Sample records for district direct interconnection

  1. Pepco and PJM Interconnection Comments on District of Columbia...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Pepco and PJM Interconnection Comments on District of Columbia Public Service Commission, Docket No. EO-05-01 Comments and Answer to Requests for Rehearing Pepco and PJM...

  2. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In July 2006 the District of Columbia Public Service Commission (PSC) initiated a formal inquiry into the development of uniform interconnection procedures for on-site distributed generation...

  3. EIS-0389: Trinity Public Utility District Direct Interconnection, CA

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS analyzes DOE's decision to construct and operate proposed power transmission facilities in Trinity County, California.

  4. Economic and Conservation Evaluation of Capital Renovation Projects: Cameron County Irrigation District No. 2 (San Benito) Ė Interconnect Between Canals 39 and 13-A1 and Replacement of Rio Grande Diversion Pumping Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rister, M. Edward; Lacewell, Ronald D.; Sturdivant, Allen W.; Robinson, John R.C.; Popp, Michael C.; Ellis, John R.

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ís Endorsement of RGIDECON © 1 This report contains economic and financial analyses results for a capital rehabilitation project proposed by the Cameron County Irrigation District No. 2 (a.k.a. San Benito) in the Rio Grande Basin. Readers interested...TR-212 March 2003 Economic and Conservation Evaluation of Capital Renovation Projects: Cameron County Irrigation District No. 2 (San Benito) Ė Interconnect Between Canals 39 and 13-A1 and Replacement of Rio Grande Diversion Pumping Plant M. Edward...

  5. Direct Energy Services (District of Columbia) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A Potential Microhydro SiteDaytonDestilariaDirect Energy Services

  6. Interconnection Panel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentationógiven at at the Fall 2012 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meetingódiscusses the interconnection panel, including an overview of the generation interconnection process (GIP), and interconnection agreements and their terms.

  7. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The interconnection standards approved by the PUC also updated Nevada's net-metering policy, originally enacted in 1997. Previously, Nevada Revised Statute 704.774 addressed basic interconnection...

  8. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In November 2005, the Indiana Utility Regulatory Commission (IURC) approved rules governing the interconnection of distributed generation (DG). Indiana's interconnection rules require the state's...

  9. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New York first adopted uniform interconnection standards in 1999 (see history below). The Standard Interconnection Requirements (SIR) have subsequently been amended several times since, most...

  10. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Utahís interconnection rules are based on the Federal Energy Regulatory Commissionís (FERC) interconnection standards for small generators, adopted in May 2005 by FERC Order 2006. Utah's rules for...

  11. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Different rules govern the interconnection of distributed generation facilities in Iowa, depending on whether or not the interconnection is with a utility whose rates are regulated by the Iowa...

  12. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    West Virginia's interconnection standards include two levels of review. The qualifications and application fees for each level are as follows:...

  13. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Iowa Utilities Board (IUB) adopted rules for utilities in May 2010 for the interconnection of distributed generation facilities in Iowa.

  14. Interconnection Guidelines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Missouri Public Service Commission (PSC) adopted administrative rules for investor-owned utilities that included simplified interconnection standards, and electric cooperatives and municipal ...

  15. Interconnection Guidelines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Interconnected customers must comply with all relevant national standards, including those established by the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE), Underwriters Laboratories (U...

  16. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New Jersey's interconnection standards apply statewide to all electric distribution utilities, but not to the small number of municipal utilities and electric cooperatives in the state. The rules,...

  17. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Virginia has two interconnection standards: one for net-metered systems and one for systems that are not net-metered.

  18. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In December 2005, the Colorado Public Utilities Commission (PUC) adopted standards for net metering and interconnection, as required by Amendment 37, a renewable-energy ballot initiative approved...

  19. Interconnection Guidelines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The South Carolina Public Service Commission (PSC) adopted simplified interconnection guidelines for small distributed generation (DG) in December 2006. These guidelines address renewable-energy...

  20. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In April 2008, Kentucky enacted legislation which required the Kentucky Public Service Commission (PSC) to develop interconnection and net metering guidelines for all retail electric suppliers...

  1. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In September 2007, the Washington Utilities and Transportation Commission (UTC) adopted interconnection standards for distributed generation (DG) systems up to 20 megawatts (MW) in capacity. The...

  2. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The North Carolina Utilities Commission (NCUC) adopted comprehensive interconnection standards for distributed generation in June 2008. The NCUC standards, which are similar to the Federal Energy...

  3. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Maine Public Utility Commission (PUC) adopted interconnection procedures in January 2010. These rules apply to all transmission and distribution utilities operating in the state and apply to...

  4. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Michigan Public Service Commission (PSC) first adopted interconnection standards for distributed generation (DG) in September 2003. The original standards provided for 5 levels of...

  5. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Pennsylvania Public Utilities Commission was required to adopt interconnection standards and net-metering rules by the Alternative Energy Portfolio Standards Act of 2004.The PUC subsequently...

  6. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In December 2007, the Connecticut Department of Public Utility Control (DPUC) now called the Public Utilities Regulatory Authority (PURA) approved new interconnection guidelines for distributed...

  7. Interconnection Guidelines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Wyoming's net-metering law includes basic interconnection requirements for systems up to 25 kilowatts (kW) in capacity that generate electricity using solar, wind, hydropower or biomass resources....

  8. Interconnection Guidelines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The interconnection guidelines state that the utility can require a customer to have liability insurance, if the insurance is easily available at a reasonable cost to the customer.† No external...

  9. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fees for interconnection requests increase with each Level. A Level 1 request must submit $50 fee; a Level 2 request must submit a fee of $50 plus $1/kW of generator capacity; a Level 3 request m...

  10. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In February 2011, the DPU opened up a docket to examine net metering and interconnection of distributed generation. While the intent is to make changes to net metering, issues relating to interco...

  11. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Oregon has three separate interconnection standards: one for net-metered systems, one for small generator facilities (non-net metered systems) and one for large generator facilities (non-net...

  12. Interconnection Guidelines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Kansas adopted the Net Metering and Easy Connection Act in May 2009 (see K.S.A. 66-1263 through 66-1271), establishing interconnection guidelines and net metering for customer-owned generators. Net...

  13. Interconnection Guidelines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nebraska enacted legislation in May 2009 [http://nebraskalegislature.gov/FloorDocs/101/PDF/Final/LB436.pdf (LB 436)], establishing general rules for interconnecting and net metering systems that...

  14. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    NOTE: In Feb 2014, the PUC proposed changes to the Stateís Alternative Energy Portfolio Standard, Interconnection, and Net-metering rules. The documents associated with the case can be accessed at...

  15. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In March 2008, the Florida Public Service Commission (PSC) adopted interconnection rules for renewable-energy systems up to two megawatts (MW) in capacity. The PSC rules apply only to the state's...

  16. Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Vermont has adopted separate interconnection standards for net-metered energy systems that are 150 kW or less, and for all other distributed-generation (DG) systems.

  17. Interconnection networks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Faber, V.; Moore, J.W.

    1988-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A network of interconnected processors is formed from a vertex symmetric graph selected from graphs GAMMA/sub d/(k) with degree d, diameter k, and (d + 1)exclamation/ (d /minus/ k + 1)exclamation processors for each d greater than or equal to k and GAMMA/sub d/(k, /minus/1) with degree d /minus/ 1, diameter k + 1, and (d + 1)exclamation/(d /minus/ k + 1)exclamation processors for each d greater than or equal to k greater than or equal to 4. Each processor has an address formed by one of the permutations from a predetermined sequence of letters chosen a selected number of letters at a time, and an extended address formed by appending to the address the remaining ones of the predetermined sequence of letters. A plurality of transmission channels is provided from each of the processors, where each processor has one less channel than the selected number of letters forming the sequence. Where a network GAMMA/sub d/(k, /minus/1) is provided, no processor has a channel connected to form an edge in a direction delta/sub 1/. Each of the channels has an identification number selected from the sequence of letters and connected from a first processor having a first extended address to a second processor having a second address formed from a second extended address defined by moving to the front of the first extended address the letter found in the position within the first extended address defined by the channel identification number. The second address is then formed by selecting the first elements of the second extended address corresponding to the selected number used to form the address permutations. 9 figs.

  18. Frequency Instability Problems in North American Interconnections

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cycle CFC Constant frequency control CPS Control Performance Standards DC Direct Current EI Eastern Interconnection EIA Energy Information Agency ERCOT Electric Reliability...

  19. Interconnected semiconductor devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grimmer, Derrick P. (White Bear Lake, MN); Paulson, Kenneth R. (North St. Paul, MN); Gilbert, James R. (St. Paul, MN)

    1990-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductor layer and conductive layer formed on a flexible substrate, divided into individual devices and interconnected with one another in series by interconnection layers and penetrating terminals.

  20. Interconnection Guidelines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In April 2001, Arkansas enacted legislation directing the Arkansas Public Service Commission (PSC) to establish net-metering rules for certain renewable-energy systems. The Arkansas Public Service...

  1. February 2003 INTERCONNECTIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    an Interconnection Security Agreement (ISA), which specifies the technical and security requirements of the interconFebruary 2003 SECURE INTERCONNECTIONS FOR INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY SYSTEMS Shirley Radack, Editor choose to interconnect their IT systems for a variety of reasons, depending on their organizational needs

  2. Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Susanville District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

  3. PJM Interconnection (Multiple States)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    PJM (originally Pennsylvania, Jersey, Maryland) Interconnection is a Regional Transmission Organization (RTO) that coordinates the movement of wholesale electricity in all or parts of Delaware,...

  4. Interconnect Issues in NE

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers interconnect issues in the Northeast and is given at the Spring 2010 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting in Providence, Rhode Island.

  5. Perforation patterned electrical interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frey, Jonathan

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This disclosure describes systems and methods for increasing the usable surface area of electrical contacts within a device, such as a thin film solid state device, through the implementation of electrically conductive interconnects. Embodiments described herein include the use of a plurality of electrically conductive interconnects that penetrate through a top contact layer, through one or more multiple layers, and into a bottom contact layer. The plurality of conductive interconnects may form horizontal and vertical cross-sectional patterns. The use of lasers to form the plurality of electrically conductive interconnects from reflowed layer material further aids in the manufacturing process of a device.

  6. Solar cell array interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, P.G.; Thompson, J.B.; Colella, N.J.; Williams, K.A.

    1995-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical interconnects are disclosed for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value. 4 figs.

  7. Solar cell array interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Thompson, Jesse B. (Brentwood, CA); Colella, Nicolas J. (Livermore, CA); Williams, Kenneth A. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical interconnects for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb-Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb-Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value.

  8. Micro-fluidic interconnect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Okandan, Murat (Albuquerque, NM); Galambos, Paul C. (Albuquerque, NM); Benavides, Gilbert L. (Los Ranchos, NM); Hetherington, Dale L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for simultaneously aligning and interconnecting microfluidic ports is presented. Such interconnections are required to utilize microfluidic devices fabricated in Micro-Electromechanical-Systems (MEMS) technologies, that have multiple fluidic access ports (e.g. 100 micron diameter) within a small footprint, (e.g. 3 mm.times.6 mm). Fanout of the small ports of a microfluidic device to a larger diameter (e.g. 500 microns) facilitates packaging and interconnection of the microfluidic device to printed wiring boards, electronics packages, fluidic manifolds etc.

  9. Interconnection Guidelines (Rhode Island)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Rhode Island enacted legislation (HB 6222) in June 2011 to standardize the application process for the interconnection of customer-sited renewable-energy systems to the stateís distribution grid....

  10. Puerto Rico- Interconnection Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2007, the Autoridad de EnergŪa Electrica de Puerto Rico (PREPA*) adopted interconnection standards based on the standard contained in the federal Energy Policy Act of 2005. PREPA promulgated...

  11. Reliability of Electrical Interconnects (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devoto, D.

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation discusses the status of NREL's research on the reliability of electrical interconnects.

  12. Integration of a waveguide self-electrooptic effect device and a vertically coupled interconnect waveguide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vawter, G. Allen (Corrales, NM)

    2008-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A self-electrooptic effect device ("SEED") is integrated with waveguide interconnects through the use of vertical directional couplers. Light initially propagating in the interconnect waveguide is vertically coupled to the active waveguide layer of the SEED and, if the SEED is in the transparent state, the light is coupled back to the interconnect waveguide.

  13. Reversible concentric ring microfluidic interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Mary Kathryn, 1980-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A reversible, Chip-to-Chip microfluidic interconnect was designed for use in high temperature, high pressure applications such as chemical microreactor systems. The interconnect uses two sets of concentric, interlocking ...

  14. Capillary interconnect device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Renzi, Ronald F

    2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An interconnecting device for connecting a plurality of first fluid-bearing conduits to a corresponding plurality of second fluid-bearing conduits thereby providing fluid communication between the first fluid-bearing conduits and the second fluid-bearing conduits. The device includes a manifold and one or two ferrule plates that are held by compressive axial forces.

  15. Regional Districts (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Adjacent Water Control and Improvement Districts and Municipal Utility Districts can opt to form a Regional District to oversee water issues. Such districts may be created:(1) to purchase, own,...

  16. Solid-state energy storage module employing integrated interconnect board

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouillard, Jean; Comte, Christophe; Daigle, Dominik; Hagen, Ronald A.; Knudson, Orlin B.; Morin, Andre; Ranger, Michel; Ross, Guy; Rouillard, Roger; St-Germain, Philippe; Sudano, Anthony; Turgeon, Thomas A.

    2003-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to an improved electrochemical energy storage device. The electrochemical energy storage device includes a number of solid-state, thin-film electrochemical cells which are selectively interconnected in series or parallel through use of an integrated interconnect board. The interconnect board is typically disposed within a sealed housing which also houses the electrochemical cells, and includes a first contact and a second contact respectively coupled to first and second power terminals of the energy storage device. The interconnect board advantageously provides for selective series or parallel connectivity with the electrochemical cells, irrespective of electrochemical cell position within the housing. Fuses and various electrical and electromechanical devices, such as bypass, equalization, and communication devices for example, may also be mounted to the interconnect board and selectively connected to the electrochemical cells.

  17. Circuits & Systems Test Circuits for Characterization of Process, Device, and Interconnect Variation ................................................................................. CS.1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reif, Rafael

    Circuits & Systems Test Circuits for Characterization of Process, Device, and Interconnect................................................................................................. CS.2 45nm Direct-battery DC-DC Converter for Mobile Applications

  18. Elko County School District District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Elko County School District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Elko County School District District Heating Low Temperature...

  19. San Bernardino District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    San Bernardino District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility San Bernardino District Heating Sector Geothermal energy Type District Heating...

  20. Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Warm Springs Water District District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  1. Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Philip District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  2. Boise City Geothermal District Heating District Heating Low Temperatur...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Boise City Geothermal District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Boise City Geothermal District Heating District Heating...

  3. Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Pagosa Springs District Heating District Heating Low...

  4. Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Midland District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility Midland District Heating Sector Geothermal energy Type District Heating Location Midland,...

  5. Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Kethcum District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  6. Pepco and PJM Interconnection Comments on District of Columbia Public

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking ofOilNEWResponse(Expired) |CERCLACompensation ¬Ľ

  7. Pepco and PJM Interconnection Comments on District of Columbia Public

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin of Contamination in235-1 TermoelectricaPaving the pathPeople's Equal Action and26,May

  8. RidgenoseSolarInterconnectionProject

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ridgenose Solar Interconnection Project The Western Area Power Administration (Western), an agency of the Department of Energy (DOE), is preparing an environmental assessment (EA)...

  9. RidgenoseSolarInterconnectionProject

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to a request from Longview Solar, LLC, to interconnect their proposed Cliffrose Solar Energy Plant, located south of Kingman, Mohave County, Arizona to Westerns...

  10. Interconnection Agreements for Onsite Generation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers Interconnection Agreements for Onsite Generation and is given at the Spring 2011 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting.

  11. GSA-Utility Interconnection Agreements

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentationógiven at at the Fall 2012 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meetingócovers the General Service Administration's (GSA's) utility interconnection agreements.

  12. Interconnection Standards for Small Generators

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) adopted "small generator" interconnection standards for distributed energy resources up to 20 megawatts (MW) in capacity in May 2005.* The FERC's...

  13. DistrictHeating Nuevasaladecalderasydistribucin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraguela, Basilio B.

    DistrictHeating Nuevasaladecalderasydistribuciůn decalorenelŠreauniversitariade AZapateira Jesķs, difusiůn. DISTRICT HEATING O CALEFACCI”N DE BARRIO #12;MATERIALIZACI”N INTEGRACI”N VISUAL DE ELEMENTOS rendimiento global de la instalaciůn. - Contabilizaciůn de pťrdidas en tuberŪas de distribuciůn. #12;DISTRICT

  14. Process for electrically interconnecting electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Thompson, Jesse B. (Brentwood, CA); Colella, Nicolas J. (Livermore, CA); Williams, Kenneth A. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrical interconnects for solar cells or other electronic components using a silver-silicone paste or a lead-tin (Pb--Sn) no-clean fluxless solder cream, whereby the high breakage of thin (<6 mil thick) solar cells using conventional solder interconnect is eliminated. The interconnects of this invention employs copper strips which are secured to the solar cells by a silver-silicone conductive paste which can be used at room temperature, or by a Pb--Sn solder cream which eliminates undesired residue on the active surfaces of the solar cells. Electrical testing using the interconnects of this invention has shown that no degradation of the interconnects developed under high current testing, while providing a very low contact resistance value.

  15. Interconnection of bundled solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Michael; Bessette, II, Norman F; Litka, Anthony F; Schmidt, Douglas S

    2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for electrically interconnecting a plurality of fuel cells to provide dense packing of the fuel cells. Each one of the plurality of fuel cells has a plurality of discrete electrical connection points along an outer surface. Electrical connections are made directly between the discrete electrical connection points of adjacent fuel cells so that the fuel cells can be packed more densely. Fuel cells have at least one outer electrode and at least one discrete interconnection to an inner electrode, wherein the outer electrode is one of a cathode and and anode and wherein the inner electrode is the other of the cathode and the anode. In tubular solid oxide fuel cells the discrete electrical connection points are spaced along the length of the fuel cell.

  16. Release Resistant Electrical Interconnections For Mems Devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM); Garrett, Stephen E. (Albuquerque, NM); Reber, Cathleen A. (Corrales, NM)

    2005-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A release resistant electrical interconnection comprising a gold-based electrical conductor compression bonded directly to a highly-doped polysilicon bonding pad in a MEMS, IMEMS, or MOEMS device, without using any intermediate layers of aluminum, titanium, solder, or conductive adhesive disposed in-between the conductor and polysilicon pad. After the initial compression bond has been formed, subsequent heat treatment of the joint above 363 C creates a liquid eutectic phase at the bondline comprising gold plus approximately 3 wt % silicon, which, upon re-solidification, significantly improves the bond strength by reforming and enhancing the initial bond. This type of electrical interconnection is resistant to chemical attack from acids used for releasing MEMS elements (HF, HCL), thereby enabling the use of a "package-first, release-second" sequence for fabricating MEMS devices. Likewise, the bond strength of an Au--Ge compression bond may be increased by forming a transient liquid eutectic phase comprising Au-12 wt % Ge.

  17. Conservation Districts (South Dakota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A Conservation District can be established by petition of registered voters within the territory proposed for organization into the district, with the approval of the State Conservation Commission....

  18. Natural Resources Districts (Nebraska)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute establishes Natural Resources District, encompassing all of the area of the state, to conserve, protect, develop, and manage Nebraska's natural resources. These districts replace and...

  19. Sandia National Laboratories: Small Generator Interconnection...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Commission Revised Its Small Generator Interconnection Procedure and Small Generator Interconnection Agreement On March 4, 2014, in Distribution Grid Integration, Energy, Grid...

  20. Sandia National Laboratories: Updating Interconnection Screens...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Commission Revised Its Small Generator Interconnection Procedure and Small Generator Interconnection Agreement On March 4, 2014, in Distribution Grid Integration, Energy, Grid...

  1. Renewable Systems Interconnection: Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kroposki, B.; Margolis, R.; Kuswa, G.; Torres, J.; Bower, W.; Key, T.; Ton, D.

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy launched the Renewable Systems Interconnection (RSI) study in 2007 to address the challenges to high penetrations of distributed renewable energy technologies. The RSI study consists of 14 additional reports.

  2. Analysis of interconnect microstrip lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luong, Giam-Minh

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the return loss of the slot-coupled microstrip dipole. Section C presents two simulations of the return loss on the slot- coupled rectangular patch antenna. A. Interconnect of Microstrip Lines Several circuits with the geometry of Figure 1 were fabricated.... Experimental and Theoretical Results of the Interconnect Two circuits were designed and fabricated. Each circuit consists of two substrates as shown in Figure 9. One substrate has an open microstrip line etched in one side and an aperture etched...

  3. Solid-state energy storage module employing integrated interconnect board

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouillard, Jean (Saint-Luc, CA); Comte, Christophe (Montreal, CA); Daigle, Dominik (St-Hyacinthe, CA); Hagen, Ronald A. (Stillwater, MN); Knudson, Orlin B. (Vadnais Heights, MN); Morin, Andre (Longueuil, CA); Ranger, Michel (Lachine, CA); Ross, Guy (Beloeil, CA); Rouillard, Roger (Beloeil, CA); St-Germain, Philippe (Outremont, CA); Sudano, Anthony (Laval, CA); Turgeon, Thomas A. (Fridley, MN)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to an improved electrochemical energy storage device. The electrochemical energy storage device includes a number of solid-state, thin-film electrochemical cells which are selectively interconnected in series or parallel through use of an integrated interconnect board. The interconnect board is typically disposed within a sealed housing which also houses the electrochemical cells, and includes a first contact and a second contact respectively coupled to first and second power terminals of the energy storage device. The interconnect board advantageously provides for selective series or parallel connectivity with the electrochemical cells, irrespective of electrochemical cell position within the housing. In one embodiment, a sheet of conductive material is processed by employing a known milling, stamping, or chemical etching technique to include a connection pattern which provides for flexible and selective interconnecting of individual electrochemical cells within the housing, which may be a hermetically sealed housing. Fuses and various electrical and electro-mechanical devices, such as bypass, equalization, and communication devices for example, may also be mounted to the interconnect board and selectively connected to the electrochemical cells.

  4. Economic Improvement Districts (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A legislative body may adopt an ordinance establishing an economic improvement district and an Economic Improvement Board to manage development in a respective district. The Board can choose to...

  5. Directions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Directions Where We Are Directions The Bradbury Science Museum is located at 1350 Central Avenue Los Alamos, NM 87544 Los Alamos (elevation 7,355 feet) is perched high atop the...

  6. Interconnection | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup | OpenHunan RunhuaInner MongoliaIntegrysInteracta Jump

  7. New Report Characterizes Existing Offshore Wind Grid Interconnection...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    New Report Characterizes Existing Offshore Wind Grid Interconnection Capabilities New Report Characterizes Existing Offshore Wind Grid Interconnection Capabilities September 3,...

  8. Flexible interconnects for fuel cell stacks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lenz, David J.; Chung, Brandon W.; Pham, Ai Quoc

    2004-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    An interconnect that facilitates electrical connection and mechanical support with minimal mechanical stress for fuel cell stacks. The interconnects are flexible and provide mechanically robust fuel cell stacks with higher stack performance at lower cost. The flexible interconnects replace the prior rigid rib interconnects with flexible "fingers" or contact pads which will accommodate the imperfect flatness of the ceramic fuel cells. Also, the mechanical stress of stacked fuel cells will be smaller due to the flexibility of the fingers. The interconnects can be one-sided or double-sided.

  9. Project Profile: The Sacramento Municipal Utility District Consumnes Power Plant Solar Augmentation Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD), under the Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Heat Integration for Baseload Renewable Energy Development (HIBRED) program, is demonstrating a hybrid CSP solar energy system that takes advantage of an existing electrical generator for its power block and transmission interconnection.

  10. Groundwater Conservation Districts (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Groundwater Conservation Districts, as created following procedures described in Water Code 36, are designed to provide for the conservation, preservation, protection, recharging, and prevention of...

  11. Municipal Utility Districts (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Municipal Utility Districts, regulated by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, may be created for the following purposes: (1) the control, storage, preservation, and distribution of its...

  12. City of Klamath Falls District Heating District Heating Low Temperatur...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name City of Klamath Falls District Heating District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility City of Klamath Falls...

  13. Revised Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the Summit/Westward Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N /A

    2004-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to amend its July 25, 2003, Record of Decision (ROD) regarding the proposed Summit/Westward Project (Project) to offer contract terms for an optional interconnection of this Project into the Federal Columbia River Transmission System (FCRTS). Under this optional interconnection plan, BPA would integrate electric power from the Project into the FCRTS at a point adjacent to Clatskanie People's Utility District (CPUD) existing Wauna Substation. In order to deliver power to this location, CPUD would develop a new substation (Bradbury Substation) at a site near the Project and a new 230-kV transmission line from there to CPUD's Wauna Substation, which is already connected to the FCRTS. As part of this revised decision, BPA will facilitate CPUD development of the Bradbury-Wauna transmission line by allowing joint use of BPA right-of-way. This will involve reconstructing a section of BPA's 115-kV Allston-Astoria No. 1 transmission line from single-circuit H-frame wood-pole design to double-circuit single metal pole design. Terms of BPA participation in CPUD's development of the Bradbury-Wauna transmission line will be documented in a Construction Agreement. This optional interconnection plan is in addition to BPA's previous offer for interconnection of the Project at BPA's Allston Substation, as documented in the July 25, 2003, ROD. As with the initial interconnection plan, the decision to offer terms to interconnect the Project through the optional interconnection plan is consistent with BPA's Business Plan Final Environmental Impact Statement (BP EIS) (DOE/EIS-0183, June 1995), and the Business Plan Record of Decision (BP ROD, August 1995). This decision thus is similarly tiered to the Business Plan ROD.

  14. Economic Development Project Districts (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Redevelopment commissions may petition legislative bodies to designate economic development project districts in cities with populations between 80,500 and 500,000. Such districts may be...

  15. Interconnect

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes | National Nuclear SecurityIntellectual

  16. Double interconnection fuel cell array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, R.; Zymboly, G.E.

    1993-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuel cell array is made, containing number of tubular, elongated fuel cells which are placed next to each other in rows (A, B, C, D), where each cell contains inner electrodes and outer electrodes, with solid electrolyte between the electrodes, where the electrolyte and outer electrode are discontinuous, having two portions, and providing at least two opposed discontinuities which contain at least two oppositely opposed interconnections contacting the inner electrode, each cell having only three metallic felt electrical connectors which contact surrounding cells, where each row is electrically connected to the other. 5 figures.

  17. Direct

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign: Potential ApplicationYu,EnergyDimitriDirac ChargeDiracDirect

  18. Recent Development of SOFC Metallic Interconnect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu JW, Liu XB

    2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interest in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) stems from their higher eĪciencies and lower levels of emitted pollu- tants, compared to traditional power production methods. Interconnects are a critical part in SOFC stacks, which connect cells in series electrically, and also separate air or oxygen at the cathode side from fuel at the anode side. Therefore, the requirements of interconnects are the most demanding, i:e:, to maintain high elec- trical conductivity, good stability in both reducing and oxidizing atmospheres, and close coeĪcient of thermal expansion (CTE) match and good compatibility with other SOFC ceramic components. The paper reviewed the interconnect materials, and coatings for metallic interconnect materials.

  19. NREL: Technology Deployment - Distributed Generation Interconnection...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Distributed Generation Interconnection Collaborative Become a Member DGIC members are included in quarterly informational meetings and discussions related to distributed PV...

  20. Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Abraham Ellis, Roger Hill Sandia National Laboratories Tom Key, Kristen Nicole, Jeff Smith Electric Power Research Institute Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System...

  1. Updated January 2014 District Coordinators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Lapeer, Sanilac, St. Clair, Tuscola Joseph Bixler MSU Extension District 10, 200 Grand River Ave., Suite

  2. Durability of Metallic Interconnects and Protective Coatings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Zhenguo; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    To build up a useful voltage, a number of solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are electrically connected into series in a stack via interconnects, which are placed between adjacent cells. In addition to functioning as a bi-polar electrical connector, the interconnect also acts as a separator plate that separates the fuel at the anode side of one cell from the air at the cathode side on an adjacent cell. During SOFC operation at the high temperatures, the interconnects are thus simultaneously exposed to the oxidizing air at one side and a reducing fuel that can be either hydrogen or hydrocarbon at the other. Besides, they are in contact with adjacent components, such as electrodes or electrical contacts, seals, etc. With steady reduction in SOFC operating temperatures into the low or intermediate range 600-850oC, oxidation resistant alloys are often used to construct interconnects. However, the metallic interconnects may degrade via interactions at their interfaces with surrounding environments or adjacent components, potentially affecting the stability and performance of interconnects and the SOFC stacks. Thus protection layers are applied to metallic interconnects that also intend to mitigate or prevent chromium migration into cells and the cell poisoning. This chapter provides a comprehensive review of materials for metallic interconnects, their degradation and coating protection.

  3. Pricing in Information-Centric Network Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universitť de

    --ICN interconnection, economic incentives, col- laborative caching, non-cooperative games, network pricing. I economic incentives for caching and sharing content in ICN interconnection. For example, an ISP provider Engineering Department, ETH Zurich, Switzerland Abstract--We propose a pricing model to study the economic

  4. SIMULTANEOUS INTERCONNECTION AND DAMPING ASSIGNMENT PASSIVITYBASED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Batlle, Carles

    SIMULTANEOUS INTERCONNECTION AND DAMPING ASSIGNMENT PASSIVITY≠BASED CONTROL: TWO PRACTICAL EXAMPLES≠UNAM, Apartado Postal 70-256, 04510 Mīexico D.F., MEXICO, gerardoe@servidor.unam.mx Laboratoire des Signaux et.Ortega@lss.supelec.fr Abstract: We argue in this paper that the standard two≠stage procedure used in Interconnection and Damping

  5. Updating Technical Screens for PV Interconnection: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coddington, M.; Ellis, A.; Lynn, K.; Razon, A.; Key, T.; Kroposki, B.; Mather, B.; Hill, R.; Nicole, K.; Smith, J.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar photovoltaics (PV) is the dominant type of distributed generation (DG) technology interconnected to electric distribution systems in the United States, and deployment of PV systems continues to increase rapidly. Considering the rapid growth and widespread deployment of PV systems in United States electric distribution grids, it is important that interconnection procedures be as streamlined as possible to avoid unnecessary interconnection studies, costs, and delays. Because many PV interconnection applications involve high penetration scenarios, the process needs to allow for a sufficiently rigorous technical evaluation to identify and address possible system impacts. Existing interconnection procedures are designed to balance the need for efficiency and technical rigor for all DG. However, there is an implicit expectation that those procedures will be updated over time in order to remain relevant with respect to evolving standards, technology, and practical experience. Modifications to interconnection screens and procedures must focus on maintaining or improving safety and reliability, as well as accurately allocating costs and improving expediency of the interconnection process. This paper evaluates the origins and usefulness of the capacity penetration screen, offers potential short-term solutions which could effectively allow fast-track interconnection to many PV system applications, and considers longer-term solutions for increasing PV deployment levels in a safe and reliable manner while reducing or eliminating the emphasis on the penetration screen.

  6. EPRI PEAC Corp.: Certification Model Program and Interconnection Agreement Tools

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Summarizes the work of EPRI PEAC Corp., under contract to DOE's Distribution and Interconnection R&D, to develop a certification model program and interconnection agreement tools to support the interconnection of distributed energy resources.

  7. Method for fabricating an interconnected array of semiconductor devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grimmer, Derrick P. (White Bear Lake, MN); Paulson, Kenneth R. (North St. Paul, MN); Gilbert, James R. (St. Paul, MN)

    1989-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Semiconductor layer and conductive layer formed on a flexible substrate, divided into individual devices and interconnected with one another in series by interconnection layers and penetrating terminals.

  8. The regulation of internet interconnection : assessing network market power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maida, Elisabeth M. (Elisabeth Marigo)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Interconnection agreements in the telecommunications industry have always been constrained by regulation. Internet interconnection has not received the same level of scrutiny. Recent debates regarding proposed mergers, ...

  9. Renewable Generation and Interconnection to the Electrical Grid...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Generation and Interconnection to the Electrical Grid in Southern California Renewable Generation and Interconnection to the Electrical Grid in Southern California Presentation...

  10. CHP: Connecting the Gap between Markets and Utility Interconnection...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    CHP: Connecting the Gap between Markets and Utility Interconnection and Tariff Practices, 2006 CHP: Connecting the Gap between Markets and Utility Interconnection and Tariff...

  11. Chip-Level Electromigration Reliability for Cu Interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gall, M.; Oh, C.; Grinshpon, A.; Zolotov, V.; Panda, R.; Demircan, E.; Mueller, J.; Justison, P.; Ramakrishna, K.; Thrasher, S.; Hernandez, R.; Herrick, M.; Fox, R.; Boeck, B.; Kawasaki, H. [Technology Solutions Organization, Freescale Semiconductor (United States); Haznedar, H.; Ku, P. [Sector Quality, Freescale Semiconductor (United States)

    2004-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Even after the successful introduction of Cu-based metallization, the electromigration (EM) failure risk has remained one of the most important reliability concerns for most advanced process technologies. Ever increasing operating current densities and the introduction of low-k materials in the backend process scheme are some of the issues that threaten reliable, long-term operation at elevated temperatures. The traditional method of verifying EM reliability only through current density limit checks is proving to be inadequate in general, or quite expensive at the best. A Statistical EM Budgeting (SEB) methodology has been proposed to assess more realistic chip-level EM reliability from the complex statistical distribution of currents in a chip. To be valuable, this approach requires accurate estimation of currents for all interconnect segments in a chip. However, no efficient technique to manage the complexity of such a task for very large chip designs is known. We present an efficient method to estimate currents exhaustively for all interconnects in a chip. The proposed method uses pre-characterization of cells and macros, and steps to identify and filter out symmetrically bi-directional interconnects. We illustrate the strength of the proposed approach using a high-performance microprocessor design for embedded applications as a case study.

  12. Design space exploration of photonic interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Chen, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As processors scale deep into the multi-core and many-core regimes, bandwidth and energy-efficiency of the on-die interconnect network have become paramount design issues. Recognizing potential limits of electrical ...

  13. Distributed Solar Interconnection Challenges and Best Practices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The continued growth of the distributed solar market in the United States has spurred electric utilities, regulators, and stakeholders to consider improvements to distributed generation (DG) interconnection processes. More than 475,000 solar energy systems were interconnected in the U.S. by the end of 2013, but 1 million are expected by the end of 2017. Based on the SunShot Initiative's current trajectory, permitting, inspection, and interconnection (PII) soft costs are expected to drop from a current cost of $0.17/watt to $0.14/watt by 2020. While the actual cost metrics for utility PII are undetermined, they are real. A survey and interviews conducted by Solar Electric Power Association (SEPA) in 2014 have uncovered utility initiatives to lower the administrative costs of DG interconnection, making the process of connecting to the grid simpler and more transparent for customers.

  14. Carbon nanotube interconnects for IC chips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anwar Ali, Hashina Parveen

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been investigated as candidate materials to replace or augment the existing copper-based technologies as interconnects for Integrated Circuit (IC) chips. Being ballistic conductors, CNTs are ...

  15. Carbon nanotube synthesis for integrated circuit interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nessim, Gilbert Daniel

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on their properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been identified as ideal replacements for copper interconnects in integrated circuits given their higher current density, inertness, and higher resistance to ...

  16. NREL Variability Analysis for the Western Interconnect (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; King, J.

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation investigates the effects of several Energy Imbalance Markets implementations in the Western Interconnect.

  17. Accelerating Fatigue Testing for Cu Ribbon Interconnects (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bosco, N.; Silverman, T.; Wohlgemuth , J.; Kurtz, S.; Inoue, M.; Sakurai, K.; Shioda, T.; Zenkoh, H.; Miyashita, M.; Tadanori, T.; Suzuki, S.

    2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation describes fatigue experiments and discusses dynamic mechanical loading for Cu ribbon interconnects.

  18. Forestry Policies (District of Columbia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Forest policy and guidelines in Washington D.C. are focused on urban forestry, and are managed by the District Department of Transportation's Urban Forestry Administration. In 2010 The District...

  19. Water Resource Districts (North Dakota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Water Resource Districts are created throughout the state of North Dakota to manage, conserve, protect, develop, and control water resources. Each District will be governed by a Water Resource...

  20. Local Water Quality Districts (Montana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute provides for the creation of local water quality districts to prevent and mitigate ground and surface water contamination. Each local water quality district may develop and implement a...

  1. Direct-bonded GaAs/InGaAs tandem solar cell Katsuaki Tanabe,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atwater, Harry

    , Pasadena, California 91125 Daniel J. Aiken Emcore Photovoltaics, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87123 Mark W. The direct-bonded interconnect between subcells of this two-junction cell enables monolithic interconnection- proach is to employ direct-bonded interconnects between subcells of a multijunction cell, which enables

  2. Low Carbon Jobs in an Interconnected World | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |Jilin ZhongdiantouLichuanInformationLoremoJobs in an Interconnected

  3. Union County - La Grande, Oregon geothermal district heating: feasibility assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkins, H. II; Giddings, M.; Hanson, P.

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents an assessment of geothermal district heating in the City of La Grande, Oregon. Eight study area districts were analyzed to determine their economic feasibility. Results from the analyses conclude that certain districts within the City of La Grande are economically feasible if certain assumptions are correct. Development of geothermal district heating for these areas would provide direct energy and dollar savings to the building owners and would also provide direct and indirect benefits to low and moderate income households within the City.

  4. District Wide Geothermal Heating Conversion Blaine County School...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    District Wide Geothermal Heating Conversion Blaine County School District District Wide Geothermal Heating Conversion Blaine County School District This project will impact the...

  5. SPIDERS Bi-Directional Charging Station Interconnection Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, M.

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Smart Power Infrastructure Demonstration for Energy Reliability and Security (SPIDERS) program is a multi-year Department of Defense-Department of Energy (DOE) collaborative effort that will demonstrate integration of renewables into island-able microgrids using on-site generation control, demand response, and energy storage with robust security features at multiple installations. Fort Carson, Colorado, will be the initial development and demonstration site for use of plug-in electric vehicles as energy storage (also known as vehicle-to-grid or V2G).

  6. International District Energy Association

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Since its formation in 1909, the International District Energy Association (IDEA) has served as a principal industry advocate and management resource for owners, operators, developers, and suppliers of district heating and cooling systems in cities, campuses, bases, and healthcare facilities. Today, with over 1,400 members in 26 countries, IDEA continues to organize high-quality technical conferences that inform, connect, and advance the industry toward higher energy efficiency and lower carbon emissions through innovation and investment in scalable sustainable solutions. With the support of DOE, IDEA performs industry research and market analysis to foster high impact projects and help transform the U.S. energy industry. IDEA was an active participant in the original Vision and Roadmap process and has continued to partner with DOE on combined heat and power (CHP) efforts across the country.

  7. Planarization of metal films for multilevel interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuckerman, David B. (Livermore, CA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the fabrication of multilevel integrated circuits, each metal layer is anarized by heating to momentarily melt the layer. The layer is melted by sweeping laser pulses of suitable width, typically about 1 microsecond duration, over the layer in small increments. The planarization of each metal layer eliminates irregular and discontinuous conditions between successive layers. The planarization method is particularly applicable to circuits having ground or power planes and allows for multilevel interconnects. Dielectric layers can also be planarized to produce a fully planar multilevel interconnect structure. The method is useful for the fabrication of VLSI circuits, particularly for wafer-scale integration.

  8. Planarization of metal films for multilevel interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuckerman, D.B.

    1985-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In the fabrication of multilevel integrated circuits, each metal layer is planarized by heating to momentarily melt the layer. The layer is melted by sweeping lase pulses of suitable width, typically about 1 microsecond duration, over the layer in small increments. The planarization of each metal layer eliminates irregular and discontinuous conditions between successive layers. The planarization method is particularly applicable to circuits having ground or power planes and allows for multilevel interconnects. Dielectric layers can also be planarized to produce a fully planar multilevel interconnect structure. The method is useful for the fabrication of VLSI circuits, particularly for wafer-scale integration.

  9. Planarization of metal films for multilevel interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuckerman, D.B.

    1985-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In the fabrication of multilevel integrated circuits, each metal layer is planarized by heating to momentarily melt the layer. The layer is melted by sweeping laser pulses of suitable width, typically about 1 microsecond duration, over the layer in small increments. The planarization of each metal layer eliminates irregular and discontinuous conditions between successive layers. The planarization method is particularly applicable to circuits having ground or power planes and allows for multilevel interconnects. Dielectric layers can also be planarized to produce a fully planar multilevel interconnect structure. The method is useful for the fabrication of VLSI circuits, particularly for wafer-scale integration.

  10. Planarization of metal films for multilevel interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuckerman, D.B.

    1989-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    In the fabrication of multilevel integrated circuits, each metal layer is planarized by heating to momentarily melt the layer. The layer is melted by sweeping laser pulses of suitable width, typically about 1 microsecond duration, over the layer in small increments. The planarization of each metal layer eliminates irregular and discontinuous conditions between successive layers. The planarization method is particularly applicable to circuits having ground or power planes and allows for multilevel interconnects. Dielectric layers can also be planarized to produce a fully planar multilevel interconnect structure. The method is useful for the fabrication of VLSI circuits, particularly for wafer-scale integration. 6 figs.

  11. Planarization of metal films for multilevel interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuckerman, David B. (Livermore, CA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the fabrication of multilevel integrated circuits, each metal layer is anarized by heating to momentarily melt the layer. The layer is melted by sweeping laser pulses of suitable width, typically about 1 microsecond duration, over the layer in small increments. The planarization of each metal layer eliminates irregular and discontinuous conditions between successive layers. The planarization method is particularly applicable to circuits having ground or power planes and allows for multilevel interconnects. Dielectric layers can also be planarized to produce a fully planar multilevel interconnect structure. The method is useful for the fabrication of VLSI circuits, particularly for wafer-scale integration.

  12. Interconnect assembly for an electronic assembly and assembly method therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gerbsch, Erich William

    2003-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An interconnect assembly and method for a semiconductor device, in which the interconnect assembly can be used in lieu of wirebond connections to form an electronic assembly. The interconnect assembly includes first and second interconnect members. The first interconnect member has a first surface with a first contact and a second surface with a second contact electrically connected to the first contact, while the second interconnect member has a flexible finger contacting the second contact of the first interconnect member. The first interconnect member is adapted to be aligned and registered with a semiconductor device having a contact on a first surface thereof, so that the first contact of the first interconnect member electrically contacts the contact of the semiconductor device. Consequently, the assembly method does not require any wirebonds, but instead merely entails aligning and registering the first interconnect member with the semiconductor device so that the contacts of the first interconnect member and the semiconductor device make electrically contact, and then contacting the second contact of the first interconnect member with the flexible finger of the second interconnect member.

  13. 1District health services research: 2011 District health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geldenhuys, Jaco

    meDicine anD Primary care, faculty of meDicine anD HealtH sciences, stellenboscH university #12RoDUctIon...................................................................................................................................... clInIcal famIly meDIcIne anD DIstRIct health caRe systems1District health services research: 2011 District health services research: 2011Division of family

  14. Inland Navigation Districts and Florida Inland Navigation District Law (Florida)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The first part of this legislation establishes Inland Navigation Districts, which are authorized to plan for and manage the development of inland waterways, and to maintain public navigation...

  15. Thin-film chip-to-substrate interconnect and methods for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuckerman, D.B.

    1988-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Integrated circuit chips are electrically connected to a silicon wafer interconnection substrate. Thin film wiring is fabricated down bevelled edges of the chips. A subtractive wire fabrication method uses a series of masks and etching steps to form wires in a metal layer. An additive method direct laser writes or deposits very thin lines which can then be plated up to form wires. A quasi-additive or subtractive/additive method forms a pattern of trenches to expose a metal surface which can nucleate subsequent electrolytic deposition of wires. Low inductance interconnections on a 25 micron pitch (1600 wires on a 1 cm square chip) can be produced. The thin film hybrid interconnect eliminates solder joints or welds, and minimizes the levels of metallization. Advantages include good electrical properties, very high wiring density, excellent backside contact, compactness, and high thermal and mechanical reliability. 6 figs.

  16. U.S. Geothermal Signs Interconnection Agreement for Neal Hot...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Signs Interconnection Agreement for Neal Hot Springs Power Project Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: U.S. Geothermal Signs Interconnection...

  17. subcollector Schottky collector contact & interconnect metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodwell, Mark J. W.

    base collector depletion layer subcollector ohmic metal (a) base collector depletion layer Schottky metal base emitter collector collector We emitter base emitter emitter We Wc Wc (b) Schottky collector contact & interconnect metals Emitter & collector Ohmics undoped collector depletion layer base N

  18. Asynchronous intrusion recovery for interconnected web services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sabatini, David M.

    Asynchronous intrusion recovery for interconnected web services Ramesh Chandra, Taesoo Kim, and tracking down and recovering from such an attack re- quires significant manual effort. Web services for such web services. Aire addresses several challenges, such as propagating repair across services when some

  19. Soil Conservation Districts Law (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation establishes a soil and water conservation division within the Iowa Department of Agriculture, as well as local soil and water conservation districts. The regulations accompanying...

  20. Interconnected hydro-thermal systems Models, methods, and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Interconnected hydro-thermal systems Models, methods, and applications Magnus Hindsberger Kgs. Lyngby 2003 IMM-PHD-2003-112 Interconnected hydro-thermalsystems #12;Technical University of Denmark 45882673 reception@imm.dtu.dk www.imm.dtu.dk IMM-PHD-2003-112 ISSN 0909-3192 #12;Interconnected hydro

  1. Flip chip electrical interconnection by selective electroplating and bonding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Liwei

    the interconnection and device substrates to en- hance the ion diffusion during the final electroplating and bondingFlip chip electrical interconnection by selective electroplating and bonding L.-W. Pan, P. Yuen, L of flip-chip, selective elec- troplating and bonding. The electrical interconnection lines are built

  2. UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT EASTERN DISTRICT OF MICHIGAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shyy, Wei

    UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT EASTERN DISTRICT OF MICHIGAN SOUTHERN DIVISION COALITION TO DEFEND PARTY, Plaintiffs, v. JENNIFER GRANHOLM, in her official capacity as Governor of the State of Michigan, the REGENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN, the BOARD OF TRUSTEES OF MICHIGAN STATE UNIVERSITY, the BOARD

  3. Drainage, Sanitation, and Public Facilities Districts (Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation provides for the establishment of sanitary, sanitation, drainage, and public facilities districts in Virginia. Designated districts are public bodies, and have the authority to...

  4. Litchfield Correctional Center District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Correctional Center District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Litchfield Correctional Center District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  5. District Energy Technologies | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Technologies District Energy Technologies District energy systems produce steam, hot water, or chilled water at a central plant. Then they pipe the energy to...

  6. Gold-based electrical interconnections for microelectronic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM); Garrett, Stephen E. (Albuquerque, NM); Reber, Cathleen A. (Corrales, NM); Watson, Robert D. (Tijeras, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of making an electrical interconnection from a microelectronic device to a package, comprising ball or wedge compression bonding a gold-based conductor directly to a silicon surface, such as a polysilicon bonding pad in a MEMS or IMEMS device, without using layers of aluminum or titanium disposed in-between the conductor and the silicon surface. After compression bonding, optional heating of the bond above 363 C. allows formation of a liquid gold-silicon eutectic phase containing approximately 3% (by weight) silicon, which significantly improves the bond strength by reforming and enhancing the initial compression bond. The same process can be used for improving the bond strength of Au--Ge bonds by forming a liquid Au-12Ge eutectic phase.

  7. District Energy Technologies | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you0andEnergyGlobal Nuclearof aDepartment-ofBenefitsDistrict Energy

  8. Vera Irrigation District | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit withTianlin BaxinUmwelt ManagementVera Irrigation District Jump to: navigation,

  9. Missouri School District Charges Up

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Missouri's Lee's Summit R-7 school district's distribution fleet was tired. Many of the vehicles had racked up more than 300,000 miles and made frequent trips to the shop to repair the 20 plus-year-old parts.

  10. UNIVERSITY OF THE DISTRICT OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    District of Columbia, University of the

    UNIVERSITY OF THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA 1 Removal of Eutrophic Nutrients from Wastewater-Supplemented Digester Elutriate in the Fermentor 2. The Effect of Differential- Heating of Digester Elutriate on its

  11. Groundwater Conservation Districts: Success Stories†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Porter, Dana; Persyn, Russell A.; Enciso, Juan

    1999-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Demand for water is increasing, so our aquifers must be conserved and protected. The Groundwater Conservation Districts in Texas are carrying out a number of successful programs in the areas of education and public awareness, technical assistance...

  12. Groundwater Conservation Districts: Success Stories

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Porter, Dana; Persyn, Russell A.; Enciso, Juan

    1999-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    these limited resources is increasing, so our aquifers must be conserved and protected for the benefit of the state?s economy, our natural ecosystems, and our quality of life. The Texas Water Code, Chapter 36, calls for the creation of Groundwater Conservation... groundwater reservoirs or their subdivisions.? In Texas, local deci- sion making through Groundwater Conservation Districts has been the rule and not the exception. In fact, Groundwater Conservation Districts are the state?s preferred method of groundwater...

  13. Development of Ceramic Interconnect Materials for SOFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Kyung J.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Marina, Olga A.

    2010-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Currently, acceptor-doped lanthanum chromite is the state-of-the-art ceramic interconnect material for high temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) due to its fairly good electronic conductivity and chemical stability in both oxidizing and reducing atmospheres, and thermal compatibility with other cell components. The major challenge for acceptor-doped lanthanum chromite for SOFC interconnect applications is its inferior sintering behavior in air, which has been attributed to the development of a thin layer of Cr2O3 at the interparticle necks during the initial stages of sintering. In addition, lanthanum chromite is reactive with YSZ electrolyte at high temperatures, forming a highly resistive lanthanum zirconate phase (La2Zr2O7), which further complicates co-firing processes. Acceptor-doped yttrium chromite is considered to be one of the promising alternatives to acceptor-doped lanthanum chromite because it is more stable with respect to the formation of hydroxides in SOFC operating conditions, and the formation of impurity phases can be effectively avoided at co-firing temperatures. In addition, calcium-doped yttrium chromite exhibits higher mechanical strength than lanthanum chromite-based materials. The major drawback of yttrium chromite is considered to be its lower electrical conductivity than lanthanum chromite. The properties of yttrium chromites could possibly be improved and optimized by partial substitution of chromium with various transition metals. During FY10, PNNL investigated the effect of various transition metal doping on chemical stability, sintering and thermal expansion behavior, microstructure, electronic and ionic conductivity, and chemical compatibility with other cell components to develop the optimized ceramic interconnect material.

  14. Data integrity for on-chip interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singhal, Rohit

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    -Chairs of Committee, Rabi Mahapatra Gwan Choi Committee Members, Duncan M. Walker Eun Jung Kim Jiang Hu Madhav Pappu Head of Department, Valerie Taylor May 2007 Major Subject: Computer Science iii ABSTRACT Data Integrity for On-Chip Interconnects. (May 2007) Rohit... Singhal, B. Tech., Indian Institute of Technology; M.S., Texas A&M University Co{Chairs of Advisory Committee: Dr. Rabi Mahapatra Dr. Gwan Choi With shrinking feature size and growing integration density in the Deep Sub- Micron (DSM) technologies...

  15. Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System Integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coddington, M.; Mather, B.; Kroposki, B.; Lynn, K.; Razon, A.; Ellis, A.; Hill, R.; Key, T.; Nicole, K.; Smith, J.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This white paper evaluates the origins and usefulness of the capacity penetration screen, offer short-term solutions which could effectively allow fast-track interconnection to many PV system applications, and considers longer-term solutions for increasing PV deployment levels in a safe and reliable manner while reducing or eliminating the emphasis on the penetration screen. Short-term and longer-term alternatives approaches are offered as examples; however, specific modifications to screening procedures should be discussed with stakeholders and must ultimately be adopted by state and federal regulatory bodies.

  16. Repairable chip bonding/interconnect process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernhardt, Anthony F. (Berkeley, CA); Contolini, Robert J. (Livermore, CA); Malba, Vincent (Livermore, CA); Riddle, Robert A. (Tracy, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A repairable, chip-to-board interconnect process which addresses cost and testability issues in the multi-chip modules. This process can be carried out using a chip-on-sacrificial-substrate technique, involving laser processing. This process avoids the curing/solvent evolution problems encountered in prior approaches, as well is resolving prior plating problems and the requirements for fillets. For repairable high speed chip-to-board connection, transmission lines can be formed on the sides of the chip from chip bond pads, ending in a gull wing at the bottom of the chip for subsequent solder.

  17. Repairable chip bonding/interconnect process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bernhardt, A.F.; Contolini, R.J.; Malba, V.; Riddle, R.A.

    1997-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A repairable, chip-to-board interconnect process which addresses cost and testability issues in the multi-chip modules is disclosed. This process can be carried out using a chip-on-sacrificial-substrate technique, involving laser processing. This process avoids the curing/solvent evolution problems encountered in prior approaches, as well is resolving prior plating problems and the requirements for fillets. For repairable high speed chip-to-board connection, transmission lines can be formed on the sides of the chip from chip bond pads, ending in a gull wing at the bottom of the chip for subsequent solder. 10 figs.

  18. Environmental Regulation Impacts on Eastern Interconnection Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markham, Penn N [ORNL; Liu, Yilu [ORNL; Young II, Marcus Aaron [ORNL

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the United States, recent environmental regulations will likely result in the removal of nearly 30 GW of oil and coal-fired generation from the power grid, mostly in the Eastern Interconnection (EI). The effects of this transition on voltage stability and transmission line flows have previously not been studied from a system-wide perspective. This report discusses the results of power flow studies designed to simulate the evolution of the EI over the next few years as traditional generation sources are replaced with environmentally friendlier ones such as natural gas and wind.

  19. Interconnecting gold islands with DNA origami

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes | National Nuclear SecurityIntellectualInterconnecting gold islands

  20. Energy Department Explores Deep Direct Use | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department Explores Deep Direct Use Cascaded uses of geothermal energy include district heating and industrial uses as well as agricultural applications like greenhouses and...

  1. Impact of High Solar Penetration in the Western Interconnection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Impact of High Solar Penetration in the Western Interconnection Debra Lew National Renewable Energy Laboratory Nicholas Miller, Kara Clark, Gary Jordan, and Zhi Gao GE Energy...

  2. EA-1989: Cliffrose Solar Energy Interconnection Project, Mohave...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Area Power Administration (Western) is preparing an EA that will assess the potential environmental impacts of interconnecting the proposed Cliffrose Solar Energy Project in...

  3. Utility Wind Integration Group Distributed Wind/Solar Interconnection Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This two-day workshop will answer your questions about interconnecting wind and solar plants and other distributed generation applications to electric distribution systems while providing insight...

  4. Proposed rule for Interconnection for Wind Energy and Other Alternativ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION 18 CFR Part 35 (Docket No. RM05-4-000) Interconnection for Wind Energy and Other Alternative Technologies (January 24, 2005) AGENCY: Federal Energy...

  5. Microgrid V2G Charging Station Interconnection Testing (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, M.

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation by Mike Simpson of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) describes NREL's microgrid vehicle-to-grid charging station interconnection testing.

  6. Response from PJM Interconnection LLC and Pepco to Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PJM Interconnection LLC and Pepco to Department of Energy Request for Information Concerning the Potential Need for Potomac River Station Generation Response from PJM...

  7. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Township High School District...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    School District 214 Workplace charging helps Township High School District 214's sustainability program by reducing its employees' carbon footprint in the community. The District...

  8. National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, John P. [ABB Inc; Liu, Shu [ABB Inc; Ibanez, Eduardo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Pennock, Ken [AWS Truepower; Reed, Greg [University of Pittsburgh; Hanes, Spencer [Duke Energy

    2014-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Offshore Wind Energy Grid Interconnection Study (NOWEGIS) considers the availability and potential impacts of interconnecting large amounts of offshore wind energy into the transmission system of the lower 48 contiguous United States. A total of 54GW of offshore wind was assumed to be the target for the analyses conducted. A variety of issues are considered including: the anticipated staging of offshore wind; the offshore wind resource availability; offshore wind energy power production profiles; offshore wind variability; present and potential technologies for collection and delivery of offshore wind energy to the onshore grid; potential impacts to existing utility systems most likely to receive large amounts of offshore wind; and regulatory influences on offshore wind development. The technologies considered the reliability of various high-voltage ac (HVAC) and high-voltage dc (HVDC) technology options and configurations. The utility system impacts of GW-scale integration of offshore wind are considered from an operational steady-state perspective and from a regional and national production cost perspective.

  9. Modern hot water district heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karnitz, M.A.; Barnes, M.H.; Kadrmas, C.; Nyman, H.O.

    1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The history of district heating in Europe is drastically different from that in the United States. The development of district heating in northern and eastern Europe started in the early 1950s. Hot water rather than steam was used as the transport medium and the systems have proven to be more economical. Recently, the northern European concept has been introduced into two US cities - St. Paul and Willmar, Minnesota. The hot water project in St. Paul started construction and operation in the summer and fall of 1983, respectively. The entire first phase of the St. Paul project will take two summers to construct and will connect approximately 80 buildings for a total of 150 MW(t). The system spans the entire St. Paul business district and includes privately owned offices and retail buildings, city and county government buildings, hospitals, the state Capitol complex, and several industrial customers. The City of Willmar, Minnesota, replaced an old steam system with a modern hot water system in the summer of 1982. The first phase of the hot water system was constructed in the central business district. The system serves a peak thermal load of about 10 MW(t) and includes about 12,000 ft of network. The Willmar system completed the second stage of development in the fall of 1983. These two new systems demonstrate the benefits of the low-temperature hot water district heating technology. The systems are economical to build, have high reliability, and have low maintenance and operating cost.

  10. Study of Internet autonomous system interconnectivity from BGP routing tables

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catalunya, Universitat PolitŤcnica de

    Study of Internet autonomous system interconnectivity from BGP routing tables Jose M. Barcelo ISPs (Internet Service Providers) and to interconnect enterprises to ISPs. ISPs usually are providers University of Baja California (UABC), Mexico. He is a PhD student at UPC, Spain, with a grant of the Mexican

  11. Virtual TCP Offload: Optimizing Ethernet Overlay Performance on Advanced Interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dinda, Peter A.

    Virtual TCP Offload: Optimizing Ethernet Overlay Performance on Advanced Interconnects Zheng Cui Patrick G. Bridges John R. Lange Peter A. Dinda Department of CS University of New Mexico Albuquerque, NM. Their performance suffers on advanced interconnects such as Infiniband, however, be- cause of differences between

  12. Flocking with Obstacle Avoidance in Switching Networks of Interconnected Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanner, Herbert G.

    Flocking with Obstacle Avoidance in Switching Networks of Interconnected Vehicles Herbert G. Tanner Mechanical Engineering Department University of New Mexico Abstract--The paper introduces a set of nonsmooth- tivity requirements on the interconnection network can be relaxed due to the common objective. I

  13. Simultaneous Interconnection and Damping Assignment PassivityBased Control: Two

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Batlle, Carles

    Simultaneous Interconnection and Damping Assignment Passivity≠Based Control: Two Practical Examples.doria@upc.edu 2 DEPFI≠UNAM, Apartado Postal 70-256, 04510 Mīexico D.F., MEXICO, gerardoe@servidor.unam.mx 3 Jd : Rn ◊ R Rn◊n , Hd : Rn R, satisfying the skew≠symmetry condition for the interconnection matrix

  14. Decentralized symbolic control of interconnected systems with application to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansson, Karl Henrik

    Decentralized symbolic control of interconnected systems with application to vehicle platooning A interconnection of continuous nonlinear systems and we address the decentralized design of local controllers funding from the European Union Seventh Framework Programme [FP7/2007-2013] under grant agreement n

  15. Generalized Lyapunov Function for Stability Analysis of Interconnected Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    Generalized Lyapunov Function for Stability Analysis of Interconnected Power Systems M. A. Mahmud for formulating generalized Lyapunov function for the stability analysis of interconnected power systems. Lyapunov function is formulated based on the total energy of power system where the system is considered as a single

  16. Updating Small Generator Interconnection Procedures for New Market Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coddington, M.; Fox, K.; Stanfield, S.; Varnado, L.; Culley, T.; Sheehan, M.

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Federal and state regulators are faced with the challenge of keeping interconnection procedures updated against a backdrop of evolving technology, new codes and standards, and considerably transformed market conditions. This report is intended to educate policymakers and stakeholders on beneficial reforms that will keep interconnection processes efficient and cost-effective while maintaining a safe and reliable power system.

  17. Solid-state energy storage module employing integrated interconnect board

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouillard, Jean; Comte, Christophe; Daigle, Dominik; Hagen, Ronald A.; Knudson, Orlin B.; Morin, Andre; Ranger, Michel; Ross, Guy; Rouillard, Roger; St-Germain, Philippe; Sudano, Anthony; Turgeon, Thomas A.

    2004-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical energy storage device includes a number of solid-state thin-film electrochemical cells which are selectively interconnected in series or parallel through use of an integrated interconnect board. The interconnect board is typically disposed within a sealed housing which also houses the electrochemical cells, and includes a first contact and a second contact respectively coupled to first and second power terminals of the energy storage device. The interconnect board advantageously provides for selective series or parallel connectivity with the electrochemical cells, irrespective of electrochemical cell position within the housing. Fuses and various electrical and electro-mechanical devices, such as bypass, equalization, and communication devices for example, may also be mounted to the interconnect board and selectively connected to the electrochemical cells.

  18. , Analysis of U.S. Net Metering and Interconnection Policy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haynes, Rusty; Cook, Chris

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Historically, the absence of interconnection standards has been one of the primary barriers to the deployment of distributed generation (DG) in the United States. Although significant progress in the development of interconnection standards was achieved at both the federal and state levels in 2005, interconnection policy and net-metering policy continue to confound regulators, lawmakers, DG businesses, clean-energy advocates and consumers. For this reason it is critical to keep track of developments related to these issues. The North Carolina Solar Center (NCSC) is home to two Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC) projects -- the National Interconnection Project and the Database of State Incentives for Renewable Energy (DSIRE). This paper will present the major federal and state level policy developments in interconnection and net metering in 2005 and early 2006. It will also present conclusions based an analysis of data collected by these two projects.

  19. Energy and water in the Western and Texas interconnects.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tidwell, Vincent Carroll

    2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy's Office of Electricity has initiated a $60M program to assist the electric industry in interconnection-level analysis and planning. The objective of this effort is to facilitate the development or strengthening of capabilities in each of the three interconnections serving the lower 48 states of the United States, to prepare analyses of transmission requirements under a broad range of alternative futures and develop long-term interconnection-wide transmission expansion plans. The interconnections are the Western Interconnection, the Eastern Interconnection, and the Texas Interconnection. One element of this program address the support and development of an integrated energy-water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners in the Western and Texas Interconnections to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning (the Eastern Interconnection is not participating in this element). Specific objectives include: (1) Develop an integrated Energy-Water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners in the Western and Texas Interconnections to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning. (2) Pursue the formulation and development of the Energy-Water DSS through a strongly collaborative process between members of this proposal team and the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), Western Governors Association (WGA), the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) and their associated stakeholder teams. (3) Exercise the Energy-Water DSS to investigate water stress implications of the transmission planning scenarios put forward by WECC, WGA, and ERCOT. The goals of this project are: (1) Develop an integrated Energy-Water Decision Support System (DSS) that will enable planners to analyze the potential implications of water stress for transmission and resource planning. (2) Pursue the formulation and development of the Energy-Water DSS through a strongly collaborative process between Western Electricity Coordinating Council, Electric Reliability Council of Texas, Western Governors Association, and Western States Water Council. (3) Exercise the Energy-Water DSS to investigate water transmission planning scenarios.

  20. In situ study on low-k interconnect time-dependent-dielectric-breakdown mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boon Yeap, Kong, E-mail: KongBoon.Yeap@globalfoundries.com [GLOBALFOUNDRIES, Fab8, 400 Stonebreak Rd. Extension, Malta, New York 12020 (United States); Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems, Maria-Reiche-Str. 2, D-01109 Dresden (Germany); Gall, Martin; Liao, Zhongquan; Sander, Christoph; Muehle, Uwe; Zschech, Ehrenfried [Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems, Maria-Reiche-Str. 2, D-01109 Dresden (Germany); Justison, Patrick [GLOBALFOUNDRIES, Fab8, 400 Stonebreak Rd. Extension, Malta, New York 12020 (United States); Aubel, Oliver; Hauschildt, Meike; Beyer, Armand; Vogel, Norman [GLOBALFOUNDRIES Dresden Module One LLC and Co. KG, Wilschdorfer Landstr. 101, D-01109 Dresden (Germany)

    2014-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An in situ transmission-electron-microscopy methodology is developed to observe time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) in an advanced Cu/ultra-low-k interconnect stack. A test structure, namely a ďtip-to-tipĒ structure, was designed to localize the TDDB degradation in small dielectrics regions. A constant voltage is applied at 25?įC to the ďtip-to-tipĒ structure, while structural changes are observed at nanoscale. Cu nanoparticle formation, agglomeration, and migration processes are observed after dielectric breakdown. The Cu nanoparticles are positively charged, since they move in opposite direction to the electron flow. Measurements of ionic current, using the Triangular-Voltage-Stress method, suggest that Cu migration is not possible before dielectric breakdown, unless the Cu/ultra-low-k interconnect stacks are heated to 200?įC and above.

  1. Evaluating Water Transfers in Irrigation Districts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghimire, Narishwar

    2013-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The participation of irrigation districts (IDs) in surface water transfers from agriculture-to-municipal uses is studied by examining IDsí economic and political behavior, comparing their performance with non-districts (non-IDs), and analyzing...

  2. University of the District of Columbia District of Columbia Drinking Water Blind Taste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    District of Columbia, University of the

    University of the District of Columbia District of Columbia Drinking Water Blind Taste Testing for Nutrition, Diet and Health Cooperative Extension Service University of the District of Columbia Dawanna University of the District of Columbia Date: May 2005 Prepared for the DC Water Resources Research Institute

  3. UNITED STATES DISTRICT COURT FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ___________________________________ ) THE HUMANE SOCIETY OF THE ) UNITED STATES, et al., ) ) Plaintiffs, ) ) v. ) Civil Action No. 05-1392 (ESH amendments be vacated; it is Case 1:05-cv-01392-ESH Document 29 Filed 05/26/2006 Page 1 of 2 #12;FURTHER/ ELLEN SEGAL HUVELLE United States District Judge Date: May 26, 2006 Case 1:05-cv-01392-ESH Document 29

  4. Vacant District Chair Positions (as of 1/28/2014)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Ronald C.

    , Lassen, Plumas Counties District 15 ­ Yuba & Sutter Counties District 16 ­ Tri-County Area (includes Red: NORTHERN CALIFORNIA District 10/11 ­ Siskiyou County, Humboldt & Eureka Counties District 13 ­ Modoc Bluff in Tehama County) REGION 2: SACRAMENTO & NORTH SIERRAS District 21 ­ El Dorado County District 23

  5. Groundwater and geothermal: urban district heating applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mounts, R.; Frazier, A.; Wood, E.; Pyles, O.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes how several cities use groundwater and geothermal energy in district heating systems. It begins with groundwater, introducing the basic technology and techniques of development, and describing two case studies of cities with groundwater-based district heating systems. The second half of the report consists of three case studies of cities with district heating systems using higher temperature geothermal resources.

  6. Oxidation Resistant, Cr Retaining, Electrically Conductive Coatings on Metallic Alloys for SOFC Interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vladimir Gorokhovsky

    2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes significant results from an on-going, collaborative effort to enable the use of inexpensive metallic alloys as interconnects in planar solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) through the use of advanced coating technologies. Arcomac Surface Engineering, LLC, under the leadership of Dr. Vladimir Gorokhovsky, is investigating filtered-arc and filtered-arc plasma-assisted hybrid coating deposition technologies to promote oxidation resistance, eliminate Cr volatility, and stabilize the electrical conductivity of both standard and specialty steel alloys of interest for SOFC metallic interconnect (IC) applications. Arcomac has successfully developed technologies and processes to deposit coatings with excellent adhesion, which have demonstrated a substantial increase in high temperature oxidation resistance, stabilization of low Area Specific Resistance values and significantly decrease Cr volatility. An extensive matrix of deposition processes, coating compositions and architectures was evaluated. Technical performance of coated and uncoated sample coupons during exposures to SOFC interconnect-relevant conditions is discussed, and promising future directions are considered. Cost analyses have been prepared based on assessment of plasma processing parameters, which demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed surface engineering process for SOFC metallic IC applications.

  7. Fabrication and Characterization of Through-Substrate Interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    del Alamo, Jesus A.

    We developed a through-substrate copper-damascene interconnect technology in silicon with minimal impedance. Via impedance was extracted using parameter measurements at 50 GHz that were matched to simple circuit models. ...

  8. Modeling Message Blocking and Deadlock in Interconnection Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pinkston, Timothy M.

    Modeling Message Blocking and Deadlock in Interconnection Networks Sugath Warnakulasuriya. This model allows various types of message blocking to be represented precisely, including deadlock. Our model of deadlock distinguishes between messages involved in deadlock and those simply dependent

  9. Energy scalability of on-chip interconnection networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konstantakopoulos, Theodoros K., 1977-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On-chip interconnection networks (OCN) such as point-to-point networks and buses form the communication backbone in multiprocessor systems-on-a-chip, multicore processors, and tiled processors. OCNs consume significant ...

  10. Advanced Unit Commitment Strategies in the United States Eastern Interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meibom, P.; Larsen, H. V.; Barth, R.; Brand, H.; Tuohy, A.; Ela, E.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project sought to evaluate the impacts of high wind penetrations on the U.S. Eastern Interconnection and analyze how different unit commitment strategies may affect these impacts.

  11. Interconnecting PV on New York City's Secondary Network Distribution System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, K.; Coddington, M.; Burman, K.; Hayter, S.; Kroposki, B.; Watson, A.

    2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study describes technical assistance provided by NREL to help New York City and Con Edison improve the interconnection of distributed PV systems on a secondary network distribution system.

  12. Low-Swing Signaling on Monolithically Integrated Global Graphene Interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Kyeong-Jae

    In this paper, we characterize the performance of monolithically integrated graphene interconnects on a prototype 0.35-?m CMOS chip. The test chip implements an array of transmitter/receivers to analyze the end-to-end data ...

  13. InterConnections A Report on Interdisciplinary Computing at the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gruner, Daniel S.

    InterConnections A Report on Interdisciplinary Computing at the University of Maryland Institute- gual corpora of parallel texts. In addition to UMIACS, the team includes researchers from New Mexico

  14. Design and analysis of high performance multistage interconnection networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhogavilli, Suresh K

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Small switching elements are the key components of multistage interconnection networks (MINS) used in multiprocessors and in high speed switching fabrics for broad-band communication systems. The structure of their internal buffers, efficient...

  15. Evaluation of phase change materials for reconfigurable interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khoo, Chee Ying

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The possible use of programmable integrated circuit interconnect vias using an indirectly heated phase change material is evaluated. Process development and materials investigations are examined. Devices capable of multiple ...

  16. Interconnecting PV on NYC's Secondary Network Distribution System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To assess ways to improve the interconnection process, NREL conducted a four-part study with support from DOE. The NREL team then compiled the final reports from each study into this report.

  17. Photovoltaic Systems Interconnected onto Secondary Network Distribution Systems Ė Success Stories

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report examines six case studies of photovoltaic (PV) systems integrated into secondary network systems. The six PV systems were chosen for evaluation because they are interconnected to secondary network systems located in four major Solar America Cities.

  18. An optical data receiver for integrated photonic interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Georgas, Michael S. (Michael Stephen)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The throughput bounds of traditional interconnect networks in microprocessors are being pushed to their limits. In past single-core processors, the number of long global wires constituted only a small fraction of the total. ...

  19. The hybrid ensemble smoother (HEnS) & noncartesian computational interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cessna, Joseph B.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Figure 3.5: A four-node tile can be extracted from thefolded 1D interconnect, a tile may be designed that contains3.10: The three fundamental tiles, denoted E, F , and G,

  20. Solar Energy to Benefit from New FERC Interconnection Procedures...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from New FERC Interconnection Procedures October 30, 2014 - 5:15pm Addthis As a major win for solar and testament to the impact of DOE SunShot funded research at the national...

  1. On the Optimality and Interconnection of Valiant Load-Balancing Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chuang, John C.-I.

    - terconnection regime evolves over time, as networks negotiate interconnection agreements with one anotherOn the Optimality and Interconnection of Valiant Load-Balancing Networks Moshe Babaioff and John to enable interconnection of multiple VLB networks, and study interconnection via bilateral peering

  2. EA-1990: Ridgenose Solar Energy Interconnection Facility, Mohave County, Arizona

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The EA was cancelled by the applicant.DOEís Western Area Power Administration (Desert Southwest Region) is preparing an EA that will assess the potential environmental impacts of a proposal to interconnect the planned Ridgenose Solar Energy Project to Westernís transmission system. Westernís actions could include constructing less than a mile of new transmission line from the solar facility to an existing substation, constructing an interconnection substation, and adding, moving, or modifying structures.

  3. Developing Generic Dynamic Models for the 2030 Eastern Interconnection Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kou, Gefei [ORNL; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Markham, Penn N [ORNL; Liu, Yilu [ORNL

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) has built three major power flow cases for the 2030 Eastern Interconnection (EI) based on various levels of energy/environmental policy conditions, technology advances, and load growth. Using the power flow cases, this report documents the process of developing the generic 2030 dynamic models using typical dynamic parameters. The constructed model was validated indirectly using the synchronized phasor measurements by removing the wind generation temporarily.

  4. Groundbreaking High-Performance Building Districts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jordan, J.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    organizations and governments Business stakeholders 2030 Districts are business models for urban sustainability through collaboration, leveraged financing, and shared resources. ESL-KT-14-11-28 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas.... ? Understand the basics functions of a 2030 District. ? Recognize that the 2030 District process will produce a healthier and more productive building. ? Be able to apply the available resources. ? Be able to utilize the resources to produce more efficient...

  5. District Coordinators District 1--Serving Baraga, Dickinson, Gogebic, Houghton, Iron, Keweenaw, Marquette, Menominee, Ontonagon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Tuscola Joseph Bixler MSU Extension District 10, 200 Grand River Ave., Suite 102, Port Huron, MI 48060 e

  6. White Bear Lake Conservation District (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute establishes the White Bear Lake Conservation District, which has the authority to set water and land use regulations for the area around White Bear Lake.

  7. Regional Districts, Commissions, and Authorities (South Carolina)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation establishes a number of regional districts, commissions, and authorities with the power to implement regulations and development plans for protected park and recreational areas.

  8. Berkeley County School District Rodney Thompson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kasman, Alex

    Berkeley County School District Rodney Thompson Chief Administrative Officer TO: Institutions of Higher Learning FROM: Rodney Thompson, Chief Administrative Officer Through: Dr. Anthony Parker

  9. Lassen Municipal Utility District- PV Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lassen Municipal Utility District (LMUD) is providing incentives for its customers to purchase solar electric photovoltaic (PV) systems. Rebate levels will decrease annually over the life of the...

  10. District Heating with Renewable Energy Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This no cost Community Renewable Energy Success Stories webinar on "District Heating with Renewable Energy" presented by the Energy Department will feature two presentations. The first will discuss...

  11. Empire District Electric- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Empire District Electric Company offers rebates for customers who construct highly efficient homes and purchase efficient central air conditioners. Eligible customers include residential...

  12. Community Renewable Energy Success Stories Webinar: District...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    District Heating with Renewable Energy," originally presented on November 20, 2012. Operator: The broadcast is now starting. All attendees are in listen-only mode. Sarah Busche:...

  13. Business Energy Rebate Program (District of Columbia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The District of Columbia's Sustainable Energy Utility (SEU) administers the Business Energy Rebate Program. Rebates are available to businesses and institutions for the installation of energy...

  14. assist district health: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... clInIcal famIly meDIcIne anD DIstRIct health caRe systems1District health services research: 2011 District health services...

  15. akonolinga health district: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... clInIcal famIly meDIcIne anD DIstRIct health caRe systems1District health services research: 2011 District health services...

  16. Average Consensus in the Presence of Delays in Directed Graph Topologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hadjicostis, Christoforos

    @kth.se. #12;directed interconnection topology (digraph). The objective of a consensus problem is to have all values that the nodes initially posses (initial values). When the agents (asymptotically) reach agreement shown in [4] that, under a fixed interconnection topology, average consensus can be reached

  17. Robust Synchronization of Directed Lur'e Networks with Incremental Nonlinearities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansson, Karl Henrik

    conditions are obtained for diffusively interconnected identical Lur'e systems on both the strongly connected interconnection topology and the topology containing a directed spanning tree. The static feedback gain matrices, certain variables of interest are required to reach an agreement through local interactions

  18. Net Metering and Interconnection Procedures-- Incorporating Best Practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason Keyes, Kevin Fox, Joseph Wiedman, Staff at North Carolina Solar Center

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    State utility commissions and utilities themselves are actively developing and revising their procedures for the interconnection and net metering of distributed generation. However, the procedures most often used by regulators and utilities as models have not been updated in the past three years, in which time most of the distributed solar facilities in the United States have been installed. In that period, the Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC) has been a participant in more than thirty state utility commission rulemakings regarding interconnection and net metering of distributed generation. With the knowledge gained from this experience, IREC has updated its model procedures to incorporate current best practices. This paper presents the most significant changes made to IREC√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?s model interconnection and net metering procedures.

  19. Fan-In Communications On A Cray Gemini Interconnect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Terry R [ORNL] [ORNL; Settlemyer, Bradley W [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the Cray Gemini interconnect as our platform, we present a study of an important class of communication operations the fan-in communication pattern. By its nature, fan-in communications form hot spots that present significant challenges for any interconnect fabric and communication software stack. Yet despite the inherent challenges, these communication patterns are common in both applications (which often perform reductions and other collective operations that include fan-in communication such as barriers) and system software (where they assume an important role within parallel file systems and other components requiring high-bandwidth or low-latency I/O). Our study determines the effectiveness of differing clientserver fan-in strategies. We describe fan-in performance in terms of aggregate bandwidth in the presence of varying degrees of congestion, as well as several other key attributes. Comparison numbers are presented for the Cray Aries interconnect. Finally, we provide recommended communication strategies based on our findings.

  20. Characterization of micro-contact resistance between a gold nanocrystalline line and a tungsten electrode probe in interconnect fatigue testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ling, Xue; Wang, Yusheng [Department of Engineering Mechanics, AML, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Li, Xide, E-mail: lixide@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Engineering Mechanics, AML, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Center for Nano and Micro Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An electromechanically-coupled micro-contact resistance measurement system is built to mimic the contact process during fatigue testing of nanoscale-thickness interconnects using multiple probe methods. The design combines an optical microscope, high-resolution electronic balance, and micromanipulator-controlled electric probe, and is coupled with electrical measurements to investigate microscale contact physics. Experimental measurements are performed to characterize the contact resistance response of the gold nanocrystalline pad of a 35-nm-thick interconnect under mechanical force applied by a tungsten electrode probe. Location of a stable region for the contact resistance and the critical contact force provides better understanding of micro-contact behavior relative to the effects of the contact force and the nature of the contact surface. Increasing contact temperature leads to reduced contact resistance, softens the pad material, and modifies the contact surface. The stability of both contact resistance and interconnect resistance is studied under increasing contact force. Major fluctuations emerge when the contact force is less than the critical contact force, which shows that temporal contact resistance will affect interconnect resistance measurement accuracy, even when using the four-wire method. This performance is demonstrated experimentally by heating the Au line locally with a laser beam. Finally, the contact resistances are calculated using the LET (LiĖEtsionĖTalke) model together with combined Holm and Sharvin theory under various contact forces. Good agreement between the results is obtained. This research provides a way to measure change in interconnect line resistance directly under a stable contact resistance regime with a two-wire method that will greatly reduce the experimental costs.

  1. Special Improvement Districts for Redevelopment of Blighted Areas (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Local redevelopment commissions may designate special improvement districts to aid local public improvements and provide special benefits to district property owners.

  2. New Mexico State University District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    New Mexico State University District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name New Mexico State University District Heating Low Temperature...

  3. State-Ocean City Beach Erosion Control District (Maryland)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A Beach Erosion Control District constitutes part of the Ocean City shoreline. Land clearing, construction activity, or the construction or placement of permanent structures within the district is...

  4. Oregon Institute of Technology District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Oregon Institute of Technology District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Facility...

  5. Fort Boise Veteran's Hospital District Heating Low Temperature...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Veteran's Hospital District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Jump to: navigation, search Name Fort Boise Veteran's Hospital District Heating Low Temperature Geothermal...

  6. Modesto Irrigation District- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Modesto Irrigation Districtís Commercial Power Saver Rebate Program offers incentives to commercial, industrial, and agricultural customers for the purchase and installation of qualifying energy...

  7. Modesto Irrigation District- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Modesto Irrigation Districtís Home Rebate Program offers residential customers cash rebates for the purchase and installation of qualifying energy efficient products installed in existing homes....

  8. Sustainable Energy Utility- Residential Energy Efficiency Program (District of Columbia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The District of Columbia Sustainable Energy Utility currently offers the Residential Energy Efficiency Program. The program provides financial incentives to District residents who install energy-...

  9. Okaloosa Gas District Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and Logistical...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Okaloosa Gas District Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and Logistical Challenges to Smart Grid Implementation Okaloosa Gas District Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and...

  10. amansie west district: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from prosecution, school districts run the substantial risk of extremely negative media publicity when... Smith, Richard Kimball 2005-08-29 18 Rangitikei District Visitor...

  11. EIS-0389: Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Notice of Floodplain and Wetlands Involvement Construction and Operation of the Trinity Public Utility District Direct Interconnection Project, Trinity County, California...

  12. Low Temperature Direct Use District Heating Geothermal Facilities | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere I Geothermal Pwer Plant Jump to:Landowners andLodgepole,Lotsee, Oklahoma:Ohio:Energy Information

  13. Spintronic switches for ultra low energy global interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharad, Mrigank, E-mail: msharad@purdue.edu; Roy, Kaushik [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We present ultra-low energy interconnect design using nano-scale spin-torque (ST) switches for global data-links. Emerging spin-torque phenomena can lead to ultra-low-voltage, high-speed current-mode magnetic-switches. ST-switches can simultaneously provide large trans-impedance gain by employing magnetic tunnel junctions, to convert current-mode signals into large-swing voltage levels. Such device-characteristics can be used in the design of energy-efficient current-mode global interconnects.

  14. Gas Technology Institute and Encorp Inc.: Innovative Interconnection and Control Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Summarizes the work of the Gas Technology Institute and Encorp Inc., under contract to DOEs Distribution and Interconnection R&D, to develop interconnection and control systems for distributed power.

  15. Gas Technology Institute and Encorp Inc.: Innovative Interconnection and Control Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Summarizes the work of the Gas Technology Institute and Encorp Inc., under contract to DOE's Distribution and Interconnection R&D, to develop interconnection and control systems for distributed power.

  16. Vibration control in plates by uniformly distributed PZT actuators interconnected via electric networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    improve the performances of piezoelectric actuation. internal resonance / equivalent circuits 1Vibration control in plates by uniformly distributed PZT actuators interconnected via electric vibrations of plates by means of a set of electrically-interconnected piezoelectric actuators is described

  17. Effects of aquifer interconnection resulting from underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, R.

    1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory evaluated the effects of aquifer interconnection caused by the collapse of cavities formed in coal seams by two small underground coal gasification experiments in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Flow models and field measurements were used to show that the water from one or both of the upper aquifers enters the collapse, rubble and flows down to the lowest aquifer (the gasified coal seam) where it flows away from the collapse zones. The investigations showed that the hydraulic conductivity of the collapse rubble is less than that of the aquifers and provides only a moderately permeable interconnection between them, a marked reduction in hydraulic conductivity of the gasified coal seam near the collapse zones restricts the flow in the seam, away from them; changes in the hydraulic head and flow patterns caused by aquifer interconnection extend generally only 60-90 m away from the experiment sites, whereas flow in the uppermost aquifer at one of the sites may be influenced as far away as 122 m. At both sites, the aquifer interconnection allows water from the uppermost (sand) aquifer, which contains the poorest quality water of the 3 aquifers, to enter one or both of the underlying aquifers.

  18. attach interconnection technology: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    attach interconnection technology First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Processing and...

  19. A Holistic Approach to Designing Energy-Efficient Cluster Interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Eun Jung "EJ"

    , new data centers in the Seattle area are forecast to increase the city's power demands by 25 percentA Holistic Approach to Designing Energy-Efficient Cluster Interconnects Eun Jung Kim, Member, IEEE--Designing energy-efficient clusters has recently become an important concern to make these systems economically

  20. 10 Year Transmission Plan for the Western Electricity Interconnection Released

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) announced the release of its first 10-Year Regional Transmission Plan (Plan) for the Western Interconnection. The Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability awarded WECC a $14.5 million grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act to expand on its transmission planning activities.

  1. Techniques in the Control of Interconnected Plants Morten Hovd

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Techniques in the Control of Interconnected Plants Morten Hovd Fantoft Prosess Teknostallen N-7030 in modern chemical plants, and the decreased volumes or removal of bu er tanks between processing steps. Thus, disturbances will spread more rapidly and widely throughout a modern chemical plant than in older

  2. Techniques in the Control of Interconnected Plants Morten Hovd \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Techniques in the Control of Interconnected Plants Morten Hovd \\Lambda Fantoft Prosess Teknostallen. This is caused by tighter integration of heat and mass in modern chemical plants, and the decreased volumes (or throughout a modern chemical plant than in older plants. This puts greater demands on the control system

  3. Hermetic aluminum radio frequency interconnection and method for making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kilgo, Riley D. (Albuquerque, NM); Kovacic, Larry (Albuquerque, NM); Brow, Richard K. (Rolla, MO)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a light-weight, hermetic coaxial radio-frequency (RF) interconnection having an electrically conductive outer housing made of aluminum or an aluminum alloy, a central electrical conductor made of ferrous or non-ferrous material, and a cylinder of dielectric material comprising a low-melting-temperature, high-thermal-expansion aluminophosphate glass composition for hermetically sealing between the aluminum-alloy outer housing and the ferrous or non-ferrous center conductor. The entire RF interconnection assembly is made permanently hermetic by thermally fusing the center conductor, glass, and housing concurrently by bringing the glass to the melt point by way of exposure to an atmospheric temperature sufficient to melt the glass, less than 540.degree. C., but that does not melt the center conductor or the outer aluminum or aluminum alloy housing. The composition of the glass used is controlled to provide a suitable low dielectric constant so that an appropriate electrical characteristic impedance, for example 50 ohms, can be achieved for an electrical interconnection that performs well at high radio frequencies and also provides an interconnection maintaining a relatively small physical size.

  4. Silicon Micro-Needles with Flexible Interconnections , Y. Hanein1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Department of Zoology, University of Washington, Seattle WA 98195 Abstract - A flexible polyimide to carry elements such as amplifiers, battery or memory. The interconnecting scheme uses two polyimide base and the micro-electrodes, while the polyimide layers provide flexible insulation. The current

  5. High-temperature quenching of electrical resistance in graphene interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    assuming a current density j=3.9 MA/cm2 and a resistivity =2.2 cm. The self- heating problem is aggravated scale structures.3,4 One of the approaches to mitigate the self-heating prob- lem is to incorporateHigh-temperature quenching of electrical resistance in graphene interconnects Q. Shao, G. Liu, D

  6. Electric power from offshore wind via synoptic-scale interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Electric power from offshore wind via synoptic-scale interconnection Willett Kemptona,1 , Felipe M regional estimate, Kempton et al. (2) calculated that two-thirds of the offshore wind power off the U in the U.S. Atlantic region is already underway. Fig. 1 shows as black squares offshore wind developments

  7. Dynamic management of water transfer between two interconnected river basins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Dynamic management of water transfer between two interconnected river basins Francisco Cabo Katrin cause environmental damage in the donor basin. The recipient faces a trade-off between paying the price of the irrigated soil, or demand for water for highly productive activities like tourism), then the existence

  8. Empire District Electric Co (Missouri) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A PotentialJump to:Emminol Jump to: navigation, search Name:Empire District

  9. California's 2nd congressional district: Energy Resources | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:Power LP BiomassInformation 2nd congressional district Blue Lake

  10. California's 30th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:Power LP BiomassInformation 2nd congressional district Blue

  11. California's 31st congressional district: Energy Resources | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:Power LP BiomassInformation 2nd congressional district

  12. District of Columbia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A Potential MicrohydroDistrict of Columbia: Energy Resources Jump to:

  13. Overton Power District No 5 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |JilinLuOpenNorthOlympia GreenThesourceOverton Power District No 5 Jump

  14. Arizona's 6th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia: Energy ResourcesInformation Arizona's 6th congressional district

  15. California's 8th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:Power LPInformation 8th congressional district: Energy Resources

  16. California's 9th congressional district: Energy Resources | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:Power LPInformation 8th congressional district: Energy

  17. Geothermal District Heating System City of Klamath Falls | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluating A PotentialJumpGermanFifeGEXAGarnetInformation District Heating System

  18. Supplying Baseload Power and Reducing Transmission Requirements by Interconnecting Wind Farms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Supplying Baseload Power and Reducing Transmission Requirements by Interconnecting Wind Farms is not used to supply baseload electric power today. Interconnecting wind farms through the transmission grid farms are interconnected in an array, wind speed correlation among sites decreases and so does

  19. Wavelength-space permutation switch with coherent PDM QPSK transmission for supercomputer optical interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vlachos, Kyriakos G.

    Several low-cost, low-latency, high throughput optical interconnect architectures have been proposed interconnects F. Karinou (1), I. Roudas (1), K. Vlachos (1), C. S. Petrou (1), . Vgenis (1), and B. R. Hemenway optical interconnect employing wavelength-space optical packet switching, polarization division

  20. A Design Space Exploration of Transmission-Line Links for On-Chip Interconnect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Michael C.

    A Design Space Exploration of Transmission-Line Links for On-Chip Interconnect Aaron Carpenter-performance interconnect fabric that is energy-efficient. Well-engineered transmission line-based commu- nication systems and a much better energy profile than a conventional mesh interconnect. Keywords: Transmission Line, On

  1. LFTI: A New Performance Metric for Assessing Interconnect Designs for Extreme-Scale HPC Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pakin, Scott

    , New Mexico Email: {mlang,pakin}@lanl.gov Abstract--Traditionally, interconnect performance is eitherLFTI: A New Performance Metric for Assessing Interconnect Designs for Extreme-Scale HPC Systems Xin a good performance overview for extreme-scale interconnects. The topological pa- rameters

  2. Interconnecting Eyeballs to Content: A Shapley Value Perspective on ISP Peering and Settlement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of these interconnections are often negotiated and maintained via bilateral agreements. Current differences of opinion-peering, bilateral agreements. I. INTRODUCTION The Internet consists of thousands of interconnected ISPs, with each Tier 1 ISPs would willingly all peer with one another, and other interconnection agreements could

  3. Interconnecting Eyeballs to Content: A Shapley Value Perspective on ISP Peering and Settlement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , with each ISP interested in maximizing its own profits. Interconnection agreements, often negotiated Tier 1 ISPs would willingly all peer with one another, and other interconnection agreements couldInterconnecting Eyeballs to Content: A Shapley Value Perspective on ISP Peering and Settlement

  4. 650 IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 27, NO. 8, AUGUST 2006 Fully Elastic Interconnects on Nanopatterned

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    650 IEEE ELECTRON DEVICE LETTERS, VOL. 27, NO. 8, AUGUST 2006 Fully Elastic Interconnects interconnects are re- quired for electronic skin. To date, the resistance of such thin-film interconnects has by only 60%, which is in close agreement with purely geometric deformation. Index Terms

  5. Geothermal Direct-Use ó Meeting Water Quality Standards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Geothermal direct-use applicationsósuch as greenhouses, district and space heating, and aquacultureócan easily meet local and federal water quality standards, which help protect our environment.

  6. Water Control and Improvement Districts (Texas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality is authorized to review and establish local water districts throughout the state of Texas. The Water Code gives the Commission the right of...

  7. Applied Solutions Webinar: Insights Into District Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Local governments and their communities that inhabit dense locations can take advantage of district heating and/or cooling systems as a way to increase energy efficiency and reliability while...

  8. Soil and Water Conservation Districts (South Carolina)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Soil and Water Conservation Districts are local governmental subdivisions of the state of South Carolina, established to provide for land and water conservation and prevent erosion in the state....

  9. Garrison Diversion Conservancy District (North Dakota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Garrison Conservancy District is a state agency established to provide for land irrigation, to establish and restore depleted lakes and stabilize stream flows, and to make waters available for...

  10. Major Source Permits (District of Columbia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The District reviews designs for new pollution sources and design modifications for existing sources. Permits are issued to allow sources to emit limited and specified amounts of pollution as...

  11. Merced Irrigation District- PV Buydown Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Merced Irrigation District (MID) offers its residential, commercial and non-profit customers a rebate for installing solar electric photovoltaic (PV) systems on their homes and offices. The rebate...

  12. Modesto Irrigation District- Photovoltaic Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Modesto Irrigation District offers a photovoltaic rebate program for all of their electric customers. The peak output capacity of a system must be 1 kW or greater to participate. Systems up to 30...

  13. Solidere : the battle for Beirut's Central District

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mango, Tamam, 1981-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Beirut Central District was destroyed during the Lebanese Civil War which extended from 1975 to 1990. Unable to reconstruct the center itself, the Lebanese government turned to a private Real Estate Holding Company ...

  14. Western Lake Superior Sanitary District (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A sanitary board is established to deal with long-term serious problems relating to water pollution and solid waste disposal in the area. The district can set regulations regarding garbage...

  15. Recreational Lake and Water Quality Districts (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Territory contiguous to a recreational lake may be incorporated into a recreational lake and water quality district if such action is conducive to the public health, comfort, convenience, water...

  16. Industrial Revenue Bond Program (District of Columbia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The District provides below market bond financing to lower the costs of borrowing for qualified capital construction and renovation projects. The program is available to non-profits, institutions,...

  17. Underground Storage Tank Management (District of Columbia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The† installation, upgrade and operation of any petroleum UST (>110 gallons) or hazardous substance UST System, including heating oil tanks over 1,100 gallons capacity in the District requires a...

  18. District of Columbia Recovery Act State Memo

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The American Recovery & Reinvestment Act (ARRA) is making a meaningful down payment on the nationís energy and environmental future. The Recovery Act investments in the District of Columbia...

  19. Spontaneous synchronization driven by energy transport in interconnected networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincenzo Nicosia; Per Sebastian Skardal; Vito Latora; Alex Arenas

    2015-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Understanding dynamical processes on networks is an important area of research in complex systems, with far reaching implications and applications in many real-world cases. Here we introduce and study a model of intertwined dynamics on interconnected networks, inspired by the human brain, which consists of bidirectionally coupled synchronization and energy transport processes. Remarkably, the proposed model allows the emergence of spontaneous switch-like synchronization transitions driven by the energy transport dynamics, which qualitatively mirror the transitions observed in human brain dynamics between resting-state and cognitive activity. We provide a steady-state analytical explanation for the observed behavior and show that the switch-like transition is robust over a wide range of model parameters and network topologies. Finally, we suggest that the complexity inherent in other interconnected dynamical processes might be responsible for various other emergent behaviors observed in natural systems.

  20. Interconnecting PV on New York City's Secondary Network Distribution System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Anderson; M. Coddington; K. Burman; S. Hayter; B. Kroposki; and A. Watson

    2009-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has teamed with cities across the country through the Solar America Cities (SAC) partnership program to help reduce barriers and accelerate implementation of solar energy. The New York City SAC team is a partnership between the City University of New York (CUNY), the New York City Mayor s Office of Long-term Planning and Sustainability, and the New York City Economic Development Corporation (NYCEDC).The New York City SAC team is working with DOE s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Con Edison, the local utility, to develop a roadmap for photovoltaic (PV) installations in the five boroughs. The city set a goal to increase its installed PV capacity from1.1 MW in 2005 to 8.1 MW by 2015 (the maximum allowed in 2005). A key barrier to reaching this goal, however, is the complexity of the interconnection process with the local utility. Unique challenges are associated with connecting distributed PV systems to secondary network distribution systems (simplified to √?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?networks√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬Ě in this report). Although most areas of the country use simpler radial distribution systems to distribute electricity, larger metropolitan areas like New York City typically use networks to increase reliability in large load centers. Unlike the radial distribution system, where each customer receives power through a single line, a network uses a grid of interconnected lines to deliver power to each customer through several parallel circuits and sources. This redundancy improves reliability, but it also requires more complicated coordination and protection schemes that can be disrupted by energy exported from distributed PV systems. Currently, Con Edison studies each potential PV system in New York City to evaluate the system s impact on the network, but this is time consuming for utility engineers and may delay the customer s project or add cost for larger installations. City leaders would like to streamline this process to facilitate faster, simpler, and less expensive distributed PV system interconnections. To assess ways to improve the interconnection process, NREL conducted a four-part study with support from DOE. The NREL team then compiled the final reports from each study into this report. In Section 1√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?PV Deployment Analysis for New York City√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?we analyze the technical potential for rooftop PV systems in the city. This analysis evaluates potential PV power production in ten Con Edison networks of various locations and building densities (ranging from high density apartments to lower density single family homes). Next, we compare the potential power production to network loads to determine where and when PV generation is most likely to exceed network load and disrupt network protection schemes. The results of this analysis may assist Con Edison in evaluating future PV interconnection applications and in planning future network protection system upgrades. This analysis may also assist other utilities interconnecting PV systems to networks by defining a method for assessing the technical potential of PV in the network and its impact on network loads. Section 2√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?A Briefing for Policy Makers on Connecting PV to a Network Grid√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?presents an overview intended for nontechnical stakeholders. This section describes the issues associated with interconnecting PV systems to networks, along with possible solutions. Section 3√?¬?√?¬Ę√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?√?¬?Technical Review of Concerns and Solutions to PV Interconnection in New Y

  1. Reliability assessment of autonomous power systems incorporating HVDC interconnection links

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dialynas, E.N.; Koskolos, N.C. [National Technical Univ., Athens (Greece). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering] [National Technical Univ., Athens (Greece). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Agoris, D. [Public Power Corp., Athens (Greece)] [Public Power Corp., Athens (Greece)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this paper is to present an improved computational method for the overall reliability assessment of autonomous power systems that may or may not contain HVdc interconnection links. This is a hybrid method based on a Monte-Carlo simulation sequential approach which incorporates an analytical approach for the reliability modeling of the HVdc transmission links. The developed models and techniques have been implemented into a computer program that can be used to simulate the operational practices and characteristics of the overall system under study efficiently and realistically. A set of reliability indices are calculated for each load-point of interest and the entire system while a set of additional indices is calculated for quantifying the reliability performance of the interconnection links under the specified operating requirements. The analysis of a practical system is also included for a number of studies representing its various operating and design characteristics.

  2. Design and analysis of high performance multistage interconnection networks†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhogavilli, Suresh K

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Major Subject: Electrical Engineering ABSTRACT Design and Analysis of High Performance Multistage Interconnection Networks. (December 1993) Suresh K. Bhogavilli, B. Tech. , J. N. T. University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Hosame Abu-Amara Small... the next stage buffers are not full. Thus r, = A and this value doesn't change with network size. But this model results in cycle loss, When a packet from the full buffer moves forward, a cycle is lost since it will not allow the packets...

  3. SOFC Interconnect and Compressive Seal Development at PNNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Y S.; Yang, Z Gary; Singh, Prabhakar; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Xia, Gordon

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology represents an opportunity to achieve significant improvements in energy conversion efficiency and reduction of undesirable emissions. However, many technical challenges still need to be overcome before the utilization of the advantages of SOFC can take place. These challenges include the need for improved interconnects and seals for planar SOFC stacks. In this paper, we briefly summarize recent progress at PNNL in these two research areas.

  4. Series interconnected photovoltaic cells and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albright, S.P.; Chamberlin, R.R.; Thompson, R.A.

    1995-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel photovoltaic module and method for constructing the same are disclosed. The module includes a plurality of photovoltaic cells formed on a substrate and laterally separated by interconnection regions. Each cell includes a bottom electrode, a photoactive layer and a top electrode layer. Adjacent cells are connected in electrical series by way of a conductive-buffer line. The buffer line is also useful in protecting the bottom electrode against severing during downstream layer cutting processes. 11 figs.

  5. The Regulation of District Energy Systems Peter Ostergaard, Smart Planning for Communities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedersen, Tom

    The Regulation of District Energy Systems Peter Ostergaard, Smart Planning for Communities ...................................................................................... 6 4. District Energy Systems ≠ BCUC-Regulated.....................................................................11 5. District Energy Systems ≠ Local Government Regulated

  6. Cut set-based risk and reliability analysis for arbitrarily interconnected networks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyss, Gregory D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Method for computing all-terminal reliability for arbitrarily interconnected networks such as the United States public switched telephone network. The method includes an efficient search algorithm to generate minimal cut sets for nonhierarchical networks directly from the network connectivity diagram. Efficiency of the search algorithm stems in part from its basis on only link failures. The method also includes a novel quantification scheme that likewise reduces computational effort associated with assessing network reliability based on traditional risk importance measures. Vast reductions in computational effort are realized since combinatorial expansion and subsequent Boolean reduction steps are eliminated through analysis of network segmentations using a technique of assuming node failures to occur on only one side of a break in the network, and repeating the technique for all minimal cut sets generated with the search algorithm. The method functions equally well for planar and non-planar networks.

  7. Laterally Interconnected Self-Organizing Maps in Hand-Written Digit Recognition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An application of laterally interconnected self-organizing maps (LISSOM) to handwritten digit recognition is presented. The lateral connections learn the correlations of activity between units on the map. The resulting excitatory connections focus the activity into local patches and the inhibitory connections decorrelate redundant activity on the map. The map thus forms internal representations that are easy to recognize with e.g. a perceptron network. The recognition rate on a subset of NIST database 3 is 4.0% higher with LISSOM than with a regular Self-Organizing Map (SOM) as the front end, and 15.8% higher than recognition of raw input bitmaps directly. These results form a promising starting point for building pattern recognition systems with a LISSOM map as a front end. 1 Introduction Hand-written digit recognition has become one of the touchstone problems in neural networks recently. Large databases of training examples such as the NIST (National Institute of Standards and Tech...

  8. Contents ISS and Lyapunov functions Input-to-state stability and interconnections Lyapunov functions Simplicial fixed point algor Lyapunov Functions for Interconnected Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hafstein, Sigurūur Freyr

    Contents ISS and Lyapunov functions Input-to-state stability and interconnections Lyapunov functions Simplicial fixed point algor Lyapunov Functions for Interconnected Systems Fabian Wirth Institute of Mathematics, University of W®urzburg Workshop on Algorithms for Dynamical Systems and Lyapunov Functions

  9. Collective private urban renewal in New Bedford's historic district

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bullard, John K. (John Kilburn)

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis examines the waterfront historic district in New Bedford, Massachusetts. It is, hopefully, the beginning of a process of collective private renewal that may lead the revival of the district as a vital element ...

  10. Alaska Gateway School District Adopts Combined Heat and Power...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Alaska Gateway School District Adopts Combined Heat and Power Alaska Gateway School District Adopts Combined Heat and Power May 7, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis In Tok, Alaska, the...

  11. District Courts as Patent Laboratories Jeanne C. Fromer*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loudon, Catherine

    307 District Courts as Patent Laboratories Jeanne C. Fromer* Introduction .....................................................................................................................307 I. The Federal Circuit's Supervisory Role in Patent Law..........................................308 II. District Courts as the Federal Circuit's Patent Laboratories..............................311

  12. Cogeneration Personal Property Tax Credit (District of Columbia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The District of Columbia Council created a personal property tax exemption for solar energy systems and cogeneration systems within the District by enacting B19-0749 in December of 2012.

  13. Directives Tools

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    Useful links and resources for Directives Writers, Directives Point of Contact (DPCs), Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), and Draft Directive Reviewers.

  14. Western Interconnection Energy Imbalance Market Status and Prospects (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.; King, J.; Beuning, S.

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This presentation describes how a new wholesale electricity market for energy imbalance ancillary services could be implemented and operated. Some conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Method for calculating additional reserve requirements due to wind and solar production; (2) EIM results in substantial reduction in reserves requirements and ramping demand; (3) Reduced participation reduces benefits for all but reduces the benefits to non-participants the most; (4) Full participation leads to maximum benefit across the Western Interconnection, up to 42% of total reserve requirement; and (5) Regional EIM implementations have smaller but substantial benefits.

  15. Novel Composite Materials for SOFC Cathode-Interconnect Contact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. H. Zhu

    2009-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarized the research efforts and major conclusions of our University Coal Research Project, which focused on developing a new class of electrically-conductive, Cr-blocking, damage-tolerant Ag-perovksite composite materials for the cathode-interconnect contact of intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stacks. The Ag evaporation rate increased linearly with air flow rate initially and became constant for the air flow rate {ge} {approx} 1.0 cm {center_dot} s{sup -1}. An activation energy of 280 KJ.mol{sup -1} was obtained for Ag evaporation in both air and Ar+5%H{sub 2}+3%H{sub 2}O. The exposure environment had no measurable influence on the Ag evaporation rate as well as its dependence on the gas flow rate, while different surface morphological features were developed after thermal exposure in the oxidizing and reducing environments. Pure Ag is too volatile at the SOFC operating temperature and its evaporation rate needs to be reduced to facilitate its application as the cathode-interconnect contact. Based on extensive evaporation testing, it was found that none of the alloying additions reduced the evaporation rate of Ag over the long-term exposure, except the noble metals Au, Pt, and Pd; however, these noble elements are too expensive to justify their practical use in contact materials. Furthermore, the addition of La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}MnO{sub 3} (LSM) into Ag to form a composite material also did not significantly modify the Ag evaporation rate. The Ag-perovskite composites with the perovskite being either (La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4})(Co{sub 0.8}Fe{sub 0.2})O{sub 3} (LSCF) or LSM were systematically evaluated as the contact material between the ferritic interconnect alloy Crofer 22 APU and the LSM cathode. The area specific resistances (ASRs) of the test specimens were shown to be highly dependent on the volume percentage and the type of the perovskite present in the composite contact material as well as the amount of thermal cycling that the specimens were subjected to during testing. The Ag-LSCF composite contact materials proved more effective in trapping Cr within the contact material and preventing Cr migration into the cathode than the Ag-LSM composites. Ag-perovskite composite contact materials are promising candidates for use in intermediate-temperature SOFC stacks with ferritic stainless steel interconnects due to their ability to maintain acceptably low ASRs while reducing Cr migration into the cathode material.

  16. Production process for advanced space satellite system cables/interconnects.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendoza, Luis A.

    2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This production process was generated for the satellite system program cables/interconnects group, which in essences had no well defined production process. The driver for the development of a formalized process was based on the set backs, problem areas, challenges, and need improvements faced from within the program at Sandia National Laboratories. In addition, the formal production process was developed from the Master's program of Engineering Management for New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology in Socorro New Mexico and submitted as a thesis to meet the institute's graduating requirements.

  17. Final Report on Transmission Pricing in the Western Interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas C. Larson; Lawrence Nordell

    2003-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Under this project, the Committee on Regional Electric Power Cooperation (CREPC) of the Western Interstate Energy Board developed a ''western pricing and congestion management proposal'' in order to foster efficient wholesale power markets and efficient use and expansion of the transmission grid. Drafts of this paper provided useful information to states/provinces in the Western Interconnection as Western Regional Transmission Organization (RTO) transmission pricing proposals have continued to evolve. Throughout the project there has been a gradual, but incomplete agreement on pricing systems to be used by RTOs in the West.

  18. Series interconnected photovoltaic cells and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albright, Scot P. (El Paso, TX); Chamberlin, Rhodes R. (El Paso, TX); Thompson, Roger A. (Littleton, CO)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel photovoltaic module (10) and method for constructing the same are disclosed. The module (10) includes a plurality of photovoltaic cells (12) formed on a substrate (14) and laterally separated by interconnection regions (15). Each cell (12) includes a bottom electrode (16), a photoactive layer (18) and a top electrode layer (20). Adjacent cells (12) are connected in electrical series by way of a conductive-buffer line (22). The buffer line (22) is also useful in protecting the bottom electrode (16) against severing during downstream layer cutting processes.

  19. DER Certification Laboratory Pilot, Accreditation Plan, and Interconnection Agreement Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Key, T.; Sitzlar, H. E.; Ferraro, R.

    2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the first steps toward creating the organization, procedures, plans and tools for distributed energy resources (DER) equipment certification, test laboratory accreditation, and interconnection agreements. It covers the activities and accomplishments during the first period of a multiyear effort. It summarizes steps taken to outline a certification plan to assist in the future development of an interim plan for certification and accreditation activities. It also summarizes work toward a draft plan for certification, a beta Web site to support communications and materials, and preliminary draft certification criteria.

  20. Evaluation of a Functional Interconnect System for SOFC's

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthew Bender; James Rakowski

    2010-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of this project was to validate the concept and application of a functional interconnect, based on a ferritic stainless steel, for a solid oxide fuel cell through manufacturing trials, laboratory testing, and field experience. The materials of construction and their surfaces were to be optimized for the particular service conditions and include low-cost ferritic stainless steels, novel postprocess treatments, and third-party coatings. This work aimed to optimize specific aspects of substrate alloy chemistry and to study the effects of long-term exposures on resistive oxide film structure and chemistry, interaction with applied surface coatings, and effectiveness of novel surface treatments.

  1. Electromigration kinetics and critical current of Pb-free interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Minhua; Rosenberg, Robert [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States)

    2014-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Electromigration kinetics of Pb-free solder bump interconnects have been studied using a single bump parameter sweep technique. By removing bump to bump variations in structure, texture, and composition, the single bump sweep technique has provided both activation energy and power exponents that reflect atomic migration and interface reactions with fewer samples, shorter stress time, and better statistics than standard failure testing procedures. Contact metallurgies based on Cu and Ni have been studied. Critical current, which corresponds to the Blech limit, was found to exist in the Ni metallurgy, but not in the Cu metallurgy. A temperature dependence of critical current was also observed.

  2. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative - Meeting Calendars |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment of EnergyIndustry15 IntellectualInterconnection

  3. Interconnection-Wide Transmission Planning Initiative: Topic B, Cooperation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment of EnergyIndustry15Among States in the Eastern Interconnection

  4. Energy Department Works with Sacramento Municipal Utility District...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    About Us Initiatives & Projects Energy Transition Initiative Energy Department Works with Sacramento Municipal Utility District on Renewable Electricity Generation and...

  5. Generation Interconnection Policies and Wind Power: A Discussion of Issues, Problems, and Potential Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, K.; Fink, S.; Mudd, C.; DeCesaro, J.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the adoption and implementation of FERC Order 2003 and the reasons for the sharp rise in generation interconnection filings in recent years.

  6. WECC releases its first-ever transmission plan for the Western Interconnection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) announced the release of its first 10-Year Regional Transmission Plan (Plan) for the Western Interconnection.

  7. NMAC 17.9.569 Interconnection of Generating Facilities with a...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- RegulationRegulation: NMAC 17.9.569 Interconnection of Generating Facilities with a Rated Capacity Greater than 10 MWLegal...

  8. Comparing Germany's and California's Interconnection Processes for PV Systems (White Paper)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tweedie, A.; Doris, E.

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Establishing interconnection to the grid is a recognized barrier to the deployment of distributed energy generation. This report compares interconnection processes for photovoltaic projects in California and Germany. This report summarizes the steps of the interconnection process for developers and utilities, the average length of time utilities take to process applications, and paperwork required of project developers. Based on a review of the available literature, this report finds that while the interconnection procedures and timelines are similar in California and Germany, differences in the legal and regulatory frameworks are substantial.

  9. Vdd Programmability to Reduce FPGA Interconnect Power Fei Li, Yan Lin and Lei He

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Lei

    interconnect power by 56.51% and total FPGA power by 50.55%. Due to the highly low utilization rate of routing

  10. Accessibility and historic districts: design concepts and economic feasibility study for the downtown historic district of Bryan, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shamanna, Jayashree B

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study explores the application of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) to historic districts, and design concepts are proposed to bring the district as a whole into compliance with the ADA. Past studies have dealt with accessibility...

  11. What is District Energy and How Does it Work? District Energy (DE) systems use hot water or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    wood used to supply a small district heating plant. The heating plant can be configured to use woody rapeseed oil is used. The district heating grid has a length of 3.3 miles, and the heat delivery is around

  12. New Forestry Commission District Office The new Forestry Commission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Forestry Commission District Office The new Forestry Commission District office at Smithton in construction The Forestry Commission's District office at Smithton in Inverness, Scotland, covers the national fuel heating system has proved effective during the winter of 2009/10, one of the harshest in 40 years

  13. CONTROL OF SUPPLY TEMPERATURE IN DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CONTROL OF SUPPLY TEMPERATURE IN DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEMS T.S. Nielsen, H. Madsen Informatics the supply temperature in district heating systems using stochastic modelling, prediction and control at Roskilde Varmeforsyning. The results obtained for the Roskilde district heating utility are evaluated

  14. Predictive control of supply temperature in district heating systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Predictive control of supply temperature in district heating systems Torben Skov Nielsen Henrik This report considers a new concept for controlling the supply temperature in district heating systems using stochastic modelling, prediction and control. A district heating systems is a di#30;cult system to control

  15. First university owned district heating system using biomass heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Northern British Columbia, University of

    Highlights ∑ First university owned district heating system using biomass heat ∑ Capacity: 15 MMBtu Main Campus District Heating Performance ∑ Avoided: 3500 tonnes of CO2 ∑ Particulate: less than 10 mg District Heating Goals To displace 85% of natural gas used for core campus heating. Fuel Bunker Sawmill

  16. Electrical isolation of component cells in monolithically interconnected modules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wanlass, Mark W. (Golden, CO)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A monolithically interconnected photovoltaic module having cells which are electrically connected which comprises a substrate, a plurality of cells formed over the substrate, each cell including a primary absorber layer having a light receiving surface and a p-region, formed with a p-type dopant, and an n-region formed with an n-type dopant adjacent the p-region to form a single pn-junction, and a cell isolation diode layer having a p-region, formed with a p-type dopant, and an n-region formed with an n-type dopant adjacent the p-region to form a single pn-junction, the diode layer intervening the substrate and the absorber layer wherein the absorber and diode interfacial regions of a same conductivity type orientation, the diode layer having a reverse-breakdown voltage sufficient to prevent inter-cell shunting, and each cell electrically isolated from adjacent cells with a vertical trench trough the pn-junction of the diode layer, interconnects disposed in the trenches contacting the absorber regions of adjacent cells which are doped an opposite conductivity type, and electrical contacts.

  17. An Overview of the Operational Characteristics of Selected Irrigation Districts in the Texas Lower Rio Grande Valley: Brownsville Irrigation District

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stubbs, Megan J.; Rister, M. Edward; Sturdivant, Allen W.; Lacewell, Ronald D.

    TR-274 August 2004 An Overview of the Operational Characteristics of Selected Irrigation Districts in the Texas Lower Rio Grande Valley: Brownsville Irrigation District Megan J. Stubbs M. Edward Rister Allen W... Grande Valley: Brownsville Irrigation District Megan J. Stubbs M. Edward Rister Allen W. Sturdivant Ronald D. Lacewell Texas Water Resources Institute Texas A&M University System This research was financially supported...

  18. EIS-0103: New England/Hydro-Quebec 450-kV Direct Current Transmission Line Interconnection

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Economic Regulatory Administration prepared this statement to evaluate the environmental impacts of the construction, maintenance and operation of a 57-mile transmission line from Monroe, New Hampshire, to the U.S./Canadian border for the purpose of economic exchange of power and increased reliability.

  19. Ukraine Kievenergo district heating project. Volume 1. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study, conducted by Joseph Technolgoy Corporation, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The purpose of this study was directed toward increasing the heat capacity, reducing fuel costs and import requirements, bringing about energy efficiency in the Kiev District Heating (DH) system; improving environmental conditions in affected areas; and supporting the strengthening and restructuring of Kiev, DH institutions and development of the DH sector. The report lists project risks and offers recommendations to minimize these risks. Also included are detailed cost estimates and financial analyses. The report is divided into the following sections: (1) Acknowledgement, (2) Project Summary, (3) Abbreviations, (4) I. Sector Background and Objectives, (5) II. The Project, (6) III. Implementing Agencies, (7) IV. Financial Aspects, (8) V. Project Benefits and Risks, (9) VI. Agreements to be Reached and Recommendations, (10) Annexes.

  20. Interconnect-Power Dissipation in a Microprocessor Intel Israel (74) Ltd.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolodny, Avinoam

    Interconnect-Power Dissipation in a Microprocessor Nir Magen Intel Israel (74) Ltd. Mobile Platform-performance microprocessor designed for power efficiency. The analysis showed that interconnect power is over 50 ­ Microprocessors; B.7.2 [Integrated Circuits]: Design Aids ­ Placement and Routing. General Terms Performance

  1. Impact of Interconnect Length on BTI and HCI Induced Frequency Degradation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Chris H.

    Impact of Interconnect Length on BTI and HCI Induced Frequency Degradation Xiaofei Wang Pulkit Jain Instability (BTI) and Hot Carrier Injection (HCI) induced frequency degradation on interconnect length has degradation due to BTI decreases monotonically with longer wires because of the shorter effective stress time

  2. Reliability of Nano-Structured Nickel Interconnections Replacing FlipChip Solder Assembly without Underfill

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swaminathan, Madhavan

    Reliability of Nano-Structured Nickel Interconnections Replacing FlipChip Solder Assembly without nano-structured nickel as the primary interconnection material. Assembly was accomplished materials such as nanostructured copper and nickel, novel bonding and barrier layers to provide both

  3. Control Design for Interconnected Power Systems with OLTCs via Robust Decentralized Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    Control Design for Interconnected Power Systems with OLTCs via Robust Decentralized Control the problem of designing a decentralized control of interconnected power systems, with OLTC and SVCs, under are adjusted for variations in power system model due to large changes in loads. The only feedback needed

  4. Effect of Large Dynamic Loads on Interconnected Power Systems with Power Oscillation Damping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    Effect of Large Dynamic Loads on Interconnected Power Systems with Power Oscillation Damping.hossain and H.Pota)@adfa.edu.au Abstract--Power systems are composed of dynamic loads. In this paper presents an analysis to investigate the effects of large dynamic loads on interconnected power systems

  5. A SPECULATIVE FRAMEWORK FOR THE APPLICATION OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE TO LARGE SCALE INTERCONNECTED POWER SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartley, Roger

    INTERCONNECTED POWER SYSTEMS By Nadipuram R. Prasad Satish J. Ranade Electrical Engineering Department New Mexico) technologies to the operation and control of large scale interconnected electric power systems. A fundamental issue discussed in this paper is the control structure of power systems. An evaluation of the control

  6. Plasticity contributions to interface adhesion in thin-film interconnect structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vainchtein, Anna

    Plasticity contributions to interface adhesion in thin-film interconnect structures Michael Lanea of plasticity in thin copper layers on the interface fracture resistance in thin-film interconnect structures yield properties together with a plastic flow model for the metal layers were used to predict

  7. Long-Distance Interconnection as Solar Resource Intermittency Solution: Optimizing the Use of Energy Storage and the Geographic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Energy Storage and the Geographic Dispersion + Interconnection of Solar Generating Facilities. Marc J. R energy storage and Long-distance interconnection coupled with geographic dispersion of solar generating and serve predetermined load requirements. Index Terms -- Energy Storage, variability, intermittency

  8. Geothermal Power and Interconnection: The Economics of Getting to Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurlbut, D.

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides a baseline description of the transmission issues affecting geothermal technologies. The report begins with a comprehensive overview of the grid, how it is planned, how it is used, and how it is paid for. The report then overlays onto this 'big picture' three types of geothermal technologies: conventional hydrothermal systems; emerging technologies such as enhanced engineered geothermal systems (EGS) and geopressured geothermal; and geothermal co-production with existing oil and gas wells. Each category of geothermal technology has its own set of interconnection issues, and these are examined separately for each. The report draws conclusions about each technology's market affinities as defined by factors related to transmission and distribution infrastructure. It finishes with an assessment of selected markets with known geothermal potential, identifying those that offer the best prospects for near-term commercial development and for demonstration projects.

  9. Catalytic bipolar interconnection plate for use in a fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lessing, P.A.

    1996-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A bipolar interconnection plate is described for use between adjacent fuel cell units in a stacked fuel cell assembly. Each plate is manufactured from an intermetallic composition, examples of which include NiAl or Ni{sub 3}Al which can catalyze steam reforming of hydrocarbons. Distributed within the intermetallic structure of the plate is a ceramic filler composition. The plate includes a first side with gas flow channels therein and a second side with fuel flow channels therein. A protective coating is applied to the first side, with exemplary coatings including strontium-doped or calcium-doped lanthanum chromite. To produce the plate, Ni and Al powders are combined with the filler composition, compressed at a pressure of about 10,000--30,000 psi, and heated to about 600--1000 C. The coating is then applied to the first side of the completed plate using liquid injection plasma deposition or other deposition techniques. 6 figs.

  10. Texas Legislative and Irrigation Districts of the Rio Grande River Basin: A Map Series†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leigh, Eric; Fipps, G.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improvement District No.3 HCWID3 La Feria Irrigation District-Cameron County No.3 La Feria Santa Cruz Irrigation District No.15 Santa Cruz Santa Maria Irrigation District-Cameron County No.4 Santa Maria United Irrigation District of Hidalgo County United....6 34,913 Hidalgo County Municipal Utility District No.1 1,120 Hidalgo County Water Improvement District No.3 9,753 La Feria Irrigation District-Cameron County No.3 75,626 Santa Cruz Irrigation District No.15 75,080 Santa Maria Irrigation...

  11. Texas Legislative and Irrigation Districts of the Rio Grande River Basin: A Map Series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leigh, Eric; Fipps, G.

    Improvement District No.3 HCWID3 La Feria Irrigation District-Cameron County No.3 La Feria Santa Cruz Irrigation District No.15 Santa Cruz Santa Maria Irrigation District-Cameron County No.4 Santa Maria United Irrigation District of Hidalgo County United....6 34,913 Hidalgo County Municipal Utility District No.1 1,120 Hidalgo County Water Improvement District No.3 9,753 La Feria Irrigation District-Cameron County No.3 75,626 Santa Cruz Irrigation District No.15 75,080 Santa Maria Irrigation...

  12. Solid oxide fuel cell with internal reforming, catalyzed interconnect for use therewith, and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Di-Jia; Guan, Jie; Minh, Nguyen

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A catalyzed interconnect for an SOFC electrically connects an anode and an anodic current collector and comprises a metallic substrate, which provides space between the anode and anodic current collector for fuel gas flow over at least a portion of the anode, and a catalytic coating on the metallic substrate comprising a catalyst for catalyzing hydrocarbon fuel in the fuel gas to hydrogen rich reformate. An SOFC including the catalyzed anodic inter-connect, a method for operating an SOFC, and a method for making a catalyzed anodic interconnect are also disclosed.

  13. Fast Algorithms for High Frequency Interconnect Modeling in VLSI Circuits and Packages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi, Yang

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Conductor array with magnetic blocks ................. 61 31 CPU time ratio of Maxwell 3D over our algorithm ........... 62 32 Cross sectional view of |B|. ....................... 63 33 E?ect of M 0 (M 0 = M S cos(theta)) on the inductance ......... 64 34 E...?ect of conductor current on the inductance ............. 65 35 Magnitude of S-parameters for interconnect with non-magnetic blocks 66 36 Magnitude of S-parameters for interconnect with magnetic blocks .. 67 37 Phase of S-parameters for interconnect with non...

  14. IEEE 1547 and 2030 Standards for Distributed Energy Resources Interconnection and Interoperability with the Electricity Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basso, T.

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Public-private partnerships have been a mainstay of the U.S. Department of Energy and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (DOE/NREL) approach to research and development. These partnerships also include technology development that enables grid modernization and distributed energy resources (DER) advancement, especially renewable energy systems integration with the grid. Through DOE/NREL and industry support of Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) standards development, the IEEE 1547 series of standards has helped shape the way utilities and other businesses have worked together to realize increasing amounts of DER interconnected with the distribution grid. And more recently, the IEEE 2030 series of standards is helping to further realize greater implementation of communications and information technologies that provide interoperability solutions for enhanced integration of DER and loads with the grid. For these standards development partnerships, for approximately $1 of federal funding, industry partnering has contributed $5. In this report, the status update is presented for the American National Standards IEEE 1547 and IEEE 2030 series of standards. A short synopsis of the history of the 1547 standards is first presented, then the current status and future direction of the ongoing standards development activities are discussed.

  15. Central Lincoln People's Utility District- Renewable Energy Incentive Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Central Lincoln People's Utility District provides financial incentives for its commercial and residential customers to install photovoltaic (PV), solar water heating, wind, and hydro electric...

  16. Empire District Electric- Commercial and Industrial Efficiency Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Empire District Electric Company offers rebates to certain commercial and industrial customers for the installation of energy efficiency equipment. Prescriptive rebates for lighting, air...

  17. Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title Cedarville School District Retrofit of Heating and Cooling Systems with Geothermal Heat Pumps and Ground...

  18. Microsoft PowerPoint - Vicksburg District Federal Power Projects...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Federal Power Projects Vicksburg District Federal Power Projects Blakely Mountain Hydro DeGray Hydro DeGray Hydro Narrows Hydro Blakely Mountain Rewind Unit 1 ll Rotor...

  19. New York State Capital District Regional Middle School Science...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    New York State Capital District Regional Middle School Science Bowl National Science Bowl (NSB) NSB Home About High School Middle School Middle School Students Middle School...

  20. BUSINESS SENSITIVE 1 Tri-Cities Research District

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BUSINESS SENSITIVE 1 Tri-Cities Research District Speaker Series: Advancing Research Parks from National Developers ∑ Strategies for Pro-active Outreach Marketing #12;BUSINESS SENSITIVE 5

  1. Geothermal: Sponsored by OSTI -- Berlin, Maryland district heating...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Berlin, Maryland district heating assessment project Geothermal Technologies Legacy Collection HelpFAQ | Site Map | Contact Us HomeBasic Search About Publications Advanced...

  2. Charles County- Agricultural Preservation Districts- Renewable Generation Allowed

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Charles County provides that producing energy "from solar, wind, biomass, and farm waste and residue crops" is a permitted agricultural use in areas zoned as Agricultural Preservation Districts.

  3. Central Lincoln People's Utility District- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Central Lincoln People's Municipal Utility District (CLPUD) offers a variety of energy efficiency programs for residential customers to save energy in eligible homes. Rebates are available for...

  4. Central Lincoln People's Utility District- Renewable Energy Incentive Program (Oregon)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Central Lincoln People's Utility District provides financial incentives for its commercial and residential customers to install photovoltaic (PV), solar water heating, wind, and hydro electric...

  5. Omaha Public Power District- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Omaha Public Power District (OPPD) offers incentives for commercial and industrial customers to install energy-efficient heat pumps and replace/retrofit existing lighting systems. The Commercial...

  6. Nebraska Public Power District- Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nebraska Public Power District offers multiple rebates for commercial and industrial customers to save energy in eligible facilities. Rebates are available for energy efficient lighting, HVAC...

  7. Lassen Municipal Utility District- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lassen Municipal Utility District (LMUD) offers an incentive for residential customers who purchase and install efficient lighting, HVAC equipment and ENERGY STAR rated appliances for eligible...

  8. Empire District Electric- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Arkansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Empire District Electric Company (EDEC) offers rebates to residential customers for energy audits, weatherization measures, central air conditioning systems, and energy efficient home appliances....

  9. Omaha Public Power District- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Omaha Public Power District (OPPD) offers energy credit refunds to its residential customers for installing high-efficiency heat pumps through the Energy Conservation Program. Newly constructed...

  10. Modesto Irrigation District- New Home Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Modesto Irrigation District's MPower New Home Program provides incentives to builders and homeowners for designing and building energy-efficient homes. Eligible homes must meet the guidelines for...

  11. Turlock Irrigation District- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Turlock Irrigation District (TID) offers a residential rebate program for customers who install energy-efficient equipment in their homes. Eligible equipment includes

  12. Vera Irrigation District #15- Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Vera Irrigation District #15 offers rebates to electric customers who improve energy efficiency. Rebates are available for water heaters, windows, heat pumps, clothes washer, duct sealing and...

  13. area purulia district: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Downtown Revitalization Industrial Park Improvements Housing and Disaster Recovery Brownfield Redevelopment and identifies the changing needs of the District's communities and...

  14. area surguja district: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Downtown Revitalization Industrial Park Improvements Housing and Disaster Recovery Brownfield Redevelopment and identifies the changing needs of the District's communities and...

  15. area ganjam district: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Downtown Revitalization Industrial Park Improvements Housing and Disaster Recovery Brownfield Redevelopment and identifies the changing needs of the District's communities and...

  16. area dharmapuri district: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Downtown Revitalization Industrial Park Improvements Housing and Disaster Recovery Brownfield Redevelopment and identifies the changing needs of the District's communities and...

  17. Truckee Donner Public Utility District- Energy Conservation Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Truckee Donner Public Utility District (TDPUD) offers incentives for customers to improve the energy efficiency of homes and businesses. Participants must be a TDPUD electric customer (and water...

  18. Magnetic Modeling Of The Phlegraean Volcanic District With Extension...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Archipelago, Italy Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: Magnetic Modeling Of The Phlegraean Volcanic District With Extension To The...

  19. Assessment of Industrial Load for Demand Response across Western Interconnect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alkadi, Nasr E [ORNL; Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Ma, Ookie [United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Demand response (DR) has the ability to both increase power grid reliability and potentially reduce operating system costs. Understanding the role of demand response in grid modeling has been difficult due to complex nature of the load characteristics compared to the modeled generation and the variation in load types. This is particularly true of industrial loads, where hundreds of different industries exist with varying availability for demand response. We present a framework considering industrial loads for the development of availability profiles that can provide more regional understanding and can be inserted into analysis software for further study. The developed framework utilizes a number of different informational resources, algorithms, and real-world measurements to perform a bottom-up approach in the development of a new database with representation of the potential demand response resource in the industrial sector across the U.S. This tool houses statistical values of energy and demand response (DR) potential by industrial plant and geospatially locates the information for aggregation for different territories without proprietary information. This report will discuss this framework and the analyzed quantities of demand response for Western Interconnect (WI) in support of evaluation of the cost production modeling with power grid modeling efforts of demand response.

  20. Nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems: Opportunities, interconnections, and needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark F. Ruth; Owen R. Zinaman; Mark Antkowiak; Richard D. Boardman; Robert S. Cherry; Morgan D. Bazilian

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As the U.S. energy system evolves, the amount of electricity from variable-generation sources is likely to increase, which could result in additional times when electricity demand is lower than available production. Thus, purveyors of technologies that traditionally have provided base-load electricityósuch as nuclear power plantsócan explore new operating procedures to deal with the associated market signals. Concurrently, innovations in nuclear reactor design coupled with sophisticated control systems now allow for more complex apportionment of heat within an integrated system such as one linked to energy-intensive chemical processes. This paper explores one opportunity Ė nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems. These are defined as integrated facilities comprised of nuclear reactors, renewable energy generation, and industrial processes that can simultaneously address the need for grid flexibility, greenhouse gas emission reductions, and optimal use of investment capital. Six aspects of interaction (interconnections) between elements of nuclear-renewable hybrid energy systems are identified: Thermal, electrical, chemical, hydrogen, mechanical, and information. Additionally, system-level aspects affect selection, design, and operation of this hybrid system type. Throughout the paper, gaps and research needs are identified to promote further exploration of the topic.

  1. Cool Trends in District Energy: A Survey of Thermal Energy Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in District Energy: A Survey of Thermal Energy Storage Use in District Energy Utility Applications, June 2005 Cool Trends in District Energy: A Survey of Thermal Energy Storage Use...

  2. Real-Time Water Quality Management in the Grassland Water District

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Grassland Water District. Solar Panel with 12-volt batteryWater District. Power Solar Panel with 12-volt batteryWater District. Power Solar Panel with 12-volt battery

  3. Questions about Groundwater Conservation Districts in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.; Silvy, Valeen

    2008-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    activities with export fees? 25 What is the minimum usage rate before fees are charged? 25 Who pays if a GCD is voted in, but the financing is not approved? 25 Who pays for the GCD organizational expenses? 25 Are directors paid for their position? 25... sold and exported beyond district boundaries? 27 Can a GCD prevent a city from moving water from a rural area to an urban area? 27 Can the GCD impose a fee for water exportation? 29 GCD alternatives 29 What happens if we don?t form a GCD? 29 Can we...

  4. Empire District Electric Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand JumpConceptual Model,DOEHazel Crest,Energy InformationEmily, Minnesota:Emmons LakeEmpire District

  5. Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS): Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodford, D.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides an independent review included an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands.

  6. A continuous distribution method for reliability evaluation of interconnected power systems†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chintaluri, Gouri Mohana

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the interconnection effects. Several studies are reported using IEEE-RTS and EPRI System E. The indices of LOLE, EUE and LOLF are obtained and are compared with those of the recursive method for accuracy and efficiency....

  7. Relevance of Generation Interconnection Procedures to Feed-in Tariffs in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fink, S.; Porter, K.; Rogers, J.

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Feed-in tariffs (FITs) have been used to promote renewable electricity development in over 40 countries throughout the past two decades. These policies generally provide guaranteed prices for the full system output from eligible generators for a fixed time period (typically 15-20 years). Due in part to the success of FIT policies in Europe, some jurisdictions in the United States are considering implementing similar policies, and a few have already put such policies in place. This report is intended to offer some guidance to policymakers and regulators on how generator interconnection procedures may affect the implementation of FITs and how state generator interconnection procedures can be formulated to support state renewable energy objectives. This report is based on a literature review of model interconnection procedures formulated by several organizations, as well as other documents that have reviewed, commented on, and in some cases, ranked state interconnection procedures.

  8. Renewable Generation and Interconnection to the Electrical Grid in Southern California

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers the topic of "Renewable Generation and Interconnection to the Electrical Grid in Southern California," given at the Spring 2010 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting in Providence, Rhode Island.

  9. On the State of the Art of Metal Interconnects for SOFC Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jablonski@netl.doe.gov

    2011-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the recent developments for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) is oxide component materials capable of operating at lower temperatures such as 700-800C. This lower temperature range has provided for the consideration of metallic interconnects which have several advantages over ceramic interconnects: low cost, ease in manufacturing, and high conductivity. Most metals and alloys will oxidize under both the anode and cathode conditions within an SOFC, thus a chief requirement is that the base metal oxide scale must be electrically conductive since this constitutes the majority of the electrical resistance in a metallic interconnect. Common high temperature alloys form scales that contain chrome, silicon and aluminum oxides among others. Under SOFC operating conditions chrome oxide is a semi-conductor while silicon and aluminum oxides are insulators. In this talk we will review the evolution in candidate alloys and surface modifications which constitute an engineered solution for SOFC interconnect applications.

  10. Determination of Interfacial Adhesion Strength between Oxide Scale and Substrate for Metallic SOFC Interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xin; Liu, Wenning N.; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2008-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The interfacial adhesion strength between the oxide scale and the substrate is crucial to the reliability and durability of metallic interconnects in SOFC operating environments. It is necessary, therefore, to establish a methodology to quantify the interfacial adhesion strength between the oxide scale and the metallic interconnect substrate, and furthermore to design and optimize the interconnect material as well as the coating materials to meet the design life of an SOFC system. In this paper, we present an integrated experimental/analytical methodology for quantifying the interfacial adhesion strength between oxide scale and a ferritic stainless steel interconnect. Stair-stepping indentation tests are used in conjunction with subsequent finite element analyses to predict the interfacial strength between the oxide scale and Crofer 22 APU substrate.

  11. High-performance parallel processors based on star-coupled wavelength division multiplexing optical interconnects

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deri, Robert J. (Pleasanton, CA); DeGroot, Anthony J. (Castro Valley, CA); Haigh, Ronald E. (Arvada, CO)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As the performance of individual elements within parallel processing systems increases, increased communication capability between distributed processor and memory elements is required. There is great interest in using fiber optics to improve interconnect communication beyond that attainable using electronic technology. Several groups have considered WDM, star-coupled optical interconnects. The invention uses a fiber optic transceiver to provide low latency, high bandwidth channels for such interconnects using a robust multimode fiber technology. Instruction-level simulation is used to quantify the bandwidth, latency, and concurrency required for such interconnects to scale to 256 nodes, each operating at 1 GFLOPS performance. Performance scales have been shown to .apprxeq.100 GFLOPS for scientific application kernels using a small number of wavelengths (8 to 32), only one wavelength received per node, and achievable optoelectronic bandwidth and latency.

  12. Reliable low latency I/O in torus-based interconnection networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azeez, Babatunde

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In today's high performance computing environment I/O remains the main bottleneck in achieving the optimal performance expected of the ever improving processor and memory technologies. Interconnection networks therefore combines processing units...

  13. EIS-0438: Interconnection of the Proposed Hermosa West Wind Farm Project, Albany County, Wyoming

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    After the applicant withdrew its request to interconnect the proposed Hermosa West Wind Farm Project with Western Area Power Administrationís transmission system, Western cancelled preparation of an EIS to evaluate the potential environmental impacts of the proposal.

  14. A continuous distribution method for reliability evaluation of interconnected power systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chintaluri, Gouri Mohana

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the interconnection effects. Several studies are reported using IEEE-RTS and EPRI System E. The indices of LOLE, EUE and LOLF are obtained and are compared with those of the recursive method for accuracy and efficiency....

  15. Solid oxide fuel cell with single material for electrodes and interconnect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McPheeters, Charles C. (Naperville, IL); Nelson, Paul A. (Wheaton, IL); Dees, Dennis W. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell having a plurality of individual cells. A solid oxide fuel cell has an anode and a cathode with electrolyte disposed therebetween, and the anode, cathode and interconnect elements are comprised of substantially one material.

  16. Record of Decision for the Electrical Interconnection of the Windy Point Wind Energy Project.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to offer contract terms for interconnection of 250 megawatts (MW) of power to be generated by the proposed Windy Point Wind Energy Project (Wind Project) into the Federal Columbia River Transmission System (FCRTS). Windy Point Partners, LLC (WPP) propose to construct and operate the proposed Wind Project and has requested interconnection to the FCRTS. The Wind Project will be interconnected at BPA's Rock Creek Substation, which is under construction in Klickitat County, Washington. The Rock Creek Substation will provide transmission access for the Wind Project to BPA's Wautoma-John Day No.1 500-kilovolt (kV) transmission line. BPA's decision to offer terms to interconnect the Wind Project is consistent with BPA's Business Plan Final Environmental Impact Statement (BP EIS) (DOE/EIS-0183, June 1995), and the Business Plan Record of Decision (BP ROD, August 15, 1995). This decision thus is tiered to the BP ROD.

  17. Fully Integrated Graphene and Carbon Nanotube Interconnects for Gigahertz High-Speed Cmos Electronics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Xiangyu

    Carbon-based nanomaterials such as metallic single-walled carbon nanotubes, multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and graphene have been considered as some of the most promising candidates for future interconnect technology ...

  18. Demonstration of monolithically integrated graphene interconnects for low-power CMOS applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Kyeong-Jae

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, interconnects have become an increasingly difficult design challenge as their relative performance has not improved at the same pace with transistor scaling. The specifications for complex features, clock ...

  19. Optically Interconnected Data Center Architecture for Bandwidth Intensive Energy Efficient Networking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergman, Keren

    sophisticated cooling systems, further reducing overall data center energy efficiencies. Moreover, measurements feasibility of the system. Keywords: optical network architecture, data center networks, reconfigurableOptically Interconnected Data Center Architecture for Bandwidth Intensive Energy Efficient

  20. Process based cost modeling of emerging optoelectronic interconnects : implications for material platform choice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Shan, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Continuously increasing demand for processing power, storage capacity, and I/O capacity in personal computing, data network, and display interface suggests that optical interconnects may soon supplant copper not only for ...

  1. Sandia Energy - Energy and Water in the Western and Texas Interconnect...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy and Water in the Western and Texas Interconnects Home Climate & Earth Systems WaterEnergy Nexus Decision Models for Integrating EnergyWater Energy and Water in the Western...

  2. Innovative Distributed Power Grid Interconnection and Control Systems: Final Report, December 11, 2000 - August 30, 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DePodesta, K.; Birlingmair, D.; West, R.

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The contract goal was to further advance distributed generation in the marketplace by making installations more cost-effective and compatible with existing systems. This was achieved by developing innovative grid interconnection and control systems.

  3. Effect of Via Separationand Low-k Dielectric Materials on the Thermal Characteristics of Cu Interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and their impact on interconnect reliability and performance [7, 81. Furthermore, self-heating in via structures in the metal wires and evaluate the impact of via separation. Based on the thermal-electrical analogy (Fig. I

  4. Phase 2 Report: Oahu Wind Integration and Transmission Study (OWITS); Hawaiian Islands Transmission Interconnection Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodford, D.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides an independent review including an initial evaluation of the technical configuration and capital costs of establishing an undersea cable system and examining impacts to the existing electric transmission systems as a result of interconnecting the islands

  5. Reliable low latency I/O in torus-based interconnection networks†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azeez, Babatunde

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In today's high performance computing environment I/O remains the main bottleneck in achieving the optimal performance expected of the ever improving processor and memory technologies. Interconnection networks therefore combines processing units...

  6. Pricing Games among Interconnected Microgrids Gaurav S. Kasbekar and Saswati Sarkar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarkar, Saswati

    1 Pricing Games among Interconnected Microgrids Gaurav S. Kasbekar and Saswati Sarkar Abstract than, less than or as much aggregate power as it requires. G. Kasbekar and S. Sarkar

  7. Reuse Distance Based Circuit Replacement in Silicon Photonic Interconnection Networks for HPC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergman, Keren

    -scale distance, can help to further scale data-movement capabilities in high performance computing (HPC demands within high performance computing (HPC) systems. Silicon photonic (SiP) interconnects [1-3], which

  8. Using CrAIN Multilayer Coatings to Improve Oxidation Resistance of Steel Interconnects for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Richard J.; Tripp, C.; Knospe, Anders; Ramana, C. V.; Gorokhovsky, Vladimir I.; Shutthanandan, V.; Gelles, David S.

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The requirements of low cost and high-tempurature corrosion resistance for bipolar interconnect plates in solid oxide fuel cell stacks has directed attention to the use of metal plates with oxidation resistant coatings. We have investigatedt he performance of steel plates with multilayer coatings consisting of CrN for electrical conductivity and CrAIN for oxidation resistance. The coatings were deposited usin large area filterd arc deposition technolgy, and subsequently annealed in air for up to 25 hours at 800 degrees celsius. The composition, structer and morphology of the coated plates were characterized using RBS, nuclear reaction analysis, AFM and TEM techniques. By altering the architecture of the layers within the coatings, the rate of oxidation was reduced by more than an order of magnitute. Electrical resistance was measured at room temperature.

  9. THOR Concept Complex simulation Autonomous control Conclusion Interconnection of the behavior-based control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berns, Karsten

    Schmidt Interconnection of iB2C and a detailed machine model rrlab.cs.uni-kl.de 2 #12;THOR Concept Complex of iB2C and a detailed machine model rrlab.cs.uni-kl.de 3 #12;THOR Concept Complex simulation Schmidt Interconnection of iB2C and a detailed machine model rrlab.cs.uni-kl.de 5 #12;THOR Concept Complex

  10. E-Print Network 3.0 - ascites-a district general Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Final report Summary: 1 Danish Energy Authority Final report Kaliningrad Regional District Heating Network 2004 - 2006... 2006 12;Kaliningrad District Heating Network Project 2004...

  11. E-Print Network 3.0 - aarhus police district Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    dis- Summary: developed by LOGSTOR, Danfoss Redan and DTU will provide district heating to 12 new townhouses in Aarhus... . District heating will remain eco- nomically...

  12. San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District Best Available Control Technology.4.2 #12;San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control Distri RECEIVED ~ 2 ED ECEIVED www.valleyalr.org SJVAPCD-2370∑(661)326-6900"FAX(661)326-6985 #12;San Joaquin Valley Unified Air Pollution Control District TITLE V MODIFICATION

  13. Livelihood Assets Atlas Mountainous Districts of NWFP (Pakistan)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richner, Heinz

    Livelihood Assets Atlas Mountainous Districts of NWFP (Pakistan) April 2009 SDPISustainable Mountainous Districts of NWFP (Pakistan) Abid Qaiyum Suleri, Babar Shahbaz, Sahab Haq Rana Nazir Mehmood and Gulbaz Ali Khan Sustainable Development Policy Institute 20 Hill Road, F-6/3, Islamabad - Pakistan www

  14. Peaks of Otter Soil and Water Conservation District

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    leadership and education to sustain and utilize Bedford's natural resources in a manner that will enhancePeaks of Otter Soil and Water Conservation District Annual Report FY 2014 1071ATurnpikeRd.Bedford,VA24523 "The Peaks of Otter Soil and Water Con- servation District, with its partners, will provide

  15. California Energy Commission "Our District now has a heightened

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Program provided an energy audit that identified ways to improve the HVAC controls and further cut annualLOW INTEREST RATE LOANS AVAILABLE NOW! California Energy Commission "Our District now has a heightened awareness of energy savings and related cost savings." Steve Jorgensen District Superintendent

  16. QER- Comment of Lake Charles Harbor & Terminal District

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Good Afternoon, Please find the Lake Charles Harbor and Terminal Districtís comments on Infrastructure Constraints in re: the QER Investigation hearing scheduled for Bismarck, ND on August 8, 2014. Please include these comments in the public record of the hearing. Thank you.

  17. Introduction THE YERINGTON DISTRICT, Nevada, contains porphyry Cu(Mo),

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barton, Mark D.

    55 Introduction THE YERINGTON DISTRICT, Nevada, contains porphyry Cu(Mo), Cu skarn, Fe oxide with the Jurassic Yerington batholith, which serves as either host rock or as source for heat and ma- terials of the Yerington Porphyry Copper District: Magmatic to Nonmagmatic Sources of Hydrothermal Fluids, Their Flow Paths

  18. Judicial District Attorney's Office in conjunction with Community Partners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    fraud prevention, intervention, and victim support. 1st Judicial District - District Attorney Fraud Line, mail theft, dumpster diving and e-mail "phishing." 2. It's a good idea to carry your Social Security member, a financial advisor, or someone with your Power of Attorney who is paying your bills and managing

  19. Upgrade of the LHC magnet interconnections thermal shielding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musso, Andrea; Barlow, Graeme; Bastard, Alain; Charrondiere, Maryline; Deferne, Guy; Dib, GaŽlle; Duret, Max; Guinchard, Michael; Prin, Hervť; Craen, Arnaud Vande; Villiger, Gilles [CERN European Organization for Nuclear Research, Meyrin 1211, Geneva 23, CH (Switzerland); Chrul, Anna [The Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, ul.Radzikowskiego 152, 31-324 Krakow (Poland); Damianoglou, Dimitrios [NTUA National Technical University of Athens, Heeron Polytechniou 9, 15780 Zografou (Greece); Strychalski, Micha? [Wroclaw University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical and Power Engineering, Wyb. Wyspianskiego 27, Wroclaw, 50-370 (Poland); Wright, Loren [Lancaster University, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4YW (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The about 1700 interconnections (ICs) between the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) superconducting magnets include thermal shielding at 50-75 K, providing continuity to the thermal shielding of the magnet cryostats to reduce the overall radiation heat loads to the 1.9 K helium bath of the magnets. The IC shield, made of aluminum, is conduction-cooled via a welded bridge to the thermal shield of the adjacent magnets which is actively cooled. TIG welding of these bridges made in the LHC tunnel at installation of the magnets induced a considerable risk of fire hazard due to the proximity of the multi-layer insulation of the magnet shields. A fire incident occurred in one of the machine sectors during machine installation, but fortunately with limited consequences thanks to prompt intervention of the operators. LHC is now undergoing a 2 years technical stop during which all magnet's ICs will have to be opened to consolidate the magnet electrical connections. The IC thermal shields will therefore have to be removed and re-installed after the work is completed. In order to eliminate the risk of fire hazard when re-welding, it has been decided to review the design of the IC shields, by replacing the welded bridges with a mechanical clamping which also preserves its thermal function. An additional advantage of this new solution is the ease in dismantling for maintenance, and eliminating weld-grinding operations at removal needing radioprotection measures because of material activation after long-term operation of the LHC. This paper describes the new design of the IC shields and in particular the theoretical and experimental validation of its thermal performance. Furthermore a status report of the on-going upgrade work in the LHC is given.

  20. Expansion of Urban Area in Irrigation Districts of the Rio Grande River Basin, 1996 - 2006: A Map Series†

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leigh, Eric; Barroso, M.; Fipps, G.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?County?Water?Control?&?Improvement?District?No.1? Maverick? Presidio?County?Water?Improvement?District?No.1? Presidio? Santa?Cruz?Irrigation?District?No.15? Santa?Cruz? Santa?Maria?Irrigation?District?Cameron?County?No.4? Santa?Maria? United?Irrigation?District?of?Hidalgo?County? United? Valley...?County?Water?Control?&?Improvement?District?No.1? 134,900? Presidio?County?Water?Improvement?District?No.1? 2,780? Santa?Cruz?Irrigation?District?No.15? 75,080? Santa?Maria?Irrigation?District?Cameron?County?No.4? 10,183? United?Irrigation?District?of?Hidalgo?County? 57,374? Valley...

  1. Expansion of Urban Area in Irrigation Districts of the Rio Grande River Basin, 1996 - 2006: A Map Series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leigh, Eric; Barroso, M.; Fipps, G.

    ?County?Water?Control?&?Improvement?District?No.1? Maverick? Presidio?County?Water?Improvement?District?No.1? Presidio? Santa?Cruz?Irrigation?District?No.15? Santa?Cruz? Santa?Maria?Irrigation?District?Cameron?County?No.4? Santa?Maria? United?Irrigation?District?of?Hidalgo?County? United? Valley...?County?Water?Control?&?Improvement?District?No.1? 134,900? Presidio?County?Water?Improvement?District?No.1? 2,780? Santa?Cruz?Irrigation?District?No.15? 75,080? Santa?Maria?Irrigation?District?Cameron?County?No.4? 10,183? United?Irrigation?District?of?Hidalgo?County? 57,374? Valley...

  2. Plastic deformation in Al (Cu) interconnects stressed by electromigration and studied by synchrotron polychromatic X-ray microdiffraction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Kai; Advanced Light Source; UCLA

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plastic deformation in Al (Cu) interconnects stressed bygrain orientation [7], study plastic deformation [12-15] andThis aspect of EM-induced plastic deformation in grains

  3. Actions Speak Louder than Words: A Case Study of a School District's Commitment to Equity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warren, Rachelle LeAnn

    2014-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

    What happens when a school district commits to equity? The focus on the school district is driven by the use of a framework that defined the school district as an institutional actor in reform efforts. Accordingly, the school district plays a...

  4. The Importance of a Small Rural School District to the Community

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reynolds, Richard

    2013-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    the sustainability issues associated with this school district and its importance to the community. Key stakeholders in the community and school district were interviewed to help develop a thick description of this districtís position in the community. Surveys were...

  5. Interconnecting network for switching data packets and method for switching data packets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, Alan Frederic; Minkenberg, Cyriel Johan Agnes; Stunkel, Craig Brian

    2010-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The interconnecting network for switching data packets, having data and flow control information, comprises a local packet switch element (S1) with local input buffers (I(1,1) . . . I(1,y)) for buffering the incoming data packets, a remote packet switch element (S2) with remote input buffers (I(2,1) . . . I(2,y)) for buffering the incoming data packets, and data lines (L) for interconnecting the local and the remote packet switch elements (S1, S2). The interconnecting network further comprises a local and a remote arbiter (A1, A2) which are connected via control lines (CL) to the input buffers (I(1,1) . . . I(1,y), I(2,1) . . . I(2,y)), and which are formed such that they can provide that the flow control information is transmitted via the data lines (L) and the control lines (CL).

  6. Empire District Electric- Low Income New Homes Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Empire District Electric offers rebates for the utilization of energy efficient measures and appliances in new, low-income homes. Rebates are available for several types of building insulation,...

  7. Qualifying RPS State Export Markets (District of Columbia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This entry lists the states with Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) policies that accept generation located in District of Columbia as eligible sources towards their RPS targets or goals. For...

  8. U.S. geothermal district heating : barriers and enablers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thorsteinsson, Hildigunnur H

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geothermal district heating experience in the U.S. is reviewed and evaluated to explore the potential impact of utilizing this frequently undervalued renewable energy resource for space and hot water heating. Although the ...

  9. EA-0923: Winnett School District Boiler Replacement Project, Winnett, Montana

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal to replace the Winnett School District complex's existing oil-fired heating system with a new coal-fired heating system with funds...

  10. Financing Energy Upgrades for K-12 School Districts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Technical Assistance Program (TAP) presentation at a TAP webinar held on April 11, 2013 and dealing with how to finance energy efficiency upgrades for K-12 school districts.

  11. Boulder Valley School District (Colorado) Power Purchase Agreement...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Boulder Valley School District completed a power purchase agreement to install 1.4 MW of solar PV that are expected to reduce electricity bills in 14 schools by about 10% over the...

  12. NEZ PERCE SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION DISTRICT CULDESAC, IDAHO 83524

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Culdesac, McGregor Company, and the Idaho Soil Conservation Commission. In addition, the District has of the wetland and sod bio-logs that are installed our projects. This results in more on-the-ground projects

  13. A Geothermal District-Heating System and Alternative Energy Research...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    District-Heating System and Alternative Energy Research Park on the NM Tech Campus Geothermal Project Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on July 22, 2011. Project Title A...

  14. November 20, 2012 Webinar: District Heating with Renewable Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This webinar was held November 20, 2012, and provided information on Indiana's Ball State University geothermal heat pump system, and a hot-water district heating system in St. Paul, Minnesota....

  15. Empire District Electric- Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Empire District Electric Company offers a Commercial/Industrial Prescriptive Rebate Program to its non-residential customers in Arkansas who purchase certain high-efficiency equipment for...

  16. An Integrated Pest Management survey of Texas school districts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shodrock, Damon Leon

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Texas school district personnel were surveyed using a mailed questionnaire to determine the status of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs and the efficacy of conventional pest control practices. Of the 517 survey participants, 12.4% had...

  17. The role of the district office in instructional practice reform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rizzi, Karen Schultz

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to 8,113 students. In 2005-06, 7,436 of the 8,113 studentsinterview, June 2007) In 2005-06, the district office hiredEvaluation forms, Schmoker, 2005-06). Nevertheless, a few

  18. army engineer district: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Prepared for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, Environmental Management and Restoration Websites Summary: PNNL-22788 Final Prepared for the U.S. Army Corps...

  19. army engineers district: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Prepared for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, Environmental Management and Restoration Websites Summary: PNNL-22788 Final Prepared for the U.S. Army Corps...

  20. 11.422 Business Improvement Districts, Spring 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoyt, Lorlene M.

    Focuses on the role of the business improvement district (BID) as a popular and contemporary tool for urban revitalization. Explores BID origins, theoretical underpinnings, enabling legislation, and organizational issues. ...

  1. Power Districts: Acquisition of Right-of-Way (Nebraska)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This statute describes procedures for power districts (utilities, corporations, or municipalities that engage in the generation or transmission of electricity) to obtain a right-of-way for the...

  2. Southern Power District- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Southern Power District (SPD) offers rebates for the purchase and installation of efficient air source heat pumps, geothermal heat pumps, attic insulation, and HVAC tune-ups. Contractors who...

  3. Nebraska Public Power District- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Nebraska Public Power District offers rebates to homeowners who purchase energy efficient heat pumps, upgrade their insulation, and/or have their cooling system tuned-up. The High Efficiency...

  4. Motion to Intervene and Comments of Public Utility District No...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    A motion to intervene and comments from Public Utility District No. 1 (Pend Oreille County, Washington) on PP 99-1 Notice of Intent to Amend Presidential Permit, where DOE proposes...

  5. Thermodynamic Analysis of Combined Cycle District Heating System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suresh, S.; Gopalakrishnan, H.; Kosanovic, D.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of the University of Massachusetts' Combined Heat and Power (CHP) District Heating System. Energy and exergy analyses are performed based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics for power...

  6. Local Power Empowers: CHP and District Energy (Text Version)...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    assistance program overview then we're gonna define CHPs. We're also gonna define district cooling and heating. We're then going to look at some of the technologies...

  7. Property Assessed Clean Energy Financing (District of Columbia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The District of Columbia offers a commercial Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) program. In order to receive financing through the commercial PACE program, applicants must first have an energy...

  8. Lake Improvement District Law and County Lake Improvement Program (Minnesota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lake Improvement Districts may be established by county boards in order to ďimprove the quality of water in lakes; provide for reasonable assurance of water quantity in lakes, where feasible and...

  9. Oxford Area Community School District (Michigan) Bonds Case Study

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Michiganís Oxford Area Community School District entered into an energy savings performance contract and issued limited tax general obligation bonds to fund the up-front costs of almost $3 million of energy-related improvements. Case study is excerpted from Financing Energy Upgrades for K-12 School Districts: A Guide to Tapping into Funding for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Improvements. Author: Merrian Borgeson and Mark Zimring

  10. Williamson County School District (Tennessee) Bonds Case Study

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Williamson County School District entered into an energy savings performance contract with an energy services company and completed a $5.7 million lease-purchase agreement to fund a range of energy-related improvements across 27 school facilities. Case study is excerpted from Financing Energy Upgrades for K-12 School Districts: A Guide to Tapping into Funding for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Improvements. Author: Merrian Borgeson and Mark Zimring

  11. Buying, Selling and Exporting Groundwater: Implications for Groundwater Conservation Districts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaiser, Ronald; Lesikar, Bruce A.; Silvey, Valeen

    given at the Groundwater Conservation District Seminar Series on May 28, 2003, at the Texas A&M University George Bush Presidential Conference Center. Summaries of the following presentations are presented in this report: The Status of Groundwater Sales... in a Sales/ Lease Agreement, by Sandra Burns. Regulation of Exportation of Underground Water, by Doug Caroom. Roberts County Transportation Permits, by C.E. Williams. Export Fees: A Groundwater District Limits and Uses, by Jace Houston. The report also...

  12. 1992 National census for district heating, cooling and cogeneration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    District energy systems are a major part of the energy use and delivery infrastructure of the United States. With nearly 6,000 operating systems currently in place, district energy represents approximately 800 billion BTU per hour of installed thermal production capacity, and provides over 1.1 quadrillion BTU of energy annually -- about 1.3% of all energy used in the US each year. Delivered through more that 20,000 miles of pipe, this energy is used to heat and cool almost 12 billion square feet of enclosed space in buildings that serve a diverse range of office, education, health care, military, industrial and residential needs. This Census is intended to provide a better understanding of the character and extent of district heating, cooling and cogeneration in the United States. It defines a district energy system as: Any system that provides thermal energy (steam, hot water, or chilled water) for space heating, space cooling, or process uses from a central plant, and that distributes the energy to two or more buildings through a network of pipes. If electricity is produced, the system is a cogenerating facility. The Census was conducted through surveys administered to the memberships of eleven national associations and agencies that collectively represent the great majority of the nation`s district energy system operators. Responses received from these surveys account for about 11% of all district systems in the United States. Data in this report is organized and presented within six user sectors selected to illustrate the significance of district energy in institutional, community and utility settings. Projections estimate the full extent of district energy systems in each sector.

  13. Douglas County School District (Nevada) Bonds Case Study

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Douglas County School District faced a challenging combination of aging equipment and buildings (most over 37 years old), rising energy costs, and limited access to taxpayer funds due to the fiscally-conservative makeup of the regionís voters.. Case study is excerpted from Financing Energy Upgrades for K-12 School Districts: A Guide to Tapping into Funding for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Improvements. Author: Merrian Borgeson and Mark Zimring

  14. Directives System

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1998-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Directives System is the means by which DOE policies, requirements, and responsibilities are developed and communicated throughout the Department. Directives are used to inform, direct, and guide employees in the performance of their jobs, and to enable employees to work effectively within the Department and with agencies, contractors, and the public. Cancels: DOE O 251.1, DOE M 251.1-1

  15. Planarization of metal films for multilevel interconnects by pulsed laser heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuckerman, David B. (Livermore, CA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the fabrication of multilevel integrated circuits, each metal layer is planarized by heating to momentarily melt the layer. The layer is melted by sweeping laser pulses of suitable width, typically about 1 microsecond duration, over the layer in small increments. The planarization of each metal layer eliminates irregular and discontinuous conditions between successive layers. The planarization method is particularly applicable to circuits having ground or power planes and allows for multilevel interconnects. Dielectric layers can also be planarized to produce a fully planar multilevel interconnect structure. The method is useful for the fabrication of VLSI circuits, particularly for wafer-scale integration.

  16. Proposal to negotiate amendments to an existing contract for the assembly of interconnections for the LHC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document concerns the proposal to negotiate amendments to the existing contract for the assembly of interconnections for the LHC. For the reasons explained in this document, the Finance Committee is invited to approve amendments to the existing contract with the consortium INEO (FR), ENDEL (FR) and GTI (NL) for the assembly of interconnections for the LHC for a total amount of 5 181 403 euros (8 095 424 Swiss francs), subject to revision, bringing the total amount of the contract to a maximum of 14 974 239 euros (23 395 751 Swiss francs), subject to revision. The amounts in Swiss francs have been calculated using the present rate of exchange.

  17. Wind/PV Generation for Frequency Regulation and Oscillation Damping in the Eastern Interconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Yong [The University of Tennessee, Knoxville; Gracia, Jose R [ORNL; Hadley, Stanton W [ORNL; Liu, Yilu [ORNL

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the control of renewable energy sources, including the variable-speed wind generators and solar photovoltaic (PV) generators, for frequency regulation and inter-area oscillation damping in the U.S. Eastern Interconnection (EI). In this report, based on the user-defined wind/PV generator electrical control model and the 16,000-bus Eastern Interconnection dynamic model, the additional controllers for frequency regulation and inter-area oscillation damping are developed and incorporated and the potential contributions of renewable energy sources to the EI system frequency regulation and inter-area oscillation damping are evaluated.

  18. Method of bonding an interconnection layer on an electrode of an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pal, U.B.; Isenberg, A.O.; Folser, G.R.

    1992-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical cell containing an air electrode, contacting electrolyte and electronically conductive interconnection layer, and a fuel electrode, has the interconnection layer attached by: (A) applying a thin, closely packed, discrete layer of LaCrO[sub 3] particles, doped with an element selected from the group consisting of Ca, Sr, Co, Ba, Mg and their mixtures on a portion of the air electrode, and then (B) electrochemical vapor depositing a dense skeletal structure between and around the doped LaCrO[sub 3] particles. 2 figs.

  19. Development of Readout Interconnections for the Si-W Calorimeter of SiD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, M.; Fields, R.G.; Holbrook, B.; Lander, R.L.; Moskaleva, A.; Neher, C.; Pasner, J.; Tripathi, M.; /UC, Davis; Brau, J.E.; Frey, R.E.; Strom, D.; /Oregon U.; Breidenbach, M.; Freytag, D.; Haller, G.; Herbst, R.; Nelson, T.; /SLAC; Schier, S.; Schumm, B.; /UC, Santa Cruz

    2012-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The SiD collaboration is developing a Si-W sampling electromagnetic calorimeter, with anticipated application for the International Linear Collider. Assembling the modules for such a detector will involve special bonding technologies for the interconnections, especially for attaching a silicon detector wafer to a flex cable readout bus. We review the interconnect technologies involved, including oxidation removal processes, pad surface preparation, solder ball selection and placement, and bond quality assurance. Our results show that solder ball bonding is a promising technique for the Si-W ECAL, and unresolved issues are being addressed.

  20. Journal of Interconnection Networks c World Scientific Publishing Company

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jie

    }@temple.edu Received 12 November 2013 Revised 6 March 2014 Synchronous Data Flow (SDF) is a useful computational model have been studied for SDFs. In this paper, we address energy-aware scheduling for acyclic SDF. An acyclic SDF graph can first be transformed to an equivalent homogeneous SDF graph and then to a Directed

  1. An Overview of Operational Characteristics of Selected Irrigation Districts in the Texas Lower Rio Grande Valley: Hidalgo County Irrigation District No. 2 (San Juan)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stubbs, Megan J.; Rister, M. Edward; Sturdivant, Allen W.; Lacewell, Ronald D.

    to both urban communities and agriculture (which includes most of the irrigation districts in the Lower Rio Grande Valley) brings forth more questions related to how each of these systems operate. Individual or groupings of irrigation districts..., infrastructure, adoptive rate of technology, etc. can vary significantly across irrigation districts. So, to completely understand and appreciate the collective Lower Rio Grande Valley irrigation district system, one must understand the idiosyncrasies...

  2. Geodatabase of the South Texas Uranium District

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mark Beaman; William Wade Mcgee

    Uranium and its associated trace elements and radionuclides are ubiquitous in the South Texas Tertiary environment. Surface mining of this resource from the 1960s through the early 1980s at over sixty locations has left an extensive anthropological footprint (Fig. 1) in the lower Nueces and San Antonio river basins. Reclamation of mining initiated after 1975 has been under the regulatory authority of the Railroad Commission of Texas (RCT). However, mines that were active before the Texas Surface Mining Act of 1975 was enacted, and never reclaimed, are now considered abandoned. The Abandoned Mine Land Section of the RCT is currently reclaiming these pre-regulation uranium mines with funding from the federal government. The RCT monitors the overall effectiveness of this process through post-reclamation radiation and vegetative cover surveys, water quality testing, slope stability and erosion control monitoring. Presently a number of graduate and postgraduate students are completing research on the watershed and reservoir distribution of trace elements and radionuclides downstream of the South Texas Uranium District. The question remains as to whether the elevated levels of uranium, its associated trace elements and radiation levels in the South Texas environment are due to mining

  3. Tushino - 3 district heating project/Moscow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayer, H.W.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The contract for supply and installation of Honeywell control equipment at the district heating plant in Moscow suburb of Tushino was signed between the Mayor of Moscow and Honeywell in December 1991. Total contract value is US$3 million. The aim is to demonstrate on a pilot project the potential energy savings and improved pleat safety which can be achieved by means of electronic control of latest design. The Honeywell contract basically covers modernization of instrumentation and control of the gas fired heating plant, comprising water preparation and 4 boilers, of 100 Gcal/h each, i.e., 400 Gcal/h total. The plant is feeding the hot water network which has 60 heat exchanger stations connected. The heat exchangers (thermal rating between 2 to 10 Gcal/h each) supply hot water mainly to residential building blocks for apartment heating and domestic hot water. Honeywell`s responsibility covers engineering, supply of TDC 3000 micro-processor based control system for the boilers and DeltaNet Excel control for the Heat Exchangers. The contract also includes installation and start-up of the total control system.

  4. Three-Dimensional Analysis of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Ni-YSZ Anode Interconnectivity James R. Wilson,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalies, William D.

    of interconnectivity of solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) electrode phases. The method was applied to the three1 Three-Dimensional Analysis of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Ni-YSZ Anode Interconnectivity James R, and hence was not electrochemically active. #12;2 1. Introduction Attempts to understand solid oxide fuel

  5. Abstract--The security of modern large interconnected power systems suffers from the absence of a unique security coordinator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universitť de

    1 Abstract-- The security of modern large interconnected power systems suffers from the absence interconnected power systems. In the absence of a full information exchange, the operators' alternative solution contingencies screening , control areas data exchange, multi-area electric power system security assessment. I

  6. Cost-efficient monitoring of water quality in district heating systems This article examines the monitoring strategy for water quality in a large Danish district

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cost-efficient monitoring of water quality in district heating systems This article examines the monitoring strategy for water quality in a large Danish district heating system ≠ and makes a proposal for a technical and economic improvement. Monitoring of water quality in district heating systems is necessary

  7. Automatica 45 (2009) 25572562 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scardovi, Luca

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of a network of identical linear state-space models under a possibly time-varying and directed interconnection of reaching agreement about some variables of interest. In the consensus literature, the emphasis-invariant, but, in the absence of communication, the agreement variables usually have no dynamics

  8. Seventh International Dielectrics and Conductors for ULSI Multilevel Interconnection Conference (DCMIC), Santa Clara, CA, March 5-9, 2001, pp. 38-50.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and signal transmission through the interconnects in VLSI circuits due to self-heating (or Joule heating interconnects due to self-heating phenomenon can also limit the maximum allowed average current density, javg

  9. Co-sponsored second quarter progress review conference on district heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A summary of the progress review conference on district heating and cooling systems is presented. The agenda and lists of speakers and attendees are presented. A history of district heating and some present needs and future policies are given and an excerpt from the National District Heating Program Strategy (DOE, March 1980) is included. Following the presentation, District Heating and Cooling Systems Program, by Alan M. Rubin, a fact sheet on DOE's Integrated Community Energy Systems Program and information from an oral presentation, District Heating and Cooling Systems for Communities Through Power Plant Retrofit Distribution Network, are given. The Second Quarterly Oral Report to the US DOE on the District Heating and Cooling Project in Detroit; the executive summary of the Piqua, Ohio District Heating and Cooling Demonstration Project; the Second Quarterly Report of the Moorehead, Minnesota District Heating Project; and the report from the Moorehead, Minnesota mayor on the Hot Water District Heating Project are presented.

  10. Distributed state estimation and model predictive control of linear interconnected system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    requirements, modern control systems are becoming more and more complex. For these processes, different controlDistributed state estimation and model predictive control of linear interconnected system: In this paper, a distributed and networked control system architecture based on independent Model Predictive

  11. Electrically interconnected assemblies of microscale device components by printing and molding

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, John A.

    of the underlying aspects and application to representative systems in photovoltaics and solid state lighting approaches for assembly and electrical interconnection of micro/nanoscale devices into functional systems, and photovoltaics can be formed with assemblies of micro/nanoscale components or material ele- ments to achieve

  12. EIS-0485: Interconnection of the Grande Prairie Wind Farm, Holt County, Nebraska

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOEís Western Area Power Administration is preparing an EIS to evaluate the environmental impacts of interconnecting the proposed Grande Prairie Wind Farm, in Holt County, near OíNeill, Nebraska, to Westernís power transmission system. The project website is http://www.wapa.gov/ugp/Environment/GrandePrairie.htm.

  13. WHAT IS A NETWORK? (Gas and Electricity) A complex, interconnected group or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, Francis

    WHAT IS A NETWORK? (Gas and Electricity) A complex, interconnected group or system Electricity and Gas: A system used to distribute electricity and gas around the world/certain area, by compromising to minimise costs and generate the most electricity and gas as possible, which maximises profits

  14. Reliability of Wireless On-Chip Interconnects Based on Carbon Nanotube Antennas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pande, Partha Pratim

    Reliability of Wireless On-Chip Interconnects Based on Carbon Nanotube Antennas A. Nojeh1 , P Engineering University of British Columbia 2332 Main Mall Vancouver, BC, Canada 2 School of Electrical of the research effort in the emerging area of nanoelectronics has revolved around creating novel devices

  15. A Self-Reconfigurable Lightweight Interconnect for Scalable Processor Fabrics Heiner Giefers and Marco Platzner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hellebrand, Sybille

    , on the processor array. We prototype the processor fabric on FPGA technology and analyze the efficiency of our many, energy, and execution time. Therefore it is of high interest to also study alternative interconnects, the communication infrastructure incurs low over- heads in terms of energy and area, particularly compared to packet

  16. Advanced Unit Commitment Strategies for the U.S. Eastern Interconnection: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ela, E.; Milligan, M.; Meibom, P.; Barth, R.; Tuohy, A.

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper outlines a study undertaken for the U.S. Eastern Interconnection in which different advanced unit commitment strategies were simulated for three different years to evaluate the benefits that may occur from using these strategies as an operational tool.

  17. An energy vision: the transformation towards sustainability --interconnected challenges and solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silver, Whendee

    (RCPs) [2 ], the International Energy Agency's World Energy Outlook [3,4 ], and several modeAn energy vision: the transformation towards sustainability -- interconnected challenges Nilsson8 and KR Smith9 The energy system is currently facing a number of challenges, most notably high

  18. Solid oxide fuel cell with single material for electrodes and interconnect

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McPheeters, C.C.; Nelson, P.A.; Dees, D.W.

    1994-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid oxide fuel cell is described having a plurality of individual cells. A solid oxide fuel cell has an anode and a cathode with electrolyte disposed there between, and the anode, cathode and interconnect elements are comprised of substantially one material. 9 figs.

  19. EA-1884: Invenergy Interconnection for the Wray Wind Energy Project, Town of Wray, Yuma County, CO

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOEís Western Area Power Administration is preparing this EA to evaluate the environmental impacts of interconnecting the proposed Wray Wind Energy Project, for approximately 90 megawatts of wind generation, to Westernís existing Wray Substation in Yuma County, Colorado.

  20. 3-Dimensional, Solder-Free Interconnect Technology for High-Performance Power Modules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Universitť de

    , published in "Conference on Integrated Power Systems (CIPS), Nuremberg : Germany (2012)" #12;dimensional (3D) packaging of power modules in a compact stacked layer structure [3], [4], [5]. The proposed technologies can3-Dimensional, Solder-Free Interconnect Technology for High- Performance Power Modules Bassem

  1. Application Of Ti-Based Self-Formation Barrier Layers To Cu Dual-Damascene Interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ito, Kazuhiro; Kohama, Kazuyuki [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Ohmori, Kazuyuki; Mori, Kenichi; Maekawa, Kazuyoshi; Asai, Koyu [Process Technology Div., Renesas Electronics Corporation, Hitachinaka, Ibaraki 312-8504 (Japan); Murakami, Masanori [The Ritsumeikan Trust, Nakagyo-ku, Kyoto 604-8520 (Japan)

    2010-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Cu interconnects have been used extensively in ULSI devices. However, large resistance-capacitance delay and poor device reliability have been critical issues as the device feature size has reduced to nanometer scale. In order to achieve low resistance and high reliability of Cu interconnects, we have applied a thin Ti-based self-formed barrier (SFB) using Cu(Ti) alloy seed to 45nm-node dual damascene interconnects and evaluated its performance. The line resistance and via resistance decreased significantly, compared with those of conventional Ta/TaN barriers. The stress migration performance was also drastically improved using the SFB process. A performance of time dependent dielectric breakdown revealed superior endurance. These results suggest that the Ti-based SFB process is one of the most promising candidates for advanced Cu interconnects. TEM and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy observations for characterization of the Ti-based SFB structure were also performed. The Ti-based SFB consisted of mainly amorphous Ti oxides. Amorphous or crystalline Ti compounds such as TiC, TiN, and TiSi formed beneath Cu alloy films, and the formation varied with dielectric.

  2. ELECTRIFICATION OF ISOLATED AREAS BY INTERCONNECTING DIFFERENT RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY: A SUSTANAIBLE APPROACH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of a methodology for rural electrification by micro-grids based upon different renewable resources. > Application to absorb innovations such as rural electrification by isolated micro grid Sustainable approach The successELECTRIFICATION OF ISOLATED AREAS BY INTERCONNECTING DIFFERENT RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY

  3. Analyzing Ultra-Scale Application Communication Requirements for a Reconfigurable Hybrid Interconnect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    dependent on scaling up to unprecedented numbers of processors. To prevent the interconnect architecture be and/or a fee. . peta-scale computing is increasingly dependent on scaling up the number of processors, there is a critical need to ef- fectively build and utilize network topology solutions with costs that scale linearly

  4. Analog/RF Design Techniques for High Performance Nanoelectronic On-Chip Interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Bao

    explores this possibility, espe- cially, application of two analog/RF design techniques as fol- low. 1- mance nanoelectronic on-chip interconnects: (1) application of distributed amplifiers for signal. Application of distributed amplifiers for signal attenua- tion reduction in high performance nanoelectronic on

  5. On-line Fault Detection and Location for NoC Interconnects Cristian Grecu1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pande, Partha Pratim

    On-line Fault Detection and Location for NoC Interconnects Cristian Grecu1 , André Ivanov1 , Res-line fault detection and location in Network-on-chip (NoC) communication fabrics is introduced. This approachC-based chips. These factors motivated us to develop a method for concurrent error detection and location for No

  6. Transparent, Low Power Optical WDM Interface for Off-Chip Interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergman, Keren

    , and other related circuitry (e.g. for thermal stability). In CMOS technology [6], the total power dissipated static power dissipation of the interface. The dynamic power is proportional to the gate capacitance (CTransparent, Low Power Optical WDM Interface for Off-Chip Interconnects Odile Liboiron

  7. Selection and Evaluation of Heat-Resistant Alloys for Planar SOFC Interconnect Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Z Gary; Weil, K. Scott; Paxton, Dean M.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

    2002-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past several years, the steady reduction in SOFC operating temperatures to the intermediate range of 700~850oC [1] has made it feasible for lanthanum chromite to be supplanted by metals or alloys as the interconnect materials. Compared to doped lanthanum chromite, metals or alloys offer significantly lower raw material and fabrication costs. However, to be a durable and reliable, a metal or alloy has to satisfy several functional requirements specific to the interconnect under SOFC operating conditions. Specifically, the interconnect metal or alloy should possess the following properties: (i) Good surface stability (resistance to oxidation, hot corrosion, and carburization) in both cathodic (air) and anodic (fuel) atmospheres; (ii) Thermal expansion matching to the ceramic PEN (positive cathode-electrolyte-negative anode) and seal materials (as least for a rigid seal design); (iii) High electrical conductivity through both the bulk material and in-situ formed oxide scales; (iv) Bulk and interfacial thermal mechanical reliability and durability at the operating temperature; (v) Compatibility with other materials in contact with interconnects such as seals and electrical contact materials.

  8. Modeling and Simulation Environment for Photonic Interconnection Networks in High Performance Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bergman, Keren

    at the scale of high performance computer clusters and warehouse scale data centers, system level simulations and results for rack scale photonic interconnection networks for high performance computing. Keywords: optical to the newsworthy power consumption [3], latency [4] and bandwidth challenges [5] of high performance computing (HPC

  9. Changing photovoltaic array interconnections to reduce mismatch losses: a case study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ) ­ Grenoble, France **Grupo de Investigacion y Desarollo en Energia Solar y Automatica (IDEA) ­ Jaén, Spain a wide variety of plants ranging from utility-sized solar trackers to residential building-integrated PV, resulting in lower energy production yields. The traditional series-parallel interconnection scheme of solar

  10. High-Level Power Estimation with Interconnect Effects Kavel M. Buyuksahin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najm, Farid N.

    the predicted (at RTL) power against that measured using SPICE. An average er- ror of 14.4% is obtainedHigh-Level Power Estimation with Interconnect Effects Kavel M. B¬®uy¬®uks¬łahin ECE Dept.najm@toronto.edu ABSTRACT We extend earlier work on high-level average power esti- mation to include the power due

  11. Impact of Wind Turbine Penetration on the Dynamic Performance of Interconnected Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    Impact of Wind Turbine Penetration on the Dynamic Performance of Interconnected Power Systems M. J School of S ~ao Carlos, Brazil. Email: ramos@sel.eese.usp.br Abstract--The complexity of power systems, such as wind generators. This changing nature of power systems has considerable effect on its dynamic behaviour

  12. Power Reduction of CMP Communication Networks via RF-Interconnects M-C. Frank Chang

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cong, Jason "Jingsheng"

    latency and low energy consumption [5][7]. RF-I transmission lines provide single-cycle crossPower Reduction of CMP Communication Networks via RF-Interconnects M-C. Frank Chang , Jason Cong}@cs.ucla.edu Electrical Engineering Department, UCLA. {mfchang, socher, roccotam}@ee.ucla.edu Abstract As chip

  13. A THz transverse electromagnetic mode two-dimensional interconnect layer incorporating quasi-optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of transmitting subpicosecond pulses in the transverse electromagnetic TEM mode over arbitrarily long paths near the cutoff fre- quency. Such pulse broadening does not occur for the trans- verse electromagneticA THz transverse electromagnetic mode two-dimensional interconnect layer incorporating quasi

  14. Interconnected Slums: Water, Sanitation and Health in Abidjan, Co^te d'Ivoire

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richner, Heinz

    Interconnected Slums: Water, Sanitation and Health in Abidjan, Co^te d'Ivoire BRIGIT OBRIST, GUE contributed to this paper are: Gue¬īladio Cisse¬ī (Centre Suisse de Recherches Scientifiques, Abidjan, Co^te d'Ivoire¬ītude de cas comparative, il examine les re¬īponses aux proble`mes environnementaux dans un contexte aussi

  15. Data-Dependent Jitter and Crosstalk-Induced Bounded Uncorrelated Jitter in Copper Interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hajimiri, Ali

    Data-Dependent Jitter and Crosstalk-Induced Bounded Uncorrelated Jitter in Copper Interconnects Abstract -- This paper resolves the jitter impairment of non-return-to-zero data in transmission lines. The limited bandwidth of the transmission line introduces data- dependent jitter. Crosstalk between

  16. CarPal: interconnecting overlay networks for a community-driven shared mobility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    CarPal: interconnecting overlay networks for a community-driven shared mobility VincenzoName.lastName@sophia.inria.fr Abstract. Car sharing and car pooling have proven to be an effective solution to reduce the amount of such effectiveness. Keywords. Peer to peer, overlay networks, case study, information retrieval, car sharing 1

  17. Optimum Repeater InsertionBased on a CMOSDelay Model for On-ChipRLC Interconnect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ismail, Yehea

    Abstract-A closed form expressionfor the propagationdelay of a CMOS gate driving a distributed RLC line is to provide an accurate estimation of the propagationdelay of nonlinearCMOS gates driving distributedRLC lines if inductance is neglectedand the interconnect is treated as a distributed RC line can be over 30%for present on

  18. Optimum Repeater Insertion Based on a CMOS Delay Model for OnChip RLC Interconnect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ismail, Yehea

    Abstract ≠ A closed form expression for the propagation delay of a CMOS gate driving a distributed RLC line of the propagation delay of nonlinear CMOS gates driving distributed RLC lines as well as to develop design if inductance is neglected and the interconnect is treated as a distributed RC line can be over 30% for present

  19. HVDC Control Strategies to Improve Transient Stability in Interconnected Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    HVDC Control Strategies to Improve Transient Stability in Interconnected Power Systems J. Hazra Dpt of Li`ege, Belgium, dernst@ulg.ac.be Abstract--This paper presents three HVDC modulation strate- gies flow settings through the HVDC-links. The proposed techniques are tested on the IEEE 24-Bus reliability

  20. ACTIVE SUBSTRATES FOR OPTOELECTRONIC INTERCONNECT Donald Chiarulli, Steven Levitan, Jason Bakos

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bakos, Jason D.

    silicon on sapphire technology and the adaptation of laser drilling techniques to create vias through goal is a new solution to one of the most difficult problems associated with the packaging of chip and electrically compatible with current ball grid array (BGA) technology for electronic interconnect, and provides

  1. Optimization and Visualization of the North American Eastern Interconnect Power Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Optimization and Visualization of the North American Eastern Interconnect Power Market Douglas R. Hale DHALE@eia.doe.gov U.S. Energy Information Agency Washington, DC 20585 USA Thomas J. Overbye. Introduction The road to competitive electricity markets in the United States is becoming littered

  2. Discrete-time Lyapunov based small-gain theorem for parameterized interconnected ISS systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nesic, Dragan

    Discrete-time Lyapunov based small-gain theorem for parameterized interconnected ISS systems Dina via the Lyapunov method. In particular, an ISS Lyapunov function for the overall system is constructed from the ISS Lyapunov functions of the two subsystems. We consider parameterized families of discrete

  3. Phase 1 - Evaluation of a Functional Interconnect System for Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James M. Rakowski

    2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This project is focused on evaluating the suitability of materials and complex multi-materials systems for use as solid oxide fuel cell interconnects. ATI Allegheny Ludlum has generated promising results for interconnect materials which incorporate modified surfaces. Methods for producing these surfaces include cladding, which permits the use of novel materials, and modifications via unique thermomechanical processing, which allows for the modification of materials chemistry. The University of Pittsburgh is assisting in this effort by providing use of their in-place facilities for dual atmosphere testing and ASR measurements, along with substantial work to characterize post-exposure specimens. Carnegie Mellon is testing interconnects for chromia scale spallation resistance using macro-scale and nano-scale indentation tests. Chromia spallation can increase electrical resistance to unacceptable levels and interconnect systems must be developed that will not experience spallation within 40,000 hours at operating temperatures. Spallation is one of three interconnect failure mechanisms, the others being excessive growth of the chromia scale (increasing electrical resistance) and scale evaporation (which can poison the cathode). The goal of indentation fracture testing at Carnegie Mellon is to accelerate the evaluation of new interconnect systems (by inducing spalls at after short exposure times) and to use fracture mechanics to understand mechanisms leading to premature interconnect failure by spallation. Tests include bare alloys from ATI and coated systems from DOE Laboratories and industrial partners, using ATI alloy substrates. West Virginia University is working towards developing a cost-effective material for use as a contact material in the cathode chamber of the SOFC. Currently materials such as platinum are well suited for this purpose, but are cost-prohibitive. For the solid-oxide fuel cell to become a commercial reality it is imperative that lower cost components be developed. Based on the results obtained to date, it appears that sterling silver could be an inexpensive, dependable candidate for use as a contacting material in the cathode chamber of the solid-oxide fuel cell. Although data regarding pure silver samples show a lower rate of thickness reduction, the much lower cost of sterling silver makes it an attractive alternative for use in SOFC operation.

  4. F. Karinou et al., "Influence of transmission impairments on the OSMOSIS HPC optical interconnect architecture" 1 Abstract--We examine the impact of transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vlachos, Kyriakos G.

    ) supercomputers (BlueWaters [4] and POWER7-IH [5]) use optical interconnects for inter-rack communication

  5. Directives Help

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    All DOE directives are available through this site. While it may seem overwhelming, given the number of documents, we have provided a number of ways in which you may get to the information you need.

  6. NREL Variability and Reserves Analysis for the Western Interconnect (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; King, J.

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Additional variability and uncertainty increase reserve requirements. In this light, this presentation discusses how use of generation reserves can be optimized for managing variability and uncertainty. Conclusions of this presentation are: (1) Provided a method for calculating additional reserve requirements due to wind and solar production; (2) Method is based on statistical analysis of historical time series data; (3) Reserves are dynamic, produced for each hour; (4) Reserve time series are calculated from and synchronized to simulation data; (5) PROMOD can not model directly, but workarounds exist for regulation and spin; and (6) Other production modeling packages have varying capability for reserves modeling.

  7. Community Wind Handbook/Research Interconnecting behind Your Meter | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovationin UrbanCityCoatedCommunity Electric Coop JumpProject |Find

  8. PJM Interconnection, LLC Smart Grid Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |JilinLuOpenNorthOlympia GreenThesourceOvertonPEPCOPERI Green

  9. South West Interconnected System SWIS | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty Edit with form HistoryRistmaSinosteelSolarSolkarTopicsSouthNew Jersey:South UtahSouth

  10. FERC Order No. 792 - Interconnection Request | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489 NoEurope BV Jump to:FAS Technologies LLC JumpNational

  11. Geothermal direct use engineering and design guidebook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lienau, P.J.; Lunis, B.C. (eds.)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Geothermal Direct Use Engineering and Design Guidebook is designed to be a comprehensive, thoroughly practical reference guide for engineers and designers of direct heat projects. These projects could include the conversion of geothermal energy into space heating and cooling of buildings, district heating, greenhouse heating, aquaculture and industrial processing. The Guidebook is directed at understanding the nature of geothermal resources and the exploration of the resources, fluid sampling techniques, drilling, and completion of geothermal wells through well testing, and reservoir evaluation. It presents information useful to engineers on the specification of equipment including well pumps, piping, heat exchangers, space heating equipment, heat pumps and absorption refrigeration. A compilation of current information about greenhouse aquaculture and industrial applications is included together with a discussion of engineering cost analysis, regulation requirements, and environmental consideration. The purpose of the Guidebook is to provide an integrated view for the development of direct use projects for which there is a very large potential in the United States.

  12. Geothermal direct use engineering and design guidebook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloomquist, R.G.; Culver, G.; Ellis, P.F.; Higbee, C.; Kindle, C.; Lienau, P.J.; Lunis, B.C.; Rafferty, K.; Stiger, S.; Wright, P.M.

    1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Geothermal Direct Use Engineering and Design Guidebook is designed to be a comprehensive, thoroughly practical reference guide for engineers and designers of direct heat projects. These projects could include the conversion of geothermal energy into space heating cooling of buildings, district heating, greenhouse heating, aquaculture and industrial processing. The Guidebook is directed at understanding the nature of geothermal resources and the exploration of these resources, fluid sampling techniques, drilling, and completion of geothermal wells through well testing, and reservoir evaluation. It presents information useful to engineers on the specification of equipment including well pumps, piping, heat exchangers, space heating equipment, heat pumps and absorption refrigeration. A compilation of current information about greenhouse, aquaculture and industrial applications is included together with a discussion of engineering cost analysis, regulation requirements, and environmental considerations. The purpose of the Guidebook is to provide an integrated view for the development of direct use projects for which there is a very potential in the United States.

  13. Soil Erosion and Sediment Control Act, Soil and Water Conservation District, and Council on Soil and Water Conservation Regulations (Connecticut)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations establish Soil and Water Conservation Districts throughout the State of Connecticut. Each district has its own Board of Directors; membership and election procedures are defined...

  14. Well blowout rates in California Oil and Gas District 4--Update and Trends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benson, Sally M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    geologic assessment of oil and gas in the San Joaquin BasinRates in California Oil and Gas District 4 Ė Update andoccurring in California Oil and Gas District 4 during the

  15. E-Print Network 3.0 - angetu district southeastern Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Florida USA Summary: -3201 Doubling the Energy Advantage of Waste-to-Energy: District Heating in the Northeast U.S. Priscilla Ulloa... In District Heating (DH), a large number...

  16. RELATING TO LOCAL GOVERNMENT; ENACTING THE RENEWABLE ENERGY FINANCING DISTRICT ACT; AUTHORIZING MUNICIPALITIES AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    TO LOCAL GOVERNMENT; ENACTING THE RENEWABLE ENERGY FINANCING DISTRICT ACT; AUTHORIZING MUNICIPALITIES to encourage the development of distributed generation renewable energy sources and the installation. the creation and administration of renewable energy financing districts to facilitate the development

  17. District Superintendent and School Board President Perceptions Regarding Leadership Characteristics for Superintendents of Texas Schools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Groholski, Kenneth L.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    presidents of Texas public schools. The population was superintendents and school board presidents from Texas Public Schools. The population was divided into large school districts (>10,000 students) and small school districts (students). Data...

  18. The Energy Resource Center: On-Site Technical Assistance and Training Programs for Texas School Districts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberts, M.; Sanders, M.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Created by the 68th Session of the Texas Legislature, the Energy Resource Center for Texas Schools (ERC) is the primary source of facility management services for Texas School districts. The purpose of the ERC is to assist school districts...

  19. Geographic information system (GIS) and simulation model for management of irrigation districts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nazarov, Azimjon S.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IDMM (Irrigation District Management Model), a user friendly, GIS based, menu driven personal computer software program, was developed as a planning and management tool for improved water use and crop growth production in irrigation districts...

  20. City of Allentown assessment of a district heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliker, I.; Tamayne, T.

    1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy sources selected to accommodate the heat load consist of five 10 MWt units at the high temperature hot water generating station, ten 10 MWt units at the high temperature hot water generating station, and two 25 MWe (37.5 MWt) cogenerating fluidized bed combustion units at the incinerator site. The service area selected consists of the downtown commercial district. Total peak heat load for the forty seven block commercial district and twenty two industrial customers is estimated to be 187 MWt. The following aspects are covered: transmission and distribution piping systems, development strategy, capital costs and construction schedule, operation, economics, environmental analysis, and community impact.