusions Natural gas utilization as the primary heat source for district heat production implies environmental complications beyond just the global warming impacts. Diffusing renewable energy sources for generating the base load district heat would reduce human toxicity, ecosystem quality degradation, global warming, and resource depletion compared to the case of natural gas. Reducing fossil fuel dependency in various stages of wood pellet production can remarkably reduce the upstream global warming impact of using wood pellets for district heat generation.

  17. District-heating strategy model: computer programmer's manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuzanek, J.F.

    1982-05-01

    The US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) cosponsor a program aimed at increasing the number of district heating and cooling (DHC) systems. Such systems can reduce the amount and costs of fuels used to heat and cool buildings in a district. Twenty-eight communities have agreed to aid HUD in a national feasibility assessment of DHC systems. The HUD/DOE program entails technical assistance by Argonne National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The assistance includes a computer program, called the district heating strategy model (DHSM), that performs preliminary calculations to analyze potential DHC systems. This report describes the general capabilities of the DHSM, provides historical background on its development, and explains the computer installation and operation of the model - including the data file structures and the options. Sample problems illustrate the structure of the various input data files, the interactive computer-output listings. The report is written primarily for computer programmers responsible for installing the model on their computer systems, entering data, running the model, and implementing local modifications to the code.

  18. Compliance testing of Grissom AFB Central Heating Plant coal-fired boilers 3, 4, and 5, Grissom AFB, Indiana. Final report, 29 January-15 February 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, J.A.

    1989-06-01

    At the request of HQ, SAC/SGPB source compliance testing (particulate and visible emissions) of boilers 3, 4, and 5 in the Grissom AFB Central Heating Plant was accomplished 29 Jan-15 Feb 89. The survey was conducted to determine compliance with regards to Indiana Administrative Code, Title 325 - Air Pollution Control Board, Article 5, Opacity Regulations, and Article 6, Particulate Regulations. Boiler 3 was tested through scrubber B, Boiler 4 through scrubber A, and Boiler 5 through scrubber B and the bypass stack. Results indicate that each boiler met applicable visible and particulate emission standards.

  19. Furnaces and Boilers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Most Americans heat their homes with a furnace or boiler, and high-efficiency models of all types of furnaces and boilers are available. Is it time for an upgrade?

  20. The Use of Aluminum Process Reject Heat as the Source of Energy for a District Heating System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCabe, J.; Olszewski, M.

    1980-01-01

    Rocket Research Company (RRC) is investigating the use of industrial process reject heat as a source of energy for large scale district heating. The District heating System is a network of closed-loop hot water pipes that recover energy from...

  1. Cost-efficient monitoring of water quality in district heating systems This article examines the monitoring strategy for water quality in a large Danish district

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cost-efficient monitoring of water quality in district heating systems This article examines the monitoring strategy for water quality in a large Danish district heating system ­ and makes a proposal for a technical and economic improvement. Monitoring of water quality in district heating systems is necessary

  2. Thesis proposal CSF Brazil 2014 Earth-Air Heat Exchangers at DISTRICT scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bordenave, Charles

    Thesis proposal CSF Brazil 2014 Title: Earth-Air Heat Exchangers at DISTRICT scale Thesis. The objective of the work is to design new classes of Earth-Air Heat Exchangers at district scale in the context: This proposal is part of a more global research project dedicated to the study of Earth-Air Heat Exchangers

  3. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; John DuPoint

    2011-03-31

    Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: (1) An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing high-moisture, low rank coals. (2) Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. (3) Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. (4) Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. (5) Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. (6) Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. (7) Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. (8) Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

  4. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas Using Condensing Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levy, Edward; Bilirgen, Harun; DuPont, John

    2011-03-31

    Most of the water used in a thermoelectric power plant is used for cooling, and DOE has been focusing on possible techniques to reduce the amount of fresh water needed for cooling. DOE has also been placing emphasis on recovery of usable water from sources not generally considered, such as mine water, water produced from oil and gas extraction, and water contained in boiler flue gas. This report deals with development of condensing heat exchanger technology for recovering moisture from flue gas from coal-fired power plants. The report describes: • An expanded data base on water and acid condensation characteristics of condensing heat exchangers in coal-fired units. This data base was generated by performing slip stream tests at a power plant with high sulfur bituminous coal and a wet FGD scrubber and at a power plant firing highmoisture, low rank coals. • Data on typical concentrations of HCl, HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} in low temperature condensed flue gas moisture, and mercury capture efficiencies as functions of process conditions in power plant field tests. • Theoretical predictions for sulfuric acid concentrations on tube surfaces at temperatures above the water vapor dewpoint temperature and below the sulfuric acid dew point temperature. • Data on corrosion rates of candidate heat exchanger tube materials for the different regions of the heat exchanger system as functions of acid concentration and temperature. • Data on effectiveness of acid traps in reducing sulfuric acid concentrations in a heat exchanger tube bundle. • Condensed flue gas water treatment needs and costs. • Condensing heat exchanger designs and installed capital costs for full-scale applications, both for installation immediately downstream of an ESP or baghouse and for installation downstream of a wet SO{sub 2} scrubber. • Results of cost-benefit studies of condensing heat exchangers.

  5. Experimental investigation on heat transfer and frictional characteristics of vertical upward rifled tube in supercritical CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Dong; Pan, Jie; Zhu, Xiaojing; Bi, Qincheng; Chen, Tingkuan; Zhou, Chenn Q.

    2011-02-15

    Water wall design is a key issue for supercritical Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler. On account of the good heat transfer performance, rifled tube is applied in the water wall design of a 600 MW supercritical CFB boiler in China. In order to investigate the heat transfer and frictional characteristics of the rifled tube with vertical upward flow, an in-depth experiment was conducted in the range of pressure from 12 to 30 MPa, mass flux from 230 to 1200 kg/(m{sup 2} s), and inner wall heat flux from 130 to 720 kW/m{sup 2}. The wall temperature distribution and pressure drop in the rifled tube were obtained in the experiment. The normal, enhanced and deteriorated heat transfer characteristics were also captured. In this paper, the effects of pressure, inner wall heat flux and mass flux on heat transfer characteristics are analyzed, the heat transfer mechanism and the frictional resistance performance are discussed, and the corresponding empirical correlations are presented. The experimental results show that the rifled tube can effectively prevent the occurrence of departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) and keep the tube wall temperature in a permissible range under the operating condition of supercritical CFB boiler. (author)

  6. Preliminary Retro-Commissioning Study on Optimal Operation for the Heat Source System of a District Heating Cooling Plant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shingu, H.; Yoshida, H.; Wang, F.; Ono, E.

    2008-01-01

    In order to improve the energy performance of a district heating and cooling (DHC) plant, the expected performance of the plant is studied using simulations based on mathematical models. A complete heat source system model, equipped with an embedded...

  7. Reduction of pumping energy losses in district heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zakin, J.L.; Christensen, R.N.

    1992-10-01

    This project was designed to find effective surfactant friction reducing additives for use in district heating systems with temperatures of 50 to 90[degrees]C and effective additives fore district cooling systems with temperatures of 5 to 15[degrees]C. Heat transfer measurements in conventional shell and tube heat exchangers and in plate heat exchangers were also carried out to see how seriously these surfactant drag reducing additives reduce heat transfer coefficients.

  8. Reduction of pumping energy losses in district heating and cooling systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zakin, J.L.; Christensen, R.N.

    1992-10-01

    This project was designed to find effective surfactant friction reducing additives for use in district heating systems with temperatures of 50 to 90{degrees}C and effective additives fore district cooling systems with temperatures of 5 to 15{degrees}C. Heat transfer measurements in conventional shell and tube heat exchangers and in plate heat exchangers were also carried out to see how seriously these surfactant drag reducing additives reduce heat transfer coefficients.

  9. Municipal District Heating and Cooling Co-generation System Feasibility Research 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, W.; Guan, W.; Pan, Y.; Ding, G.; Song, X.; Zhang, Y.; Li, Y.; Wei, H.; He, Y.

    2006-01-01

    In summer absorption refrigerating machines provide cold water using excess heat from municipal thermoelectric power plant through district heating pipelines, which reduces peak electric load from electricity networks in summer. The paper simulates...

  10. Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a CHP project and focuses on technical subjects associated with the integration of cogeneration technology into new and existing ICI boiler installations. chpboilersguide.pdf...

  11. Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    useful information for evaluating the viability of cogeneration for new or existing industrial, commercial, or institutional (ICI) boiler installations. It is part of a suite of...

  12. Optimal Operation of a Waste Incineration Plant for District Heating Johannes Jaschke, Helge Smedsrud, Sigurd Skogestad*, Henrik Manum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Optimal Operation of a Waste Incineration Plant for District Heating Johannes J¨aschke, Helge@chemeng.ntnu.no off-line. This systematic approach is here applied to a waste incineration plant for district heating. In district heating networks, operators usually wish to ob- tain the lowest possible return temperature

  13. Photoreversible Micellar Solution as a Smart Drag-Reducing Fluid for Use in District Heating/Cooling Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raghavan, Srinivasa

    Photoreversible Micellar Solution as a Smart Drag-Reducing Fluid for Use in District Heating solution is developed as a promising working fluid for district heating/cooling systems (DHCs). It can systems. A promising application of DR fluids is in district heating/ cooling systems (DHCs)9

  14. Reflux pool-boiler as a heat-transport device for Stirling engines: On-sun test program results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andraka, C.E.; Moreno, J.B.; Diver, R.B.; Ginn, W.C.; Dudley, V.; Rawlinson, K.S.

    1990-01-01

    The efficient operation of a Stirling engine requires the application of a high heat flux to the relatively small area occupied by the heater head tubes. Previous attempts to couple solar energy to Stirling engines generally involved directly illuminating the heater head tubes with concentrated sunlight. In this study, operation of 75-kW, sodium reflux pool-boiler solar receiver has been demonstrated and its performance characterized on Sandia's nominal 75-kW parabolic-dish concentrator, using a cold-water gas-gap calorimeter to simulate Stirling engine operation. The pool boiler (and more generally liquid-metal reflux receivers) supplies heat to the engine in the form of latent heat released from condensation of the metal vapor on the heater head tubes. The advantages of the pool boiler include uniform tube temperature, leading to longer life and higher temperature available to the engine, and decoupling of the design of the solar absorber from the engine heater head. The two-phase system allows high input thermal flux, reducing the receiver size and losses, therefore improving system efficiency. The receiver design is reported here along with test results including transient operations, steady-state performance evaluation, operation at various temperatures, and x-ray studies of the boiling behavior. Also reported are a fist-order cost analysis, plans for future studies, and the integration of the receiver with a Stirling Thermal Motors STM4-120 Stirling engine. 19 refs., 11 figs.

  15. RENEWABLES RESEARCH Boiler Burner Energy System Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    RENEWABLES RESEARCH Boiler Burner Energy System Technology (BBEST) for Firetube Boilers PIER, industrial combined heat and power (CHP) boiler burner energy system technology ("BBEST"). Their research (unrecuperated) with an ultra- low nitrous oxide (NOx) boiler burner for firetube boilers. The project goals

  16. Retro-Commissioning and Improvement for District Heating and Cooling System Using Simulation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shingu, H.; Nakajima, R.; Yoshida, H.; Wang, F.

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve the energy performance of a district heating and cooling (DHC) system, retro-commissioning was analyzed using visualization method and simulation based on mathematical models, and improved operation schemes were proposed...

  17. Compliance testing of Grissom AFB central-heating-plant coal-fired boilers 3 and 4, Grissom AFB Indiana. Final report, 18-23 November 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, J.A.

    1988-03-01

    At the request of HQ SAC/SGPB, compliance testing (particulate emissions) of coal-fired boilers 3 and 4 in the Grissom AFB central heating plant was performed on 18-23 Nov 1987. The survey was conducted to determine compliance with Indiana Administrative Code, Title 325--Air Pollution Control Board, Articles 5 and 6. Results indicate Boiler 3 met particulate standards while exhausting through the bypass stack, but failed to meet standards when exhausting through the scrubber stack. Boiler 4 met particulate standards when exhausting through both the bypass the scrubber stacks.

  18. Alaska Gateway School District Adopts Combined Heat and Power...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Tok, Alaska, the economic impact of high fuel prices was crippling the community's economy, especially for the Alaska Gateway School District, with staff laid off and double...

  19. Compliance testing of Grissom AFB Central Heating Plant coal-fired boilers 3 and 5, Grissom AFB, Indiana. Final report, 4-14 March 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, J.A.

    1988-06-01

    At the request of HQ SAC/SGPB, compliance testing (particulate emissions) of coal-fired boilers 3 and 5 in the Grissom AFB Central Heating Plant was performed on 4-14 Mar 1988. The survey was conducted to determine compliance with Indiana Administrative Code, Title 325--Air Pollution Control Board, Articles 5 and 6. Results indicate that boilers 3 and 5 to met particulate standards while exhausting through the bypass stack.

  20. Economics of power plant district and process heating in Richland, Washington

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fassbender, L.L.; Bloomster, C.H.

    1981-04-01

    The economic feasibility of utilizing hot water from nuclear reactors to provide district heating for private residences in Richland, Washington, and space and process heating for nearby offices, part of the Hanford Reservation, and the Lamb-Weston potato processing plant is assessed. Specifically, the practicality of using hot water from the Washington Public Power Supply System's WNP-1 reactor, which is currently under construction on the Hanford Reservation, just north of the City of Richland is established. World-wide experience with district heating systems and the advantages of using these systems are described. The GEOCITY computer model used to calculate district heating costs is described and the assumptions upon which the costs are based are presented. District heating costs for the city of Richland, process heating costs for the Lamb-Weston potato processing plant, district heating costs for the Horn Rapids triangle area, and process heating costs for the 300 and 3000 areas are discussed. An economic analysis is discussed and institutional restraints are summarized. (MCW)

  1. "Potential for Combined Heat and Power and District Heating and Cooling from Waste-to-Energy Facilities in the U.S. Learning from the Danish Experience"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    "Potential for Combined Heat and Power and District Heating and Cooling from Waste- to supplies 60% of the heated floor, and 75% of the heat generation is generated in Combined Heat and Power: cogeneration of heat and power at the power plant is achieved with a higher thermal efficiency, hot water

  2. Commissioning Process and Operational Improvement in the District Heating and Cooling-APCBC 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takase,T.; Takada,O; Shima,K.; Moriya, M.; Shimoda,Y.

    2014-01-01

    and Operational Improvements in the District Heating and Cooling Plant Tomoaki TAKASE, Mitsubishi Jisho Sekkei Inc., Osamu TAKADA, Mitsubishi Jisho Sekkei Inc., Kiyoshi SHIMA, Obayashi Corporation Mitsuru MORIYA, Takasago Thermal Engineering Co., Ltd... Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Beijing, China, September 14-17, 2014 5ABOUT THE DHC PLANT DHC plant in Nishi-Umeda district of Osaka, Japan The 2nd Plant The 1st Plant ESL-IC-14-09-25 Proceedings of the 14th International Conference...

  3. Biomass District Heat System for Interior Rural Alaska Villages

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wall, William A.; Parker, Charles R.

    2014-09-01

    Alaska Village Initiatives (AVI) from the outset of the project had a goal of developing an integrated village approach to biomass in Rural Alaskan villages. A successful biomass project had to be ecologically, socially/culturally and economically viable and sustainable. Although many agencies were supportive of biomass programs in villages none had the capacity to deal effectively with developing all of the tools necessary to build a complete integrated program. AVI had a sharp learning curve as well. By the end of the project with all the completed tasks, AVI developed the tools and understanding to connect all of the dots of an integrated village based program. These included initially developing a feasibility model that created the capacity to optimize a biomass system in a village. AVI intent was to develop all aspects or components of a fully integrated biomass program for a village. This meant understand the forest resource and developing a sustainable harvest system that included the “right sized” harvest equipment for the scale of the project. Developing a training program for harvesting and managing the forest for regeneration. Making sure the type, quality, and delivery system matched the needs of the type of boiler or boilers to be installed. AVI intended for each biomass program to be of the scale that would create jobs and a sustainable business.

  4. GEOCITY: a computer model for systems analysis of geothermal district heating and cooling costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fassbender, L.L.; Bloomster, C.H.

    1981-06-01

    GEOCITY is a computer-simulation model developed to study the economics of district heating/cooling using geothermal energy. GEOCITY calculates the cost of district heating/cooling based on climate, population, resource characteristics, and financing conditions. The basis for our geothermal-energy cost analysis is the unit cost of energy which will recover all the costs of production. The calculation of the unit cost of energy is based on life-cycle costing and discounted-cash-flow analysis. A wide variation can be expected in the range of potential geothermal district heating and cooling costs. The range of costs is determined by the characteristics of the resource, the characteristics of the demand, and the distance separating the resource and the demand. GEOCITY is a useful tool for estimating costs for each of the main parts of the production process and for determining the sensitivity of these costs to several significant parameters under a consistent set of assumptions.

  5. Control Boiler Emissions through Work Practices and Energy Management 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, J.

    2014-01-01

    and convection waste heat boilers. Medium level waste heat leaving fixed bed type gasifiers can be recovered more economically by convection type boilers or shell and tube heat exchangers. An economic analysis for the steam generation and process heat exchanger...

  6. Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with Geothermal Heat Pumpsand Ground Source Water Loops

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: Improve the indoor air quality and lower the cost of cooling and heating the buildings that make up the campus of Cedarville High School and Middle School.; Provide jobs; and reduce requirements of funds for the capital budget of the School District; and thus give relief to taxpayers in this rural region during a period of economic recession.

  7. Improve Your Boiler's Combustion Efficiency, Energy Tips: STEAM...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Improve Your Boiler's Combustion Efficiency Combustion Efficiency Operating your boiler with an optimum amount of excess air will minimize heat loss up the stack and improve...

  8. China Energy and Emissions Paths to 2030

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2012-01-01

    2010 Technology Shares District Heating Boiler Gas BoilerReference Scenario District Heating Boiler Gas Boiler Smallwater generation for district heating, preheating combustion

  9. Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    - Remove unusable antiquated existing equipment and systems from the campus heating and cooling system, but utilize ductwork, piping, etc. where feasible. The campus is served by...

  10. District Wide Geothermal Heating Conversion Blaine County School...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    will impact the geothermal energy development market by showing that ground source heat pump systems using production and re-injection wells has the lowest total cost of...

  11. Hydronic Heating Retrofits for Low-Rise Multifamily Buildings - Phase 1: Boiler Control Replacement and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dentz, J.; Henderson, H.

    2012-04-01

    The ARIES Collaborative, a Department of Energy Building America research team, partnered with NeighborWorks America affiliate Homeowners' Rehab Inc. (HRI) of Cambridge, MA to implement and study improvements to the heating system in one of the non-profit's housing developments. The heating control systems in the 42-unit Columbia CAST housing development were upgraded in an effort projected to reduce heating costs by 15 to 25 percent.

  12. Energy Use in China: Sectoral Trends and Future Outlook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    reliance on centralized district heating and coal boilers asgas boiler boiler stove district heating heat pump airsmall cogen stove district heating heat pump Central AC Room

  13. Making Combined Heat and Power District Heating(CHP-DH) networks in the United Kingdom economically viable: a comparative approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelly, S.; Pollitt, Michael G.

      fuels  more  efficiently, district heating allows flexibility in the choice of fuels being  used.   For  example,  dual?fuel  or  multi?fuel  CHP  systems  provide  choice amongst different  fuel  types for the generation of energy. Such  systems... networks have the potential to future- proof the delivery of energy through versatility, energy efficiency and the alleviation of fuel poverty. Realising these goals will ultimately require the development of a robust regulatory environment, consisting...

  14. Hydronic Heating Retrofits for Low-Rise Multifamily Buildings: Boiler Control Replacement and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dentz, Jordan; Henderson, Hugh; Varshney, Kapil

    2013-10-01

    The ARIES Collaborative, a U.S. Department of Energy Building America research team, partnered with NeighborWorks America affiliate Homeowners' Rehab Inc. of Cambridge, Massachusetts, to implement and study improvements to the central hydronic heating system in one of the nonprofit's housing developments. The heating control systems in the three-building, 42-unit Columbia Cambridge Alliance for Spanish Tenants housing development were upgraded.

  15. Furnace and Boiler Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2:50pm Addthis Furnaces heat air and distribute the heated air through a building using ducts; boilers heat water, providing either hot water or steam for heating. Furnaces...

  16. Study on Performance Verification and Evaluation of District Heating and Cooling System Using Thermal Energy of River Water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takahashi,N.; Niwa, H.; Kawano,M.; Koike,K.; Koga,O.; Ichitani, K.; Mishima,N.

    2014-01-01

    SEKKEI Research Institute Naoki Takahashi Study on Performance Verification and Evaluation of District Heating and Cooling System Using Thermal Energy of River Water ESL-IC-14-09-19 Proceedings of the 14th International Conference for Enhanced Building... Operations, Beijing, China, September 14-17, 2014 1The heating and cooling system used in Osaka’s Nakanoshima district uses heat pumps and river water to achieve the efficient use of the heat source and mitigate the heat island effect. The system...

  17. Influence of district heating water temperatures on the fuel saving and reduction of ecological cost of the heat generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Portacha, J.; Smyk, A.; Zielinski, A.; Misiewicz, L.

    1998-07-01

    Results of examinations carried out on the district heating water temperature influence in the cogeneration plant with respect to both the fuel economy and the ecological cost reduction of heat generation for the purposes of heating and hot service water preparation are presented in this paper. The decrease of water return temperature effectively contributes to the increase of fuel savings in all the examined cases. The quantitative savings depend on the outlet water temperature of the cogeneration plant and on the fuel type combusted at the alternative heat generating plant. A mathematical model and a numerical method for calculations of annual cogeneration plant performance, e.g. annual heat and electrical energy produced in cogeneration mode, and the annual fuel consumption, are also discussed. In the discussed mathematical model, the variable operating conditions of cogeneration plant vs. outside temperature and method of control can be determined. The thermal system of cogeneration plant was decomposed into subsystems so as to set up the mathematical model. The determination of subsystem tasks, including a method of convenient aggregation thereof is an essential element of numerical method for calculations of a specific cogeneration plant thermal system under changing conditions. Costs of heat losses in the environment, resulting from the pollutants emission, being formed in the fuel combustion process in the heat sources, were defined. In addition, the environment quantitative and qualitative pollution characteristics were determined both for the heat generation in a cogeneration plant and for an alternative heat-generating plant. Based on the calculations, a profitable decrease of ecological costs is achieved in the cogeneration economy even if compared with the gas-fired heat generating plant. Ecological costs of coal-fired heat generating plant are almost three time higher than those of the comparable cogeneration plant.

  18. Oregon Hospital Heats Up with a Biomass Boiler | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJesseworkSURVEYI/O Streams for Large-scale ScientificOregon Hospital Heats Up

  19. Current Status and Future Scenarios of Residential Building Energy Consumption in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2010-01-01

    coal boilers and district heating will gradually shift torespectively, followed by district heating of 22%, while ingas boiler boiler stove district heating heat pump air

  20. Energy for 500 Million Homes: Drivers and Outlook for Residential Energy Consumption in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2010-01-01

    coal boilers and district heating will gradually shift togas boiler boiler stove district heating heat pump airrespectively, followed by district heating of 22%, while in

  1. East Bank District Heating-to-Cooling Conversion Plan Check the date your building's cooling system is scheduled to be on.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webb, Peter

    East Bank District Heating-to-Cooling Conversion Plan Check the date your building's cooling system Coal Storage Building 39 NA Cooke Hall 56 Donhowe Building 044 East Gateway District Steam Distr. 199

  2. Taking out 1 billion tons of CO2: The magic of China's 11th Five-Year Plan?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Jiang

    2008-01-01

    boiler boiler stove district heating heat pump conditionerSmall cogen Stove District heating Heat pump Centralized AC

  3. Super Boiler 2nd Generation Technology for Watertube Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mr. David Cygan; Dr. Joseph Rabovitser

    2012-03-31

    This report describes Phase I of a proposed two phase project to develop and demonstrate an advanced industrial watertube boiler system with the capability of reaching 94% (HHV) fuel-to-steam efficiency and emissions below 2 ppmv NOx, 2 ppmv CO, and 1 ppmv VOC on natural gas fuel. The boiler design would have the capability to produce >1500 F, >1500 psig superheated steam, burn multiple fuels, and will be 50% smaller/lighter than currently available watertube boilers of similar capacity. This project is built upon the successful Super Boiler project at GTI. In that project that employed a unique two-staged intercooled combustion system and an innovative heat recovery system to reduce NOx to below 5 ppmv and demonstrated fuel-to-steam efficiency of 94% (HHV). This project was carried out under the leadership of GTI with project partners Cleaver-Brooks, Inc., Nebraska Boiler, a Division of Cleaver-Brooks, and Media and Process Technology Inc., and project advisors Georgia Institute of Technology, Alstom Power Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Phase I of efforts focused on developing 2nd generation boiler concepts and performance modeling; incorporating multi-fuel (natural gas and oil) capabilities; assessing heat recovery, heat transfer and steam superheating approaches; and developing the overall conceptual engineering boiler design. Based on our analysis, the 2nd generation Industrial Watertube Boiler when developed and commercialized, could potentially save 265 trillion Btu and $1.6 billion in fuel costs across U.S. industry through increased efficiency. Its ultra-clean combustion could eliminate 57,000 tons of NOx, 460,000 tons of CO, and 8.8 million tons of CO2 annually from the atmosphere. Reduction in boiler size will bring cost-effective package boilers into a size range previously dominated by more expensive field-erected boilers, benefiting manufacturers and end users through lower capital costs.

  4. Evaluation of the heating operation and transmission district: Feasibility of cogeneration. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cable, J.H.; Gilday, L.T.; Moss, M.E.

    1995-11-01

    The General Services Administration, through its National Capital Region, operates a district heating system - called the Heating Operation and Transmission District - that provides steam to approximately 100 government buildings in Washington, D.C. HOTD is examining a host of options that will improve its ability to provide reliable, environmentally sound, and cost-effective service to its customers. This report evaluates one of those options - cogeneration, a technology that would enable HOTD to produce steam and electricity simultaneously. The study concluded that, under current regulations, cogeneration is not attractive economically because the payback period (15 years) exceeds Federal return-on-investment guidelines. However, if the regulatory environment changes to allow wheeling (transmission of power by a non-utility power producer to another user), cogeneration would be attractive; HOTD would save anywhere from $38 million to $118 million and the investment would pay back in 7 to 10 years. Although incorporating cogeneration into the HOTD system has no strong benefit at this time, the report recommends that GSA reevaluate cogeneration in one or two years because Federal regulations regarding wheeling are under review. It also recommends that GSA work with the District of Columbia government to develop standards for cogeneration.

  5. Reduction of pumping energy losses in district heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zakin, J.L.

    1991-12-01

    This project was designed to explore the effects of different structures of cationic surfactant drag reducing additives on their efficiency and on their effective temperature ranges. The goal was to develop surfactant systems that would be useful in the appropriate temperature ranges for district heating systems (50--110{degree}C) and for district cooling systems (2--20{degree}C). To this end the chemical compositions of quaternary annonium salts and of counter-ions were varied. More than twenty different commercial or semi commercial quarterly ammonium salts from US suppliers and two from a German supplier (Hoechst) were tested along with thirty five different counter-ions. In addition, blends of several of each were also tested. A further object of this project was to check the compatibility of surfactant drag reducers with commercial or semi-commercial corrosion inhibitors in regard to maintaining their drag reducing ability and corrosion inhibiting capability.

  6. Reduction of pumping energy losses in district heating and cooling systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zakin, J.L.

    1991-12-01

    This project was designed to explore the effects of different structures of cationic surfactant drag reducing additives on their efficiency and on their effective temperature ranges. The goal was to develop surfactant systems that would be useful in the appropriate temperature ranges for district heating systems (50--110{degree}C) and for district cooling systems (2--20{degree}C). To this end the chemical compositions of quaternary annonium salts and of counter-ions were varied. More than twenty different commercial or semi commercial quarterly ammonium salts from US suppliers and two from a German supplier (Hoechst) were tested along with thirty five different counter-ions. In addition, blends of several of each were also tested. A further object of this project was to check the compatibility of surfactant drag reducers with commercial or semi-commercial corrosion inhibitors in regard to maintaining their drag reducing ability and corrosion inhibiting capability.

  7. The Reality and Future Scenarios of Commercial Building Energy Consumption in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2008-01-01

    mostly attributed to district heating and coal boilers usedcities. In 2004, the District Heating has supplied about 25%Cogen Gas Boiler Boiler District Heating Fig.4 Space Cooling

  8. Measurement of gas species, temperatures, coal burnout, and wall heat fluxes in a 200 MWe lignite-fired boiler with different overfire air damper openings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jianping Jing; Zhengqi Li; Guangkui Liu; Zhichao Chen; Chunlong Liu

    2009-07-15

    Measurements were performed on a 200 MWe, wall-fired, lignite utility boiler. For different overfire air (OFA) damper openings, the gas temperature, gas species concentration, coal burnout, release rates of components (C, H, and N), furnace temperature, and heat flux and boiler efficiency were measured. Cold air experiments for a single burner were conducted in the laboratory. The double-swirl flow pulverized-coal burner has two ring recirculation zones starting in the secondary air region in the burner. As the secondary air flow increases, the axial velocity of air flow increases, the maxima of radial velocity, tangential velocity and turbulence intensity all increase, and the swirl intensity of air flow and the size of recirculation zones increase slightly. In the central region of the burner, as the OFA damper opening widens, the gas temperature and CO concentration increase, while the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and coal particles ignite earlier. In the secondary air region of the burner, the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and the gas temperature and CO concentration vary slightly. In the sidewall region, the gas temperature, O{sub 2} concentration, and NOx concentration decrease, while the CO concentration increases and the gas temperature varies slightly. The furnace temperature and heat flux in the main burning region decrease appreciably, but increase slightly in the burnout region. The NOx emission decreases from 1203.6 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 0% to 511.7 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 80% and the boiler efficiency decreases from 92.59 to 91.9%. 15 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Estimating Total Energy Consumption and Emissions of China's Commercial and Office Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David G.

    2008-01-01

    Small cogen Stove District heating Heat pump Central AC Roomin heat delivery (district heating), heat management (poorInstalled Capacity) District Heating Boiler Gas Boiler Small

  10. Super Boiler Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-10-01

    This presentation from the 2007 American Boiler Manufacturers Association Manufacturers Conference provides an update of the First Generation Super Boiler.

  11. Modern Boiler Control and Why Digital Systems are Better 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hughart, C. L.

    1983-01-01

    Steam generation in petrochemical plants and refineries is in a state of change. Expensive fuels have resulted in greater use of waste heat recovery boilers and other energy conservation measures. As a result, many conventional boilers have been...

  12. Boiler MACT 35000FT: Maximum Achievable Control Technology 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, J.

    2013-01-01

    burning coal, oil, biomass, natural gas, other solid, liquid, gaseous non-waste materials ? Boilers or Process Heaters Not Affected ? Electric Utility Generating Unit (EGU) ?Waste Heat, hot water heaters, NESHAP control devices, R&D, Recovery Boilers...

  13. Energy Use in China: Sectoral Trends and Future Outlook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    gas boiler boiler stove district heating heat pump airsmall cogen stove district heating heat pump Central AC Roomrespectively, followed by district heating of 22%, while in

  14. Validation/Uncertainty Quantification for Large Eddy Simulations of the heat flux in the Tangentially Fired Oxy-Coal Alstom Boiler Simulation Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, P.J.; Eddings, E.G.; Ring, T.; Thornock, J.; Draper, T.; Isaac, B.; Rezeai, D.; Toth, P.; Wu, Y.; Kelly, K.

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this task is to produce predictive capability with quantified uncertainty bounds for the heat flux in commercial-scale, tangentially fired, oxy-coal boilers. Validation data came from the Alstom Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF) for tangentially fired, oxy-coal operation. This task brings together experimental data collected under Alstom’s DOE project for measuring oxy-firing performance parameters in the BSF with this University of Utah project for large eddy simulation (LES) and validation/uncertainty quantification (V/UQ). The Utah work includes V/UQ with measurements in the single-burner facility where advanced strategies for O2 injection can be more easily controlled and data more easily obtained. Highlights of the work include: • Simulations of Alstom’s 15 megawatt (MW) BSF, exploring the uncertainty in thermal boundary conditions. A V/UQ analysis showed consistency between experimental results and simulation results, identifying uncertainty bounds on the quantities of interest for this system (Subtask 9.1) • A simulation study of the University of Utah’s oxy-fuel combustor (OFC) focused on heat flux (Subtask 9.2). A V/UQ analysis was used to show consistency between experimental and simulation results. • Measurement of heat flux and temperature with new optical diagnostic techniques and comparison with conventional measurements (Subtask 9.3). Various optical diagnostics systems were created to provide experimental data to the simulation team. The final configuration utilized a mid-wave infrared (MWIR) camera to measure heat flux and temperature, which was synchronized with a high-speed, visible camera to utilize two-color pyrometry to measure temperature and soot concentration. • Collection of heat flux and temperature measurements in the University of Utah’s OFC for use is subtasks 9.2 and 9.3 (Subtask 9.4). Several replicates were carried to better assess the experimental error. Experiments were specifically designed for the generation of high-fidelity data from a turbulent oxy-coal flame for the validation of oxy-coal simulation models. Experiments were also conducted on the OFC to determine heat flux profiles using advanced strategies for O2 injection. This is important when considering retrofit of advanced O2 injection in retrofit configurations.

  15. Current Status and Future Scenarios of Residential Building Energy Consumption in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2010-01-01

    respectively, followed by district heating of 22%, while ingas boiler boiler stove district heating heat pump airsupplied through district heating system that does not have

  16. Energy for 500 Million Homes: Drivers and Outlook for Residential Energy Consumption in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2010-01-01

    gas boiler boiler stove district heating heat pump airrespectively, followed by district heating of 22%, while inaddition to the existing district heating system in northern

  17. How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel T.

    2010-01-01

    Warner, Sven. 2007. "District Heating Possibilities withinWarner, Sven. 2007. "District Heating Possibilities withingas boiler boiler stove district heating heat pump air

  18. Annual emissions and air-quality impacts of an urban area district-heating system: Boston case study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernow, S.S.; McAnulty, D.R.; Buchsbaum, S.; Levine, E.

    1980-02-01

    A district-heating system, based on thermal energy from power plants retrofitted to operate in the cogeneration mode, is expected to improve local air quality. This possibility has been examined by comparing the emissions of five major atmospheric pollutants, i.e., particulates, sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxides, from the existing heating and electric system in the City of Boston with those from a proposed district heating system. Detailed, spatial distribution of existing heating load and fuel mix is developed to specify emissions associated with existing heating systems. Actual electric-power-plant parameters and generation for the base year are specified. Additional plant fuel consumption and emissions resulting from cogeneration operation have been estimated. Six alternative fuel-emissions-control scenarios are considered. The average annual ground-level concentrations of sulfur oxides are calculated using a modified form of the EPA's Climatological Dispersion Model. This report describes the methodology, the results and their implications, and the areas for extended investigation. The initial results confirm expectations. Average sulfur oxides concentrations at various points within and near the city drop by up to 85% in the existing fuels scenarios and by 95% in scenarios in which different fuels and more-stringent emissions controls at the plants are used. These reductions are relative to concentrations caused by fuel combustion for heating and large commercial and industrial process uses within the city and Boston Edison Co. electric generation.

  19. Estimating Total Energy Consumption and Emissions of China's Commercial and Office Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David G.

    2008-01-01

    water heating Technologies Electric heater Gas boilerCoal Boiler Small cogen Stove District heating Heat pumpElectric water heater Gas boiler Coal Boiler Small cogen Oil

  20. Furnaces and Boilers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Articles A wood stove on a stone hearth. | Photo courtesy of iStockphotoKingLouie Wood and Pellet Heating Diagram of an oil boiler. New tanks are generally double-wall or...

  1. District Energy Technologies | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    through the centralized system. District energy systems often operate with combined heat and power (CHP) and waste heat recovery technologies. Learn more about district energy...

  2. Quantifying Energy Savings by Improving Boiler Operation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carpenter, K.; Kissock, J. K.

    2005-01-01

    of combustion temperature, calculation of the relationship between internal convection coefficient and gas flow rate, and calculation of overall heat transfer assuming a parallel-flow heat exchanger model. The method for estimating savings from changing... combustion air accounts for the increased combustion temperature, reduced internal convection coefficient and increased residence time of combustion gasses in the boiler. Measured boiler data are used to demonstrate the accuracy of the methods...

  3. Use Feedwater Economizers for Waste Heat Recovery, Energy Tips...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Use Feedwater Economizers for Waste Heat Recovery A feedwater economizer reduces steam boiler fuel requirements by transferring heat from the flue gas to incoming feedwater. Boiler...

  4. ‘Back to the drawing board!’ Can failed technological innovations for sustainability play a role in socio-technical transitions? The case of Combined Heat and Power and District Heating in Edinburgh. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott-Mearns, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation regards Combined Heat and Power (CHP) and District Heating (DH) technology (CHP-DH) as a technological innovation for sustainability which is currently under-utilized in the UK as DH meets less than 2% of heat demand (Delta Energy...

  5. User manual for AQUASTOR: a computer model for cost analysis of aquifer thermal-energy storage oupled with district-heating or cooling systems. Volume II. Appendices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huber, H.D.; Brown, D.R.; Reilly, R.W.

    1982-04-01

    A computer model called AQUASTOR was developed for calculating the cost of district heating (cooling) using thermal energy supplied by an aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. the AQUASTOR Model can simulate ATES district heating systems using stored hot water or ATES district cooling systems using stored chilled water. AQUASTOR simulates the complete ATES district heating (cooling) system, which consists of two prinicpal parts: the ATES supply system and the district heating (cooling) distribution system. The supply system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of thermal energy supplied to the distribution system by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the exploration, development, and operation of the ATES supply system. The distribution system submodel calculates the life-cycle cost of heat (chill) delivered by the distribution system to the end-users by simulating the technical design and cash flows for the construction and operation of the distribution system. The model combines the technical characteristics of the supply system and the technical characteristics of the distribution system with financial and tax conditions for the entities operating the two systems into one techno-economic model. This provides the flexibility to individually or collectively evaluate the impact of different economic and technical parameters, assumptions, and uncertainties on the cost of providing district heating (cooling) with an ATES system. This volume contains all the appendices, including supply and distribution system cost equations and models, descriptions of predefined residential districts, key equations for the cooling degree-hour methodology, a listing of the sample case output, and appendix H, which contains the indices for supply input parameters, distribution input parameters, and AQUASTOR subroutines.

  6. Recovery Boiler Corrosion Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Suman

    11/13/2014 1 Recovery Boiler Corrosion Chemistry Sandy Sharp and Honghi Tran Symposium on Corrosion of a recovery boiler each cause their own forms of corrosion and cracking Understanding the origin of the corrosive conditions enables us to operate a boiler so as to minimize corrosion and cracking select

  7. Cost-Effective Industrial Boiler Plant Efficiency Advancements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiorino, D. P.

    1997-01-01

    manufacturing complex. The "new" boiler plant began service in November, 1996 and consists of four 75,000 Ib/hr water-tube boilers burning natural gas and producing 210 psig saturated steam for heating and humidification. Efficiency advancements include...) in order to maintain cleanroom envirorunental conditions. Condensate losses are negligible and return condensate averages 200?F year-around. DESIGN CONCEPT A multiple-unit design incorporating four 75,000 lb/hr steam boilers was adopted in order...

  8. Slag monitoring for utility boilers: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anson, D.; Barrett, R.E.; Litt, R.D.; Paisley, M.A.

    1988-04-01

    This report provides a detailed description of commercially available slag monitoring techniques and some developing concepts for slag monitoring. Slag monitoring is currently being evaluated by several organizations as a means of controlling and optimizing sootblowers. The potential benefits from slag monitoring can represent significant savings in utility operating costs. Six types of heat flux meters are described as they are presently being used in utility boilers. These direct monitoring techniques determine local conditions within the furnace. Each application is described with current results and future plans. Boiler heat balance models provide an indirect technique for monitoring the general cleanliness/fouling of major boiler sections. Each model is described with current results at a representative installation. Several developing concepts of slag monitoring are described and evaluated. Four promising concepts, acoustic attenuation, a simplified heat balance model, sonic pyrometry, and ultrasonic pulse reflection, are recommended for further development and evaluation. 16 refs., 34 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. District of Columbia Heat Content of Natural Gas Deliveries to Consumers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would like submit theCovalentLaboratory |Sector Full report (1.6 mb)District

  10. UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT EASTERN DISTRICT OF CALIFORNIA -FRESNO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, James E.

    UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT EASTERN DISTRICT OF CALIFORNIA - FRESNO CENTRAL VALLEY CHRYSLER Report, Abridged Text with all 48 Figures was submitted to United States District Court, Eastern District, decreased snow-pack in certain mountain ranges, increased strength of storms driven by latent heat

  11. Super Boiler: Packed Media/Transport Membrane Boiler Development and Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liss, William E; Cygan, David F

    2013-04-17

    Gas Technology Institute (GTI) and Cleaver-Brooks developed a new gas-fired steam generation system���¢��������the Super Boiler���¢��������for increased energy efficiency, reduced equipment size, and reduced emissions. The system consists of a firetube boiler with a unique staged furnace design, a two-stage burner system with engineered internal recirculation and inter-stage cooling integral to the boiler, unique convective pass design with extended internal surfaces for enhanced heat transfer, and a novel integrated heat recovery system to extract maximum energy from the flue gas. With these combined innovations, the Super Boiler technical goals were set at 94% HHV fuel efficiency, operation on natural gas with <5 ppmv NOx (referenced to 3%O2), and 50% smaller than conventional boilers of similar steam output. To demonstrate these technical goals, the project culminated in the industrial demonstration of this new high-efficiency technology on a 300 HP boiler at Clement Pappas, a juice bottler located in Ontario, California. The Super Boiler combustion system is based on two stage combustion which combines air staging, internal flue gas recirculation, inter-stage cooling, and unique fuel-air mixing technology to achieve low emissions rather than external flue gas recirculation which is most commonly used today. The two-stage combustion provides lower emissions because of the integrated design of the boiler and combustion system which permit precise control of peak flame temperatures in both primary and secondary stages of combustion. To reduce equipment size, the Super Boiler's dual furnace design increases radiant heat transfer to the furnace walls, allowing shorter overall furnace length, and also employs convective tubes with extended surfaces that increase heat transfer by up to 18-fold compared to conventional bare tubes. In this way, a two-pass boiler can achieve the same efficiency as a traditional three or four-pass firetube boiler design. The Super Boiler is consequently up to 50% smaller in footprint, has a smaller diameter, and is up to 50% lower in weight, resulting in very compact design with reduced material cost and labor costs, while requiring less boiler room floor space. For enhanced energy efficiency, the heat recovery system uses a transport membrane condenser (TMC), a humidifying air heater (HAH), and a split-stage economizer to extract maximum energy from the flue gas. The TMC is a new innovation that pulls a major portion of water vapor produced by the combustion process from the flue gases along with its sensible and latent heat. This results in nearly 100% transfer of heat to the boiler feed water. The HAH improves the effectiveness of the TMC, particularly in steam systems that do not have a large amount of cold makeup water. In addition, the HAH humidifies the combustion air to reduce NOx formation. The split-stage economizer preheats boiler feed water in the same way as a conventional economizer, but extracts more heat by working in tandem with the TMC and HAH to reduce flue gas temperature. These components are designed to work synergistically to achieve energy efficiencies of 92-94% which is 10-15% higher than today���¢��������s typical firetube boilers.

  12. Boilers and Fired Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, Steven A.; Scollon, R. B.

    2009-07-14

    This chapter examines how energy is consumed, how energy is wasted, and opportunities for reducing energy consumption and costs in the operation of boilers.

  13. Minimize Boiler Blowdown

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    This revised ITP tip sheet on minimizing boiler blowdown provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  14. Exploration and drilling for geothermal heat in the Capital District, New York. Volume 4. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-08-01

    The Capital District area of New York was explored to determine the nature of a hydrothermal geothermal system. The chemistry of subsurface water and gas, the variation in gravity, magnetism, seismicity, and temperature gradients were determined. Water and gas analyses and temperature gradient measurements indicate the existence of a geothermal system located under an area from Ballston Spa, southward to Altamont, and eastward toward Albany. Gravimetric and magnetic surveys provided little useful data but microseismic activity in the Altamont area may be significant. Eight wells about 400 feet deep, one 600 feet and one 2232 feet were drilled and tested for geothermal potential. The highest temperature gradients, most unusual water chemistries, and greatest carbon dioxide exhalations were observed in the vicinity of the Saratoga and McGregor faults between Saratoga Springs and Schenectady, New York, suggesting some fault control over the geothermal system. Depths to the warm fluids within the system range from 500 meters (Ballston Spa) to 2 kilometers (Albany).

  15. Exploration and drilling for geothermal heat in the Capital District, New York. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-08-01

    The Capital District area of New York was explored to determine the nature of a hydrothermal geothermal system. The chemistry of subsurface water and gas, the variation in gravity, magnetism, seismicity, and temperature gradients were determined. Water and gas analyses and temperature gradient measurements indicate the existence of a geothermal system located under an area from Ballston Spa, southward to Altamont, and eastware toward Albany. Gravimetric and magnetic surveys provided little useful data but microseismic activity in the Altamont area may be significant. Eight wells about 400 feet deep, one 600 feet and one 2232 feet were drilled and tested for geothermal potential. The highest temperature gradients, most unusual water chemistries, and greatest carbon dioxide exhalations were observed in the vicinity of the Saratoga and McGregor faults between Saratoga Springs and Schenectady, New York, suggesting some fault control over the geothermal system. Depths to the warm fluids within the system range from 500 meters (Ballston Spa) to 2 kilometers (Albany).

  16. Second Generation Super Boiler Technology for Watertube Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-07-01

    This factsheet describes a research project to develop a high-pressure watertube boiler system that incorporates and improves upon the capabilities of the firetube Super Boiler system.

  17. Field Test of Boiler Primary Loop Temperature Controller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glanville, P.; Rowley, P.; Schroeder, D.; Brand, L.

    2014-09-01

    Beyond these initial system efficiency upgrades are an emerging class of Advanced Load Monitoring (ALM) aftermarket controllers that dynamically respond to the boiler load, with claims of 10% to 30% of fuel savings over a heating season. For hydronic boilers specifically, these devices perform load monitoring, with continuous measurement of supply and, in some cases, return water temperatures. Energy savings from these ALM controllers are derived from dynamic management of the boiler differential, where a microprocessor with memory of past boiler cycles prevents the boiler from firing for a period of time, to limit cycling losses and inefficient operation during perceived low load conditions. These differ from OTR controllers, which vary boiler setpoint temperatures with ambient conditions while maintaining a fixed differential.

  18. Field Test of Boiler Primary Loop Temperature Controller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glanville, P.; Rowley, P.; Schroeder, D.; Brand, L.

    2014-09-01

    Beyond these initial system efficiency upgrades are an emerging class of Advanced Load Monitoring (ALM) aftermarket controllers that dynamically respond to the boiler load, with claims of 10% to 30% of fuel savings over a heating season. For hydronic boilers specifically, these devices perform load monitoring, with continuous measurement of supply and in some cases return water temperatures. Energy savings from these ALM controllers are derived from dynamic management of the boiler differential, where a microprocessor with memory of past boiler cycles prevents the boiler from firing for a period of time, to limit cycling losses and inefficient operation during perceived low load conditions. These differ from OTR controllers, which vary boiler setpoint temperatures with ambient conditions while maintaining a fixed differential. PARR installed and monitored the performance of one type of ALM controller, the M2G from Greffen Systems, at multifamily sites in the city of Chicago and its suburb Cary, IL, both with existing OTR control. Results show that energy savings depend on the degree to which boilers are over-sized for their load, represented by cycling rates. Also savings vary over the heating season with cycling rates, with greater savings observed in shoulder months. Over the monitoring period, over-sized boilers at one site showed reductions in cycling and energy consumption in line with prior laboratory studies, while less over-sized boilers at another site showed muted savings.

  19. Direct contact, binary fluid geothermal boiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rapier, Pascal M. (Richmond, CA)

    1982-01-01

    Energy is extracted from geothermal brines by direct contact with a working fluid such as isobutane which is immiscible with the brine in a geothermal boiler. The geothermal boiler provides a distributor arrangement which efficiently contacts geothermal brine with the isobutane in order to prevent the entrainment of geothermal brine in the isobutane vapor which is directed to a turbine. Accordingly the problem of brine carry-over through the turbine causes corrosion and scaling thereof is eliminated. Additionally the heat exchanger includes straightening vanes for preventing startup and other temporary fluctuations in the transitional zone of the boiler from causing brine carryover into the turbine. Also a screen is provided in the heat exchanger to coalesce the working fluid and to assist in defining the location of the transitional zone where the geothermal brine and the isobutane are initially mixed.

  20. Best Management Practice #8: Steam Boiler Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Boilers and steam generators are commonly used in large heating systems, institutional kitchens, or in facilities where large amounts of process steam are used. This equipment consumes varying amounts of water depending on system size, the amount of steam used, and the amount of condensate returned.

  1. Local Power Empowers: CHP and District Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This webinar, held on Nov. 10, 2010, provides information on combined heat and power and district energy.

  2. Boiler MACT Technical Assistance (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    Fact sheet describing the changes to Environmental Protection Act process standards. The DOE will offer technical assistance to ensure that major sources burning coal and oil have information on cost-effective, clean energy strategies for compliance, and to promote cleaner, more efficient boiler burning to cut harmful pollution and reduce operational costs. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is expected to finalize the reconsideration process for its Clean Air Act pollution standards National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Major Sources: Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers and Process Heaters (known as Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT)), in Spring 2012. This rule applies to large and small boilers in a wide range of industrial facilities and institutions. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) will offer technical assistance to ensure that major sources burning coal or oil have information on cost-effective clean energy strategies for compliance, including combined heat and power, and to promote cleaner, more efficient boilers to cut harmful pollution and reduce operational costs.

  3. Biomass Boiler for Food Processing Applications | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Boiler for Food Processing Applications Biomass Boiler for Food Processing Applications Biomass Boiler Uses a Combination of Wood Waste and Tire-Derived Fuel In 2011, the...

  4. RESIDENTIAL THERMOSTATS: COMFORT CONTROLS IN CALIFORNIA HOMES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meier, Alan K.

    2008-01-01

    on boilers, hot water, district heating, spot heating, andwood to charcoal to district heating. www.tecsoc.org/pubs/pellets) or via district heating systems. Air conditioning

  5. Energy Use in China: Sectoral Trends and Future Outlook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    efficient Highly efficient Electric heater gas boilerboiler stove district heating heat pump air conditioner TheElectric heater gas boiler boiler small cogen stove district

  6. Super Boiler: First Generation, Ultra-High Efficiency Firetube Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-06-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop and demonstrate a first-generation ultra-high-efficiency, ultra-low emissions, compact gas-fired package boiler (Super Boiler), and formulate a long-range RD&D plan for advanced boiler technology out to the year 2020.

  7. District heating and cooling systems for communities through power plant retrofit distribution network, Phase 2. Final report, March 1, 1980-January 31, 1984. Volume 5, Appendix A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-01-31

    This volume contains the backup data for the portion of the load and service assessment in Section 2, Volume II of this report. This includes: locations of industrial and commercial establishments, locations of high rise buildings, data from the Newark (Essex County) Directory of Business, data from the Hudson County Industrial Directory, data from the N. J. Department of Energy Inventory of Public Buildings, data on commercial and industrial establishments and new developments in the Hackensack Meadowlands, data on urban redevelopment and Operation Breakthrough, and list of streets in the potential district heating areas of Newark/Harrison and Jersey City/Hoboken.

  8. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience-- Technical Appendix: Market Descriptions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grayson Heffner, Charles Goldman, Kintner-Meyer, M; Kirby, Brendan

    2007-01-01

    electric boilers of district heating systems) must shedcapabilities 42 of the district heating systems not allgreater than 5 MW) district heating schemes can quickly

  9. Recovery of Water from Boiler Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; Kwangkook Jeong; Michael Kessen; Christopher Samuelson; Christopher Whitcombe

    2008-09-30

    This project dealt with use of condensing heat exchangers to recover water vapor from flue gas at coal-fired power plants. Pilot-scale heat transfer tests were performed to determine the relationship between flue gas moisture concentration, heat exchanger design and operating conditions, and water vapor condensation rate. The tests also determined the extent to which the condensation processes for water and acid vapors in flue gas can be made to occur separately in different heat transfer sections. The results showed flue gas water vapor condensed in the low temperature region of the heat exchanger system, with water capture efficiencies depending strongly on flue gas moisture content, cooling water inlet temperature, heat exchanger design and flue gas and cooling water flow rates. Sulfuric acid vapor condensed in both the high temperature and low temperature regions of the heat transfer apparatus, while hydrochloric and nitric acid vapors condensed with the water vapor in the low temperature region. Measurements made of flue gas mercury concentrations upstream and downstream of the heat exchangers showed a significant reduction in flue gas mercury concentration within the heat exchangers. A theoretical heat and mass transfer model was developed for predicting rates of heat transfer and water vapor condensation and comparisons were made with pilot scale measurements. Analyses were also carried out to estimate how much flue gas moisture it would be practical to recover from boiler flue gas and the magnitude of the heat rate improvements which could be made by recovering sensible and latent heat from flue gas.

  10. Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustion Boiler Project 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farbstein, S. B.; Moreland, T.

    1984-01-01

    the bottom of the combustion chamber as bottom ash and from the baghouse as fly ash. A portion of the heat is absorbed in the combustion chamber, and the remaining heat is recovered in the convection section of the boiler. There are no tubes...-sulfur Illinois coal. Limestone use is projected at 11-14.000 tons per year. Solid residue (ash, spent limestone and calcium sulfate) to be disposed will be 15-22,000 tons per year. This projected use of limestone is based on the use of Illinois No. 6 coal...

  11. Postcombustion and its influences in 135 MWe CFB boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shaohua Li; Hairui Yang; Hai Zhang; Qing Liu; Junfu Lu; Guangxi Yue

    2009-09-15

    In the cyclone of a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler, a noticeable increment of flue gas temperature, caused by combustion of combustible gas and unburnt carbon content, is often found. Such phenomenon is defined as post combustion, and it could introduce overheating of reheated and superheated steam and extra heat loss of exhaust flue gas. In this paper, mathematical modeling and field measurements on post combustion in 135MWe commercial CFB boilers were conducted. A novel one-dimensional combustion model taking post combustion into account was developed. With this model, the overall combustion performance, including size distribution of various ashes, temperature profile, and carbon content profiles along the furnace height, heat release fraction in the cyclone and furnace were predicted. Field measurements were conducted by sampling gas and solid at different positions in the boiler under different loads. The measured data and corresponding model-calculated results were compared. Both prediction and field measurements showed post combustion introduced a temperature increment of flue gas in the cyclone of the 135MWe CFB boiler in the range of 20-50{sup o}C when a low-volatile bituminous coal was fired. Although it had little influence on ash size distribution, post combustion had a remarkable influence on the carbon content profile and temperature profile in the furnace. Moreover, it introduced about 4-7% heat release in the cyclone over the total heat release in the boiler. This fraction slightly increased with total air flow rate and boiler load. Model calculations were also conducted on other two 135MWe CFB boilers burning lignite and anthracite coal, respectively. The results confirmed that post combustion was sensitive to coal type and became more severe as the volatile content of the coal decreased. 15 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Heat Plan DenmarkHeat Plan Denmark Anders Dyrelundy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    efficient use of renewable energy in district heating · individual heat pumps solar heating and wood pellets· individual heat pumps, solar heating and wood pellets 6Risř International Energy Conference 2009Heat Plan

  13. Recovery Boiler Modeling 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdullah, Z.; Salcudean, M.; Nowak, P.

    1994-01-01

    wide range of scales and a complex interaction between the fuel and the air which are introduced separately. The interaction between the jets can often lead to unstea dyness. The flow is turbulent, and the jets have strong curvature. Physical flow... task. The flow is fully three dimensional as geometric symmetry even on one plane is not present in all designs. Even when the boiler is geometrically sym metric, flow instabilities and jet interactions can cause major asymmetries in the flow...

  14. Heating System Basics | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    using ducts. Boilers heat water, providing either hot water or steam for heating. Wood and Pellet Heating Provides a way to heat a building using biomass or waste sources....

  15. Building America Case Study: Advanced Boiler Load Monitoring Controllers, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PARR

    2014-09-01

    Beyond these initial system efficiency upgrades are an emerging class of Advanced Load Monitoring (ALM) aftermarket controllers that dynamically respond to the boiler load, with claims of 10% to 30% of fuel savings over a heating season. For hydronic boilers specifically, these devices perform load monitoring, with continuous measurement of supply and in some cases return water temperatures. Energy savings from these ALM controllers are derived from dynamic management of the boiler differential, where a microprocessor with memory of past boiler cycles prevents the boiler from firing for a period of time, to limit cycling losses and inefficient operation during perceived low load conditions. These differ from OTR controllers, which vary boiler setpoint temperatures with ambient conditions while maintaining a fixed differential. PARR installed and monitored the performance of one type of ALM controller, the M2G from Greffen Systems, at multifamily sites in the city of Chicago and its suburb Cary, IL, both with existing OTR control. Results show that energy savings depend on the degree to which boilers are over-sized for their load, represented by cycling rates. Also savings vary over the heating season with cycling rates, with greater savings observed in shoulder months. Over the monitoring period, over-sized boilers at one site showed reductions in cycling and energy consumption in line with prior laboratory studies, while less over-sized boilers at another site showed muted savings.

  16. Small boiler uses waste coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Virr, M.J.

    2009-07-15

    Burning coal waste in small boilers at low emissions poses considerable problem. While larger boiler suppliers have successfully installed designs in the 40 to 80 MW range for some years, the author has been developing small automated fluid bed boiler plants for 25 years that can be applied in the range of 10,000 to 140,000 lbs/hr of steam. Development has centered on the use of an internally circulating fluid bed (CFB) boiler, which will burn waste fuels of most types. The boiler is based on the traditional D-shaped watertable boiler, with a new type of combustion chamber that enables a three-to-one turndown to be achieved. The boilers have all the advantages of low emissions of the large fluid boilers while offering a much lower height incorporated into the package boiler concept. Recent tests with a waste coal that had a high nitrogen content of 1.45% demonstrated a NOx emission below the federal limit of 0.6 lbs/mm Btu. Thus a NOx reduction on the order of 85% can be demonstrate by combustion modification alone. Further reductions can be made by using a selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system and sulfur absorption of up to 90% retention is possible. The article describes the operation of a 30,000 lbs/hr boiler at the Fayette Thermal LLC plant. Spinheat has installed three ICFB boilers at a nursing home and a prison, which has been tested on poor-grade anthracite and bituminous coal. 2 figs.

  17. Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Technical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Technical Assistance - Fact Sheet, April 2015 Boiler Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) Technical Assistance - Fact...

  18. Boiler MACT Technical Assistance

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels Researchof Energy|Make6,Energy BlueBob AdamsBoiler MACT

  19. Ultra-Supercritical Pressure CFB Boiler Conceptual Design Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhen Fan; Steve Goidich; Archie Robertson; Song Wu

    2006-06-30

    Electric utility interest in supercritical pressure steam cycles has revived in the United States after waning in the 1980s. Since supercritical cycles yield higher plant efficiencies than subcritical plants along with a proportional reduction in traditional stack gas pollutants and CO{sub 2} release rates, the interest is to pursue even more advanced steam conditions. The advantages of supercritical (SC) and ultra supercritical (USC) pressure steam conditions have been demonstrated in the high gas temperature, high heat flux environment of large pulverized coal-fired (PC) boilers. Interest in circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion, as an alternative to PC combustion, has been steadily increasing. Although CFB boilers as large as 300 MWe are now in operation, they are drum type, subcritical pressure units. With their sizes being much smaller than and their combustion temperatures much lower than those of PC boilers (300 MWe versus 1,000 MWe and 1600 F versus 3500 F), a conceptual design study was conducted herein to investigate the technical feasibility and economics of USC CFB boilers. The conceptual study was conducted at 400 MWe and 800 MWe nominal plant sizes with high sulfur Illinois No. 6 coal used as the fuel. The USC CFB plants had higher heating value efficiencies of 40.6 and 41.3 percent respectively and their CFB boilers, which reflect conventional design practices, can be built without the need for an R&D effort. Assuming construction at a generic Ohio River Valley site with union labor, total plant costs in January 2006 dollars were estimated to be $1,551/kW and $1,244/kW with costs of electricity of $52.21/MWhr and $44.08/MWhr, respectively. Based on the above, this study has shown that large USC CFB boilers are feasible and that they can operate with performance and costs that are competitive with comparable USC PC boilers.

  20. Slag monitoring system for combustion chambers of steam boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taler, J.; Taler, D.

    2009-07-01

    The computer-based boiler performance system presented in this article has been developed to provide a direct and quantitative assessment of furnace and convective surface cleanliness. Temperature, pressure, and flow measurements and gas analysis data are used to perform heat transfer analysis in the boiler furnace and evaporator. Power boiler efficiency is calculated using an indirect method. The on-line calculation of the exit flue gas temperature in a combustion chamber allows for an on-line heat flow rate determination, which is transferred to the boiler evaporator. Based on the energy balance for the boiler evaporator, the superheated steam mass flow rate is calculated taking into the account water flow rate in attemperators. Comparing the calculated and the measured superheated steam mass flow rate, the effectiveness of the combustion chamber water walls is determined in an on-line mode. Soot-blower sequencing can be optimized based on actual cleaning requirements rather than on fixed time cycles contributing to lowering of the medium usage in soot blowers and increasing of the water-wall lifetime.

  1. Residential Bulk-Fed Wood-Pellet Central Boilers and Furnace Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The New Hampshire Public Utilities Commission (PUC) is offering rebates of 30% of the installed cost of qualifying new residential bulk-fed, wood-pellet central heating boilers or furnaces. The...

  2. Measure Guideline. Condensing Boilers - Control Strategies for Optimizing Performance and Comfort in Residential Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, L.

    2013-05-01

    This guide is intended for designers and installers of hydronic heating systems interested in maximizing the overall system efficiency of condensing boilers when coupled with baseboard convectors. It is applicable to new and retrofit projects.

  3. Integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer for sulfuric acid decomposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Robert (Edgewood, NM); Pickard, Paul S. (Albuquerque, NM); Parma, Jr., Edward J. (Albuquerque, NM); Vernon, Milton E. (Albuquerque, NM); Gelbard, Fred (Albuquerque, NM); Lenard, Roger X. (Edgewood, NM)

    2010-01-12

    A method and apparatus, constructed of ceramics and other corrosion resistant materials, for decomposing sulfuric acid into sulfur dioxide, oxygen and water using an integrated boiler, superheater, and decomposer unit comprising a bayonet-type, dual-tube, counter-flow heat exchanger with a catalytic insert and a central baffle to increase recuperation efficiency.

  4. UNIVERSITY OF THE DISTRICT OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    District of Columbia, University of the

    UNIVERSITY OF THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 1 Removal of Eutrophic Nutrients from Wastewater-Supplemented Digester Elutriate in the Fermentor 2. The Effect of Differential- Heating of Digester Elutriate on its

  5. Modeling of Residential Buildings and Heating Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masy, G.; Lebrun, J.

    2004-01-01

    of the central heating plant, with measurements of water temperatures and flow rates is used to adjust the parameters of the boiler model....

  6. Modeling of a coal-fired natural circulation boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhambare, K.S.; Mitra, S.K.; Gaitonde, U.N.

    2007-06-15

    Modeling of a natural circulation boiler for a coal-fired thermal power station is presented here. The boiler system is divided into seven subcomponents, and for each section, models based on conservation of mass, momentum, and energy are formulated. The pressure drop at various sections and the heat transfer coefficients are computed using empirical correlations. Solutions are obtained by using SIMULINK. The model is validated by comparing its steady state and dynamic responses with the actual plant data. Open loop responses of the model to the step changes in the operating parameters, such as pressure, temperature, steam flow, feed water flow, are also analyzed. The present model can be used for the development and design of effective boiler control systems.

  7. Condensing Heat Exchangers Optimize Steam Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, B.; Sullivan, P. A.

    1983-01-01

    :: Ii;:;:! ~:;i:! ;I: j I~ iii .. .J 2;-:t .... ~ -:-1 T ""'! ...., i r ;-~ -n -" Id1'\\' 'I!I. , ~ J' ---:~-:'I-T1 - I ; ,;..r :. ! II" -:- 'I:III f '1': ~:. ill I'~" I . - - , I 'j' ~ 7f~:i:l: I. i: ~ " h. .' v 270 Q f---- ~ r ~ . Cl >-+--l...

  8. Standby cooling system for a fluidized bed boiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crispin, Larry G. (Akron, OH); Weitzel, Paul S. (Canal Fulton, OH)

    1990-01-01

    A system for protecting components including the heat exchangers of a fluidized bed boiler against thermal mismatch. The system includes an injection tank containing an emergency supply of heated and pressurized feedwater. A heater is associated with the injection tank to maintain the temperature of the feedwater in the tank at or about the same temperature as that of the feedwater in the heat exchangers. A pressurized gas is supplied to the injection tank to cause feedwater to flow from the injection tank to the heat exchangers during thermal mismatch.

  9. Techno-economic analysis of wood biomass boilers for the greenhouse industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chau, J.; Sowlati, T.; Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine; Bi, X.T.; Preto, F.; Melin, Staffan

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study is to perform a techno-economic analysis on a typical wood pellet and wood residue boiler for generation of heat to an average-sized greenhouse in British Columbia. The variables analyzed included greenhouse size and structure, boiler efficiency, fuel types, and source of carbon dioxide (CO2) for crop fertilization. The net present value (NPV) show that installing a wood pellet or a wood residue boiler to provide 40% of the annual heat demand is more economical than using a natural gas boiler to provide all the heat at a discount rate of 10%. For an assumed lifespan of 25 years, a wood pellet boiler system could generate NPV of C$259,311 without electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and C$74,695 with ESP, respectively. While, installing a wood residue boiler with or without an ESP could provide NPV of C$919,922 or C$1,104,538, respectively. Using a wood biomass boiler could also eliminate over 3000 tonne CO2 equivalents of greenhouse gases annually. Wood biomass combustion generates more particulate matters than natural gas combustion. However, an advanced emission control system could significantly reduce particulate matters emission from wood biomass combustion which would bring the particulate emission to a relatively similar level as for natural gas.

  10. Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses This tip sheet on minimizing boiler short cycling losses provides how-to advice for improving industrial...

  11. Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure Turbine-Generators When specifying a new boiler, consider a high-pressure boiler with a backpressure steam turbine-generator placed...

  12. Establishing an energy efficieny recommendation for commercial boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ware, Michelle J.

    2000-01-01

    Council of Industrial Boiler Owners). Personal communicationAssessment on Commercial Boilers. ” Consortium for Energyaccurate claims of boiler performance. Acknowledgements The

  13. Return Condensate to the Boiler | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Return Condensate to the Boiler Return Condensate to the Boiler This tip sheet on returning condensate to boilers provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems...

  14. Implementation of Boiler Best Practices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blake, N. R.

    2000-01-01

    return across the plant by 5% ($400K), improving feedwater and blowdown control through automation (dollar value varies in different plants), extending condensate polisher resin performance ($30K), and improving condensate sampling and monitoring... involved in each implementation. WHAT ARE BEST PRACTICES? Nalco Boiler Best Practices condenses Nalco's global collective experience into a single, consistent, supportable reference (the Boiler Best Practices Manual) to guide the field representative...

  15. 1999 Commercial Buildings Characteristics--Glossary--Space-Heating...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Space-Heating Equipment Glossary-Space-Heating Equipment Boiler: A type of space-heating equipment consisting of a vessel or tank where heat produced from the combustion of such...

  16. Development of the first demonstration CFB boiler for gas and steam cogeneration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, M; Luo, Z.; Li, X.; Wang, Q.; Shi, Z.; Ni, M.; Cen, K.

    1997-12-31

    To solve the shortage of gas and steam supply in the small towns of the country, a new gas steam cogeneration system has been developed. On the basis of the fundamental research on the system, a demonstration gas steam cogeneration system has been designed. As the phase 1 of the project, a 75t/h demonstration CFB boiler for gas steam cogeneration has been erected and operated at Yangzhong Thermal Power Plant of China. This paper introduces the first 75t/h demonstration CFB boiler for gas steam cogeneration. Due to the need of gas steam cogeneration process, the boiler has the features of high temperature cyclone separation, high solid recycle ratio, staged combustion and an external heat exchanger adjusting bed temperature and heat load. The operation results show that the boiler has wide fuel adaptability and the heating value of the coal changes from 14MJ/Kg to 25MJ/Kg. The heat load changes from 85t/h to 28t/h while steam parameter is maintained at the normal conditions. The combustion efficiency of the boiler attain 98%. The boiler design and operation experiences may be a guide to the design and operation of larger CFB units in the future.

  17. Technology Solutions Case Study: Advanced Boiler Load Monitoring Controls, Chicago, Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-09-01

    Most of Chicago’s older multifamily housing stock is heated by centrally metered steam or hydronic systems. The cost of heat is typically absorbed into the owner’s operating cost and is then passed to tenants. Central boilers typically have long service lifetimes; the incentive for retrofit system efficiency upgrades is greater than equipment replacement for the efficiency-minded owner. System improvements as the “low-hanging fruit” are familiar, from improved pipe insulation to aftermarket controls such as outdoor temperature reset (OTR) or lead/lag controllers for sites with multiple boilers. Beyond these initial system efficiency upgrades are an emerging class of Advanced Load Monitoring (ALM) aftermarket controllers that dynamically respond to the boiler load, with claims of 10% to 30% of fuel savings over a heating season. In this project, the Building America team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) installed and monitored an ALM aftermarket controller, the M2G from Greffen Systems, at two Chicago area multifamily buildings with existing OTR control. Results show that energy savings depend on the degree to which boilers are oversized for their load, represented by cycling rates. Also, savings vary over the heating season with cycling rates, with greater savings observed in shoulder months. Over the monitoring period, oversized boilers at one site showed reductions in cycling and energy consumption in line with prior laboratory studies, while less oversized boilers at another site showed muted savings.

  18. CHP Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castaldini, Carlo; Darby, Eric

    2013-09-30

    The objective of this project was to engineer, design, fabricate, and field demonstrate a Boiler Burner Energy System Technology (BBEST) that integrates a low-cost, clean burning, gas-fired simple-cycle (unrecuperated) 100 kWe (net) microturbine (SCMT) with a new ultra low-NOx gas-fired burner (ULNB) into one compact Combined Heat and Power (CHP) product that can be retrofit on new and existing industrial and commercial boilers in place of conventional burners. The Scope of Work for this project was segmented into two principal phases: (Phase I) Hardware development, assembly and pre-test and (Phase II) Field installation and demonstration testing. Phase I was divided into five technical tasks (Task 2 to 6). These tasks covered the engineering, design, fabrication, testing and optimization of each key component of the CHP system principally, ULNB, SCMT, assembly BBEST CHP package, and integrated controls. Phase I work culminated with the laboratory testing of the completed BBEST assembly prior to shipment for field installation and demonstration. Phase II consisted of two remaining technical tasks (Task 7 and 8), which focused on the installation, startup, and field verification tests at a pre-selected industrial plant to document performance and attainment of all project objectives. Technical direction and administration was under the management of CMCE, Inc. Altex Technologies Corporation lead the design, assembly and testing of the system. Field demonstration was supported by Leva Energy, the commercialization firm founded by executives at CMCE and Altex. Leva Energy has applied for patent protection on the BBEST process under the trade name of Power Burner and holds the license for the burner currently used in the product. The commercial term Power Burner is used throughout this report to refer to the BBEST technology proposed for this project. The project was co-funded by the California Energy Commission and the Southern California Gas Company (SCG), a division of Sempra Energy. These match funds were provided via concurrent contracts and investments available via CMCE, Altex, and Leva Energy The project attained all its objectives and is considered a success. CMCE secured the support of GI&E from Italy to supply 100 kW Turbec T-100 microturbines for the project. One was purchased by the project’s subcontractor, Altex, and a second spare was purchased by CMCE under this project. The microturbines were then modified to convert from their original recuperated design to a simple cycle configuration. Replacement low-NOx silo combustors were designed and bench tested in order to achieve compliance with the California Air Resources Board (CARB) 2007 emission limits for NOx and CO when in CHP operation. The converted microturbine was then mated with a low NOx burner provided by Altex via an integration section that allowed flow control and heat recovery to minimize combustion blower requirements; manage burner turndown; and recover waste heat. A new fully integrated control system was designed and developed that allowed one-touch system operation in all three available modes of operation: (1) CHP with both microturbine and burner firing for boiler heat input greater than 2 MMBtu/hr; (2) burner head only (BHO) when the microturbine is under service; and (3) microturbine only when boiler heat input requirements fall below 2 MMBtu/hr. This capability resulted in a burner turndown performance of nearly 10/1, a key advantage for this technology over conventional low NOx burners. Key components were then assembled into a cabinet with additional support systems for generator cooling and fuel supply. System checkout and performance tests were performed in the laboratory. The assembled system and its support equipment were then shipped and installed at a host facility where final performance tests were conducted following efforts to secure fabrication, air, and operating permits. The installed power burner is now in commercial operation and has achieved all the performance goals.

  19. Steam Conservation and Boiler Plant Efficiency Advancements 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiorino, D. P.

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines several cost-effective steam conservation and boiler plant efficiency advancements that were implemented during a recently completed central steam boiler plant replacement project at a very large semiconductor manufacturing...

  20. Biomass Boiler | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Biomass Boiler Home Wayne31jan's picture Submitted by Wayne31jan(150) Contributor 24 June, 2015 - 07:08 Biomass Boiler Market is Projected to Reach USD 8,907.0 Million by 2022...

  1. Upgrade of Multiple Boiler/Turbine Plant to Microprocessor Control- A Case History 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schenk, J. R.; Sommer, A. C.

    1985-01-01

    workstation which allows generation updating of drawings and configuration from an expanded IBM PCXT. o Energy optimization of the plant air compressor system wh,ich includes 4 reciprocating and 1 centrifugal chiller. o Boiler water treatment system. o... The Utilities Operation of the General Electric - Erie Plant is responsible for providing all energy for the Plant. The primary source is coal, which is used in four boilers to pro duce steam for the generation of electricity, as well as heat...

  2. UVM Central Heating & Cooling Plant Annual Maintenance Shutdown 2013 Affected Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayden, Nancy J.

    Saturday 25 May Given Rowell CBW Converse HSRF > Given Boiler Plant will be in operation to provide heating, hot water and critical air conditioning > NO CAGE WASHING > NO AUTOCLAVES > Given Boiler Plant > Given Boiler Plant will be in operation to provide heating, hot water and critical air conditioning

  3. Sootblowing optimization for improved boiler performance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    James, John Robert; McDermott, John; Piche, Stephen; Pickard, Fred; Parikh, Neel J

    2013-07-30

    A sootblowing control system that uses predictive models to bridge the gap between sootblower operation and boiler performance goals. The system uses predictive modeling and heuristics (rules) associated with different zones in a boiler to determine an optimal sequence of sootblower operations and achieve boiler performance targets. The system performs the sootblower optimization while observing any operational constraints placed on the sootblowers.

  4. Sootblowing optimization for improved boiler performance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    James, John Robert; McDermott, John; Piche, Stephen; Pickard, Fred; Parikh, Neel J.

    2012-12-25

    A sootblowing control system that uses predictive models to bridge the gap between sootblower operation and boiler performance goals. The system uses predictive modeling and heuristics (rules) associated with different zones in a boiler to determine an optimal sequence of sootblower operations and achieve boiler performance targets. The system performs the sootblower optimization while observing any operational constraints placed on the sootblowers.

  5. International District Energy Association

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Since its formation in 1909, the International District Energy Association (IDEA) has served as a principal industry advocate and management resource for owners, operators, developers, and suppliers of district heating and cooling systems in cities, campuses, bases, and healthcare facilities. Today, with over 1,400 members in 26 countries, IDEA continues to organize high-quality technical conferences that inform, connect, and advance the industry toward higher energy efficiency and lower carbon emissions through innovation and investment in scalable sustainable solutions. With the support of DOE, IDEA performs industry research and market analysis to foster high impact projects and help transform the U.S. energy industry. IDEA was an active participant in the original Vision and Roadmap process and has continued to partner with DOE on combined heat and power (CHP) efforts across the country.

  6. Condensing economizers for small coal-fired boilers and furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butcher, T.A.; Litzke, W.

    1994-01-01

    Condensing economizers increase the thermal efficiency of boilers by recovering sensible and latent heat from exhaust gas. These economizers are currently being used commercially for this purpose in a wide range of applications. Performance is dependent upon application-specific factors affecting the utility of recovered heat. With the addition of a condensing economizer boiler efficiency improvements up to 10% are possible. Condensing economizers can also capture flue gas particulates. In this work, the potential use of condensing economizers for both efficiency improvement and control of particulate emissions from small, coal water slurry-fired boilers was evaluated. Analysis was done to predict heat transfer and particulate capture by mechanisms including: inertial impaction, interception, diffusion, thermophoretic forces, and condensation growth. Shell-and-tube geometries were considered with flue gas on the outside of Teflon-covered tubes. Experimental studies were done with both air- and water-cooled economizers refit to a small boiler. Two experimental arrangements were used including oil-firing with injection of flyash upstream of the economizer and direct coal water slurry firing. Firing rates ranged from 27 to 82 kW (92,000 to 280,000 Btu/hr). Inertial impaction was found to be the most important particulate capture mechanism and removal efficiencies to 95% were achieved. With the addition of water sprays directly on the first row of tubes, removal efficiencies increased to 98%. Use of these sprays adversely affects heat recovery. Primary benefits of the sprays are seen to be the addition of small impaction sites and future design improvements are suggested in which such small impactors are permanently added to the highest velocity regions of the economizer. Predicted effects of these added impactors on particulate removal and pressure drop are presented.

  7. Covered Product Category: Commercial Boilers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements for commercial boilers, which is a FEMP-designated product category. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  8. Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-Enhancing CapacityVectren)Model for theSunLanSuperDriveEconomies | OpenSuryaMSM

  9. Elko District Heat District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, AlabamaETEC GmbH Jump to:Providence,NewInformationLabsKansas:EnergyCounty,

  10. San Bernardino District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onRAPID/Geothermal/Exploration/ColoradoRemsenburg-Speonk,Sage Resources Jump to:Ohio:ProjectAugustine County,Facility |

  11. Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland: Energy ResourcesDec 2005 WindPRO isMickeyWestNewOhio: Energy

  12. Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy ResourcesOrder atHills,NewKeithDelaware:DLR CooperationKersey,KesonaFacility

  13. Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPIProtectio1975) | Open Energy Information3 DevelopmentsNebraska:

  14. Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPIProtectio Program |View New Pages Recent Changes All Special

  15. Boise City Geothermal District Heating District Heating Low Temperature

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental JumpInformationBio-GasIllinois: EnergyHills,BluefieldBobBogota, New

  16. City of Klamath Falls District Heating District Heating Low Temperature

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmentalBowerbank,CammackFLIRChurchFontanelle, IowaIowa (UtilityKing Cove,

  17. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, B.G.; Schobert, H.H.

    1990-09-28

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program with the objective of demonstrating the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in industrial boilers designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with less than 3.0% ash and 0.9% sulfur) can effectively be burned in oil-designed industrial boilers without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels. The project consists of three phases: (1) design, permitting, and test planning, (2) construction and start up, and (3) demonstration and evaluation. The boiler testing will determine if the SCCWS combustion characteristics, heat release rate, fouling and slagging behavior, corrosion and erosion limits, and fuel transport, storage, and handling characteristics can be accommodated in an oil-designed boiler system. In addition, the proof-of-concept demonstration will generate data to determine how the properties of SCCWS and its parent coal affect boiler performance. Economic factors associated with retrofitting and operating boilers will be identified to assess the viability of future oil-to-coal retrofits. Progress is reported. 7 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Alternate Materials for Recovery Boiler Superheater Tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, James R [ORNL; Kish, Joseph [McMaster University; Singbeil, Douglas [FPInnovations

    2009-01-01

    The ever escalating demands for increased efficiency of all types of boilers would most sensibly be realized by an increase in the steam parameters of temperature and pressure. However, materials and corrosion limitations in the steam generating components, particularly the superheater tubes, present major obstacles to boiler designers in achieving systems that can operate under the more severe conditions. This paper will address the issues associated with superheater tube selection for many types of boilers; particularly chemical recovery boilers, but also addressing the similarities in issues for biomass and coal fired boilers. It will also review our recent study of materials for recovery boiler superheaters. Additional, more extensive studies, both laboratory and field, are needed to gain a better understanding of the variables that affect superheater tube corrosion and to better determine the best means to control this corrosion to ultimately permit operation of recovery boilers at higher temperatures and pressures.

  19. What is District Energy and How Does it Work? District Energy (DE) systems use hot water or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) plant. A CHP plant uses hotter steam and higher pressure boilers. It, too a conventional power plant in L'Anse, Michigan, to use woody biomass and sells the heat to a nearby forest to heat and cool homes and businesses within a town or community. The basic components of a DE system

  20. Measure Guideline: Condensing Boilers - Control Strategies for Optimizing Performance and Comfort in Residential Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, L.

    2013-05-01

    The combination of a gas-fired condensing boiler with baseboard convectors and an indirect water heater has become a common option for high-efficiency residential space heating in cold climates. While there are many condensing boilers available on the market with rated efficiencies in the low to mid 90% efficient range, it is imperative to understand that if the control systems are not properly configured, these heaters will perform no better than their non-condensing counterparts. Based on previous research efforts, it is apparent that these types of systems are typically not designed and installed to achieve maximum efficiency (Arena 2010). It was found that there is a significant lack of information for contractors on how to configure the control systems to optimize overall efficiency. For example, there is little advice on selecting the best settings for the boiler reset curve or how to measure and set flow rates in the system to ensure that the return temperatures are low enough to promote condensing. It has also been observed that recovery from setback can be extremely slow and, at times, not achieved. Recovery can be affected by the outdoor reset control, the differential setting on the boiler and over-sizing of the boiler itself. This guide is intended for designers and installers of hydronic heating systems interested in maximizing the overall system efficiency of condensing boilers when coupled with baseboard convectors. It is applicable to new and retrofit applications.

  1. Technical Report -DTU -Informatics and Mathematical Modeling (May 31, 2007) Temperature Prediction in District

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prediction in District Heating Systems with cFIR models Pierre Pinson , Torben S. Nielsen, Henrik Aa. Nielsen, Lyngby, Denmark Abstract Current methodologies for the optimal operation of district heating systems regularization. Results are given for the test case of the Roskilde district heating system, over a period

  2. Omaha Public Power District- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Omaha Public Power District (OPPD) offers incentives for commercial and industrial customers to install energy-efficient heat pumps and replace/retrofit existing lighting systems. The Commercial...

  3. An Analysis of the Use of Fluidized-Bed Heat Exchangers for Heat Recovery 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vogel, G. J.; Grogan, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    The principles of fluidized-bed operation and the factors affecting the performance of a fluidized-bed waste heat boiler (FBWHB) are discussed in detail. Factors included in the discussion are bed temperature and pressure, heat transfer coefficient...

  4. Boiler - tuning basics, part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leopold, T.

    2009-03-15

    Tuning power plant controls takes nerves of steel and an intimate knowledge of plant systems gained only by experience. Tuning controls also requires equal parts art and science, which probably is why there are so few tuning experts in the power industry. In part 1 of a two-part series, the author explores a mix of the theoretical and practical aspects of tuning boiler control. 5 figs.

  5. Fluidized bed boiler feed system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Brian C. (Windsor, CT)

    1981-01-01

    A fluidized bed boiler feed system for the combustion of pulverized coal. Coal is first screened to separate large from small particles. Large particles of coal are fed directly to the top of the fluidized bed while fine particles are first mixed with recycled char, preheated, and then fed into the interior of the fluidized bed to promote char burnout and to avoid elutriation and carryover.

  6. New Forestry Commission District Office The new Forestry Commission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Forestry Commission District Office The new Forestry Commission District office at Smithton in construction The Forestry Commission's District office at Smithton in Inverness, Scotland, covers the national fuel heating system has proved effective during the winter of 2009/10, one of the harshest in 40 years

  7. Applied Solutions Webinar: Insights Into District Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Local governments and their communities that inhabit dense locations can take advantage of district heating and/or cooling systems as a way to increase energy efficiency and reliability while...

  8. Effect of bed pressure drop on performance of a CFB boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hairui Yang; Hai Zhang; Shi Yang; Guangxi Yue; Jun Su; Zhiping Fu

    2009-05-15

    The effect of bed pressure drop and bed inventory on the performances of a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler was studied. By using the state specification design theory, the fluidization state of the gas-solids flow in the furnace of conventional CFB boilers was reconstructed to operate at a much lower bed pressure drop by reducing bed inventory and control bed quality. Through theoretical analysis, it was suggested that there would exist a theoretical optimal value of bed pressure drop, around which the boiler operation can achieve the maximal combustion efficiency and with significant reduction of the wear of the heating surface and fan energy consumption. The analysis was validated by field tests carried out in a 75 t/h CFB boiler. At full boiler load, when bed pressure drop was reduced from 7.3 to 3.2 kPa, the height of the dense zone in the lower furnace decreased, but the solid suspension density profile in the upper furnace and solid flow rate were barely influenced. Consequently, the average heat transfer coefficient in the furnace was kept nearly the same and the furnace temperature increment was less than 17{sup o}C. It was also found that the carbon content in the fly ash decreased first with decreasing bed pressure drop and then increased with further increasing bed pressure drop. The turning point with minimal carbon content was referred to as the point with optimal bed pressure drop. For this boiler, at the optimum point the bed pressure was around 5.7 kPa with the overall excess air ratio of 1.06. When the boiler was operated around this optimal point, not only the combustion efficiency was improved, but also fan energy consumption and wear of heating surface were reduced. 23 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Metallurgical failures in fossil fired boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    French, D.N.

    1993-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive catalog of the types of metallurgical failures common to boilers. The author uses actual case histories of boiler shutdowns, and documents the full range of causes of boiler tube failure. A blueprint is provided for cutting maintenance costs and upgrading the efficiency and reliability of any power plant operation. Individual chapters are processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  10. Stress-Assisted Corrosion in Boiler Tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preet M Singh; Steven J Pawel

    2006-05-27

    A number of industrial boilers, including in the pulp and paper industry, needed to replace their lower furnace tubes or decommission many recovery boilers due to stress-assisted corrosion (SAC) on the waterside of boiler tubes. More than half of the power and recovery boilers that have been inspected reveal SAC damage, which portends significant energy and economic impacts. The goal of this project was to clarify the mechanism of stress-assisted corrosion (SAC) of boiler tubes for the purpose of determining key parameters in its mitigation and control. To accomplish this in-situ strain measurements on boiler tubes were made. Boiler water environment was simulated in the laboratory and effects of water chemistry on SAC initiation and growth were evaluated in terms of industrial operations. Results from this project have shown that the dissolved oxygen is single most important factor in SAC initiation on carbon steel samples. Control of dissolved oxygen can be used to mitigate SAC in industrial boilers. Results have also shown that sharp corrosion fatigue and bulbous SAC cracks have similar mechanism but the morphology is different due to availability of oxygen during boiler shutdown conditions. Results are described in the final technical report.

  11. Minimize Boiler Blowdown - Steam Tip Sheet #9

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on minimizing boiler blowdown provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  12. EPA may force scrubbers on industry boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hume, M.

    1985-05-13

    An Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposal requiring scrubber standards for industrial energy users will force industry to invest in the costly pollution control equipment used mostly by utilities today. The New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for sulfur dioxide emissions will require either scrubbing or fluidized-bed combustion regardless of the fuel's sulfur content. Protests from the Council of Industrial Boiler Owners that this is an unfair burden on non-utility boilers note that scrubbing is more costly for smaller boilers, and that it could impede air quality improvement by discouraging the replacement of old boilers. EPA contests these claims.

  13. Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces May 16, 2013 - 3:15pm Addthis Diagram of an oil boiler. New tanks are generally double-wall or have a spill container...

  14. Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with BackpressureTurbine...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    high-pressure boilers with backpressure turbine-generators as part of optimized steam systems. STEAM TIP SHEET 22 Consider Installing High-Pressure Boilers with Backpressure...

  15. An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ă?lveczky, Peter Csaba

    An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification computations cannot happen. 1 Introduction The steam-boiler control specification problem has been

  16. Improve Your Boiler's Combustion Efficiency | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improve Your Boiler's Combustion Efficiency This tip sheet outlines how to improve boiler combustion efficiency as part of an optimized steam system. STEAM TIP SHEET 4 Improve...

  17. Guide to Low-Emission Boiler and Combustion Equipment Selection...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Emission Boiler and Combustion Equipment Selection Guide to Low-Emission Boiler and Combustion Equipment Selection The guide provides background information about various types...

  18. Upgrade Boilers with Energy-Efficient Burners | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Improve Your Boiler's Combustion Efficiency Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses Improving Steam System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry,...

  19. Southern Power District- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Southern Power District (SPD) offers rebates for the purchase and installation of efficient air source heat pumps, geothermal heat pumps, attic insulation, and HVAC tune-ups.  Contractors who...

  20. Mercury control challenge for industrial boiler MACT affected facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-09-15

    An industrial coal-fired boiler facility conducted a test program to evaluate the effectiveness of sorbent injection on mercury removal ahead of a fabric filter with an inlet flue gas temperature of 375{sup o}F. The results of the sorbent injection testing are essentially inconclusive relative to providing the facility with enough data upon which to base the design and implementation of permanent sorbent injection system(s). The mercury removal performance of the sorbents was significantly less than expected. The data suggests that 50 percent mercury removal across a baghouse with flue gas temperatures at or above 375{sup o}F and containing moderate levels of SO{sub 3} may be very difficult to achieve with activated carbon sorbent injection alone. The challenge many coal-fired industrial facilities may face is the implementation of additional measures beyond sorbent injection to achieve high levels of mercury removal that will likely be required by the upcoming new Industrial Boiler MACT rule. To counter the negative effects of high flue gas temperature on mercury removal with sorbents, it may be necessary to retrofit additional boiler heat transfer surface or spray cooling of the flue gas upstream of the baghouse. Furthermore, to counter the negative effect of moderate or high SO{sub 3} levels in the flue gas on mercury removal, it may be necessary to also inject sorbents, such as trona or hydrated lime, to reduce the SO{sub 3} concentrations in the flue gas. 2 refs., 1 tab.

  1. Winning the fight against boiler tube failure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, J.; Dooley, B.

    1986-12-01

    Eliminating boiler tube failures could be worth $5 billion a year to the electric power industry. The causes and cures for the great majority of these ubiquitous failures are now known, with implications for change ranging from senior management to the maintenance crew. Methods for preventing boiler tube failure are discussed.

  2. A Methodology for Optimizing Boiler Operating Strategy 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, K. C.

    1983-01-01

    Among the many ways by which an energy manager can conserve energy is the establishment of a strategy for operation of fired boilers. In particular, he can effect total fuel consumption by his decision on how much on-line boiler surplus is required...

  3. Job 4459300 Ref.No. Prepd. CHP/GEA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    inspection of boilers exceeding 500 kW: State Energy Inspection District heating sector Min. of Economy

  4. The Analysis and Assessment on Heating Energy Consumption of SAT 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.

    2006-01-01

    The article introduced the fuel-energy consumption and outdoor temperatures of three heating terms from year 1999 to 2002 of SAT's fuel-boiler heating system. It demonstrated the relationship between the consumption and the temperatures by using...

  5. 5 Questions for an Expert: Bob Gemmer on Combined Heat and Power...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    work experience in batteries, heating and cooling applications, boilers, water treatment, furnace equipment, and more. Looking back on where I'm at now, although the...

  6. A new blowdown compensation scheme for boiler leak detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Horacio J.

    A new blowdown compensation scheme for boiler leak detection A. M. Pertew ,1 X. Sun ,1 R. Kent considers the blowdown effect in industrial boiler operation. This adds to the efficiency of recent advances in identification-based leak detection techniques of boiler steam- water systems. Keywords: Industrial Boilers, Tube

  7. Retrofitted coal-fired firetube boiler and method employed therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagoner, Charles L. (Tullahoma, TN); Foote, John P. (Tullahoma, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A coal-fired firetube boiler and a method for converting a gas-fired firetube boiler to a coal-fired firetube boiler, the converted boiler including a plurality of combustion zones within the firetube and controlled stoichiometry within the combustion zones.

  8. Retrofitted coal-fired firetube boiler and method employed therewith

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagoner, C.L.; Foote, J.P.

    1995-07-04

    A coal-fired firetube boiler and a method for converting a gas-fired firetube boiler to a coal-fired firetube boiler are disclosed. The converted boiler includes a plurality of combustion zones within the firetube and controlled stoichiometry within the combustion zones. 19 figs.

  9. Wood fuel in fluidized bed boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Virr, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    Development of fluidized bed fire-tube and water-tube boilers for the burning of wood, gas, and refuse-derived fuel will be reviewed. Experience gained in already installed plants will be outlined. Research experiments results on the use of various forms of wood and other biomass fuels, such as wood chips, pellets, peach pits, nut shells and kernels and refuse-derived fuels, will be described for small and medium sized fire-tube boilers, and for larger water-tube boilers for co-generation. (Refs. 4).

  10. Practical Procedures for Auditing Industrial Boiler Plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neil, J. P.

    1980-01-01

    Industrial boiler plants are an area of opportunity in virtually every industry to save energy and reduce costs by using relatively simple, inexpensive auditing procedures. An energy audit consists of inspection, measurement, analysis...

  11. Boiler Efficiency--Consider All the Angles 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blakeley, C. P.

    1981-01-01

    that only a small percentage of plant managers have an in-depth understanding of combustion processes and presents simple yet factual measurements for the determination of boiler combustion, operating and maintenance efficiencies....

  12. Industrial Boiler Optimization Utilizing CO Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruoff, C. W.; Reiter, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    boiler combustion and generate steam in the most cost effective manner. Significant reductions in the amount of excess air have resulted from the use of CO as a control parameter. Previously, combustion effectiveness was determined by the more typical 02...

  13. Flame Spectral Analysis for Boiler Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metcalfe, C. I.; Cole, W. E.; Batra, S. K.

    1987-01-01

    range from the flames and using these measurements to determine the burner operating conditions. Two prototype instruments have been installed on package boilers at a Con Edison powerplant and Polaroid facility, and their performance has been evaluated...

  14. Boiler scale prevention employing an organic chelant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wallace, Steven L. (Lake Jackson, TX); Griffin, Jr., Freddie (Missouri City, TX); Tvedt, Jr., Thorwald J. (Angleton, TX)

    1984-01-01

    An improved method of treating boiler water which employs an oxygen scavenging compound and a compound to control pH together with a chelating agent, wherein the chelating agent is hydroxyethylethylenediaminetriacetic acid.

  15. Life-cycle cost analysis of energy efficiency design options for residential furnaces and boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Chan, Peter; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, James

    2004-01-01

    1 FURNACE AND BOILER TECHNOLOGY19 Furnace and Boiler Lifetimes Used in the LCC Analysis (PBP RESULTS FOR GAS BOILERS USING ALTERNATIVE INSTALLATION

  16. Industrial Heat Recovery - 1982 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Csathy, D.

    1982-01-01

    Industrial Research HTFS Re search Programme HTFS/1S/R19, "Dryout and Flow in Horizontal and Horizontal Hairpin Tubes". 6 l\\rnerican Boiler I1anufacturers Assoc iation, "Lexicon, Boiler & Auxiliary Eauinment", 7 G:t=iffith P., book of I:eat senow N... RECOVERY - 1982 by Denis Csathy, Deltak Corn,oration, !1inneapolis, 11N Two years ago I summarized 20 years of ex perience on Industrial Heat Recovery for the Energy-source Technology Conference and Exhibition held in New Orleans, Louisiana. l...

  17. An Evaluation of Industrial Heat Pumps for Effective Low-Temperature Heat Utilization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leibowitz, H. M.; Colosimo, D. D.

    1980-01-01

    The implementation of industrial heat pumps utilizing waste water from various industrial processes for the production of process steam is presented as a viable economic alternative to a conventional fossil-fired boiler and as an effective fuel...

  18. Human Health Science Building Geothermal Heat Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: Construct a ground sourced heat pump, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system for the new Oakland University Human Health Sciences Building utilizing variable refrigerant flow (VRF) heat pumps. A pair of dedicated outdoor air supply units will utilize a thermally regenerated desiccant dehumidification section. A large solar thermal system along with a natural gas backup boiler will provide the thermal regeneration energy.

  19. Circulating fluidized-bed boiler makes inroads for waste recycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    Circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) boilers have ben used for years in Scandinavia to burn refuse-derived fuel (RDF). Now, Foster Wheeler Power Systems, Inc., (Clinton, N.J.) is bringing the technology to the US. Touted as the world`s largest waste-to-energy plant to use CFB technology, the Robbins (III.) Resource Recovery Facility will have the capacity to process 1,600 tons/d of municipal solid waste (MSW) when it begins operation in early 1997. The facility will have two materials-separation and RDF-processing trains, each with dual trommel screens, magnetic and eddy current separators, and shredders. About 25% of the incoming MSW will be sorted and removed for recycling, while 75% of it will be turned into fuel, with a heat value of roughly 6,170 btu/lb. Once burned in the twin CFB boilers the resulting steam will be routed through a single turbine generator to produce 50,000 mW of electric power.

  20. Major Fuels","Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (million square feet)","Total of Major Fuels","Electricity","Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat" "All Buildings ...",4657,67338,81552,66424,10...

  1. Major Fuels","Electricity",,"Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    of Buildings (thousand)","Floorspace (million square feet)","Sum of Major Fuels","Electricity",,"Natural Gas","Fuel Oil","District Heat" ,,,,"Primary","Site" "All Buildings...

  2. Introduction to the Boiler MACT Energy Assessment Process 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theising, T. R.

    2014-01-01

    and JJJJJJ - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Industrial, Commercial, and Institutional Boilers at Area Sources (also known as the Boiler GACT – Generally Available Control Technology), the energy assessment...

  3. Upgrade Boilers with Energy-Efficient Burners, Energy Tips: STEAM...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The purpose of the burner is to mix molecules of fuel with molecules of air. A boiler will run only as well as the burner performs. A poorly designed boiler with an...

  4. Paducah Package Steam Boilers to Provide Efficiency, Environmental...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and operates to provide steam on demand. The boilers are most efficient when they run at full capacity. When a boiler is turned down, the efficiency drops. To maximize...

  5. Dealing with big circulation flow, small temperature difference based on verified dynamic model simulations of a hot water district heating system 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhong, L.

    2014-01-01

    d design en enclosure ex exchanger f fuel h heater int internal n number of HES o outside r return s supply sp set point sols solar radiation from south side v verify w, w2i water, water in secondary system for each HES z zone ESL... temperatures, solar radiation and wind speed; the heat balance has been regulated based on the average water temperature in the secondary system by adjusting the water mass flow rate (u1) of each HES in the primary system; and the water mass flow rate...

  6. Simulation of Combustion and Thermal Flow in an Industrial Boiler 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saripalli, R.; Wang, T.; Day, B.

    2005-01-01

    tubes Boiler Outer Wall Boiler inner walls Flue Gases Saturated water tubes Burner Gases to chimney Gases to chimney Superheater tubes 6x19 array x four passes Boiler wall made of alternating superheater and saturator... tubes (see details in Figure 3.) (a) Top View PROBLEM SETUP AND MODELING The overall design of the studied boiler is shown in Fig. 1. The model basically consists of four sections, burner, combustion...

  7. Waste combustion in boilers and industrial furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-31

    This set of conference papers deals with the combustion of hazardous wastes in boilers and industrial furnaces. The majority of the papers pertain specifically to cement industry kiln incinerators and focus on environmental issues. In particular, stack emission requirements currently enforced or under consideration by the U.S. EPA are emphasized. The papers were drawn from seven areas: (1) proposed Maximum Achievable Control Technology rule, (2) trial burn planning and experience, (3) management and beneficial use of materials, (4) inorganic emissions and continuous emission monitoring, (5) organic emissions, (6) boiler and industrial furnace operations, and (7) risk assessment and communication.

  8. Conceptual design phase of a district heating and cooling plant with cogeneration to serve James Madison University and the Harrisonburg Electric Commission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belcher, J.B.

    1995-12-31

    A unique opportunity for cooperation and community development exists in Harrisonburg, Virginia. James Madison University, located in Harrisonburg, is undergoing an aggressive growth plan of its academic base which also includes the physical expansion of its campus. The City of Harrisonburg is presently supplying steam to meet a portion of the heating needs of the existing James Madison campus from a city owned and operated waste-to-energy plant. In an effort of cooperation, Harrisonburg and James Madison University have now negotiated an agreement for the city to provide all of the heating and cooling requirements of the new campus expansion. In another unique turn of events, the local electrical power distributor, Harrisonburg Electric Commission, approached the city concerning the inclusion of cogeneration in the project in order to reduce and maintain existing electric rates thus further benefiting the community. Through the cooperation of these three entities, the conceptual design phase of the project has been completed. The plant design developed through this process includes 3,000 tons of chilled water capacity, an additional 64,000 lb/hr of steam capacity and 2.5 MW of cogeneration capacity. This paper describes the conceptual design process for this interesting project.

  9. Improving Boiler Efficiency Modeling Based on Ambient Air Temperature 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, J.; Deng, S.; Claridge, D. E.; Haberl, J. S.; Turner, W. D.

    2002-01-01

    significantly effects boiler efficiency. In the study reported here, the measured performance of a 300,000 lb/h steam boiler was found to show more dependence on ambient air temperature than on boiler load. It also showed an unexplained dependence on the month...

  10. Improving Boiler Efficiency Modeling Based On Ambient Air Temperature 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, J.; Deng, S.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D. E.; Haberl, J. S.

    2002-01-01

    significantly effects boiler efficiency. In the study reported here, the measured performance of a 300,000 lb/h steam boiler was found to show more dependence on ambient air temperature than on boiler load. It also showed an unexplained dependence on the month...

  11. Density-Enthalpy Phase Diagram 0D Boiler Simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vuik, Kees

    Density-Enthalpy Phase Diagram 0D Boiler Simulation Finite Element Method Further Research Finite Transitions #12;Density-Enthalpy Phase Diagram 0D Boiler Simulation Finite Element Method Further Research;Density-Enthalpy Phase Diagram 0D Boiler Simulation Finite Element Method Further Research Goal

  12. Using HYTECH to Synthesize Control Parameters for a Steam Boiler? ??

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henzinger, Thomas A.

    Using HYTECH to Synthesize Control Parameters for a Steam Boiler? ?? Thomas A. Henzinger1 Howard model a steam-boiler control system using hybrid au- tomata. We provide two abstracted linear models of the nonlinear be- havior of the boiler. For each model, we de ne and verify a controller that maintains the safe

  13. Steam boiler control specification problem: A TLA solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merz, Stephan

    Steam boiler control specification problem: A TLA solution Frank Le�ke and Stephan Merz Institut f of the state of the steam boiler, detect failures, and model message transmission. We give a more detailed between the physi­ cal state of the steam boiler and the model maintained by the controller and discuss

  14. An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ă?lveczky, Peter Csaba

    An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification Peter Csaba ()lveczky, Poland Abstract. In this paper an object-oriented algebraic solution of the steam-boiler specification Introduction The steam-boiler control specification problem has been proposed as a challenge for different

  15. An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ă?lveczky, Peter Csaba

    An Object-Oriented Algebraic Steam-Boiler Control Specification.In this paper an object-oriented algebraic solution of the steam-boiler specification problem is presented computations cannot happen. 1 Introduction The steam-boiler control specification problem has been

  16. Using HYTECH to Synthesize Control Parameters for a Steam Boiler ?;??

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henzinger, Thomas A.

    Using HYTECH to Synthesize Control Parameters for a Steam Boiler ?;?? Thomas A. Henzinger 1 Howard model a steam­boiler control system using hybrid au­ tomata. We provide two abstracted linear models of the nonlinear be­ havior of the boiler. For each model, we define and verify a controller that maintains

  17. Steam boiler control speci cation problem: A TLA solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cengarle, MarĂ­a Victoria

    Steam boiler control speci cation problem: A TLA solution Frank Le ke and Stephan Merz Institut fur of the state of the steam boiler, detect failures, and model message transmission. We give a more detailed between the physi- cal state of the steam boiler and the model maintained by the controller and discuss

  18. An ObjectOriented Algebraic SteamBoiler Control Specification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ă?lveczky, Peter Csaba

    An Object­Oriented Algebraic Steam­Boiler Control Specification Peter Csaba Ë? Olveczky 1# , Piotr, Poland Abstract. In this paper an object­oriented algebraic solution of the steam­boiler specification Introduction The steam­boiler control specification problem has been proposed as a challenge for di

  19. Waterside Stress Assisted Corrosion (SAC) of Boiler Tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Suman

    Waterside Stress Assisted Corrosion (SAC) of Boiler Tubes School of Materials Science Boiler Areas Susceptible to SAC · Generally SAC initiates near weld joints on cold side of tubes · SAC cracks are difficult to detect inaccessibility · Failures Detected at Various Locations in Boilers

  20. 1 | P a g e Boiler Gold Rush

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ginzel, Matthew

    1 | P a g e Boiler Gold Rush VISION STATEMENT The vision of BGR is twofold: first, help all new by participating in the premiere orientation program in the nation, Boiler Gold Rush. Second, enhance upper leaders for the betterment of the university. PROGRAM GOALS Boiler Gold Rush will provide the following

  1. Nanotube Boiler 1 Abstract--Controlled copper evaporation at attogram

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Nanotube Boiler 1 Abstract-- Controlled copper evaporation at attogram level from individual carbon nanotube (CNT) vessels, which we call nanotube boilers, is investigated experimentally, and ionization in these CNT boilers, which can serve as sources for mass transport and deposition in nanofluidic

  2. Project Recap Humanitarian Engineering Biodiesel Boiler System for Steam Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demirel, Melik C.

    Project Recap Humanitarian Engineering ­ Biodiesel Boiler System for Steam Generator Currently 70 biodiesel boiler system to drive a steam engine generator. This system is to provide electricity the customer needs, a boiler fueled by biodiesel and outputting to a steam engine was decided upon. The system

  3. Streams of Steam The Steam Boiler Specification Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Streams of Steam ­ The Steam Boiler Specification Case Study Manfred Broy, Franz Regensburger-tuned con- cepts of FOCUS by its application of the requirements specification of a steam boiler, see [Abr96-studies. In this context, applying FOCUS to the steam boiler case study ([Abr96]) led us to a couple of questions re- #12

  4. FAQs Manhattanville Campus Central Energy Plant Boiler Stacks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Philip

    FAQs Manhattanville Campus Central Energy Plant Boiler Stacks Installation Frequently Asked Questions What is happening? Columbia University is installing two (2) boiler stacks on top of the Jerome L, a below-grade facility which will consist four (4) 45,000 lbs/hr steam boilers and related equipment

  5. METHANE de-NOX for Utility PC Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce Bryan; Serguei Nester; Joseph Rabovitser; Stan Wohadlo

    2005-09-30

    The overall project objective is the development and validation of an innovative combustion system, based on a novel coal preheating concept prior to combustion, that can reduce NO{sub x} emissions to 0.15 lb/million Btu or less on utility pulverized coal (PC) boilers. This NO{sub x} reduction should be achieved without loss of boiler efficiency or operating stability, and at more than 25% lower levelized cost than state-of-the-art SCR technology. A further objective is to ready technology for full-scale commercial deployment to meet the market demand for NO{sub x} reduction technologies. Over half of the electric power generated in the U.S. is produced by coal combustion, and more than 80% of these units utilize PC combustion technology. Conventional measures for NOx reduction in PC combustion processes rely on combustion and post-combustion modifications. A variety of combustion-based NO{sub x} reduction technologies are in use today, including low-NO{sub x} burners (LNBs), flue gas recirculation (FGR), air staging, and natural gas or other fuel reburning. Selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) are post-combustion techniques. NO{sub x} reduction effectiveness from these technologies ranges from 30 to 60% and up to 90-93% for SCR. Typically, older wall-fired PC burner units produce NO{sub x} emissions in the range of 0.8-1.6 lb/million Btu. Low-NO{sub x} burner systems, using combinations of fuel staging within the burner and air staging by introduction of overfire air in the boiler, can reduce NO{sub x} emissions by 50-60%. This approach alone is not sufficient to meet the desired 0.15 lb/million Btu NO{sub x} standard with a range of coals and boiler loads. Furthermore, the heavy reliance on overfire air can lead to increased slagging and corrosion in furnaces, particularly with higher-sulfur coals, when LNBs are operated at sub-stoichiometric conditions to reduce fuel-derived NOx in the flame. Therefore, it is desirable to minimize the need for overfire air by maximizing NO{sub x} reduction in the burner. The proposed combustion concept aims to greatly reduce NO{sub x} emissions by incorporating a novel modification to conventional or low-NO{sub x} PC burners using gas-fired coal preheating to destroy NO{sub x} precursors and prevent NO{sub x} formation. A concentrated PC stream enters the burner, where flue gas from natural gas combustion is used to heat the PC up to about 1500 F prior to coal combustion. Secondary fuel consumption for preheating is estimated to be 3 to 5% of the boiler heat input. This thermal pretreatment releases coal volatiles, including fuel-bound nitrogen compounds into oxygen-deficient atmosphere, which converts the coal-derived nitrogen compounds to molecular N{sub 2} rather than NO. Design, installation, shakedown, and testing on Powder River Basin (PRB) coal at a 3-million Btu/h pilot system at RPI's (Riley Power, Inc.) pilot-scale combustion facility (PSCF) in Worcester, MA demonstrated that the PC PREHEAT process has a significant effect on final O{sub x} formation in the coal burner. Modifications to both the pilot system gas-fired combustor and the PC burner led to NO{sub x} reduction with PRB coal to levels below 0.15 lb/million Btu with CO in the range of 35-112 ppmv without any furnace air staging.

  6. CONDENSING ECONOMIZERS FOR SMALL COAL-FIRED BOILERS AND FURNACES PROJECT REPORT - JANUARY 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BUTCHER,T.A.

    1994-01-04

    Condensing economizers increase the thermal efficiency of boilers by recovering sensible and latent heat from exhaust gas. These economizers are currently being used commercially for this purpose in a wide range of applications. Performance is dependent upon application-specific factors affecting the utility of recovered heat. With the addition of a condensing economizer boiler efficiency improvements up to 10% are possible. Condensing economizers can also capture flue gas particulates. In this work, the potential use of condensing economizers for both efficiency improvement and control of particulate emissions from small, coal water slurry-fired boilers was evaluated. Analysis was done to predict heat transfer and particulate capture by mechanisms including: inertial impaction, interception, diffusion, thermophoretic forces, and condensation growth. Shell-and-tube geometries were considered with flue gas on the outside of Teflon-covered tubes. Experimental studies were done with both air- and water-cooled economizers refit to a small boiler. Two experimental arrangements were used including oil-firing with injection of flyash upstream of the economizer and direct coal water slurry firing. Firing rates ranged from 27 to 82 kW (92,000 to 280,000 Btu/hr). Inertial impaction was found to be the most important particulate capture mechanism and removal efficiencies to 95% were achieved. With the addition of water sprays directly on the first row of tubes, removal efficiencies increased to 98%. Use of these sprays adversely affects heat recovery. Primary benefits of the sprays are seen to be the addition of small impaction sites and future design improvements are suggested in which such small impacts are permanently added to the highest velocity regions of the economizer. Predicted effects of these added impactors on particulate removal and pressure drop are presented.

  7. Integrating district cooling with cogeneration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spurr, M.

    1996-11-01

    Chillers can be driven with cogenerated thermal energy, thereby offering the potential to increase utilization of cogeneration throughout the year. However, cogeneration decreases electric output compared to condensing power generation in power plants using a steam cycle (steam turbine or gas turbine combined cycle plants). The foregone electric production increases with increasing temperature of heat recovery. Given a range of conditions for key variables (such as cogeneration utilization, chiller utilization, cost of fuel, value of electricity, value of heat and temperature of heat recovered), how do technology alternatives for combining district cooling with cogeneration compare? This paper summarizes key findings from a report recently published by the International Energy Agency which examines the energy efficiency and economics of alternatives for combining cogeneration technology options (gas turbine simple cycle, diesel engine, steam turbine, gas turbine combined cycle) with chiller options (electric centrifugal, steam turbine centrifugal one-stage steam absorption, two-stage steam absorption, hot water absorption).

  8. Minimum separation distances for natural gas pipeline and boilers in the 300 area, Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daling, P.M.; Graham, T.M.

    1997-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing actions to reduce energy expenditures and improve energy system reliability at the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. These actions include replacing the centralized heating system with heating units for individual buildings or groups of buildings, constructing a new natural gas distribution system to provide a fuel source for many of these units, and constructing a central control building to operate and maintain the system. The individual heating units will include steam boilers that are to be housed in individual annex buildings located at some distance away from nearby 300 Area nuclear facilities. This analysis develops the basis for siting the package boilers and natural gas distribution systems to be used to supply steam to 300 Area nuclear facilities. The effects of four potential fire and explosion scenarios involving the boiler and natural gas pipeline were quantified to determine minimum separation distances that would reduce the risks to nearby nuclear facilities. The resulting minimum separation distances are shown in Table ES.1.

  9. Unusual refinery boiler tube failures due to corrosion by sulfuric acid induced by steam leaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez-Lopez, D.; Wong-Moreno, A.

    1998-12-31

    Corrosion by sulfuric acid in boilers is a low probability event because gas temperature and metal temperature of boiler tubes are high enough to avoid the condensation of sulfuric acid from flue gases. This degradation mechanism is frequently considered as an important cause of air preheaters materials degradation, where flue gases are cooled by heat transfer to the combustion air. Corrosion is associated to the presence of sulfuric acid, which condensates if metal temperature (or gas temperature) is below of the acid dew point. In economizer tubes, sulfuric acid corrosion is an unlikely event because flue gas and tube temperatures are normally over the acid dewpoint. In this paper, the failure analysis of generator tubes (similar to the economizer of bigger boilers) of two small oil-fired subcritical boilers is reported. It is concluded that sulfuric acid corrosion was the cause of the failure. The sulfuric acid condensation was due to the contact of flue gases containing SO{sub 3} with water-steam spray coming from leaks at the interface of rolled tube to the drum. Considering the information gathered from these two cases studied, an analysis of this failure mechanism is presented including a description of the thermodynamics condition of water leaking from the drum, and an analysis of the factors favoring it.

  10. Digital radiographic systems detect boiler tube cracks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, S. [EPRI, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2008-06-15

    Boiler water wall leaks have been a major cause of steam plant forced outages. But conventional nondestructive evaluation techniques have a poor track record of detecting corrosion fatigue cracking on the inside surface of the cold side of waterwall tubing. EPRI is performing field trials of a prototype direct-digital radiographic system that promises to be a game changer. 8 figs.

  11. Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al.,Turin,Village ofWaialua,Wallington,Solar CoFacility | Open Energy

  12. Elko County School District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, AlabamaETEC GmbH Jump to:Providence,NewInformationLabsKansas:Energy

  13. District Wide Geothermal Heating Conversion Blaine County School District |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based| Department8,Department of Energy2EM'sReport |Distribution:

  14. The next generation of oxy-fuel boiler systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ochs, Thomas L.; Gross, Alex; Patrick, Brian; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Summers, Cathy A.; Turner, Paul C.

    2005-01-01

    Research in the area of oxy-fuel combustion which is being pioneered by Jupiter Oxygen Corporation combined with boiler research conducted by the USDOE/Albany Research Center has been applied to designing the next generation of oxy-fuel combustion systems. The new systems will enhance control of boiler systems during turn-down and improve response time while improving boiler efficiency. These next generation boiler systems produce a combustion product that has been shown to be well suited for integrated pollutant removal. These systems have the promise of reducing boiler foot-print and boiler construction costs. The modularity of the system opens the possibility of using this design for replacement of boilers for retrofit on existing systems.

  15. Critical heat flux maxima during boiling crisis on textured surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dhillon, Navdeep Singh

    Enhancing the critical heat flux (CHF) of industrial boilers by surface texturing can lead to substantial energy savings and global reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, but fundamentally this phenomenon is not well ...

  16. Tips: Natural Gas and Oil Heating Systems | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    more about energy-efficient furnaces and boilers. Addthis Related Articles Tips: Natural Gas and Oil Heating Systems Energy Saver Guide: Tips on Saving Money and Energy at Home...

  17. Stack Gas Heat Recovery from 100 to 1200 HP Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Judson, T. H.

    1980-01-01

    With newspaper reports of March 1980 fuel price increases at as much as a 110% annualized rate, energy users are becoming more keenly aware of the urgency of conserving energy--and energy dollars. It is becoming increasingly more difficult...

  18. Heat Recovery Considerations for Process Heaters and Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, A.

    1985-01-01

    ,.:, I> I( = .-' TAIL GAS NORMA~ TEIoI,P ~70'~ "-' lJl .... RESIDENC.E I , ?a ,",E.CTION --~ 1400? F. : ~~--- I I I : I , I : : c> t\\> 3 ; . TABLE 3 - Operating. Data for Tail Gas Incinerator TAIL GAS COMPOSITION 80 2 COS...

  19. Heat Recovery Considerations for Process Heaters and Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, A.

    1982-01-01

    , regenerative air preheaters and economizers. Relative advantages and applicability of the three methods are discussed. Analytical methods and correlations are presented which enable determination of size of unit, capital cost and operating cost for each...

  20. Heat Recovery Considerations for Process Heaters and Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, A.

    1986-01-01

    cl,;rr::nt1y under developm.ent O. CASE STLDIES Tail Gas Incinerator - The example selected for economic 2valuation 1s a tail gas incinerator, Fig. B handling the off gas from a sulfur plant. The speCifications of the tail gas and other pertinent... data are shown on Table J. An exit temperature of 1000 degrees from the incinerator is indicated. This was set primarilv to prOVide thennal. buoyanc)' for the flue gases f~om the stack. The incineration temperature is main [ain~d at 1"00 degrees F...

  1. Heat Recovery Consideration for Process Heaters and Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, A.

    1984-01-01

    Gases", Chemical Engineering, pg. 125 (April 11, 1977). Tail Gas Incinerator - The example selected for economic evaluation is a tail Gas incinerator, Fig. 8 handling the off gas from a sulfur plant. The specifications of the tail gas and other... pertinent data are ShO~l on Table 3. Kumar, A., Vasquez, R., and Crump, J.R.; "Retrofit Sizing and Economics of Air Pre heaters and Economizers", ERDA Report (June 1978). An exit temperature of 1000 degrees from the incinerator is indicated...

  2. Biomass Boiler to Heat Oregon School | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    British Thermal Units (MMBTU) per hour and will be fueled by locally derived wood-pellet feedstocks. A new school in Vernonia, Oregon is beginning to take form as the town...

  3. Clean Boiler Waterside Heat Transfer Surfaces | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p aDepartment of Energy <ofEnergy

  4. Biomass Boiler to Heat Oregon School | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment of EnergyResearchers atDayWhenBethany Sparn,DepartmentWatchOregon

  5. HEAT ROADMAP EUROPE 2050 SECOND PRE-STUDY FOR THE EU27

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolaei, Alireza Rezania

    Research Centre for 4th Generation District Heating (4DH), which has received funding from The Danish. However, this pre-study outlines the previously unconsidered potential of district heating and cooling requirements of district heating and cooling as technologies. The authors intend to continue developing

  6. Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Gagliano; Andrew Seltzer; Hans Agarwal; Archie Robertson; Lun Wang

    2012-01-31

    Under U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005262 Foster Wheeler North America Corp conducted a laboratory test program to determine the effect of oxy-combustion on boiler tube corrosion. In this program, CFD modeling was used to predict the gas compositions that will exist throughout and along the walls of air-fired and oxy-fired boilers operating with low to high sulfur coals. Test coupons of boiler tube materials were coated with deposits representative of those coals and exposed to the CFD predicted flue gases for up to 1000 hours. The tests were conducted in electric tube furnaces using oxy-combustion and air-fired flue gases synthesized from pressurized cylinders. Following exposure, the test coupons were evaluated to determine the total metal wastage experienced under air and oxy-combustions conditions and materials recommendations were made. Similar to air-fired operation, oxy-combustion corrosion rates were found to vary with the boiler material, test temperature, deposit composition, and gas composition. Despite this, comparison of air-fired and oxy-fired corrosion rates showed that oxy-firing rates were, for the most part, similar to, if not lower than those of air-firing; this finding applied to the seven furnace waterwall materials (wrought and weld overlay) and the ten superheater/reheater materials (wrought and weld overlay) that were tested. The results of the laboratory oxy-combustion tests, which are based on a maximum bulk flue gas SO{sub 2} level of 3200 ppmv (wet) / 4050 ppmv (dry), suggest that, from a corrosion standpoint, the materials used in conventional subcritical and supercritical, air-fired boilers should also be suitable for oxy-combustion retrofits. Although the laboratory test results are encouraging, they are only the first step of a material evaluation process and it is recommended that follow-on corrosion tests be conducted in coal-fired boilers operating under oxy-combustion to provide longer term (one to two year) data. The test program details and data are presented herein.

  7. Oxy-Combustion Boiler Material Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gagliano, Michael; Seltzer, Andrew; Agarwal, Hans; Robertson, Archie; Wang, Lun

    2012-01-31

    Under U.S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005262 Foster Wheeler North America Corp conducted a laboratory test program to determine the effect of oxy-combustion on boiler tube corrosion. In this program, CFD modeling was used to predict the gas compositions that will exist throughout and along the walls of air-fired and oxy-fired boilers operating with low to high sulfur coals. Test coupons of boiler tube materials were coated with deposits representative of those coals and exposed to the CFD predicted flue gases for up to 1000 hours. The tests were conducted in electric tube furnaces using oxy-combustion and air-fired flue gases synthesized from pressurized cylinders. Following exposure, the test coupons were evaluated to determine the total metal wastage experienced under air and oxy-combustions conditions and materials recommendations were made. Similar to air-fired operation, oxy-combustion corrosion rates were found to vary with the boiler material, test temperature, deposit composition, and gas composition. Despite this, comparison of air-fired and oxy-fired corrosion rates showed that oxy-firing rates were, for the most part, similar to, if not lower than those of air-firing; this finding applied to the seven furnace waterwall materials (wrought and weld overlay) and the ten superheater/reheater materials (wrought and weld overlay) that were tested. The results of the laboratory oxy-combustion tests, which are based on a maximum bulk flue gas SO2 level of 3200 ppmv (wet) / 4050 ppmv (dry), suggest that, from a corrosion standpoint, the materials used in conventional subcritical and supercritical, air-fired boilers should also be suitable for oxy-combustion retrofits. Although the laboratory test results are encouraging, they are only the first step of a material evaluation process and it is recommended that follow-on corrosion tests be conducted in coal-fired boilers operating under oxy-combustion to provide longer term (one to two year) data. The test program details and data are presented herein.

  8. Measure Guideline: Condensing Boilers - Optimizing Efficiency and Response Time During Setback Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, L.

    2014-02-01

    Conventional wisdom surrounding space heating has told us a couple of things consistently for several years now: size the mechanical systems to the heating loads and setting the thermostat back at night will result in energy savings. The problem is these two recommendations oppose each other. A system that is properly sized to the heating load will not have the extra capacity necessary to recover from a thermostat setback, especially at design conditions. The implication of this is that, for setback to be successfully implemented, the heating system must be oversized. This issue is exacerbated further when an outdoor reset control is used with a condensing boiler, because not only is the system matched to the load at design, the outdoor reset control matches the output to the load under varying outdoor temperatures. Under these circumstances, the home may never recover from setback. Special controls to bypass the outdoor reset sensor are then needed. Properly designing a hydronic system for setback operation can be accomplished but depends on several factors. Determining the appropriateness of setback for a particular project is the first step. This is followed by proper sizing of the boiler and baseboard to ensure the needed capacity can be met. Finally, control settings must be chosen that result in the most efficient and responsive performance. This guide provides step by step instructions for heating contractors and hydronic designers for selecting the proper control settings to maximize system performance and improve response time when using a thermostat setback.

  9. Measure Guideline: Condensing Boilers—Optimizing Efficiency and Response Time During Setback Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, L.

    2014-02-01

    Conventional wisdom surrounding space heating has consistently stated two things: size the mechanical systems to the heating loads, and setting the thermostat back at night will result in energy savings. The problem is these two recommendations oppose each other. A system that is properly sized to the heating load will not have the extra capacity necessary to recover from a thermostat setback, especially at design conditions. The implication of this is that, for setback to be successfully implemented, the heating system must be oversized. This issue is exacerbated further when an outdoor reset control is used with a condensing boiler, because not only is the system matched to the load at design, the outdoor reset control matches the output to the load under varying outdoor temperatures. Under these circumstances, the home may never recover from setback. Special controls to bypass the outdoor reset sensor are then needed. Properly designing a hydronic system for setback operation can be accomplished but depends on several factors. The first step is to determine the appropriateness of setback for a particular project. This is followed by proper sizing of the boiler and baseboard to ensure the needed capacity can be met. Finally, control settings must be chosen that result in the most efficient and responsive performance. This guide provides step-by-step instructions for heating contractors and hydronic designers for selecting the proper control settings to maximize system performance and improve response time when using a thermostat setback.

  10. Recovery Boiler Superheater Ash Corrosion Field Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, James R [ORNL] [ORNL; Kish, Joseph [McMaster University] [McMaster University; Singbeil, Douglas [FPInnovations] [FPInnovations

    2010-01-01

    With the trend towards increasing the energy efficiency of black liquor recovery boilers operated in North America, there is a need to utilize superheater tubes with increased corrosion resistance that will permit operation at higher temperatures and pressures. In an effort to identify alloys with improved corrosion resistance under more harsh operating conditions, a field exposure was conducted that involved the insertion of an air-cooled probe, containing six candidate alloys, into the superheater section of an operating recovery boiler. A metallographic examination, complete with corrosion scale characterization using EMPA, was conducted after a 1,000 hour exposure period. Based on the results, a ranking of alloys based on corrosion performance was obtained.

  11. Corporate Reporting of Boiler MACT Energy Assessments 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McClain, C.

    2013-01-01

    , but not recordkeeping and reporting costs. Estimating/projected number of affected units Summary of Total Capital and Annual Cost for the New and Existing Sources for the Final Amended Rule Federal Register Volume 78 No. 21 January 31, 2013 40 CFR Part 63 EPA... Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 What are the benefits of Corporate Management? Benefits of Corporate Management EMRS and Boiler MACT Implementation ? Scarce resource management ? Mill Scheduling ? Uniform implementation ? Uniform reporting ESL-IE-13...

  12. Cracking and Corrosion of Composite Tubes in Black Liquor Recovery Boiler Primary Air Ports

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keiser, James R.; Singbeil, Douglas L.; Sarma, Gorti B.; Kish, Joseph R.; Yuan, Jerry; Frederick, Laurie A.; Choudhury, Kimberly A.; Gorog, J. Peter; Jetté, Francois R.; Hubbard, Camden R.; Swindeman, Robert W.; Singh, Prett M.; Maziasz, Phillip J.

    2006-10-01

    Black liquor recovery boilers are an essential part of kraft mills. Their design and operating procedures have changed over time with the goal of providing improved boiler performance. These performance improvements are frequently associated with an increase in heat flux and/or operating temperature with a subsequent increase in the demand on structural materials associated with operation at higher temperatures and/or in more corrosive environments. Improvements in structural materials have therefore been required. In most cases the alternate materials have provided acceptable solutions. However, in some cases the alternate materials have solved the original problem but introduced new issues. This report addresses the performance of materials in the tubes forming primary air port openings and, particularly, the problems associated with use of stainless steel clad carbon steel tubes and the solutions that have been identified.

  13. Improvement of the process of fuel firing on BKZ-210-140F boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.V. Osintsev; M.P. Sukharev; E.V. Toropov; K.V. Osintsev

    2007-01-15

    The existing flame processes of dual firing of gas and solid fuel are updated with reconstruction of the burners at the Chelyabinsk TETs-2. This is connected with marked worsening of the quality of local coal supplied to the cogeneration plant. Comparative tests of boilers with burners subjected to different degrees of updating have shown that replacement of the now used swirled method of introduction of reagents into the furnace by a uniflow one lowers the heat flows to the metal structures and to the settling of the burner throats making them more reliable. The emission of nitrogen oxides is minimized in the mode of gas firing and the activity of slagging of the furnace and of the platens is reduced in the mode of coal firing, which makes it possible to raise the steam rate of the boiler. Ways for further improvement of burner design with respect to nitrogen oxide emissions in the polydisperse flame are outlined.

  14. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-10-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  15. How to Evaluate Low Excess Air Controls for Packaged Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Londerville, S. B.; Kerler, W. J.

    1984-01-01

    at reduced excess air levels is ~e the one that best suits your particular boiler and stack loss method. Initial assumptions are t~at payback requirements. the burner will perform at LEA levels and that the flame is sized correctly for the furnace... charac ter istics of your boiler, you can estimate ef ficiency increases based on boiler(burner tuning and burner replacement; the full rewards of LEA firing, however, are unattainable without suit able controls. Unlike most equipment, LEA control...

  16. Radiative heat transfer in inhomogeneous, nongray, and anisotropically scattering media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Zhixiong "James"

    Radiative heat transfer in inhomogeneous, nongray, and anisotropically scattering media Zhixiong Radiative heat transfer in three-dimensional inhomogeneous, nongray and anisotropically scattering of an application of engineering interest, radiative heat transfer in a boiler model with non-isothermal, nongray

  17. Return Condensate to the Boiler - Steam Tip Sheet #8

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on returning condensate to boilers provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  18. Minimize Boiler Blowdown, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam Tip Sheet...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to identify energy- saving opportunities. Examine operating practices for boiler feedwater and blowdown rates developed by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers...

  19. Return Condensate to the Boiler, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam Tip...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Actions Reduce operating costs through maximizing the return of hot condensate to the boiler. Consider the following actions: If a condensate return system is absent,...

  20. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, Bradley; Davis, Kevin; Senior, Constance; Shim, Hong Shim; Otten, Brydger; Fry, Andrew; Wendt, Jost; Eddings, Eric; Paschedag, Alan; Shaddix, Christopher; Cox, William; Tree, Dale

    2013-09-30

    Reaction Engineering International (REI) managed a team of experts from University of Utah, Siemens Energy, Praxair, Vattenfall AB, Sandia National Laboratories, Brigham Young University (BYU) and Corrosion Management Ltd. to perform multi-scale experiments, coupled with mechanism development, process modeling and CFD modeling, for both applied and fundamental investigations. The primary objective of this program was to acquire data and develop tools to characterize and predict impacts of CO{sub 2} flue gas recycle and burner feed design on flame characteristics (burnout, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, mercury and fine particle emissions, heat transfer) and operational concerns (fouling, slagging and corrosion) inherent in the retrofit of existing coal-fired boilers for oxy-coal combustion. Experimental work was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories’ Entrained Flow Reactor, the University of Utah Industrial Combustion Research Facility, and Brigham Young University. Process modeling and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was performed at REI. Successful completion of the project objectives resulted in the following key deliverables: 1) Multi-scale test data from 0.1 kW bench-scale, 100 kW and 200 kW laboratory-scale, and 1 MW semi-industrial scale combustors that describe differences in flame characteristics, fouling, slagging and corrosion for coal combustion under air-firing and oxygen-firing conditions, including sensitivity to oxy-burner design and flue gas recycle composition. 2) Validated mechanisms developed from test data that describe fouling, slagging, waterwall corrosion, heat transfer, char burnout and sooting under coal oxy-combustion conditions. The mechanisms were presented in a form suitable for inclusion in CFD models or process models. 3) Principles to guide design of pilot-scale and full-scale coal oxy-firing systems and flue gas recycle configurations, such that boiler operational impacts from oxy-combustion retrofits are minimized. 4) Assessment of oxy-combustion impacts in two full-scale coal-fired utility boiler retrofits based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of air-fired and oxygen-fired operation. This research determined that it is technically feasible to retrofit the combustion system in an air-fired boiler for oxy-fired operation. The impacts of CO{sub 2} flue gas recycle and burner design on flame characteristics (burnout, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, mercury and fine particle emissions, heat transfer) and operational concerns (fouling, slagging and corrosion) were minimal, with the exception of high sulfur levels resulting from untreated flue gas recycle with medium and high-sulfur coals. This work focused on combustion in the radiant and convective sections of the boiler and did not address boiler system integration issues, plant efficiencies, impacts on downstream air pollution control devices, or CO{sub 2} capture and compression. The experimental data, oxy-firing system principles and oxy-combustion process mechanisms provided by this work can be used by electric utilities, boiler OEMs, equipment suppliers, design firms, software vendors, consultants and government agencies to assess retrofit applications of oxy-combustion technologies to existing boilers and to guide development of new designs.

  1. Robust Output Feedback Stabilization of Nonlinear Interconnected Systems with Application to an Industrial Utility Boiler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Horacio J.

    to an Industrial Utility Boiler Adarsha Swarnakar, Horacio Jose Marquez and Tongwen Chen Abstract-- This paper boiler (Utility boiler), where the nonlinear model describes the complicated dynamics of the drum

  2. A centurial history of technological change and learning curves or pulverized coal-fired utility boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Sonia; Rubin, Edward

    2007-01-01

    allow ultra-supercritical boilers to achieve still higherthat supercritical-coal boilers, at least in the 1970s, didGW/year) by type of boiler. Source: [25]. Net Efficiency (

  3. Compare All CBECS Activities: District Heat Use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep3,118,592Number of

  4. Korea District Heating Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EAInvervar HydroElectric Cooperative Jump to: navigation,Kore Group

  5. Modification of boiler operating conditions for mercury emissions reductions in coal-fired utility boilers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Ying

    Modification of boiler operating conditions for mercury emissions reductions in coal-fired utility's studies have determined that mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants pose significant hazards to public health and must be reduced. Coal-fired power plants represent a significant fraction

  6. Boiler Efficiency vs. Steam Quality- The Challenge of Creating Quality Steam Using Existing Boiler Efficiencies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hahn, G.

    1998-01-01

    A boiler works under pressure and it is not possible to see what is happening inside of it. The terms "wet steam" and "carry over" are every day idioms in the steam industry, yet very few people have ever seen these phenomena and the actual water...

  7. Materials development for ultra-supercritical boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2005-09-30

    Progress is reported on a US Department of Energy project to develop high temperature, corrosion resistant alloys for use in ultra-supercritical steam cycles. The aim is to achieve boiler operation at 1,400{sup o}F/5,000 psi steam conditions with 47% net cycle efficiency. Most ferritic steel tested such as T92 and Save 12 showed severe corrosion. Nickel-based alloys, especially IN 740 and CCA 617, showed greatest resistance to oxidation with no evidence of exfoliation. Laboratory and in-plant tests have begun. 2 figs.

  8. Reducing NOx in Fired Heaters and Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garg, A.

    2000-01-01

    be achieved by Ultra Low NOx burners or FGR in boilers. ? Primary products of combustion ? Carbon dioxide ? Water vapors ? Oxygen ? Nitrogen ? Trace compounds NOx emissions ? NOx or Oxides of Nitrogen have an adverse effects of health and environment... NOx burners ? Flue gas recirculation ? Steam injection ? Staged combustion NOx reduction I eChnology IN U x ppm IN U x In Ibs/m m Btu L. oDventlona l.J as Burn e r lU 1?.16 Low N 0 x Burn e r 7:> ,U .1 Ultra LOw NUx Burn e r ,Z:> I U . U...

  9. Development of Computational Capabilities to Predict the Corrosion Wastage of Boiler Tubes in Advanced Combustion Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kung, Steven; Rapp, Robert

    2014-08-31

    A comprehensive corrosion research project consisting of pilot-scale combustion testing and long-term laboratory corrosion study has been successfully performed. A pilot-scale combustion facility available at Brigham Young University was selected and modified to enable burning of pulverized coals under the operating conditions typical for advanced coal-fired utility boilers. Eight United States (U.S.) coals were selected for this investigation, with the test conditions for all coals set to have the same heat input to the combustor. In addition, the air/fuel stoichiometric ratio was controlled so that staged combustion was established, with the stoichiometric ratio maintained at 0.85 in the burner zone and 1.15 in the burnout zone. The burner zone represented the lower furnace of utility boilers, while the burnout zone mimicked the upper furnace areas adjacent to the superheaters and reheaters. From this staged combustion, approximately 3% excess oxygen was attained in the combustion gas at the furnace outlet. During each of the pilot-scale combustion tests, extensive online measurements of the flue gas compositions were performed. In addition, deposit samples were collected at the same location for chemical analyses. Such extensive gas and deposit analyses enabled detailed characterization of the actual combustion environments existing at the lower furnace walls under reducing conditions and those adjacent to the superheaters and reheaters under oxidizing conditions in advanced U.S. coal-fired utility boilers. The gas and deposit compositions were then carefully simulated in a series of 1000-hour laboratory corrosion tests, in which the corrosion performances of different commercial candidate alloys and weld overlays were evaluated at various temperatures for advanced boiler systems. Results of this laboratory study led to significant improvement in understanding of the corrosion mechanisms operating on the furnace walls as well as superheaters and reheaters in coal-fired boilers resulting from the coexistence of sulfur and chlorine in the fuel. A new corrosion mechanism, i.e., “Active Sulfidation Corrosion Mechanism,” has been proposed to account for the accelerated corrosion wastage observed on the furnace walls of utility boilers burning coals containing sulfur and chlorine. In addition, a second corrosion mechanism, i.e., “Active Sulfide-to-Oxide Corrosion Mechanism,” has been identified to account for the rapid corrosion attack on superheaters and reheaters. Both of the newly discovered corrosion mechanisms involve the formation of iron chloride (FeCl2) vapor from iron sulfide (FeS) and HCl, followed by the decomposition of FeCl2 via self-sustaining cycling reactions. For higher alloys containing sufficient chromium, the attack on superheaters and reheaters is dominated by Hot Corrosion in the presence of a fused salt. Furthermore, two stages of the hot corrosion mechanism have been identified and characterized in detail. The initiation of hot corrosion attack induced by molten sulfate leads to Stage 1 “acidic” fluxing and re-precipitation of the protective scale formed initially on the deposit-covered alloy surfaces. Once the protective scale is penetrated, Stage 2 Hot Corrosion is initiated, which is dominated by “basic” fluxing and re-precipitation of the scale in the fused salt. Based on the extensive corrosion information generated from this project, corrosion modeling was performed using non-linear regression analysis. As a result of the modeling efforts, two predictive equations have been formulated, one for furnace walls and the other for superheaters and reheaters. These first-of-the-kind equations can be used to estimate the corrosion rates of boiler tubes based on coal chemistry, alloy compositions, and boiler operating conditions for advanced boiler systems.

  10. Technical and economic feasibility of alternative fuel use in process heaters and small boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-02-01

    The technical and economic feasibility of using alternate fuels - fuels other than oil and natural gas - in combustors not regulated by the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978 (FUA) was evaluated. FUA requires coal or alternate fuel use in most large new boilers and in some existing boilers. Section 747 of FUA authorizes a study of the potential for reduced oil and gas use in combustors not subject to the act: small industrial boilers with capacities less than 100 MMBtu/hr, and process heat applications. Alternative fuel use in combustors not regulated by FUA was examined and the impact of several measures to encourage the substitution of alternative fuels in these combustors was analyzed. The primary processes in which significant fuel savings can be achieved are identified. Since feedstock uses of oil and natural gas are considered raw materials, not fuels, feedstock applications are not examined in this analysis. The combustors evaluated in this study comprise approximately 45% of the fuel demand projected in 1990. These uses would account for more than 3.5 million barrels per day equivalent fuel demand in 1990.

  11. Why the Accuracy of Analytical Instrumentation Affects Boiler Combustion Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McFadden, R. W.

    1984-01-01

    Combustion trim control systems are utilized to maximize the combustion efficiency of a boiler. The type and cost of a fuel, as well as the size of a boiler, should be considered when selecting the type of combustion trim control system...

  12. Boiler Gold Rush Prof. Johnny Brown (MATH 700)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Johnny E.

    Boiler Gold Rush Prof. Johnny Brown (MATH 700) jeb@math.purdue.edu #12;#12;#12;David McCullough, Jr help Always be prepared #12;Boiler Gold Rush Prof. Johnny Brown (MATH 700) jeb@math.purdue.edu #12;

  13. Sodium reflux pool-boiler solar receiver on-sun test results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andraka, C E; Moreno, J B; Diver, R B; Moss, T A

    1992-06-01

    The efficient operation of a Stirling engine requires the application of a high heat flux to the relatively small area occupied by the heater head tubes. Previous attempts to couple solar energy to Stirling engines generally involved directly illuminating the heater head tubes with concentrated sunlight. In this study, operation of a 75-kW{sub t} sodium reflux pool-boiler solar receiver has been demonstrated and its performance characterized on Sandia's nominal 75-kW{sub t} parabolic-dish concentrator, using a cold-water gas-gap calorimeter to simulate Stirling engine operation. The pool boiler (and more generally liquid-metal reflux receivers) supplies heat to the engine in the form of latent heat released from condensation of the metal vapor on the heater head tubes. The advantages of the pool boiler include uniform tube temperature, leading to longer life and higher temperature available to the engine, and decoupling of the design of the solar absorber from the engine heater head. The two-phase system allows high input thermal flux, reducing the receiver size and losses, therefore improving system efficiency. The receiver thermal efficiency was about 90% when operated at full power and 800{degree}C. Stable sodium boiling was promoted by the addition of 35 equally spaced artificial cavities in the wetted absorber surface. High incipient boiling superheats following cloud transients were suppressed passively by the addition of small amounts of xenon gas to the receiver volume. Stable boiling without excessive incipient boiling superheats was observed under all operating conditions. The receiver developed a leak during performance evaluation, terminating the testing after accumulating about 50 hours on sun. The receiver design is reported here along with test results including transient operations, steady-state performance evaluation, operation at various temperatures, infrared thermography, x-ray studies of the boiling behavior, and a postmortem analysis.

  14. Chlorine in coal and boiler corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, M.I.M.; Lytle, J.M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Pan, W.P.; Liu, L. [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States); Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Ho, K.K. [Illinois Clean Coal Inst., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Corrosion of superheaters in the United Kingdom has been attributed to the high level of chlorine (Cl) in British coals. On the other hand, similar high-Cl Illinois coals have not caused boiler corrosion. This suggests that the extent of boiler corrosion due to Cl may not be directly related to the amount of Cl in the coal but to how the Cl occurs in the coal or to other factors. In this study, both destructive temperature-programmed Thermogravimetry with Fourier transform infrared (TGA-FTIR) and non-destructive X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) techniques were used to examine the thermal evolution characteristics and the forms of Cl in four Illinois and four British coals. The TGA-FTIR results indicate that under oxidizing conditions, both British and Illinois coals release hydrogen chloride (HCl) gas. Maximum evolution of HCl gas from Illinois coals occurs near 425 C, whereas, the temperature of maximum HCl release from British coals occurs between 210 and 280 C. The XANES results indicate that Cl in coal exists in ionic forms including a solid salt form. The HCl evolution profiles of the Illinois and British coals suggests that the way in which Cl ions are associated in Illinois coals is of different from the way they are associated in British coals.

  15. Super low NO.sub.x, high efficiency, compact firetube boiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chojnacki, Dennis A.; Rabovitser, Iosif K.; Knight, Richard A.; Cygan, David F.; Korenberg, Jacob

    2005-12-06

    A firetube boiler furnace having two combustion sections and an in-line intermediate tubular heat transfer section between the two combustion sections and integral to the pressure vessel. This design provides a staged oxidant combustion apparatus with separate in-line combustion chambers for fuel-rich primary combustion and fuel-lean secondary combustion and sufficient cooling of the combustion products from the primary combustion such that when the secondary combustion oxidant is added in the secondary combustion stage, the NO.sub.x formation is less than 5 ppmv at 3% O.sub.2.

  16. Final Scientific/Technical Report [Recovery Act: Districtwide Geothermal Heating Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatterton, Mike

    2014-02-12

    The Recovery Act: Districtwide Geothermal Heating Conversion project performed by the Blaine County School District was part of a larger effort by the District to reduce operating costs, address deferred maintenance items, and to improve the learning environment of the students. This project evaluated three options for the ground source which were Open-Loop Extraction/Re-injection wells, Closed-Loop Vertical Boreholes, and Closed-Loop Horizontal Slinky approaches. In the end the Closed-Loop Horizontal Slinky approach had the lowest total cost of ownership but the majority of the sites associated with this project did not have enough available ground area to install the system so the second lowest option was used (Open-Loop). In addition to the ground source, this project looked at ways to retrofit existing HVAC systems with new high efficiency systems. The end result was the installation of distributed waterto- air heat pumps with water-to-water heat pumps installed to act as boilers/chillers for areas with a high ventilation demand such as they gymnasiums. A number of options were evaluated and the lowest total cost of ownership approach was implemented in the majority of the facilities. The facilities where the lowest total cost of ownership approaches was not selected were done to maintain consistency of the systems from facility to facility. This project had a number of other benefits to the Blaine County public. The project utilizes guaranteed energy savings to justify the levy funds expended. The project also developed an educational dashboard that can be used in the classrooms and to educate the community on the project and its performance. In addition, the majority of the installation work was performed by contractors local to Blaine County which acted as an economic stimulus to the area during a period of recession.

  17. Pool boiler reflux solar receiver for Stirling dish-electric systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andraka, C.E.; Moreno, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    The feasibility of competitive, modular bulk electric power from the sun may be greatly enhanced by the use of a reflux heat pipe receiver to combine a heat engine such as Stirling with a paraboloidal dish concentrator. This combination represents a potential improvement over previous successful demonstrations of dish-electric technology in terms of enhanced performance, lower cost, longer life, and greater flexibility in engine design. There are, however, important issues and unknowns which must be addressed to determine engineering feasibility of these devices. In the pool boiler reflux receiver, concentrated solar radiation causes liquid metal (sodium or potassium) to boil. The vapor flows to the engine heater heads, where it condenses and releases the latent heat. The condensate is returned to the receiver absorber pool by gravity (refluxing). This is essentially an adaptation of heat pipe technology to the peculiar requirements of concentrated solar flux, and provides many advantages over conventional heated tube receiver technology. Boiling theory indicates that long-term stable boiling of liquid metal may be difficult to achieve. Laboratory scale experiments have been performed. Initial tests confirmed that boiling is unstable in a baseline boiler. Boiling stability was established after the addition of ''artificial cavities'' to the heated surface, and successful boiling of sodium was demonstrated for 100 hours. Other stabilizing influences may have been present, and will be discussed. The flux and geometry closely simulated a real receiver. The results of these tests are presented, along with the design of a full scale receiver for on-sun testing and considerations for long term operation. 15 refs., 10 figs.

  18. Estimation of radiative properties and temperature distributions in coal-fired boiler furnaces by a portable image processing system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Wenhao; Lou, Chun; Sun, Yipeng; Zhou, Huaichun

    2011-02-15

    This paper presented an experimental investigation on the estimation of radiative properties and temperature distributions in a 670 t/h coal-fired boiler furnace by a portable imaging processing system. The portable system has been calibrated by a blackbody furnace. Flame temperatures and emissivities were measured by the portable system and equivalent blackbody temperatures were deduced. Comparing the equivalent blackbody temperatures measured by the portable system and the infrared pyrometer, the relative difference is less than 4%. The reconstructed pseudo-instantaneous 2-D temperature distributions in two cross-sections can disclose the combustion status inside the furnace. The measured radiative properties of particles in the furnace proved there is significant scattering in coal-fired boiler furnaces and it can provide useful information for the calculation of radiative heat transfer and numerical simulation of combustion in coal-fired boiler furnaces. The preliminary experimental results show this technology will be helpful for the combustion diagnosis in coal-fired boiler furnaces. (author)

  19. Article published in Geothermics 47 (2013) 69-79 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.geothermics.2013.02.005 1 Geothermal contribution to the energy mix of a heating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    2013-01-01

    and projected district heating networks. This article focuses on a remaining issue: estimating the geothermal contribution to the energy mix of a district heating network over time when using an ATES. This result would and providing energy to a new low-temperature district heating network heating 7,500 housing-equivalents. Non

  20. Decentralized robust PI controller design for an industrial boiler Batool Labibi a,*, Horacio Jose Marquez b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Horacio J.

    Decentralized robust PI controller design for an industrial boiler Batool Labibi a,*, Horacio Jose in revised form 23 April 2008 Accepted 23 April 2008 Keywords: Industrial utility boiler Internal model boiler, a control oriented nonlinear model for the boiler is identified. The nonlinearity of the system

  1. Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Boilers, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Boilers, Notice of Proposed Rulemaking

  2. 2015-12-29 Consumer Furnaces and Boilers Test Procedures Final Rule

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Consumer Furnaces and Boilers

  3. Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Furnaces and Boilers, Comment Period Extension

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Furnaces and Boilers, Comment Period Extension

  4. Fundamental studies of the mechanisms of slag deposit formation: Studies on initiation, growth and sintering in the formation of utility boiler deposits: Topical technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tangsathitkulchai, M.; Austin, L.G.

    1986-03-01

    Three laboratory-scale devices were utilized to investigate the mechanisms of the initiation, growth and sintering process involved in the formation of boiler deposits. Sticking apparatus investigations were conducted to study deposit initiation by comparing the adhesion behavior of the ash drops on four types of steel-based heat exchanger materials under the conditions found in a utility boiler and an entrained slagging gasifier. In addition, the adhesion behavior of the ash drops on a reduced steel surface were investigated. All the ash drops studied in this investigation were produced from bituminous coals.

  5. Use Feedwater Economizers for Waste Heat Recovery: Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) Steam Energy Tips No.3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2002-03-01

    A feedwater economizer reduces steam boiler fuel requirements by transferring heat from the flue gas to incoming feedwater. Boiler flue gases are often rejected to the stack at temperatures more than 100 F to 150 F higher than the temperature of the generated steam. Generally, boiler efficiency can be increased by 1% for every 40 F reduction in flue gas temperature. By recovering waste heat, an economizer can often reduce fuel requirements by 5% to 10% and pay for itself in less than 2 years. The table provides examples of the potential for heat recovery.

  6. Heating programmer Controls the times the system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carletta, Jean

    #12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;#12;Heating programmer Controls the times the system that will do that for you. #12;Boiler thermostat Controls the temperature of the water in the system -- which? #12;Why don't we already have room thermostats? Because the building regs only specify the controls

  7. CX-002566: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    on developing a district heating loop system in Fort Yukon, Alaska, that will include boiler and piping installation. The Council of Athabascan Tribal Governments proposes to use...

  8. Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    A residential natural gas meter. A residential natural gas meter. What does this mean for me? Your gas boiler or furnace may be oversized, particularly if you've upgraded the...

  9. Experience with boiler corrosion using an all polymer program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaffer, A.E.; AlMajnouni, A.D. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia)

    1996-10-01

    The reliability of the life expectancy of boilers and related equipment have been compromised due to severe chemical attack resulting in corroded tubes at different locations in the boilers. Although it seems that a chelant is responsible for the tinning, glassy, smooth, and featureless surfaces so characteristic of the chemical attack, ultimately, it is an all polymer program which has induced this corrosion. However, an all polymer program, if applied properly, would not create this corrosion. The severe corrosion experienced with the all polymer program resulted from misapplication, including high levels of residual polymer, low hydroxide alkalinity, and high cycles of concentration in conjunction with prior acid cleaning, which produced clean boiler tubes. This paper not only attempts to investigate this corrosion, but further, it recommends possible methods to mitigate polymer corrosion in the future and enhance the overall condition of the boilers.

  10. Best Practices: The Engineering Approach For Industrial Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blake, N. R.

    2001-01-01

    A plant's boilers represent a large capital investment, as well as a crucial portion of overall plant operations, regardless of the industry our customers are in. It is important to have systems and procedures in place to protect this investment...

  11. Application of Oxygen Trim Control to Small Packaged Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    Small packaged boilers are used to generate steam or hot water for industrial, commercial and institutional power plants. Due to their small size and relatively small fuel capacity, they have not received the energy saving attention that larger...

  12. A Boiler Plant Energy Efficiency and Load Balancing Survey 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nutter, D. W.; Murphy, D. R.

    1997-01-01

    Daily energy use data was used to perform an energy efficiency survey of a medium-sized university boiler plant. The physical plant operates centralized mechanical plants to provide both chilled water and steam for building conditioning. Steam...

  13. Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses - Steam Tip Sheet #16

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO tip sheet on minimizing boiler short cycling losses provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  14. Improved Boiler System Operation with Real-time Chemical Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bloom, D.; Jenkins, B.

    2010-01-01

    The steam boiler system is a critical component of most manufacturing processes. Steam production reliability is often a key component in product quality and overall production efficiency. Hourly steam load demands can swing by as much as 500...

  15. Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses - Steam Tip Sheet #16

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-01-01

    This revised AMO tip sheet on minimizing boiler short cycling losses provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  16. Guide to Low-Emission Boiler and Combustion Equipment Selection

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    psig, but higher pressures are possible. 3 For example, boilers for certain pulp and paper industry applications are now designed for pressures as high as 1,500 psig....

  17. Energy Cost Savings Calculator for Commercial Boilers: Closed...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    New Replacement What is the deliverable fluid type? Water Steam What fuel is used? Gas Oil How many boilers will you purchase? unit(s) Performance Factors Existing What is...

  18. Oil-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Diagram of an oil boiler. New tanks are generally double-wall or have a spill container built underneath to reduce the chances of an oil spill. Typically, the tank drip pan shown...

  19. Gas-Fired Boilers and Furnaces | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    gas meter. A residential natural gas meter. What does this mean for me? Your gas boiler or furnace may be oversized, particularly if you've upgraded the energy efficiency of...

  20. Application of Multivariable Control to Oil and Coal Fired Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swanson, K.

    1981-01-01

    Increased visibility provided by advanced measurement and control techniques has shown that control of oil and coal fired boilers is a complex problem involving simultaneous determination of flue gas carbon monoxide, ...

  1. Continuous Commissioning® and Energy Management Control Strategies at Alamo Community College District 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinez, J.; Verdict, M.; Baltazar, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of energy savings through the optimization of facility Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems for the college campuses of the Alamo Community College District. This Continuous Commissioning® process...

  2. $500,000 annually for heating and cooling prior to the installation of the PureComfortTM cooling, heating, and power system. Electrical power and space conditioning are now

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    -fired boilers and a steam heating system, and supplements the remaining campus heating and cooling system$500,000 annually for heating and cooling prior to the installation of the PureComfortTM cooling, heating, and power system. Electrical power and space conditioning are now provided more efficiently

  3. Energy and economic implications of combining district cooling with cogeneration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spurr, M.; Larsson, I.

    1995-12-31

    Chillers can be driven with cogenerated thermal energy, thereby offering the potential to increase utilization of cogeneration throughout the year. However, cogeneration decreases electric output compared to condensing power generation. The foregone electric production increases with increasing temperature of heat recovery. The economics of alternatives for combining district cooling with cogeneration depend on many variables, including cogeneration utilization, chiller utilization, value of electricity, value and temperature of heat recovered and other factors.

  4. Electricity-producing heating apparatus utilizing a turbine generator in a semi-closed brayton cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Labinov, Solomon D.; Christian, Jeffrey E.

    2003-10-07

    The present invention provides apparatus and methods for producing both heat and electrical energy by burning fuels in a stove or boiler using a novel arrangement of a surface heat exchanger and microturbine-powered generator and novel surface heat exchanger. The equipment is particularly suited for use in rural and relatively undeveloped areas, especially in cold regions and highlands.

  5. EA-1922: Combined Power and Biomass Heating System, Fort Yukon, Alaska

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE (lead agency), Denali Commission (cooperating agency) and USDA Rural Utilities Services (cooperating agency) are proposing to provide funding to support the final design and construction of a biomass combined heat and power plant and associated district heating system to the Council of Athabascan Tribal Governments and the Gwitchyaa Zhee Corporation. The proposed biomass district heating system would be located in Fort Yukon Alaska.

  6. Model-free adaptive control of supercritical circulating fluidized-bed boilers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cheng, George Shu-Xing; Mulkey, Steven L

    2014-12-16

    A novel 3-Input-3-Output (3.times.3) Fuel-Air Ratio Model-Free Adaptive (MFA) controller is introduced, which can effectively control key process variables including Bed Temperature, Excess O2, and Furnace Negative Pressure of combustion processes of advanced boilers. A novel 7-input-7-output (7.times.7) MFA control system is also described for controlling a combined 3-Input-3-Output (3.times.3) process of Boiler-Turbine-Generator (BTG) units and a 5.times.5 CFB combustion process of advanced boilers. Those boilers include Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Boilers and Once-Through Supercritical Circulating Fluidized-Bed (OTSC CFB) Boilers.

  7. Furnaces and Boilers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof Energy Services »Information ResourcesHeat & Cool » Home Heating

  8. Wood Pellet-Fired Biomass Boiler Project at the Ketchikan Federal Building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomberlin, G.

    2014-06-01

    Biomass boiler systems have existed for many years, but the technology has advanced in recent decades and can now provide automated and efficient operation for a relatively modest investment. Key advances in system monitoring and control allow for lower operating costs, since the control systems run all aspects of the boiler, including feed, load reduction and even tube cleaning. These advances have made such systems economical on a small scale in situations where inexpensive fuels like natural gas are not available. This creates an opportunity for building operators in remote, cold-climate locations to reduce the use of expensive fuels for heating buildings. GSA Region 10 installed the system at the federal building in Ketchikan, Alaska and submitted the project to the Green Proving Ground (GPG) program. GSA's GPG program contracted with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to assess the installation and the technology. The system serves as a demonstration to assess actual system efficiencies, as well as operating characteristics and financial benefits. In addition to installation and operational issues, the project team/researchers examined other issues, including fuel transportation costs, building energy savings, and overall economics.

  9. Investigation of Fly Ash and Activated Carbon Obtained from Pulverized Coal Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward K. Levy; Christopher Kiely; Zheng Yao

    2006-08-31

    One of the techniques for Hg capture in coal-fired boilers involves injection of activated carbon (AC) into the boiler downstream of the air preheater. Hg is adsorbed onto the AC particles and fly ash, which are then both removed in an electrostatic precipitator or baghouse. This project addressed the issues of Hg on activated carbon and on fly ash from a materials re-use point of view. It also addressed the possible connection between SCR reactors, fly ash properties and Hg capture. The project has determined the feasibility of separating AC from fly ash in a fluidized bed and of regenerating the separated AC by heating the AC to elevated temperatures in a fluidized bed. The temperatures needed to drive off the Hg from the ash in a fluidized bed have also been determined. Finally, samples of fly ash from power plants with SCR reactors for NO{sub x} control have been analyzed in an effort to determine the effects of SCR on the ash.

  10. INVESTIGATION OF FLY ASH AND ACTIVATED CARBON OBTAINED FROM PULVERIZED COAL BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward K. Levy; Christopher Kiely

    2004-11-01

    One of the techniques for Hg capture in coal-fired boilers involves injection of activated carbon (AC) into the boiler downstream of the air preheater. Hg is adsorbed onto the AC particles and fly ash, which are then both removed in an electrostatic precipitator or baghouse. This project addresses the issues of Hg on activated carbon and on fly ash from a materials re-use point of view. It also addresses the possible connection between SCR reactors, fly ash properties and Hg capture. The project is determining the feasibility of separating AC from fly ash in a fluidized bed and of regenerating the separated AC by heating the AC to elevated temperatures in a fluidized bed. The temperatures needed to drive off the Hg from the ash in a fluidized bed are also being determined. Finally, samples of fly ash from power plants with SCR reactors for NO{sub x} control, are being analyzed to determine the effect of SCR on the ash. These analyses will also determine the properties of ash which are important for Hg capture.

  11. INVESTIGATION OF FLY ASH AND ACTIVATED CARBON OBTAINED FROM PULVERIZED COAL BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward K. Levy; Christopher Kiely

    2005-11-01

    One of the techniques for Hg capture in coal-fired boilers involves injection of activated carbon (AC) into the boiler downstream of the air preheater. Hg is adsorbed onto the AC particles and fly ash, which are then both removed in an electrostatic precipitator or baghouse. This project addresses the issues of Hg on activated carbon and on fly ash from a materials re-use point of view. It also addresses the possible connection between SCR reactors, fly ash properties and Hg capture. The project is determining the feasibility of separating AC from fly ash in a fluidized bed and of regenerating the separated AC by heating the AC to elevated temperatures in a fluidized bed. The temperatures needed to drive off the Hg from the ash in a fluidized bed are also being determined. Finally, samples of fly ash from power plants with SCR reactors for NO{sub x} control, are being analyzed to determine the effect of SCR on the ash.

  12. Damage Modeling and Life Extending Control of a Boiler-Turbine System1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Horacio J.

    Damage Modeling and Life Extending Control of a Boiler-Turbine System1 Donglin Li Tongwen Chen2 hierarchical LEC structure and apply it to a typ- ical boiler system. There are two damage models

  13. Detection and Control of Deposition on Pendant Tubes in Kraft Chemical Recovery Boilers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The kraft chemical recovery boilers used for pulp processing are large and expensive and can be the limiting factor for mill capacity. Improvements in boiler efficiency with better control of...

  14. Characterization of the U.S. Industrial/Commercial Boiler Population- Final Report, May 2005

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. industrial and commercial sectors consume large quantities of energy. Much of this energy is used in boilers to generate steam and hot water. This 2005 report characterizes the boilers in...

  15. Characterization of the U.S. Industrial/Commercial Boiler Population...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    U.S. IndustrialCommercial Boiler Population - Final Report, May 2005 Characterization of the U.S. IndustrialCommercial Boiler Population - Final Report, May 2005 The U.S....

  16. COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS: SOLVING ASH DEPOSITION PROBLEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Steven A. Benson; Jay R. Gunderson

    2001-04-01

    The accumulation of slagging and fouling ash deposits in utility boilers has been a source of aggravation for coal-fired boiler operators for over a century. Many new developments in analytical, modeling, and combustion testing methods in the past 20 years have made it possible to identify root causes of ash deposition. A concise and comprehensive guidelines document has been assembled for solving ash deposition as related to coal-fired utility boilers. While this report accurately captures the current state of knowledge in ash deposition, note that substantial research and development is under way to more completely understand and mitigate slagging and fouling. Thus, while comprehensive, this document carries the title ''interim,'' with the idea that future work will provide additional insight. Primary target audiences include utility operators and engineers who face plant inefficiencies and significant operational and maintenance costs that are associated with ash deposition problems. Pulverized and cyclone-fired coal boilers are addressed specifically, although many of the diagnostics and solutions apply to other boiler types. Logic diagrams, ash deposit types, and boiler symptoms of ash deposition are used to aid the user in identifying an ash deposition problem, diagnosing and verifying root causes, determining remedial measures to alleviate or eliminate the problem, and then monitoring the situation to verify that the problem has been solved. In addition to a step-by-step method for identifying and remediating ash deposition problems, this guideline document (Appendix A) provides descriptions of analytical techniques for diagnostic testing and gives extensive fundamental and practical literature references and addresses of organizations that can provide help in alleviating ash deposition problems.

  17. CHP Integrated with Burners for Packaged Boilers- Fact Sheet, April 2014

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fact sheet overviewing how this project will develop and integrate the Boiler Burner Energy System Technology (BBEST)

  18. Wood Pellets for UBC Boilers Replacing Natural Gas Based on LCA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood Pellets for UBC Boilers Replacing Natural Gas Based on LCA Submitted to Dr. Bi By Bernard Chan Pellets for UBC Boilers Replacing Natural Gas" By Bernard Chan, Brian Chan, and Christopher Young Abstract This report studies the feasibility of replacing natural gas with wood pellets for UBC boilers. A gasification

  19. Corrections to "Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller" Correction Sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch, Nancy

    Corrections to "Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller" 1 Correction Sheet After our paper "Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller" went already to print, Myla address http://theory.lcs.mit.edu/tds/boiler.html. Following are the corrections to these errors and some

  20. An Algebraic Speci cation of the Steam-Boiler Control System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bidoit, Michel

    An Algebraic Speci#12;cation of the Steam-Boiler Control System Michel Bidoit 1 , Claude Chevenier describe how to derive an algebraic speci#12;cation of the Steam-Boiler Control System starting from to specify the detection of the steam-boiler fail- ures. Finally we discuss validation and veri#12;cation

  1. Assertional Specification and Verification using PVS of the Steam Boiler Control System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hooman, Jozef

    Assertional Specification and Verification using PVS of the Steam Boiler Control System Jan Vitt 1 of the steam boiler control system has been derived using a formal method based on assumption/commitment pairs Introduction The steam boiler control system, as described in chapter AS of this book, has been designed

  2. Aalborg Universitet A new air-fuel WSGGM for better utility boiler simulation, design and optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yin, Chungen

    Aalborg Universitet A new air-fuel WSGGM for better utility boiler simulation, design for better utility boiler simulation, design and optimization. Paper presented at International Conference utility boiler simulation, design & optimization Chungen Yin, Ph.D. Associate Prof, Aalborg University

  3. Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller G. Leeb, N. Lynch Page 1 of 20

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch, Nancy

    Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller G. Leeb, N. Lynch Page 1 of 20 Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller Formal Methods for Industrial Applications: A Case Study system consisting of a continuous steam boiler and a discrete controller. Our model uses the Lynch

  4. Analysis and control of a nonlinear boiler-turbine unit Wen Tan a,*,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Horacio J.

    using drum boilers and steam turbines: (1) A single boiler is used to generate steam that is directly is then distributed to several turbines through the header. The steam can be used to generate electric- ity as wellAnalysis and control of a nonlinear boiler-turbine unit Wen Tan a,*,1 , Horacio J. Marquez b

  5. Corrections to "Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller" Correction Sheet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch, Nancy

    Corrections to "Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller" 1 Correction Sheet After our paper "Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller" went already to print, Myla_steam_water_est(sr) = #12;Corrections to "Proving Safety Properties of the Steam Boiler Controller" 2 7. p.11, The initial

  6. Development and Application of Gas Sensing Technologies to Enable Boiler Balancing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dutta, Prabir K.

    01/2004 Development and Application of Gas Sensing Technologies to Enable Boiler Balancing to monitor total NOx (0-1000 ppm), CO (0-1000 ppm) and O2 (1-15%) within the convective pass of the boiler of such sensor systems will dramatically alter how boilers are operated, since much of the emissions creation

  7. Gain-scheduled `1 -optimal control for boiler-turbine dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shamma, Jeff S.

    Gain-scheduled `1 -optimal control for boiler-turbine dynamics with actuator saturation Pang; accepted 2 June 2003 Abstract This paper presents a gain-scheduled approach for boiler-turbine controller the magnitude and rate saturation constraints on actuators. The nonlinear boiler-turbine dynamics is brought

  8. Boiler Kids Camp Parent Manual Division of Recreational Sports Mission Statement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ginzel, Matthew

    Boiler Kids Camp Parent Manual Division of Recreational Sports Mission Statement The Division which fosters an appreciation for a healthy lifestyle and promotes lifelong learning. Boiler Kids Camp Mission Statement Boiler Kids Camp is an interactive, summer day camp designed for children ranging

  9. welcome to university residences Boiler Gold Rush Check-In...........................Saturday, August 13 and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    welcome to university residences #12;Boiler Gold Rush Check-In...........................Saturday, August 13 and Sunday, August 14, 2011 Boiler Gold Rush residence hall systems in the United States. weLcomE! 1 #12;Boiler GoLD Rush ParticiPants Your regular

  10. Full-Scale Boiler Measurements Demonstrating Striated Flows during Biomass Co-Firing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ACERC-2008 Full-Scale Boiler Measurements Demonstrating Striated Flows during Biomass Co based measurements methods #12;Objective Minor impact of biomass cofiring with coal on boiler operation) · Experimentally demonstrate the existence of stratified flows in boilers Indication: SO2, ash composition, straw

  11. Revisiting the Steam-Boiler Case Study with LUTESS : Modeling for Automatic Test Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Revisiting the Steam-Boiler Case Study with LUTESS : Modeling for Automatic Test Generation. In this paper, we apply this modeling principle to a well known case study, the steam boiler problem which has model and to assess the difficulty of such a process in a realistic case study. The steam boiler case

  12. Re ning Abstract Machine Speci cations of the Steam Boiler Control to Well Documented

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Börger, Egon

    Re ning Abstract Machine Speci cations of the Steam Boiler Control to Well Documented Executable the steam boiler control speci cation problem to il- lustrate how the evolving algebra approach to the speci, in June 1995, to control the Karlsruhe steam boiler simulator satisfactorily. The abstract machines

  13. Multifuel fossil fired Power Plant combined with off-shore wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    diagram of the Multifuel Concept Biomass Gas/Coal/ Oil/ Boiler Steam Turbine plant Gas turbine with waste heat boiler Biomass Coal or oil ElectricityNatural gas District heat Wood Natural gas Electricity #12 Ultra Super Critical water/steam process Biomass fired boiler Filter Gas Oil Straw Wood Gas Wood #12;E2

  14. NOx Control for Utility Boiler OTR Compliance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamid Farzan; Jennifer L. Sivy

    2005-07-30

    Babcock & Wilcox Power Generation Group (B&W) and Fuel Tech, Inc. (Fuel Tech) teamed to evaluate an integrated solution for NO{sub x} control comprised of B&W's DRB-4Z{reg_sign} low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner technology and Fuel Tech's NO{sub x}OUT{reg_sign}, a selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) technology, capable of meeting a target emission limit of 0.15 lb NO{sub x}/10{sup 6} Btu. In a previous project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), promising results were obtained with this technology from large-scale testing in B&W's 100-million Btu/hr Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) which simulates the conditions of large coal-fired utility boilers. Under the most challenging boiler temperatures at full load conditions, NO{sub x} emissions of 0.19 lb/10{sup 6} Btu were achieved firing Powder River Basin coal while controlling ammonia slip to less than 5 ppm. At a 40 million Btu/hr firing rate, NO{sub x} emissions were as low as 0.09 lb/10{sup 6} Btu. Improved performance with this system was proposed for this new program with injection at full load via a convective pass multiple nozzle lance (MNL) in front of the superheater tubes or in the convective tube bank. Convective pass lances represent the current state-of-the-art in SNCR and needed to be evaluated in order to assess the full potential of the combined technologies. The objective of the program was to achieve a NO{sub x} level below 0.15 lb/10{sup 6} Btu (with ammonia slip of less than 5 ppm) in the CEDF using PRB coal and B&W's DRB-4Z{reg_sign} low-NO{sub x} pulverized coal (PC) burner in combination with dual zone overfire air ports and Fuel Tech's NO{sub x}OUT{reg_sign} System. Commercial installations of B&W's low-NO{sub x} burner, in combination with overfire air ports using PRB coal, have demonstrated a NO{sub x} level of 0.15 to 0.2 lb/10{sup 6} Btu under staged combustion conditions. The proposed goal of the combustion system (no SNCR) for this project is a NO{sub x} level at 0.15 lb/10{sup 6} Btu. The NO{sub x} reduction goal for SNCR is 25% from the low-NO{sub x} combustion emission levels. Therefore, overall NO{sub x} emissions would approach a level of 0.11 lb/10{sup 6} Btu in commercial installation. The goals of the program were met. At 100% load, using the MNL for very low baseline NO{sub x} (0.094 to 0.162 lb/10{sup 6} Btu depending on burner stoichiometry), an approximately 25% NO{sub x} reduction was achieved (0.071 to 0.124 lb/10{sup 6} Btu) while maintaining NH{sub 3} slip less than 6.4 ppm. At 60% load, using MNL or only wall-injectors for very low baseline NO{sub x} levels, more than 30% NO{sub x} reduction was achieved. Although site specific economic evaluation is required for each unit, our economic evaluation of DRB-4Z{reg_sign} burner and SNCR for a 500 MW{sub e} plant firing PRB shows that the least cost strategy is low-NO{sub x} burner and OFA at a cost of $210 to $525 per ton of NO{sub x} removed. Installation of SNCR allows the utilities to sell more NO{sub x} credit and it becomes economical when NO{sub x} credit cost is more than $5,275 per ton of NO{sub x}.

  15. 2 15.10.2013 Van D. BaxterVolker Weinmann Hybrid heat pump system as chance for the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    pumps Condensing gas and oil boilers DHW tanks Solar panels Under floor heating Installation equipment#12;2 15.10.2013 Van D. BaxterVolker Weinmann Hybrid heat pump system as chance for the renovation market Dipl.-Ing. Volker Weinmann ROTEX Heating Systems GmbH #12;3 15.10.2013 Van D. Baxter

  16. Dawson Power District | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Dawson Power District Jump to: navigation, search Name: Dawson Power District Place: Nebraska Phone Number: 308-324-2386 Website: dawsonpower.com Twitter: @DawsonPower Facebook:...

  17. A Study of the Use of Jatropha Oil Blends in Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishna, C.R.

    2010-10-01

    Executive Summary: This project investigated the combustion performance of blends of unrefined Jatropha oil and its blends in laboratory boilers. Although a very limited amount of testing blends in distillate oil, ASTM No. 2 oil or heating oil was conducted, the primary interest was in testing the performance of blends with residual ASTM No. 6 oil. The basic idea is to provide a renewable fuel option to residual oil used in space heating and in industrial applications. The intent also was to explore the use of non-edible plant oil and one that might be potentially cheaper than biodiesel. The characteristics of No. 6 oil, such as high viscosity at ambient temperature, which requires it to be kept heated, make the blending with such oils feasible. Jatropha oil is one such oil and there is currently considerable interest building up in its use as a source for making biodiesel and jet fuel. A 10% blend of Jatropha oil with heating oil was burned using a standard burner in a residential boiler. Combustion performance was shown to be comparable with that of burning heating oil by itself with some noticeable differences. Typical heating oil has about 2000 ppm of sulfur, while the Jatropha oil has about 50 ppm leading to lower levels of sulphur dioxide emissions. Stack measurements also showed that the NOx emission was lower with the blend. We have previously reported similar reductions in NOx with blends of biodiesel in heating oil as well as slight reductions in PM2.5, particulates below 2.5 microns in size. Long term tests were not part of this project and hence deleterious effects on pumps, seals etc., if any, were not measured. The majority of the work involved testing blends of Jatropha oil with residual oil in a 1.5 million Btu/hr boiler with a burner modified to burn residual oil. Blends of 20 and 60% Jatropha oil and 100% Jatropha oil were burned in the combustion performance tests. The residual oil used had a sulfur content of over 2000 ppm and hence dramatic reductions in sulfur dioxide emissions are measured with the blends. Again, consistent with our past experience with biodiesel blends, significant reductions in nitrogen oxide emissions nearing 50% with 100% Jatropha oil, were also measured. This is in contrast with the use of biodiesel in diesel engines, where the NOx has a tendency to increase. In addition to the gaseous emission measurements, particulate emissions were measured using an EPA CTM-39 system to obtain both particulates, of sizes below 2.5 microns, so-called PM2.5, and of sizes larger than 2.5 microns. The results show that the particulate emissions are lower with the blending of Jatropha oil. Overall, one can conclude that the blending of Jatropha oil with residual oil is a feasible approach to using non-edible plant oil to provide a renewable content to residual oil, with significant benefits in the reduction of pollutant emissions such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides and particulates.

  18. Implementing Bioenergy Supply Chains in the UK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    district heating/pellet boiler schemes/ bio pods and a limited number of external customers) or as · POWER district heating, bio pods, pellet boilers 6 #12;7 #12;) 2 existing (Pollington and Chilton) and 2 station who mix biomass in with their coal fuel to extremely tight specifications Leaders in pellet

  19. Climate Wise Boiler and Steam Efficiency Wise Rules 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milmoe, P. H.; Winkelman, S. R.

    1998-01-01

    Climate Wise is an industrial energy efficiency program sponsored by the U.S. EPA, and supported by the U.S. DOE, working in partnership with more than 400 industrial companies. Many Climate Wise Partners are evaluating or implementing boiler...

  20. Choosing the right boiler air fans at Weston 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spring, N.

    2009-04-15

    When it came to choosing the three 'big' boiler air fans - forced draft, induced draft and primary air, the decision revolved around efficiency. The decision making process for fan selection for the Western 4 supercritical coal-fired plant is described in this article. 3 photos.

  1. Wood-Coal Fired "Small" Boiler Case Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pincelli, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Galaxy Carpet Corporation installed a coal and wood waste fired boiler approximately twelve months ago. Its first year net savings were $195,000.00 Total capital investment was paid off in 1.9 years. 20% investment tax credits were granted...

  2. Financing industrial boiler projects on a non-recourse basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, C.

    1995-09-01

    Techniques for the financing of industrial boiler projects on a non-recourse basis are outlined. The following topics are discussed: types of projects; why non-recourse (off-balance sheet) financing; the down side; construction lenders requirements; and term lender/subdebt requirements.

  3. *Corresponding author at: NO.818 Fenghua Road, Jiangbei District, Ningbo, China. Tel: +86 5748760 0947; fax: +86 574 87600946.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    *Corresponding author at: NO.818 Fenghua Road, Jiangbei District, Ningbo, China. Tel: +86 5748760 of impurities and micro-crystal particles in prepared GGT glass samples, a rapid heating furnace and the fast

  4. ISSUANCE 2015-05-12: Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Boilers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Boilers Comment Period Extension.

  5. Computational Modeling and Assessment Of Nanocoatings for Ultra Supercritical Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David W. Gandy; John P. Shingledecker

    2011-05-11

    Coal-fired power plants are a significant part of the nation���¢��������s power generating capacity, currently accounting for more than 55% of the country���¢��������s total electricity production. Extending the reliable lifetimes of fossil fired boiler components and reducing the maintenance costs are essential for economic operation of power plants. Corrosion and erosion are leading causes of superheater and reheater boiler tube failures leading to unscheduled costly outages. Several types of coatings and weld overlays have been used to extend the service life of boiler tubes; however, the protection afforded by such materials was limited approximately one to eight years. Power companies are more recently focused in achieving greater plant efficiency by increasing steam temperature and pressure into the advanced-ultrasupercritical (A-USC) condition with steam temperatures approaching 760�������°C (1400�������°F) and operating pressures in excess of 35MPa (5075 psig). Unfortunately, laboratory and field testing suggests that the resultant fireside environment when operating under A-USC conditions can potentially cause significant corrosion to conventional and advanced boiler materials1-2. In order to improve reliability and availability of fossil fired A-USC boilers, it is essential to develop advanced nanostructured coatings that provide excellent corrosion and erosion resistance without adversely affecting the other properties such as toughness and thermal fatigue strength of the component material.

  6. Study of Applications of Solar Heating Systems with Seasonal Storage in China 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, G.; Zhao, X.; Chen, P.

    2006-01-01

    In most northern parts of China, it is cold in winter and needs space heating in winter. This paper studies applications of solar heating systems with seasonal storage in China. A typical residential district was selected, ...

  7. Successful Application of Heat Pumps to a DHC System in the Tokyo Bay Area 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanagihara, R.; Okagaki, A.

    2006-01-01

    The Harumi-Island District Heating & Cooling (DHC), which is located in the Tokyo Bay area, introduced the heat pump and thermal storage system with the aim of achieving minimum energy consumption, minimum environmental load, and maximum economical...

  8. Condensing Heat Exchanger for Optimization of Energy Efficiency 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carrigan, J. F.; Johnson, D. W.; DiVitto, J. G.; Schulze, K. H.

    1995-01-01

    Historically, boiler efficiency has been limited due to the minimum temperature allowed at the stack. Heat lost up the stack was in exchange for keeping the flue gas temperature above the water vapor dew point. If water vapor was allowed to condense...

  9. Heat pipe array heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

    1987-08-25

    A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

  10. Metal Dusting of Heat-Resistant Alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Meshari, Abdulaziz I.

    dusting can also be a serious problem in other industrial sectors including nuclear plants, coal gasification units, ethylene plants, fuel cells, chemical reactors, steam generators, acetic acid cracking furnaces, and waste heat boilers [14] [15] [16... is catalytically accelerated by contact with iron, nickel, and cobalt. For example, coking which is a chronic problem in ethylene furnaces was thought to be caused by the reduction of a porous (Fe, Ni, Cr) spinel oxide layer at the metal surface...

  11. Superheater Corrosion In Biomass Boilers: Today's Science and Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharp, William

    2011-12-01

    This report broadens a previous review of published literature on corrosion of recovery boiler superheater tube materials to consider the performance of candidate materials at temperatures near the deposit melting temperature in advanced boilers firing coal, wood-based fuels, and waste materials as well as in gas turbine environments. Discussions of corrosion mechanisms focus on the reactions in fly ash deposits and combustion gases that can give corrosive materials access to the surface of a superheater tube. Setting the steam temperature of a biomass boiler is a compromise between wasting fuel energy, risking pluggage that will shut the unit down, and creating conditions that will cause rapid corrosion on the superheater tubes and replacement expenses. The most important corrosive species in biomass superheater corrosion are chlorine compounds and the most corrosion resistant alloys are typically FeCrNi alloys containing 20-28% Cr. Although most of these materials contain many other additional additions, there is no coherent theory of the alloying required to resist the combination of high temperature salt deposits and flue gases that are found in biomass boiler superheaters that may cause degradation of superheater tubes. After depletion of chromium by chromate formation or chromic acid volatilization exceeds a critical amount, the protective scale gives way to a thick layer of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} over an unprotective (FeCrNi){sub 3}O{sub 4} spinel. This oxide is not protective and can be penetrated by chlorine species that cause further acceleration of the corrosion rate by a mechanism called active oxidation. Active oxidation, cited as the cause of most biomass superheater corrosion under chloride ash deposits, does not occur in the absence of these alkali salts when the chloride is present as HCl gas. Although a deposit is more corrosive at temperatures where it is molten than at temperatures where it is frozen, increasing superheater tube temperatures through the measured first melting point of fly ash deposits does not necessarily produce a step increase in corrosion rate. Corrosion rate typically accelerates at temperatures below the first melting temperature and mixed deposits may have a broad melting temperature range. Although the environment at a superheater tube surface is initially that of the ash deposits, this chemistry typically changes as the deposits mature. The corrosion rate is controlled by the environment and temperature at the tube surface, which can only be measured indirectly. Some results are counter-intuitive. Two boiler manufacturers and a consortium have developed models to predict fouling and corrosion in biomass boilers in order to specify tube materials for particular operating conditions. It would be very useful to compare the predictions of these models regarding corrosion rates and recommended alloys in the boiler environments where field tests will be performed in the current program. Manufacturers of biomass boilers have concluded that it is more cost-effective to restrict steam temperatures, to co-fire biofuels with high sulfur fuels and/or to use fuel additives rather than try to increase fuel efficiency by operating with superheater tube temperatures above melting temperature of fly ash deposits. Similar strategies have been developed for coal fired and waste-fired boilers. Additives are primarily used to replace alkali metal chloride deposits with higher melting temperature and less corrosive alkali metal sulfate or alkali aluminum silicate deposits. Design modifications that have been shown to control superheater corrosion include adding a radiant pass (empty chamber) between the furnace and the superheater, installing cool tubes immediately upstream of the superheater to trap high chloride deposits, designing superheater banks for quick replacement, using an external superheater that burns a less corrosive biomass fuel, moving circulating fluidized bed (CFB) superheaters from the convective pass into the hot recirculated fluidizing medium and adding an insulating layer to superh

  12. Rankine cycle waste heat recovery system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2015-09-22

    A waste heat recovery (WHR) system connects a working fluid to fluid passages formed in an engine block and/or a cylinder head of an internal combustion engine, forming an engine heat exchanger. The fluid passages are formed near high temperature areas of the engine, subjecting the working fluid to sufficient heat energy to vaporize the working fluid while the working fluid advantageously cools the engine block and/or cylinder head, improving fuel efficiency. The location of the engine heat exchanger downstream from an EGR boiler and upstream from an exhaust heat exchanger provides an optimal position of the engine heat exchanger with respect to the thermodynamic cycle of the WHR system, giving priority to cooling of EGR gas. The configuration of valves in the WHR system provides the ability to select a plurality of parallel flow paths for optimal operation.

  13. Groundwater Conservation Districts: Success Stories 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Porter, Dana; Persyn, Russell A.; Enciso, Juan

    1999-09-06

    Plains UWCD No. 1 7 Sandy Land UWCD 8 South Plains UWCD 9 Garza County U and Fresh WCD 10 Salt Fork UWCD 11 Mesa UWCD 12 Permian Basin UWCD 13 Hudspeth County UWCD No. 1 14 Glasscock County UWCD 15 Sterling UWCD 16 Coke County UWCD 17 Santa... Activities Groundwater Conservation Districts vary in size, from partial county or single county districts to multiple county districts. Staffing levels vary from one part-time position to several full-time positions, depending upon the goals of the Boards...

  14. Advanced, Low/Zero Emission Boiler Design and Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Babcock/Wilcox; Illinois State Geological; Worley Parsons; Parsons Infrastructure/Technology Group

    2007-06-30

    In partnership with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory, B&W and Air Liquide are developing and optimizing the oxy-combustion process for retrofitting existing boilers as well as new plants. The main objectives of the project is to: (1) demonstrate the feasibility of the oxy-combustion technology with flue gas recycle in a 5-million Btu/hr coal-fired pilot boiler, (2) measure its performances in terms of emissions and boiler efficiency while selecting the right oxygen injection and flue gas recycle strategies, and (3) perform technical and economic feasibility studies for application of the technology in demonstration and commercial scale boilers. This document summarizes the work performed during the period of performance of the project (Oct 2002 to June 2007). Detailed technical results are reported in corresponding topical reports that are attached as an appendix to this report. Task 1 (Site Preparation) has been completed in 2003. The experimental pilot-scale O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} combustion tests of Task 2 (experimental test performance) has been completed in Q2 2004. Process simulation and cost assessment of Task 3 (Techno-Economic Study) has been completed in Q1 2005. The topical report on Task 3 has been finalized and submitted to DOE in Q3 2005. The calculations of Task 4 (Retrofit Recommendation and Preliminary Design of a New Generation Boiler) has been completed in 2004. In Task 6 (engineering study on retrofit applications), the engineering study on 25MW{sub e} unit has been completed in Q2, 2008 along with the corresponding cost assessment. In Task 7 (evaluation of new oxy-fuel power plants concepts), based on the design basis document prepared in 2005, the design and cost estimate of the Air Separation Units, the boiler islands and the CO{sub 2} compression and trains have been completed, for both super and ultra-supercritical case study. Final report of Task-7 is published by DOE in Oct 2007.

  15. Fluidized bed boiler having a segmented grate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waryasz, Richard E. (Longmeadow, MA)

    1984-01-01

    A fluidized bed furnace (10) is provided having a perforate grate (9) within a housing which supports a bed of particulate material including some combustibles. The grate is divided into a plurality of segments (E2-E6, SH1-SH5, RH1-RH5), with the airflow to each segment being independently controlled. Some of the segments have evaporating surface imbedded in the particulate material above them, while other segments are below superheater surface or reheater surface. Some of the segments (E1, E7) have no surface above them, and there are ignitor combustors (32, 34) directed to fire into the segments, for fast startup of the furnace without causing damage to any heating surface.

  16. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley Adams; Andrew Fry; Constance Senior; Hong Shim; Huafeng Wang; Jost Wendt; Christopher Shaddix

    2009-06-30

    This report summarizes Year 1 results of a research program designed to use multi-scale experimental studies and fundamental theoretical models to characterize and predict the impacts of retrofit of existing coal-fired utility boilers for oxy-combustion. Through the course of Year 1 activities, great progress was made toward understanding the issues associated with oxy-combustion retrofit of coal-fired boilers. All four Year 1 milestones and objectives have been, or will be, completed on schedule and within budget. Progress in the four milestone areas may be summarized as follows: • University of Utah has performed size segregated ash composition measurements in the Oxy-Fuel Combustor (OFC). These experiments indicate that oxy-combustion retrofit may impact ash aerosol mineral matter composition. Both flame temperature and flue gas composition have been observed to influence the concentration of calcium, magnesium and iron in the fine particulate. This could in turn impact boiler fouling and slagging. • Sandia National Labs has shown that char oxidation rate is dependent on particle size (for sizes between 60 and 100 microns) by performing fundamental simulations of reacting char particles. These predictions will be verified by making time-resolved optical measurements of char particle temperature, velocity and size in bench-scale experiments before the end of Year 1. • REI and Siemens have completed the design of an oxy-research burner that will be mounted on University of Utah’s pilot-scale furnace, the L1500. This burner will accommodate a wide range of O2, FGR and mixing strategies under conditions relevant for utility boiler operation. Through CFD modeling of the different burner designs, it was determined that the key factor influencing flame stabilization location is particle heat-up rate. The new oxy-research burner and associated equipment is scheduled for delivery before the end of Year 1. • REI has completed a literature survey of slagging and fouling mechanisms in coal-fired power plants to understand key issues influencing these deposition regimes and infer their behavior under oxy-fired conditions. Based on the results of this survey, an algorithm for integrating slagging predictions into CFD models was outlined. This method accounts for ash formation, particle impaction and sticking, deposit growth and physical properties and impact of the deposit on system flow and heat transfer. A model for fouling in the back pass has also been identified which includes vaporization of sodium, deposition of sodium sulfate on fly ash particles and tube surfaces, and deposit growth rate on tubes. In Year 1, REI has also performed a review of the literature describing corrosion in order to understand the behavior of oxidation, sulfidation, chloridation, and carburization mechanisms in air-fired and oxy-combustion systems. REI and Vattenfall have met and exchanged information concerning oxy-coal combustion mechanisms for CFD simulations currently used by Vattenfall. In preparation for Year 2 of this program, two coals (North Antelope PRB, Western bituminous) have been ordered, pulverized and delivered to the University of Utah and Sandia National Labs. Materials for the corrosion experiments have been identified, suppliers located, and a schedule for equipment fabrication and shakedown has been established. Finally, a flue gas recycle system has been designed and is being constructed for the OFC.

  17. On Variations of Space-heating Energy Use in Office Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Hung-Wen

    2014-01-01

    bigger effect than effect of boiler efficiency. However, theenvelope together with boiler efficiency. Yildiz et al [16]LNG) fired conventional boiler, LNG condensing boiler, and

  18. Turlock Irrigation District- PV Rebate

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Turlock Irrigation District (TID) offers an incentive program to their customers who install solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. In keeping with the terms of the California Solar Initiative, the inc...

  19. Missouri School District Charges Up

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Missouri's Lee's Summit R-7 school district's distribution fleet was tired. Many of the vehicles had racked up more than 300,000 miles and made frequent trips to the shop to repair the 20 plus-year-old parts.

  20. Energy Use in China: Sectoral Trends and Future Outlook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    Geothermal Heat Pump Centralized AC by NG Industry Variable:Pump Figure 48 Example of Efficiency of Space Heating Technologies in Office Building IndustryPump Stove Electric Heater Small Cogen Gas Boiler Boiler District Heating Figure 41 Space Heating Technology Shift in Office Building Industry

  1. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2005-03-31

    This is the nineteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NO{sub x} control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. Refurbished corrosion probes were installed at Plant Gavin and operated for approximately 1,300 hours. This quarterly report includes further results from the BYU catalyst characterization lab and the in-situ lab, and includes the first results from a model suitable for comprehensive simulation codes for describing catalyst performance. The SCR slipstream reactor at Plant Gadsden operated for approximately 100 hours during the quarter because of ash blockage in the inlet probe.

  2. Capacity mapping for optimum utilization of pulverizers for coal fired boilers - article no. 032201

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharya, C.

    2008-09-15

    Capacity mapping is a process of comparison of standard inputs with actual fired inputs to assess the available standard output capacity of a pulverizer. The base capacity is a function of grindability; fineness requirement may vary depending on the volatile matter (VM) content of the coal and the input coal size. The quantity and the inlet will change depending on the quality of raw coal and output requirement. It should be sufficient to dry pulverized coal (PC). Drying capacity is also limited by utmost PA fan power to supply air. The PA temperature is limited by air preheater (APH) inlet flue gas temperature; an increase in this will result in efficiency loss of the boiler. The higher PA inlet temperature can be attained through the economizer gas bypass, the steam coiled APH, and the partial flue gas recirculation. The PS/coal ratioincreases with a decrease in grindability or pulverizer output and decreases with a decrease in VM. The flammability of mixture has to be monitored on explosion limit. Through calibration, the PA flow and efficiency of conveyance can be verified. The velocities of coal/air mixture to prevent fallout or to avoid erosion in the coal carrier pipe are dependent on the PC particle size distribution. Metal loss of grinding elements inversely depends on the YGP index of coal. Variations of dynamic loading and wearing of grinding elements affect the available milling capacity and percentage rejects. Therefore, capacity mapping in necessary to ensure the available pulverizer capacity to avoid overcapacity or undercapacity running of the pulverizing system, optimizing auxiliary power consumption. This will provide a guideline on the distribution of raw coal feeding in different pulverizers of a boiler to maximize system efficiency and control, resulting in a more cost effective heat rate.

  3. Build, Own, Operate and Maintain (BOOM) Boiler Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henry, T.

    2003-01-01

    . Issues: To remain competitive and provide for growth, corporations and not-for-profit (NFP) organizations have changed the way they look at their energy systems: ? They are only allocating capital to "core" assets. In most cases, thennal, electric... and air energy systems are not considered "core" assets resulting in the need to find "other" solutions to providing the needed energy. ? Reduced staffing has resulted in fewer experienced and knowledgeable boiler operating and maintenance personnel...

  4. Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Boiler

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram:Y-12Power, IncBioPredicting Envelope Leakage inBoilerControl

  5. BIODIESEL BLENDS IN SPACE HEATING EQUIPMENT.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KRISHNA,C.R.

    2001-12-01

    Biodiesel is a diesel-like fuel that is derived from processing vegetable oils from various sources, such as soy oil, rapeseed or canola oil, and also waste vegetable oils resulting from cooking use. Brookhaven National laboratory initiated an evaluation of the performance of blends of biodiesel and home heating oil in space heating applications under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy (DOE) through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). This report is a result of this work performed in the laboratory. A number of blends of varying amounts of a biodiesel in home heating fuel were tested in both a residential heating system and a commercial size boiler. The results demonstrate that blends of biodiesel and heating oil can be used with few or no modifications to the equipment or operating practices in space heating. The results also showed that there were environmental benefits from the biodiesel addition in terms of reductions in smoke and in Nitrogen Oxides (NOx). The latter result was particularly surprising and of course welcome, in view of the previous results in diesel engines where no changes had been seen. Residential size combustion equipment is presently not subject to NOx regulation. If reductions in NOx similar to those observed here hold up in larger size (commercial and industrial) boilers, a significant increase in the use of biodiesel-like fuel blends could become possible.

  6. The role of the district office in instructional practice reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rizzi, Karen Schultz

    2008-01-01

    reality: Standards-based reform in urban districts. MenloW. A. (1989). Using reform: Conceptualizing districtHow districts support school reform. Seattle: University of

  7. Numbers of Abstract/Session (given by NOC) 00090 -1 IEA Heat Pump Conference 2011, 16 -19 May 2011, Tokyo, Japan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Numbers of Abstract/Session (given by NOC) 00090 -1 10th IEA Heat Pump Conference 2011, 16 - 19 May 2011, Tokyo, Japan R-1234yf MIXTURES FOR REPLACING R-407C IN RESIDENTIAL HEAT PUMPS Marcello BENTIVEGNI: This paper deals with the design of air-to-water heat pumps dedicated to the replacement of old oil boilers

  8. Performance of Integrated Hydronic Heating Systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BUTCHER,T.A.

    2007-12-20

    A variety of system configurations are used in North America to meet the heating and domestic hot water needs of single-family homes. This includes, for example: warm air furnaces with electric water heaters; boilers with integrated hot water coils; and boilers with 'indirect' hot water storage tanks. Integrated hydronic systems which provide both heat and hot water are more popular only in the Northeast and mid-Atlantic regions. For those making decisions about configurations of these integrated hydronic systems, including control options, little information is available concerning the annual energy cost implications of these decisions. This report presents results of a project to use a direct load emulation approach to measure the performance of hydronic systems, develop performance curves, and to provide decision tools to consumers. This is a laboratory measurement system involving direct energy input and output measurements under different load patterns. These results are then used to develop performance correlations for specific systems that can be used to predict energy use in specific applications. A wide range of system types have been tested under this project including conventional boilers with 'tankless' internal coils for domestic hot water production, boilers with indirect external storage tanks, tank type water heaters which may also be used for space heating, condensing oil- and gas-fired systems, and systems with custom control features. It is shown that low load and idle energy losses can have a very large impact on the total annual energy use and that the potential energy savings associated with replacing old equipment with newer, high efficiency equipment with low losses at idle or low load can be in the 25% range. These savings are larger than simple combustion efficiency measurements would indicate.

  9. Process for producing low-sulfur boiler fuel by hydrotreatment of solvent deashed SRC

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roberts, George W. (Emmaus, PA); Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

    1985-01-01

    In this invention, a process is disclosed characterized by heating a slurry of coal in the presence of a process-derived recycle solvent and passing same to a dissolver zone, separating the resultant gases and liquid/solid products therefrom, vacuum distilling the liquid/solids products, separating the portions of the liquid/solids vacuum distillation effluent into a solid ash, unconverted coal particles and SRC material having a boiling point above 850.degree. F. and subjecting same to a critical solvent deashing step to provide an ash-free SRC product. The lighter liquid products from the vacuum distillation possess a boiling point below 850.degree. F. and are passed through a distillation tower, from which recycled solvent is recovered in addition to light distillate boiling below 400.degree. F. (overhead). The ash-free SRC product in accompanyment with at least a portion of the process derived solvent is passed in combination to a hydrotreating zone containing a hydrogenation catalyst and in the presence of hydrogen is hydroprocessed to produce a desulfurized and denitrogenized low-sulfur, low-ash boiler fuel and a process derived recycle solvent which is recycled to slurry the coal in the beginning of the process before heating.

  10. System Modeling of ORNL s 20 MW(t) Wood-fired Gasifying Boiler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daw, C Stuart [ORNL; FINNEY, Charles E A [ORNL; Wiggins, Gavin [ORNL; Hao, Ye [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    We present an overview of the new 20 MW(t) wood-fired steam plant currently under construction by Johnson Controls, Inc. at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee. The new plant will utilize a low-temperature air-blown gasifier system developed by the Nexterra Systems Corporation to generate low-heating value syngas (producer gas), which will then be burned in a staged combustion chamber to produce heat for the boiler. This is considered a showcase project for demonstrating the benefits of clean, bio-based energy, and thus there is considerable interest in monitoring and modeling the energy efficiency and environmental footprint of this technology relative to conventional steam generation with petroleum-based fuels. In preparation for system startup in 2012, we are developing steady-state and dynamic models of the major process components, including the gasifiers and combustor. These tools are intended to assist in tracking and optimizing system performance and for carrying out future conceptual studies of process changes that might improve the overall energy efficiency and sustainability. In this paper we describe the status of our steady-state gasifier and combustor models and illustrate preliminary results from limited parametric studies.

  11. Computational Modeling and Assessment Of Nanocoatings for Ultra Supercritical Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David W. Gandy; John P. Shingledecker

    2011-04-11

    Forced outages and boiler unavailability in conventional coal-fired fossil power plants is most often caused by fireside corrosion of boiler waterwalls. Industry-wide, the rate of wall thickness corrosion wastage of fireside waterwalls in fossil-fired boilers has been of concern for many years. It is significant that the introduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emission controls with staged burners systems has increased reported waterwall wastage rates to as much as 120 mils (3 mm) per year. Moreover, the reducing environment produced by the low-NOx combustion process is the primary cause of accelerated corrosion rates of waterwall tubes made of carbon and low alloy steels. Improved coatings, such as the MCrAl nanocoatings evaluated here (where M is Fe, Ni, and Co), are needed to reduce/eliminate waterwall damage in subcritical, supercritical, and ultra-supercritical (USC) boilers. The first two tasks of this six-task project-jointly sponsored by EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FC26-07NT43096)-have focused on computational modeling of an advanced MCrAl nanocoating system and evaluation of two nanocrystalline (iron and nickel base) coatings, which will significantly improve the corrosion and erosion performance of tubing used in USC boilers. The computational model results showed that about 40 wt.% is required in Fe based nanocrystalline coatings for long-term durability, leading to a coating composition of Fe-25Cr-40Ni-10 wt.% Al. In addition, the long term thermal exposure test results further showed accelerated inward diffusion of Al from the nanocrystalline coatings into the substrate. In order to enhance the durability of these coatings, it is necessary to develop a diffusion barrier interlayer coating such TiN and/or AlN. The third task 'Process Advanced MCrAl Nanocoating Systems' of the six-task project jointly sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute, EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-FC26-07NT43096)- has focused on processing of advanced nanocrystalline coating systems and development of diffusion barrier interlayer coatings. Among the diffusion interlayer coatings evaluated, the TiN interlayer coating was found to be the optimum one. This report describes the research conducted under the Task 3 workscope.

  12. Development and Demonstration of a Biomass Boiler for Food Processing Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-02-01

    Burns & McDonnell Engineering Company, in collaboration with Frito-Lay, Inc., Oak Ridge National Laboratory, CPL Systems, Inc., Alpha Boilers, and Kansas State University will demonstrate use of a biomass boiler in the food processing industry. The 60,000 lb/hr innovative biomass boiler system utilizing a combination of wood waste and tire-derived fuel (TDF) waste will offset all natural gas consumption at Frito-Lay's Topeka, Kansas, processing facility.

  13. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Martin Denison; Adel Sarofim; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Dave Swenson; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker

    2006-06-30

    This is the Final Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project was to develop cost-effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low-NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provided co-funding for this program. This project included research on: (1) In furnace NOx control; (2) Impacts of combustion modifications on boiler operation; (3) Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst testing and (4) Ammonia adsorption/removal on fly ash. Important accomplishments were achieved in all aspects of the project. Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), an in-furnace NOx reduction strategy based on injecting urea or anhydrous ammonia into fuel rich regions in the lower furnace, was evaluated for cyclone-barrel and PC fired utility boilers. Field tests successfully demonstrated the ability of the RRI process to significantly reduce NOx emissions from a staged cyclone-fired furnace operating with overfire air. The field tests also verified the accuracy of the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling used to develop the RRI design and highlighted the importance of using CFD modeling to properly locate and configure the reagent injectors within the furnace. Low NOx firing conditions can adversely impact boiler operation due to increased waterwall wastage (corrosion) and increased soot production. A corrosion monitoring system that uses electrochemical noise (ECN) corrosion probes to monitor, on a real-time basis, high temperature corrosion events within the boiler was evaluated. Field tests were successfully conducted at two plants. The Ohio Coal Development Office provided financial assistance to perform the field tests. To investigate soot behavior, an advanced model to predict soot production and destruction was implemented into an existing reacting CFD modeling tool. Comparisons between experimental data collected in a pilot scale furnace and soot behavior predicted by the CFD model showed good agreement. Field and laboratory tests were performed for SCR catalysts used for coal and biomass co-firing applications. Fundamental laboratory studies were performed to better understand mechanisms involved with catalyst deactivation. Field tests with a slip stream reactor were used to create catalyst exposed to boiler flue gas for firing coal and for co-firing coal and biomass. The field data suggests the mechanisms leading to catalyst deactivation are, in order of importance, channel plugging, surface fouling, pore plugging and poisoning. Investigations were performed to better understand the mechanisms involved with catalyst regeneration through mechanical or chemical methods. A computer model was developed to predict NOx reduction across the catalyst in a SCR. Experiments were performed to investigate the fundamentals of ammonia/fly ash interactions with relevance to the operation of advanced NOx control technologies such as selective catalytic reduction. Measurements were performed for ammonia adsorption isotherms on commercial fly ash samples subjected to a variety of treatments and on the chemistry of dry and semi-dry ammonia removal processes. This work resulted in the first fundamental ammonia isotherms on carbon-containing fly ash samples. This work confirms industrial reports that aqueous solution chemistry takes place upon the introduction of even very small amounts of water, while the ash remains in a semi-dry state.

  14. Demonstration of coal reburning for cyclone boiler NO{sub x} control. Appendix, Book 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    Based on the industry need for a pilot-scale cyclone boiler simulator, Babcock Wilcox (B&W) designed, fabricated, and installed such a facility at its Alliance Research Center (ARC) in 1985. The project involved conversion of an existing pulverized coal-fired facility to be cyclone-firing capable. Additionally, convective section tube banks were installed in the upper furnace in order to simulate a typical boiler convection pass. The small boiler simulator (SBS) is designed to simulate most fireside aspects of full-size utility boilers such as combustion and flue gas emissions characteristics, fireside deposition, etc. Prior to the design of the pilot-scale cyclone boiler simulator, the various cyclone boiler types were reviewed in order to identify the inherent cyclone boiler design characteristics which are applicable to the majority of these boilers. The cyclone boiler characteristics that were reviewed include NO{sub x} emissions, furnace exit gas temperature (FEGT) carbon loss, and total furnace residence time. Previous pilot-scale cyclone-fired furnace experience identified the following concerns: (1) Operability of a small cyclone furnace (e.g., continuous slag tapping capability). (2) The optimum cyclone(s) configuration for the pilot-scale unit. (3) Compatibility of NO{sub x} levels, carbon burnout, cyclone ash carryover to the convection pass, cyclone temperature, furnace residence time, and FEGT.

  15. Consider Installing Turbulators on Two- and Three-Pass Firetube Boilers - Steam Tip Sheet #25

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO tip sheet on installing turbulators on firetube boilers provides how-to advice for improving the system using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  16. Biomass Boiler Market is Projected to Reach USD 8,907.0 Million...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Naval SpA, Hurst Boiler & Welding Co, Inc., Jernforsen Energi System AB, Justsen Energiteknik AS, Kohlbach Group, LAMBION Energy Solutions GmbH, Leroux & Lotz Technologies,...

  17. Continuous Measurement of Carbon Monoxide Improves Combustion Efficiency of CO Boilers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilmour, W. A.; Pregler, D. N.; Branham, R. L.; Prichard, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    The paper describes the application of in-situ flue gas CO measurement in the operation of CO Boilers and details the steps needed to optimize combustion efficiency....

  18. Financial Incentives Available for Facilities Affected by the US EPA Boiler MACT Proposed Rule, December 2012

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Overview of incentives for which larger boilers and then CHP systems qualify; Federal incentive programs are discussed and state, utility and local?level programs.

  19. Consider Installing Turbulators on Two- and Three-Pass Firetube Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    This revised ITP tip sheet on installing turbulators on firetube boilers provides how-to advice for improving the system using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  20. Consider Installing Turbulators on Two- and Three-Pass Firetube Boilers - Steam Tip Sheet #25

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2006-01-01

    This revised AMO tip sheet on installing turbulators on firetube boilers provides how-to advice for improving the system using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  1. SENSIBLE HEAT STORAGE FOR A SOLAR THERMAL POWER PLANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Thomas F.

    2011-01-01

    presented in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Code Section IEngineers, ASME BOILER AND PRESSURE VESSEL CODE, An Americangiven in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code: Section

  2. Boiler Upgrades and Decentralizing Steam Systems Save Water and...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    GSHP demo projects) Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Data Analysis from Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Projects Ground Source Heat Pump System Data Analysis DOE IDIQ...

  3. Downtown district cooling: A 21st century approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    On December 1, 1992, the Board of Directors of the Metropolitan Pier and Exposition Authority (MPEA) met on Chicago`s historic Navy Pier and ushered in a new era of competition for energy supply in Chicago. The MPEA, a state agency created for the purposes of promoting and operating fair and exposition facilities within the Chicago area (including the McCormick Place exposition center and Navy Pier), voted to accept a third-party proposal to provide district heating and cooling services to the existing McCormick Place facilities and a million square feet of new exposition space. The winning bidder was a joint venture between Trigen Energy, the nation`s largest provider of district energy services, and Peoples Gas, the gas distribution company which serves Chicago. This vote culminated two years of effort by the Energy Division of Chicago`s Department of Environment to analyze the feasibility and promote the implementation of a district energy system to serve the expanded McCormick Place and its environs in the South Loop neighborhood. Initial services began in November, 1993, with a new hot and cold water piping system interconnecting the three existing exhibition facilities. The final buildout of the system, with a combined peak demand predicted at 160 MMBtu of heating and 15,920 tons of and cooling, is scheduled for completion in the summer of 1997.

  4. Using data from ETSAP models in a hemispheric pollution model Marie-Louise Siggaard-Andersen1, Kenneth Karlsson1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alamos Laboratory (New Mexico, USA) University of Cologne (Germany) Energy Research Centre Electricity Heat Fuels - from all sectors Energy supply: Power plants Boilers Energy storage Hydrogen electricity district heat hydrogen biofuels Energy demand System optimization by minimising total system costs

  5. Evaluating Water Transfers in Irrigation Districts 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghimire, Narishwar

    2013-04-11

    The participation of irrigation districts (IDs) in surface water transfers from agriculture-to-municipal uses is studied by examining IDs’ economic and political behavior, comparing their performance with non-districts (non-IDs), and analyzing...

  6. University of the District of Columbia District of Columbia Drinking Water Blind Taste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    District of Columbia, University of the

    University of the District of Columbia District of Columbia Drinking Water Blind Taste Testing University of the District of Columbia Date: May 2005 Prepared for the DC Water Resources Research Institute Funds provided by USGS through the US Department of Interior #12;1 District of Columbia Drinking Water

  7. Technology Case Studies: Retrofit Integrated Space and Water Heating - Field Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-05-01

    Better insulation and tighter envelopes are reducing space heating loads for new and existing homes. For many homes, decreased space heating loads make it possible for both space and domestic water heating loads to be provided with a single heating plant. This project analyzed combined condensing water heaters or boilers and hydronic air coils to provide high efficiency domestic hot water and forced air space heating. Called 'Combi' systems, they provided similar space and water heating performance less expensively than installing two condensing appliances. These systems can also eliminate safety issues associated with natural draft appliances through the use of one common sealed combustion vent.

  8. Labs21 sustainable design programming checklist version 1.0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathew, Paul; Greenberg, Steve

    2005-01-01

    heating efficiency Strategies: Efficient boiler systems -Specify efficient boilersEfficient boiler systems - Optimal boiler sizing and

  9. METHANE DE-NOX FOR UTILITY PC BOILERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Rabovitser; Bruce Bryan; Serguei Nester; Stan Wohadlo

    2001-10-30

    The project seeks to develop and validate a new pulverized coal combustion system to reduce utility PC boiler NO{sub x} emissions to 0.15 lb/million Btu or less without post-combustion flue gas cleaning. Work during the quarter included completion of the equipment fabrication and installation efforts for the 3-million Btu/h pilot system at BBP's Pilot-Scale Combustion Facility (PSCF) in Worcester, MA. Final selection of the first two test coals and preliminary selection of the final two test coals were also completed.

  10. A New Scheme on Robust Observer Based Control Design for Nonlinear Interconnected Systems with Application to an Industrial Utility Boiler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Horacio J.

    with Application to an Industrial Utility Boiler Adarsha Swarnakar, Horacio Jose Marquez and Tongwen Chen Abstract. The controller design is evaluated on a natural circulation drum boiler, where the nonlinear model describes

  11. A Assertional verification using PVS Vitt & Hooman We present details of the PVS specification of the steam boiler control system.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hooman, Jozef

    of the steam boiler control system. In general, a PVS specification consists of a number of theories where each­time systems. These theories are imported in Section A.2 where the steam boiler system is designed, assuming

  12. New 90,000 PPH Coal Fired Boiler Plant at Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company, Durham North Carolina 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaskey, G. T.

    1984-01-01

    Liggett & Myers Tobacco Company in Durham, North Carolina is installing a future cogeneration, coal fired boiler system designed and built by Energy Systems (ESI) of Chattanooga, Tennessee. The complete boiler plant is comprised of a 90,000 pph Dorr...

  13. Performance of a small scale boiler burner in the firing of fuel blends 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frazzitta, Stephen

    1993-01-01

    of the feedlot manure. A small scale boiler burner facility has been constructed to simulate a utility class boiler. Experiments were conducted with coal only and then for coal/feedlot manure. Three types of feedlot manure are examined; raw feedlot manure...

  14. Compliance testing of hot-water and steam boilers, Shaw Afb, South Carolina. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, J.A.

    1989-02-01

    At the request of HQ TAC/DEEV, personnel of the USAFOEHL Air Quality Function conducted source testing of eighteen small hot water and steam boilers to determine stack-gas moisture content and velocity. The data obtained during the survey was necessary for boiler operating application.

  15. Recovery Act: Oxy-Combustion Technology Development for Industrial-Scale Boiler Applications. Task 4 - Testing in Alstom's 15 MWth Boiler Simulation Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levasseur, Armand

    2014-04-30

    Alstom Power Inc. (Alstom), under U.S. DOE/NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-NT0005290, is conducting a development program to generate detailed technical information needed for application of oxy-combustion technology. The program is designed to provide the necessary information and understanding for the next step of large-scale commercial demonstration of oxy combustion in tangentially fired boilers and to accelerate the commercialization of this technology. The main project objectives include: Design and develop an innovative oxyfuel system for existing tangentially-fired boiler units that minimizes overall capital investment and operating costs; Evaluate performance of oxyfuel tangentially fired boiler systems in pilot scale tests at Alstom’s 15 MWth tangentially fired Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF); Address technical gaps for the design of oxyfuel commercial utility boilers by focused testing and improvement of engineering and simulation tools; Develop the design, performance and costs for a demonstration scale oxyfuel boiler and auxiliary systems; Develop the design and costs for both industrial and utility commercial scale reference oxyfuel boilers and auxiliary systems that are optimized for overall plant performance and cost; and, Define key design considerations and develop general guidelines for application of results to utility and different industrial applications. The project was initiated in October 2008 and the scope extended in 2010 under an ARRA award. The project is scheduled for completion by April 30, 2014. Central to the project is 15 MWth testing in the BSF, which provided in-depth understanding of oxy-combustion under boiler conditions, detailed data for improvement of design tools, and key information for application to commercial scale oxy-fired boiler design. Eight comprehensive 15 MWth oxy-fired test campaigns were performed with different coals, providing detailed data on combustion, emissions, and thermal behavior over a matrix of fuels, oxy-process variables and boiler design parameters. Significant improvement of CFD modeling tools and validation against 15 MWth experimental data has been completed. Oxy-boiler demonstration and large reference designs have been developed, supported with the information and knowledge gained from the 15 MWth testing. This report addresses the results from the 15 MWth testing in the BSF.

  16. Residential gas-fired sorption heat Test and technology evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .....................................................................................................29 2.4.1 Boiler thermal performance

  17. By Steve Rochette Philadelphia District

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    By Steve Rochette Philadelphia District See Stream, Page 5 Dave Derrick, Research Hydraulic of the Tacony Creek in Philadelphia during a workshop July 23. (Photo by Steve Rochette) Corpsaimstorestore partnered with the Environmental Protection Agency and the Philadelphia Water Department to host a stream

  18. Sensing system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kychakoff, George; Afromowitz, Martin A; Hugle, Richard E

    2005-06-21

    A system for detection and control of deposition on pendant tubes in recovery and power boilers includes one or more deposit monitoring sensors operating in infrared regions and about 4 or 8.7 microns and directly producing images of the interior of the boiler. An image pre-processing circuit (95) in which a 2-D image formed by the video data input is captured, and includes a low pass filter for performing noise filtering of said video input. An image segmentation module (105) for separating the image of the recovery boiler interior into background, pendant tubes, and deposition. An image-understanding unit (115) matches derived regions to a 3-D model of said boiler. It derives a 3-D structure the deposition on pendant tubes in the boiler and provides the information about deposits to the plant distributed control system (130) for more efficient operation of the plant pendant tube cleaning and operating systems.

  19. Updated experience of the first CFB boilers in Spain: HUNOSA`S {open_quotes}La PEREDA{close_quotes} power station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivero, R.N. [Foster Wheeler Energia, S.A., Madrid (Spain); Garcia, J.P. [HUNOSA, Mieres, Asturias (Spain)

    1995-12-31

    HUNOSA`s {open_quotes}La Pereda{close_quotes} cogeneration facility is equipped with a Foster Wheeler circulating fluidized bed boiler designed to produce 185000 Kg/h (407850 lb/hr) of superheated steam to generate 50 MW of electricity, HUNOSA, a Spanish public mining company, uses a fuel mixture of 65% culm waste and 35% run off mine coal with a High Heating Value as low as 8700 Kj/Kg (3740 BTU/lb), and an ash content as high as 65%. The efficient and clean use of such a waste fuel, which is a subproduct of the company`s mining activity, is attempted by the first time in Spain, and was possible by using a circulating fluid bed (CFB) boiler which takes advantage of Foster Wheeler previous experience firing waste fuels of this type. This paper summarizes La Pereda`s CFB boiler main design characteristics and describes the results attained during its first year and a half of operation. This project was partially financed by the European Community, as well as by another Spanish official entities. It is the first industrial installation in operation with a circulating fluidized bed boiler in Spain and will serve as a basis to develop an important program of waste fuel valorization and environmental regeneration by using low grade energy resources which were not susceptible of being used up to now. The authors believe that the case described might be of interest to other mining companies and in general, to all those considering the potential use of waste fuels of this type for steam and electricity generation.

  20. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL INFORMATICS, VOL. 3, NO. 1, FEBRUARY 2007 73 Constraint-Based Control of Boiler Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kusiak, Andrew

    -Based Control of Boiler Efficiency: A Data-Mining Approach Zhe Song and Andrew Kusiak, Member, IEEE Abstract-utility boiler subject to operating constraints. Selection of process vari- ables to optimize combustion- fired boiler in the presence of operating constraints. Two schemes of generating control settings

  1. Efficient model-based leak detection in boiler steam-water systems Xi Sun, Tongwen Chen *, Horacio J. Marquez

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marquez, Horacio J.

    Efficient model-based leak detection in boiler steam-water systems Xi Sun, Tongwen Chen *, Horacio detection in boiler steam-water systems. The algorithm has been tested using real industrial data from Syncrude Canada, and has proven to be effective in detection of boiler tube or steam leaks; proper

  2. Error Recovery for a Boiler System with OTS PID Controller Tom Anderson, Mei Feng, Steve Riddle, Alexander Romanovsky

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newcastle upon Tyne, University of

    1 Error Recovery for a Boiler System with OTS PID Controller Tom Anderson, Mei Feng, Steve Riddle employing an OTS (Off-The-Shelf) item. The case study used a Simulink model of a steam boiler system, employing software models of the PID controller and the steam boiler system rather than conducting

  3. Error Recovery for a Boiler System with OTS PID Controller Tom Anderson, Mei Feng, Steve Riddle, Alexander Romanovsky

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newcastle upon Tyne, University of

    Error Recovery for a Boiler System with OTS PID Controller Tom Anderson, Mei Feng, Steve Riddle-The-Shelf) item. The case study used a Simulink model of a steam boiler system together with an OTS PID in practice, employing software models of the PID controller and the steam boiler system rather than

  4. Mathematical Modeling and Experimental Study of Biomass Combustion in a Thermal 108 MW Grate-Fired Boiler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosendahl, Lasse

    -Fired Boiler Chungen Yin,*, Lasse Rosendahl, Sřren K. Kćr, Sřnnik Clausen, Sřren L. Hvid,§ and Torben Hille, Denmark ReceiVed NoVember 16, 2007. ReVised Manuscript ReceiVed January 4, 2008 Grate boilers are widely) model for an industrial biomass-fired grate boiler, which can be used for diagnosis and optimization

  5. To be published in Waste Management (2010) Bodnan et al. MINERALOGY AND PORE WATER CHEMISTRY OF A BOILER ASH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    2010-01-01

    OF A BOILER ASH FROM A MSW FLUIDIZED-BED INCINERATOR F. Bodénan* , D. Guyonnet, P. Piantone, P. Blanc BRGM presents an investigation of the mineralogy and pore water chemistry of a boiler ash sampled from to as "boiler ash", is analogous to what Abbas et al. (2003) refer to as "hopper ash" (see Fig. 1 of Abbas et al

  6. Speci cation and Veri cation of a Steam-Boiler with Signal-Coq Micka l Kerb uf1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Speci cation and Veri cation of a Steam-Boiler with Signal-Coq Micka l Kerb uf1 , David Nowak2 assistant, Coq, for the speci cation and the veri cation of co-inductive properties of the well-known steam-boiler cation tools. Keywords: synchronous programming, theorem proving, the steam- boiler problem. 1

  7. MOLTEN SALT CORROSION OF SUPERHEATERS IN BLACK LIQUOR RECOVERY BOILERS John Bohling, University of Tennessee Georgia Tech SURF 2010 Fellow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mo

    MOLTEN SALT CORROSION OF SUPERHEATERS IN BLACK LIQUOR RECOVERY BOILERS John Bohling, University Goodman Introduction In the papermaking industry, black liquor recovery boilers burn black liquor into the superheater region of the boiler, where the salt-deposit, or smelt, forms a scale on the superheater tubes.1

  8. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-12-31

    This is the eighteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. Safety equipment for ammonia for the SCR slipstream reactor at Plant Gadsden was installed. The slipstream reactor was started and operated for about 1400 hours during the last performance period. Laboratory analysis of exposed catalyst and investigations of the sulfation of fresh catalyst continued at BYU. Thicker end-caps for the ECN probes were designed and fabricated to prevent the warpage and failure that occurred at Gavin with the previous design. A refurbished ECN probe was successfully tested at the University of Utah combustion laboratory. Improvements were implemented to the software that controls the flow of cooling air to the ECN probes.

  9. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-09-30

    This is the seventeenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. The SCR slipstream reactor was assembled and installed at Plant Gadsden this quarter. Safety equipment for ammonia had not been installed at the end of the quarter, but will be installed at the beginning of next quarter. The reactor will be started up next quarter. Four ECN corrosion probes were reinstalled at Gavin and collected corrosion data for approximately one month. Two additional probes were installed and removed after about 30 hours for future profilometry analysis. Preliminary analysis of the ECN probes, the KEMA coupons and the CFD modeling results all agree with the ultrasonic tube test measurements gathered by AEP personnel.

  10. Research, Development and Demonstration of Bio-Mass Boiler for Food Industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher, Steve; Knapp, David

    2012-03-31

    Frito-Lay is working to reduce carbon emissions from their manufacturing plants. As part of this effort, they invested in a â??biomass-firedâ?ť boiler at the Topeka, Kansas, plant. Frito-Lay partnered with Burns & McDonnell Engineering, Inc. and CPL Systems, Inc., to design and construct a steam producing boiler using â??carbon neutralâ?ť fuels such as wood wastes (e.g. tree bark), shipping pallets, and used rubber vehicle tires. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) joined with Frito-Lay, Burns & McDonnell, and CPL to analyze the reductions in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions that result from use of biomass-fired boilers in the food manufacturing environment. DOE support provided for the data collection and analysis, and reporting necessary to evaluate boiler efficiencies and reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions. The Frito-Lay biomass-fired boiler has resulted in significant reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions from the Topeka production facility. The use of natural gas has been reduced by 400 to 420 million standard cubic feet per year with corresponding reductions of 24,000 to 25,000 tons of CO{sub 2}. The boiler does require auxiliary â??functions,â?ť however, that are unnecessary for a gas-fired boiler. These include heavy motors and fans for moving fuel and firing the boiler, trucks and equipment for delivering the fuel and moving at the boiler plant, and chippers for preparing the fuel prior to delivery. Each of these operations requires the combustion of fossil fuels or electricity and has associated CO{sub 2} emissions. Even after accounting for each of these auxiliary processes, however, the biomass-fired boiler results in net emission reductions of 22,500 to 23,500 tons of CO{sub 2} per year.

  11. Project Profile: The Sacramento Municipal Utility District Consumnes Power Plant Solar Augmentation Project

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD), under the Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Heat Integration for Baseload Renewable Energy Development (HIBRED) program, is demonstrating a hybrid CSP solar energy system that takes advantage of an existing electrical generator for its power block and transmission interconnection.

  12. Carbon footprints of heating oil and LPG heating systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Eric P.

    2012-07-15

    For European homes without access to the natural gas grid, the main fuels-of-choice for heating are heating oil and LPG. How do the carbon footprints of these compare? Existing literature does not clearly answer this, so the current study was undertaken to fill this gap. Footprints were estimated in seven countries that are representative of the EU and constitute two-thirds of the EU-27 population: Belgium, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Poland and the UK. Novelties of the assessment were: systems were defined using the EcoBoiler model; well-to-tank data were updated according to most-recent research; and combustion emission factors were used that were derived from a survey conducted for this study. The key finding is that new residential heating systems fuelled by LPG are 20% lower carbon and 15% lower overall-environmental-impact than those fuelled by heating oil. An unexpected finding was that an LPG system's environmental impact is about the same as that of a bio heating oil system fuelled by 100% rapeseed methyl ester, Europe's predominant biofuel. Moreover, a 20/80 blend (by energy content) with conventional heating oil, a bio-heating-oil system generates a footprint about 15% higher than an LPG system's. The final finding is that fuel switching can pay off in carbon terms. If a new LPG heating system replaces an ageing oil-fired one for the final five years of its service life, the carbon footprint of the system's final five years is reduced by more than 50%.

  13. Heat Pipe Technology for Energy Conservation in the Process Industry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, B. L. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    is installed at an angle below the condenser section to assist in gravity return of the condensate inside the heat pipes. The angle of installation in the boiler is 30 deg to maximize heat piping capacity and allows smoother duct turns. The exhaust gases... stream_source_info ESL-IE-85-05-47.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 24618 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-85-05-47.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 HEAT PIPE TECHNOLOGY...

  14. Warren Estates District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al.,Turin,Village

  15. Thermodynamic Analysis of Combined Cycle District Heating System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suresh, S.; Gopalakrishnan, H.; Kosanovic, D.

    2011-01-01

    thermal power plant using design data, where the exergy destruction from each component in the plant was calculated. Senthil Murugan and Subbarao [4] analyzed a Rankine-Kalina combined cycle plant with different modes of operation. Unlike... thermal power plant, Wiley-Interscience. [4] Senthil Murugan R., Subbarao P.M.V., Thermodynamic Analysis of Rankine-Kalina Combined Cycle. [5] Kotas T.J., 1985, The exergy method of thermal plant analysis, Butterworths, London. [6] Rivero R., Rend...

  16. Trends in Commercial Buildings--District Heat Detail

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    confidence ranges. If you have trouble viewing this page, please contact the National Energy Information Center at (202) 586-8800. Energy Information Administration Commercial...

  17. A Geothermal District-Heating System and Alternative Energy Research...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Project Description With prior support from the Department of Energy (GRED III Program), New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (NM Tech) has established that this resource...

  18. Idaho Capitol Mall District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas: Energy Resources JumpNewTexas:HydrothermallyIFB Agro| OpenWater PermitOpen Energy

  19. Gila Hot Springs District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky:BoreOpen EnergyGermencikWorldGig Harbor, Washington:Open

  20. Low Temperature Direct Use District Heating Geothermal Facilities | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas:Montezuma, Arizona:Oregon: EnergyLloyd,LoudonLouviers,Resource | OpenEnergy

  1. Manzanita Estates District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas:Montezuma,Information MHKMHK5TransportManitouChange | Open

  2. Litchfield Correctional Center District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View NewTexas:Montezuma, Arizona:Oregon: Energy ResourcesGrove, Iowa:Lisle, Illinois:ListFacility |

  3. New Mexico State University District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPI Ventures LtdNeville, Ohio:Archaeological Permits WebpageforLand Office

  4. Oregon Institute of Technology District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland:NPIProtectio Program | Open Energy Information| Open Energy

  5. District of Columbia Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul AugAdditions1 0Delaware2 1CubicYear

  6. District of Columbia Heat Content of Natural Gas Consumed

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul AugAdditions1 0Delaware2 1CubicYearMay-15

  7. Geothermal District Heating System City of Klamath Falls | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA Jump to:ofEnia SpAFlexStock|GenesaGeographicGeospheraInformation

  8. Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmentalBowerbank,CammackFLIR Jump to:RAPIDCavallo Energy Jump

  9. GEOTHERMAL DISTRICT HEATING Dr. John W. Lund, PE Emeritus Director

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,Executive Compensation References: FARWashers | Department of

  10. Alaska Gateway School District Adopts Combined Heat and Power | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergy Webinar:I Due Date Adv. FossilMethodsDepartment»of Energy

  11. 1 Copyright 2013 by ASME Proceedings of the ASME 2013 Summer Heat Transfer Conference

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khandekar, Sameer

    water mixtures (b) a gas-phase catalytic reactor. We focus on the fundamental experimental heat transfer studies (pool and flow boiling of ethanol-water mixtures) required for the primary pre-heater boiler of flow boiling process, pool-boiling of ethanol- water mixtures has also been initiated. After

  12. Investigation of heat transfer and combustion in the advanced fluidized bed combustor (FBC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Seong W. Lee

    1998-10-01

    The objective of this project is to predict the heat transfer and combustion performance in newly-designed fluidized bed combustor (FBC) and to provide the design guide lines and innovative concept for small-scale boiler and furnace. The major accomplishments are summarized.

  13. Economic analysis of using excess renewable electricity to displace heating fuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    -penetration renewable electricity systems, it is less expensive to install higher capacity of renewables and to allow cases, a natural gas fired boiler (NGB) was modeled to be installed in the building for back-up heat for human related activities (the solar radiation alone on the earth's surface is more than three orders

  14. Composite tube cracking in kraft recovery boilers: A state-of-the-art review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singbeil, D.L.; Prescott, R.; Keiser, J.R.; Swindeman, R.W.

    1997-07-01

    Beginning in the mid-1960s, increasing energy costs in Finland and Sweden made energy recovery more critical to the cost-effective operation of a kraft pulp mill. Boiler designers responded to this need by raising the steam operating pressure, but almost immediately the wall tubes in these new boilers began to corrode rapidly. Test panels installed in the walls of the most severely corroding boiler identified austenitic stainless steel as sufficiently resistant to the new corrosive conditions, and discussions with Sandvik AB, a Swedish tube manufacturer, led to the suggestion that coextruded tubes be used for water wall service in kraft recovery boilers. Replacement of carbon steel by coextruded tubes has solved most of the corrosion problems experienced by carbon steel wall tubes, however, these tubes have not been problem-free. Beginning in early 1995, a multidisciplinary research program funded by the US Department of Energy was established to investigate the cause of cracking in coextruded tubes and to develop improved materials for use in water walls and floors of kraft recovery boilers. One portion of that program, a state-of-the-art review of public- and private-domain documents related to coextruded tube cracking in kraft recovery boilers is reported here. Sources of information that were consulted for this review include the following: tube manufacturers, boiler manufacturers, public-domain literature, companies operating kraft recovery boilers, consultants and failure analysis laboratories, and failure analyses conducted specifically for this project. Much of the information contained in this report involves cracking problems experienced in recovery boiler floors and those aspects of spout and air-port-opening cracking not readily attributable to thermal fatigue. 61 refs.

  15. Design and development for a low emission boiler system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Department of Energy initiated the Combustion 2000 program to develop the next generation of coal-fired power plants. Sargent & Lundy (S&L) is working on the Low Emission Boiler System (LEBS) portion of the program led by Riley Stoker Corporation, with support from Textron Defense Systems, Tecogen, and Reaction Engineering International. Together these organizations form {open_quotes}the Riley Team.{close_quotes} There are four phases of the LEBS development program. Currently, we are working in Phase I, which involves the design of a 400 MWe unit. Phase II through IV will involve pilot scale component testing and a Proof-of-Concept facility ({approximately}40MWe) design, construction, and operation. This document comprises the Design and Development Report for the LEBS. The report describes the design basis, design uncertainties and development plan for each of the major LEBS subsystems.

  16. Computation Modeling and Assessment of Nanocoatings for Ultra Supercritical Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Shingledecker; D. Gandy; N. Cheruvu; R. Wei; K. Chan

    2011-06-21

    Forced outages and boiler unavailability of coal-fired fossil plants is most often caused by fire-side corrosion of boiler waterwalls and tubing. Reliable coatings are required for Ultrasupercritical (USC) application to mitigate corrosion since these boilers will operate at a much higher temperatures and pressures than in supercritical (565 C {at} 24 MPa) boilers. Computational modeling efforts have been undertaken to design and assess potential Fe-Cr-Ni-Al systems to produce stable nanocrystalline coatings that form a protective, continuous scale of either Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} or Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The computational modeling results identified a new series of Fe-25Cr-40Ni with or without 10 wt.% Al nanocrystalline coatings that maintain long-term stability by forming a diffusion barrier layer at the coating/substrate interface. The computational modeling predictions of microstructure, formation of continuous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale, inward Al diffusion, grain growth, and sintering behavior were validated with experimental results. Advanced coatings, such as MCrAl (where M is Fe, Ni, or Co) nanocrystalline coatings, have been processed using different magnetron sputtering deposition techniques. Several coating trials were performed and among the processing methods evaluated, the DC pulsed magnetron sputtering technique produced the best quality coating with a minimum number of shallow defects and the results of multiple deposition trials showed that the process is repeatable. scale, inward Al diffusion, grain growth, and sintering behavior were validated with experimental results. The cyclic oxidation test results revealed that the nanocrystalline coatings offer better oxidation resistance, in terms of weight loss, localized oxidation, and formation of mixed oxides in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale, than widely used MCrAlY coatings. However, the ultra-fine grain structure in these coatings, consistent with the computational model predictions, resulted in accelerated Al diffusion from the coating into the substrate. An effective diffusion barrier interlayer coating was developed to prevent inward Al diffusion. The fire-side corrosion test results showed that the nanocrystalline coatings with a minimum number of defects have a great potential in providing corrosion protection. The coating tested in the most aggressive environment showed no evidence of coating spallation and/or corrosion attack after 1050 hours exposure. In contrast, evidence of coating spallation in isolated areas and corrosion attack of the base metal in the spalled areas were observed after 500 hours. These contrasting results after 500 and 1050 hours exposure suggest that the premature coating spallation in isolated areas may be related to the variation of defects in the coating between the samples. It is suspected that the cauliflower-type defects in the coating were presumably responsible for coating spallation in isolated areas. Thus, a defect free good quality coating is the key for the long-term durability of nanocrystalline coatings in corrosive environments. Thus, additional process optimization work is required to produce defect-free coatings prior to development of a coating application method for production parts.

  17. Task 2: Materials for Advanced Boiler and Oxy-combustion Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holcolm, Gordon R.; McGhee, Barry

    2009-05-01

    The PowerPoint presentation provides an overview of the tasks for the project: Characterize advanced boiler (oxy-fuel combustion, biomass co-fired) gas compositions and ash deposits; Generate critical data on the effects of environmental conditions; develop a unified test method with a view to future standardization; Generate critical data for coating systems for use in advanced boiler systems; Generate critical data for flue gas recycle piping materials for oxy-fuel systems; and, Compile materials performance data from laboratory and pilot plant exposures of candidate alloys for use in advanced boiler systems.

  18. Benefits of Industrial Boiler Control and Economic Load Allocation at AMOCO Chemicals, Decatur, Alabama 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winter, J.

    1998-01-01

    , it is considered by this solution. The global solution makes recommendations to advise the operator as to what the optimum loading is for all the boilers, including recommending adding or removing boilers from service, and changing the load on any base-loaded... as long as the soluti os remain valid, as defmed above. To achieve savings from the local soluti n optimization, the boiler loads must be altered fr~m the traditional, non-optimized loading strategy 0 a common plant master signal cascaded to all boil...

  19. The reapplication of energetic materials as boiler fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buckley, S.G.; Sclippa, G.C.; Ross, J.R.

    1997-02-01

    Decommissioning of weapons stockpiles, off-specification production, and upgrading of weapons systems results in a large amount of energetic materials (EM) such as rocket propellant and primary explosives that need to be recycled or disposed of each year. Presently, large quantities of EM are disposed of in a process known as open-burn/open-detonation (OB/OD), which not only wastes their energy content, but may release large quantities of hazardous material into the environment. Here the authors investigate the combustion properties of several types of EM to determine the feasibility of reapplication of these materials as boiler fuels, a process that could salvage the energy content of the EM as well as mitigate any potential adverse environmental impact. Reapplication requires pretreatment of the fuels to make them safe to handle and to feed. Double-base nitrocellulose and nitroglycerin, trinitrotoluene (TNT), nitroguanidine, and a rocket propellant binder primarily composed of polybutidiene impregnated with aluminum flakes have been burned in a 100-kW downfired flow reactor. Most of these fuels have high levels of fuel-bound nitrogen, much of it bound in the form of nitrate groups, resulting in high NO{sub x} emissions during combustion. The authors have measured fuel-bound nitrate conversion efficiencies to NO{sub x} of up to 80%, suggesting that the nitrate groups do not follow the typical path of fuel nitrogen through HCN leading to NO{sub x}, but rather form NO{sub x} directly. They show that staged combustion is effective in reducing NO{sub x} concentrations in the postcombustion gases by nearly a factor of 3. In the rocket binder, measured aluminum particle temperatures in excess of 1700{degrees}C create high levels of thermal NO{sub x}, and also generate concern that molten aluminum particles could potentially damage boiler equipment. Judicious selection of the firing method is thus required for aluminum-containing materials.

  20. Guide to Combined Heat and Power Systems for Boiler Owners and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy, Washington, D.C., February 1984. 15. Cogeneration Handbook for the Pulp and Paper Industry, DOENBB-0057, prepared by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S....