National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for distribution system simulation

  1. Parallel Computing Environments and Methods for Power Distribution System Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning; Taylor, Zachary T.; Chassin, David P.; Guttromson, Ross T.; Studham, Scott S.

    2005-11-10

    The development of cost-effective high-performance parallel computing on multi-processor super computers makes it attractive to port excessively time consuming simulation software from personal computers (PC) to super computes. The power distribution system simulator (PDSS) takes a bottom-up approach and simulates load at appliance level, where detailed thermal models for appliances are used. This approach works well for a small power distribution system consisting of a few thousand appliances. When the number of appliances increases, the simulation uses up the PC memory and its run time increases to a point where the approach is no longer feasible to model a practical large power distribution system. This paper presents an effort made to port a PC-based power distribution system simulator (PDSS) to a 128-processor shared-memory super computer. The paper offers an overview of the parallel computing environment and a description of the modification made to the PDSS model. The performances of the PDSS running on a standalone PC and on the super computer are compared. Future research direction of utilizing parallel computing in the power distribution system simulation is also addressed.

  2. GridLab Power Distribution System Simulation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Pathways analysis User Interface: Desktop Application Website: www.gridlabd.org Cost: Free OpenEI Keyword(s): EERE tool Language: English References: GridLAB-D Simulation...

  3. Distributed Sensors Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-08-30

    The Distributed Sensors Simulator (DSS) is an infrastructure that allows the user to debug and test software for distributed sensor networks without the commitment inherent in using hardware. The flexibility of DSS allows developers and researchers to investigate topological, phenomenological, networking, robustness, and scaling issues; explore arbitrary algorithms for DSNs; and is particularly useful as a proof-of-concept tool. The user provides data on node location and specifications, defines event phenomena, and plugs in the application(s)more » to run. DSS in turn provides the virtual environmental embedding — but exposed to the user like no true embedding could ever be.« less

  4. Simulating the Daylight Performance of Complex Fenestration Systems Using Bidirectional Scattering Distribution Functions within Radiance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Gregory; Mistrick, Ph.D., Richard; Lee, Eleanor; McNeil, Andrew; Jonsson, Ph.D., Jacob

    2011-01-21

    We describe two methods which rely on bidirectional scattering distribution functions (BSDFs) to model the daylighting performance of complex fenestration systems (CFS), enabling greater flexibility and accuracy in evaluating arbitrary assemblies of glazing, shading, and other optically-complex coplanar window systems. Two tools within Radiance enable a) efficient annual performance evaluations of CFS, and b) accurate renderings of CFS despite the loss of spatial resolution associated with low-resolution BSDF datasets for inhomogeneous systems. Validation, accuracy, and limitations of the methods are discussed.

  5. Integrated Grid Modeling System (IGMS) for Combined Transmission and Distribution Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmintier, Bryan

    2015-07-28

    This presentation discusses the next-generation analysis framework for full-scale transmission and distribution modeling that supports millions of highly distributed energy resources, and also discusses future directions for transmission and distribution.

  6. Distributed Energy Technology Simulator: Microturbine Demonstration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Simulator: Microturbine Demonstration, October 2001 Distributed Energy Technology Simulator: Microturbine Demonstration, October 2001 This 2001 paper discusses the National Rural ...

  7. Main Injector power distribution system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cezary Jach and Daniel Wolff

    2002-06-03

    The paper describes a new power distribution system for Fermilab's Main Injector. The system provides 13.8 kV power to Main Injector accelerator (accelerator and conventional loads) and is capable of providing power to the rest of the laboratory (backfeed system). Design criteria, and features including simulation results are given.

  8. Distributed Energy Technology Simulator: Microturbine Demonstration, October 2001

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    results of a demonstration of a microturbine simulator used to mimic the behavior of a distributed energy resource on an electrical system

  9. FRIB cryogenic distribution system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganni, Venkatarao; Dixon, Kelly D.; Laverdure, Nathaniel A.; Knudsen, Peter N.; Arenius, Dana M.; Barrios, Matthew N.; Jones, S.; Johnson, M.; Casagrande, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    The Michigan State University Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (MSU-FRIB) helium distribution system has been revised to include bayonet/warm valve type disconnects between each cryomodule and the transfer line distribution system, similar to the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cryogenic distribution systems. The heat loads at various temperature levels and some of the features in the design of the distribution system are outlined. The present status, the plans for fabrication, and the procurement approach for the helium distribution system are also included.

  10. Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation is from a Building America webinar conducted on November 8, 2011, by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) about ductless hydronic distribution systems.

  11. PV distribution system

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    distribution system - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us ... Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & ...

  12. Smart distribution systems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jiang, Yazhou; Liu, Chen -Ching; Xu, Yin

    2016-04-19

    The increasing importance of system reliability and resilience is changing the way distribution systems are planned and operated. To achieve a distribution system self-healing against power outages, emerging technologies and devices, such as remote-controlled switches (RCSs) and smart meters, are being deployed. The higher level of automation is transforming traditional distribution systems into the smart distribution systems (SDSs) of the future. The availability of data and remote control capability in SDSs provides distribution operators with an opportunity to optimize system operation and control. In this paper, the development of SDSs and resulting benefits of enhanced system capabilities are discussed. Amore » comprehensive survey is conducted on the state-of-the-art applications of RCSs and smart meters in SDSs. Specifically, a new method, called Temporal Causal Diagram (TCD), is used to incorporate outage notifications from smart meters for enhanced outage management. To fully utilize the fast operation of RCSs, the spanning tree search algorithm is used to develop service restoration strategies. Optimal placement of RCSs and the resulting enhancement of system reliability are discussed. Distribution system resilience with respect to extreme events is presented. Furthermore, test cases are used to demonstrate the benefit of SDSs. Active management of distributed generators (DGs) is introduced. Future research in a smart distribution environment is proposed.« less

  13. Cooling water distribution system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orr, Richard

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  14. Distributed generation systems model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barklund, C.R.

    1994-12-31

    A slide presentation is given on a distributed generation systems model developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and its application to a situation within the Idaho Power Company`s service territory. The objectives of the work were to develop a screening model for distributed generation alternatives, to develop a better understanding of distributed generation as a utility resource, and to further INEL`s understanding of utility concerns in implementing technological change.

  15. simulate the dynamic distribution of lithium in the electrode

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    simulate the dynamic distribution of lithium in the electrode - Sandia Energy Energy ... simulate the dynamic distribution of lithium in the electrode HomeTag:simulate the ...

  16. Distribution System Voltage Regulation by Distributed Energy Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ceylan, Oguzhan; Liu, Guodong; Xu, Yan; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a control method to regulate voltages in 3 phase unbalanced electrical distribution systems. A constrained optimization problem to minimize voltage deviations and maximize distributed energy resource (DER) active power output is solved by harmony search algorithm. IEEE 13 Bus Distribution Test System was modified to test three different cases: a) only voltage regulator controlled system b) only DER controlled system and c) both voltage regulator and DER controlled system. The simulation results show that systems with both voltage regulators and DER control provide better voltage profile.

  17. Distributed Optimization System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hurtado, John E.; Dohrmann, Clark R.; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2004-11-30

    A search system and method for controlling multiple agents to optimize an objective using distributed sensing and cooperative control. The search agent can be one or more physical agents, such as a robot, and can be software agents for searching cyberspace. The objective can be: chemical sources, temperature sources, radiation sources, light sources, evaders, trespassers, explosive sources, time dependent sources, time independent sources, function surfaces, maximization points, minimization points, and optimal control of a system such as a communication system, an economy, a crane, and a multi-processor computer.

  18. Transportation Anslysis Simulation System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-08-23

    account for individual traveler response to the dynamic transportation environment. In contrast, TRANSIMS provides disaggregated information that more explicitly represents the complex nature of humans interacting with the transportation system. It first generates a synthetic population that represents individuals and their households in the metropolitan region in a statistically valid way. The demographic makeup and spatial distribution of this synthetic population is derived from census data so that it matches that of the region’s real population. From survey data, a model is built of household and individual activities that may occur at home, in the workplace, school or shopping centers, for example. Trip plans including departure times, travel modes, and specific routes are created for each individual to get to his or her daily activities. TRANSIMS then simulates the movement of millions of individuals, following their trip plans throughout the transportation network, including their use of vehicles such as cars or buses, on a second-by-second basis. The virtual travel in TRANSIMS mimics the traveling and driving behavior of real people in the metropolitan region. The interactions of individual vehicles produce realistic traffic dynamics from which analysts can judge to performance of the transportation sysime and estimate vehicle emissions. Los Alamos, in cooperation with the Department of Transportation, Federal HIghway Administration and the local Metropolitan Planning Offices, has done TRANSIMS micro-simulations of auto traffic patterns in these two urban areas and completed associated scenario-based studies.« less

  19. Distributed road assessment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

    2014-03-25

    A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

  20. Loading relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zenitani, Seiji

    2015-04-15

    Numerical algorithms to load relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle-in-cell (PIC) and Monte-Carlo simulations are presented. For stationary relativistic Maxwellian, the inverse transform method and the Sobol algorithm are reviewed. To boost particles to obtain relativistic shifted-Maxwellian, two rejection methods are proposed in a physically transparent manner. Their acceptance efficiencies are ?50% for generic cases and 100% for symmetric distributions. They can be combined with arbitrary base algorithms.

  1. Quality monitored distributed voting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skogmo, David

    1997-01-01

    A quality monitoring system can detect certain system faults and fraud attempts in a distributed voting system. The system uses decoy voters to cast predetermined check ballots. Absent check ballots can indicate system faults. Altered check ballots can indicate attempts at counterfeiting votes. The system can also cast check ballots at predetermined times to provide another check on the distributed voting system.

  2. Quality monitored distributed voting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skogmo, D.

    1997-03-18

    A quality monitoring system can detect certain system faults and fraud attempts in a distributed voting system. The system uses decoy voters to cast predetermined check ballots. Absent check ballots can indicate system faults. Altered check ballots can indicate attempts at counterfeiting votes. The system can also cast check ballots at predetermined times to provide another check on the distributed voting system. 6 figs.

  3. Measuring Advances in HVAC Distribution System Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franconi, E.

    1998-05-01

    Substantial commercial building energy savings have been achieved by improving the performance of the HV AC distribution system. The energy savings result from distribution system design improvements, advanced control capabilities, and use of variable-speed motors. Yet, much of the commercial building stock remains equipped with inefficient systems. Contributing to this is the absence of a definition for distribution system efficiency as well as the analysis methods for quantifying performance. This research investigates the application of performance indices to assess design advancements in commercial building thermal distribution systems. The index definitions are based on a first and second law of thermodynamics analysis of the system. The second law or availability analysis enables the determination of the true efficiency of the system. Availability analysis is a convenient way to make system efficiency comparisons since performance is evaluated relative to an ideal process. A TRNSYS simulation model is developed to analyze the performance of two distribution system types, a constant air volume system and a variable air volume system, that serve one floor of a large office building. Performance indices are calculated using the simulation results to compare the performance of the two systems types in several locations. Changes in index values are compared to changes in plant energy, costs, and carbon emissions to explore the ability of the indices to estimate these quantities.

  4. Electricity Distribution System Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... the Electricity Transmission System (available online). ... or implied, or assumes any legal responsibility for the ... Workforce development and operator training are needed for ...

  5. Simulating neural systems with Xyce.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schiek, Richard Louis; Thornquist, Heidi K.; Mei, Ting; Warrender, Christina E.; Aimone, James Bradley; Teeter, Corinne; Duda, Alex M.

    2012-12-01

    Sandia's parallel circuit simulator, Xyce, can address large scale neuron simulations in a new way extending the range within which one can perform high-fidelity, multi-compartment neuron simulations. This report documents the implementation of neuron devices in Xyce, their use in simulation and analysis of neuron systems.

  6. Development of an Integrated Distribution Management System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schatz, Joe E.

    2010-10-20

    This final report details the components, functionality, costs, schedule and benefits of developing an Integrated Distribution Management System (IDMS) for power distribution system operation. The Distribution Automation (DA) and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems used by electric power companies to manage the distribution of electric power to retail energy consumers are vital components of the Nation’s critical infrastructure. Providing electricity is an essential public service and a disruption in that service, if not quickly restored, could threaten the public safety and the Nation’s economic security. Our Nation’s economic prosperity and quality of life have long depended on the essential services that utilities provide; therefore, it is necessary to ensure that electric utilities are able to conduct their operations safely and efficiently. A fully integrated technology of applications is needed to link various remote sensing, communications and control devices with other information tools that help guide Power Distribution Operations personnel. A fully implemented IDMS will provide this, a seamlessly integrated set of applications to raise electric system operating intelligence. IDMS will enhance DA and SCADA through integration of applications such as Geographic Information Systems, Outage Management Systems, Switching Management and Analysis, Operator Training Simulator, and other Advanced Applications, including unbalanced load flow and fault isolation/service restoration. These apps are capable of utilizing and obtaining information from appropriately installed DER, and by integrating disparate systems, the Distribution Operators will benefit from advanced capabilities when analyzing, controlling and operating the electric system.

  7. EGR Distribution in Engine Cylinders Using Advanced Virtual Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, Xuetong

    2000-08-20

    Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is a well-known technology for reduction of NOx in diesel engines. With the demand for extremely low engine out NOx emissions, it is important to have a consistently balanced EGR flow to individual engine cylinders. Otherwise, the variation in the cylinders' NOx contribution to the overall engine emissions will produce unacceptable variability. This presentation will demonstrate the effective use of advanced virtual simulation in the development of a balanced EGR distribution in engine cylinders. An initial design is analyzed reflecting the variance in the EGR distribution, quantitatively and visually. Iterative virtual lab tests result in an optimized system.

  8. Heat Distribution Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat & Cool Home Heating Systems Heat Distribution Systems Heat Distribution Systems Radiators are used in steam and hot water heating. | Photo courtesy of iStockphoto...

  9. Mesoscale Simulations of Particulate Flows with Parallel Distributed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Mesoscale Simulations of Particulate Flows with Parallel Distributed Lagrange Multiplier Technique Fluid particulate flows are common phenomena in nature and industry. ...

  10. Enhanced distributed energy resource system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atcitty, Stanley; Clark, Nancy H.; Boyes, John D.; Ranade, Satishkumar J.

    2007-07-03

    A power transmission system including a direct current power source electrically connected to a conversion device for converting direct current into alternating current, a conversion device connected to a power distribution system through a junction, an energy storage device capable of producing direct current connected to a converter, where the converter, such as an insulated gate bipolar transistor, converts direct current from an energy storage device into alternating current and supplies the current to the junction and subsequently to the power distribution system. A microprocessor controller, connected to a sampling and feedback module and the converter, determines when the current load is higher than a set threshold value, requiring triggering of the converter to supply supplemental current to the power transmission system.

  11. Properly Understanding the Impacts of Distributed Resources on Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rizy, D Tom; Li, Fangxing; Li, Huijuan; Adhikari, Sarina; Kueck, John D

    2010-01-01

    The subject paper discusses important impacts of distributed resources on distribution networks and feeders. These include capacity, line losses, voltage regulation, and central system support (such as volt/var via central generators and substation) as the number, placement and penetration levels of distributed resources are varied. Typically, the impacts of distributed resources on the distribution system are studied by using steady-state rather than dynamic analysis tools. However, the response time and transient impacts of both system equipment (such as substation/feeder capacitors) and distributed resources needs to be taken into account and only dynamic analysis will provide the full impact results. ORNL is wrapping up a study of distributed resources interconnected to a large distribution system considering the above variables. A report of the study and its results will be condensed into a paper for this panel session. The impact of distributed resources will vary as the penetration level reaches the capacity of the distribution feeder/system. The question is how high of a penetration of distributed resource can be accommodated on the distribution feeder/system without any major changes to system operation, design and protection. The impacts most surely will vary depending upon load composition, distribution and level. Also, it is expected that various placement of distributed resources will impact the distribution system differently.

  12. Distributed Energy Systems Corp | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Distributed Energy Systems Corp Jump to: navigation, search Name: Distributed Energy Systems Corp Place: Wallingford, Connecticut Zip: CT 06492 Product: The former holding company...

  13. Building America Webinar: Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building America Webinar: Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems Building America Webinar: Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems This webinar was presented by research team...

  14. Distributed optimization system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hurtado, John E.; Dohrmann, Clark R.; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2003-06-10

    A search system and method for controlling multiple agents to optimize an objective using distributed sensing and cooperative control. The search agent can be one or more physical agents, such as a robot, and can be software agents for searching cyberspace. The objective can be: chemical sources, temperature sources, radiation sources, light sources, evaders, trespassers, explosive sources, time dependent sources, time independent sources, function surfaces, maximization points, minimization points, and optimal control of a system such as a communication system, an economy, a crane, and a multi-processor computer.

  15. World-wide distribution automation systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devaney, T.M.

    1994-12-31

    A worldwide power distribution automation system is outlined. Distribution automation is defined and the status of utility automation is discussed. Other topics discussed include a distribution management system, substation feeder, and customer functions, potential benefits, automation costs, planning and engineering considerations, automation trends, databases, system operation, computer modeling of system, and distribution management systems.

  16. Communication Simulations for Power System Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuller, Jason C.; Ciraci, Selim; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Fisher, Andrew R.; Hauer, Matthew L.

    2013-05-29

    New smart grid technologies and concepts, such as dynamic pricing, demand response, dynamic state estimation, and wide area monitoring, protection, and control, are expected to require considerable communication resources. As the cost of retrofit can be high, future power grids will require the integration of high-speed, secure connections with legacy communication systems, while still providing adequate system control and security. While considerable work has been performed to create co-simulators for the power domain with load models and market operations, limited work has been performed in integrating communications directly into a power domain solver. The simulation of communication and power systems will become more important as the two systems become more inter-related. This paper will discuss ongoing work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to create a flexible, high-speed power and communication system co-simulator for smart grid applications. The framework for the software will be described, including architecture considerations for modular, high performance computing and large-scale scalability (serialization, load balancing, partitioning, cross-platform support, etc.). The current simulator supports the ns-3 (telecommunications) and GridLAB-D (distribution systems) simulators. Ongoing and future work will be described, including planned future expansions for a traditional transmission solver. A test case using the co-simulator, utilizing a transactive demand response system created for the Olympic Peninsula and AEP gridSMART demonstrations, requiring two-way communication between distributed and centralized market devices, will be used to demonstrate the value and intended purpose of the co-simulation environment.

  17. Analysis Model for Domestic Hot Water Distribution Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, J.; Krarti, M.; Fang, X.

    2011-11-01

    A thermal model was developed to estimate the energy losses from prototypical domestic hot water (DHW) distribution systems for homes. The developed model, using the TRNSYS simulation software, allows researchers and designers to better evaluate the performance of hot water distribution systems in homes. Modeling results were compared with past experimental study results and showed good agreement.

  18. NREL: Energy Systems Integration Facility - Fuel Distribution...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuel Distribution Buses The Energy Systems Integration Facility's integrated fuel distribution buses provide natural gas, hydrogen, and diesel for fueling applications. Standard, ...

  19. Mesoscale Simulations of Particulate Flows with Parallel Distributed

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lagrange Multiplier Technique (Conference) | SciTech Connect Mesoscale Simulations of Particulate Flows with Parallel Distributed Lagrange Multiplier Technique Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mesoscale Simulations of Particulate Flows with Parallel Distributed Lagrange Multiplier Technique Fluid particulate flows are common phenomena in nature and industry. Modeling of such flows at micro and macro levels as well establishing relationships between these approaches are needed to

  20. Mesoscale simulations of particulate flows with parallel distributed

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lagrange multiplier technique (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Mesoscale simulations of particulate flows with parallel distributed Lagrange multiplier technique Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mesoscale simulations of particulate flows with parallel distributed Lagrange multiplier technique Authors: Kanarska, Y ; Lomov, I ; Antoun, T Publication Date: 2010-09-10 OSTI Identifier: 1120915 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-455392 DOE Contract Number: W-7405-ENG-48

  1. Analysis and control of distributed cooperative systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feddema, John Todd; Parker, Eric Paul; Wagner, John S.; Schoenwald, David Alan

    2004-09-01

    As part of DARPA Information Processing Technology Office (IPTO) Software for Distributed Robotics (SDR) Program, Sandia National Laboratories has developed analysis and control software for coordinating tens to thousands of autonomous cooperative robotic agents (primarily unmanned ground vehicles) performing military operations such as reconnaissance, surveillance and target acquisition; countermine and explosive ordnance disposal; force protection and physical security; and logistics support. Due to the nature of these applications, the control techniques must be distributed, and they must not rely on high bandwidth communication between agents. At the same time, a single soldier must easily direct these large-scale systems. Finally, the control techniques must be provably convergent so as not to cause undo harm to civilians. In this project, provably convergent, moderate communication bandwidth, distributed control algorithms have been developed that can be regulated by a single soldier. We have simulated in great detail the control of low numbers of vehicles (up to 20) navigating throughout a building, and we have simulated in lesser detail the control of larger numbers of vehicles (up to 1000) trying to locate several targets in a large outdoor facility. Finally, we have experimentally validated the resulting control algorithms on smaller numbers of autonomous vehicles.

  2. Simulating Complex Window Systems using BSDF Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konstantoglou, Maria; Jonsson, Jacob; Lee, Eleanor

    2009-06-22

    Nowadays, virtual models are commonly used to evaluate the performance of conventional window systems. Complex fenestration systems can be difficult to simulate accurately not only because of their geometry but also because of their optical properties that scatter light in an unpredictable manner. Bi-directional Scattering Distribution Functions (BSDF) have recently been developed based on a mixture of measurements and modelling to characterize the optics of such systems. This paper describes the workflow needed to create then use these BSDF datasets in the Radiance lighting simulation software. Limited comparisons are made between visualizations produced using the standard ray-tracing method, the BSDF method, and that taken in a full-scale outdoor mockup.

  3. Fenestration systems as luminaries of varying candlepower distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papamichael, K.

    1990-10-01

    Simulation of the performance of electric lighting systems has been successfully handled using computers, since electric lighting systems have a constant luminous output with respect to intensity and spatial distribution, usually referred to as candlepower distribution, which can be measured and used conveniently. This paper describes an approach of treating fenestration systems as luminaries of varying candlepower distribution, so that the determination of their luminous performance becomes consistent with that of electric lighting systems. The transmitted distribution through fenestration systems due to radiation from the sun, sky and ground is determined from their bidirectional transmittance and the luminance distribution of the sources of radiation. The approach is demonstrated using the experimentally determined bidirectional transmittance of a diffusive sample under the uniform, overcast and clear sky luminance distributions. 6 refs., 14 figs.

  4. Distributed Energy Systems Integration Group (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-10-01

    Factsheet developed to describe the activites of the Distributed Energy Systems Integration Group within NREL's Electricity, Resources, and Buildings Systems Integration center.

  5. Heat Distribution Systems | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Forced-air systems use ducts that can also be used for central air conditioning and heat pump systems. Radiant heating systems also have unique heat distribution systems. That...

  6. Heat Distribution Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Cool » Home Heating Systems » Heat Distribution Systems Heat Distribution Systems Radiators are used in steam and hot water heating. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/Jot Radiators are used in steam and hot water heating. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/Jot Heat is distributed through your home in a variety of ways. Forced-air systems use ducts that can also be used for central air conditioning and heat pump systems. Radiant heating systems also have unique heat distribution systems.

  7. Low jitter RF distribution system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilcox, Russell; Doolittle, Lawrence; Huang, Gang

    2012-09-18

    A timing signal distribution system includes an optical frequency stabilized laser signal amplitude modulated at an rf frequency. A transmitter box transmits a first portion of the laser signal and receive a modified optical signal, and outputs a second portion of the laser signal and a portion of the modified optical signal. A first optical fiber carries the first laser signal portion and the modified optical signal, and a second optical fiber carries the second portion of the laser signal and the returned modified optical signal. A receiver box receives the first laser signal portion, shifts the frequency of the first laser signal portion outputs the modified optical signal, and outputs an electrical signal on the basis of the laser signal. A detector at the end of the second optical fiber outputs a signal based on the modified optical signal. An optical delay sensing circuit outputs a data signal based on the detected modified optical signal. An rf phase detect and correct signal circuit outputs a signal corresponding to a phase stabilized rf signal based on the data signal and the frequency received from the receiver box.

  8. Tool - Transportation System Simulation (POLARIS) | Argonne National...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and includes traffic flow simulation, activity based demand simulation, model building and analysis geographic information system (GIS) tools, and tools for result analysis. ...

  9. Bus.py: A GridLAB-D Communication Interface for Smart Distribution Grid Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, Timothy M.; Palmintier, Bryan; Suryanarayanan, Siddharth; Maciejewski, Anthony A.; Siegel, Howard Jay

    2015-07-03

    As more Smart Grid technologies (e.g., distributed photovoltaic, spatially distributed electric vehicle charging) are integrated into distribution grids, static distribution simulations are no longer sufficient for performing modeling and analysis. GridLAB-D is an agent-based distribution system simulation environment that allows fine-grained end-user models, including geospatial and network topology detail. A problem exists in that, without outside intervention, once the GridLAB-D simulation begins execution, it will run to completion without allowing the real-time interaction of Smart Grid controls, such as home energy management systems and aggregator control. We address this lack of runtime interaction by designing a flexible communication interface, Bus.py (pronounced bus-dot-pie), that uses Python to pass messages between one or more GridLAB-D instances and a Smart Grid simulator. This work describes the design and implementation of Bus.py, discusses its usefulness in terms of some Smart Grid scenarios, and provides an example of an aggregator-based residential demand response system interacting with GridLAB-D through Bus.py. The small scale example demonstrates the validity of the interface and shows that an aggregator using said interface is able to control residential loads in GridLAB-D during runtime to cause a reduction in the peak load on the distribution system in (a) peak reduction and (b) time-of-use pricing cases.

  10. Building America Webinar: Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems Building America Webinar: Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems This webinar was presented by research team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), and reviewed findings from a feasibility study of ductless hydronic distribution systems in new homes and deep retrofits. webinar_arbi_20111108.wmv (14.32 MB) More Documents & Publications Building America Webinar: National Residential Efficiency Measures Database

  11. Parallelization and automatic data distribution for nuclear reactor simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liebrock, L.M.

    1997-07-01

    Detailed attempts at realistic nuclear reactor simulations currently take many times real time to execute on high performance workstations. Even the fastest sequential machine can not run these simulations fast enough to ensure that the best corrective measure is used during a nuclear accident to prevent a minor malfunction from becoming a major catastrophe. Since sequential computers have nearly reached the speed of light barrier, these simulations will have to be run in parallel to make significant improvements in speed. In physical reactor plants, parallelism abounds. Fluids flow, controls change, and reactions occur in parallel with only adjacent components directly affecting each other. These do not occur in the sequentialized manner, with global instantaneous effects, that is often used in simulators. Development of parallel algorithms that more closely approximate the real-world operation of a reactor may, in addition to speeding up the simulations, actually improve the accuracy and reliability of the predictions generated. Three types of parallel architecture (shared memory machines, distributed memory multicomputers, and distributed networks) are briefly reviewed as targets for parallelization of nuclear reactor simulation. Various parallelization models (loop-based model, shared memory model, functional model, data parallel model, and a combined functional and data parallel model) are discussed along with their advantages and disadvantages for nuclear reactor simulation. A variety of tools are introduced for each of the models. Emphasis is placed on the data parallel model as the primary focus for two-phase flow simulation. Tools to support data parallel programming for multiple component applications and special parallelization considerations are also discussed.

  12. Implementation of Parallel Dynamic Simulation on Shared-Memory vs. Distributed-Memory Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Shuangshuang; Chen, Yousu; Wu, Di; Diao, Ruisheng; Huang, Zhenyu

    2015-12-09

    Power system dynamic simulation computes the system response to a sequence of large disturbance, such as sudden changes in generation or load, or a network short circuit followed by protective branch switching operation. It consists of a large set of differential and algebraic equations, which is computational intensive and challenging to solve using single-processor based dynamic simulation solution. High-performance computing (HPC) based parallel computing is a very promising technology to speed up the computation and facilitate the simulation process. This paper presents two different parallel implementations of power grid dynamic simulation using Open Multi-processing (OpenMP) on shared-memory platform, and Message Passing Interface (MPI) on distributed-memory clusters, respectively. The difference of the parallel simulation algorithms and architectures of the two HPC technologies are illustrated, and their performances for running parallel dynamic simulation are compared and demonstrated.

  13. Simulation and sequential dynamical systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mortveit, H.S.; Reidys, C.M.

    1999-06-01

    Computer simulations have a generic structure. Motivated by this the authors present a new class of discrete dynamical systems that captures this structure in a mathematically precise way. This class of systems consists of (1) a loopfree graph {Upsilon} with vertex set {l_brace}1,2,{hor_ellipsis},n{r_brace} where each vertex has a binary state, (2) a vertex labeled set of functions (F{sub i,{Upsilon}}:F{sub 2}{sup n} {yields} F{sub 2}{sup n}){sub i} and (3) a permutation {pi} {element_of} S{sub n}. The function F{sub i,{Upsilon}} updates the state of vertex i as a function of the states of vertex i and its {Upsilon}-neighbors and leaves the states of all other vertices fixed. The permutation {pi} represents the update ordering, i.e., the order in which the functions F{sub i,{Upsilon}} are applied. By composing the functions F{sub i,{Upsilon}} in the order given by {pi} one obtains the dynamical system (equation given in paper), which the authors refer to as a sequential dynamical system, or SDS for short. The authors will present bounds for the number of functionally different systems and for the number of nonisomorphic digraphs {Gamma}[F{sub {Upsilon}},{pi}] that can be obtained by varying the update order and applications of these to specific graphs and graph classes.

  14. Energy Efficiency of Distributed Environmental Control Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalifa, H. Ezzat; Isik, Can; Dannenhoffer, John F. III

    2011-02-23

    In this report, we present an analytical evaluation of the potential of occupant-regulated distributed environmental control systems (DECS) to enhance individual occupant thermal comfort in an office building with no increase, and possibly even a decrease in annual energy consumption. To this end we developed and applied several analytical models that allowed us to optimize comfort and energy consumption in partitioned office buildings equipped with either conventional central HVAC systems or occupant-regulated DECS. Our approach involved the following interrelated components: 1. Development of a simplified lumped-parameter thermal circuit model to compute the annual energy consumption. This was necessitated by the need to perform tens of thousands of optimization calculations involving different US climatic regions, and different occupant thermal preferences of a population of ~50 office occupants. Yearly transient simulations using TRNSYS, a time-dependent building energy modeling program, were run to determine the robustness of the simplified approach against time-dependent simulations. The simplified model predicts yearly energy consumption within approximately 0.6% of an equivalent transient simulation. Simulations of building energy usage were run for a wide variety of climatic regions and control scenarios, including traditional “one-size-fits-all” (OSFA) control; providing a uniform temperature to the entire building, and occupant-selected “have-it-your-way” (HIYW) control with a thermostat at each workstation. The thermal model shows that, un-optimized, DECS would lead to an increase in building energy consumption between 3-16% compared to the conventional approach depending on the climate regional and personal preferences of building occupants. Variations in building shape had little impact in the relative energy usage. 2. Development of a gradient-based optimization method to minimize energy consumption of DECS while keeping each occupant

  15. Strategy Guideline. Compact Air Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, Arlan

    2013-06-01

    This guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  16. Lighting system with heat distribution face plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Li, Ri

    2013-09-10

    Lighting systems having a light source and a thermal management system are provided. The thermal management system includes synthetic jet devices, a heat sink and a heat distribution face plate. The synthetic jet devices are arranged in parallel to one and other and are configured to actively cool the lighting system. The heat distribution face plate is configured to radially transfer heat from the light source into the ambient air.

  17. Hybrid solar lighting distribution systems and components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muhs, Jeffrey D.; Earl, Dennis D.; Beshears, David L.; Maxey, Lonnie C.; Jordan, John K.; Lind, Randall F.

    2011-07-05

    A hybrid solar lighting distribution system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates all components.

  18. Physics Detector Simulation Facility Phase II system software description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scipioni, B.; Allen, J.; Chang, C.; Huang, J.; Liu, J.; Mestad, S.; Pan, J.; Marquez, M.; Estep, P.

    1993-05-01

    This paper presents the Physics Detector Simulation Facility (PDSF) Phase II system software. A key element in the design of a distributed computing environment for the PDSF has been the separation and distribution of the major functions. The facility has been designed to support batch and interactive processing, and to incorporate the file and tape storage systems. By distributing these functions, it is often possible to provide higher throughput and resource availability. Similarly, the design is intended to exploit event-level parallelism in an open distributed environment.

  19. Differences Between Distributed and Parallel Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brightwell, R.; Maccabe, A.B.; Rissen, R.

    1998-10-01

    Distributed systems have been studied for twenty years and are now coming into wider use as fast networks and powerful workstations become more readily available. In many respects a massively parallel computer resembles a network of workstations and it is tempting to port a distributed operating system to such a machine. However, there are significant differences between these two environments and a parallel operating system is needed to get the best performance out of a massively parallel system. This report characterizes the differences between distributed systems, networks of workstations, and massively parallel systems and analyzes the impact of these differences on operating system design. In the second part of the report, we introduce Puma, an operating system specifically developed for massively parallel systems. We describe Puma portals, the basic building blocks for message passing paradigms implemented on top of Puma, and show how the differences observed in the first part of the report have influenced the design and implementation of Puma.

  20. A Multi Agent-Based Framework for Simulating Household PHEV Distribution and Electric Distribution Network Impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, Xiaohui; Liu, Cheng; Kim, Hoe Kyoung; Kao, Shih-Chieh; Tuttle, Mark A; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2011-01-01

    The variation of household attributes such as income, travel distance, age, household member, and education for different residential areas may generate different market penetration rates for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Residential areas with higher PHEV ownership could increase peak electric demand locally and require utilities to upgrade the electric distribution infrastructure even though the capacity of the regional power grid is under-utilized. Estimating the future PHEV ownership distribution at the residential household level can help us understand the impact of PHEV fleet on power line congestion, transformer overload and other unforeseen problems at the local residential distribution network level. It can also help utilities manage the timing of recharging demand to maximize load factors and utilization of existing distribution resources. This paper presents a multi agent-based simulation framework for 1) modeling spatial distribution of PHEV ownership at local residential household level, 2) discovering PHEV hot zones where PHEV ownership may quickly increase in the near future, and 3) estimating the impacts of the increasing PHEV ownership on the local electric distribution network with different charging strategies. In this paper, we use Knox County, TN as a case study to show the simulation results of the agent-based model (ABM) framework. However, the framework can be easily applied to other local areas in the US.

  1. Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation: Simulation and Comparison of Normalized Exposures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petithuguenin, T.D.P.; Sherman, M.H.

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of ventilation is to dilute indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. Even when providing the same nominal rate of outdoor air, different ventilation systems may distribute air in different ways, affecting occupants' exposure to household contaminants. Exposure ultimately depends on the home being considered, on source disposition and strength, on occupants' behavior, on the ventilation strategy, and on operation of forced air heating and cooling systems. In any multi-zone environment dilution rates and source strengths may be different in every zone and change in time, resulting in exposure being tied to occupancy patterns.This paper will report on simulations that compare ventilation systems by assessing their impact on exposure by examining common house geometries, contaminant generation profiles, and occupancy scenarios. These simulations take into account the unsteady, occupancy-tied aspect of ventilation such as bathroom and kitchen exhaust fans. As most US homes have central HVAC systems, the simulation results will be used to make appropriate recommendations and adjustments for distribution and mixing to residential ventilation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 62.2.This paper will report on work being done to model multizone airflow systems that are unsteady and elaborate the concept of distribution matrix. It will examine several metrics for evaluating the effect of air distribution on exposure to pollutants, based on previous work by Sherman et al. (2006).

  2. Thermal Simulation of Advanced Powertrain Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Under this project, the Volvo complete vehicle model was modified to include engine and exhaust system thermal outputs and cooling system to enable WHR simulations from a system perspective.

  3. System-of-Systems Approach for Integrated Energy Systems Modeling and Simulation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mittal, Saurabh; Ruth, Mark; Pratt, Annabelle; Lunacek, Monte; Krishnamurthy, Dheepak; Jones, Wesley

    2015-08-21

    Today’s electricity grid is the most complex system ever built—and the future grid is likely to be even more complex because it will incorporate distributed energy resources (DERs) such as wind, solar, and various other sources of generation and energy storage. The complexity is further augmented by the possible evolution to new retail market structures that provide incentives to owners of DERs to support the grid. To understand and test new retail market structures and technologies such as DERs, demand-response equipment, and energy management systems while providing reliable electricity to all customers, an Integrated Energy System Model (IESM) is being developed at NREL. The IESM is composed of a power flow simulator (GridLAB-D), home energy management systems implemented using GAMS/Pyomo, a market layer, and hardware-in-the-loop simulation (testing appliances such as HVAC, dishwasher, etc.). The IESM is a system-of-systems (SoS) simulator wherein the constituent systems are brought together in a virtual testbed. We will describe an SoS approach for developing a distributed simulation environment. We will elaborate on the methodology and the control mechanisms used in the co-simulation illustrated by a case study.

  4. Method for simulating discontinuous physical systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baty, Roy S.; Vaughn, Mark R.

    2001-01-01

    The mathematical foundations of conventional numerical simulation of physical systems provide no consistent description of the behavior of such systems when subjected to discontinuous physical influences. As a result, the numerical simulation of such problems requires ad hoc encoding of specific experimental results in order to address the behavior of such discontinuous physical systems. In the present invention, these foundations are replaced by a new combination of generalized function theory and nonstandard analysis. The result is a class of new approaches to the numerical simulation of physical systems which allows the accurate and well-behaved simulation of discontinuous and other difficult physical systems, as well as simpler physical systems. Applications of this new class of numerical simulation techniques to process control, robotics, and apparatus design are outlined.

  5. Real-time distributed multimedia systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rahurkar, S.S.; Bourbakis, N.G.

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a survey on distributed multimedia systems and discusses real-time issues. In particular, different subsystems are reviewed that impact on multimedia networking, the networking for multimedia, the networked multimedia systems, and the leading edge research and developments efforts and issues in networking.

  6. Parallel Implementation of Power System Dynamic Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, Shuangshuang; Huang, Zhenyu; Diao, Ruisheng; Wu, Di; Chen, Yousu

    2013-07-21

    Dynamic simulation of power system transient stability is important for planning, monitoring, operation, and control of electrical power systems. However, modeling the system dynamics and network involves the computationally intensive time-domain solution of numerous differential and algebraic equations (DAE). This results in a transient stability implementation that may not maintain the real-time constraints of an online security assessment. This paper presents a parallel implementation of the dynamic simulation on a high-performance computing (HPC) platform using parallel simulation algorithms and computation architectures. It enables the simulation to run even faster than real time, enabling the look-ahead capability of upcoming stability problems in the power grid.

  7. Energy optimization of water distribution system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    In order to analyze pump operating scenarios for the system with the computer model, information on existing pumping equipment and the distribution system was collected. The information includes the following: component description and design criteria for line booster stations, booster stations with reservoirs, and high lift pumps at the water treatment plants; daily operations data for 1988; annual reports from fiscal year 1987/1988 to fiscal year 1991/1992; and a 1985 calibrated KYPIPE computer model of DWSD`s water distribution system which included input data for the maximum hour and average day demands on the system for that year. This information has been used to produce the inventory database of the system and will be used to develop the computer program to analyze the system.

  8. System Simulations of Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Focus on...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System Simulations of Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Focus on Emissions System Simulations of Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Focus on Emissions Comparative simulations of hybrid ...

  9. Property:Distributed Generation System Power Application | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    + Based Load + Distributed Generation StudyPatterson Farms CHP System Using Renewable Biogas + Based Load + Distributed Generation StudySUNY Buffalo + Based Load + Distributed...

  10. Distributed Object Oriented Geographic Information System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1997-02-01

    This interactive, object-oriented, distributed Geographic Information System (GIS) uses the World Wibe Web (WWW) as application medium and distribution mechanism. The software provides distributed access to multiple geo-spatial databases and presents them as if they came from a single coherent database. DOOGIS distributed access comes not only in the form of multiple geo-spatial servers but can break down a single logical server into the constituent physical servers actually storing the data. The program provides formore » dynamic protocol resolution and content handling allowing unknown objects from a particular server to download their handling code. Security and access privileges are negotiated dynamically with each server contacted and each access attempt.« less

  11. Transportation System Simulation | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transportation System Simulation Transportation System Simulation Today's transportation systems are becoming more and more complex, with integration of communication technologies, vehicle automation and innovative mobility solutions. The advent of connected and autonomous vehicles (CAVs) will see no shortage of new technologies aimed at transforming transportation. While some will likely succeed and others fail, to truly understand their potential and their impacts on the larger transportation

  12. Evaluating Domestic Hot Water Distribution System Options with Validated Analysis Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weitzel, E.; Hoeschele, E.

    2014-09-01

    A developing body of work is forming that collects data on domestic hot water consumption, water use behaviors, and energy efficiency of various distribution systems. Transient System Simulation Tool (TRNSYS) is a full distribution system developed that has been validated using field monitoring data and then exercised in a number of climates to understand climate impact on performance. In this study, the Building America team built upon previous analysis modeling work to evaluate differing distribution systems and the sensitivities of water heating energy and water use efficiency to variations of climate, load, distribution type, insulation and compact plumbing practices. Overall, 124 different TRNSYS models were simulated. The results of this work are useful in informing future development of water heating best practices guides as well as more accurate (and simulation time efficient) distribution models for annual whole house simulation programs.

  13. Distributed Frequency Control of Prosumer-Based Electric Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazari, MH; Costello, Z; Feizollahi, MJ; Grijalva, S; Egerstedt, M

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a distributed frequency regulation framework for prosumer-based electric energy systems, where a prosumer (producer-consumer) is defined as an intelligent agentwhich can produce, consume, and/or store electricity. Despite the frequency regulators being distributed, stability can be ensured while avoiding inter-area oscillations using a limited control effort. To achieve this, a fully distributed one-step model-predictive control protocol is proposed and analyzed, whereby each prosumer communicates solely with its neighbors in the network. The efficacy of the proposed frequency regulation framework is shown through simulations on two real-world electric energy systems of different scale and complexity. We show that prosumers can indeed bring frequency and power deviations to their desired values after small perturbations.

  14. Building a Smarter Distribution System in Pennsylvania

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Study - PPL Electric Utilities Corporation Smart Grid Investment Grant 1 Building a Smarter Distribution System in Pennsylvania PPL Electric Utilities Corporation (PPL) provides electricity to 1.4 million customers across central and eastern Pennsylvania. Having installed smart meters and other advanced technologies over the last several years, PPL has experience with operating smart grid systems and achieving operational improvements. To further improve quality of service for its customers, PPL

  15. Harmonic analysis of electrical distribution systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-03-01

    This report presents data pertaining to research on harmonics of electric power distribution systems. Harmonic data is presented on RMS and average measurements for determination of harmonics in buildings; fluorescent ballast; variable frequency drive; georator geosine harmonic data; uninterruptible power supply; delta-wye transformer; westinghouse suresine; liebert datawave; and active injection mode filter data.

  16. An advanced power distribution automation model system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niwa, Shigeharu; Kanoi, Minoru; Nishijima, Kazuo; Hayami, Mitsuo

    1995-12-31

    An advanced power distribution automation (APDA) model system has been developed on the present basis of the automated distribution systems in Japan, which have been used for remote switching operations and for urgent supply restorations during faults. The increased use of electronic apparatuses sensitive to supply interruption requires very high supply reliability, and the final developed system is expected to be useful for this purpose. The developed model system adopts pole circuit breakers and remote termination units connected through 64kbps optical fibers to the computer of the automated system in the control center. Immediate switching operations for supply restorations during faults are possible through the restoration procedures, prepared beforehand, by the computer and by fast telecommunications using optical fibers. So, protection by the feeder circuit breaker in the substation can be avoided, which would otherwise cause the blackout of the whole distribution line. The test results show the effectiveness of model the system: successful fault locations and reconfiguration for supply restoration including separation of the fault sections (without blackout for the ground faults and with a short period (within 1 s) of blackout for the short-circuit faults).

  17. Measuring the Resilience of Energy Distribution Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This report provides a review of existing resilience metrics for electric, oil, and natural gas distribution systems. The report summarizes the concepts addressed by measures of resilience, describes a framework for organizing alternative metrics used to measure resilience of energy distribution systems, and reviews the state of metrics for resilience of such systems. The framework organized resilience metrics into five categories – system inputs, capacities, capabilities, performance and outcomes – and existing metrics were evaluated within the context of this framework. The report finds more metrics for the electricity system than for oil and gas and that the literature pays greater attention to metrics at the facility level. Also, there were many performance measures identified at the system and regional level and these metrics were determined to be relatively well developed. In comparison, outcome measures were identified at the system, regional and national levels, but they were judged to be relatively less well developed. To improve resilience metrics, the report recommends standardizing data on inputs and capacities at the facility and system levels; developing measures of capabilities at the system and regional levels; and improving understanding of how capabilities and performance translate to regional and national outcomes.

  18. Physical Modeling of Scaled Water Distribution System Networks...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Physical Modeling of Scaled Water Distribution System Networks. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Physical Modeling of Scaled Water Distribution System ...

  19. Pressure Regain Strategies for Existing Air Distribution Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pressure Regain Strategies for Existing Air Distribution Systems Pressure Regain Strategies for Existing Air Distribution Systems This presentation was delivered at the U.S. ...

  20. Eliminate Excessive In-Plant Distribution System Voltage Drops

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Excessive In-Plant Distribution System Voltage Drops Studies indicate that in-plant electrical distribution system losses-due to voltage unbalance, over- and undervoltage, low ...

  1. Laser spark distribution and ignition system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodruff, Steven; McIntyre, Dustin L.

    2008-09-02

    A laser spark distribution and ignition system that reduces the high power optical requirements for use in a laser ignition and distribution system allowing for the use of optical fibers for delivering the low peak energy pumping pulses to a laser amplifier or laser oscillator. An optical distributor distributes and delivers optical pumping energy from an optical pumping source to multiple combustion chambers incorporating laser oscillators or laser amplifiers for inducing a laser spark within a combustion chamber. The optical distributor preferably includes a single rotating mirror or lens which deflects the optical pumping energy from the axis of rotation and into a plurality of distinct optical fibers each connected to a respective laser media or amplifier coupled to an associated combustion chamber. The laser spark generators preferably produce a high peak power laser spark, from a single low power pulse. The laser spark distribution and ignition system has application in natural gas fueled reciprocating engines, turbine combustors, explosives and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy diagnostic sensors.

  2. Distributed parallel messaging for multiprocessor systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Salapura, Valentina; Senger, Robert M; Steinmacher-Burrow, Burhard; Sugawara, Yutaka

    2013-06-04

    A method and apparatus for distributed parallel messaging in a parallel computing system. The apparatus includes, at each node of a multiprocessor network, multiple injection messaging engine units and reception messaging engine units, each implementing a DMA engine and each supporting both multiple packet injection into and multiple reception from a network, in parallel. The reception side of the messaging unit (MU) includes a switch interface enabling writing of data of a packet received from the network to the memory system. The transmission side of the messaging unit, includes switch interface for reading from the memory system when injecting packets into the network.

  3. Generic solar photovoltaic system dynamic simulation model specification.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, Abraham; Behnke, Michael Robert; Elliott, Ryan Thomas

    2013-10-01

    This document is intended to serve as a specification for generic solar photovoltaic (PV) system positive-sequence dynamic models to be implemented by software developers and approved by the WECC MVWG for use in bulk system dynamic simulations in accordance with NERC MOD standards. Two specific dynamic models are included in the scope of this document. The first, a Central Station PV System model, is intended to capture the most important dynamic characteristics of large scale (> 10 MW) PV systems with a central Point of Interconnection (POI) at the transmission level. The second, a Distributed PV System model, is intended to represent an aggregation of smaller, distribution-connected systems that comprise a portion of a composite load that might be modeled at a transmission load bus.

  4. Distributed Power Electronics for PV Systems (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deline, C.

    2011-12-01

    An overview of the benefits and applications of microinverters and DC power optimizers in residential systems. Some conclusions from this report are: (1) The impact of shade is greater than just the area of shade; (2) Additional mismatch losses include panel orientation, panel distribution, inverter voltage window, soiling; (3) Per-module devices can help increase performance, 4-12% or more depending on the system; (4) Value-added benefits (safety, monitoring, reduced design constraints) are helping their adoption; and (5) The residential market is growing rapidly. Efficiency increases, cost reductions are improving market acceptance. Panel integration will further reduce price and installation cost. Reliability remains an unknown.

  5. FRIB Cryogenic Distribution System and Status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganni, Venkatarao; Dixon, Kelly D.; Laverdure, Nathaniel A.; Yang, Shuo; Nellis, Timothy; Jones, S.; Casagrande, Fabio

    2015-12-01

    The MSU-FRIB cryogenic distribution system supports the 2 K primary, 4 K primary, and 35 - 55 K shield operation of more than 70 loads in the accelerator and the experimental areas. It is based on JLab and SNS experience with bayonet-type disconnects between the loads and the distribution system for phased commissioning and maintenance. The linac transfer line, which features three separate transfer line segments for additional independence during phased commissioning at 4 K and 2 K, connects the folded arrangement of 49 cryomodules and 4 superconducting dipole magnets and a fourth transfer line supports the separator area cryo loads. The pressure reliefs for the transfer line process lines, located in the refrigeration room outside the tunnel/accelerator area, are piped to be vented outdoors. The transfer line designs integrate supply and return flow paths into a combined vacuum space. The main linac distribution segments are produced in a small number of standard configurations; a prototype of one such configuration has been fabricated at Jefferson Lab and has been installed at MSU to support testing of a prototype FRIB cryomodule.

  6. Mesoscale Simulations of Particulate Flows with Parallel Distributed

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Distributed Lagrange Multiplier Technique Kanarska, Y 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUMM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; ACCURACY; CONVERGENCE; FLUID FLOW; IMPLEMENTATION; MODIFICATIONS;...

  7. Modeling of Diesel Exhaust Systems: A methodology to better simulate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Diesel Exhaust Systems: A methodology to better simulate soot reactivity Modeling of Diesel Exhaust Systems: A methodology to better simulate soot reactivity Discussed ...

  8. Overview of Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    vtpn03vssslezak2012o.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicle & Systems Simulation & Testing Overview of Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing Vehicle Technologies...

  9. Property:Distributed Generation System Enclosure | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    + Outdoor + Distributed Generation StudyPatterson Farms CHP System Using Renewable Biogas + Dedicated Shelter + Distributed Generation StudySUNY Buffalo + Outdoor +...

  10. Property:Distributed Generation System Heating-Cooling Application...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    This is a property of type Page. Pages using the property "Distributed Generation System Heating-Cooling Application" Showing 21 pages using this property. D Distributed...

  11. Test report light duty utility arm power distribution system (PDS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clark, D.A.

    1996-03-04

    The Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) Power Distribution System has completed vendor and post-delivery acceptance testing. The Power Distribution System has been found to be acceptable and is now ready for integration with the overall LDUA system.

  12. Hot Water Distribution System Model Enhancements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoeschele, M.; Weitzel, E.

    2012-11-01

    This project involves enhancement of the HWSIM distribution system model to more accurately model pipe heat transfer. Recent laboratory testing efforts have indicated that the modeling of radiant heat transfer effects is needed to accurately characterize piping heat loss. An analytical methodology for integrating radiant heat transfer was implemented with HWSIM. Laboratory test data collected in another project was then used to validate the model for a variety of uninsulated and insulated pipe cases (copper, PEX, and CPVC). Results appear favorable, with typical deviations from lab results less than 8%.

  13. Mesoscale Simulations of Particulate Flows with Parallel Distributed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Visit OSTI to utilize additional information resources in energy science and technology. A ... We propose a computational technique based on the direct numerical simulation of the ...

  14. Distributed fiber optic moisture intrusion sensing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2003-06-24

    Method and system for monitoring and identifying moisture intrusion in soil such as is contained in landfills housing radioactive and/or hazardous waste. The invention utilizes the principle that moist or wet soil has a higher thermal conductance than dry soil. The invention employs optical time delay reflectometry in connection with a distributed temperature sensing system together with heating means in order to identify discrete areas within a volume of soil wherein temperature is lower. According to the invention an optical element and, optionally, a heating element may be included in a cable or other similar structure and arranged in a serpentine fashion within a volume of soil to achieve efficient temperature detection across a large area or three dimensional volume of soil. Remediation, moisture countermeasures, or other responsive action may then be coordinated based on the assumption that cooler regions within a soil volume may signal moisture intrusion where those regions are located.

  15. Electric System Intra-hour Operation Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-03-07

    ESIOS is a software program developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) that performs intra-hour dispatch and automatic generation control (AGC) simulations for electric power system frequency regulation and load/variable generation following. The program dispatches generation resources at minute interval to meet control performance requirements, while incorporating stochastic models of forecast errors and variability with generation, load, interchange and market behaviors. The simulator also contains an operator model that mimics manual actions to adjust resourcemore » dispatch and maintain system reserves. Besides simulating generation fleet intra-hour dispatch, ESIOS can also be used as a test platform for the design and verification of energy storage, demand response, and other technologies helping to accommodate variable generation.« less

  16. LHC RF System Time-Domain Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mastorides, T.; Rivetta, C.

    2010-09-14

    Non-linear time-domain simulations have been developed for the Positron-Electron Project (PEP-II) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). These simulations capture the dynamic behavior of the RF station-beam interaction and are structured to reproduce the technical characteristics of the system (noise contributions, non-linear elements, and more). As such, they provide useful results and insight for the development and design of future LLRF feedback systems. They are also a valuable tool for the study of diverse longitudinal beam dynamics effects such as coupled-bunch impedance driven instabilities and single bunch longitudinal emittance growth. Results from these studies and related measurements from PEP-II and LHC have been presented in multiple places. This report presents an example of the time-domain simulation implementation for the LHC.

  17. NREL: Electric Infrastructure Systems Research - Distributed...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electricity Integration Research Printable Version Distributed Energy Resources Test Facility Virtual Tour The Distributed Energy Resources Test Facility (DERTF), located at the ...

  18. A simulation of data acquisition system for SSC experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watase, Y.; Ikeda, H.

    1989-04-01

    A simulation on some parts of the data acquisition system was performed using a general purpose simulation language GPSS. Several results of the simulation are discussed for the data acquisition system for the SSC experiment.

  19. The Astrophysics Simulation Collaboratory portal: A framework foreffective distributed research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bondarescu, Ruxandra; Allen, Gabrielle; Daues, Gregory; Kelly,Ian; Russell, Michael; Seidel, Edward; Shalf, John; Tobias, Malcolm

    2003-03-03

    We describe the motivation, architecture, and implementation of the Astrophysics Simulation Collaboratory (ASC) portal. The ASC project provides a web-based problem solving framework for the astrophysics community that harnesses the capabilities of emerging computational grids.

  20. PROJECT PROFILE: Visualization and Analytics of Distribution Systems with

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Deep Penetration of Distributed Energy Resources (SuNLaMP) | Department of Energy Visualization and Analytics of Distribution Systems with Deep Penetration of Distributed Energy Resources (SuNLaMP) PROJECT PROFILE: Visualization and Analytics of Distribution Systems with Deep Penetration of Distributed Energy Resources (SuNLaMP) Funding Program: SuNLaMP SunShot Subprogram: Systems Integration Location: SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA SunShot Award Amount: $4,000,000

  1. Clock distribution system for digital computers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyman, Robert H.; Loomis, Jr., Herschel H.

    1981-01-01

    Apparatus for eliminating, in each clock distribution amplifier of a clock distribution system, sequential pulse catch-up error due to one pulse "overtaking" a prior clock pulse. The apparatus includes timing means to produce a periodic electromagnetic signal with a fundamental frequency having a fundamental frequency component V'.sub.01 (t); an array of N signal characteristic detector means, with detector means No. 1 receiving the timing means signal and producing a change-of-state signal V.sub.1 (t) in response to receipt of a signal above a predetermined threshold; N substantially identical filter means, one filter means being operatively associated with each detector means, for receiving the change-of-state signal V.sub.n (t) and producing a modified change-of-state signal V'.sub.n (t) (n=1, . . . , N) having a fundamental frequency component that is substantially proportional to V'.sub.01 (t-.theta..sub.n (t) with a cumulative phase shift .theta..sub.n (t) having a time derivative that may be made uniformly and arbitrarily small; and with the detector means n+1 (1.ltoreq.n

  2. Distributed Sensor Coordination for Advanced Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tumer, Kagan

    2013-07-31

    focus towards what to observe rather than how to observe in large sensor networks, allowing the agents to actively determine both the structure of the network and the relevance of the information they are seeking to collect. In addition to providing an implicit coordination mechanism, this approach allows the system to be reconfigured in response to changing needs (e.g., sudden external events requiring new responses) or changing sensor network characteristics (e.g., sudden changes to plant condition). Outcome Summary: All milestones associated with this project have been completed. In particular, private sensor objective functions were developed which are aligned with the global objective function, sensor effectiveness has been improved by using sensor teams, system efficiency has been improved by 30% using difference evaluation func- tions, we have demonstrated system reconfigurability for 20% changes in system con- ditions, we have demonstrated extreme scalability of our proposed algorithm, we have demonstrated that sensor networks can overcome disruptions of up to 20% in network conditions, and have demonstrated system reconfigurability to 20% changes in system conditions in hardware-based simulations. This final report summarizes how each of these milestones was achieved, and gives insight into future research possibilities past the work which has been completed. The following publications support these milestones [6, 8, 9, 10, 16, 18, 19].

  3. Interconnecting PV on New York City's Secondary Network Distribution System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, K.; Coddington, M.; Burman, K.; Hayter, S.; Kroposki, B.; Watson, A.

    2009-12-01

    This study describes technical assistance provided by NREL to help New York City and Con Edison improve the interconnection of distributed PV systems on a secondary network distribution system.

  4. NREL: Distributed Grid Integration - Energy System Basics Video...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Codes & Standards Data Collection & Visualization Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative Microgrids Power Systems Modeling Solar Distributed Grid Integration Technology Development ...

  5. Secondary Network Distribution Systems Background and Issues Related to the Interconnection of Distributed Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behnke, M.; Erdman, W.; Horgan, S.; Dawson, D.; Feero, W.; Soudi, F.; Smith, D.; Whitaker, C.; Kroposki, B.

    2005-07-01

    This document addresses the technical considerations associated with the interconnection of distributed resources (DR) with secondary network distribution systems. It provides an overview of the characteristics of distribution systems and interconnection requirements and identifies unique issues specific to network interconnections. It also identifies the network-specific interconnection issues for which test protocols should be developed. Recommended criteria and requirements for the interconnection of DR with network distribution systems are presented.

  6. Alarm Management System for the D/3 Distributed Control System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1997-03-19

    As industrial processes continue to grow in size and complexity, the Distrubuted Control Systems that automate and monitor these processes expand in a like manner. This increase in control system complexity has resulted in ever increasing numbers of alarms presented to the operator. The challenge for today's control system designer is to find innovative ways to present alarm information to the operator such that despite the large number of alarms, the operator is able tomore » quickly assess the status of the plant and immediately respond to the most critical alarms in a timely manner. This software package, designed and developed for the Savannah River Site Replacement High Level Waste Evaporator/Waste Removal Distributed Control System installed on the H-Area Tank Farm, provides an alarm system which utilizes the annunciator (SKID) panel as a means of statusing the plant and providing single keystroke access to the display on which an alarm resides.« less

  7. Cathode power distribution system and method of using the same for power distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williamson, Mark A; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Koehl, Eugene R; Bailey, James L; Willit, James L; Barnes, Laurel A; Blaskovitz, Robert J

    2014-11-11

    Embodiments include a cathode power distribution system and/or method of using the same for power distribution. The cathode power distribution system includes a plurality of cathode assemblies. Each cathode assembly of the plurality of cathode assemblies includes a plurality of cathode rods. The system also includes a plurality of bus bars configured to distribute current to each of the plurality of cathode assemblies. The plurality of bus bars include a first bus bar configured to distribute the current to first ends of the plurality of cathode assemblies and a second bus bar configured to distribute the current to second ends of the plurality of cathode assemblies.

  8. Characterizing and Improving Distributed Intrusion Detection Systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurd, Steven A.; Proebstel, Elliot P.

    2007-11-01

    Due to ever-increasing quantities of information traversing networks, network administrators are developing greater reliance upon statistically sampled packet information as the source for their intrusion detection systems (IDS). Our research is aimed at understanding IDS performance when statistical packet sampling is used. Using the Snort IDS and a variety of data sets, we compared IDS results when an entire data set is used to the results when a statistically sampled subset of the data set is used. Generally speaking, IDS performance with statistically sampled information was shown to drop considerably even under fairly high sampling rates (such as 1:5). Characterizing and Improving Distributed Intrusion Detection Systems4AcknowledgementsThe authors wish to extend our gratitude to Matt Bishop and Chen-Nee Chuah of UC Davis for their guidance and support on this work. Our thanks are also extended to Jianning Mai of UC Davis and Tao Ye of Sprint Advanced Technology Labs for their generous assistance.We would also like to acknowledge our dataset sources, CRAWDAD and CAIDA, without which this work would not have been possible. Support for OC48 data collection is provided by DARPA, NSF, DHS, Cisco and CAIDA members.

  9. HSI Prototypes for Human Systems Simulation Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jokstad, Håkon; McDonald, Rob

    2015-09-01

    This report describes in detail the design and features of three Human System Interface (HSI) prototypes developed by the Institutt for Energiteknikk (IFE) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program under Contract 128420 through Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The prototypes are implemented for the Generic Pressurized Water Reactor simulator and installed in the Human Systems Simulation Laboratory at INL. The three prototypes are: 1) Power Ramp display 2) RCS Heat-up and Cool-down display 3) Estimated time to limit display The power ramp display and the RCS heat-up/cool-down display are designed to provide good visual indications to the operators on how well they are performing their task compared to their target ramp/heat-up/cool-down rate. The estimated time to limit display is designed to help operators restore levels or pressures before automatic or required manual actions are activated.

  10. Control and regulation of modern distribution system, ForskEL...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    system, ForskEL (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Control and regulation of modern distribution system, ForskEL Country Denmark Coordinates...

  11. Distributed Generation Systems Inc DISGEN | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems Inc DISGEN Jump to: navigation, search Name: Distributed Generation Systems Inc (DISGEN) Place: Lakewood, Colorado Zip: 80228 Sector: Wind energy Product: Developer of...

  12. and Control of Power Systems Using Distributed Synchrophasors

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... be offered through the Electrical & Computer Engineering ... program focused on distribution systems, substation ... of Synchrophasors in transmission-level power systems, and ...

  13. Detection of contamination of municipal water distribution systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.

    2012-01-17

    A system for the detection of contaminates of a fluid in a conduit. The conduit is part of a fluid distribution system. A chemical or biological sensor array is connected to the conduit. The sensor array produces an acoustic signal burst in the fluid upon detection of contaminates in the fluid. A supervisory control system connected to the fluid and operatively connected to the fluid distribution system signals the fluid distribution system upon detection of contaminates in the fluid.

  14. Detailed End Use Load Modeling for Distribution System Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Fuller, Jason C.

    2010-04-09

    The field of distribution system analysis has made significant advances in the past ten years. It is now standard practice when performing a power flow simulation to use an algorithm that is capable of unbalanced per-phase analysis. Recent work has also focused on examining the need for time-series simulations instead of examining a single time period, i.e., peak loading. One area that still requires a significant amount of work is the proper modeling of end use loads. Currently it is common practice to use a simple load model consisting of a combination of constant power, constant impedance, and constant current elements. While this simple form of end use load modeling is sufficient for a single point in time, the exact model values are difficult to determine and it is inadequate for some time-series simulations. This paper will examine how to improve simple time invariant load models as well as develop multi-state time variant models.

  15. Power electronics system modeling and simulation (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Power electronics system modeling and simulation This paper introduces control system design based softwares, SIMNON and MATLABSIMULINK, for power electronics system ...

  16. Evaluating Domestic Hot Water Distribution System Options With Validated Analysis Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weitzel, E.; Hoeschele, M.

    2014-09-01

    A developing body of work is forming that collects data on domestic hot water consumption, water use behaviors, and energy efficiency of various distribution systems. A full distribution system developed in TRNSYS has been validated using field monitoring data and then exercised in a number of climates to understand climate impact on performance. This study builds upon previous analysis modelling work to evaluate differing distribution systems and the sensitivities of water heating energy and water use efficiency to variations of climate, load, distribution type, insulation and compact plumbing practices. Overall 124 different TRNSYS models were simulated. Of the configurations evaluated, distribution losses account for 13-29% of the total water heating energy use and water use efficiency ranges from 11-22%. The base case, an uninsulated trunk and branch system sees the most improvement in energy consumption by insulating and locating the water heater central to all fixtures. Demand recirculation systems are not projected to provide significant energy savings and in some cases increase energy consumption. Water use is most efficient with demand recirculation systems, followed by the insulated trunk and branch system with a central water heater. Compact plumbing practices and insulation have the most impact on energy consumption (2-6% for insulation and 3-4% per 10 gallons of enclosed volume reduced). The results of this work are useful in informing future development of water heating best practices guides as well as more accurate (and simulation time efficient) distribution models for annual whole house simulation programs.

  17. NREL: Electric Infrastructure Systems Research - Distributed...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    project, which uses electricity from wind turbines and solar panels to produce hydrogen. ... Electricity Integration Research Home Distributed Grid Integration Transmission Grid ...

  18. Building America Webinar: Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    This webinar was presented by research team Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), and reviewed findings from a feasibility study of ductless hydronic distribution ...

  19. Survey of Emissions Models for Distributed Combined Heat and Power Systems,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2007 | Department of Energy Survey of Emissions Models for Distributed Combined Heat and Power Systems, 2007 Survey of Emissions Models for Distributed Combined Heat and Power Systems, 2007 The models surveyed in this study vary in design, scope, and detail, but they all seek to capture the functions of an energy economy and use knowledge of economic interactions to simulate the effects of economic and policy changes. In this 2007 document, Integrated Planning Model (IPM), Average Displaced

  20. Reinvestigation of the charge density distribution in arc discharge fusion system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng, Lin Horng; Yee, Lee Kim; Nan, Phua Yeong; Thung, Yong Yun; Khok, Yong Thian; Rahman, Faidz Abd

    2015-04-24

    A continual arc discharge system has been setup and the light intensity of arc discharge has been profiled. The mathematical model of local energy density distribution in arc discharge fusion has been simulated which is in good qualitative agreement with light intensity profile of arc discharge in the experiments. Eventually, the local energy density distribution of arc discharge system is able to be precisely manipulated to act as heat source in the fabrication of fused fiber devices.

  1. November 18 PSERC Webinar: Quantifying and Mitigating the Impacts of PV in Distribution Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE-funded Power Systems Engineering Research Center (PSERC) is offering a free public webinar presenting a simulation-based investigation of PV impacts on distribution systems and discussing a new approach for volt-VAR optimization with reactive power capabilities of PV inverters.

  2. Impact of Distributed Wind on Bulk Power System Operations in ISO-NE (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brancucci Martinez-Anido, C.; Hodge, B. M.; Palchak, D.; Miettinen, J.

    2014-11-01

    The work presented in the paper corresponding to this presentation aims to study the impact of a range of penetration levels of distributed wind on the operation of the electric power system at the transmission level. This presentation is an overview of a case study on the power system in Independent System Operator New England. It is analyzed using PLEXOS, a commercial power system simulation tool

  3. Improving the efficiency of residential air-distribution systems in California, Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Modera, M.; Dickerhoff, D.; Jansky, R.; Smith, B.

    1992-06-01

    This report describes the results of the first phase of a multiyear research project. The project`s goal is to investigate ways to improve the efficiency of air-distribution systems in detached, single-family residences in California. First-year efforts included: A survey of heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) contractors in California. A 31-house field study of distribution-system performance based on diagnostic measurements. Development of an integrated air-flow and thermal-simulation tool for investigating residential air-distribution system performance. Highlights of the field results include the following: Building envelopes for houses built after 1979 appear to be approximately 30% tighter. Duct-system tightness showed no apparent improvement in post-1979 houses. Distribution-fan operation added an average of 0.45 air changes per hour (ACH) to the average measured rate of 0.24 ACH. The simulation tool developed is based on DOE-2 for the thermal simulations and on MOVECOMP, an air-flow network simulation model, for the duct/house leakage and flow interactions. The first complete set of simulations performed (for a ranch house in Sacramento) indicated that the overall heating-season efficiency of the duct systems was approximately 65% to 70% and that the overall cooling-season efficiency was between 60% and 75%. The wide range in cooling-season efficiency reflects the difference between systems with attic return ducts and those with crawl-space return ducts, the former being less efficient. The simulations also indicated that the building envelope`s UA-value, a measurement of thermoconductivity, did not have a significant impact on the overall efficiency of the air-distribution system.

  4. Hybrid Power System Simulation Model | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontenthybrid-power-system-simulation-model, Language: English Policies: Deployment Programs DeploymentPrograms: Technical Assistance This...

  5. SimFS: A Large Scale Parallel File System Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2011-08-30

    The software provides both framework and tools to simulate a large-scale parallel file system such as Lustre.

  6. Tool - Vehicle System Simulation (Autonomie) | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tool - Vehicle System Simulation (Autonomie) Tool - Vehicle System Simulation (Autonomie) Autonomie s a most powerful and robust system simulation tool for vehicle energy consumption and performance analysis. Developed in collaboration with General Motors, Autonomie is a MATLAB©-based software environment and framework for automotive control-system design, simulation, and analysis. Its application covers energy consumption, performance analysis throughout the entire vehicle development process

  7. Epidemilogical Simulation System, Version 2.4

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-01-30

    EpiSims uses a detailed simulation of disease spread to evaluate demographically and geographically targeted biological threat reduction strategies. Abstract: EpiSims simulates the spread of disease and analyzes the consequences of intervention strategies in a large urban area at the level of individuals. The simulation combines models of three dynamical systems: urban social networks, disease transmission, and within-host progression of a disease. Validated population mobility and activity generation technology provides the social network models, Disease modelsmore » are based on fusion of expert opinion and available data. EpiSims provides a previously unavailable detailed representation of the course of an outbreak in urban area. A letter of August 16, 2002 from the Office of Homeland Security states: "Ability of EpiSims to provide comprehensive data on daily activity patterns of individuals makes it far superior to traditional SIR models — clearly had an impact on pre-attack smallpox vaccination policy." EpiSims leverages a unique Los Alamos National Laboratory resource — the population mobility and activity data developed by TRANSIMS (Transportation Analysis and SiMulation System) — to create epidemiological analyses at an unprecedented level of detail. We create models of microscopic (individual-level) physical and biological processes from which, through simulation, emerge the macroscopic (urban regional level) quantities that are the inputs to alternative models. For example, the contact patterns of individuals in different demographic groups determine the overall mixing rates those groups. The characteristics of a person-to-person transmission together with their contact patterns determine the reproductive numbers — how many people will be infected on average by each case. Mixing rates and reproductive numbers are the basic parameters of other epidemiological models. Because interventions — and people’s reactions to them — are ultimately applied

  8. Elimination of direct current distribution systems from new generating stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jancauskas, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    This paper advances the concept that it may be both possible and advantageous to eliminate the traditional direct current distribution system from a new generating station. The latest developments in uninterruptible power supply (UPS) technology are what have made this option technically feasible. A traditional dc distribution system will be compared to an ac distribution system supplied by a UPS to investigate the merits of the proposed approach.

  9. Voices of Experience | Advanced Distribution Management Systems_brochure.indd

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Insights into Advanced Distribution Management Systems VOICES of Experience February, 2015 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory under contract No. DE-AC36-08G028308, Subtask SG10.1011 in conjunction with Energetics Incorporated under contract No. GS-10F-0103J, Subtask J3806.0002. INSIGHTS INTO ADVANCED DISTRIBUTION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS | DOE 3 Voices of Experience | Advanced Distribution Management Systems When people think of the electric power

  10. Integration of HVAC System Design with Simplified Duct Distribution -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building America Top Innovation | Department of Energy Integration of HVAC System Design with Simplified Duct Distribution - Building America Top Innovation Integration of HVAC System Design with Simplified Duct Distribution - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows framed walls and HVAC distribution systems. This Top Innovation profile describes work by Building America research team IBACOS who field tested simplified duct designs in hundreds of homes, confirming the performance of

  11. Effects of Home Energy Management Systems on Distribution Utilities...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... For operational management to support the distribution system, the utility's consumers (e.g., homeowners) need to be provided financial incentives. Historically, demand-response ...

  12. Distribution System planning for Smart Grids, ForskEL (Smart...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name Distribution System planning for Smart Grids, ForskEL Country Denmark Coordinates 56.26392, 9.501785 Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type...

  13. Energy Efficient HVAC System for Distributed Cooling/Heating...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    on Thermal Comfort Modeling Energy Efficient HVAC System for Distributed CoolingHeating with Thermoelectric Devices Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for ...

  14. Best Management Practice #3: Distribution System Audits, Leak...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Leaks in distribution systems are caused by a number of factors, including pipe corrosion, ... Cathodic protection controls corrosion of metal surfaces by supplying an electrical ...

  15. Laser Spark Distribution and Ignition System - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search Laser Spark Distribution and Ignition System A method ... Contact NETL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Laser Spark ...

  16. On sequential dynamical systems and simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrett, C.L.; Mortveit, H.S.; Reidys, C.M.

    1999-06-01

    The generic structure of computer simulations motivates a new class of discrete dynamical systems that captures this structure in a mathematically precise way. This class of systems consists of (1) a loopfree graph {Upsilon} with vertex set {l_brace}1,2,{hor_ellipsis},n{r_brace} where each vertex has a binary state, (2) a vertex labeled set of functions (F{sub i,{Upsilon}}:F{sub 2}{sup n} {r_arrow} F{sub 2}{sup n}){sub i} and (3) a permutation {pi} {element_of} S{sub n}. The function F{sub i,{Upsilon}} updates the state of vertex i as a function of the states of vertex i and its {Upsilon}-neighbors and leaves the states of all other vertices fixed. The permutation {pi} represents the update ordering, i.e., the order in which the functions F{sub i,{Upsilon}} are applied. By composing the functions F{sub i,{Upsilon}} in the order given by {pi} one obtains the dynamical system (equation given in paper) which the authors refer to as a sequential dynamical system, or SDS for short. The authors will present bounds for the number of functionally different systems and for the number of nonisomorphic digraphs {Gamma}[F{sub {Upsilon}},{pi}] that can be obtained by varying the update order and applications of these to specific graphs and graph classes. This will be done using both combinatorial/algebraic techniques and probabilistic techniques. Finally the authors give results on dynamical system properties for some special systems.

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2013 Vehicle and Systems Simulation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing R&D Annual Progress Report ... FY 2013 annual report focuses on the following areas: ... Technologies Office: 2015 Vehicle Systems Annual ...

  18. Simulated response of the atmosphere-ocean system to deforestation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the atmosphere-ocean system to deforestation in the Indonesian Archipelago Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Simulated response of the atmosphere-ocean system to ...

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2012 Vehicle and Systems Simulation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    areas: modeling and simulation, component and systems evaluation, laboratory and field vehicle evaluation, codes and standards development, and heavy vehicle systems optimization. ...

  20. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2010 Vehicle and Systems Simulation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    areas: modeling and simulation, component and systems evaluation, laboratory and field vehicle evaluation, codes and standards development, and heavy vehicle systems optimization. ...

  1. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2011 Vehicle and Systems Simulation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    areas: modeling and simulation, component and systems evaluation, laboratory and field vehicle evaluation, codes and standards development, and heavy vehicle systems optimization. ...

  2. Simulation Model of Mobile Detection Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edmunds, T; Faissol, D; Yao, Y

    2009-01-27

    In this paper, we consider a mobile source that we attempt to detect with man-portable, vehicle-mounted or boat-mounted radiation detectors. The source is assumed to transit an area populated with these mobile detectors, and the objective is to detect the source before it reaches a perimeter. We describe a simulation model developed to estimate the probability that one of the mobile detectors will come in to close proximity of the moving source and detect it. We illustrate with a maritime simulation example. Our simulation takes place in a 10 km by 5 km rectangular bay patrolled by boats equipped with 2-inch x 4-inch x 16-inch NaI detectors. Boats to be inspected enter the bay and randomly proceed to one of seven harbors on the shore. A source-bearing boat enters the mouth of the bay and proceeds to a pier on the opposite side. We wish to determine the probability that the source is detected and its range from target when detected. Patrol boats select the nearest in-bound boat for inspection and initiate an intercept course. Once within an operational range for the detection system, a detection algorithm is started. If the patrol boat confirms the source is not present, it selects the next nearest boat for inspection. Each run of the simulation ends either when a patrol successfully detects a source or when the source reaches its target. Several statistical detection algorithms have been implemented in the simulation model. First, a simple k-sigma algorithm, which alarms with the counts in a time window exceeds the mean background plus k times the standard deviation of background, is available to the user. The time window used is optimized with respect to the signal-to-background ratio for that range and relative speed. Second, a sequential probability ratio test [Wald 1947] is available, and configured in this simulation with a target false positive probability of 0.001 and false negative probability of 0.1. This test is utilized when the mobile detector maintains

  3. Electrical power systems for distributed generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, T.A.; Huval, S.J.

    1996-12-31

    {open_quotes}Distributed Generation{close_quotes} has become the {open_quotes}buzz{close_quotes} word of an electric utility industry facing deregulation. Many industrial facilities utilize equipment in distributed installations to serve the needs of a thermal host through the capture of exhaust energy in a heat recovery steam generator. The electrical power generated is then sold as a {open_quotes}side benefit{close_quotes} to the cost-effective supply of high quality thermal energy. Distributed generation is desirable for many different reasons, each with unique characteristics of the product. Many years of experience in the distributed generation market has helped Stewart & Stevenson to define a range of product features that are crucial to most any application. The following paper will highlight a few of these applications. The paper will also examine the range of products currently available and in development. Finally, we will survey the additional services offered by Stewart & Stevenson to meet the needs of a rapidly changing power generation industry.

  4. Bulk and Surface Molecular Orientation Distribution in Injection-molded Liquid Crystalline Polymers: Experiment and Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, J.; Burghardt, W; Bubeck, R; Burgard, S; Fischer, D

    2010-01-01

    Bulk and surface distributions of molecular orientation in injection-molded plaques of thermotropic liquid crystalline polymers (TLCPs) have been studied using a combination of techniques, coordinated with process simulations using the Larson-Doi 'polydomain' model. Wide-angle X-ray scattering was used to map out the bulk orientation distribution. Fourier Transform Infrared Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR-ATR) and Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) were utilized to probe the molecular orientation states to within about {approx}5 {micro}m and {approx}2 nm, respectively, of the sample surface. These noninvasive, surface-sensitive techniques yield reasonable self-consistency, providing complementary validation of the robustness of these methods. An analogy between Larson-Doi and fiber orientation models has allowed the first simulations of TLCP injection molding. The simulations capture many fine details in the bulk orientation distribution across the sample plaque. Direct simulation of surface orientation at the level probed by FTIR-ATR and NEXAFS was not possible due to the limited spatial resolution of the simulations. However, simulation results extracted from the shear-dominant skin region are found to provide a qualitatively accurate indicator of surface orientation. Finally, simulations capture the relation between bulk and surface orientation states across the different regions of the sample plaque.

  5. FIPA agent based network distributed control system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Abbott; V. Gyurjyan; G. Heyes; E. Jastrzembski; C. Timmer; E. Wolin

    2003-03-01

    A control system with the capabilities to combine heterogeneous control systems or processes into a uniform homogeneous environment is discussed. This dynamically extensible system is an example of the software system at the agent level of abstraction. This level of abstraction considers agents as atomic entities that communicate to implement the functionality of the control system. Agents' engineering aspects are addressed by adopting the domain independent software standard, formulated by FIPA. Jade core Java classes are used as a FIPA specification implementation. A special, lightweight, XML RDFS based, control oriented, ontology markup language is developed to standardize the description of the arbitrary control system data processor. Control processes, described in this language, are integrated into the global system at runtime, without actual programming. Fault tolerance and recovery issues are also addressed.

  6. NiSource Energy Technologies Inc.: System Integration of Distributed Power for Complete Building Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-10-01

    Summarizes NiSource Energy Technologies' work under contract to DOE's Distribution and Interconnection R&D. Includes studying distributed generation interconnection issues and CHP system performance.

  7. Battery management system with distributed wireless sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Bandhauer, Todd M.

    2016-02-23

    A system for monitoring parameters of an energy storage system having a multiplicity of individual energy storage cells. A radio frequency identification and sensor unit is connected to each of the individual energy storage cells. The radio frequency identification and sensor unit operates to sense the parameter of each individual energy storage cell and provides radio frequency transmission of the parameters of each individual energy storage cell. A management system monitors the radio frequency transmissions from the radio frequency identification and sensor units for monitoring the parameters of the energy storage system.

  8. Enhancing Complex System Performance Using Discrete-Event Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allgood, Glenn O; Olama, Mohammed M; Lake, Joe E

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we utilize discrete-event simulation (DES) merged with human factors analysis to provide the venue within which the separation and deconfliction of the system/human operating principles can occur. A concrete example is presented to illustrate the performance enhancement gains for an aviation cargo flow and security inspection system achieved through the development and use of a process DES. The overall performance of the system is computed, analyzed, and optimized for the different system dynamics. Various performance measures are considered such as system capacity, residual capacity, and total number of pallets waiting for inspection in the queue. These metrics are performance indicators of the system's ability to service current needs and respond to additional requests. We studied and analyzed different scenarios by changing various model parameters such as the number of pieces per pallet ratio, number of inspectors and cargo handling personnel, number of forklifts, number and types of detection systems, inspection modality distribution, alarm rate, and cargo closeout time. The increased physical understanding resulting from execution of the queuing model utilizing these vetted performance measures identified effective ways to meet inspection requirements while maintaining or reducing overall operational cost and eliminating any shipping delays associated with any proposed changes in inspection requirements. With this understanding effective operational strategies can be developed to optimally use personnel while still maintaining plant efficiency, reducing process interruptions, and holding or reducing costs.

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2010 Vehicle and Systems Simulation and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testing R&D Annual Progress Report | Department of Energy Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing R&D Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2010 Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing R&D Annual Progress Report 2010 annual report focusing on five main areas: modeling and simulation, component and systems evaluation, laboratory and field vehicle evaluation, codes and standards development, and heavy vehicle systems optimization. 2010_vsst_report.pdf (25.23 MB)

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2012 Vehicle and Systems Simulation and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testing R&D Annual Progress Report | Department of Energy Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing R&D Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2012 Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing R&D Annual Progress Report FY 2012 annual report focusing on five main areas: modeling and simulation, component and systems evaluation, laboratory and field vehicle evaluation, codes and standards development, and heavy vehicle systems optimization. 2012_vsst_report.pdf (32.4

  11. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2013 Vehicle and Systems Simulation and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testing R&D Annual Progress Report | Department of Energy Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing R&D Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2013 Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing R&D Annual Progress Report FY 2013 annual report focuses on the following areas: vehicle modeling and simulation, component and systems evaluations, laboratory and field evaluations, codes and standards, industry projects, and vehicle systems optimization. 2013_vsst_report.pdf

  12. Distributed sensor coordination for advanced energy systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tumer, Kagan

    2015-03-12

    Motivation: The ability to collect key system level information is critical to the safe, efficient and reliable operation of advanced power systems. Recent advances in sensor technology have enabled some level of decision making directly at the sensor level. However, coordinating large numbers of sensors, particularly heterogeneous sensors, to achieve system level objectives such as predicting plant efficiency, reducing downtime or predicting outages requires sophisticated coordination algorithms. Indeed, a critical issue in such systems is how to ensure the interaction of a large number of heterogenous system components do not interfere with one another and lead to undesirable behavior. Objectives and Contributions: The long-term objective of this work is to provide sensor deployment, coordination and networking algorithms for large numbers of sensors to ensure the safe, reliable, and robust operation of advanced energy systems. Our two specific objectives are to: 1. Derive sensor performance metrics for heterogeneous sensor networks. 2. Demonstrate effectiveness, scalability and reconfigurability of heterogeneous sensor network in advanced power systems. The key technical contribution of this work is to push the coordination step to the design of the objective functions of the sensors, allowing networks of heterogeneous sensors to be controlled. By ensuring that the control and coordination is not specific to particular sensor hardware, this approach enables the design and operation of large heterogeneous sensor networks. In addition to the coordination coordination mechanism, this approach allows the system to be reconfigured in response to changing needs (e.g., sudden external events requiring new responses) or changing sensor network characteristics (e.g., sudden changes to plant condition). Impact: The impact of this work extends to a large class of problems relevant to the National Energy Technology Laboratory including sensor placement, heterogeneous sensor

  13. Residential hot water distribution systems: Roundtablesession

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, James D.; Klein, Gary; Springer, David; Howard, Bion D.

    2002-08-01

    Residential building practice currently ignores the lossesof energy and water caused by the poor design of hot water systems. Theselosses include: combustion and standby losses from water heaters, thewaste of water (and energy) while waiting for hot water to get to thepoint of use; the wasted heat as water cools down in the distributionsystem after a draw; heat losses from recirculation systems and thediscarded warmth of waste water as it runs down the drain. Severaltechnologies are available that save energy (and water) by reducing theselosses or by passively recovering heat from wastewater streams and othersources. Energy savings from some individual technologies are reported tobe as much as 30 percent. Savings calculations of prototype systemsincluding bundles of technologies have been reported above 50 percent.This roundtable session will describe the current practices, summarizethe results of past and ongoing studies, discuss ways to think about hotwater system efficiency, and point to areas of future study. We will alsorecommend further steps to reduce unnecessary losses from hot waterdistribution systems.

  14. Explosive simulants for testing explosive detection systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kury, John W.; Anderson, Brian L.

    1999-09-28

    Explosives simulants that include non-explosive components are disclosed that facilitate testing of equipment designed to remotely detect explosives. The simulants are non-explosive, non-hazardous materials that can be safely handled without any significant precautions. The simulants imitate real explosives in terms of mass density, effective atomic number, x-ray transmission properties, and physical form, including moldable plastics and emulsions/gels.

  15. Extensions to Dynamic System Simulation of Fissile Solution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, Steven Karl; Bernardin, John David; Kimpland, Robert Herbert; Spernjak, Dusan

    2015-08-24

    Previous reports have documented the results of applying dynamic system simulation (DSS) techniques to model a variety of fissile solution systems. The SUPO (Super Power) aqueous homogeneous reactor (AHR) was chosen as the benchmark for comparison of model results to experimental data for steadystate operation.1 Subsequently, DSS was applied to additional AHR to verify results obtained for SUPO and extend modeling to prompt critical excursions, ramp reactivity insertions of various magnitudes and rate, and boiling operations in SILENE and KEWB (Kinetic Experiment Water Boiler).2 Additional models for pressurized cores (HRE: Homogeneous Reactor Experiment), annular core geometries, and accelerator-driven subcritical systems (ADAHR) were developed and results reported.3 The focus of each of these models is core dynamics; neutron kinetics, thermal hydraulics, radiolytic gas generation and transport are coupled to examine the time-based evolution of these systems from start-up through transition to steady-state. A common characteristic of these models is the assumption that (a) core cooling system inlet temperature and flow and (b) plenum gas inlet pressure and flow are held constant; no external (to core) component operations that may result in dynamic change to these parameters are considered. This report discusses extension of models to include explicit reference to cooling structures and radiolytic gas handling. The accelerator-driven subcritical generic system model described in References 3 and 4 is used as a basis for this extension.

  16. A Global System for Transportation Simulation and Visualization in Emergency Evacuation Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Wei; Liu, Cheng; Thomas, Neil; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Han, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Simulation-based studies are frequently used for evacuation planning and decision making processes. Given the transportation systems complexity and data availability, most evacuation simulation models focus on certain geographic areas. With routine improvement of OpenStreetMap road networks and LandScanTM global population distribution data, we present WWEE, a uniform system for world-wide emergency evacuation simulations. WWEE uses unified data structure for simulation inputs. It also integrates a super-node trip distribution model as the default simulation parameter to improve the system computational performance. Two levels of visualization tools are implemented for evacuation performance analysis, including link-based macroscopic visualization and vehicle-based microscopic visualization. For left-hand and right-hand traffic patterns in different countries, the authors propose a mirror technique to experiment with both scenarios without significantly changing traffic simulation models. Ten cities in US, Europe, Middle East, and Asia are modeled for demonstration. With default traffic simulation models for fast and easy-to-use evacuation estimation and visualization, WWEE also retains the capability of interactive operation for users to adopt customized traffic simulation models. For the first time, WWEE provides a unified platform for global evacuation researchers to estimate and visualize their strategies performance of transportation systems under evacuation scenarios.

  17. Integrated Distribution Management System for Alabama Principal Investigator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schatz, Joe

    2013-03-31

    Southern Company Services, under contract with the Department of Energy, along with Alabama Power, Alstom Grid (formerly AREVA T&D) and others moved the work product developed in the first phase of the Integrated Distribution Management System (IDMS) from “Proof of Concept” to true deployment through the activity described in this Final Report. This Project – Integrated Distribution Management Systems in Alabama – advanced earlier developed proof of concept activities into actual implementation and furthermore completed additional requirements to fully realize the benefits of an IDMS. These tasks include development and implementation of a Distribution System based Model that enables data access and enterprise application integration.

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Vehicle & Systems Simulation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Testing | Department of Energy Vehicle & Systems Simulation & Testing Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Vehicle & Systems Simulation & Testing Presentation given by U.S. Department of Energy at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting providing an overview of the Vehicle & Systems Simulation & Testing Program. vsst_overview_amr_2014_061114.pdf (3.12 MB) More Documents

  19. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2014 Vehicle and Systems Simulation and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Testing Annual Progress Report | Department of Energy Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing Annual Progress Report Vehicle Technologies Office: 2014 Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing Annual Progress Report The Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research focuses on addressing critical

  20. System Simulations of Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Focus on Emissions |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy System Simulations of Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Focus on Emissions System Simulations of Hybrid Electric Vehicles with Focus on Emissions Comparative simulations of hybrid electric vehicles with gasoline and diesel engines will be conducted with focus on emissions control. deer10_gao.pdf (6.28 MB) More Documents & Publications PHEV Engine and Aftertreatment Model Development Advanced PHEV Engine Systems and Emissions Control Modeling and Analysis PHEV Engine and

  1. Rule based decision support system for single-line fault detection in a delta-delta connected distribution system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Momoh, J.A.; Dias, L.G.; Thor, T. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Laird, D. )

    1994-05-01

    Single-line fault detection, faulted feeder identification, fault type classification, fault location and fault impedance estimation, continue to pose a problem to delta-delta connected distribution systems such as the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) which has over 1,500 feeder circuits at the 4.8kV voltage level. This paper describes a rule based decision support (RBDS) system application to single-line fault detection in a delta-delta connected distribution system. The RBDS system is built from knowledge acquired through exhaustive simulation based on non-arcing type fault situations. It is primarily designed to detect the presence of a fault, identify the faulted feeder, the faulted phase and classify the fault type. It is also designed to gauge the proximity of the fault to the substation and to assess the fault impedance. A fault in the distribution system, upon identification, triggers an alarm with explanatory facility leading to the fault. The RBDS system was tested with different sets of simulated data and proved successful in most cases. Additional tests will be done using field data made available by LADWP. The RBDS system module is a prototype integrated fault detection scheme to be installed in a LADWP distribution substation.

  2. A distributed timing system for sychronizing control and data correlation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stettler, M.; Thout, M.; Dalesio, L.R.; Cole, R.; Fite, C.; Slentz, G.; Warren, D.

    1992-09-01

    Synchronization is necessary in experimental physics machines to provide positive control over related events. The Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) timing system provides this function through a distributed control system, known as the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS). The EPICS timing system was designed to take advantage of a distributed architecture, and provides time stamping for synchronous data correlation as well as event control. The system has been successfully demonstrated on over a dozen controller nodes for operation and data analysis. The design of the hardware, software, and operational results are discussed.

  3. A Runtime Verification Framework for Control System Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciraci, Selim; Fuller, Jason C.; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Callahan, Charles D.

    2014-08-02

    n a standard workflow for the validation of a control system, the control system is implemented as an extension to a simulator. Such simulators are complex software systems, and engineers may unknowingly violate constraints a simulator places on extensions. As such, errors may be introduced in the implementation of either the control system or the simulator leading to invalid simulation results. This paper presents a novel runtime verification approach for verifying control system implementations within simulators. The major contribution of the approach is the two-tier specification process. In the first tier, engineers model constraints using a domain-specific language tailored to modeling a controllers response to changes in its input. The language is high-level and effectively hides the implementation details of the simulator, allowing engineers to specify design-level constraints independent of low-level simulator interfaces. In the second tier, simulator developers provide mapping rules for mapping design-level constraints to the implementation of the simulator. Using the rules, an automated tool transforms the design-level specifications into simulator-specific runtime verification specifications and generates monitoring code which is injected into the implementation of the simulator. During simulation, these monitors observe the input and output variables of the control system and report changes to the verifier. The verifier checks whether these changes follow the constraints of the control system. We describe application of this approach to the verification of the constraints of an HVAC control system implemented with the power grid simulator GridLAB-D.

  4. Garbage collection for functional languages in a distributed system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckart, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    Garbage collection is a helpful facility provided by many applicative languages such as Prolog, SISAL, FP, and Lisp. While these, and other, languages provide easy recognition of actions that may be executed in parallel, the garbage-collection algorithms used for single-machine environments become significantly more inefficient in multi-machine environments. Thus, in order to make effective use of these languages, more-efficient algorithms for collecting inter-machine structures is needed. Reference marking is the algorithm developed to meet these needs. It takes advantage of the semantics of applicative languages allowing each parallel action to be responsible for collecting any discarded structures it was responsible for creating. Simulation results comparing the performance of reference marking with other distributed garbage-collection algorithms are given. A variety of problem types and sizes are examined to determine the effects of particular styles of computation on each of the garbage-collection algorithms. The results gathered demonstrate the usefulness of the reference-marking algorithm in both uni- and multi-machine systems.

  5. Evaluation of System Level Modeling and Simulation Tools in Support...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    System Level Modeling and Simulation Tools in Support of Savannah River Site Liquid Waste Process ... Facility Technology Readiness Assessment Report EIS-0082: Record of Decision

  6. Dynamic System Simulation of the KRUSTY Experiment (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Dynamic System Simulation of the KRUSTY Experiment Citation Details ... Have feedback or suggestions for a way to improve these results? Save Share this ...

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2014 Vehicle and Systems Simulation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many ...

  8. Development of a model colloidal system for rheology simulation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    This chapter describes the choice of the model particle system, methods for synthesis and ... SIMULATION; SOLVENTS; SYNTHESIS Colloids-Mathematical models.; Rheology-Measurement. ...

  9. Large-Eddy Simulation for Green Energy and Propulsion Systems...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large-Eddy Simulation for Green Energy and Propulsion Systems PI Name: Umesh Paliath PI Email: paliath@ge.com Institution: General Electric Allocation Program: INCITE Allocation ...

  10. A View on Future Building System Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wetter, Michael

    2011-04-01

    This chapter presents what a future environment for building system modeling and simulation may look like. As buildings continue to require increased performance and better comfort, their energy and control systems are becoming more integrated and complex. We therefore focus in this chapter on the modeling, simulation and analysis of building energy and control systems. Such systems can be classified as heterogeneous systems because they involve multiple domains, such as thermodynamics, fluid dynamics, heat and mass transfer, electrical systems, control systems and communication systems. Also, they typically involve multiple temporal and spatial scales, and their evolution can be described by coupled differential equations, discrete equations and events. Modeling and simulating such systems requires a higher level of abstraction and modularisation to manage the increased complexity compared to what is used in today's building simulation programs. Therefore, the trend towards more integrated building systems is likely to be a driving force for changing the status quo of today's building simulation programs. Thischapter discusses evolving modeling requirements and outlines a path toward a future environment for modeling and simulation of heterogeneous building systems.A range of topics that would require many additional pages of discussion has been omitted. Examples include computational fluid dynamics for air and particle flow in and around buildings, people movement, daylight simulation, uncertainty propagation and optimisation methods for building design and controls. For different discussions and perspectives on the future of building modeling and simulation, we refer to Sahlin (2000), Augenbroe (2001) and Malkawi and Augenbroe (2004).

  11. Defining and enabling resiliency of electric distribution systems with multiple microgrids

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chanda, Sayonsom; Srivastava, Anurag K.

    2016-05-02

    This paper presents a method for quantifying and enabling the resiliency of a power distribution system (PDS) using analytical hierarchical process and percolation theory. Using this metric, quantitative analysis can be done to analyze the impact of possible control decisions to pro-actively enable the resilient operation of distribution system with multiple microgrids and other resources. Developed resiliency metric can also be used in short term distribution system planning. The benefits of being able to quantify resiliency can help distribution system planning engineers and operators to justify control actions, compare different reconfiguration algorithms, develop proactive control actions to avert power systemmore » outage due to impending catastrophic weather situations or other adverse events. Validation of the proposed method is done using modified CERTS microgrids and a modified industrial distribution system. Furthermore, simulation results show topological and composite metric considering power system characteristics to quantify the resiliency of a distribution system with the proposed methodology, and improvements in resiliency using two-stage reconfiguration algorithm and multiple microgrids.« less

  12. Simulation of e-cloud driven instability and its attenuation using a simulated feedback system in the CERN SPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vay, J.-L.; Furman, M. A.

    2010-12-13

    Electron clouds have been shown to trigger fast growing instabilities on proton beams circulating in the SPS, and a feedback system to control the single-bunch instabilities is under active development. We present the latest improvements to the WARP-POSINST simulation framework and feedback model, and its application to the self-consistent simulations of two consecutive bunches interacting with an electron cloud in the SPS. Simulations using an idealized feedback system exhibit adequate mitigation of the instability providing that the cutoff of the feedback bandwidth is at or above 450 MHz. Artifacts from numerical noise of the injected distribution of electrons in the modeling of portions of bunch trains are discussed, and benchmarking of WARP against POSINST and HEADTAIL are presented.

  13. Data transmission system with distributed microprocessors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nambu, Shigeo

    1985-01-01

    A data transmission system having a common request line and a special request line in addition to a transmission line. The special request line has priority over the common request line. A plurality of node stations are multi-drop connected to the transmission line. Among the node stations, a supervising station is connected to the special request line and takes precedence over other slave stations to become a master station. The master station collects data from the slave stations. The station connected to the common request line can assign a master control function to any station requesting to be assigned the master control function within a short period of time. Each station has an auto response control circuit. The master station automatically collects data by the auto response controlling circuit independently of the microprocessors of the slave stations.

  14. System-wide power management control via clock distribution network

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan; Gooding, Thomas M.; Haring, Rudolf A.; Kopcsay, Gerard V.; Liebsch, Thomas A.; Reed, Don D.

    2015-05-19

    An apparatus, method and computer program product for automatically controlling power dissipation of a parallel computing system that includes a plurality of processors. A computing device issues a command to the parallel computing system. A clock pulse-width modulator encodes the command in a system clock signal to be distributed to the plurality of processors. The plurality of processors in the parallel computing system receive the system clock signal including the encoded command, and adjusts power dissipation according to the encoded command.

  15. Impact of SolarSmart Subdivisions on SMUD's Distribution System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNutt, P.; Hambrick, J.; Keesee, M.; Brown, D.

    2009-07-01

    This study analyzes the distribution impacts of high penetrations of grid-integrated renewable energy systems, specifically photovoltaic (PV) equipped SolarSmart Homes found in the Anatolia III Residential Community.

  16. Simulation of water flow in terrestrial systems

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-12-18

    ParFlow is a parallel, variabley saturated groundwater flow code that is especially suitable for large scale problem. ParFlow simulates the three-dimensional saturated and variably saturated subsurface flow in heterogeneous porous media in three spatial dimensions. ParFlow's developemt and appkication has been on-ging for more than 10 uear. ParFlow has recently been extended to coupled surface-subsurface flow to enabel the simulation of hillslope runoff and channel routing in a truly integrated fashion. ParFlow simulates the three-dimensionalmore » varably saturated subsurface flow in strongly heterogeneous porous media in three spatial dimension.« less

  17. Integrated Simulation Development and Decision Support Tool-Set for Utility Market and Distributed Solar Power Generation Electricore, Inc.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daye, Tony

    2013-09-30

    This project will enable utilities to develop long-term strategic plans that integrate high levels of renewable energy generation, and to better plan power system operations under high renewable penetration. The program developed forecast data streams for decision support and effective integration of centralized and distributed solar power generation in utility operations. This toolset focused on real time simulation of distributed power generation within utility grids with the emphasis on potential applications in day ahead (market) and real time (reliability) utility operations. The project team developed and demonstrated methodologies for quantifying the impact of distributed solar generation on core utility operations, identified protocols for internal data communication requirements, and worked with utility personnel to adapt the new distributed generation (DG) forecasts seamlessly within existing Load and Generation procedures through a sophisticated DMS. This project supported the objectives of the SunShot Initiative and SUNRISE by enabling core utility operations to enhance their simulation capability to analyze and prepare for the impacts of high penetrations of solar on the power grid. The impact of high penetration solar PV on utility operations is not only limited to control centers, but across many core operations. Benefits of an enhanced DMS using state-of-the-art solar forecast data were demonstrated within this project and have had an immediate direct operational cost savings for Energy Marketing for Day Ahead generation commitments, Real Time Operations, Load Forecasting (at an aggregate system level for Day Ahead), Demand Response, Long term Planning (asset management), Distribution Operations, and core ancillary services as required for balancing and reliability. This provided power system operators with the necessary tools and processes to operate the grid in a reliable manner under high renewable penetration.

  18. Distributed Generation System Characteristics and Costs in the Buildings Sector

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Distributed Generation System Characteristics and Costs in the Buildings Sector August 2013 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Distributed Generation System Characteristics and Costs in the Buildings Sector i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and

  19. PhotoVoltaic distributed generation for Lanai power grid real-time simulation and control integration scenario.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinett, Rush D., III; Kukolich, Keith; Wilson, David Gerald; Schenkman, Benjamin L.

    2010-06-01

    This paper discusses the modeling, analysis, and testing in a real-time simulation environment of the Lanai power grid system for the integration and control of PhotoVoltaic (PV) distributed generation. The Lanai Island in Hawaii is part of the Hawaii Clean Energy Initiative (HCEI) to transition to 30% renewable green energy penetration by 2030. In Lanai the primary loads come from two Castle and Cook Resorts, in addition to residential needs. The total peak load profile is 12470 V, 5.5 MW. Currently there are several diesel generators that meet these loading requirements. As part of the HCEI, Lanai has initially installed 1.2 MW of PV generation. The goal of this study has been to evaluate the impact of the PV with respect to the conventional carbon-based diesel generation in real time simulation. For intermittent PV distributed generation, the overall stability and transient responses are investigated. A simple Lanai 'like' model has been developed in the Matlab/Simulink environment (see Fig. 1) and to accommodate real-time simulation of the hybrid power grid system the Opal-RT Technologies RT-Lab environment is used. The diesel generators have been modelled using the SimPowerSystems toolbox swing equations and a custom Simulink module has been developed for the High level PV generation. All of the loads have been characterized primarily as distribution lines with series resistive load banks with one VAR load bank. Three-phase faults are implemented for each bus. Both conventional and advanced control architectures will be used to evaluate the integration of the PV onto the current power grid system. The baseline numerical results include the stable performance of the power grid during varying cloud cover (PV generation ramping up/down) scenarios. The importance of assessing the real-time scenario is included.

  20. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.5 Thermal Distribution Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    5 Typical Commercial Building Thermal Energy Distribution Design Load Intensities (Watts per SF) Distribution System Fans Other Central System Supply Fans Cooling Tower Fan Central System Return Fans Air-Cooled Chiller Condenser Fan 0.6 Terminal Box Fans 0.5 Exhaust Fans (2) Fan-Coil Unit Fans (1) Condenser Fans 0.6 Packaged or Split System Indoor Blower 0.6 Pumps Chilled Water Pump Condenser Water Pump Heating Water Pump Note(s): Source(s): 0.1 - 0.2 0.1 - 0.2 1) Unducted units are lower than

  1. A High Performance Computing Network and System Simulator for the Power Grid: NGNS^2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Villa, Oreste; Tumeo, Antonino; Ciraci, Selim; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Fuller, Jason C.

    2012-11-11

    Designing and planing next generation power grid sys- tems composed of large power distribution networks, monitoring and control networks, autonomous generators and consumers of power requires advanced simulation infrastructures. The objective is to predict and analyze in time the behavior of networks of systems for unexpected events such as loss of connectivity, malicious attacks and power loss scenarios. This ultimately allows one to answer questions such as: What could happen to the power grid if .... We want to be able to answer as many questions as possible in the shortest possible time for the largest possible systems. In this paper we present a new High Performance Computing (HPC) oriented simulation infrastructure named Next Generation Network and System Simulator (NGNS2 ). NGNS2 allows for the distribution of a single simulation among multiple computing elements by using MPI and OpenMP threads. NGNS2 provides extensive configuration, fault tolerant and load balancing capabilities needed to simulate large and dynamic systems for long periods of time. We show the preliminary results of the simulator running approximately two million simulated entities both on a 64-node commodity Infiniband cluster and a 48-core SMP workstation.

  2. Design, construction and evaluation of a simulated geothermal flow system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackanic, J.C.

    1980-07-28

    A system was designed and built to simulate the flow from a geothermal well. The simulated flow will be used to power a Lysholm engine, the performance of which will then be evaluated for different simulated geothermal flows. Two main subjects are covered: 1) the design, construction and evaluation of the behavior of the system that simulates the geothermal flow; included in that topic is a discussion of the probable behavior of the Lysholm engine when it is put into operation, and 2) the investigation of the use of dynamic modeling techniques to determine whether they can provide a suitable means for predicting the behavior of the system.

  3. Porter-Thomas distribution in unstable many-body systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volya, Alexander

    2011-04-15

    We use the continuum shell model approach to explore the resonance width distribution in unstable many-body systems. The single-particle nature of a decay, the few-body character of the interaction Hamiltonian, and the collectivity that emerges in nonstationary systems due to the coupling to the continuum of reaction states are discussed. Correlations between the structures of the parent and daughter nuclear systems in the common Fock space are found to result in deviations of decay width statistics from the Porter-Thomas distribution.

  4. Model and particle-in-cell simulation of ion energy distribution in collisionless sheath

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Zhuwen; Kong, Bo; Luo, Yuee; Chen, Deliang; Wang, Yuansheng

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, we propose a self-consistent theoretical model, which is described by the ion energy distributions (IEDs) in collisionless sheaths, and the analytical results for different combined dc/radio frequency (rf) capacitive coupled plasma discharge cases, including sheath voltage errors analysis, are compared with the results of numerical simulations using a one-dimensional plane-parallel particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. The IEDs in collisionless sheaths are performed on combination of dc/rf voltage sources electrodes discharge using argon as the process gas. The incident ions on the grounded electrode are separated, according to their different radio frequencies, and dc voltages on a separated electrode, the IEDs, and widths of energy in sheath and the plasma sheath thickness are discussed. The IEDs, the IED widths, and sheath voltages by the theoretical model are investigated and show good agreement with PIC simulations.

  5. Function allocation in distributed safeguards and security systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barlich, G.L. )

    1991-01-01

    Computerized distributed systems are being used to collect and manage data for activities such as nuclear materials accounting, process control, laboratory coordination, and security. Poor choices made in allocating functions to individual processors can make a system unusable by burdening machines with excessive network retrievals and updates. During system design phases, data allocation algorithms based on operation frequencies, field sizes, security information, and reliability requirements can be applied in sensitivity studies to mathematically ensure processor efficiency. The Los Alamos Network Design System (NDS) implements such an allocation algorithm. The authors analyzed a large, existing distributed system to test the cost functions and to compare actual network problems with NDS results. Several common configurations were also designed and studied using the software. From these studies, some basic principles for allocating functions emerged. In this paper recommendations for function allocation in generic systems and related design options are discussed.

  6. Effects of Home Energy Management Systems on Distribution Utilities and Feeders Under Various Market Structures: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruth, Mark; Pratt, Annabelle; Lunacek, Monte; Mittal, Saurabh; Wu, Hongyu; Jones, Wesley

    2015-07-17

    The combination of distributed energy resources (DER) and retail tariff structures to provide benefits to both utility consumers and the utilities is poorly understood. To improve understanding, an Integrated Energy System Model (IESM) is being developed to simulate the physical and economic aspects of DER technologies, the buildings where they reside, and feeders servicing them. The IESM was used to simulate 20 houses with home energy management systems on a single feeder under a time of use tariff to estimate economic and physical impacts on both the households and the distribution utilities. HEMS reduce consumers’ electric bills by precooling houses in the hours before peak electricity pricing. Household savings are greater than the reduction utility net revenue indicating that HEMS can provide a societal benefit providing tariffs are structured so that utilities remain solvent. Utilization of HEMS reduce peak loads during high price hours but shifts it to hours with off-peak and shoulder prices and resulting in a higher peak load.

  7. Diagnosing delivery problems in the White House Information Distribution System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nahabedian, M.; Shrobe, H.

    1996-12-31

    As part of a collaboration with the White House Office of Media Affairs, members of the MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory designed a system, called COMLINK, which distributes a daily stream of documents released by the Office of Media Affairs. Approximately 4000 direct subscribers receive information from this service but more than 100,000 people receive the information through redistribution channels. The information is distributed via Email and the World Wide Web. In such a large scale distribution scheme, there is a constant problem of subscriptions becoming invalid because the user`s Email account has terminated. This causes a backwash of hundreds of {open_quotes}bounced mail{close_quotes} messages per day which must be processed by the operators of the COMLINK system. To manage this annoying but necessary task, an expert system named BMES was developed to diagnose the failures of information delivery.

  8. Reactor Subsystem Simulation for Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shannon Bragg-Sitton; J. Michael Doster; Alan Rominger

    2012-09-01

    Preliminary system models have been developed by Idaho National Laboratory researchers and are currently being enhanced to assess integrated system performance given multiple sources (e.g., nuclear + wind) and multiple applications (i.e., electricity + process heat). Initial efforts to integrate a Fortran-based simulation of a small modular reactor (SMR) with the balance of plant model have been completed in FY12. This initial effort takes advantage of an existing SMR model developed at North Carolina State University to provide initial integrated system simulation for a relatively low cost. The SMR subsystem simulation details are discussed in this report.

  9. Simulation of diurnal thermal energy storage systems: Preliminary results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katipamula, S.; Somasundaram, S.; Williams, H.R.

    1994-12-01

    This report describes the results of a simulation of thermal energy storage (TES) integrated with a simple-cycle gas turbine cogeneration system. Integrating TES with cogeneration can serve the electrical and thermal loads independently while firing all fuel in the gas turbine. The detailed engineering and economic feasibility of diurnal TES systems integrated with cogeneration systems has been described in two previous PNL reports. The objective of this study was to lay the ground work for optimization of the TES system designs using a simulation tool called TRNSYS (TRaNsient SYstem Simulation). TRNSYS is a transient simulation program with a sequential-modular structure developed at the Solar Energy Laboratory, University of Wisconsin-Madison. The two TES systems selected for the base-case simulations were: (1) a one-tank storage model to represent the oil/rock TES system, and (2) a two-tank storage model to represent the molten nitrate salt TES system. Results of the study clearly indicate that an engineering optimization of the TES system using TRNSYS is possible. The one-tank stratified oil/rock storage model described here is a good starting point for parametric studies of a TES system. Further developments to the TRNSYS library of available models (economizer, evaporator, gas turbine, etc.) are recommended so that the phase-change processes is accurately treated.

  10. Distributed Hierarchical Control of Multi-Area Power Systems with Improved Primary Frequency Regulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lian, Jianming; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Du, Pengwei; Elizondo, Marcelo A.

    2012-12-12

    The conventional distributed hierarchical control architecture for multi-area power systems is revisited. In this paper, a new distributed hierarchical control architecture is proposed. In the proposed architecture, pilot generators are selected in each area to be equipped with decentralized robust control as a supplementary to the conventional droop speed control. With the improved primary frequency control, the system frequency can be restored to the nominal value without the help of secondary frequency control, which reduces the burden of the automatic generation control for frequency restoration. Moreover, the low frequency inter-area electromechanical oscillations can also be effectively damped. The effectiveness of the proposed distributed hierarchical control architecture is validated through detailed simulations.

  11. A computer simulation of an induction heating system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egan, L.R. ); Furlani, E.P. )

    1991-09-01

    In this paper a method is presented for the design and analysis of induction heating systems. The method entails the simulation of system performance using an equivalent circuit approach. Equivalent circuit models are obtained for the three pats of an induction heating system: the power source, the impedance matching circuit, and the load. These model are combined in a system model which is analyzed using the Advanced Continuous Simulation Language (ACSL). This approach is applied to an existing system, and the predicted performance is in close agreement with measured data.

  12. Impact of Distributed Wind on Bulk Power System Operations in ISO-NE: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brancucci Martinez-Anido, C.; Hodge, B. M.; Palchak, D.; Miettinen, J.

    2014-09-01

    The work presented in this paper aims to study the impact of a range of penetration levels of distributed wind on the operation of the electric power system at the transmission level. This paper presents a case study on the power system in Independent System Operator New England. It is analyzed using PLEXOS, a commercial power system simulation tool. The results show that increasing the integration of distributed wind reduces total variable electricity generation costs, coal- and gas-fired electricity generation, electricity imports, and CO2 emissions, and increases wind curtailment. The variability and uncertainty of wind power also increases the start-up and shutdown costs and ramping of most conventional power plants.

  13. THE DISTRIBUTION OF SATELLITES AROUND CENTRAL GALAXIES IN A COSMOLOGICAL HYDRODYNAMICAL SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, X. C.; Lin, W. P.; Wang, Yang Ocean; Kang, X.; Dutton, Aaron A.; Macci, Andrea V. E-mail: kangxi@pmo.ac.cn

    2014-08-20

    Observations have shown that the spatial distribution of satellite galaxies is not random, but rather is aligned with the major axes of central galaxies (CGs). The strength of the alignment is dependent on the properties of both the satellites and centrals. Theoretical studies using dissipationless N-body simulations are limited by their inability to directly predict the shape of CGs. Using hydrodynamical simulations including gas cooling, star formation, and feedback, we carry out a study of galaxy alignment and its dependence on the galaxy properties predicted directly from the simulations. We found that the observed alignment signal is well produced, as is the color dependence: red satellites and red centrals both show stronger alignments than their blue counterparts. The reason for the stronger alignment of red satellites is that most of them stay in the inner region of the dark matter halo where the shape of the CG better traces the dark matter distribution. The dependence of alignment on the color of CGs arises from the halo mass dependence, since the alignment between the shape of the central stellar component and the inner halo increases with halo mass. We also find that the alignment of satellites is most strongly dependent on their metallicity, suggesting that the metallicity of satellites, rather than color, is a better tracer of galaxy alignment on small scales. This could be tested in future observational studies.

  14. Automated Energy Distribution and Reliability System Status Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buche, D. L.; Perry, S.

    2007-10-01

    This report describes Northern Indiana Public Service Co. project efforts to develop an automated energy distribution and reliability system. The purpose of this project was to implement a database-driven GIS solution that would manage all of the company's gas, electric, and landbase objects.

  15. Automated Energy Distribution and Reliability System (AEDR): Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buche, D. L.

    2008-07-01

    This report describes Northern Indiana Public Service Co. project efforts to develop an automated energy distribution and reliability system. The purpose of this project was to implement a database-driven GIS solution that would manage all of the company's gas, electric, and landbase objects.

  16. Eliminate Excessive In-Plant Distribution System Voltage Drops

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Studies indicate that in-plant electrical distribution system losses—due to voltage unbalance, over- and undervoltage, low power factor, undersized conductors, leakage to ground, and poor connections—can account for less than 1% to more than 4% of total plant electrical energy consumption.

  17. Dynamic System Simulation of the KRUSTY Experiment (Technical Report) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Technical Report: Dynamic System Simulation of the KRUSTY Experiment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dynamic System Simulation of the KRUSTY Experiment The proposed KRUSTY experiment is a demonstration of a reactor operating at power. The planned experimental configuration includes a highly enriched uranium (HEU) reflected core, cooled by multiple heat pipes leading to Stirling engines for primary heat rejection. Operating power is expected to be approximately four

  18. Commercial thermal distribution systems, Final report for CIEE/CEC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Tengfang; Bechu, Olivier; Carrie, Remi; Dickerhoff, Darryl; Fisk, William; Franconi, Ellen; Kristiansen, Oyvind; Levinson, Ronnen; McWilliams, Jennifer; Wang, Duo; Modera, Mark; Webster, Tom; Ring, Erik; Zhang, Qiang; Huizenga, Charlie; Bauman, Fred; Arens, Ed

    1999-12-01

    According to the California Energy Commission (CEC 1998a), California commercial buildings account for 35% of statewide electricity consumption, and 16% of statewide gas consumption. Space conditioning accounts for roughly 16,000 GWh of electricity and 800 million therms of natural gas annually, and the vast majority of this space conditioning energy passes through thermal distribution systems in these buildings. In addition, 8600 GWh per year is consumed by fans and pumps in commercial buildings, most of which is used to move the thermal energy through these systems. Research work at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has been ongoing over the past five years to investigate the energy efficiency of these thermal distribution systems, and to explore possibilities for improving that energy efficiency. Based upon that work, annual savings estimates of 1 kWh/ft{sup 2} for light commercial buildings, and 1-2 kWh/ft{sup 2} in large commercial buildings have been developed for the particular aspects of thermal distribution system performance being addressed by this project. Those savings estimates, combined with a distribution of the building stock based upon an extensive stock characterization study (Modera et al. 1999a), and technical penetration estimates, translate into statewide saving potentials of 2000 GWh/year and 75 million thermal/year, as well as an electricity peak reduction potential of 0.7 GW. The overall goal of this research program is to provide new technology and application knowledge that will allow the design, construction, and energy services industries to reduce the energy waste associated with thermal distribution systems in California commercial buildings. The specific goals of the LBNL efforts over the past year were: (1) to advance the state of knowledge about system performance and energy losses in commercial-building thermal distribution systems; (2) to evaluate the potential of reducing thermal losses through duct sealing, duct

  19. Design of a REDD-compliant Benefit Distribution System for Viet...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Benefit Distribution System for Viet Nam Jump to: navigation, search Name Design of a REDD-compliant Benefit Distribution System for Viet Nam AgencyCompany...

  20. Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System (Presentation) Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System (Presentation) Presented at the 2007 ...

  1. Distribution of potentials in narrow slits simulating the electrochemical situation in the voids of corrosion cracks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pokhmurskii, V.I.; Lychkovskii, E.I.; Filatov, V.M.; Gnyp, I.P.

    1988-01-01

    For an experimental determination of the influence of the form and dimensions of a slit and the electrical conductivity of the corrosive medium on the distribution in it of an electric field, an instrument was built making it possible to simulate the electrochemical processes in a crack tip, including in the presence of external polarization. By controlling the voltage it was possible to change the parameters of external cathodic protection of the slit defect. The measuring electrode, of the same material as the working plates of the slit, moves along the slit and records the voltage distribution in the solution (distilled water, reactor boron-control water, and 3% NaCl solution), which is recorded by an oscillograph. The slit and the electrode were prepared from a single strip of Armco iron. In the conclusion of the experiments the plates were replaced with nickel and the slit was filled with a sulfate-chloride nickel plating solution. Results are analyzed.

  2. Method for distributed agent-based non-expert simulation of manufacturing process behavior

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ivezic, Nenad; Potok, Thomas E.

    2004-11-30

    A method for distributed agent based non-expert simulation of manufacturing process behavior on a single-processor computer comprises the steps of: object modeling a manufacturing technique having a plurality of processes; associating a distributed agent with each the process; and, programming each the agent to respond to discrete events corresponding to the manufacturing technique, wherein each discrete event triggers a programmed response. The method can further comprise the step of transmitting the discrete events to each agent in a message loop. In addition, the programming step comprises the step of conditioning each agent to respond to a discrete event selected from the group consisting of a clock tick message, a resources received message, and a request for output production message.

  3. Electromagnetic Simulation of the Near-Field Distribution around a Wind Farm

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yang, Shang-Te; Ling, Hao

    2013-01-01

    An efficienmore » t approach to compute the near-field distribution around and within a wind farm under plane wave excitation is proposed. To make the problem computationally tractable, several simplifying assumptions are made based on the geometry problem. By comparing the approximations against full-wave simulations at 500 MHz, it is shown that the assumptions do not introduce significant errors into the resulting near-field distribution. The near fields around a 3 × 3 wind farm are computed using the developed methodology at 150 MHz, 500 MHz, and 3 GHz. Both the multipath interference patterns and the forward shadows are predicted by the proposed method.« less

  4. A Distributed Electrochemistry Modeling Tool for Simulating SOFC Performance and Degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Recknagle, Kurtis P.; Ryan, Emily M.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2011-10-13

    This report presents a distributed electrochemistry (DEC) model capable of investigating the electrochemistry and local conditions with the SOFC MEA based on the local microstructure and multi-physics. The DEC model can calculate the global current-voltage (I-V) performance of the cell as determined by the spatially varying local conditions through the thickness of the electrodes and electrolyte. The simulation tool is able to investigate the electrochemical performance based on characteristics of the electrode microstructure, such as particle size, pore size, electrolyte and electrode phase volume fractions, and triple-phase-boundary length. It can also investigate performance as affected by fuel and oxidant gas flow distributions and other environmental/experimental conditions such as temperature and fuel gas composition. The long-term objective for the DEC modeling tool is to investigate factors that cause electrode degradation and the decay of SOFC performance which decrease longevity.

  5. INVESTIGATING THE RELIABILITY OF CORONAL EMISSION MEASURE DISTRIBUTION DIAGNOSTICS USING THREE-DIMENSIONAL RADIATIVE MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Testa, Paola [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, MS 58, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); De Pontieu, Bart; Martinez-Sykora, Juan [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Org. A021S, Building 252, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Hansteen, Viggo; Carlsson, Mats, E-mail: ptesta@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway)

    2012-10-10

    Determining the temperature distribution of coronal plasmas can provide stringent constraints on coronal heating. Current observations with the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (EIS) on board Hinode and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory provide diagnostics of the emission measure distribution (EMD) of the coronal plasma. Here we test the reliability of temperature diagnostics using three-dimensional radiative MHD simulations. We produce synthetic observables from the models and apply the Monte Carlo Markov chain EMD diagnostic. By comparing the derived EMDs with the 'true' distributions from the model, we assess the limitations of the diagnostics as a function of the plasma parameters and the signal-to-noise ratio of the data. We find that EMDs derived from EIS synthetic data reproduce some general characteristics of the true distributions, but usually show differences from the true EMDs that are much larger than the estimated uncertainties suggest, especially when structures with significantly different density overlap along the line of sight. When using AIA synthetic data the derived EMDs reproduce the true EMDs much less accurately, especially for broad EMDs. The differences between the two instruments are due to the: (1) smaller number of constraints provided by AIA data and (2) broad temperature response function of the AIA channels which provide looser constraints to the temperature distribution. Our results suggest that EMDs derived from current observatories may often show significant discrepancies from the true EMDs, rendering their interpretation fraught with uncertainty. These inherent limitations to the method should be carefully considered when using these distributions to constrain coronal heating.

  6. Performance Monitoring of Residential Hot Water Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao, Anna; Lanzisera, Steven; Lutz, Jim; Fitting, Christian; Kloss, Margarita; Stiles, Christopher

    2014-08-11

    Current water distribution systems are designed such that users need to run the water for some time to achieve the desired temperature, wasting energy and water in the process. We developed a wireless sensor network for large-scale, long time-series monitoring of residential water end use. Our system consists of flow meters connected to wireless motes transmitting data to a central manager mote, which in turn posts data to our server via the internet. This project also demonstrates a reliable and flexible data collection system that could be configured for various other forms of end use metering in buildings. The purpose of this study was to determine water and energy use and waste in hot water distribution systems in California residences. We installed meters at every end use point and the water heater in 20 homes and collected 1s flow and temperature data over an 8 month period. For a typical shower and dishwasher events, approximately half the energy is wasted. This relatively low efficiency highlights the importance of further examining the energy and water waste in hot water distribution systems.

  7. The Fermilab CMTF cryogenic distribution remote control system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pei, L.; Theilacker, J.; Klebaner, A.; Martinez, A.; Bossert, R.

    2014-01-29

    The Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF) is able to provide the necessary test bed for measuring the performance of Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities in a cryomodule (CM). The CMTF have seven 300 KW screw compressors, two liquid helium refrigerators, and two Cryomodule Test Stands (CMTS). CMTS1 is designed for 1.3 GHz cryomodule operating in a pulsed mode (PM) and CMTS2 is for cryomodule operating in Half-Wave (HW) and Continuous Wave (CW) mode. Based on the design requirement, each subsystem has to be far away from each other and be placed in distant locations. Therefore choosing Siemens Process Control System 7-400, DL205 PLC, Synoptic and Fermilab ACNET are the ideal choices for CMTF cryogenic distribution real-time remote control system. This paper presents a method which has been successfully used by many Fermilab distribution cryogenic real-time remote control systems.

  8. Foundational Report Series: Advanced Distribution Management Systems for Grid Modernization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jianhui

    2015-09-01

    This report describes the application functions for distribution management systems (DMS). The application functions are those surveyed by the IEEE Power and Energy Society’s Task Force on Distribution Management Systems. The description of each DMS application includes functional requirements and the key features and characteristics in current and future deployments, as well as a summary of the major benefits provided by each function to stakeholders — from customers to shareholders. Due consideration is paid to the fact that the realizable benefits of each function may differ by type of utility, whether investor-owned, cooperative, or municipal. This report is sufficient to define the functional requirements of each application for system procurement (request-for-proposal [RFP]) purposes and for developing preliminary high-level use cases for those functions. However, it should not be considered a design document that will enable a vendor or software developer to design and build actual DMS applications.

  9. Simulation models of subsea umbilicals, flowlines and fire pump systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bratland, O.

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses mathematical models suited for simulating transient and stationary flow in umbilicals, flowlines and fire pump systems. Most emphasis is put on subsea systems. Measurements are compared with simulations and good agreement has been achieved. The results show that the dynamics and response time in a hydraulic subsea control system can be influenced by parameters like umbilical elastic properties, umbilical visco-elastic properties, transition between laminar and turbulent flow, and some frequency-dependant propagation mechanisms. The paper discusses typical problems in different flow systems. It is also shown how the relevant umbilical properties can be determined by simple measurements on a short test section of the umbilical. In fire pump systems, cavitation is typically the main transient problem. In long oil and gas pipelines, the friction dominates and an accurate representation of the friction is the best contribution to relevant simulation results.

  10. Fisher Pierce products for improving distribution system reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-31

    The challenges facing the electric power utility today in the 1990s has changed significantly from those of even 10 years ago. The proliferation of automation and the personnel computer have heightened the requirements and demands put on the electric distribution system. Today`s customers, fighting to compete in a world market, demand quality, uninterrupted power service. Privatization and the concept of unregulated competition require utilities to streamline to minimize system support costs and optimize power delivery efficiency. Fisher Pierce, serving the electric utility industry for over 50 years, offers a line of products to assist utilities in meeting these challenges. The Fisher Pierce Family of products provide tools for the electric utility to exceed customer service demands. A full line of fault indicating devices are offered to expedite system power restoration both locally and in conjunction with SCADA systems. Fisher Pierce is the largest supplier of roadway lighting controls, manufacturing on a 6 million dollar automated line assuring the highest quality in the world. The distribution system capacitor control line offers intelligent local or radio linked switching control to maintain system voltage and Var levels for quality and cost efficient power delivery under varying customer loads. Additional products, designed to authenticate revenue metering calibration and verify on sight metering service wiring, help optimize the profitability of the utility assuring continuous system service improvements for their customers.

  11. Three-Phase Unbalanced Transient Dynamics and Powerflow for Modeling Distribution Systems With Synchronous Machines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Schneider, Kevin P.

    2016-01-01

    Unlike transmission systems, distribution feeders in North America operate under unbalanced conditions at all times, and generally have a single strong voltage source. When a distribution feeder is connected to a strong substation source, the system is dynamically very stable, even for large transients. However if a distribution feeder, or part of the feeder, is separated from the substation and begins to operate as an islanded microgrid, transient dynamics become more of an issue. To assess the impact of transient dynamics at the distribution level, it is not appropriate to use traditional transmission solvers, which generally assume transposed lines and balanced loads. Full electromagnetic solvers capture a high level of detail, but it is difficult to model large systems because of the required detail. This paper proposes an electromechanical transient model of synchronous machine for distribution-level modeling and microgrids. This approach includes not only the machine model, but also its interface with an unbalanced network solver, and a powerflow method to solve unbalanced conditions without a strong reference bus. The presented method is validated against a full electromagnetic transient simulation.

  12. Interconnecting PV on New York City's Secondary Network Distribution System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Anderson; M. Coddington; K. Burman; S. Hayter; B. Kroposki; and A. Watson

    2009-11-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has teamed with cities across the country through the Solar America Cities (SAC) partnership program to help reduce barriers and accelerate implementation of solar energy. The New York City SAC team is a partnership between the City University of New York (CUNY), the New York City Mayor s Office of Long-term Planning and Sustainability, and the New York City Economic Development Corporation (NYCEDC).The New York City SAC team is working with DOE s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Con Edison, the local utility, to develop a roadmap for photovoltaic (PV) installations in the five boroughs. The city set a goal to increase its installed PV capacity from1.1 MW in 2005 to 8.1 MW by 2015 (the maximum allowed in 2005). A key barrier to reaching this goal, however, is the complexity of the interconnection process with the local utility. Unique challenges are associated with connecting distributed PV systems to secondary network distribution systems (simplified to ???¢????????networks???¢??????? in this report). Although most areas of the country use simpler radial distribution systems to distribute electricity, larger metropolitan areas like New York City typically use networks to increase reliability in large load centers. Unlike the radial distribution system, where each customer receives power through a single line, a network uses a grid of interconnected lines to deliver power to each customer through several parallel circuits and sources. This redundancy improves reliability, but it also requires more complicated coordination and protection schemes that can be disrupted by energy exported from distributed PV systems. Currently, Con Edison studies each potential PV system in New York City to evaluate the system s impact on the network, but this is time consuming for utility engineers and may delay the customer s project or add cost for larger installations. City leaders would like to streamline

  13. Parallel Breadth-First Search on Distributed Memory Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Computational Research Division; Buluc, Aydin; Madduri, Kamesh

    2011-04-15

    Data-intensive, graph-based computations are pervasive in several scientific applications, and are known to to be quite challenging to implement on distributed memory systems. In this work, we explore the design space of parallel algorithms for Breadth-First Search (BFS), a key subroutine in several graph algorithms. We present two highly-tuned par- allel approaches for BFS on large parallel systems: a level-synchronous strategy that relies on a simple vertex-based partitioning of the graph, and a two-dimensional sparse matrix- partitioning-based approach that mitigates parallel commu- nication overhead. For both approaches, we also present hybrid versions with intra-node multithreading. Our novel hybrid two-dimensional algorithm reduces communication times by up to a factor of 3.5, relative to a common vertex based approach. Our experimental study identifies execu- tion regimes in which these approaches will be competitive, and we demonstrate extremely high performance on lead- ing distributed-memory parallel systems. For instance, for a 40,000-core parallel execution on Hopper, an AMD Magny- Cours based system, we achieve a BFS performance rate of 17.8 billion edge visits per second on an undirected graph of 4.3 billion vertices and 68.7 billion edges with skewed degree distribution.

  14. Physical Modeling of Scaled Water Distribution System Networks.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Hern, Timothy J.; Hammond, Glenn Edward; Orear, Leslie ,; van Bloemen Waanders, Bart G.; Paul Molina; Ross Johnson

    2005-10-01

    Threats to water distribution systems include release of contaminants and Denial of Service (DoS) attacks. A better understanding, and validated computational models, of the flow in water distribution systems would enable determination of sensor placement in real water distribution networks, allow source identification, and guide mitigation/minimization efforts. Validation data are needed to evaluate numerical models of network operations. Some data can be acquired in real-world tests, but these are limited by 1) unknown demand, 2) lack of repeatability, 3) too many sources of uncertainty (demand, friction factors, etc.), and 4) expense. In addition, real-world tests have limited numbers of network access points. A scale-model water distribution system was fabricated, and validation data were acquired over a range of flow (demand) conditions. Standard operating variables included system layout, demand at various nodes in the system, and pressure drop across various pipe sections. In addition, the location of contaminant (salt or dye) introduction was varied. Measurements of pressure, flowrate, and concentration at a large number of points, and overall visualization of dye transport through the flow network were completed. Scale-up issues that that were incorporated in the experiment design include Reynolds number, pressure drop across nodes, and pipe friction and roughness. The scale was chosen to be 20:1, so the 10 inch main was modeled with a 0.5 inch pipe in the physical model. Controlled validation tracer tests were run to provide validation to flow and transport models, especially of the degree of mixing at pipe junctions. Results of the pipe mixing experiments showed large deviations from predicted behavior and these have a large impact on standard network operations models.3

  15. Nexus: a modular workflow management system for quantum simulation codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krogel, Jaron T.

    2015-08-24

    The management of simulation workflows is a significant task for the individual computational researcher. Automation of the required tasks involved in simulation work can decrease the overall time to solution and reduce sources of human error. A new simulation workflow management system, Nexus, is presented to address these issues. Nexus is capable of automated job management on workstations and resources at several major supercomputing centers. Its modular design allows many quantum simulation codes to be supported within the same framework. Current support includes quantum Monte Carlo calculations with QMCPACK, density functional theory calculations with Quantum Espresso or VASP, and quantum chemical calculations with GAMESS. Users can compose workflows through a transparent, text-based interface, resembling the input file of a typical simulation code. A usage example is provided to illustrate the process.

  16. Nexus: a modular workflow management system for quantum simulation codes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Krogel, Jaron T.

    2015-08-24

    The management of simulation workflows is a significant task for the individual computational researcher. Automation of the required tasks involved in simulation work can decrease the overall time to solution and reduce sources of human error. A new simulation workflow management system, Nexus, is presented to address these issues. Nexus is capable of automated job management on workstations and resources at several major supercomputing centers. Its modular design allows many quantum simulation codes to be supported within the same framework. Current support includes quantum Monte Carlo calculations with QMCPACK, density functional theory calculations with Quantum Espresso or VASP, and quantummore » chemical calculations with GAMESS. Users can compose workflows through a transparent, text-based interface, resembling the input file of a typical simulation code. A usage example is provided to illustrate the process.« less

  17. Simulating the Dynamic Coupling of Market and Physical System Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widergren, Steven E.; Roop, Joseph M.; Guttromson, Ross T.; Huang, Zhenyu

    2004-06-01

    Abstract-As energy trading products cover shorter time periods and demand response programs move toward real-time pricing, financial market-based activity impacts ever more directly the physical operation of the system. To begin to understand the complex interactions between the market-driven operation signals, the engineered controlled schemes, and the laws of physics, new system modeling and simulation techniques must be explored. This discussion describes requirements for new simulation tools to address such market transaction control interactions and an approach to capture the dynamic coupling between energy markets and the physical operation of the power system appropriate for dispatcher reaction time frames.

  18. SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL HYBRID SYSTEM FOR DISTRIBUTED POWER GENERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurt Montgomery; Nguyen Minh

    2003-08-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by Honeywell during the October 2001 to December 2001 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a turbogenerator. The conceptual and demonstration system designs were proposed and analyzed, and these systems have been modeled in Aspen Plus. Work has also started on the assembly of dynamic component models and the development of the top-level controls requirements for the system. SOFC stacks have been fabricated and performance mapping initiated.

  19. Method for adding nodes to a quantum key distribution system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grice, Warren P

    2015-02-24

    An improved quantum key distribution (QKD) system and method are provided. The system and method introduce new clients at intermediate points along a quantum channel, where any two clients can establish a secret key without the need for a secret meeting between the clients. The new clients perform operations on photons as they pass through nodes in the quantum channel, and participate in a non-secret protocol that is amended to include the new clients. The system and method significantly increase the number of clients that can be supported by a conventional QKD system, with only a modest increase in cost. The system and method are compatible with a variety of QKD schemes, including polarization, time-bin, continuous variable and entanglement QKD.

  20. Measured Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, Max; Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of ventilation is dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. In a multi-zone environment such as a house, there will be different dilution rates and different source strengths in every zone. Most US homes have central HVAC systems, which tend to mix the air thus the indoor conditions between zones. Different types of ventilation systems will provide different amounts of exposure depending on the effectiveness of their air distribution systems and the location of sources and occupants. This paper will report on field measurements using a unique multi-tracer measurement system that has the capacity to measure not only the flow of outdoor air to each zone, but zone-to-zone transport. The paper will derive seven different metrics for the evaluation of air distribution. Measured data from two homes with different levels of natural infiltration will be used to evaluate these metrics for three different ASHRAE Standard 62.2 compliant ventilation systems. Such information can be used to determine the effectiveness of different systems so that appropriate adjustments can be made in residential ventilation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 62.2.

  1. Compiling software for a hierarchical distributed processing system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2013-12-31

    Compiling software for a hierarchical distributed processing system including providing to one or more compiling nodes software to be compiled, wherein at least a portion of the software to be compiled is to be executed by one or more nodes; compiling, by the compiling node, the software; maintaining, by the compiling node, any compiled software to be executed on the compiling node; selecting, by the compiling node, one or more nodes in a next tier of the hierarchy of the distributed processing system in dependence upon whether any compiled software is for the selected node or the selected node's descendents; sending to the selected node only the compiled software to be executed by the selected node or selected node's descendent.

  2. Feasibility Study: Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems with Fan Coil Delivery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; Backman, C.

    2012-07-01

    The primary objectives of this study are to estimate potential energy savings relative to conventional ducted air distribution, and to identify equipment requirements, costs, and barriers with a focus on ductless hydronic delivery systems that utilize water-to-air terminal units in each zone. Results indicate that annual heating and cooling energy use can be reduced by up to 27% assuming replacement of the conventional 13 SEER heat pump and coil with a similarly rated air-to-water heat pump.

  3. High Frequency Mechanical Pyroshock Simulations for Payload Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BATEMAN,VESTA I.; BROWN,FREDERICK A.; CAP,JEROME S.; NUSSER,MICHAEL A.

    1999-12-15

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) designs mechanical systems with components that must survive high frequency shock environments including pyrotechnic shock. These environments have not been simulated very well in the past at the payload system level because of weight limitations of traditional pyroshock mechanical simulations using resonant beams and plates. A new concept utilizing tuned resonators attached to the payload system and driven with the impact of an airgun projectile allow these simulations to be performed in the laboratory with high precision and repeatability without the use of explosives. A tuned resonator has been designed and constructed for a particular payload system. Comparison of laboratory responses with measurements made at the component locations during actual pyrotechnic events show excellent agreement for a bandwidth of DC to 4 kHz. The bases of comparison are shock spectra. This simple concept applies the mechanical pyroshock simulation simultaneously to all components with the correct boundary conditions in the payload system and is a considerable improvement over previous experimental techniques and simulations.

  4. Final Technical Report "Multiscale Simulation Algorithms for Biochemical Systems"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petzold, Linda R.

    2012-10-25

    Biochemical systems are inherently multiscale and stochastic. In microscopic systems formed by living cells, the small numbers of reactant molecules can result in dynamical behavior that is discrete and stochastic rather than continuous and deterministic. An analysis tool that respects these dynamical characteristics is the stochastic simulation algorithm (SSA, Gillespie, 1976), a numerical simulation procedure that is essentially exact for chemical systems that are spatially homogeneous or well stirred. Despite recent improvements, as a procedure that simulates every reaction event, the SSA is necessarily inefficient for most realistic problems. There are two main reasons for this, both arising from the multiscale nature of the underlying problem: (1) stiffness, i.e. the presence of multiple timescales, the fastest of which are stable; and (2) the need to include in the simulation both species that are present in relatively small quantities and should be modeled by a discrete stochastic process, and species that are present in larger quantities and are more efficiently modeled by a deterministic differential equation (or at some scale in between). This project has focused on the development of fast and adaptive algorithms, and the fun- damental theory upon which they must be based, for the multiscale simulation of biochemical systems. Areas addressed by this project include: (1) Theoretical and practical foundations for ac- celerated discrete stochastic simulation (tau-leaping); (2) Dealing with stiffness (fast reactions) in an efficient and well-justified manner in discrete stochastic simulation; (3) Development of adaptive multiscale algorithms for spatially homogeneous discrete stochastic simulation; (4) Development of high-performance SSA algorithms.

  5. Multi-State Load Models for Distribution System Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Fuller, Jason C.; Chassin, David P.

    2011-11-01

    Recent work in the field of distribution system analysis has shown that the traditional method of peak load analysis is not adequate for the analysis of emerging distribution system technologies. Voltage optimization, demand response, electric vehicle charging, and energy storage are examples of technologies with characteristics having daily, seasonal, and/or annual variations. In addition to the seasonal variations, emerging technologies such as demand response and plug in electric vehicle charging have the potential to send control signals to the end use loads which will affect how they consume energy. In order to support time-series analysis over different time frames and to incorporate potential control signal inputs it is necessary to develop detailed end use load models which accurately represent the load under various conditions, and not just during the peak load period. This paper will build on previous work on detail end use load modeling in order to outline the method of general multi-state load models for distribution system analysis.

  6. Development of Models to Simulate Tracer Behavior in Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Mark D.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Reimus, P. W.; Newell, D.; Watson, Tom B.

    2010-06-01

    A recent report found that power and heat produced from engineered (or enhanced) geothermal systems (EGSs) could have a major impact on the United States while incurring minimal environmental impacts. EGS resources differ from high-grade hydrothermal resources in that they lack sufficient temperature distributions, permeability/porosity, fluid saturation, or recharge of reservoir fluids. Therefore, quantitative characterization of temperature distributions and the surface area available for heat transfer in EGS is necessary for commercial development of geothermal energy. The goal of this project is to provide integrated tracer and tracer interpretation tools to facilitate this characterization. Modeling capabilities are being developed as part of this project to support laboratory and field testing to characterize engineered geothermal systems in single- and multi-well tests using tracers. The objective of this report is to describe the simulation plan and the status of model development for simulating tracer tests for characterizing EGS.

  7. Effect of Component Failures on Economics of Distributed Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lubin, Barry T.

    2012-02-02

    both. Some societal benefits associated with financial benefits to the utility of having a distributed generation capacity that is not fossil-fuel based have been included into the economic models. Also included and quantified in the models are several benefits to society more generally: job creation and some estimates of benefits from avoiding greenhouse emissions. PV system failures result in a lowering of the economic values of a grid-connected system, but this turned out to be a surprisingly small effect on the overall economics. The most significant benefit noted resulted from including the societal benefits accrued to the utility. This provided a marked increase in the valuations of the array and made the overall value proposition a financially attractive one, in that net present values exceeded installation costs. These results indicate that the Department of Energy and state regulatory bodies should consider focusing on societal benefits that create economic value for the utility, confirm these quantitative values, and work to have them accepted by the utilities and reflected in the rate structures for power obtained from grid-connected arrays. Understanding and applying the economic benefits evident in this work can significantly improve the business case for grid-connected PV installations. This work also indicates that the societal benefits to the population are real and defensible, but not nearly as easy to justify in a business case as are the benefits that accrue directly to the utility.

  8. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.5 Thermal Distribution Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    1 Market Share of Major HVAC Equipment Manufacturers ($2009 Million) Air-Handling Units 1032 Cooling Towers 533 Pumps 333 Central System Terminal Boxes 192 Classroom Unit Ventilator 160 Fan Coil Units 123 Source(s): Total Market Size BTS/A.D. Little, Energy Consumption Characteristics of Commercial Building HVAC Systems, Volume II: Thermal Distribution, Auxiliary Equipment, and Ventilation, Oct. 1999, Table 4-1, p. 4-4; and EIA, Annual Energy Review 2010, Oct. 2011, Appendix D, p. 353 for price

  9. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.5 Thermal Distribution Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    2 U.S. Commercial Buildings Conditioned Floorspace, Building Type and System Type (Million SF) Total Education Food Sales Food Service Health Care Lodging Mercantile and Service Office Public Buildings Warehouse/Storage Total Source(s): BTS/A.D. Little, Energy Consumption Characteristics of Commercial Building HVAC Systems, Volume II: Thermal Distribution, Auxiliary Equipment, and Ventilation, Oct. 1999, Table A2-12, p. B2-1. 3,988 4,771 19,767 5,287 2,822 3,352 12,065 48,064 119 1,482 0 0 102

  10. Analysis of Aurora's Performance Simulation Engine for Three Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, Janine; Simon, Joseph

    2015-07-07

    Aurora Solar Inc. is building a cloud-based optimization platform to automate the design, engineering, and permit generation process of solar photovoltaic (PV) installations. They requested that the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) validate the performance of the PV system performance simulation engine of Aurora Solar’s solar design platform, Aurora. In previous work, NREL performed a validation of multiple other PV modeling tools 1, so this study builds upon that work by examining all of the same fixed-tilt systems with available module datasheets that NREL selected and used in the aforementioned study. Aurora Solar set up these three operating PV systems in their modeling platform using NREL-provided system specifications and concurrent weather data. NREL then verified the setup of these systems, ran the simulations, and compared the Aurora-predicted performance data to measured performance data for those three systems, as well as to performance data predicted by other PV modeling tools.

  11. Understanding and Improving CRM and GCM Simulations of Cloud Systems with ARM Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Xiaoqing

    2014-02-25

    The works supported by this ASR project lay the solid foundation for improving the parameterization of convection and clouds in the NCAR CCSM and the climate simulations. We have made a significant use of CRM simulations and ARM observations to produce thermodynamically and dynamically consistent multi-year cloud and radiative properties; improve the GCM simulations of convection, clouds and radiative heating rate and fluxes using the ARM observations and CRM simulations; and understand the seasonal and annual variation of cloud systems and their impacts on climate mean state and variability. We conducted multi-year simulations over the ARM SGP site using the CRM with multi-year ARM forcing data. The statistics of cloud and radiative properties from the long-term CRM simulations were compared and validated with the ARM measurements and value added products (VAP). We evaluated the multi-year climate simulations produced by the GCM with the modified convection scheme. We used multi-year ARM observations and CRM simulations to validate and further improve the trigger condition and revised closure assumption in NCAR GCM simulations that demonstrate the improvement of climate mean state and variability. We combined the improved convection scheme with the mosaic treatment of subgrid cloud distributions in the radiation scheme of the GCM. The mosaic treatment of cloud distributions has been implemented in the GCM with the original convection scheme and enables the use of more realistic cloud amounts as well as cloud water contents in producing net radiative fluxes closer to observations. A physics-based latent heat (LH) retrieval algorithm was developed by parameterizing the physical linkages of observed hydrometeor profiles of cloud and precipitation to the major processes related to the phase change of atmospheric water.

  12. Interactive long-term simulation for power system restoration planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fountas, N.A.; Hatziargyriou, N.D. [National Technical Univ., Athens (Greece)] [National Technical Univ., Athens (Greece); Orfanogiannis, C.; Tasoulis, A. [Public Power Corp., Athens (Greece)] [Public Power Corp., Athens (Greece)

    1997-02-01

    The problem of restoring a power system following a complete blackout is complex and multi-faceted. Many control actions have to be performed on time, while constraints such as power balance and system stability have to be carefully respected. In this paper, the application of long-term dynamic analysis in studying frequency and voltage responses due to load and generation mismatches in isolated systems or during extension of the existing system in the restoration phase is presented. Simulation results covering the main steps of the Hellenic power system restoration process following a recent total blackout are presented and discussed.

  13. Explicit simulation of a midlatitude Mesoscale Convective System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexander, G.D.; Cotton, W.R.

    1996-04-01

    We have explicitly simulated the mesoscale convective system (MCS) observed on 23-24 June 1985 during PRE-STORM, the Preliminary Regional Experiment for the Stormscale Operational and Research and Meterology Program. Stensrud and Maddox (1988), Johnson and Bartels (1992), and Bernstein and Johnson (1994) are among the researchers who have investigated various aspects of this MCS event. We have performed this MCS simulation (and a similar one of a tropical MCS; Alexander and Cotton 1994) in the spirit of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment Cloud Systems Study (GCSS), in which cloud-resolving models are used to assist in the formulation and testing of cloud parameterization schemes for larger-scale models. In this paper, we describe (1) the nature of our 23-24 June MCS dimulation and (2) our efforts to date in using our explicit MCS simulations to assist in the development of a GCM parameterization for mesoscale flow branches. The paper is organized as follows. First, we discuss the synoptic situation surrounding the 23-24 June PRE-STORM MCS followed by a discussion of the model setup and results of our simulation. We then discuss the use of our MCS simulation. We then discuss the use of our MCS simulations in developing a GCM parameterization for mesoscale flow branches and summarize our results.

  14. Dynamic simulation of the Hanford tank waste remediation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harmsen, R.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-03

    Cleaning up and disposing of approximately 50 years of nuclear waste is the main mission at the U.S. Department of Energy`s Hanford Nuclear Reservation, located in the southeastern part of the state of Washington. A major element of the total cleanup effort involves retrieving, processing, and disposing of radioactive and hazardous waste stored in 177 underground storage tanks. This effort, referred to as the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS), is expected to cost billions of dollars and take approximately 25 years to complete. Several computer simulations of this project are being created, focusing on both programmatic and detailed engineering issues. This paper describes one such simulation activity, using the ithink(TM)computer simulation software. The ithink(TM) simulation includes a representation of the complete TWRS cleanup system, from retrieval of waste through intermediate processing and final vitrification of waste for disposal. Major issues addressed to date by the simulation effort include the need for new underground storage tanks to support TWRS activities, and the estimated design capacities for various processing facilities that are required to support legally mandated program commitment dates. This paper discusses how the simulation was used to investigate these questions.

  15. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.5 Thermal Distribution Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    3 Thermal Distribution Design Load and Electricity Intensities, by Building Activity Education 0.5 1.3 Food Sales 1.1 6.4 Food Service 1.5 6.4 Health Care 1.5 5.6 Lodging 0.5 1.9 Mercantile and Service 0.9 2.7 Office 1.3 3.3 Public Assembly 1.2 3.0 Warehouse 0.4 1.8 All Buildings 1.0 2.8 Source(s): Design Load Intensity End Use Intensity (W/SF) (kWh/SF) BTS/A.D. Little, Energy Consumption Characteristics of Commercial Building HVAC Systems, Volume II: Thermal Distribution, Auxiliary Equipment,

  16. Targeting Atmospheric Simulation Algorithms for Large Distributed Memory GPU Accelerated Computers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman, Matthew R

    2013-01-01

    Computing platforms are increasingly moving to accelerated architectures, and here we deal particularly with GPUs. In [15], a method was developed for atmospheric simulation to improve efficiency on large distributed memory machines by reducing communication demand and increasing the time step. Here, we improve upon this method to further target GPU accelerated platforms by reducing GPU memory accesses, removing a synchronization point, and better clustering computations. The modification ran over two times faster in some cases even though more computations were required, demonstrating the merit of improving memory handling on the GPU. Furthermore, we discover that the modification also has a near 100% hit rate in fast on-chip L1 cache and discuss the reasons for this. In concluding, we remark on further potential improvements to GPU efficiency.

  17. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Deangelis; Rich Depuy; Debashis Dey; Georgia Karvountzi; Nguyen Minh; Max Peter; Faress Rahman; Pavel Sokolov; Deliang Yang

    2004-09-30

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the April to October 2004 reporting period in Task 2.3 (SOFC Scaleup for Hybrid and Fuel Cell Systems) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems for central power generation application based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by natural gas. The main objective of this task is to develop credible scale up strategies for large solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine systems. System concepts that integrate a SOFC with a gas turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 20 MW. A 25 MW plant configuration was selected with projected system efficiency of over 65% and a factory cost of under $400/kW. The plant design is modular and can be scaled to both higher and lower plant power ratings. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  18. A flexible system for the simulation of turbocharged diesel engines and turbocharging systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bulaty, T.; Codan, E.; Skopil, M.

    1996-12-31

    A fully flexible simulation system enables substitution of the conventional tests performed on turbocharged diesel engines. The supercharging systems can be calculated either by filling and emptying or by the differential method for 1-D unsteady flow during steady-state or transient operation. During sophisticated simulations, some conservation problems were observed. Their theoretical explanation and a practical solution are presented.

  19. Panel 2, Modeling the Financial and System Benefits of Energy Storage Applications in Distribution Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Modeling the Financial and System Benefits of Energy Storage Applications in Distribution Systems Patrick Balducci, Senior Economist, Pacific NW National Laboratory Hydrogen Energy Storage for Grid and Transportation Services Workshop Sacramento, California May 14, 2014 Valuation challenges 2 Source: Lamontagne, C. 2014. Survey of Models and Tools for the Stationary Energy Storage Industry. Presentation at Infocast Storage Week. Santa Clara, CA. Transmission and Distribution planning Models lack

  20. Geostatistical Simulation of Hydrofacies Heterogeneity of the West Thessaly Aquifer Systems in Greece

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Modis, K. Sideri, D.

    2013-06-15

    Integrating geological properties, such as relative positions and proportions of different hydrofacies, is of highest importance in order to render realistic geological patterns. Sequential indicator simulation (SIS) and Plurigaussian simulation (PS) are alternative methods for conceptual and deterministic modeling for the characterization of hydrofacies distribution. In this work, we studied the spatial differentiation of hydrofacies in the alluvial aquifer system of West Thessaly basin in Greece. For this, we applied both SIS and PS techniques to an extensive set of borehole data from that basin. Histograms of model versus experimental hydrofacies proportions and indicative cross sections were plotted in order to validate the results. The PS technique was shown to be more effective in reproducing the spatial characteristics of the different hydrofacies and their distribution across the study area. In addition, the permeability differentiations reflected in the PS model are in accordance to known heterogeneities of the aquifer capacity.

  1. Aerogel-Based Insulation for Industrial Steam Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Williams

    2011-03-30

    Thermal losses in industrial steam distribution systems account for 977 trillion Btu/year in the US, more than 1% of total domestic energy consumption. Aspen Aerogels worked with Department of Energy’s Industrial Technologies Program to specify, develop, scale-up, demonstrate, and deliver Pyrogel XT®, an aerogel-based pipe insulation, to market to reduce energy losses in industrial steam systems. The product developed has become Aspen’s best selling flexible aerogel blanket insulation and has led to over 60 new jobs. Additionally, this product has delivered more than ~0.7 TBTU of domestic energy savings to date, and could produce annual energy savings of 149 TBTU by 2030. Pyrogel XT’s commercial success has been driven by it’s 2-4X better thermal performance, improved durability, greater resistance to corrosion under insulation (CUI), and faster installation times than incumbent insulation materials.

  2. Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.5 Thermal Distribution Systems

    Buildings Energy Data Book [EERE]

    4 Thermal Distribution Equipment Design Load and Electricity Intensities, by System Type Central VAV Central CAV Packaged CAV Central VAV Central CAV Packaged CAV Condenser Fan 0.3 0.2 Cooling Tower Fan 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.0 Condenser Water Pump 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.0 Chilled Water Pump 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.0 Supply & Return Fans 0.7 0.5 0.6 1.2 1.9 1.9 Chiller/Compressor 1.9 1.8 3.3 1.7 2.3 4.0 Source(s): BTS/A.D. Little, Energy Consumption Characteristics of Commercial Building HVAC Systems, Volume II:

  3. Big Data Visual Analytics for Exploratory Earth System Simulation Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steed, Chad A.; Ricciuto, Daniel M.; Shipman, Galen M.; Smith, Brian E.; Thornton, Peter E.; Wang, Dali; Shi, Xiaoying; Williams, Dean N.

    2013-12-01

    Rapid increases in high performance computing are feeding the development of larger and more complex data sets in climate research, which sets the stage for so-called big data analysis challenges. However, conventional climate analysis techniques are inadequate in dealing with the complexities of today s data. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate a visual analytics system, called the Exploratory Data analysis ENvironment (EDEN), with specific application to the analysis of complex earth system simulation data sets. EDEN represents the type of interactive visual analysis tools that are necessary to transform data into insight, thereby improving critical comprehension of earth system processes. In addition to providing an overview of EDEN, we describe real-world studies using both point ensembles and global Community Land Model Version 4 (CLM4) simulations.

  4. Distributed Energy Resources Test Facility | Energy Systems Integratio...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Distributed Energy Resources Test Facility At the Distributed Energy Resources Test Facility (DERTF), researchers use state-of-the-art laboratories and outdoor test beds to ...

  5. Global distribution and surface activity of macromolecules in offline simulations of marine organic chemistry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ogunro, Oluwaseun O.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Elliott, Scott; Frossard, Amanda A.; Hoffman, Forrest M.; Letscher, Robert T.; Moore, J. Keith; Russell, Lynn M.; Wang, Shanlin; Wingenter, Oliver W.

    2015-10-13

    Here, organic macromolecules constitute high percentage components of remote sea spray. They enter the atmosphere through adsorption onto bubbles followed by bursting at the ocean surface, and go on to influence the chemistry of the fine mode aerosol. We present a global estimate of mixed-layer organic macromolecular distributions, driven by offline marine systems model output. The approach permits estimation of oceanic concentrations and bubble film surface coverages for several classes of organic compound. Mixed layer levels are computed from the output of a global ocean biogeochemistry model by relating the macromolecules to standard biogeochemical tracers. Steady state is assumed formore » labile forms, and for longer-lived components we rely on ratios to existing transported variables. Adsorption is then represented through conventional Langmuir isotherms, with equilibria deduced from laboratory analogs. Open water concentrations locally exceed one micromolar carbon for the total of protein, polysaccharide and refractory heteropolycondensate. The shorter-lived lipids remain confined to regions of strong biological activity. Results are evaluated against available measurements for all compound types, and agreement is generally quite reasonable. Global distributions are further estimated for both fractional coverage of bubble films at the air-water interface and the two-dimensional concentration excess. Overall, we show that macromolecular mapping provides a novel tool for the comprehension of oceanic surfactant distributions. Results may prove useful in planning field experiments and assessing the potential response of surface chemical behaviors to global change.« less

  6. Global distribution and surface activity of macromolecules in offline simulations of marine organic chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogunro, Oluwaseun O.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Elliott, Scott; Frossard, Amanda A.; Hoffman, Forrest M.; Letscher, Robert T.; Moore, J. Keith; Russell, Lynn M.; Wang, Shanlin; Wingenter, Oliver W.

    2015-10-13

    Here, organic macromolecules constitute high percentage components of remote sea spray. They enter the atmosphere through adsorption onto bubbles followed by bursting at the ocean surface, and go on to influence the chemistry of the fine mode aerosol. We present a global estimate of mixed-layer organic macromolecular distributions, driven by offline marine systems model output. The approach permits estimation of oceanic concentrations and bubble film surface coverages for several classes of organic compound. Mixed layer levels are computed from the output of a global ocean biogeochemistry model by relating the macromolecules to standard biogeochemical tracers. Steady state is assumed for labile forms, and for longer-lived components we rely on ratios to existing transported variables. Adsorption is then represented through conventional Langmuir isotherms, with equilibria deduced from laboratory analogs. Open water concentrations locally exceed one micromolar carbon for the total of protein, polysaccharide and refractory heteropolycondensate. The shorter-lived lipids remain confined to regions of strong biological activity. Results are evaluated against available measurements for all compound types, and agreement is generally quite reasonable. Global distributions are further estimated for both fractional coverage of bubble films at the air-water interface and the two-dimensional concentration excess. Overall, we show that macromolecular mapping provides a novel tool for the comprehension of oceanic surfactant distributions. Results may prove useful in planning field experiments and assessing the potential response of surface chemical behaviors to global change.

  7. Foundational Report Series. Advanced Distribution management Systems for Grid Modernization (Importance of DMS for Distribution Grid Modernization)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jianhui

    2015-09-01

    Grid modernization is transforming the operation and management of electric distribution systems from manual, paper-driven business processes to electronic, computer-assisted decisionmaking. At the center of this business transformation is the distribution management system (DMS), which provides a foundation from which optimal levels of performance can be achieved in an increasingly complex business and operating environment. Electric distribution utilities are facing many new challenges that are dramatically increasing the complexity of operating and managing the electric distribution system: growing customer expectations for service reliability and power quality, pressure to achieve better efficiency and utilization of existing distribution system assets, and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by accommodating high penetration levels of distributed generating resources powered by renewable energy sources (wind, solar, etc.). Recent “storm of the century” events in the northeastern United States and the lengthy power outages and customer hardships that followed have greatly elevated the need to make power delivery systems more resilient to major storm events and to provide a more effective electric utility response during such regional power grid emergencies. Despite these newly emerging challenges for electric distribution system operators, only a small percentage of electric utilities have actually implemented a DMS. This paper discusses reasons why a DMS is needed and why the DMS may emerge as a mission-critical system that will soon be considered essential as electric utilities roll out their grid modernization strategies.

  8. Distribution System Voltage Performance Analysis for High-Penetration Photovoltaics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, E.; Bebic, J.

    2008-02-01

    This report examines the performance of commonly used distribution voltage regulation methods under reverse power flow.

  9. The Development of A Human Systems Simulation Laboratory: Strategic Direction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacques Hugo; Katya le Blanc; David Gertman

    2012-07-01

    The Human System Simulation Laboratory (HSSL) at the Idaho National Laboratory is one of few facilities of its kind that allows human factors researchers to evaluate various aspects of human performance and human system interaction for proposed reactor designs and upgrades. A basic system architecture, physical configuration and simulation capability were established to enable human factors researchers to support multiple, simultaneous simulations and also different power plant technologies. Although still evolving in terms of its technical and functional architecture, the HSSL is already proving its worth in supporting current and future nuclear industry needs for light water reactor sustainability and small modular reactors. The evolution of the HSSL is focused on continual physical and functional refinement to make it a fully equipped, reconfigurable facility where advanced research, testing and validation studies can be conducted on a wider range of reactor technologies. This requires the implementation of additional plant models to produce empirical research data on human performance with emerging human-system interaction technologies. Additional beneficiaries of this information include system designers and HRA practitioners. To ensure that results of control room crew studies will be generalizable to the existing and evolving fleet of US reactors, future expansion of the HSSL may also include other SMR plant models, plant-specific simulators and a generic plant model aligned to the current generation of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and future advanced reactor designs. Collaboration with industry partners is also proving to be a vital component of the facility as this helps to establish a formal basis for current and future human performance experiments to support nuclear industry objectives. A long-range Program Plan has been developed for the HSSL to ensure that the facility will support not only the Department of Energys Light Water Reactor

  10. A New Model to Simulate Energy Performance of VRF Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, Tianzhen; Pang, Xiufeng; Schetrit, Oren; Wang, Liping; Kasahara, Shinichi; Yura, Yoshinori; Hinokuma, Ryohei

    2014-03-30

    This paper presents a new model to simulate energy performance of variable refrigerant flow (VRF) systems in heat pump operation mode (either cooling or heating is provided but not simultaneously). The main improvement of the new model is the introduction of the evaporating and condensing temperature in the indoor and outdoor unit capacity modifier functions. The independent variables in the capacity modifier functions of the existing VRF model in EnergyPlus are mainly room wet-bulb temperature and outdoor dry-bulb temperature in cooling mode and room dry-bulb temperature and outdoor wet-bulb temperature in heating mode. The new approach allows compliance with different specifications of each indoor unit so that the modeling accuracy is improved. The new VRF model was implemented in a custom version of EnergyPlus 7.2. This paper first describes the algorithm for the new VRF model, which is then used to simulate the energy performance of a VRF system in a Prototype House in California that complies with the requirements of Title 24 ? the California Building Energy Efficiency Standards. The VRF system performance is then compared with three other types of HVAC systems: the Title 24-2005 Baseline system, the traditional High Efficiency system, and the EnergyStar Heat Pump system in three typical California climates: Sunnyvale, Pasadena and Fresno. Calculated energy savings from the VRF systems are significant. The HVAC site energy savings range from 51 to 85percent, while the TDV (Time Dependent Valuation) energy savings range from 31 to 66percent compared to the Title 24 Baseline Systems across the three climates. The largest energy savings are in Fresno climate followed by Sunnyvale and Pasadena. The paper discusses various characteristics of the VRF systems contributing to the energy savings. It should be noted that these savings are calculated using the Title 24 prototype House D under standard operating conditions. Actual performance of the VRF systems for real

  11. A Distributed Intelligent Automated Demand Response Building Management System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auslander, David; Culler, David; Wright, Paul; Lu, Yan; Piette, Mary

    2013-12-30

    The goal of the 2.5 year Distributed Intelligent Automated Demand Response (DIADR) project was to reduce peak electricity load of Sutardja Dai Hall at UC Berkeley by 30% while maintaining a healthy, comfortable, and productive environment for the occupants. We sought to bring together both central and distributed control to provide “deep” demand response1 at the appliance level of the building as well as typical lighting and HVAC applications. This project brought together Siemens Corporate Research and Siemens Building Technology (the building has a Siemens Apogee Building Automation System (BAS)), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (leveraging their Open Automated Demand Response (openADR), Auto-­Demand Response, and building modeling expertise), and UC Berkeley (related demand response research including distributed wireless control, and grid-­to-­building gateway development). Sutardja Dai Hall houses the Center for Information Technology Research in the Interest of Society (CITRIS), which fosters collaboration among industry and faculty and students of four UC campuses (Berkeley, Davis, Merced, and Santa Cruz). The 141,000 square foot building, occupied in 2009, includes typical office spaces and a nanofabrication laboratory. Heating is provided by a district heating system (steam from campus as a byproduct of the campus cogeneration plant); cooling is provided by one of two chillers: a more typical electric centrifugal compressor chiller designed for the cool months (Nov-­ March) and a steam absorption chiller for use in the warm months (April-­October). Lighting in the open office areas is provided by direct-­indirect luminaries with Building Management System-­based scheduling for open areas, and occupancy sensors for private office areas. For the purposes of this project, we focused on the office portion of the building. Annual energy consumption is approximately 8053 MWh; the office portion is estimated as 1924 MWh. The maximum peak load

  12. CLARREO shortwave observing system simulation experiments of the twenty-first century: Simulator design and implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feldman, D.R.; Algieri, C.A.; Ong, J.R.; Collins, W.D.

    2011-04-01

    Projected changes in the Earth system will likely be manifested in changes in reflected solar radiation. This paper introduces an operational Observational System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) to calculate the signals of future climate forcings and feedbacks in top-of-atmosphere reflectance spectra. The OSSE combines simulations from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report for the NCAR Community Climate System Model (CCSM) with the MODTRAN radiative transfer code to calculate reflectance spectra for simulations of current and future climatic conditions over the 21st century. The OSSE produces narrowband reflectances and broadband fluxes, the latter of which have been extensively validated against archived CCSM results. The shortwave reflectance spectra contain atmospheric features including signals from water vapor, liquid and ice clouds, and aerosols. The spectra are also strongly influenced by the surface bidirectional reflectance properties of predicted snow and sea ice and the climatological seasonal cycles of vegetation. By comparing and contrasting simulated reflectance spectra based on emissions scenarios with increasing projected and fixed present-day greenhouse gas and aerosol concentrations, we find that prescribed forcings from increases in anthropogenic sulfate and carbonaceous aerosols are detectable and are spatially confined to lower latitudes. Also, changes in the intertropical convergence zone and poleward shifts in the subsidence zones and the storm tracks are all detectable along with large changes in snow cover and sea ice fraction. These findings suggest that the proposed NASA Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory (CLARREO) mission to measure shortwave reflectance spectra may help elucidate climate forcings, responses, and feedbacks.

  13. Effects of Home Energy Management Systems on Distribution Utilities and Feeders Under Various Market Structure; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruth, M.; Pratt, A.; Lunacek, M.; Mittal, S.; Wu, H.; Jones, W.

    2015-06-15

    The combination of distributed energy resources (DER) and retail tariff structures to provide benefits to both utility consumers and the utilities is not well understood. To improve understanding, an Integrated Energy System Model (IESM) is being developed to simulate the physical and economic aspects of DER technologies, the buildings where they reside, and feeders servicing them. The IESM was used to simulate 20 houses with home energy management systems on a single feeder under a time-of-use (TOU) tariff to estimate economic and physical impacts on both the households and the distribution utilities. Home energy management systems (HEMS) reduce consumers’ electric bills by precooling houses in the hours before peak electricity pricing. Utilization of HEMS reduce peak loads during high price hours but shifts it to hours with off-peak and shoulder prices, resulting in a higher peak load. used to simulate 20 houses with home energy management systems on a single feeder under a time-of-use (TOU) tariff to estimate economic and physical impacts on both the households and the distribution utilities. Home energy management systems (HEMS) reduce consumers’ electric bills by precooling houses in the hours before peak electricity pricing. Utilization of HEMS reduce peak loads during high price hours but shifts it to hours with off-peak and shoulder prices, resulting in a higher peak load.

  14. Waste simulant development for evaluation of LLW melter system technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shade, J.W.

    1994-05-25

    This document describes the LLW simulant compositions, basis for the simulants, and recipes for preparing nonradioactive simulants for LLW melter tests.

  15. SYSTEM PLANNING WITH THE HANFORD WASTE OPERATIONS SIMULATOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CRAWFORD TW; CERTA PJ; WELLS MN

    2010-01-14

    At the U. S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State, 216 million liters (57 million gallons) of nuclear waste is currently stored in aging underground tanks, threatening the Columbia River. The River Protection Project (RPP), a fully integrated system of waste storage, retrieval, treatment, and disposal facilities, is in varying stages of design, construction, operation, and future planning. These facilities face many overlapping technical, regulatory, and financial hurdles to achieve site cleanup and closure. Program execution is ongoing, but completion is currently expected to take approximately 40 more years. Strategic planning for the treatment of Hanford tank waste is by nature a multi-faceted, complex and iterative process. To help manage the planning, a report referred to as the RPP System Plan is prepared to provide a basis for aligning the program scope with the cost and schedule, from upper-tier contracts to individual facility operating plans. The Hanford Tank Waste Operations Simulator (HTWOS), a dynamic flowsheet simulation and mass balance computer model, is used to simulate the current planned RPP mission, evaluate the impacts of changes to the mission, and assist in planning near-term facility operations. Development of additional modeling tools, including an operations research model and a cost model, will further improve long-term planning confidence. The most recent RPP System Plan, Revision 4, was published in September 2009.

  16. Economic evaluation of distribution system smart grid investments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onen, Ahmet; Cheng, Danling; Broadwater, Robert P.; Scirbona, Charlie; Cocks, George; Hamilton, Stephanie; Wang, Xiaoyu; Roark, Jeffrey

    2014-12-31

    This paper investigates economic benefits of smart grid automation investments. A system consisting of 7 substations and 14 feeders is used in the evaluation. Here benefits that can be quantified in terms of dollar savings are considered, termed hard dollar benefits. Smart Grid investment evaluations to be considered include investments in improved efficiency, more cost effective use of existing system capacity with automated switches, and coordinated control of capacitor banks and voltage regulators. These Smart Grid evaluations are sequentially ordered, resulting in a series of incremental hard dollar benefits. Hard dollar benefits come from improved efficiency, delaying large capital equipment investments, shortened storm restoration times, and reduced customer energy use. Analyses used in the evaluation involve hourly power flow analysis over multiple years and Monte Carlo simulations of switching operations during storms using a reconfiguration for restoration algorithm. The economic analysis uses the time varying value of the Locational Marginal Price. Algorithms used include reconfiguration for restoration involving either manual or automated switches and coordinated control involving two modes of control. Field validations of phase balancing and capacitor design results are presented. The evaluation shows that investments in automation can improve performance while at the same time lowering costs.

  17. Economic evaluation of distribution system smart grid investments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Onen, Ahmet; Cheng, Danling; Broadwater, Robert P.; Scirbona, Charlie; Cocks, George; Hamilton, Stephanie; Wang, Xiaoyu; Roark, Jeffrey

    2014-12-31

    This paper investigates economic benefits of smart grid automation investments. A system consisting of 7 substations and 14 feeders is used in the evaluation. Here benefits that can be quantified in terms of dollar savings are considered, termed “hard dollar” benefits. Smart Grid investment evaluations to be considered include investments in improved efficiency, more cost effective use of existing system capacity with automated switches, and coordinated control of capacitor banks and voltage regulators. These Smart Grid evaluations are sequentially ordered, resulting in a series of incremental hard dollar benefits. Hard dollar benefits come from improved efficiency, delaying large capital equipmentmore » investments, shortened storm restoration times, and reduced customer energy use. Analyses used in the evaluation involve hourly power flow analysis over multiple years and Monte Carlo simulations of switching operations during storms using a reconfiguration for restoration algorithm. The economic analysis uses the time varying value of the Locational Marginal Price. Algorithms used include reconfiguration for restoration involving either manual or automated switches and coordinated control involving two modes of control. Field validations of phase balancing and capacitor design results are presented. The evaluation shows that investments in automation can improve performance while at the same time lowering costs.« less

  18. Economic evaluation of distribution system smart grid investments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Onen, Ahmet; Cheng, Danling; Broadwater, Robert P.; Scirbona, Charlie; Cocks, George; Hamilton, Stephanie; Wang, Xiaoyu; Roark, Jeffrey

    2014-12-31

    This paper investigates economic benefits of smart grid automation investments. A system consisting of 7 substations and 14 feeders is used in the evaluation. Here benefits that can be quantified in terms of dollar savings are considered, termed “hard dollar” benefits. Smart Grid investment evaluations to be considered include investments in improved efficiency, more cost effective use of existing system capacity with automated switches, and coordinated control of capacitor banks and voltage regulators. These Smart Grid evaluations are sequentially ordered, resulting in a series of incremental hard dollar benefits. Hard dollar benefits come from improved efficiency, delaying large capital equipment investments, shortened storm restoration times, and reduced customer energy use. Analyses used in the evaluation involve hourly power flow analysis over multiple years and Monte Carlo simulations of switching operations during storms using a reconfiguration for restoration algorithm. The economic analysis uses the time varying value of the Locational Marginal Price. Algorithms used include reconfiguration for restoration involving either manual or automated switches and coordinated control involving two modes of control. Field validations of phase balancing and capacitor design results are presented. The evaluation shows that investments in automation can improve performance while at the same time lowering costs.

  19. Some characteristics of emerging distribution systems considering the smart grid initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Hilary E.; Suryanarayanan, Siddharth; Heydt, Gerald T.

    2010-06-15

    Modernization of the electric power system in the United States is driven by the Smart Grid Initiative. Many changes are planned in the coming years to the distribution side of the U.S. electricity delivery infrastructure to embody the idea of ''smart distribution systems.'' However, no functional or technical definition of a smart distribution system has yet been accepted by all. (author)

  20. Distributed Hierarchical Control Architecture for Transient Dynamics Improvement in Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Lian, Jianming; Kalsi, Karanjit; Du, Pengwei; Elizondo, Marcelo A.

    2013-08-24

    In this paper, a novel distributed hierarchical coordinated control architecture is proposed for large scale power systems. The newly considered architecture facilitates frequency restoration and power balancing functions to be decoupled and implemented at different levels. At the local level, decentralized robust generator controllers are designed to quickly restore frequency after large faults and disturbances in the system. The controllers presented herein are shown to improve transient stability performance, as compared to conventional governor and excitation control. At the area level, Automatic Generation Control (AGC) is modified and coordinates with the decentralized robust controllers to reach the interchange schedule in the tie lines. The interaction of local and zonal controllers is validated through detailed simulations.

  1. System design and algorithmic development for computational steering in distributed environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Qishi; Zhu, Mengxia; Gu, Yi; Rao, Nageswara S

    2010-03-01

    Supporting visualization pipelines over wide-area networks is critical to enabling large-scale scientific applications that require visual feedback to interactively steer online computations. We propose a remote computational steering system that employs analytical models to estimate the cost of computing and communication components and optimizes the overall system performance in distributed environments with heterogeneous resources. We formulate and categorize the visualization pipeline configuration problems for maximum frame rate into three classes according to the constraints on node reuse or resource sharing, namely no, contiguous, and arbitrary reuse. We prove all three problems to be NP-complete and present heuristic approaches based on a dynamic programming strategy. The superior performance of the proposed solution is demonstrated with extensive simulation results in comparison with existing algorithms and is further evidenced by experimental results collected on a prototype implementation deployed over the Internet.

  2. Description of waste pretreatment and interfacing systems dynamic simulation model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garbrick, D.J.; Zimmerman, B.D.

    1995-05-01

    The Waste Pretreatment and Interfacing Systems Dynamic Simulation Model was created to investigate the required pretreatment facility processing rates for both high level and low level waste so that the vitrification of tank waste can be completed according to the milestones defined in the Tri-Party Agreement (TPA). In order to achieve this objective, the processes upstream and downstream of the pretreatment facilities must also be included. The simulation model starts with retrieval of tank waste and ends with vitrification for both low level and high level wastes. This report describes the results of three simulation cases: one based on suggested average facility processing rates, one with facility rates determined so that approximately 6 new DSTs are required, and one with facility rates determined so that approximately no new DSTs are required. It appears, based on the simulation results, that reasonable facility processing rates can be selected so that no new DSTs are required by the TWRS program. However, this conclusion must be viewed with respect to the modeling assumptions, described in detail in the report. Also included in the report, in an appendix, are results of two sensitivity cases: one with glass plant water recycle steams recycled versus not recycled, and one employing the TPA SST retrieval schedule versus a more uniform SST retrieval schedule. Both recycling and retrieval schedule appear to have a significant impact on overall tank usage.

  3. Process simulation of a PEM fuel cell system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ledjeff-Hey, K.; Roes, J.; Formanski, V.; Gieshoff, J.; Vogel, B.

    1996-01-01

    The thermodynamic performance of a PEM fuel cell system for producing electrical power from natural gas is investigated by considering the flows of energy and energy through the various steps of the whole system. The flows of energy are evaluated using a computer code for energy and energy analyses. The fuel cell system is designed to produce a hydrogen volumetric flow of nearly 5.0 m{sup 3} {sub NTP}/h, provided to the fuel cell at an absolute pressure of 2.9 bar. The fuel cell itself is working with an efficiency of about 60 % at an operating temperature of 65 - 75{degrees} C with an air ratio of four and provides a maximum electric power of 9 kW. Taking into consideration only the produced electric power as useful output of the fuel cell system a total efficiency of 42.2 % is calculated using the simulation results.

  4. Linac cryogenic distribution system maintenance and upgrades at JLab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, K.; Wright, M.; Ganni, V.

    2014-01-29

    The Central Helium Liquefier (CHL) distribution system to the CEBAF and FEL linacs at Jefferson Lab (JLab) experienced a planned warm up during the late summer and fall of 2012 for the first time after its commissioning in 1991. Various maintenance and modifications were performed to support high beam availability to the experimental users, meet 10 CFR 851 requirements for pressure systems, address operational issues, and prepare the cryogenic interfaces for the high-gradient cryomodules needed for the 12 GeV upgrade. Cryogenic maintenance and installation work had to be coordinated with other activities in the linacs and compete for manpower from other department installation activities. With less than a quarter of the gas storage capacity available to handle the boil-off from the more than 40 cryomodules, 35,000 Nm{sup 3} of helium was re-liquefied and shipped to a vendor via a liquid tanker trailer. Nearly 200 u-tubes had to be removed and stored while seals were replaced on related equipment such as vacuum pump outs, bayonet isolation and process valves.

  5. Linac cryogenic distribution system maintenance and upgrades at Jlab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dixon, Kelly D.; Wright, Mathew C.; Ganni, Venkatarao

    2014-01-01

    The Central Helium Liquefier (CHL) distribution system to the CEBAF and FEL linacs at Jefferson Lab (JLab) experienced a planned warm up during the late summer and fall of 2012 for the first time after its commissioning in 1991. Various maintenance and modifications were performed to support high beam availability to the experimental users, meet 10 CFR 851 requirements for pressure systems, address operational issues, and prepare the cryogenic interfaces for the high-gradient cryomodules needed for the 12 GeV upgrade. Cryogenic maintenance and installation work had to be coordinated with other activities in the linacs and compete for manpower from other department installation activities. With less than a quarter of the gas storage capacity available to handle the boil-off from the more than 40 cryomodules, 35,000 Nm{sup 3} of helium was re-liquefied and shipped to a vendor via a liquid tanker trailer. Nearly 200 u-tubes had to be removed and stored while seals were replaced on related equipment such as vacuum pump outs, bayonet isolation and process valves.

  6. Cybersecurity through Real-Time Distributed Control Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kisner, Roger A; Manges, Wayne W; MacIntyre, Lawrence Paul; Nutaro, James J; Munro Jr, John K; Ewing, Paul D; Howlader, Mostofa; Kuruganti, Phani Teja; Wallace, Richard M; Olama, Mohammed M

    2010-04-01

    Critical infrastructure sites and facilities are becoming increasingly dependent on interconnected physical and cyber-based real-time distributed control systems (RTDCSs). A mounting cybersecurity threat results from the nature of these ubiquitous and sometimes unrestrained communications interconnections. Much work is under way in numerous organizations to characterize the cyber threat, determine means to minimize risk, and develop mitigation strategies to address potential consequences. While it seems natural that a simple application of cyber-protection methods derived from corporate business information technology (IT) domain would lead to an acceptable solution, the reality is that the characteristics of RTDCSs make many of those methods inadequate and unsatisfactory or even harmful. A solution lies in developing a defense-in-depth approach that ranges from protection at communications interconnect levels ultimately to the control system s functional characteristics that are designed to maintain control in the face of malicious intrusion. This paper summarizes the nature of RTDCSs from a cybersecurity perspec tive and discusses issues, vulnerabilities, candidate mitigation approaches, and metrics.

  7. Simulator for an Accelerator-Driven Subcritical Fissile Solution System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, Steven Karl; Day, Christy M.; Determan, John C.

    2015-09-14

    LANL has developed a process to generate a progressive family of system models for a fissile solution system. This family includes a dynamic system simulation comprised of coupled nonlinear differential equations describing the time evolution of the system. Neutron kinetics, radiolytic gas generation and transport, and core thermal hydraulics are included in the DSS. Extensions to explicit operation of cooling loops and radiolytic gas handling are embedded in these systems as is a stability model. The DSS may then be converted to an implementation in Visual Studio to provide a design team the ability to rapidly estimate system performance impacts from a variety of design decisions. This provides a method to assist in optimization of the system design. Once design has been generated in some detail the C++ version of the system model may then be implemented in a LabVIEW user interface to evaluate operator controls and instrumentation and operator recognition and response to off-normal events. Taken as a set of system models the DSS, Visual Studio, and LabVIEW progression provides a comprehensive set of design support tools.

  8. A Bivariate Mixed Distribution with a Heavy-tailed Component and its Application to Single-site Daily Rainfall Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Chao .; Singh, Vijay P.; Mishra, Ashok K.

    2013-02-06

    This paper presents an improved brivariate mixed distribution, which is capable of modeling the dependence of daily rainfall from two distinct sources (e.g., rainfall from two stations, two consecutive days, or two instruments such as satellite and rain gauge). The distribution couples an existing framework for building a bivariate mixed distribution, the theory of copulae and a hybrid marginal distribution. Contributions of the improved distribution are twofold. One is the appropriate selection of the bivariate dependence structure from a wider admissible choice (10 candidate copula families). The other is the introduction of a marginal distribution capable of better representing low to moderate values as well as extremes of daily rainfall. Among several applications of the improved distribution, particularly presented here is its utility for single-site daily rainfall simulation. Rather than simulating rainfall occurrences and amounts separately, the developed generator unifies the two processes by generalizing daily rainfall as a Markov process with autocorrelation described by the improved bivariate mixed distribution. The generator is first tested on a sample station in Texas. Results reveal that the simulated and observed sequences are in good agreement with respect to essential characteristics. Then, extensive simulation experiments are carried out to compare the developed generator with three other alternative models: the conventional two-state Markov chain generator, the transition probability matrix model and the semi-parametric Markov chain model with kernel density estimation for rainfall amounts. Analyses establish that overall the developed generator is capable of reproducing characteristics of historical extreme rainfall events and is apt at extrapolating rare values beyond the upper range of available observed data. Moreover, it automatically captures the persistence of rainfall amounts on consecutive wet days in a relatively natural and easy way

  9. A Virtual Engineering Framework for Simulating Advanced Power System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike Bockelie; Dave Swensen; Martin Denison; Stanislav Borodai

    2008-06-18

    In this report is described the work effort performed to provide NETL with VE-Suite based Virtual Engineering software and enhanced equipment models to support NETL's Advanced Process Engineering Co-simulation (APECS) framework for advanced power generation systems. Enhancements to the software framework facilitated an important link between APECS and the virtual engineering capabilities provided by VE-Suite (e.g., equipment and process visualization, information assimilation). Model enhancements focused on improving predictions for the performance of entrained flow coal gasifiers and important auxiliary equipment (e.g., Air Separation Units) used in coal gasification systems. In addition, a Reduced Order Model generation tool and software to provide a coupling between APECS/AspenPlus and the GE GateCycle simulation system were developed. CAPE-Open model interfaces were employed where needed. The improved simulation capability is demonstrated on selected test problems. As part of the project an Advisory Panel was formed to provide guidance on the issues on which to focus the work effort. The Advisory Panel included experts from industry and academics in gasification, CO2 capture issues, process simulation and representatives from technology developers and the electric utility industry. To optimize the benefit to NETL, REI coordinated its efforts with NETL and NETL funded projects at Iowa State University, Carnegie Mellon University and ANSYS/Fluent, Inc. The improved simulation capabilities incorporated into APECS will enable researchers and engineers to better understand the interactions of different equipment components, identify weaknesses and processes needing improvement and thereby allow more efficient, less expensive plants to be developed and brought on-line faster and in a more cost-effective manner. These enhancements to APECS represent an important step toward having a fully integrated environment for performing plant simulation and engineering

  10. Particle in cell simulations of Buneman instability of a current-driven plasma with q-nonextensive electron velocity distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niknam, A. R. Roozbahani, H.; Komaizi, D.; Hashemzadeh, M.

    2014-09-15

    The nonlinear evolution of low frequency Buneman instability in an unmagnetized current-driven plasma with q-nonextensive electron velocity distribution is investigated using particle in cell simulation. Simulation results show that the generation of electron phase space holes and the counter-streaming current induced in the plasma strongly depend on the q-parameter. It is found that by increasing the nonextensive parameter, the distribution of electron density becomes highly peaked. This density steepening or grating-like pattern occurs at the saturation time. In addition, a generalized dispersion relation is obtained using the kinetic theory. Analysis of the dispersion relation and the temporal evolution of the electric field energy density reveal that the growth rate of instability increases by increasing the q-parameter. Finally, the results of Maxwellian and q-nonextensive velocity distributions have been compared and discussed.

  11. Low-Cost Hydrogen Distributed Production System Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.E. Thomas, Ph.D., President Franklin D. Lomax, Ph.D, CTO & Principal Investigator, and Maxim Lyubovski, Ph.D.

    2011-03-10

    costing approximately $2.87/kg, still above the DOE's 2010 $2.50/kg target. We also began laboratory testing of reforming ethanol, which we showed is currently the least expensive approach to making renewable hydrogen. Extended testing of neat ethanol in micro-reactors was successful, and we also were able to reform E-85 acquired from a local fueling station for 2,700 hours, although some modifications were required to handle the 15% gasoline present in E-85. We began initial tests of a catalyst-coated wall reformer tube that showed some promise in reducing the propensity to coke with E-85. These coated-wall tests ran for 350 hours. Additional resources would be required to commercialize an ethanol reformer operating on E-85, but there is no market for such a product at this time, so this ethanol reformer project was moth-balled pending future government or industry support. The two main objectives of this project were: (1) to design, build and test a steam methane reformer and pressure swing adsorption system that, if scaled up and mass produced, could potentially meet the DOE 2015 cost and efficiency targets for on-site distributed hydrogen generation, and (2) to demonstrate the efficacy of a low-cost renewable hydrogen generation system based on reforming ethanol to hydrogen at the fueling station.

  12. Optimal subinterval selection approach for power system transient stability simulation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, Soobae; Overbye, Thomas J.

    2015-10-21

    Power system transient stability analysis requires an appropriate integration time step to avoid numerical instability as well as to reduce computational demands. For fast system dynamics, which vary more rapidly than what the time step covers, a fraction of the time step, called a subinterval, is used. However, the optimal value of this subinterval is not easily determined because the analysis of the system dynamics might be required. This selection is usually made from engineering experiences, and perhaps trial and error. This paper proposes an optimal subinterval selection approach for power system transient stability analysis, which is based on modalmore » analysis using a single machine infinite bus (SMIB) system. Fast system dynamics are identified with the modal analysis and the SMIB system is used focusing on fast local modes. An appropriate subinterval time step from the proposed approach can reduce computational burden and achieve accurate simulation responses as well. As a result, the performance of the proposed method is demonstrated with the GSO 37-bus system.« less

  13. Optimal subinterval selection approach for power system transient stability simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Soobae; Overbye, Thomas J.

    2015-10-21

    Power system transient stability analysis requires an appropriate integration time step to avoid numerical instability as well as to reduce computational demands. For fast system dynamics, which vary more rapidly than what the time step covers, a fraction of the time step, called a subinterval, is used. However, the optimal value of this subinterval is not easily determined because the analysis of the system dynamics might be required. This selection is usually made from engineering experiences, and perhaps trial and error. This paper proposes an optimal subinterval selection approach for power system transient stability analysis, which is based on modal analysis using a single machine infinite bus (SMIB) system. Fast system dynamics are identified with the modal analysis and the SMIB system is used focusing on fast local modes. An appropriate subinterval time step from the proposed approach can reduce computational burden and achieve accurate simulation responses as well. As a result, the performance of the proposed method is demonstrated with the GSO 37-bus system.

  14. System Integration of Distributed Power for Complete Building Systems: Phase 1 Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, R.

    2003-12-01

    This report describes NiSource Energy Technologies Inc.'s base year of a planned 3-year effort to advance distributed power development, deployment, and integration. Its long-term goal is to design ways to extend distributed generation into the physical design and controls of buildings. NET worked to meet this goal through advances in the implementation and control of CHP systems in end-user environments and a further understanding of electric interconnection and siting issues. Important results from the first year were a survey of the state of the art of interconnection issues associated with distributed generation, a survey of the local zoning requirements for the NiSource service territory, and the acquisition of data about the operation, reliability, interconnection, and performance of CHP systems and components of two test sites.

  15. Evaluating System Parameters on a Dragonfly using Simulation and Visualization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhatele, Abhinav; Jain, Nikhil; Livnat, Yarden; Pascucci, Valerio; Bremer, Peer-Timo

    2015-04-24

    The dragon y topology is becoming a popular choice for build- ing high-radix, low-diameter networks with high-bandwidth links. Even with a powerful network, preliminary experi- ments on Edison at NERSC have shown that for communica- tion heavy applications, job interference and thus presumably job placement remains an important factor. In this paper, we explore the e ects of job placement, job sizes, parallel workloads and network con gurations on network through- put to better understand inter-job interference. We use a simulation tool called Damsel y to model the network be- havior of Edison and study the impact of various system parameters on network throughput. Parallel workloads based on ve representative communication patters are used and the simulation studies on up to 131,072 cores are aided by a new visualization of the dragon y network.

  16. Two-fluid Hydrodynamic Model for Fluid-Flow Simulation in Fluid-Solids Systems

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-06-20

    FLUFIX is a two-dimensional , transient, Eulerian, and finite-difference program, based on a two-fluid hydrodynamic model, for fluid flow simulation in fluid-solids systems. The software is written in a modular form using the Implicit Multi-Field (IMF) numerical technique. Quantities computed are the spatial distribution of solids loading, gas and solids velocities, pressure, and temperatures. Predicted are bubble formation, bed frequencies, and solids recirculation. Applications include bubbling and circulating atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed reactors, combustors,more » gasifiers, and FCC (Fluid Catalytic Cracker) reactors.« less

  17. Distribution of local void ratio in porous media systems from 3D X-ray microtomography images

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Raoush, R.; Alshibli, K.A.

    2008-09-04

    We present in this paper a methodology to calculate the distribution of local void ratio in porous media systems from high-resolution three-dimensional images. We introduce an algorithm to calculate the distribution of local void ratio from 3D images based on distance and watershed transforms. The watershed transform is used to segment touched or overlapped particles in an efficient way and the distance transform is used to calculate the boundaries of local void regions. The algorithm is validated using computer simulated 3D images of regular packing, irregular (non-spherical particles) packing, and random uniform spherical packing. Results show that the algorithm is robust, accurate and can be used to calculate local void ratio distribution of 3D systems regardless of irregularity in shapes, sizes, or arrangement of particles. X-ray microtomography images of different glass bead systems are used to calculate distributions of local void ratio. Parameters of distributions are function of porosity and particle-size distribution. The maximum local void ratio in each system is less than 3.0 and the minimum is greater than 0.2.

  18. Impact of Utility-Scale Distributed Wind on Transmission-Level System Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brancucci Martinez-Anido, C.; Hodge, B. M.

    2014-09-01

    This report presents a new renewable integration study that aims to assess the potential for adding distributed wind to the current power system with minimal or no upgrades to the distribution or transmission electricity systems. It investigates the impacts of integrating large amounts of utility-scale distributed wind power on bulk system operations by performing a case study on the power system of the Independent System Operator-New England (ISO-NE).

  19. Hybrid2 - The hybrid power system simulation model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baring-Gould, E.I.; Green, H.J.; Dijk, V.A.P. van; Manwell, J.F.

    1996-12-31

    There is a large-scale need and desire for energy in remote communities, especially in the developing world; however the lack of a user friendly, flexible performance prediction model for hybrid power systems incorporating renewables hindered the analysis of hybrids as options to conventional solutions. A user friendly model was needed with the versatility to simulate the many system locations, widely varying hardware configurations, and differing control options for potential hybrid power systems. To meet these ends, researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the University of Massachusetts (UMass) developed the Hybrid2 software. This paper provides an overview of the capabilities, features, and functionality of the Hybrid2 code, discusses its validation and future plans. Model availability and technical support provided to Hybrid2 users are also discussed. 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. Code System for Reactor Physics and Fuel Cycle Simulation.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-04-21

    Version 00 VSOP94 (Very Superior Old Programs) is a system of codes linked together for the simulation of reactor life histories. It comprises neutron cross section libraries and processing routines, repeated neutron spectrum evaluation, 2-D diffusion calculation based on neutron flux synthesis with depletion and shut-down features, in-core and out-of-pile fuel management, fuel cycle cost analysis, and thermal hydraulics (at present restricted to Pebble Bed HTRs). Various techniques have been employed to accelerate the iterativemore » processes and to optimize the internal data transfer. The code system has been used extensively for comparison studies of reactors, their fuel cycles, and related detailed features. In addition to its use in research and development work for the High Temperature Reactor, the system has been applied successfully to Light Water and Heavy Water Reactors.« less

  1. Distributed generation capabilities of the national energy modeling system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Marnay, Chris

    2003-01-01

    This report describes Berkeley Lab's exploration of how the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) models distributed generation (DG) and presents possible approaches for improving how DG is modeled. The on-site electric generation capability has been available since the AEO2000 version of NEMS. Berkeley Lab has previously completed research on distributed energy resources (DER) adoption at individual sites and has developed a DER Customer Adoption Model called DER-CAM. Given interest in this area, Berkeley Lab set out to understand how NEMS models small-scale on-site generation to assess how adequately DG is treated in NEMS, and to propose improvements or alternatives. The goal is to determine how well NEMS models the factors influencing DG adoption and to consider alternatives to the current approach. Most small-scale DG adoption takes place in the residential and commercial modules of NEMS. Investment in DG ultimately offsets purchases of electricity, which also eliminates the losses associated with transmission and distribution (T&D). If the DG technology that is chosen is photovoltaics (PV), NEMS assumes renewable energy consumption replaces the energy input to electric generators. If the DG technology is fuel consuming, consumption of fuel in the electric utility sector is replaced by residential or commercial fuel consumption. The waste heat generated from thermal technologies can be used to offset the water heating and space heating energy uses, but there is no thermally activated cooling capability. This study consists of a review of model documentation and a paper by EIA staff, a series of sensitivity runs performed by Berkeley Lab that exercise selected DG parameters in the AEO2002 version of NEMS, and a scoping effort of possible enhancements and alternatives to NEMS current DG capabilities. In general, the treatment of DG in NEMS is rudimentary. The penetration of DG is determined by an economic cash-flow analysis that determines adoption based on the

  2. Partial Shade Evaluation of Distributed Power Electronics for Photovoltaic Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deline, C.; Meydbrav, J.; Donovan, M.

    2012-06-01

    Site survey data for several residential installations are provided, showing the extent and frequency of shade throughout the year. This background information is used to design a representative shading test that is conducted on two side-by-side 8-kW photovoltaic (PV) installations. One system is equipped with a standard string inverter, while the other is equipped with microinverters on each solar panel. Partial shade is applied to both systems in a comprehensive range of shading conditions, simulating one of three shade extents. Under light shading conditions, the microinverter system produced the equivalent of 4% annual performance improvement, relative to the string inverter system. Under moderate shading conditions, the microinverter system outperformed the string inverter system by 8%, and under heavy shading the microinverter increased relative performance by 12%. In all three cases, the percentage of performance loss that is recovered by the use of distributed power electronics is 40%-50%. Additionally, it was found that certain shading conditions can lead to additional losses in string inverters due to peak-power tracking errors and voltage limitations.

  3. THREE-DIMENSIONAL SIMULATIONS OF GYROSYNCHROTRON EMISSION FROM MILDLY ANISOTROPIC NONUNIFORM ELECTRON DISTRIBUTIONS IN SYMMETRIC MAGNETIC LOOPS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuznetsov, Alexey A.; Nita, Gelu M.; Fleishman, Gregory D.

    2011-12-01

    Microwave emission of solar flares is formed primarily by incoherent gyrosynchrotron radiation generated by accelerated electrons in coronal magnetic loops. The resulting emission depends on many factors, including pitch-angle distribution of the emitting electrons and the source geometry. In this work, we perform systematic simulations of solar microwave emission using recently developed tools (GS Simulator and fast gyrosynchrotron codes) capable of simulating maps of radio brightness and polarization as well as spatially resolved emission spectra. A three-dimensional model of a symmetric dipole magnetic loop is used. We compare the emission from isotropic and anisotropic (of loss-cone type) electron distributions. We also investigate effects caused by inhomogeneous distribution of the emitting particles along the loop. It is found that the effect of the adopted moderate electron anisotropy is the most pronounced near the footpoints and it also depends strongly on the loop orientation. Concentration of the emitting particles at the looptop results in a corresponding spatial shift of the radio brightness peak, thus reducing effects of the anisotropy. The high-frequency ({approx}> 50 GHz) emission spectral index is specified mainly by the energy spectrum of the emitting electrons; however, at intermediate frequencies (around 10-20 GHz), the spectrum shape is strongly dependent on the electron anisotropy, spatial distribution, and magnetic field nonuniformity. The implications of the obtained results for the diagnostics of the energetic electrons in solar flares are discussed.

  4. Summary - System Level Modeling and Simulation Tools for SRS

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Workflo The ob Proces Savann Dispos assess evaluat design evaluat predict to guid * Th so in w es sy * Th is m * Th fle m de fu The pu techni projec Site: S roject: S Report Date: J ited States valuation i Why DOE ow Diagram bjective of the rev ss Simulation To nah River Site (S sition System Pla s whether the too te methods used , construction, p te methods to im ions; and (4) det e actual executio What th he current Syst oftware tools to formation, and aste. These to stimates, but th ystem

  5. System Integration of Distributed Power for Complete Building Systems: Phase 2 Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, R.

    2003-12-01

    This report describes NiSource Energy Technologies Inc.'s second year of a planned 3-year effort to advance distributed power development, deployment, and integration. Its long-term goal is to design ways to extend distributed generation into the physical design and controls of buildings. NET worked to meet this goal through advances in the implementation and control of combined heat and power systems in end-user environments and a further understanding of electric interconnection and siting issues. The specific objective of work under this subcontract is to identify the system integration and implementation issues of DG and develop and test potential solutions to these issues. In addition, recommendations are made to resolve identified issues that may hinder or slow the integration of integrated energy systems into the national energy picture.

  6. Distributed Solar PV for Electricity System Resiliency: Policy and Regulatory Considerations (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    Distributed Solar PV systems have the potential of increasing the grid's resiliency to unforeseen events, such as extreme weather events and attacks. This paper presents the role that distributed PV can play in electric grid resiliency, introduces basic system design requirements and options, and discusses the regulatory and policy options for supporting the use of distributed PV for the purpose of increased electricity resiliency.

  7. Development of Design and Simulation Tool for Hybrid Geothermal Heat Pump System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project will expand Expand eQUEST, a building energy analysis software with latest implementation of DOE-2, for simulations of HGSHP systems and improve its existing simulation capabilities for ordinary GSHP systems.

  8. Computer Simulation of Equilibrium Electron Beam Distribution in the Proximity of 4th Order Single Nonlinear Resonance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuo, C.-C.; Tsai, H.-J.; Ueng, T.-S.; Chao, A.; /SLAC

    2005-05-09

    The beam distribution of particles in a storage ring can be distorted in the presence of nonlinear resonances. Computer simulation is used to study the equilibrium distribution of an electron beam in the presence of a single 4th order nonlinear resonance in a storage ring. Its result is compared with that obtained using an analytical approach by solving the Fokker-Planck equation to first order in the resonance strength. The effect of resonance on quantum lifetime of electron beam is also compared and investigated.

  9. System Impacts from Interconnection of Distributed Resources: Current Status and Identification of Needs for Further Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basso, T. S.

    2009-01-01

    This report documents and evaluates system impacts from the interconnection of distributed resources to transmission and distribution systems, including a focus on renewable distributed resource technologies. The report also identifies system impact-resolution approaches and actions, including extensions of existing approaches. Lastly, the report documents the current challenges and examines what is needed to gain a clearer understanding of what to pursue to better avoid or address system impact issues.

  10. IMPACTS OF REFRIGERANTLINE LENGTH ON SYSTEM EFFICIENCY IN RESIDENTIAL HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS USING REFRIGERANT DISTRIBUTION.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ANDREWS, J.W.

    2001-04-01

    The effects on system efficiency of excess refrigerant line length are calculated for an idealized residential heating and cooling system. By excess line length is meant refrigerant tubing in excess of the 25 R provided for in standard equipment efficiency test methods. The purpose of the calculation is to provide input for a proposed method for evaluating refrigerant distribution system efficiency. A refrigerant distribution system uses refrigerant (instead of ducts or pipes) to carry heat and/or cooling effect from the equipment to the spaces in the building in which it is used. Such systems would include so-called mini-splits as well as more conventional split systems that for one reason or another have the indoor and outdoor coils separated by more than 25 ft. This report performs first-order calculations of the effects on system efficiency, in both the heating and cooling modes, of pressure drops within the refrigerant lines and of heat transfer between the refrigerant lines and the space surrounding them.

  11. A simulation study of the behavior of a two-stage turbocharging system during surge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheese, P.; Hetet, J.F.; Tauzia, X.; Roy, P.; Inozu, B.

    1996-12-31

    Turbocharger matching for a high rated two-stage turbocharged Diesel engine is rather difficult due to the power balance between the two turbocharger stages. Compressor surge is a predominant factor, especially for naval applications for which operation ranges are quite wide. In this paper, a simulation study of a two-stage turbocharged system that includes a low pressure and a high pressure compressor is presented. Equations that are specific to such a system are added to a basic model and the resulting set of equations is solved using ACSL. The influence of the geometry of the charging air system on the compressor surge is analyzed according to the primary engine parameters (cylinder pressure, engine speed and distribution diagram)

  12. Spreader-Bar Radiation Detection System Enhancements: A Modeling and Simulation Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ely, James H.; Ashbaker, Eric D.; Batdorf, Michael T.; Baciak, James E.; Hensley, Walter K.; Jarman, Kenneth D.; Robinson, Sean M.; Sandness, Gerald A.; Schweppe, John E.

    2012-11-13

    This report provides the modeling and simulation results of the investigation of enhanced spreader bar radiation detection systems.

  13. A new model of cloud drop distribution that simulates the observed...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Michael Michigan Technological University Wiscombe, Warren BNLNASA Goddard Space Flight Center Category: Modeling Cloud droplet size distribution is one of the most fundamental...

  14. Distribution:

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    JAN26 19% Distribution: OR00 Attn: h.H.M.Roth DFMusser ITMM MMMann INS JCRyan FIw(2) Hsixele SRGustavson, Document rocm Formal file i+a@mmm bav@ ~@esiaw*cp Suppl. file 'Br & Div rf's s/health (lic.only) UNITED STATES ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION SPECIAL NUCLEAB MATERIAL LICENSE pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Chapter 1, P&t 70, "Special Nuclear Material Reg)llatiqm," a license is hereby issued a$hortztng the licensee to rekeive

  15. Request for Information for Distributed Wind Energy Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Energy Department’s Wind Program is seeking feedback from the wind industry, academia, research laboratories, government agencies, and other stakeholders regarding the Energy Department’s new perspective on Distributed Wind R&D.

  16. Simulation of Absorption Systems in Flexible and Modular Form

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-09-23

    The computer code has been developed for simulation of absorption systems at steady-state in a flexible and modular form, making it possible to investigate various cycle configurations with different working fluids. The code is based on unit subroutines containing the governing equations for the system''s components. When all the equations have been established, a mathematical solver routine is employed to solve them simultaneously. Property subroutines contained in a separate data base serve to provide thermodynamicmore » properties of the working fluids. The code is user-oriented and requires a relatively simple input containing the given operating conditions and the working fluid at each state point. the user conveys to the computer an image of the cycle by specifying the different components and their interconnections. Based on this information, the program calculates the temperature, flowrate, concentration, pressure and vapor fraction at each state point in the system and the heat duty at each unit, from which the coefficient of performance may be determined. A graphical user-interface is provided to facilitate interactive input and study of the output.« less

  17. Leveraging AMI data for distribution system model calibration and situational awareness

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Peppanen, Jouni; Reno, Matthew J.; Thakkar, Mohini; Grijalva, Santiago; Harley, Ronald G.

    2015-01-15

    The many new distributed energy resources being installed at the distribution system level require increased visibility into system operations that will be enabled by distribution system state estimation (DSSE) and situational awareness applications. Reliable and accurate DSSE requires both robust methods for managing the big data provided by smart meters and quality distribution system models. This paper presents intelligent methods for detecting and dealing with missing or inaccurate smart meter data, as well as the ways to process the data for different applications. It also presents an efficient and flexible parameter estimation method based on the voltage drop equation andmore » regression analysis to enhance distribution system model accuracy. Finally, it presents a 3-D graphical user interface for advanced visualization of the system state and events. Moreover, we demonstrate this paper for a university distribution network with the state-of-the-art real-time and historical smart meter data infrastructure.« less

  18. Leveraging AMI data for distribution system model calibration and situational awareness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peppanen, Jouni; Reno, Matthew J.; Thakkar, Mohini; Grijalva, Santiago; Harley, Ronald G.

    2015-01-15

    The many new distributed energy resources being installed at the distribution system level require increased visibility into system operations that will be enabled by distribution system state estimation (DSSE) and situational awareness applications. Reliable and accurate DSSE requires both robust methods for managing the big data provided by smart meters and quality distribution system models. This paper presents intelligent methods for detecting and dealing with missing or inaccurate smart meter data, as well as the ways to process the data for different applications. It also presents an efficient and flexible parameter estimation method based on the voltage drop equation and regression analysis to enhance distribution system model accuracy. Finally, it presents a 3-D graphical user interface for advanced visualization of the system state and events. Moreover, we demonstrate this paper for a university distribution network with the state-of-the-art real-time and historical smart meter data infrastructure.

  19. Full-wave Simulations of ICRF Heating in Toroidal Plasma with Non-Maxwellian Distribution Functions in the FLR Limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.J. Valeo, C.K. Phillips, H. Okuda, J.C. Wright, P.T. Bonoli, L.A. Berry, and the RF SciDAC Team

    2007-07-18

    At the power levels required for signicant heating and current drive in magnetically-con ned toroidal plasma, modi cation of the particle distribution function from a Maxwellian shape is likely [T.H. Stix, Nucl. Fusion, 15:737 1975], with consequent changes in wave propagation and in the location and amount of absorption. In order to study these e ects computationally, the nite-Larmor-radius, full-wave, hot-plasma toroidal simulation code, TORIC [M. Brambilla. Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion, 41:1, 1999], has been extended to allow the prescription of arbitrary velocity distributions of the form (?||, ??, ?, ?). For H minority heating of a D-H plasma with anisotropic Maxwellian H distributions, the fractional H absorption varies signi cantly with changes in parallel temperature but is essentially independent of perpendicular temperature.

  20. Double ended chilled water distribution system flow control at the Univeristy of Arizona

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnstone, H.; Womack, W.; Notary, B.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the analysis effort and resultant primary flow control strategy for an intensely interconnected chilled water distribution system that is fed by production plants at opposing ends. A brief description of the evolution of the existing campus chilled water distribution systems at the University of Arizona is followed by a statement of a problem common to many expanding chilled water distribution systems. This problem relates to the optimal control of dissimilar yet interconnected pumping and production plants. A simple hydraulic modeling spreadsheet with coupled graphical representation developed for the UA system is presented. The surprisingly simple control strategies designed for the UA system will be explained. The use of the simplified modeling approach as a long range production and distribution system planning tool will be explored. Conclusions on the applicability of the simplified approach and the extension of the UA distribution system control strategies to other district chilled water systems will be drawn.

  1. A Performance Comparison of Tree and Ring Topologies in Distributed System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Min Huang

    2005-12-19

    A distributed system is a collection of computers that are connected via a communication network. Distributed systems have become commonplace due to the wide availability of low-cost, high performance computers and network devices. However, the management infrastructure often does not scale well when distributed systems get very large. Some of the considerations in building a distributed system are the choice of the network topology and the method used to construct the distributed system so as to optimize the scalability and reliability of the system, lower the cost of linking nodes together and minimize the message delay in transmission, and simplify system resource management. We have developed a new distributed management system that is able to handle the dynamic increase of system size, detect and recover the unexpected failure of system services, and manage system resources. The topologies used in the system are the tree-structured network and the ring-structured network. This thesis presents the research background, system components, design, implementation, experiment results and the conclusions of our work. The thesis is organized as follows: the research background is presented in chapter 1. Chapter 2 describes the system components, including the different node types and different connection types used in the system. In chapter 3, we describe the message types and message formats in the system. We discuss the system design and implementation in chapter 4. In chapter 5, we present the test environment and results, Finally, we conclude with a summary and describe our future work in chapter 6.

  2. Large-Scale Transport Model Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analysis: Distributed Sources in Complex Hydrogeologic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sig Drellack, Lance Prothro

    2007-12-01

    The Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office is in the process of assessing and developing regulatory decision options based on modeling predictions of contaminant transport from underground testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The UGTA Project is attempting to develop an effective modeling strategy that addresses and quantifies multiple components of uncertainty including natural variability, parameter uncertainty, conceptual/model uncertainty, and decision uncertainty in translating model results into regulatory requirements. The modeling task presents multiple unique challenges to the hydrological sciences as a result of the complex fractured and faulted hydrostratigraphy, the distributed locations of sources, the suite of reactive and non-reactive radionuclides, and uncertainty in conceptual models. Characterization of the hydrogeologic system is difficult and expensive because of deep groundwater in the arid desert setting and the large spatial setting of the NTS. Therefore, conceptual model uncertainty is partially addressed through the development of multiple alternative conceptual models of the hydrostratigraphic framework and multiple alternative models of recharge and discharge. Uncertainty in boundary conditions is assessed through development of alternative groundwater fluxes through multiple simulations using the regional groundwater flow model. Calibration of alternative models to heads and measured or inferred fluxes has not proven to provide clear measures of model quality. Therefore, model screening by comparison to independently-derived natural geochemical mixing targets through cluster analysis has also been invoked to evaluate differences between alternative conceptual models. Advancing multiple alternative flow models, sensitivity of transport predictions to parameter uncertainty is assessed through Monte Carlo simulations. The

  3. A Reactive Transport Simulator for Biogeochemical Processes in Subsurface System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-04-01

    BIOGEOCHEM is a Fortran code that mumerically simulates the coupled processes of solute transport, microbial population dynamics, microbial metabolism, and geochemical reactions. The potential applications of the code include, but not limited to, (a) sensitivity and uncertainty analyses for assessing the impact of microbial activity on subsurface geochemical systems; (b) extraction of biogeochemical parameter values from field observations or laboratory measurements, (c) helping to design and optimize laboratory biogeochemical experiments, and (d) data integration. Methodmore » of Solution: A finite difference method and a Newton-Raphson technique are used to solve a set of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations and algebraic equations. Practical Application: Environmental analysis, bioremediation performance assessments of radioactive or non-radioactive wase disposal, and academic research.« less

  4. Best Management Practice #3: Distribution System Audits, Leak Detection, and Repair

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A distribution system audit, or leak detection and repair program, may help federal facilities identify and reduce water losses and be better stewards of water as a resource.

  5. Distribution of Wind Power Forecasting Errors from Operational Systems (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodge, B. M.; Ela, E.; Milligan, M.

    2011-10-01

    This presentation offers new data and statistical analysis of wind power forecasting errors in operational systems.

  6. FNCS: A Framework for Power System and Communication Networks Co-Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ciraci, Selim; Daily, Jeffrey A.; Fuller, Jason C.; Fisher, Andrew R.; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Agarwal, Khushbu

    2014-04-13

    This paper describes the Fenix framework that uses a federated approach for integrating power grid and communication network simulators. Compared existing approaches, Fenix al- lows co-simulation of both transmission and distribution level power grid simulators with the communication network sim- ulator. To reduce the performance overhead of time synchro- nization, Fenix utilizes optimistic synchronization strategies that make speculative decisions about when the simulators are going to exchange messages. GridLAB-D (a distribution simulator), PowerFlow (a transmission simulator), and ns-3 (a telecommunication simulator) are integrated with the frame- work and are used to illustrate the enhanced performance pro- vided by speculative multi-threading on a smart grid applica- tion. Our speculative multi-threading approach achieved on average 20% improvement over the existing synchronization methods

  7. TurboGenerator Power Systems{trademark} for distributed generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weinstein, C.H.

    1998-12-31

    The AlliedSignal TurboGenerator is a cost effective, environmentally benign, low cost, highly reliable and simple to maintain generation source. Market Surveys indicate that the significant worldwide market exists, for example, the United States Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) which is the uniform research facility for domestic electric utilities, predicts that up to 40% of all new generation could be distributed generation by the year 2006. In many parts of the world, the lack of electric infrastructure (transmission and distribution lines) will greatly expedite the commercialization of distributed generation technologies since central plants not only cost more per kW, but also must have expensive infrastructure installed to deliver the product to the consumer. Small, multi-fuel, modular distributed generation units, such as the TurboGenerator, can help alleviate current afternoon brownouts and blackouts prevalent in many parts of the world. Its simple, one moving part concept allows for low technical skill maintenance and its low overall cost allows for wide spread purchase in those parts of the world where capital is sparse. In addition, given the United States emphasis on electric deregulation and the world trend in this direction, consumers of electricity will now have not only the right to choose the correct method of electric service but also a new cost effective choice from which to choose.

  8. The Development of a Smart Distribution Grid Testbed for Integrated Information Management Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning; Du, Pengwei; Paulson, Patrick R.; Greitzer, Frank L.; Guo, Xinxin; Hadley, Mark D.

    2011-07-28

    This paper presents a smart distribution grid testbed to test or compare designs of integrated information management systems (I2MSs). An I2MS extracts and synthesizes information from a wide range of data sources to detect abnormal system behaviors, identify possible causes, assess the system status, and provide grid operators with response suggestions. The objective of the testbed is to provide a modeling environment with sufficient data sources for the I2MS design. The testbed includes five information layers and a physical layer; it generates multi-layer chronological data based on actual measurement playbacks or simulated data sets produced by the physical layer. The testbed models random hardware failures, human errors, extreme weather events, and deliberate tampering attempts to allow users to evaluate the performance of different I2MS designs. Initial results of I2MS performance tests showed that the testbed created a close-to-real-world environment that allowed key performance metrics of the I2MS to be evaluated.

  9. Integration of HVAC System Design with Simplified Duct Distribution...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HVAC system layout early in the design process.in order to realize the successful ... Graphic courtesy of IBACOS, Inc. A "Plug-n-Play" Air Delivery System for Low-Load ...

  10. Distributed Generation Study/615 kW Waukesha Packaged System...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    PHE-Type SL140-TM-EE-190, Sondex PHE-Type SL140-TM-EE-150, Cain UTR1-810A17.5SSP Fuel Natural Gas System Installer GTI System Enclosure Outdoor System Application Combined Heat...

  11. A Semantic Web Service and Simulation Framework to Intelligent Distributed Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Son, Young Jun; Kulvatunyou, Boonserm; Cho, Hyunbo; Feng, Shaw

    2005-11-01

    To cope with today's fluctuating markets, a virtual enterprise (VE) concept can be employed to achieve the cooperation among independently operating enterprises. The success of VE depends on reliable interoperation among trading partners. This paper proposes a framework based on semantic web of manufacturing and simulation services to enable business and engineering collaborations between VE partners, particularly a design house and manufacturing suppliers.

  12. Hydrodynamic simulation of a lithium chloride salt system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eberle, C. S.; Herrmann, S. D.; Knighton, G. C.

    1999-02-12

    A fused lithium chloride salt system's constitutive properties were evaluated and compared to a number of fluid properties, and water was shown to be an excellent simulant of lithium chloride salt. With a simple flow model, the principal scaling term was shown to be a function of the kinematic viscosity. A water mock-up of the molten salt was also shown to be within a {+-}3% error in the scaling analysis. This made it possible to consider developing water scaled tests of the molten salt system. Accurate flow velocity and pressure measurements were acquired by developing a directional velocity probe. The device was constructed and calibrated with a repeatable accuracy of {+-}15%. This was verified by a detailed evaluation of the probe. Extensive flow measurements of the engineering scale mockup were conducted, and the results were carefully compared to radial flow patterns of a straight blade stirrer. The flow measurements demonstrated an anti-symmetric nature of the stirring, and many additional effects were also identified. The basket design was shown to prevent fluid penetration into the fuel baskets when external stirring was the flow mechanism.

  13. On theoretical issues of computer simulations sequential dynamical systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrett, C.L.; Mortveit, H.S.; Reidys, C.M.

    1998-12-01

    The authors study a class of discrete dynamical systems that is motivated by the generic structure of simulations. The systems consist of the following data: (a) a finite graph Y with vertex set {l_brace}1,...,n{r_brace} where each vertex has a binary state, (b) functions F{sub i}:F{sub 2}{sup n} {r_arrow} F{sub 2}{sup n} and (c) an update ordering {pi}. The functions F{sub i} update the binary state of vertex i as a function of the state of vertex i and its Y-neighbors and leave the states of all other vertices fixed. The update ordering is a permutation of the Y-vertices. They derive a decomposition result, characterize invertible SDS and study fixed points. In particular they analyze how many different SDS that can be obtained by reordering a given multiset of update functions and give a criterion for when one can derive concentration results on this number. Finally, some specific SDS are investigated.

  14. Integrating wind turbines into the Orcas Island distribution system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaininger, H.W.

    1998-09-01

    This research effort consists of two years of wind data collection and analysis to investigate the possibility of strategically locating a megawatt (MW) scale wind farm near the end of an Orcas Power and light Company (OPALCO) 25-kilovolt (kV) distribution circuit to defer the need to upgrade the line to 69 kV. The results of this study support the results of previous work in which another year of wind data and collection was performed. Both this study and the previous study show that adding a MW-scale wind farm at the Mt. Constitution site is a feasible alternative to upgrading the OPALCO 25-kV distribution circuit to 69 kV.

  15. Investigating Operating System Noise in Extreme-Scale High-Performance Computing Systems using Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engelmann, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Hardware/software co-design for future-generation high-performance computing (HPC) systems aims at closing the gap between the peak capabilities of the hardware and the performance realized by applications (application-architecture performance gap). Performance profiling of architectures and applications is a crucial part of this iterative process. The work in this paper focuses on operating system (OS) noise as an additional factor to be considered for co-design. It represents the first step in including OS noise in HPC hardware/software co-design by adding a noise injection feature to an existing simulation-based co-design toolkit. It reuses an existing abstraction for OS noise with frequency (periodic recurrence) and period (duration of each occurrence) to enhance the processor model of the Extreme-scale Simulator (xSim) with synchronized and random OS noise simulation. The results demonstrate this capability by evaluating the impact of OS noise on MPI_Bcast() and MPI_Reduce() in a simulated future-generation HPC system with 2,097,152 compute nodes.

  16. A Test Bed for Self-regulating Distribution Systems: Modeling Intergrated Renewable Energy and Demand Response in the GridLAB-D/MATLAB Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Dan; de Wit, Braydon; Parkinson, Simon; Fuller, Jason C.; Chassin, David P.; Crawford, Curran; Djilali, Ned

    2012-01-16

    This paper discusses the development of a simulation test bed permitting the study of integrated renewable energy generators and controlled distributed heat pumps operating within distribution systems. The test bed is demonstrated in this paper by addressing the important issue of the self-regulating effect of consumer-owned air-source heat pumps on the variability induced by wind power integration, particularly when coupled with increased access to demand response realized through a centralized load control strategy.

  17. Emerging Issues and Challenges with Integrating High Levels of Solar into the Distribution System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Wide use of advanced inverters could double the electricity-distribution system’s hosting capacity for distributed PV at low costs—from about 170 GW to 350 GW (see Palmintier et al. 2016). At the distribution system level, increased variable generation due to high penetrations of distributed PV (typically rooftop and smaller ground-mounted systems) could challenge the management of distribution voltage, potentially increase wear and tear on electromechanical utility equipment, and complicate the configuration of circuit-breakers and other protection systems—all of which could increase costs, limit further PV deployment, or both. However, improved analysis of distribution system hosting capacity—the amount of distributed PV that can be interconnected without changing the existing infrastructure or prematurely wearing out equipment—has overturned previous rule-of-thumb assumptions such as the idea that distributed PV penetrations higher than 15% require detailed impact studies. For example, new analysis suggests that the hosting capacity for distributed PV could rise from approximately 170 GW using traditional inverters to about 350 GW with the use of advanced inverters for voltage management, and it could be even higher using accessible and low-cost strategies such as careful siting of PV systems within a distribution feeder and additional minor changes in distribution operations. Also critical to facilitating distributed PV deployment is the improvement of interconnection processes, associated standards and codes, and compensation mechanisms so they embrace PV’s contributions to system-wide operations. Ultimately SunShot-level PV deployment will require unprecedented coordination of the historically separate distribution and transmission systems along with incorporation of energy storage and “virtual storage,” which exploits improved management of electric vehicle charging, building energy systems, and other large loads. Additional analysis and

  18. Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System Presentation by C.E. (Sandy) Thomas at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting. biliwg06_thomas_h2gen.pdf (2.44 MB) More Documents & Publications Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System (Presentation) An Energy Evolution:Alternative Fueled Vehicle

  19. Innovative Distributed Power Grid Interconnection and Control Systems: Final Report, December 11, 2000 - August 30, 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DePodesta, K.; Birlingmair, D.; West, R.

    2006-03-01

    The contract goal was to further advance distributed generation in the marketplace by making installations more cost-effective and compatible with existing systems. This was achieved by developing innovative grid interconnection and control systems.

  20. Field Test of a DHW Distribution System: Temperature and Flow Analyses (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barley, C. D.; Hendron, B.; Magnusson, L.

    2010-05-13

    This presentation discusses a field test of a DHW distribution system in an occupied townhome. It includes measured fixture flows and temperatures, a tested recirculation system, evaluated disaggregation of flow by measured temperatures, Aquacraft Trace Wizard analysis, and comparison.

  1. Trace-Element Distribution In An Active Hydrothermal System,...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the history of the system. Authors Odin D. Christensen, Regina A. Capuano and Joseph N. Moore Published Journal Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 1983 DOI Not...

  2. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combustion Turbine CHP System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Combustion Turbine CHP System for Food Processing Industry Reducing Industry's Environmental Footprint and Easing Transmission Congestion Based at a...

  3. Category:Smart Grid Projects - Electric Distributions Systems...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems" The following 13 pages are in this category, out of 13 total. A Atlantic City Electric Company Smart Grid Project Avista Utilities Smart Grid Project C...

  4. Global garbage collection for distributed heap storage systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, K.A.M.; Haridi, S.

    1986-10-01

    The authors present a garbage-collection algorithm, suitable for loosely-coupled multi-processor systems, in which the processing elements (PEs) share only the communication medium. The algorithm is global, i.e., it involves all the PEs in the system. It allows space compaction, and it uses a system-wide marking phase to mark all accessible objects where a combination of parallel breadth-first/depth-first strategies is used for tracing the object-graphs according to a decentralized credit mechanism that regulates the number of garbage collections messages in the system. The credit mechanism is crucial for determining the space requirement of the garbage-collection messages. Also a variation of this algorithm is presented for systems with high locality of reference. It allows each PE to perform first its local garbage collection and only invokes the global garbage collection when the freed space by the local collector is insufficient.

  5. High Frequency Physics-Based Earthquake System Simulations | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Leadership Computing Facility Ground motion simulations reveal regions at risk of strong shaking during a possible magnitude-8 earthquake on the San Andreas fault Ground motion simulations reveal regions at risk of strong shaking during a possible magnitude-8 earthquake on the San Andreas fault. For the CyberShake project, reciprocal simulations of all known possible quakes are combined to estimate the total probabilistic hazard for California. Geoffrey Ely, Argonne National Laboratory High

  6. Test procedures and protocols: Their relevance to the figure of merit for thermal distribution systems. Volume 1: Informal report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, J.W.

    1993-09-01

    A conceptual framework is developed that categorizes measurement protocols for forced-air thermal distribution systems in small buildings. This framework is based on the distinction between two generic approaches. The {open_quote}system-comparison{close_quote} approach seeks to determine, via a pair of whole-house energy-use measurements, the difference in energy use between the house with the as-found duct system and the same house with no energy losses attributable to the thermal distribution system. The {open_quote}component loss-factor{close_quote} approach identifies and measures the individual causes of duct losses, and then builds up a value for the net overall duct efficiency, usually with the help of computer simulation. Examples of each approach are analyzed and related to a proposed Figure of Merit for thermal distribution systems. This Figure of Merit would serve as the basis for a Standard Method of Test analogous to those already in place for furnaces, boilers, air conditioners, and heat pumps.

  7. Final Report: Model interacting particle systems for simulation and macroscopic description of particulate suspensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter J. Mucha

    2007-08-30

    Suspensions of solid particles in liquids appear in numerous applications, from environmental settings like river silt, to industrial systems of solids transport and water treatment, and biological flows such as blood flow. Despite their importance, much remains unexplained about these complicated systems. Mucha's research aims to improve understanding of basic properties of suspensions through a program of simulating model interacting particle systems with critical evaluation of proposed continuum equations, in close collaboration with experimentalists. Natural to this approach, the original proposal centered around collaboration with studies already conducted in various experimental groups. However, as was detailed in the 2004 progress report, following the first year of this award, a number of the questions from the original proposal were necessarily redirected towards other specific goals because of changes in the research programs of the proposed experimental collaborators. Nevertheless, the modified project goals and the results that followed from those goals maintain close alignment with the main themes of the original proposal, improving efficient simulation and macroscopic modeling of sedimenting and colloidal suspensions. In particular, the main investigations covered under this award have included: (1) Sedimentation instabilities, including the sedimentation analogue of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability (for heavy, particle-laden fluid over lighter, clear fluid). (2) Ageing dynamics of colloidal suspensions at concentrations above the glass transition, using simplified interactions. (3) Stochastic reconstruction of velocity-field dependence for particle image velocimetry (PIV). (4) Stochastic modeling of the near-wall bias in 'nano-PIV'. (5) Distributed Lagrange multiplier simulation of the 'internal splash' of a particle falling through a stable stratified interface. (6) Fundamental study of velocity fluctuations in sedimentation. (7) Parallelization of

  8. Energy storage management system with distributed wireless sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Bandhauer, Todd M.

    2015-12-08

    An energy storage system having a multiple different types of energy storage and conversion devices. Each device is equipped with one or more sensors and RFID tags to communicate sensor information wirelessly to a central electronic management system, which is used to control the operation of each device. Each device can have multiple RFID tags and sensor types. Several energy storage and conversion devices can be combined.

  9. Development of Models to Simulate Tracer Tests for Characterization of Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Mark D.; Reimus, Paul; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Rose, Peter; Dean, Cynthia A.; Watson, Tom B.; Newell, D.; Leecaster, Kevin; Brauser, Eric

    2013-05-01

    A recent report found that power and heat produced from enhanced (or engineered) geothermal systems (EGSs) could have a major impact on the U.S energy production capability while having a minimal impact on the environment. EGS resources differ from high-grade hydrothermal resources in that they lack sufficient temperature distribution, permeability/porosity, fluid saturation, or recharge of reservoir fluids. Therefore, quantitative characterization of temperature distributions and the surface area available for heat transfer in EGS is necessary for the design and commercial development of the geothermal energy of a potential EGS site. The goal of this project is to provide integrated tracer and tracer interpretation tools to facilitate this characterization. This project was initially focused on tracer development with the application of perfluorinated tracer (PFT) compounds, non-reactive tracers used in numerous applications from atmospheric transport to underground leak detection, to geothermal systems, and evaluation of encapsulated PFTs that would release tracers at targeted reservoir temperatures. After the 2011 midyear review and subsequent discussions with the U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technology Program (GTP), emphasis was shifted to interpretive tool development, testing, and validation. Subsurface modeling capabilities are an important component of this project for both the design of suitable tracers and the interpretation of data from in situ tracer tests, be they single- or multi-well tests. The purpose of this report is to describe the results of the tracer and model development for simulating and conducting tracer tests for characterizing EGS parameters.

  10. Mass-velocity and size-velocity distributions of ejecta cloud from shock-loaded tin surface using atomistic simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durand, O.; Soulard, L.

    2015-04-28

    The mass (volume and areal densities) versus velocity as well as the size versus velocity distributions of a shock-induced cloud of particles are investigated using large scale molecular dynamics simulations. A generic three-dimensional tin crystal with a sinusoidal free surface roughness (single wavelength) is set in contact with vacuum and shock-loaded so that it melts directly on shock. At the reflection of the shock wave onto the perturbations of the free surface, two-dimensional sheets/jets of liquid metal are ejected. The simulations show that the distributions may be described by an analytical model based on the propagation of a fragmentation zone, from the tip of the sheets to the free surface, in which the kinetic energy of the atoms decreases as this zone comes closer to the free surface on late times. As this kinetic energy drives (i) the (self-similar) expansion of the zone once it has broken away from the sheet and (ii) the average size of the particles which result from fragmentation in the zone, the ejected mass and the average size of the particles progressively increase in the cloud as fragmentation occurs closer to the free surface. Though relative to nanometric scales, our model may help in the analysis of experimental profiles.

  11. DShaper: An approach for handling missing low-Q data in pair distribution function analysis of nanostructured systems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Olds, Daniel; Wang, Hsiu -Wen; Page, Katharine L.

    2015-09-04

    In this work we discuss the potential problems and currently available solutions in modeling powder-diffraction based pair-distribution function (PDF) data from systems where morphological feature information content includes distances in the nanometer length scale, such as finite nanoparticles, nanoporous networks, and nanoscale precipitates in bulk materials. The implications of an experimental finite minimum Q-value are addressed by simulation, which also demonstrates the advantages of combining PDF data with small angle scattering data (SAS). We introduce a simple Fortran90 code, DShaper, which may be incorporated into PDF data fitting routines in order to approximate the so-called shape-function for any atomistic model.

  12. DShaper: An approach for handling missing low-Q data in pair distribution function analysis of nanostructured systems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Olds, Daniel; Wang, Hsiu -Wen; Page, Katharine

    2015-01-01

    This study discusses the potential problems and currently available solutions in modeling powder-diffraction-based pair distribution function (PDF) data from systems where morphological feature information content includes distances in the nanometre length scale, such as finite nanoparticles, nanoporous networks and nanoscale precipitates in bulk materials. The implications of an experimental finite minimumQvalue are reviewed by simulation, which also demonstrates the advantages of combining PDF data with small-angle scattering data. A simple Fortran90 code, DShaper, is introduced, which may be incorporated into PDF data fitting routines in order to approximate the so-called `shape function' for any atomistic model.

  13. Load Modeling and State Estimation Methods for Power Distribution Systems: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tom McDermott

    2010-05-07

    The project objective was to provide robust state estimation for distribution systems, comparable to what has been available on transmission systems for decades. This project used an algorithm called Branch Current State Estimation (BCSE), which is more effective than classical methods because it decouples the three phases of a distribution system, and uses branch current instead of node voltage as a state variable, which is a better match to current measurement.

  14. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems. Volume 2, Utility case assessments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaininger, H.W.; Ellis, P.R.; Schaefer, J.C.

    1994-06-01

    Electric utility distribution system impacts associated with the integration of renewable energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV) and wind turbines (WT) are considered in this project. The impacts are expected to vary from site to site according to the following characteristics: (1) The local solar insolation and/or wind characteristics; (2) renewable energy source penetration level; (3) whether battery or other energy storage systems are applied; and (4) local utility distribution design standards and planning practices. Small, distributed renewable energy sources are connected to the utility distribution system like other, similar kW- and MW-scale equipment and loads. Residential applications are expected to be connected to single-phase 120/240-V secondaries. Larger kw-scale applications may be connected to three-phase secondaries, and larger hundred-kW and MW-scale applications, such as MW-scale windfarms or PV plants, may be connected to electric utility primary systems via customer-owned primary and secondary collection systems. Small, distributed renewable energy sources installed on utility distribution systems will also produce nonsite-specific utility generation system benefits such as energy and capacity displacement benefits, in addition to the local site-specific distribution system benefits. Although generation system benefits are not site-specific, they are utility-specific, and they vary significantly among utilities in different regions. In addition, transmission system benefits, environmental benefits and other benefits may apply. These benefits also vary significantly among utilities and regions. Seven utility case studies considering PV, WT, and battery storage were conducted to identify a range of potential renewable energy source distribution system applications.

  15. OPTIMIZATION OF COMMINUTION CIRCUIT THROUGHPUT AND PRODUCT SIZE DISTRIBUTION BY SIMULATION AND CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H.J. Walqui; T.C. Eisele; S.K. Kawatra

    2003-07-01

    The goal of this project is to improve energy efficiency of industrial crushing and grinding operations (comminution). Mathematical models of the comminution process are being used to study methods for optimizing the product size distribution, so that the amount of excessively fine material produced can be minimized. The goal is to save energy by reducing the amount of material that is ground below the target size, while simultaneously reducing the quantity of materials wasted as ''slimes'' that are too fine to be useful. This will be accomplished by: (1) modeling alternative circuit arrangements to determine methods for minimizing overgrinding, and (2) determining whether new technologies, such as high-pressure roll crushing, can be used to alter particle breakage behavior to minimize fines production.

  16. Near equilibrium distributions for beams with space charge in linear and nonlinear periodic focusing systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sonnad, Kiran G.; Cary, John R.

    2015-04-15

    A procedure to obtain a near equilibrium phase space distribution function has been derived for beams with space charge effects in a generalized periodic focusing transport channel. The method utilizes the Lie transform perturbation theory to canonically transform to slowly oscillating phase space coordinates. The procedure results in transforming the periodic focusing system to a constant focusing one, where equilibrium distributions can be found. Transforming back to the original phase space coordinates yields an equilibrium distribution function corresponding to a constant focusing system along with perturbations resulting from the periodicity in the focusing. Examples used here include linear and nonlinear alternating gradient focusing systems. It is shown that the nonlinear focusing components can be chosen such that the system is close to integrability. The equilibrium distribution functions are numerically calculated, and their properties associated with the corresponding focusing system are discussed.

  17. Summary - System Level Modeling and Simulation Tools for Hanford

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    d Simul Waste Pr plan needs to c al, processing. e ETR Team R 12 months): ( ssor, memory engineers and tools; (3) Deve ation of uncerta s; (4) Reconcile ween HTWOS l; (5) Link...

  18. Mapping a hierarchical control strategy onto a distributed system architecture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manges, W.W.; Allgood, G.O.; Thompson, D.H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of the control architecture for the Thermal Management System (TMS) developed for the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation Program (AVLIS) at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. It represents one of the major process control subsystems and is responsible for the overall thermal environment during the operational phases of the facility. The author's involvement included the conceptualization, development, design, and implementation of the overall control strategy along with the specification/configuration of the supporting hardware and software. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Solid oxide fuel cell systems with hot zones having improved reactant distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poshusta, Joseph C; Booten, Charles W; Martin, Jerry L

    2013-12-24

    A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system having a hot zone with a center cathode air feed tube for improved reactant distribution, a CPOX reactor attached at the anode feed end of the hot zone with a tail gas combustor at the opposing end for more uniform heat distribution, and a counter-flow heat exchanger for efficient heat retention.

  20. Solid oxide fuel cell systems with hot zones having improved reactant distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poshusta, Joseph C.; Booten, Charles W.; Martin, Jerry L.

    2012-11-06

    A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system having a hot zone with a center cathode air feed tube for improved reactant distribution, a CPOX reactor attached at the anode feed end of the hot zone with a tail gas combustor at the opposing end for more uniform heat distribution, and a counter-flow heat exchanger for efficient heat retention.

  1. New Automotive Air Conditioning System Simulation Tool Developed in MATLAB/Simulink

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiss, T.; Chaney, L.; Meyer, J.

    2013-07-01

    Further improvements in vehicle fuel efficiency require accurate evaluation of the vehicle's transient total power requirement. When operated, the air conditioning (A/C) system is the largest auxiliary load on a vehicle; therefore, accurate evaluation of the load it places on the vehicle's engine and/or energy storage system is especially important. Vehicle simulation software, such as 'Autonomie,' has been used by OEMs to evaluate vehicles' energy performance. A transient A/C simulation tool incorporated into vehicle simulation models would also provide a tool for developing more efficient A/C systems through a thorough consideration of the transient A/C system performance. The dynamic system simulation software Matlab/Simulink was used to develop new and more efficient vehicle energy system controls. The various modeling methods used for the new simulation tool are described in detail. Comparison with measured data is provided to demonstrate the validity of the model.

  2. Technical Challenges of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Impacts to the US Power System: Distribution System Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerkensmeyer, Clint; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; DeSteese, John G.

    2010-01-01

    This report documents work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Department of Energy (DOE) to address three basic questions concerning how typical existing electrical distribution systems would be impacted by the addition of PHEVs to residential loads.

  3. OPTIMIZATION OF COMMINUTION CIRCUIT THROUGHPUT AND PRODUCT SIZE DISTRIBUTION BY SIMULATION AND CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.K. Kawatra; T.C. Eisele; H.J. Walqui

    2002-10-01

    The goal of this project is to improve energy efficiency of industrial crushing and grinding operations (comminution). Mathematical models of the comminution process are being used to study methods for optimizing he product size distribution, so that the amount of excessively fine material produced can be minimized. This will save energy by reducing the amount of material that is ground below the target size, and will also reduce the quantity of materials wasted as ''slimes'' that are too fine to be useful. This will be accomplished by: (1) modeling alternative circuit arrangements to determine methods for minimizing overgrinding, and (2) determining whether new technologies, such as high-pressure roll crushing, can be used to alter particle breakage behavior to minimize fines production. In the seventh quarter of this project, analysis of the plant operation identified sources of overgrinding in the circuit. Overgrinding was primarily caused by two effects: (1) The hydrocyclones used to close the circuit and remove fully-ground particles from the circuit were preferentially returning high-density ore particles to the secondary mills for regrinding even after they were already ground to pass the desired product size, and (2) The primary grinding mills were operating at less than full capacity, suggesting that a shift of grinding load to the primary mills could liberate more material before it reached the secondary mills, allowing more complete liberation with a coarser grind. Circuit modeling is underway to determine how best to modify the circuit to reduce these effects.

  4. Simulation of H{sup -} ion source extraction systems for the Spallation Neutron Source with Ion Beam Simulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalvas, T.; Tarvainen, O.; Welton, R. F.; Han, B. X.; Stockli, M. P.

    2012-02-15

    A three-dimensional ion optical code IBSimu, which is being developed at University of Jyvaeskylae, features positive and negative ion plasma extraction models and self-consistent space charge calculation. The code has been utilized for modeling the existing extraction system of the H{sup -} ion source of the Spallation Neutron Source. Simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data. A high-current extraction system with downstream electron dumping at intermediate energy has been designed. According to the simulations it provides lower emittance compared to the baseline system at H{sup -} currents exceeding 40 mA. A magnetic low energy beam transport section consisting of two solenoids has been designed to transport the beam from the alternative electrostatic extraction systems to the radio frequency quadrupole.

  5. Distribution System Audits, Leak Detection, and Repair: Kirtland Air Force Base Leak Detection and Repair Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-01-14

    Water Best Management Practice #3 Fact Seet: Outlines how a leak detection and repair program helped Kirtland Air Force Base perform distribution system audits, leak detection, and repair to conserve water site-wide.

  6. FY2013 Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing R&D Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-02-01

    FY 2013 annual report focuses on the following areas: vehicle modeling and simulation, component and systems evaluations, laboratory and field evaluations, codes and standards, industry projects, and vehicle systems optimization.

  7. Vehicle Technologies Office: 2011 Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing R&D Annual Progress Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    FY 2011 annual report focusing on five main areas: modeling and simulation, component and systems evaluation, laboratory and field vehicle evaluation, codes and standards development, and heavy vehicle systems optimization.

  8. Simulating cyanobacterial phenotypes by integrating flux balance analysis, kinetics, and a light distribution function

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    He, Lian; Wu, Stephen G.; Wan, Ni; Reding, Adrienne C.; Tang, Yinjie J.

    2015-12-24

    In this study, genome-scale models (GSMs) are widely used to predict cyanobacterial phenotypes in photobioreactors (PBRs). However, stoichiometric GSMs mainly focus on fluxome that result in maximal yields. Cyanobacterial metabolism is controlled by both intracellular enzymes and photobioreactor conditions. To connect both intracellular and extracellular information and achieve a better understanding of PBRs productivities, this study integrates a genome-scale metabolic model of Synechocystis 6803 with growth kinetics, cell movements, and a light distribution function. The hybrid platform not only maps flux dynamics in cells of sub-populations but also predicts overall production titer and rate in PBRs. Analysis of the integratedmore » GSM demonstrates several results. First, cyanobacteria are capable of reaching high biomass concentration (>20 g/L in 21 days) in PBRs without light and CO2 mass transfer limitations. Second, fluxome in a single cyanobacterium may show stochastic changes due to random cell movements in PBRs. Third, insufficient light due to cell self-shading can activate the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway in subpopulation cells. Fourth, the model indicates that the removal of glycogen synthesis pathway may not improve cyanobacterial bio-production in large-size PBRs, because glycogen can support cell growth in the dark zones. Based on experimental data, the integrated GSM estimates that Synechocystis 6803 in shake flask conditions has a photosynthesis efficiency of ~2.7 %. Conclusions: The multiple-scale integrated GSM, which examines both intracellular and extracellular domains, can be used to predict production yield/rate/titer in large-size PBRs. More importantly, genetic engineering strategies predicted by a traditional GSM may work well only in optimal growth conditions. In contrast, the integrated GSM may reveal mutant physiologies in diverse bioreactor conditions, leading to the design of robust strains with high chances of success in

  9. Simulating cyanobacterial phenotypes by integrating flux balance analysis, kinetics, and a light distribution function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Lian; Wu, Stephen G.; Wan, Ni; Reding, Adrienne C.; Tang, Yinjie J.

    2015-12-24

    In this study, genome-scale models (GSMs) are widely used to predict cyanobacterial phenotypes in photobioreactors (PBRs). However, stoichiometric GSMs mainly focus on fluxome that result in maximal yields. Cyanobacterial metabolism is controlled by both intracellular enzymes and photobioreactor conditions. To connect both intracellular and extracellular information and achieve a better understanding of PBRs productivities, this study integrates a genome-scale metabolic model of Synechocystis 6803 with growth kinetics, cell movements, and a light distribution function. The hybrid platform not only maps flux dynamics in cells of sub-populations but also predicts overall production titer and rate in PBRs. Analysis of the integrated GSM demonstrates several results. First, cyanobacteria are capable of reaching high biomass concentration (>20 g/L in 21 days) in PBRs without light and CO2 mass transfer limitations. Second, fluxome in a single cyanobacterium may show stochastic changes due to random cell movements in PBRs. Third, insufficient light due to cell self-shading can activate the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway in subpopulation cells. Fourth, the model indicates that the removal of glycogen synthesis pathway may not improve cyanobacterial bio-production in large-size PBRs, because glycogen can support cell growth in the dark zones. Based on experimental data, the integrated GSM estimates that Synechocystis 6803 in shake flask conditions has a photosynthesis efficiency of ~2.7 %. Conclusions: The multiple-scale integrated GSM, which examines both intracellular and extracellular domains, can be used to predict production yield/rate/titer in large-size PBRs. More importantly, genetic engineering strategies predicted by a traditional GSM may work well only in optimal growth conditions. In contrast, the integrated GSM may reveal mutant physiologies in diverse bioreactor conditions, leading to the design of robust strains with high

  10. Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System (Presentation)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen-from- Ethanol: A Distributed Production System Presented at the Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Meeting Laurel, Maryland Tuesday, November 6, 2007 H 2 Gen Innovations, Inc. Alexandria, Virginia www.h2gen.com 2 Topics * H 2 Gen Reformer System Innovation * Natural Gas Reformer - Key performance metrics - Summary unique H2A inputs * Ethanol Reformer - Key performance metrics - Summary unique H2A inputs * Questions from 2007 Merit Review 3 H 2 Gen

  11. New approach for absolute fluence distribution calculations in Monte Carlo simulations of light propagation in turbid media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Böcklin, Christoph Baumann, Dirk; Fröhlich, Jürg

    2014-02-14

    A novel way to attain three dimensional fluence rate maps from Monte-Carlo simulations of photon propagation is presented in this work. The propagation of light in a turbid medium is described by the radiative transfer equation and formulated in terms of radiance. For many applications, particularly in biomedical optics, the fluence rate is a more useful quantity and directly derived from the radiance by integrating over all directions. Contrary to the usual way which calculates the fluence rate from absorbed photon power, the fluence rate in this work is directly calculated from the photon packet trajectory. The voxel based algorithm works in arbitrary geometries and material distributions. It is shown that the new algorithm is more efficient and also works in materials with a low or even zero absorption coefficient. The capabilities of the new algorithm are demonstrated on a curved layered structure, where a non-scattering, non-absorbing layer is sandwiched between two highly scattering layers.

  12. Impact of Distribution-Connected Large-Scale Wind Turbines on Transmission System Stability during Large Disturbances: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Y.; Allen, A.; Hodge, B. M.

    2014-02-01

    This work examines the dynamic impacts of distributed utility-scale wind power during contingency events on both the distribution system and the transmission system. It is the first step toward investigating high penetrations of distribution-connected wind power's impact on both distribution and transmission stability.

  13. Intelligent Monitoring System with High Temperature Distributed Fiberoptic Sensor for Power Plant Combustion Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwang Y. Lee; Stuart S. Yin; Andre Boehman

    2006-09-26

    The objective of the proposed work is to develop an intelligent distributed fiber optical sensor system for real-time monitoring of high temperature in a boiler furnace in power plants. Of particular interest is the estimation of spatial and temporal distributions of high temperatures within a boiler furnace, which will be essential in assessing and controlling the mechanisms that form and remove pollutants at the source, such as NOx. The basic approach in developing the proposed sensor system is three fold: (1) development of high temperature distributed fiber optical sensor capable of measuring temperatures greater than 2000 C degree with spatial resolution of less than 1 cm; (2) development of distributed parameter system (DPS) models to map the three-dimensional (3D) temperature distribution for the furnace; and (3) development of an intelligent monitoring system for real-time monitoring of the 3D boiler temperature distribution. Under Task 1, we have set up a dedicated high power, ultrafast laser system for fabricating in-fiber gratings in harsh environment optical fibers, successfully fabricated gratings in single crystal sapphire fibers by the high power laser system, and developed highly sensitive long period gratings (lpg) by electric arc. Under Task 2, relevant mathematical modeling studies of NOx formation in practical combustors have been completed. Studies show that in boiler systems with no swirl, the distributed temperature sensor may provide information sufficient to predict trends of NOx at the boiler exit. Under Task 3, we have investigated a mathematical approach to extrapolation of the temperature distribution within a power plant boiler facility, using a combination of a modified neural network architecture and semigroup theory. Given a set of empirical data with no analytic expression, we first developed an analytic description and then extended that model along a single axis.

  14. Intelligent Monitoring System With High Temperature Distributed Fiberoptic Sensor For Power Plant Combustion Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwang Y. Lee; Stuart S. Yin; Andre Boheman

    2005-12-26

    The objective of the proposed work is to develop an intelligent distributed fiber optical sensor system for real-time monitoring of high temperature in a boiler furnace in power plants. Of particular interest is the estimation of spatial and temporal distributions of high temperatures within a boiler furnace, which will be essential in assessing and controlling the mechanisms that form and remove pollutants at the source, such as NOx. The basic approach in developing the proposed sensor system is three fold: (1) development of high temperature distributed fiber optical sensor capable of measuring temperatures greater than 2000 C degree with spatial resolution of less than 1 cm; (2) development of distributed parameter system (DPS) models to map the three-dimensional (3D) temperature distribution for the furnace; and (3) development of an intelligent monitoring system for real-time monitoring of the 3D boiler temperature distribution. Under Task 1, we set up a dedicated high power, ultrafast laser system for fabricating in-fiber gratings in harsh environment optical fibers, successfully fabricated gratings in single crystal sapphire fibers by the high power laser system, and developed highly sensitive long period gratings (lpg) by electric arc. Under Task 2, relevant mathematical modeling studies of NOx formation in practical combustors. Studies show that in boiler systems with no swirl, the distributed temperature sensor may provide information sufficient to predict trends of NOx at the boiler exit. Under Task 3, we investigate a mathematical approach to extrapolation of the temperature distribution within a power plant boiler facility, using a combination of a modified neural network architecture and semigroup theory. The 3D temperature data is furnished by the Penn State Energy Institute using FLUENT. Given a set of empirical data with no analytic expression, we first develop an analytic description and then extend that model along a single axis. Extrapolation

  15. Scalable Distributed Automation System: Scalable Real-time Decentralized Volt/VAR Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-03-01

    GENI Project: Caltech is developing a distributed automation system that allows distributed generators—solar panels, wind farms, thermal co-generation systems—to effectively manage their own power. To date, the main stumbling block for distributed automation systems has been the inability to develop software that can handle more than 100,000 distributed generators and be implemented in real time. Caltech’s software could allow millions of generators to self-manage through local sensing, computation, and communication. Taken together, localized algorithms can support certain global objectives, such as maintaining the balance of energy supply and demand, regulating voltage and frequency, and minimizing cost. An automated, grid-wide power control system would ease the integration of renewable energy sources like solar power into the grid by quickly transmitting power when it is created, eliminating the energy loss associated with the lack of renewable energy storage capacity of the grid.

  16. Residential forced-air-distribution system study. Semi-annual report March-September 1982

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orlando, J.A.; Pettit, V.E.; Gamze, M.G.

    1982-11-01

    Tracer gas techniques have frequently been used to determine the air change characteristics for various structures. Previously, GKCO had utilized a tracer gas procedure to measure intrastructural air flows as a basis for computing the heat loss due to forced air distribution systems. Testing of several gas furnace hot air systems indicated that distribution losses can be significant and were affected by the characteristics of the heat source. In a subsequent study, the field testing was expanded to other heating system components including an electric heat pump, a gas heat pump, and a gas furnace/electric heat pump hybrid system. In addition, cooling mode data were taken as a basis for an annual analysis of distribution system efficiency. The report describes the detailed instrumentation of a single test home with a tracer gas and with flowmeters and temperature sensors installed in the duct system, the calibration of these flowmeters, and two alternative analyses of the resulting data. It also includes results from data collection in two additional structures - a two story structure with the duct system located in the basement and attic, and a one story rambler with a radial duct system buried in the building slab. Distribution system efficiencies ranged from 66% to over 74%.

  17. Simulation of spacecraft fuelcell systems including thermal control and electrical interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rothmeyer, M.; Simon, R.; Benz, U.

    1987-01-01

    Fuel cell systems will be applied as non-regenerative power source in HERMES and as regenerative power supply in future space stations. To support project development and engineering tasks flexible software is needed for simulation and analysis of such systems. A simulation program, called SANFU (System Analyzer for Fuel cells) for low temperature fuel cells has been developed, which supports a modular model construction. The current configuration of the program includes simulation of transient thermal boundary conditions, transient electrical interface data, several operating options and different control logics. For HERMES fuel cell system simulation three standard fuel cell configurations are currently being simulated: immobile electrolyte fuel cells, mobile electrolyte (KOH) fuel cells and solid polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Test results for different load cases and transient boundary conditions are quoted. The general design, input and output capabilities, future extensions and applications are discussed.

  18. Estimation of radiative properties and temperature distributions in coal-fired boiler furnaces by a portable image processing system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Wenhao; Lou, Chun; Sun, Yipeng; Zhou, Huaichun

    2011-02-15

    This paper presented an experimental investigation on the estimation of radiative properties and temperature distributions in a 670 t/h coal-fired boiler furnace by a portable imaging processing system. The portable system has been calibrated by a blackbody furnace. Flame temperatures and emissivities were measured by the portable system and equivalent blackbody temperatures were deduced. Comparing the equivalent blackbody temperatures measured by the portable system and the infrared pyrometer, the relative difference is less than 4%. The reconstructed pseudo-instantaneous 2-D temperature distributions in two cross-sections can disclose the combustion status inside the furnace. The measured radiative properties of particles in the furnace proved there is significant scattering in coal-fired boiler furnaces and it can provide useful information for the calculation of radiative heat transfer and numerical simulation of combustion in coal-fired boiler furnaces. The preliminary experimental results show this technology will be helpful for the combustion diagnosis in coal-fired boiler furnaces. (author)

  19. Modeling and simulation of laser systems III. SPIE Volume 2117

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schnurr, A.D.

    1994-12-31

    This conference marks a milestone in the progress of laser and optical system modeling as a key to carefully focused, cost-effective hardware development and theoretical understanding of new laser and optical systems. The conference was divided into the following three sessions: photonic band structure phenomena; high power laser systems; and advanced laser systems. Separate abstracts were prepared for 15 papers in this conference.

  20. Award ER25844: Minimizing System Noise Effects for Extreme-Scale Scientific Simulation Through Function Delegation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumsdaine, Andrew

    2012-11-20

    In software running on distributed computing clusters, time spent on communication between nodes in the cluster can be a significant portion of the overall computation time; background operating system tasks and other computational ?noise? on the nodes of the system can have a significant impact on the amount of time this communication takes, especially on large systems. The research completed in this period has improved understanding of when such noise will have a significant impact. Specifically, it was demonstrated that not just noise on the nodes, but also noise on the network between nodes can have a significant impact on computation time. It was also demonstrated that noise patterns matter more than noise intensity: very regular noise can cause less disruption than lighter (on average) but less regular noise. It was also demonstrated that the effect of noise is more prominent as the speed of the network between nodes is increased. Furthermore, a tracing tool, Netgauge, was improved via our work, and a system simulator, LogGOPSim, was developed; they can be used by application developers to improve performance of their program and by system designers to mitigate the effects of noise by adjusting the noise characteristics of the operating system. Both have been made freely available as open source programs. In the course of developing these tools, we demonstrated weaknesses in existing methodologies for modeling communication, and we introduced a more detailed model, LogGOPS, for simulating systems. Not only were the deleterious effects of noise explored but we have also offered solutions. Our studies of simulations of system noise have led to specific recommendations on tuning systems to mitigate noise. We have also improved existing approaches to mitigating noise. ?Non-blocking collective communication? avoids the effects of noise by letting communication continue simultaneously with computation (thus being ?non-blocking?), so that the delays in communication

  1. Performance Modeling and Testing of Distributed Electronics in PV Systems; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deline, C.

    2015-03-18

    Computer modeling is able to predict the performance of distributed power electronics (microinverters, power optimizers) in PV systems. However, details about partial shade and other mismatch must be known in order to give the model accurate information to go on. This talk will describe recent updates in NREL’s System Advisor Model program to model partial shading losses with and without distributed power electronics, along with experimental validation results. Computer modeling is able to predict the performance of distributed power electronics (microinverters, power optimizers) in PV systems. However, details about partial shade and other mismatch must be known in order to give the model accurate information to go on. This talk will describe recent updates in NREL’s System Advisor Model program to model partial shading losses.

  2. Performance and Economic Analysis of Distributed Power Electronics in Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deline, C.; Marion, B.; Granata, J.; Gonzalez, S.

    2011-01-01

    Distributed electronics like micro-inverters and DC-DC converters can help recover mismatch and shading losses in photovoltaic (PV) systems. Under partially shaded conditions, the use of distributed electronics can recover between 15-40% of annual performance loss or more, depending on the system configuration and type of device used. Additional value-added features may also increase the benefit of using per-panel distributed electronics, including increased safety, reduced system design constraints and added monitoring and diagnostics. The economics of these devices will also become more favorable as production volume increases, and integration within the solar panel?s junction box reduces part count and installation time. Some potential liabilities of per-panel devices include increased PV system cost, additional points of failure, and an insertion loss that may or may not offset performance gains under particular mismatch conditions.

  3. Development of Innovative Distributed Power Interconnection and Control Systems: Annual Report, December 2000-December 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liss, W.; Dybel, M.; West, R.; Adams, L.

    2002-11-01

    This report covers the first year's work performed by the Gas Technology Institute and Encorp Inc. under subcontract to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The objective of this three-year contract is to develop innovative grid interconnection and control systems. This supports the advancement of distributed generation in the marketplace by making installations more cost-effective and compatible across the electric power and energy management systems. Specifically, the goals are: (1) To develop and demonstrate cost-effective distributed power grid interconnection products and software and communication solutions applicable to improving the economics of a broad range of distributed power systems, including existing, emerging, and other power generation technologies. (2) To enhance the features and capabilities of distributed power products to integrate, interact, and provide operational benefits to the electric power and advanced energy management systems. This includes features and capabilities for participating in resource planning, the provision of ancillary services, and energy management. Specific topics of this report include the development of an advanced controller, a power sensing board, expanded communication capabilities, a revenue-grade meter interface, and a case study of an interconnection distributed power system application that is a model for demonstrating the functionalities of the design of the advanced controller.

  4. Posters Mesoscale Simulations of Convective Systems with Data...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In this study the feasibility of driving the model with surface data, rawinsonde data, profiler winds, microwave radiometer moisture data, and radio-acoustic sounding system (RASS) ...

  5. Chapter 3: Enabling Modernization of the Electric Power System Technology Assessment | Flexible and Distributed Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Resources Measurements, Communications, and Controls Transmission and Distribution Components ENERGY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF Quadrennial Technology Review 2015 1 Quadrennial Technology Review 2015 Flexible and Distributed Energy Resources Chapter 3: Technology Assessments Introduction The U.S. electric power system is undergoing significant changes. The reliance on large thermal generators of the past is giving way to a much more dynamic paradigm. In recent years, many new technologies have been

  6. Chapter 3: Enabling Modernization of the Electric Power System Technology Assessment | Transmission and Distribution Components

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Components ENERGY U.S. DEPARTMENT OF Quadrennial Technology Review 2015 1 Quadrennial Technology Review 2015 Transmission and Distribution Components Chapter 3: Technology Assessments Introduction Today's electric power system was designed for efficiency, reliability, ease of operation, and to meet consumer needs at minimum cost. The grid of the future must maintain these characteristics while meeting a number of new requirements: supporting the integration of various clean and distributed

  7. Photovoltaic Systems Interconnected onto Secondary Network Distribution Systems – Success Stories

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This report examines six case studies of photovoltaic (PV) systems integrated into secondary network systems. The six PV systems were chosen for evaluation because they are interconnected to secondary network systems located in four major Solar America Cities.

  8. An implementation of co-simulation for performance prediction of innovative integrated HVAC systems in buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trcka, Marija; Wetter, Michael; Hensen, Jan L.M.

    2010-07-01

    Integrated performance simulation of buildings and heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems can help reducing energy consumption and increasing level of occupant comfort. However, no singe building performance simulation (BPS) tool offers sufficient capabilities and flexibilities to accommodate the ever-increasing complexity and rapid innovations in building and system technologies. One way to alleviate this problem is to use co-simulation. The co-simulation approach represents a particular case of simulation scenario where at least two simulators solve coupled differential-algebraic systems of equations and exchange data that couples these equations during the time integration. This paper elaborates on issues important for co-simulation realization and discusses multiple possibilities to justify the particular approach implemented in a co-simulation prototype. The prototype is verified and validated against the results obtained from the traditional simulation approach. It is further used in a case study for the proof-of-concept, to demonstrate the applicability of the method and to highlight its benefits. Stability and accuracy of different coupling strategies are analyzed to give a guideline for the required coupling frequency. The paper concludes by defining requirements and recommendations for generic cosimulation implementations.

  9. Intercomparison of Large-eddy Simulations of Arctic Mixed-phase Clouds: Importance of Ice Size Distribution Assumptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ovchinnikov, Mikhail; Ackerman, Andrew; Avramov, Alex; Cheng, Anning; Fan, Jiwen; Fridlind, Ann; Ghan, Steven J.; Harrington, Jerry Y.; Hoose, Corinna; Korolev, Alexei; McFarquhar, Greg; Morrison, H.; Paukert, Marco; Savre, Julien; Shipway, Ben; Shupe, Matthew D.; Solomon, Amy; Sulia, Kara

    2014-03-14

    Large-eddy simulations of mixed-phase Arctic clouds by 11 different models are analyzed with the goal of improving understanding and model representation of processes controlling the evolution of these clouds. In a case based on observations from the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC), it is found that ice number concentration, Ni, exerts significant influence on the cloud structure. Increasing Ni leads to a substantial reduction in liquid water path (LWP) and potential cloud dissipation, in agreement with earlier studies. By comparing simulations with the same microphysics coupled to different dynamical cores as well as the same dynamics coupled to different microphysics schemes, it is found that the ice water path (IWP) is mainly controlled by ice microphysics, while the inter-model differences in LWP are largely driven by physics and numerics of the dynamical cores. In contrast to previous intercomparisons, all models here use the same ice particle properties (i.e., mass-size, mass-fall speed, and mass-capacitance relationships) and a common radiation parameterization. The constrained setup exposes the importance of ice particle size distributions (PSD) in influencing cloud evolution. A clear separation in LWP and IWP predicted by models with bin and bulk microphysical treatments is documented and attributed primarily to the assumed shape of ice PSD used in bulk schemes. Compared to the bin schemes that explicitly predict the PSD, schemes assuming exponential ice PSD underestimate ice growth by vapor deposition and overestimate mass-weighted fall speed leading to an underprediction of IWP by a factor of two in the considered case.

  10. Algorithm and simulation development in support of response strategies for contamination events in air and water systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Waanders, Bart Van Bloemen

    2006-01-01

    Chemical/Biological/Radiological (CBR) contamination events pose a considerable threat to our nation's infrastructure, especially in large internal facilities, external flows, and water distribution systems. Because physical security can only be enforced to a limited degree, deployment of early warning systems is being considered. However to achieve reliable and efficient functionality, several complex questions must be answered: (1) where should sensors be placed, (2) how can sparse sensor information be efficiently used to determine the location of the original intrusion, (3) what are the model and data uncertainties, (4) how should these uncertainties be handled, and (5) how can our algorithms and forward simulations be sufficiently improved to achieve real time performance? This report presents the results of a three year algorithmic and application development to support the identification, mitigation, and risk assessment of CBR contamination events. The main thrust of this investigation was to develop (1) computationally efficient algorithms for strategically placing sensors, (2) identification process of contamination events by using sparse observations, (3) characterization of uncertainty through developing accurate demands forecasts and through investigating uncertain simulation model parameters, (4) risk assessment capabilities, and (5) reduced order modeling methods. The development effort was focused on water distribution systems, large internal facilities, and outdoor areas.

  11. Strategy and gaps for modeling, simulation, and control of hybrid systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabiti, Cristian; Garcia, Humberto E.; Hovsapian, Rob; Kinoshita, Robert; Mesina, George L.; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Boardman, Richard D.

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to establish a strategy for modeling and simulation of candidate hybrid energy systems. Modeling and simulation is necessary to design, evaluate, and optimize the system technical and economic performance. Accordingly, this report first establishes the simulation requirements to analysis candidate hybrid systems. Simulation fidelity levels are established based on the temporal scale, real and synthetic data availability or needs, solution accuracy, and output parameters needed to evaluate case-specific figures of merit. Accordingly, the associated computational and co-simulation resources needed are established; including physical models when needed, code assembly and integrated solutions platforms, mathematical solvers, and data processing. This report first attempts to describe the figures of merit, systems requirements, and constraints that are necessary and sufficient to characterize the grid and hybrid systems behavior and market interactions. Loss of Load Probability (LOLP) and effective cost of Effective Cost of Energy (ECE), as opposed to the standard Levelized Cost of Electricty (LCOE), are introduced as technical and economical indices for integrated energy system evaluations. Financial assessment methods are subsequently introduced for evaluation of non-traditional, hybrid energy systems. Algorithms for coupled and iterative evaluation of the technical and economic performance are subsequently discussed. This report further defines modeling objectives, computational tools, solution approaches, and real-time data collection and processing (in some cases using real test units) that will be required to model, co-simulate, and optimize; (a) an energy system components (e.g., power generation unit, chemical process, electricity management unit), (b) system domains (e.g., thermal, electrical or chemical energy generation, conversion, and transport), and (c) systems control modules. Co-simulation of complex, tightly coupled

  12. Control mechanism for attenuation of thermal energy pulses using cold circulators in the cryogenic distribution system of fusion devices in tokamak configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharya, R.; Sarkar, B.; Vaghela, H.; Shah, N.

    2014-01-29

    Operation and control of superconducting (SC) magnets in the fusion devices having tokamak configuration opens up the domain of varying peak thermal energy environment as a function of time, commensurate with the plasma pulses. The varied thermal energy environment, thus propagated to upstream of the cooling system, is responsible for the system level instability of the overall cryogenic system. The cryogenic distribution system, the regime of first impact point, therefore, has to be tuned so as to stay at the nearly stable zone of operation. The configuration of the cryogenic distribution system, considered in the present study, involves a liquid helium (LHe) bath as a thermal buffer, LHe submerged heat exchangers and cold circulator apart from the valves for implementations of the precise controls. The cold circulator supplies the forced flow supercritical helium, used for the cooling of SC magnets. The transients of the thermal energy pulses can be attenuated in the cryogenic distribution system by various methodologies. One of the adopted methodologies in the present study is with the precise speed control of the cold circulators. The adopted methodology is applied to various configurations of arrangements of internal components in the distribution system for obtaining system responses with superior attenuation of energy pulses. The process simulation approach, assumptions, considered inputs and constraints, process modeling with different configuration as well as results to accomplish the control scheme for the attenuation of the thermal energy pulses are described.

  13. Distribution system model calibration with big data from AMI and PV inverters

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Peppanen, Jouni; Reno, Matthew J.; Broderick, Robert J.; Grijalva, Santiago

    2016-03-03

    Efficient management and coordination of distributed energy resources with advanced automation schemes requires accurate distribution system modeling and monitoring. Big data from smart meters and photovoltaic (PV) micro-inverters can be leveraged to calibrate existing utility models. This paper presents computationally efficient distribution system parameter estimation algorithms to improve the accuracy of existing utility feeder radial secondary circuit model parameters. The method is demonstrated using a real utility feeder model with advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) and PV micro-inverters, along with alternative parameter estimation approaches that can be used to improve secondary circuit models when limited measurement data is available. Lastly, themore » parameter estimation accuracy is demonstrated for both a three-phase test circuit with typical secondary circuit topologies and single-phase secondary circuits in a real mixed-phase test system.« less

  14. Computer simulation of the rotary engine apex seal system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orlandea, N.V.; Weinert, M.S.; Keleher, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    Many factors influence the performance and life of the apex seal system in a rotary engine. These considerations include basic configuration, material and dimensions of sealing elements, lubrication conditions, seal and surface temperatures, and seal loading. These parameters and particularly their interactions are not well understood. The objective of this investigation was to create mathematical models capable of explaining the dynamic behavior of the apex seal system. These models enable us to: 1. Understand present apex sealing system loads and how they are influenced by design and material parameters. 2. Allow product engineers to assess the influence of proposed design changes on apex seal performance.

  15. Mathematical modeling and computer simulation of processes in energy systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanjalic, K.C. )

    1990-01-01

    This book is divided into the following chapters. Modeling techniques and tools (fundamental concepts of modeling); 2. Fluid flow, heat and mass transfer, chemical reactions, and combustion; 3. Processes in energy equipment and plant components (boilers, steam and gas turbines, IC engines, heat exchangers, pumps and compressors, nuclear reactors, steam generators and separators, energy transport equipment, energy convertors, etc.); 4. New thermal energy conversion technologies (MHD, coal gasification and liquefaction fluidized-bed combustion, pulse-combustors, multistage combustion, etc.); 5. Combined cycles and plants, cogeneration; 6. Dynamics of energy systems and their components; 7. Integrated approach to energy systems modeling, and 8. Application of modeling in energy expert systems.

  16. On constructing optimistic simulation algorithms for the discrete event system specification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nutaro, James J

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a Time Warp simulation algorithm for discrete event models that are described in terms of the Discrete Event System Specification (DEVS). The article shows how the total state transition and total output function of a DEVS atomic model can be transformed into an event processing procedure for a logical process. A specific Time Warp algorithm is constructed around this logical process, and it is shown that the algorithm correctly simulates a DEVS coupled model that consists entirely of interacting atomic models. The simulation algorithm is presented abstractly; it is intended to provide a basis for implementing efficient and scalable parallel algorithms that correctly simulate DEVS models.

  17. Tank waste remediation system simulation analysis retrieval model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fordham, R.A.

    1996-09-30

    The goal of simulation was to test tll(., consequences of assumptions. For the TWRS SIMAN Retrieval Model, l@lie specific assumptions are primarily defined with respect to waste processing arid transfer timing. The model tracks 73 chem1913ical constituents from underground waste tanks to glass; yet, the detailed (@hemistrv and complete set of unit operations of the TWRS process flow sheet are represented only at the level necessary to define the waste processing and transfer logic and to estimate the feed composition for the treatment facilities. Tlierefor(,, the model should net be regarded as a substitute for the TWRS process flow sheet. Pra(!ticallv the model functions as a dyrt(imic extension of the flow sheet model. I I The following sections present the description, assunipt@ions, architecture, arid evalua- tion of the TWRS SIMAN Retrieval Model. Section 2 describes the model in terms of an overview of the processes represented. Section 3 presents the assumptions for the simulation model. Specific assumptions 9.tt(l parameter values used in the model are provided for waste retrieval, pretreatment, low-level waste (LLNN7) immobilization, and high-level waste (HLW) immobilization functions. Section 4 describes the model in terms of its functional architec- rare to d(@fine a basis for a systematic evaluation of the model. Finally, Section 5 documents an independent test and evaluation of the niodel`s performance (i.e., the verification and validation). Additionally, Appendix A gives a complete listing of the tank inventory used. Appendix B documents the verification and validation plan that was used for the (Section 5) evaluation work. A description and listing of all the model variables is given in Appendix C along with a complete source listing.

  18. Vehicle & Systems Simulation & Testing | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy Case study describes various concepts for more cost-effective cooling solutions in data centers, while keeping in mind that the reliability of computing systems and their respective cooling systems is always a key criterion. Download the Variable Speed Fan Retrofits for Computer Room Air Conditioners case study. (352.57 KB) More Documents & Publications Wireless Sensors Improve Data Center Efficiency NSIDC Data Center: Energy Reduction Strategies Energy Efficiency

  19. Impacts of different data averaging times on statistical analysis of distributed domestic photovoltaic systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Widen, Joakim; Waeckelgaard, Ewa; Paatero, Jukka; Lund, Peter

    2010-03-15

    The trend of increasing application of distributed generation with solar photovoltaics (PV-DG) suggests that a widespread integration in existing low-voltage (LV) grids is possible in the future. With massive integration in LV grids, a major concern is the possible negative impacts of excess power injection from on-site generation. For power-flow simulations of such grid impacts, an important consideration is the time resolution of demand and generation data. This paper investigates the impact of time averaging on high-resolution data series of domestic electricity demand and PV-DG output and on voltages in a simulated LV grid. Effects of 10-minutely and hourly averaging on descriptive statistics and duration curves were determined. Although time averaging has a considerable impact on statistical properties of the demand in individual households, the impact is smaller on aggregate demand, already smoothed from random coincidence, and on PV-DG output. Consequently, the statistical distribution of simulated grid voltages was also robust against time averaging. The overall judgement is that statistical investigation of voltage variations in the presence of PV-DG does not require higher resolution than hourly. (author)

  20. Perturbed Physics Ensemble Simulations of Cirrus on the Cloud System-resolving Scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muhlbauer, Andreas; Berry, Elizabeth; Comstock, Jennifer M.; Mace, Gerald G.

    2014-04-16

    In this study, the effect of uncertainties in the parameterization of ice microphysical processes and initial conditions on the variability of cirrus microphysical and radiative properties are investigated in a series of cloud system-resolving perturbed physics ensemble (PPE) and initial condition ensemble (ICE) simulations. Three cirrus cases representative of mid-latitude, subtropical and tropical cirrus are examined. It is found that the variability in cirrus properties induced by perturbing uncertain parameters in ice microphysics parameterizations outweighs the variability induced by perturbing the initial conditions in midlatitude and subtropical cirrus. However, in tropical anvil cirrus the variability in the PPE and ICE simulations is about the same order of magnitude. The cirrus properties showing the largest sensitivity are ice water content (IWC) and cloud thickness whereas the averaged high cloud cover is only marginally affected. Changes in cirrus ice water path and outgoing longwave radiation are controlled primarily by changes in IWC and cloud thickness but not by changes is the averaged high cloud cover. The change in the vertical distribution of cloud fraction and cloud thickness is caused by changes in cirrus cloud base whereas cloud top is not sensitive to either perturbed physics or perturbed initial conditions. In all cirrus cases, the top three parameters controlling the microphysical variability and radiative impact of cirrus clouds are ice fall speeds, ice autoconversion size thresholds and heterogeneous ice nucleation. Changes in the ice deposition coefficient do not affect the ice water path and outgoing longwave radiation. Similarly, changes in the number concentration of aerosols available for homogeneous freezing have virtually no effect on the microphysical and radiative properties of midlatitude and subtropical cirrus but only little impact on tropical anvil cirrus. Overall, the sensitivity of cirrus microphysical and radiative

  1. Distributed processing and analysis of physics data in the D0 SAM system at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Igor V. Terekhov

    2001-08-30

    SAM (Sequential Access through Meta-data) is the data access system for the D0 high energy physics (HEP) experiment at Fermilab. The system is being developed and used to handle the Petabyte-scale experiment data. The D0 applications, like virtually all HEP applications, are data-intensive, which poses special problems for the data management and job control facilities in the distributed environment. The fundamental problem is to bring the user applications and the data together, and SAM attacks the problems from both sides. First, we describe how the system moves the data through the distributed disk cache. Second, we describe how SAM interacts with the batch system to synchronize parallel user jobs with the data availability. All the design solutions herein have been implemented in a real system that handles the mission-critical data of the D0 experiment; thus, we present our work from the standpoint of real experience.

  2. Hydraulic model analysis of water distribution system, Rockwell International, Rocky Flats, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perstein, J.; Castellano, J.A.

    1989-01-20

    Rockwell International requested an analysis of the existing plant site water supply distribution system at Rocky Flats, Colorado, to determine its adequacy. On September 26--29, 1988, Hughes Associates, Inc., Fire Protection Engineers, accompanied by Rocky Flats Fire Department engineers and suppression personnel, conducted water flow tests at the Rocky Flats plant site. Thirty-seven flows from various points throughout the plant site were taken on the existing domestic supply/fire main installation to assure comprehensive and thorough representation of the Rocky Flats water distribution system capability. The analysis was completed in four phases which are described, together with a summary of general conclusions and recommendations.

  3. Entanglement verification for quantum-key-distribution systems with an underlying bipartite qubit-mode structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rigas, Johannes; Luetkenhaus, Norbert

    2006-01-15

    We consider entanglement detection for quantum-key-distribution systems that use two signal states and continuous-variable measurements. This problem can be formulated as a separability problem in a qubit-mode system. To verify entanglement, we introduce an object that combines the covariance matrix of the mode with the density matrix of the qubit. We derive necessary separability criteria for this scenario. These criteria can be readily evaluated using semidefinite programming and we apply them to the specific quantum key distribution protocol.

  4. Manufacturing R&D for systems that will produce and distribute hydrogen |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy for systems that will produce and distribute hydrogen Manufacturing R&D for systems that will produce and distribute hydrogen Background paper prepared for the 2005 Hydrogen Manufacturing R&D workshop. mfg_wkshp_production.pdf (369.86 KB) More Documents & Publications Manufacturing R&D of PEM Fuel Cells Roadmap on Manufacturing R&D for the Hydrogen Economy 2011 Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Fuel Cell

  5. Urea/Ammonia Distribution Optimization in an SCR Emission Control System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Through the Use of CFD Analysis | Department of Energy Urea/Ammonia Distribution Optimization in an SCR Emission Control System Through the Use of CFD Analysis Urea/Ammonia Distribution Optimization in an SCR Emission Control System Through the Use of CFD Analysis Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle

  6. DENSE MULTIPHASE FLOW SIMULATION: CONTINUUM MODEL FOR POLY-DISPERSED SYSTEMS USING KINETIC THEORY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moses Bogere

    2011-08-31

    The overall objective of the project was to verify the applicability of the FCMOM approach to the kinetic equations describing the particle flow dynamics. For monodispersed systems the fundamental equation governing the particle flow dynamics is the Boltzmann equation. During the project, the FCMOM was successfully applied to several homogeneous and in-homogeneous problems in different flow regimes, demonstrating that the FCMOM has the potential to be used to solve efficiently the Boltzmann equation. However, some relevant issues still need to be resolved, i.e. the homogeneous cooling problem (inelastic particles cases) and the transition between different regimes. In this report, the results obtained in homogeneous conditions are discussed first. Then a discussion of the validation results for in-homogeneous conditions is provided. And finally, a discussion will be provided about the transition between different regimes. Alongside the work on development of FCMOM approach studies were undertaken in order to provide insights into anisotropy or particles kinetics in riser hydrodynamics. This report includes results of studies of multiphase flow with unequal granular temperatures and analysis of momentum re-distribution in risers due to particle-particle and fluid-particle interactions. The study of multiphase flow with unequal granular temperatures entailed both simulation and experimental studies of two particles sizes in a riser and, a brief discussion of what was accomplished will be provided. And finally, a discussion of the analysis done on momentum re-distribution of gas-particles flow in risers will be provided. In particular a discussion of the remaining work needed in order to improve accuracy and predictability of riser hydrodynamics based on two-fluid models and how they can be used to model segregation in risers.

  7. Gen Purpose 1-D Finite Element Network Fluid Flow Heat Transfer System Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1993-08-02

    SAFSIM (System Analysis Flow Simulator) is a FORTRAN computer program to simulate the integrated performance of systems involving fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and reactor dynamics. SAFSIM provides sufficient versatility to allow the engineering simulation of almost any system, from a backyard sprinkler system to a clustered nuclear reactor propulsion system. In addition to versatility, speed and robustness are primary SAFSIM development goals. SAFSIM contains three basic physics modules: (1) a one-dimensional finite element fluid mechanicsmore » module with multiple flow network capability; (2) a one-dimensional finite element structure heat transfer module with multiple convection and radiation exchange capability; and (3) a point reactor dynamics module with reactivity feedback and decay heat capability. SAFSIM can be used for compressible and incompressible, single-phase, multicomponent flow systems.« less

  8. Optimal Combination of Distributed Energy System in an Eco-Campusof Japan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Yongwen; Gao, Weijun; Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris

    2006-06-14

    In this study, referring to the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) which was developed by the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), E-GAMS programmer is developed with a research of database of energy tariffs, DER (Distributed Energy Resources) technology cost and performance characteristics, and building energy consumption in Japan. E-GAMS is a tool designed to find the optimal combination of installed equipment and an idealized operating schedule to minimize a site's energy bills. In this research, by using E-GAMS, we present a tool to select the optimal combination of distributed energy system for an Ecological-Campus, Kitakyushu, Science and Research Park (KSRP). We discuss the effects of the combination of distributed energy technologies on the energy saving, economic efficiency and environmental benefits.

  9. Three axis electronic flight motion simulator real time control system design and implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiyuan; Miao, Zhonghua Wang, Xiaohua; Wang, Xuyong

    2014-12-15

    A three axis electronic flight motion simulator is reported in this paper including the modelling, the controller design as well as the hardware implementation. This flight motion simulator could be used for inertial navigation test and high precision inertial navigation system with good dynamic and static performances. A real time control system is designed, several control system implementation problems were solved including time unification with parallel port interrupt, high speed finding-zero method of rotary inductosyn, zero-crossing management with continuous rotary, etc. Tests were carried out to show the effectiveness of the proposed real time control system.

  10. Simulations of the ILC Electron Gun and ElectronBunching System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haakonsen, C.B.; /McGill U.

    2006-08-30

    The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a proposed electron-positron collider, expected to provide insight into important questions in particle physics. A part of the global R&D effort for the ILC is the design of its electron gun and electron bunching system. The present design of the bunching system has two sub-harmonic bunchers, one operating at 108 MHz and one at 433MHz, and two 5-cell 1.3 GHz (L-band) bunchers. This bunching system has previously been simulated using the Phase and Radial Motion in Electron Linear Accelerators (PARMELA) software, and those simulations indicated that the design provides sufficient bunching and acceleration. Due to the complicated dynamics governing the electrons in the bunching system we decided to verify and expand the PARMELA results using the more recent and independent simulation software General Particle Tracer (GPT). GPT tracks the motion and interactions of a set of macro particles, each of which represent a number of electrons, and provides a variety of analysis capabilities. To provide initial conditions for the macro particles, a method was developed for deriving the initial conditions from detailed simulations of particle trajectories in the electron gun. These simulations were performed using the Egun software. For realistic simulation of the L-band bunching cavities, their electric and magnetic fields were calculated using the Superfish software and imported into GPT. The GPT simulations arrived at similar results to the PARMELA simulations for sub-harmonic bunching. However, using GPT it was impossible to achieve an efficient bunching performance of the first L-band bunching cavity. To correct this, the first L-band buncher cell was decoupled from the remaining 4 cells and driven as an independent cavity. Using this modification we attained results similar to the PARMELA simulations. Although the modified bunching system design performed as required, the modifications are technically challenging to implement

  11. Anode-cathode power distribution systems and methods of using the same for electrochemical reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koehl, Eugene R; Barnes, Laurel A; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Williamson, Mark A; Willit, James L

    2014-01-28

    Power distribution systems are useable in electrolytic reduction systems and include several cathode and anode assembly electrical contacts that permit flexible modular assembly numbers and placement in standardized connection configurations. Electrical contacts may be arranged at any position where assembly contact is desired. Electrical power may be provided via power cables attached to seating assemblies of the electrical contacts. Cathode and anode assembly electrical contacts may provide electrical power at any desired levels. Pairs of anode and cathode assembly electrical contacts may provide equal and opposite electrical power; different cathode assembly electrical contacts may provide different levels of electrical power to a same or different modular cathode assembly. Electrical systems may be used with an electrolyte container into which the modular cathode and anode assemblies extend and are supported above, with the modular cathode and anode assemblies mechanically and electrically connecting to the respective contacts in power distribution systems.

  12. Proceedings of the Workshop on software tools for distributed intelligent control systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herget, C.J.

    1990-09-01

    The Workshop on Software Tools for Distributed Intelligent Control Systems was organized by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the United States Army Headquarters Training and Doctrine Command and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The goals of the workshop were to the identify the current state of the art in tools which support control systems engineering design and implementation, identify research issues associated with writing software tools which would provide a design environment to assist engineers in multidisciplinary control design and implementation, formulate a potential investment strategy to resolve the research issues and develop public domain code which can form the core of more powerful engineering design tools, and recommend test cases to focus the software development process and test associated performance metrics. Recognizing that the development of software tools for distributed intelligent control systems will require a multidisciplinary effort, experts in systems engineering, control systems engineering, and compute science were invited to participate in the workshop. In particular, experts who could address the following topics were selected: operating systems, engineering data representation and manipulation, emerging standards for manufacturing data, mathematical foundations, coupling of symbolic and numerical computation, user interface, system identification, system representation at different levels of abstraction, system specification, system design, verification and validation, automatic code generation, and integration of modular, reusable code.

  13. Simulated coal gas MCFC power plant system verification. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-07-30

    The objective of the main project is to identify the current developmental status of MCFC systems and address those technical issues that need to be resolved to move the technology from its current status to the demonstration stage in the shortest possible time. The specific objectives are separated into five major tasks as follows: Stack research; Power plant development; Test facilities development; Manufacturing facilities development; and Commercialization. This Final Report discusses the M-C power Corporation effort which is part of a general program for the development of commercial MCFC systems. This final report covers the entire subject of the Unocal 250-cell stack. Certain project activities have been funded by organizations other than DOE and are included in this report to provide a comprehensive overview of the work accomplished.

  14. Integrated Computing, Communication, and Distributed Control of Deregulated Electric Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bajura, Richard; Feliachi, Ali

    2008-09-24

    Restructuring of the electricity market has affected all aspects of the power industry from generation to transmission, distribution, and consumption. Transmission circuits, in particular, are stressed often exceeding their stability limits because of the difficulty in building new transmission lines due to environmental concerns and financial risk. Deregulation has resulted in the need for tighter control strategies to maintain reliability even in the event of considerable structural changes, such as loss of a large generating unit or a transmission line, and changes in loading conditions due to the continuously varying power consumption. Our research efforts under the DOE EPSCoR Grant focused on Integrated Computing, Communication and Distributed Control of Deregulated Electric Power Systems. This research is applicable to operating and controlling modern electric energy systems. The controls developed by APERC provide for a more efficient, economical, reliable, and secure operation of these systems. Under this program, we developed distributed control algorithms suitable for large-scale geographically dispersed power systems and also economic tools to evaluate their effectiveness and impact on power markets. Progress was made in the development of distributed intelligent control agents for reliable and automated operation of integrated electric power systems. The methodologies employed combine information technology, control and communication, agent technology, and power systems engineering in the development of intelligent control agents for reliable and automated operation of integrated electric power systems. In the event of scheduled load changes or unforeseen disturbances, the power system is expected to minimize the effects and costs of disturbances and to maintain critical infrastructure operational.

  15. Automated Energy Distribution and Reliability System: Validation Integration - Results of Future Architecture Implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buche, D. L.

    2008-06-01

    This report describes Northern Indiana Public Service Co. project efforts to develop an automated energy distribution and reliability system. The purpose of this project was to implement a database-driven GIS solution that would manage all of the company's gas, electric, and landbase objects. This report is second in a series of reports detailing this effort.

  16. System Simulation of Nuclear Power Plant by Coupling RELAP5 and Matlab/Simulink

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meng Lin; Dong Hou; Zhihong Xu; Yanhua Yang; Ronghua Zhang

    2006-07-01

    Since RELAP5 code has general and advanced features in thermal-hydraulic computation, it has been widely used in transient and accident safety analysis, experiment planning analysis, and system simulation, etc. So we wish to design, analyze, verify a new Instrumentation And Control (I and C) system of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) based on the best-estimated code, and even develop our engineering simulator. But because of limited function of simulating control and protection system in RELAP5, it is necessary to expand the function for high efficient, accurate, flexible design and simulation of I and C system. Matlab/Simulink, a scientific computation software, just can compensate the limitation, which is a powerful tool in research and simulation of plant process control. The software is selected as I and C part to be coupled with RELAP5 code to realize system simulation of NPPs. There are two key techniques to be solved. One is the dynamic data exchange, by which Matlab/Simulink receives plant parameters and returns control results. Database is used to communicate the two codes. Accordingly, Dynamic Link Library (DLL) is applied to link database in RELAP5, while DLL and S-Function is applied in Matlab/Simulink. The other problem is synchronization between the two codes for ensuring consistency in global simulation time. Because Matlab/Simulink always computes faster than RELAP5, the simulation time is sent by RELAP5 and received by Matlab/Simulink. A time control subroutine is added into the simulation procedure of Matlab/Simulink to control its simulation advancement. Through these ways, Matlab/Simulink is dynamically coupled with RELAP5. Thus, in Matlab/Simulink, we can freely design control and protection logic of NPPs and test it with best-estimated plant model feedback. A test will be shown to illuminate that results of coupling calculation are nearly the same with one of single RELAP5 with control logic. In practice, a real Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) is

  17. Advanced Inverter Technology for High Penetration Levels of PV Generation in Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schauder, C.

    2014-03-01

    This subcontract report was completed under the auspices of the NREL/SCE High-Penetration Photovoltaic (PV) Integration Project, which is co-funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) and the California Solar Initiative (CSI) Research, Development, Demonstration, and Deployment (RD&D) program funded by the California Public Utility Commission (CPUC) and managed by Itron. This project is focused on modeling, quantifying, and mitigating the impacts of large utility-scale PV systems (generally 1-5 MW in size) that are interconnected to the distribution system. This report discusses the concerns utilities have when interconnecting large PV systems that interconnect using PV inverters (a specific application of frequency converters). Additionally, a number of capabilities of PV inverters are described that could be implemented to mitigate the distribution system-level impacts of high-penetration PV integration. Finally, the main issues that need to be addressed to ease the interconnection of large PV systems to the distribution system are presented.

  18. Summary - System Level Modeling and Simulation Tools for Hanford

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    The ob curren plannin Dispos yield re to mod plannin to imp (4) det actual * Th th Th co no in pl * In fo op sy as di re de co an * Th en m ha ev sc The pu techni projec Site: H roject: H Report Date: S ited States valuation in Su Why DOE bjective of the r nt Process Simu ng basis for OR sition System P easonable esti del facilities cur ng or operation rove the rate o termine if addit execution of in What th he current Syst hat are limited t hese tools curr omposition, res ot meeting was itial

  19. Onsite Distributed Generation Systems For Laboratories, Laboratories for the 21st Century: Best Practices (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-09-01

    This guide provides general information on implementing onsite distributed generation systems in laboratory environments. Specific technology applications, general performance information, and cost data are provided to educate and encourage laboratory energy managers to consider onsite power generation or combined heat and power (CHP) systems for their facilities. After conducting an initial screening, energy managers are encouraged to conduct a detailed feasibility study with actual cost and performance data for technologies that look promising. Onsite distributed generation systems are small, modular, decentralized, grid-connected, or off-grid energy systems. These systems are located at or near the place where the energy is used. These systems are also known as distributed energy or distributed power systems. DG technologies are generally considered those that produce less than 20 megawatts (MW) of power. A number of technologies can be applied as effective onsite DG systems, including: (1) Diesel, natural gas, and dual-fuel reciprocating engines; (2) Combustion turbines and steam turbines; (3) Fuel cells; (4) Biomass heating; (5) Biomass combined heat and power; (6) Photovoltaics; and (7) Wind turbines. These systems can provide a number of potential benefits to an individual laboratory facility or campus, including: (1) High-quality, reliable, and potentially dispatchable power; (2) Low-cost energy and long-term utility cost assurance, especially where electricity and/or fuel costs are high; (3) Significantly reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Typical CHP plants reduce onsite GHG by 40 to 60 percent; (4) Peak demand shaving where demand costs are high; (5) CHP where thermal energy can be used in addition to electricity; (6) The ability to meet standby power needs, especially where utility-supplied power is interrupted frequently or for long periods and where standby power is required for safety or emergencies; and (7) Use for standalone or off

  20. Cell multipole method for molecular simulations in bulk and confined systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Jie; Balasundaram, Ramkumar; Gehrke, Stevin H.; Heffelfinger, Grant S.; Goddard, William A. III; Jiang, Shaoyi

    2002-08-01

    One of the bottlenecks in molecular simulations is to treat large systems involving electrostatic interactions. Computational time in conventional molecular simulation methods scales with O(N{sup 2}), where N is the number of atoms. With the emergence of the cell multipole method (CMM) and massively parallel supercomputers, simulations of 10 million atoms have been performed. In this work, the optimal hierarchy cell level and the algorithm for Taylor expansion were recommended for fast and accurate molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of three-dimensional (3D) systems. CMM was then extended to treat quasi-two-dimensional (2D) systems, which is very important for condensed matter physics problems. In addition, CMM was applied to grand canonical ensemble Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations for both 3D and 2D systems. Under the optimal conditions, the results show that computational time is approximately linear with N for large systems, average error in total potential energy is less than {approx}1%, and RMS force is about 0.015 for 3D and 2D systems when compared with the Ewald summation.

  1. Distribution of occupation numbers in finite Fermi systems and role of interaction in chaos and thermalization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flambaum, V.V.; Izrailev, F.M. [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia)] [School of Physics, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052 (Australia)

    1997-01-01

    A method is developed for calculation of single-particle occupation numbers in finite Fermi systems of interacting particles. It is more accurate than the canonical distribution method and gives the Fermi-Dirac distribution in the limit of large number of particles. It is shown that statistical effects of the interaction are absorbed by an increase of the effective temperature. Criteria for quantum chaos and statistical equilibrium are considered. All results are confirmed by numerical experiments in the two-body random interaction model. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  2. Privacy and Security Research Group workshop on network and distributed system security: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: NREN Security Issues: Policies and Technologies; Layer Wars: Protect the Internet with Network Layer Security; Electronic Commission Management; Workflow 2000 - Electronic Document Authorization in Practice; Security Issues of a UNIX PEM Implementation; Implementing Privacy Enhanced Mail on VMS; Distributed Public Key Certificate Management; Protecting the Integrity of Privacy-enhanced Electronic Mail; Practical Authorization in Large Heterogeneous Distributed Systems; Security Issues in the Truffles File System; Issues surrounding the use of Cryptographic Algorithms and Smart Card Applications; Smart Card Augmentation of Kerberos; and An Overview of the Advanced Smart Card Access Control System. Selected papers were processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  3. Integrating Renewable Energy into the Transmission and Distribution System of the U. S. Virgin Islands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burman, K.; Olis, D.; Gevorgian, V.; Warren, A.; Butt, R.; Lilienthal, P.; Glassmire, J.

    2011-09-01

    This report focuses on the economic and technical feasibility of integrating renewable energy technologies into the U.S. Virgin Islands transmission and distribution systems. The report includes three main areas of analysis: 1) the economics of deploying utility-scale renewable energy technologies on St. Thomas/St. John and St. Croix; 2) potential sites for installing roof- and ground-mount PV systems and wind turbines and the impact renewable generation will have on the electrical subtransmission and distribution infrastructure, and 3) the feasibility of a 100- to 200-megawatt power interconnection of the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA), Virgin Islands Water and Power Authority (WAPA), and British Virgin Islands (BVI) grids via a submarine cable system.

  4. Installation of the first Distributed Energy Storage System (DESS) at American Electric Power (AEP).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nourai, Ali

    2007-06-01

    AEP studied the direct and indirect benefits, strengths, and weaknesses of distributed energy storage systems (DESS) and chose to transform its entire utility grid into a system that achieves optimal integration of both central and distributed energy assets. To that end, AEP installed the first NAS battery-based, energy storage system in North America. After one year of operation and testing, AEP has concluded that, although the initial costs of DESS are greater than conventional power solutions, the net benefits justify the AEP decision to create a grid of DESS with intelligent monitoring, communications, and control, in order to enable the utility grid of the future. This report details the site selection, construction, benefits and lessons learned of the first installation, at Chemical Station in North Charleston, WV.

  5. Development of an Advanced Stimulation/Production Predictive Simulator for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objective: to develop a 3-D numerical simulator to model the following aspects of stimulation and long-term operation: (1)perturbation of natural stress, pore pressure, and formation temperature distributions caused by cold water injection, (2) shear slippage and aperture increase along fracture patchesŽ and aperture change caused by changes in effective normal stress,(3) fracture patchŽ linkup to form connected permeable volume and both reversible and irreversible permeability changes.

  6. Integration of distributed resources in electric utility systems: Current interconnection practice and unified approach. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barker, P.; Leskan, T.; Zaininger, H.; Smith, D.

    1998-11-01

    Deregulation of the electric utility industry, new state and federal programs, and technology developments are making distributed resources (DR) an increasingly utilized option to provide capacity for growing or heavily loaded electric power systems. Optimal DR placement near loads provides benefits not attainable from bulk generation system additions. These include reduced loading of the T and D system, reduced losses, voltage support, and T and D equipment upgrade deferments. The purpose of this document is to review existing interconnection practices and present interconnection guidelines are relevant to the protection, control, and data acquisition requirements for the interconnection of distributed resources to the utility system. This is to include protection performance requirements, data collection and reporting requirements, on-line communication requirements, and ongoing periodic documentation requirements. This document also provides guidelines for the practical placement and sizing of resources as pertinent to determining the interconnection equipment and system control requirements. The material contained herein has been organized into 4 sections dealing with application issues, existing practices, a unified interconnection approach, and future work. Section 2 of the report discusses the application issues associated with distributed resources and deals with various engineering issues such as overcurrent protection, voltage regulation, and islanding. Section 3 summarizes the existing utility interconnection practices and guidelines as determined from the documents provided by participating utilities. Section 4 presents a unified interconnection approach that is intended to serve as a guide for interconnection of distributed resources to the utility system. And finally, Section 5 outlines possible future areas of study to expand upon the topics discussed in this report.

  7. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: CHP and Bioenergy Systems for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment Plants

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Systems for Landfills and Wastewater Treatment Plants November 7, 2007 Denver, Colorado Paul Lemar Jr., President pll@rdcnet.com www.rdcnet.com www.distributed-generation.com Reciprocating Engines for ADG and LFG z Reciprocating engines are either Otto (spark ignition) or Diesel (compression ignition) cycle systems z Natural gas engines, as well as those powered by ADG or LFG, are typically spark ignition systems z Some dual fuel engines have been developed using ADG/LFG with a portion of diesel

  8. CFD Simulations of a Regenerative Process for Carbon Dioxide Capture in Advanced Gasification Based Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arastoopour, Hamid; Abbasian, Javad

    2014-07-31

    This project describes the work carried out to prepare a highly reactive and mechanically strong MgO based sorbents and to develop a Population Balance Equations (PBE) approach to describe the evolution of the particle porosity distribution that is linked with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to perform simulations of the CO2 capture and sorbent regeneration. A large number of MgO-based regenerable sorbents were prepared using low cost and abundant dolomite as the base material. Among various preparation parameters investigated the potassium/magnesium (K/Mg) ratio was identified as the key variable affecting the reactivity and CO2 capacity of the sorbent. The optimum K/Mg ratio is about 0.15. The sorbent formulation HD52-P2 was identified as the “best” sorbent formulation and a large batch (one kg) of the sorbent was prepared for the detailed study. The results of parametric study indicate the optimum carbonation and regeneration temperatures are 360° and 500°C, respectively. The results also indicate that steam has a beneficial effect on the rate of carbonation and regeneration of the sorbent and that the reactivity and capacity of the sorbent decreases in the cycling process (sorbent deactivation). The results indicate that to achieve a high CO2 removal efficiency, the bed of sorbent should be operated at a temperature range of 370-410°C which also favors production of hydrogen through the WGS reaction. To describe the carbonation reaction kinetics of the MgO, the Variable Diffusivity shrinking core Model (VDM) was developed in this project, which was shown to accurately fit the experimental data. An important advantage of this model is that the changes in the sorbent conversion with time can be expressed in an explicit manner, which will significantly reduce the CFD computation time. A Computational Fluid Dynamic/Population Balance Equations (CFD/PBE) model was developed that accounts for the particle (sorbent) porosity distribution and a new version of

  9. Future Opportunities and Challenges with Using Demand Response as a Resource in Distribution System Operation and Planning Activities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This scoping study focuses on identifying the ability for current and future demand response opportunities to contribute to distribution system management. To do so, this scoping study will...

  10. High Penetration of Photovoltaic (PV) Systems into the Distribution Grid, Workshop Report, February 24-25, 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-06-01

    Outcomes from the EERE Solar Energy Technologies Program workshop on high penetration of photovoltaic (PV) systems into the distribution grid, Feb. 24-25, 2009, Ontario, Calif.

  11. Natural gas transmission and distribution model of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-02-01

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS was developed in the Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy Information Administration (EIA). NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the EIA and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. From 1982 through 1993, the Intermediate Future Forecasting System (IFFS) was used by the EIA for its analyses, and the Gas Analysis Modeling System (GAMS) was used within IFFS to represent natural gas markets. Prior to 1982, the Midterm Energy Forecasting System (MEFS), also referred to as the Project Independence Evaluation System (PIES), was employed. NEMS was developed to enhance and update EIA`s modeling capability by internally incorporating models of energy markets that had previously been analyzed off-line. In addition, greater structural detail in NEMS permits the analysis of a broader range of energy issues. The time horizon of NEMS is the midterm period (i.e., through 2015). In order to represent the regional differences in energy markets, the component models of NEMS function at regional levels appropriate for the markets represented, with subsequent aggregation/disaggregation to the Census Division level for reporting purposes.

  12. Simulating the daylight performance of fenestration systems and spaces of arbitrary complexity: The IDC method. Revision

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papamichael, K.; Beltran, L.

    1993-04-01

    A new method to simulate the daylight performance of fenestration systems and spaces is presented. This new method, named IDC (Integration of Directional Coefficients), allows the simulation of the daylight performance of fenestration systems and spaces of arbitrary complexity, under any sun, sky and ground conditions. The IDC method is based on the combination of scale model photometry and computer-based simulation. Physical scale models are used to experimentally determine a comprehensive set of {open_quotes}directional illuminance coefficients{close_quotes} at reference points of interest, which are then used in analytical, computer-based routines, to determine daylight factors or actual daylight illuminance values under any sun, sky and ground conditions. The main advantage of the IDC method is its applicability to any optically complex environment. Moreover, the computer-based analytical routines are fast enough to allow for hourly simulation of the daylight performance over the course of an entire year. However, the method requires appropriate experimental facilities for the determination of the Directional Coefficients. The IDC method has been implemented and used successfully in inter-validation procedures with various daylight simulation computer programs. Currently, it is used to simulate the daylight performance of fenestration systems that incorporate optically complex components, such as Venetian blinds, optically treated light shelves and light pipes.

  13. Simulating the daylight performance of fenestration systems and spaces of arbitrary complexity: The IDC method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Papamichael, K.; Beltran, L.

    1993-04-01

    A new method to simulate the daylight performance of fenestration systems and spaces is presented. This new method, named IDC (Integration of Directional Coefficients), allows the simulation of the daylight performance of fenestration systems and spaces of arbitrary complexity, under any sun, sky and ground conditions. The IDC method is based on the combination of scale model photometry and computer-based simulation. Physical scale models are used to experimentally determine a comprehensive set of ``directional illuminance coefficients`` at reference points of interest, which are then used in analytical, computer-based routines, to determine daylight factors or actual daylight illuminance values under any sun, sky and ground conditions. The main advantage of the IDC method is its applicability to any optically complex environment. Moreover, the computer-based analytical routines are fast enough to allow for hourly simulation of the daylight performance over the course of an entire year. However, the method requires appropriate experimental facilities for the determination of the Directional Coefficients. The IDC method has been implemented and used successfully in inter-validation procedures with various daylight simulation computer programs. Currently, it is used to simulate the daylight performance of fenestration systems that incorporate optically comp1ex components, such as Venetian blinds, optically treated light shelves and light pipes.

  14. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency Improvements in the U.S. Electricity Transmission and Distribution System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    From 2000-2012, about 6% of U.S. electricity generation did not reach any customer, instead being lost in the transmission and distribution system. This report describes sources of energy loss in the transmission and distribution of electricity, and reviews research on both the magnitude and potential for reducing these losses. Strategies to improve energy efficiency on the grid include upgrades in physical infrastructure as well as information technologies and operational strategies that can help grid operators make the system run more efficiently. The report also describes engineering, economic, and policy barriers to implementing these loss reduction strategies. For transmission, emerging technologies such as superconductors and power flow control technologies can reduce transmission loss 50% or more, but these technologies may not be cost-effective in all areas. On the distribution system, theoretical studies of reducing overloading lines through reconfiguration have identified loss reductions of up to 40%; however, studies of real systems have observed loss reductions of only 5-20%.

  15. Human System Simulation in Support of Human Performance Technical Basis at NPPs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Gertman; Katya Le Blanc; alan mecham; william phoenix; Magdy Tawfik; Jeffrey Joe

    2010-06-01

    This paper focuses on strategies and progress toward establishing the Idaho National Laboratorys (INLs) Human Systems Simulator Laboratory at the Center for Advanced Energy Studies (CAES), a consortium of Idaho State Universities. The INL is one of the National Laboratories of the US Department of Energy. One of the first planned applications for the Human Systems Simulator Laboratory is implementation of a dynamic nuclear power plant simulation (NPP) where studies of operator workload, situation awareness, performance and preference will be carried out in simulated control rooms including nuclear power plant control rooms. Simulation offers a means by which to review operational concepts, improve design practices and provide a technical basis for licensing decisions. In preparation for the next generation power plant and current government and industry efforts in support of light water reactor sustainability, human operators will be attached to a suite of physiological measurement instruments and, in combination with traditional Human Factors Measurement techniques, carry out control room tasks in simulated advanced digital and hybrid analog/digital control rooms. The current focus of the Human Systems Simulator Laboratory is building core competence in quantitative and qualitative measurements of situation awareness and workload. Of particular interest is whether introduction of digital systems including automated procedures has the potential to reduce workload and enhance safety while improving situation awareness or whether workload is merely shifted and situation awareness is modified in yet to be determined ways. Data analysis is carried out by engineers and scientists and includes measures of the physical and neurological correlates of human performance. The current approach supports a user-centered design philosophy (see ISO 13407 Human Centered Design Process for Interactive Systems, 1999) wherein the context for task performance along with the

  16. Model documentation: Natural gas transmission and distribution model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-02-17

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS was developed in the Office of integrated Analysis and Forecasting of the Energy information Administration (EIA). NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the EIA and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. The NGTDM is the model within the NEMS that represents the transmission, distribution, and pricing of natural gas. The model also includes representations of the end-use demand for natural gas, the production of domestic natural gas, and the availability of natural gas traded on the international market based on information received from other NEMS models. The NGTDM determines the flow of natural gas in an aggregate, domestic pipeline network, connecting domestic and foreign supply regions with 12 demand regions. The methodology employed allows the analysis of impacts of regional capacity constraints in the interstate natural gas pipeline network and the identification of pipeline capacity expansion requirements. There is an explicit representation of core and noncore markets for natural gas transmission and distribution services, and the key components of pipeline tariffs are represented in a pricing algorithm. Natural gas pricing and flow patterns are derived by obtaining a market equilibrium across the three main elements of the natural gas market: the supply element, the demand element, and the transmission and distribution network that links them. The NGTDM consists of four modules: the Annual Flow Module, the Capacity F-expansion Module, the Pipeline Tariff Module, and the Distributor Tariff Module. A model abstract is provided in Appendix A.

  17. Oxide vapor distribution from a high-frequency sweep e-beam system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, R.; Tassano, P.L.; Tsujimoto, N.

    1995-03-01

    Oxide vapor distributions have been determined as a function of operating parameters of a high frequency sweep e-beam source combined with a programmable sweep controller. We will show which parameters are significant, the parameters that yield the broadest oxide deposition distribution, and the procedure used to arrive at these conclusions. A design-of-experimental strategy was used with five operating parameters: evaporation rate, sweep speed, sweep pattern (pre-programmed), phase speed (azimuthal rotation of the pattern), profile (dwell time as a function of radial position). A design was chosen that would show which of the parameters and parameter pairs have a statistically significant effect on the vapor distribution. Witness flats were placed symmetrically across a 25 inches diameter platen. The stationary platen was centered 24 inches above the e-gun crucible. An oxide material was evaporated under 27 different conditions. Thickness measurements were made with a stylus profilometer. The information will enable users of the high frequency e-gun systems to optimally locate the source in a vacuum system and understand which parameters have a major effect on the vapor distribution.

  18. Reaction chemistry of nitrogen species in hydrothermal systems: Simple reactions, waste simulants, and actual wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dell`Orco, P.; Luan, L.; Proesmans, P.; Wilmanns, E.

    1995-02-01

    Results are presented from hydrothermal reaction systems containing organic components, nitrogen components, and an oxidant. Reaction chemistry observed in simple systems and in simple waste simulants is used to develop a model which presents global nitrogen chemistry in these reactive systems. The global reaction path suggested is then compared with results obtained for the treatment of an actual waste stream containing only C-N-0-H species.

  19. Co-Simulation of Detailed Whole Building with the Power System to Study Smart Grid Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Fuller, Jason C.; Srivastava, Viraj; Ciraci, Selim; Daily, Jeffrey A.

    2014-12-24

    Modernization of the power system in a way that ensures a sustainable energy system is arguably one of the most pressing concerns of our time. Buildings are important components in the power system. First, they are the main consumers of electricity and secondly, they do not have constant energy demand. Conventionally, electricity has been difficult to store and should be consumed as it is generated. Therefore, maintaining the demand and supply is critical in the power system. However, to reduce the complexity of power models, buildings (i.e., end-use loads) are traditionally modeled and represented as aggregated “dumb” nodes in the power system. This means we lack effective detailed whole building energy models that can support requirements and emerging technologies of the smart power grid. To gain greater insight into the relationship between building energy demand and power system performance, it is important to constitute a co-simulation framework to support detailed building energy modeling and simulation within the power system to study capabilities promised by the modern power grid. This paper discusses ongoing work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and presents underlying tools and framework needed to enable co-simulation of building, building energy systems and their control in the power system to study applications such as demand response, grid-based HVAC control, and deployment of buildings for ancillary services. The optimal goal is to develop an integrated modeling and simulation platform that is flexible, reusable, and scalable. Results of this work will contribute to future building and power system studies, especially those related to the integrated ‘smart grid’. Results are also expected to advance power resiliency and local (micro) scale grid studies where several building and renewable energy systems transact energy directly. This paper also reviews some applications that can be supported and studied using the framework introduced

  20. Modeling and simulation for cyber-physical system security research, development and applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pollock, Guylaine M.; Atkins, William Dee; Schwartz, Moses Daniel; Chavez, Adrian R.; Urrea, Jorge Mario; Pattengale, Nicholas; McDonald, Michael James; Cassidy, Regis H.; Halbgewachs, Ronald D.; Richardson, Bryan T.; Mulder, John C.

    2010-02-01

    This paper describes a new hybrid modeling and simulation architecture developed at Sandia for understanding and developing protections against and mitigations for cyber threats upon control systems. It first outlines the challenges to PCS security that can be addressed using these technologies. The paper then describes Virtual Control System Environments (VCSE) that use this approach and briefly discusses security research that Sandia has performed using VCSE. It closes with recommendations to the control systems security community for applying this valuable technology.

  1. A microcomputer-based control and simulation of an advanced IPM (interior permanent magnet) synchronous machine drive system for electric vehicle propulsion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bose, B.K.; Szczesny, P.M.

    1987-01-01

    Advanced digital control and computer-aided control system design techniques are playing key roles in the complex drive system design and control implementation. The paper describes a high performance microcomputer-based control and digital simulation of an inverter-fed interior permanent magnet (IPM) synchronous machine which uses Neodymium-Iron-Boron magnet. The fully operational four-quadrant drive system includes constant-torque region with zero speed operation and high speed field-weakening constant-power region. The control uses vector or field-oriented technique in constant-torque region with the direct axis aligned to the stator flux, whereas the constant-power region control is based on torque angle orientation of the impressed square-wave voltage. All the key feedback signals for the control are estimated with precision. The drive system is basically designed with an outer torque control loop for electric vehicle appliation, but speed and position control loops can be added for other industrial applications. The distributed microcomputer-based control system is based on Intel-8096 microcontroller and Texas Instruments TMS32010 type digital signal processor. The complete drive system has been simulated using the VAX-based simulation language SIMMON to verify the feasibility of the control laws and to study the performances of the drive system. The simulation results are found to have excellent correlation with the laboratory breadboard tests. 19 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. Advanced Power Electronic Interfaces for Distributed Energy Systems Part 1: Systems and Topologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, W.; Chakraborty, S.; Kroposki, B.; Thomas, H.

    2008-03-01

    This report summarizes power electronic interfaces for DE applications and the topologies needed for advanced power electronic interfaces. It focuses on photovoltaic, wind, microturbine, fuel cell, internal combustion engine, battery storage, and flywheel storage systems.

  3. Nuclear fuel cycle system simulation tool based on high-fidelity component modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ames, David E.

    2014-02-01

    The DOE is currently directing extensive research into developing fuel cycle technologies that will enable the safe, secure, economic, and sustainable expansion of nuclear energy. The task is formidable considering the numerous fuel cycle options, the large dynamic systems that each represent, and the necessity to accurately predict their behavior. The path to successfully develop and implement an advanced fuel cycle is highly dependent on the modeling capabilities and simulation tools available for performing useful relevant analysis to assist stakeholders in decision making. Therefore a high-fidelity fuel cycle simulation tool that performs system analysis, including uncertainty quantification and optimization was developed. The resulting simulator also includes the capability to calculate environmental impact measures for individual components and the system. An integrated system method and analysis approach that provides consistent and comprehensive evaluations of advanced fuel cycles was developed. A general approach was utilized allowing for the system to be modified in order to provide analysis for other systems with similar attributes. By utilizing this approach, the framework for simulating many different fuel cycle options is provided. Two example fuel cycle configurations were developed to take advantage of used fuel recycling and transmutation capabilities in waste management scenarios leading to minimized waste inventories.

  4. Integrating Renewable Energy into the Transmission and Distribution System of the U.S. Virgin Islands

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Integrating Renewable Energy into the Transmission and Distribution System of the U.S. Virgin Islands Kari Burman, Dan Olis, Vahan Gevorgian, Adam Warren, and Robert Butt National Renewable Energy Laboratory Peter Lilienthal and John Glassmire HOMER Energy LLC Technical Report NREL/TP-7A20-51294 September 2011 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. Contract No.

  5. Survey of Emissions Models for Distributed Combined Heat and Power Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Survey of Emissions Models for Distributed Combined Heat and Power Systems Will Gans, Anna Monis Shipley, and R. Neal Elliott January 2007 Report Number IE071 ©American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy 1001 Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Suite 801, Washington, D.C. 20036 (202) 429-8873 phone, (202) 429-2248 fax, http://aceee.org Web site Survey of Emissions Models for CHP, ACEEE CONTENTS

  6. A Feasibility Study. Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems with Fan Coil Delivery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; Backman, C.

    2012-07-01

    The primary objectives of this study are to estimate potential energy savings relative to conventional ducted air distribution, and to identify equipment requirements, costs, and barriers with a focus on ductless hydronic delivery systems that utilize water-to-air terminal units in each zone. Results indicate that annual heating and cooling energy use can be reduced by up to 27% assuming replacement of the conventional 13 SEER heat pump and coil with a similarly rated air-to-water heat pump.

  7. Equilibrium Structure of a Triblock Copolymer System Revealed by Mesoscale Simulation and Neutron Scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Do, Changwoo [ORNL] [ORNL; Chen, Wei-Ren [ORNL] [ORNL; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL] [ORNL; Smith, Gregory Scott [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    We have performed both mesoscale simulations and neutron scattering experiments on Pluronic L62, a poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) triblock copolymer system in aqueous solution. The influence of simulation variables such PEO/PPO block ratio, interaction parameters, and coarse-graining methods is extensively investigated by covering all permutations of parameters found in the literatures. Upon increasing the polymer weight fraction from 50 wt% to 90 wt%, the equilibrium structure of the isotropic, reverse micellar, bicontinuous, worm-like micelle network, and lamellar phases are respectively predicted from the simulation depending on the choices of simulation parameters. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements show that the same polymer systems exhibit the spherical micellar, lamellar, and reverse micellar phases with the increase of the copolymer concentration at room temperature. Detailed structural analysis and comparison with simulations suggest that one of the simulation parameter sets can provide reasonable agreement with the experimentally observed structures.

  8. Development, Demonstration, and Field Testing of Enterprise-Wide Distributed Generation Energy Management System: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenberg, S.; Cooley, C.

    2005-01-01

    This report details progress on subcontract NAD-1-30605-1 between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and RealEnergy (RE), the purpose of which is to describe RE's approach to the challenges it faces in the implementation of a nationwide fleet of clean cogeneration systems to serve contemporary energy markets. The Phase 2 report covers: utility tariff risk and its impact on market development; the effect on incentives on distributed energy markets; the regulatory effectiveness of interconnection in California; a survey of practical field interconnection issues; trend analysis for on-site generation; performance of dispatch systems; and information design hierarchy for combined heat and power.

  9. Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code System To Simulate Time-Analysis Quantities.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-04-15

    Version: 00 US DOE 10CFR810 Jurisdiction. The Monte Carlo simulation of correlation measurements that rely on the detection of fast neutrons and photons from fission requires that particle emissions and interactions following a fission event be described as close to reality as possible. The -PoliMi extension to MCNP and to MCNPX was developed to simulate correlated-particle and the subsequent interactions as close as possible to the physical behavior. Initially, MCNP-PoliMi, a modification of MCNP4C, wasmore » developed. The first version was developed in 2001-2002 and released in early 2004 to the Radiation Safety Information Computational Center (RSICC). It was developed for research purposes, to simulate correlated counts in organic scintillation detectors, sensitive to fast neutrons and gamma rays. Originally, the field of application was nuclear safeguards; however subsequent improvements have enhanced the ability to model measurements in other research fields as well. During 2010-2011 the -PoliMi modification was ported into MCNPX-2.7.0, leading to the development of MCNPX-PoliMi. Now the -PoliMi v2.0 modifications are distributed as a patch to MCNPX-2.7.0 which currently is distributed in the RSICC PACKAGE BCC-004 MCNP6_BETA2/MCNP5/MCNPX. Also included in the package is MPPost, a versatile code that provides simulated detector response. By taking advantage of the modifications in MCNPX-PoliMi, MPPost can provide an accurate simulation of the detector response for a variety of detection scenarios.« less

  10. Comparison of measurements and particle-in-cell simulations of ion energy distribution functions in a capacitively coupled radio-frequency discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connell, D.; Zorat, R.; Ellingboe, A. R.; Turner, M. M.

    2007-10-15

    The ion dynamics in the high-voltage sheath of a capacitively coupled radio-frequency plasma has been investigated using mass-resolved ion energy analysis in combination with a two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) code. A symmetric confined discharge is designed allowing highly accurate comparisons of measured ion energy distribution functions in high-voltage sheaths with simulation results. Under the conditions investigated, the sheaths are not only collisional, but also chemically complex. This situation is common in applications but rare in laboratory experiments. Excellent agreement has been found for a hydrogen discharge benchmarking the code. Hydrogen is of particular interest since its light mass gives detailed insight into sheath dynamics, and an extensive database of collisional cross sections is available. The H{sub 3}{sup +} ion was found to be the dominant ion in the sheaths and the plasma bulk under most conditions investigated. H{sub 3}{sup +} exhibits the typical saddle-shaped ion energy distribution function indicative of ions created in the plasma bulk and traversing the entire sheath potential. H{sup +} and H{sub 2}{sup +} are predominantly formed through collisions in the high-voltage sheath. H{sub 2}{sup +} ion energy distribution functions show structures resulting from symmetric charge exchange collisions with the background gas. Minor discrepancies between the experimental results and PIC simulations indicate slightly lower plasma densities in the simulation, resulting in larger sheath width.

  11. Distributed and Electric Power System Aggregation Model and Field Configuration Equivalency Validation Testing: Supplemental Report on Penetration Software Algorithms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, M.; Costyk, D.; Narang, A.

    2005-03-01

    This report supplements the July 2003 report ''Distributed and Electric Power System Aggregation Model and Field Configuration Equivalency Validation Testing'' (NREL/SR-560-33909). The original report presented methods for calculating penetration limits for distributed energy resources interconnected with distribution circuits of utility-owned electric power systems. This report describes the algorithms required to develop application software to calculate penetration limits. The original report can be found at http://www.nrel.gov/docs/fy03osti/33909.pdf.

  12. Distributed Solar PV for Electricity System Resiliency: Policy and Regulatory Considerations (Brochure), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PV FOR ELECTRICITY SYSTEM RESILIENCY POLICY AND REGULATORY CONSIDERATIONS ABSTRACT Distributed solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have the potential to supply electricity during grid outages resulting from extreme weather or other emergency situations. As such, distributed PV can signifcantly increase the resiliency of the electricity system. In order to take advantage of this capability, however, the PV systems must be designed with resiliency in mind and combined with other technologies, such as

  13. Effects of TRU Distributions of Electron Accelerator-Driven Subcritical Core Systems on Transmutation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yodersmith, Stephen; Yim, Man-Sung

    2007-07-01

    As part of the effort to investigate the use of an electron accelerator driven system for TRU transmutation, the effects of TRU distributions in the core on transmuter system performance was examined in this paper. The system performance examined includes the transmutation and system power efficiency and changes in power peaking. The transmutation benefits of the system were determined with the introduction of a new parameter, the Transmutation System Effectiveness Parameter (TSEP). TSEP combines the decay heat and radioactivity results into one single parameter that compares the ability of the system to reduce the radioactivity and decay heat of the loaded TRUs. The electron ADS was modeled by using MCNPX and MONTEBURNS as a fast spectrum, Na cooled reactor loosely based on the advanced liquid metal reactor (ALMR) design. NJOY was used to process the cross sections at the desired temperatures. The fuel was a TRUZr alloy contained within an HT-9 SS cladding. The subcritical reactor contained four different fuel zones with an equal number of fuel assemblies in each region, each containing one of the four TRU elements: Np, Pu, Cm, Am. Tungsten was used for the target system. The electron ADS was assumed to operate at 500 MWth over a 24 month cycle. Results showed that different distribution patterns had a very insignificant effect on the total radioactivity reduction, the total decay heat reduction, and the TRU radiotoxicity reduction. With respect to the TSEP parameter, the calculation results revealed a much stronger dependence on TRU distributions. It seemed that TSEP accurately reflected and penalized the effectiveness of the system for the fission product production. With respect to examining the k{sub eff} over the cycle, a drastic difference was observed between the cases when Pu is located in the inner most region and the rest of the patterns. The k{sub eff} for the Pu in the inner most region cases decreased at a much faster rate than did the rest therefore

  14. STATE RESEARCH, OUTREACH AND TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE TO IMPROVE THE NATION’S TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Terry; Ben Deitchman; Shemika Spencer

    2009-06-29

    The goal of the project 'State Research, Outreach and Technical Assistance to Improve the Nation's Transmission and Distribution Systems' was for the National Association of State Energy Officials (NASEO) to partner with the National Governors Association (NGA) Center for Best Practices, the National Conference of State Legislators (NCSL), and the National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners (NARUC) to assist DOE's Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability (OE) in its effort to modernize and expand America's electric delivery system. NASEO focused on key transmission and distribution issues where coordination between the federal and state governments was critical. Throughout the duration of this program, NASEO engaged in monthly coordination - occasionally more often - with NGA, NCSL and NARUC. NASEO staff and General Counsel Jeff Genzer also had regular face-to-face meetings, phone calls and emails with OE staff to learn from DOE and share information and feedback from the state energy offices on transmission and distribution. To commence work on this project, NASEO met with OE, NGA, NCSL and NARUC in January 2005 and remained committed to regular communications with all involved entities throughout the duration of this project. NASEO provided comments and analysis to the other partners on deliverable reports under this award. This award provided support to NASEO's Energy Production Committee (chaired by Dub Taylor of Texas, followed by Tom Fuller of Wyoming) to plan and host sessions at NASEO's Annual Meeting and Energy Outlook Conferences. Sessions included presentations from state, DOE, national laboratory and private sector experts on transmission, distribution, distributed energy resources, integrating renewable resources into the electricity grid. NASEO disseminated information to its members through emails and its website on transmission and distribution technology and policy. NASEO was an active member of the National Council on

  15. Using Process/CFD Co-Simulation for the Design and Analysis of Advanced Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zitney, S.E.

    2007-04-01

    In this presentation we describe the major features and capabilities of NETL’s Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator (APECS) and highlight its application to advanced energy systems, ranging from small fuel cell systems to commercial-scale power plants including the coal-fired, gasification-based electricity and hydrogen plant in the DOE’s $1 billion, 10-year FutureGen demonstration project. APECS is an integrated software suite which allows the process and energy industries to optimize overall plant performance with respect to complex thermal and fluid flow phenomena by combining process simulation (e.g., Aspen Plus®) with high-fidelity equipment simulations based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models (e.g., FLUENT®).

  16. Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-01-01

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is the component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) that is used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. The NGTDM is the model within the NEMS that represents the transmission, distribution, and pricing of natural gas. The model also includes representations of the end-use demand for natural gas, the production of domestic natural gas, and the availability of natural gas traded on the international market based on information received from other NEMS models. The NGTDM determines the flow of natural gas in an aggregate, domestic pipeline network, connecting domestic and foreign supply regions with 12 demand regions. The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public that defines the objectives of the model, describes its basic design, provides detail on the methodology employed, and describes the model inputs, outputs, and key assumptions. Subsequent chapters of this report provide: an overview of NGTDM; a description of the interface between the NEMS and NGTDM; an overview of the solution methodology of the NGTDM; the solution methodology for the Annual Flow Module; the solution methodology for the Distributor Tariff Module; the solution methodology for the Capacity Expansion Module; the solution methodology for the Pipeline Tariff Module; and a description of model assumptions, inputs, and outputs.

  17. Modelling and real-time simulation of continuous-discrete systems in mechatronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindow, H.

    1996-12-31

    This work presents a methodology for simulation and modelling of systems with continuous - discrete dynamics. It derives hybrid discrete event models from Lagrange`s equations of motion. This method combines continuous mechanical, electrical and thermodynamical submodels on one hand with discrete event models an the other hand into a hybrid discrete event model. This straight forward software development avoids numeric overhead.

  18. FY2014 Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing Annual Progress Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-03-01

    The Vehicle and Systems Simulation and Testing research and development (R&D) subprogram within the DOE Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) provides support and guidance for many cutting-edge automotive technologies under development. Research focuses on addressing critical barriers to advancing light-, medium-, and heavy-duty vehicle systems to help maximize the number of electric miles driven and increase the energy efficiency of transportation vehicles.

  19. Globular cluster systems and their host galaxies: comparison of spatial distributions and colors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hargis, Jonathan R.; Rhode, Katherine L.

    2014-11-20

    We present a study of the spatial and color distributions of four early-type galaxies and their globular cluster (GC) systems observed as part of our ongoing wide-field imaging survey. We use BVR KPNO 4 m+MOSAIC imaging data to characterize the galaxies' GC populations, perform surface photometry of the galaxies, and compare the projected two-dimensional shape of the host galaxy light to that of the GC population. The GC systems of the ellipticals NGC 4406 and NGC 5813 both show an elliptical distribution consistent with that of the host galaxy light. Our analysis suggests a similar result for the giant elliptical NGC 4472, but a smaller GC candidate sample precludes a definite conclusion. For the S0 galaxy NGC 4594, the GCs have a circular projected distribution, in contrast to the host galaxy light, which is flattened in the inner regions. For NGC 4406 and NGC 5813, we also examine the projected shapes of the metal-poor and metal-rich GC subpopulations and find that both subpopulations have elliptical shapes that are consistent with those of the host galaxy light. Lastly, we use integrated colors and color profiles to compare the stellar populations of the galaxies to their GC systems. For each galaxy, we explore the possibility of color gradients in the individual metal-rich and metal-poor GC subpopulations. We find statistically significant color gradients in both GC subpopulations of NGC 4594 over the inner ?5 effective radii (?20 kpc). We compare our results to scenarios for the formation and evolution of giant galaxies and their GC systems.

  20. Methods and apparatuses for information analysis on shared and distributed computing systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bohn, Shawn J [Richland, WA; Krishnan, Manoj Kumar [Richland, WA; Cowley, Wendy E [Richland, WA; Nieplocha, Jarek [Richland, WA

    2011-02-22

    Apparatuses and computer-implemented methods for analyzing, on shared and distributed computing systems, information comprising one or more documents are disclosed according to some aspects. In one embodiment, information analysis can comprise distributing one or more distinct sets of documents among each of a plurality of processes, wherein each process performs operations on a distinct set of documents substantially in parallel with other processes. Operations by each process can further comprise computing term statistics for terms contained in each distinct set of documents, thereby generating a local set of term statistics for each distinct set of documents. Still further, operations by each process can comprise contributing the local sets of term statistics to a global set of term statistics, and participating in generating a major term set from an assigned portion of a global vocabulary.

  1. An approach for the development of an aerodynamic-structural interaction numerical simulation for aeropropulsion systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Naziar, J.; Couch, R.; Davis, M.

    1996-01-01

    Traditionally, aeropropulsion structural performance and aerodynamic performance have been designed separately and later mated together via flight testing. In today`s atmosphere of declining resources, it is imperative that more productive ways of designing and verifying aeropropulsion performance and structural interaction be made available to the aerospace industry. One method of obtaining a more productive design and evaluation capability is through the use of numerical simulations. Currently, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed a generalized fluid/structural interaction code known as ALE3D. This code is capable of characterizing fluid and structural interaction for components such as the combustor, fan/stators, inlet and/or nozzles. This code solves the 3D Euler equations and has been applied to several aeropropulsion applications such as a supersonic inlet and a combustor rupture simulation. To characterize aerodynamic-structural interaction for rotating components such as the compressor, appropriate turbomachinery simulations would need to be implemented within the ALE3D structure. The Arnold Engineering Development Center is currently developing a three-dimensional compression system code known as TEACC (Turbine Engine Analysis Compressor Code). TEACC also solves the 3D Euler equations and is intended to simulate dynamic behavior such as inlet distortion, surge or rotating stall. The technology being developed within the TEACC effort provides the necessary turbomachinery simulation for implementation into ALE3D. This paper describes a methodology to combine three-dimensional aerodynamic turbomachinery technology into the existing aerodynamic-structural interaction simulation, ALE3D to obtain the desired aerodynamic and structural integrated simulation for an aeropropulsion system.

  2. System of and method for transparent management of data objects in containers across distributed heterogenous resources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Reagan W.; Rajasekar, Arcot; Wan, Michael Y.

    2007-09-11

    A system of and method for maintaining data objects in containers across a network of distributed heterogeneous resources in a manner which is transparent to a client. A client request pertaining to containers is resolved by querying meta data for the container, processing the request through one or more copies of the container maintained on the system, updating the meta data for the container to reflect any changes made to the container as a result processing the re quest, and, if a copy of the container has changed, changing the status of the copy to indicate dirty status or synchronizing the copy to one or more other copies that may be present on the system.

  3. System of and method for transparent management of data objects in containers across distributed heterogenous resources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Reagan W.; Rajasekar, Arcot; Wan, Michael Y.

    2010-09-21

    A system of and method for maintaining data objects in containers across a network of distributed heterogeneous resources in a manner which is transparent to a client. A client request pertaining to containers is resolved by querying meta data for the container, processing the request through one or more copies of the container maintained on the system, updating the meta data for the container to reflect any changes made to the container as a result processing the request, and, if a copy of the container has changed, changing the status of the copy to indicate dirty status or synchronizing the copy to one or more other copies that may be present on the system.

  4. System of and method for transparent management of data objects in containers across distributed heterogenous resources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moore, Reagan W.; Rajasekar, Arcot; Wan, Michael Y.

    2004-01-13

    A system of and method for maintaining data objects in containers across a network of distributed heterogeneous resources in a manner which is transparent to a client. A client request pertaining to containers is resolved by querying meta data for the container, processing the request through one or more copies of the container maintained on the system, updating the meta data for the container to reflect any changes made to the container as a result processing the request, and, if a copy of the container has changed, changing the status of the copy to indicate dirty status or synchronizing the copy to one or more other copies that may be present on the system.

  5. Flow simulation of the Component Development Integration Facility magnetohydrodynamic power train system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Bouillard, J.X.; Petrick, M.

    1997-11-01

    This report covers application of Argonne National Laboratory`s (ANL`s) computer codes to simulation and analysis of components of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power train system at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF). Major components of the system include a 50-MWt coal-fired, two-stage combustor and an MHD channel. The combustor, designed and built by TRW, includes a deswirl section between the first and the second-stage combustor and a converging nozzle following the second-stage combustor, which connects to the MHD channel. ANL used computer codes to simulate and analyze flow characteristics in various components of the MHD system. The first-stage swirl combustor was deemed a mature technology and, therefore, was not included in the computer simulation. Several versions of the ICOMFLO computer code were used for the deswirl section and second-stage combustor. The MGMHD code, upgraded with a slag current leakage submodel, was used for the MHD channel. Whenever possible data from the test facilities were used to aid in calibrating parameters in the computer code, to validate the computer code, or to set base-case operating conditions for computations with the computer code. Extensive sensitivity and parametric studies were done on cold-flow mixing in the second-stage combustor, reacting flow in the second-stage combustor and converging nozzle, and particle-laden flow in the deswirl zone of the first-stage combustor, the second-stage combustor, and the converging nozzle. These simulations with subsequent analysis were able to show clearly in flow patterns and various computable measures of performance a number of sensitive and problematical areas in the design of the power train. The simulations of upstream components also provided inlet parameter profiles for simulation of the MHD power generating channel. 86 figs., 18 tabs.

  6. Fast Simulating High Order Models Application to Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yacine, Z.; Benfdila, A.; Djennoune, S.

    2009-03-05

    The approximation of high order systems by low order models is one of the important problems in system theory. The use of a reduced order model makes it easier to implement analysis, simulations and control system designs. Numerous methods are available in the literature for order reduction of linear continuous systems in time domain as well as in frequency domain. But, this is not the case for non linear systems. The well known Trajectory Piece-Wise Linear approach (TPWL) elaborated to nonlinear model order reduction guarantees a simplification and an accurate representation of the behaviour of strongly non linear systems handling local and global approximation. The present attempt is towards evolving an improvement for the TPWL order reduction technique, which ensures a good quality of approximation combining the advantages of the Krylov subspaces method and the local linearization. We illustrate the technique on a MEMS circuit (Micro Electro-Mechanical System)

  7. Simulation and economic evaluation of a solar evaporation system for concentrating sodium chloride brines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.K.; Newell, T.A. )

    1991-01-01

    An hourly simulation program has been developed for detailed modelin of an evaporation surface (ES) and an evaporation pond (EP) for reconcentration of a solar pond's (SP's) surface brine. The results are relavant to other systems in which it is desirable to concentrate a brine. The simulation results are used in three ways: first, for general comparison of brine reconcentration performance for a variety of locations; second, development of an ES design method based on long term monthly averaged weather data; and third, an economic comparison between ESs and EPs. The results show that regions with moderate to high precipitation favor ESs over EPs. Dry climates will generally favor EPs for brine reconcentration.

  8. Simulation of a photovoltaic/thermal heat pump system having a modified collector/evaporator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Guoying; Deng, Shiming; Zhang, Xiaosong; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Yuehong

    2009-11-15

    A new photovoltaic/thermal heat pump (PV/T-HP) system having a modified collector/evaporator (C/E) has been developed and numerically studied. Multi-port flat extruded aluminum tubes were used in the modified C/E, as compared to round copper tubes used in a conventional C/E. Simulation results suggested that a better operating performance can be achieved for a PV/T-HP system having such a modified C/E. In addition, using the meteorological data in both Nanjing and Hong Kong, China, the simulation results showed that this new PV/T-HP system could efficiently generate electricity and thermal energy simultaneously in both cities all-year-round. Furthermore, improved operation by using variable speed compressor has been designed and discussed. (author)

  9. Recovery act. Development of design and simulation tool for hybrid geothermal heat pump system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Shaojie; Ellis, Dan

    2014-05-29

    The ground source heat pump (GSHP) system is one of the most energy efficient HVAC technologies in the current market. However, the heat imbalance may degrade the ability of the ground loop heat exchanger (GLHX) to absorb or reject heat. The hybrid GSHP system, which combines a geothermal well field with a supplemental boiler or cooling tower, can balance the loads imposed on the ground loop heat exchangers to minimize its size while retaining superior energy efficiency. This paper presents a recent simulation-based study with an intention to compare multiple common control strategies used in hybrid GSHP systems, including fixed setpoint, outside air reset, load reset, and wetbulb reset. A small office in Oklahoma City conditioned by a hybrid GSHP system was simulated with the latest version of eQUEST 3.7[1]. The simulation results reveal that the hybrid GSHP system has the excellent capability to meet the cooling and heating setpoints during the occupied hours, balance thermal loads on the ground loop, as well as improve the thermal comfort of the occupants with the undersized well field.

  10. Method of and system for determining locations of sources of harmonics in a power distribution network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, R.M.; Kirkpatrick, T.L.; Lauletta, J.L.; Shuter, T.C.; Vollkommer, H.T. Jr.

    1987-05-19

    A system is described for determining directions of locations of sources of power harmonics relative to a node interconnecting n branches of a power distribution network, where n is an integer greater than or equal to 2, comprising: voltage transducer means for monitoring voltage waveforms in at least (n-1) of the n branches; current transducer means for monitoring current waveforms in at least (n-1) branches; means for sampling the current and voltage waveforms to obtain analog current and voltage waveform samples; A/D converter means for digitizing the analog waveform samples; and spectrum analyzer means for resolving the digitized samples into their respective harmonic components.

  11. Guidelines for Implementing Advanced Distribution Management Systems-Requirements for DMS Integration with DERMS and Microgrids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jianhui; Chen, Chen; Lu, Xiaonan

    2015-08-01

    This guideline focuses on the integration of DMS with DERMS and microgrids connected to the distribution grid by defining generic and fundamental design and implementation principles and strategies. It starts by addressing the current status, objectives, and core functionalities of each system, and then discusses the new challenges and the common principles of DMS design and implementation for integration with DERMS and microgrids to realize enhanced grid operation reliability and quality power delivery to consumers while also achieving the maximum energy economics from the DER and microgrid connections.

  12. Laboratory optical spectroscopy of the thiophenoxy radical and its profile simulation as a diffuse interstellar band based on rotational distribution by radiation and collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Araki, Mitsunori; Niwayama, Kei; Tsukiyama, Koichi

    2014-11-01

    The gas-phase optical absorption spectrum of the thiophenoxy radical (C{sub 6}H{sub 5}S), a diffuse interstellar band (DIB) candidate molecule, was observed in the discharge of thiophenol using a cavity ringdown spectrometer. The ground-state rotational constants of the thiophenoxy radical were theoretically calculated, and the excited-state rotational constants were determined from the observed rotational profile. The rotational profile of a near prolate molecule having C {sub 2v} symmetry was simulated on the basis of a rotational distribution model by radiation and collisions. Although the simulated profile did not agree with the observed DIBs, the upper limit of the column density for the thiophenoxy radical in the diffuse clouds toward HD 204827 was evaluated to be 2 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup –2}. The profile simulation indicates that rotational distribution by radiation and collisions is important to reproduce a rotational profile for a DIB candidate and that the near prolate C {sub 2v} molecule is a possible candidate for DIB with a band width variation dependent on the line of sight.

  13. WARP: A modular wind power system for distributed electric utility application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weisbrich, A.L.; Ostrow, S.L.; Padalino, J.P.

    1996-07-01

    Steady development of wind turbine technology, and the accumulation of wind farm operating experience, have resulted in the emergence of wind power as a potentially attractive source of electricity for utilities. Since wind turbines are inherently modular, with medium-sized units typically in the range of a few hundred kilowatts each, they lend themselves well to distributed generation service. A patented wind power technology, the Toroidal Accelerator Rotor Platform (TARP) Windframe, forms the basis for a proposed network-distributed, wind power plant combining electric generation and transmission. While heavily building on proven wind turbine technology, this system is projected to surpass traditional configuration windmills through a unique distribution/transmission combination, superior performance, user-friendly operation and maintenance, and high availability and reliability. Furthermore, its environmental benefits include little new land requirements, relatively attractive appearance, lower noise and EMI/TV interference, and reduced avian (bird) mortality potential. Its cost of energy is projected to be very competitive, in the range of from approximately 2{cents}/kWh to 5{cents}/kWh, depending on the wind resource.

  14. WARP{trademark}: A modular wind power system for distributed electric utility application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weisbrich, A.L.; Ostrow, S.L.; Padalino, J.

    1995-12-31

    Steady development of wind turbine technology, and the accumulation of wind farm operating experience, have resulted in the emergence of wind power as a potentially attractive source of electricity for utilities. Since wind turbines are inherently modular, with medium-sized units typically in the range of a few hundred kW each, they lend themselves well to distributed generation service. A patented wind power technology, the Toroidal Accelerator Rotor Platform (TARP{trademark}) Windframe{trademark}, forms the basis for a proposed network-distributed, wind power plant combining electric generation and transmission. While heavily building on proven wind turbine technology, this system is projected to surpass traditional configuration windmills through a unique distribution/transmission combination, superior performance, user friendly operation and maintenance, and high availability and reliability. Furthermore, its environmental benefits include little new land requirements, relatively attractive appearance, lower noise and EMI/TV interference, and reduced avian (bird) mortality potential. Its cost of energy is projected to be very competitive, in the range of from approximately 2{cents}/kWh to 5{cents}/ kWh, depending on the wind resource.

  15. Simulation of Electron Cloud Density Distributions in RHIC Dipoles at Injection and Transition and Estimates for Scrubbing Times

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He,P.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Fischer, W.

    2009-01-02

    In this report we summarize electron-cloud simulations for the RHIC dipole regions at injection and transition to estimate if scrubbing over practical time scales at injection would reduce the electron cloud density at transition to significantly lower values. The lower electron cloud density at transition will allow for an increase in the ion intensity.

  16. An examination of the costs and critical characteristics of electric utility distribution system capacity enhancement projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balducci, Patrick J.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.; Nguyen, Tony B.; Brown, Daryl R.; Fathelrahman, Eihab M.

    2004-06-01

    This report classifies and analyzes the capital and total costs (e.g., income tax, property tax, depreciation, centralized power generation, insurance premiums, and capital financing) associated with 130 electricity distribution system capacity enhancement projects undertaken during 1995-2002 or planned in the 2003-2011 time period by three electric power utilities operating in the Pacific Northwest. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), in cooperation with participating utilities, has developed a large database of over 3,000 distribution system projects. The database includes brief project descriptions, capital cost estimates, the stated need for each project, and engineering data. The database was augmented by additional technical (e.g., line loss, existing substation capacities, and forecast peak demand for power in the area served by each project), cost (e.g., operations, maintenance, and centralized power generation costs), and financial (e.g., cost of capital, insurance premiums, depreciations, and tax rates) data. Though there are roughly 3,000 projects in the database, the vast majority were not included in this analysis because they either did not clearly enhance capacity or more information was needed, and not available, to adequately conduct the cost analyses. For the 130 projects identified for this analysis, capital cost frequency distributions were constructed, and expressed in terms of dollars per kVA of additional capacity. The capital cost frequency distributions identify how the projects contained within the database are distributed across a broad cost spectrum. Furthermore, the PNNL Energy Cost Analysis Model (ECAM) was used to determine the full costs (e.g., capital, operations and maintenance, property tax, income tax, depreciation, centralized power generation costs, insurance premiums and capital financing) associated with delivering electricity to customers, once again expressed in terms of costs per kVA of additional capacity

  17. Method and system for simulating heat and mass transfer in cooling towers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bharathan, Desikan; Hassani, A. Vahab

    1997-01-01

    The present invention is a system and method for simulating the performance of a cooling tower. More precisely, the simulator of the present invention predicts values related to the heat and mass transfer from a liquid (e.g., water) to a gas (e.g., air) when provided with input data related to a cooling tower design. In particular, the simulator accepts input data regarding: (a) cooling tower site environmental characteristics; (b) cooling tower operational characteristics; and (c) geometric characteristics of the packing used to increase the surface area within the cooling tower upon which the heat and mass transfer interactions occur. In providing such performance predictions, the simulator performs computations related to the physics of heat and mass transfer within the packing. Thus, instead of relying solely on trial and error wherein various packing geometries are tested during construction of the cooling tower, the packing geometries for a proposed cooling tower can be simulated for use in selecting a desired packing geometry for the cooling tower.

  18. Optimum model-E-GAMS for Distributed Energy System by Using GAMSMethod

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Yongwen; Gao, Weijun; Ruan, Yingjun; Zhou, Nan; Xuan, Ji; Marnay, Chris

    2005-05-31

    DER-CAM Developed by the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), is an optimization tool for DER technology selection. However it can not be simply applied to the Japanese case because of the different climate and the utility tariff. This research aims to develop an optimization tool for distributed energy for Japanese buildings using GAMS, a high-level modeling system for mathematical programming and optimization. This paper describes how we apply and demonstrate the tool to the energy center at Kitakyushu Research city, where has installed a fuel cell and a gas engine. An analysis has also been conducted to see how the utility tarriff and the equipment efficiency can affect the operation of the DER system.

  19. Modeling of distribution and speciation of plutonium in the Urex extraction system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulenova, A.; Tkac, P.; Vandegrift, G.F.; Krebs, J.F.

    2008-07-01

    The PUREX extraction process is used worldwide to recover uranium and plutonium from dissolved spent nuclear fuel using the tributylphosphate-nitric acid extraction system. In the recent decade, significant research progress was achieved with the aim to modify this system by addition of a salt-free agent to optimize stripping of plutonium from the tributylphosphate (TBP) extraction product (UREX). Experimental results on the extraction of Pu(IV) with and without acetohydroxamic acid in the HNO{sub 3}/TBP (30 vol %) were used for the development of a thermodynamic model of distribution and speciation of Pu(IV) in this separation process. Extraction constants for several sets of nitric acid, nitrate, and acetohydroxamic acid concentrations were used to model the obtained data. The extraction model AMUSE (Argonne Model for Universal Solvent Extraction) was employed in our calculations. (authors)

  20. A computer simulation appraisal of non-residential low energy cooling systems in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bourassa, Norman; Haves, Philip; Huang, Joe

    2002-05-17

    An appraisal of the potential performance of different Low Energy Cooling (LEC) systems in nonresidential buildings in California is being conducted using computer simulation. The paper presents results from the first phase of the study, which addressed the systems that can be modeled, with the DOE-2.1E simulation program. The following LEC technologies were simulated as variants of a conventional variable-air-volume system with vapor compression cooling and mixing ventilation in the occupied spaces: Air-side indirect and indirect/direct evaporative pre-cooling. Cool beams. Displacement ventilation. Results are presented for four populous climates, represented by Oakland, Sacramento, Pasadena and San Diego. The greatest energy savings are obtained from a combination of displacement ventilation and air-side indirect/direct evaporative pre-cooling. Cool beam systems have the lowest peak demand but do not reduce energy consumption significantly because the reduction in fan energy is offse t by a reduction in air-side free cooling. Overall, the results indicate significant opportunities for LEC technologies to reduce energy consumption and demand in nonresidential new construction and retrofit.

  1. Model documentation: Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model of the National Energy Modeling System; Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-02-24

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) is a component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) used to represent the domestic natural gas transmission and distribution system. NEMS is the third in a series of computer-based, midterm energy modeling systems used since 1974 by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) and its predecessor, the Federal Energy Administration, to analyze domestic energy-economy markets and develop projections. This report documents the archived version of NGTDM that was used to produce the natural gas forecasts used in support of the Annual Energy Outlook 1994, DOE/EIA-0383(94). The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public that defines the objectives of the model, describes its basic design, provides detail on the methodology employed, and describes the model inputs, outputs, and key assumptions. It is intended to fulfill the legal obligation of the EIA to provide adequate documentation in support of its models (Public Law 94-385, Section 57.b.2). This report represents Volume 1 of a two-volume set. (Volume 2 will report on model performance, detailing convergence criteria and properties, results of sensitivity testing, comparison of model outputs with the literature and/or other model results, and major unresolved issues.) Subsequent chapters of this report provide: (1) an overview of the NGTDM (Chapter 2); (2) a description of the interface between the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) and the NGTDM (Chapter 3); (3) an overview of the solution methodology of the NGTDM (Chapter 4); (4) the solution methodology for the Annual Flow Module (Chapter 5); (5) the solution methodology for the Distributor Tariff Module (Chapter 6); (6) the solution methodology for the Capacity Expansion Module (Chapter 7); (7) the solution methodology for the Pipeline Tariff Module (Chapter 8); and (8) a description of model assumptions, inputs, and outputs (Chapter 9).

  2. ZTEK`s ultra-high efficiency fuel cell/gas turbine system for distributed generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hsu, M.; Nathanson, D.; Bradshaw, D.T.

    1996-12-31

    Ztek`s Planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system has exceptional potential for utility electric power generation because of: simplicity of components construction, capability for low cost manufacturing, efficient recovery of very high quality by-product heat (up to 1000{degrees}C), and system integration simplicity. Utility applications of the Solid Oxide Fuel Cell are varied and include distributed generation units (sub-MW to 30MW capacity), repowering existing power plants (i.e. 30MW to 100MW), and multi-megawatt central power plants. A TVA/EPRI collaboration program involved functional testing of the advanced solid oxide fuel cell stacks and design scale-up for distributed power generation applications. The emphasis is on the engineering design of the utility modules which will be the building blocks for up to megawatt scale power plants. The program has two distinctive subprograms: Verification test on a 1 kW stack and 25kW module for utility demonstration. A 1 kW Planar SOFC stack was successfully operated for 15,000 hours as of December, 1995. Ztek began work on a 25kW SOFC Power System for TVA, which plans to install the 25kW SOFC at a host site for demonstration in 1997. The 25kW module is Ztek`s intended building block for the commercial use of the Planar SOFC. Systems of up to megawatt capacity can be obtained by packaging the modules in 2-dimensional or 3-dimensional arrays.

  3. Simulation of an integrated system for the production of methane and single cell protein from biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, M.V.

    1989-01-01

    A numerical model was developed to simulate the operation of an integrated system for the production of methane and single-cell algal protein from a variety of biomass energy crops or waste streams. Economic analysis was performed at the end of each simulation. The model was capable of assisting in the determination of design parameters by providing relative economic information for various strategies. Three configurations of anaerobic reactors were simulated. These included fed-bed reactors, conventional stirred tank reactors, and continuously expanding reactors. A generic anaerobic digestion process model, using lumped substrate parameters, was developed for use by type-specific reactor models. The generic anaerobic digestion model provided a tool for the testing of conversion efficiencies and kinetic parameters for a wide range of substrate types and reactor designs. Dynamic growth models were used to model the growth of algae and Eichornia crassipes was modeled as a function of daily incident radiation and temperature. The growth of Eichornia crassipes was modeled for the production of biomass as a substrate for digestion. Computer simulations with the system model indicated that tropical or subtropical locations offered the most promise for a viable system. The availability of large quantities of digestible waste and low land prices were found to be desirable in order to take advantage of the economies of scale. Other simulations indicated that poultry and swine manure produced larger biogas yields than cattle manure. The model was created in a modular fashion to allow for testing of a wide variety of unit operations. Coding was performed in the Pascal language for use on personal computers.

  4. An adaptive multi-level simulation algorithm for stochastic biological systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lester, C. Giles, M. B.; Baker, R. E.; Yates, C. A.

    2015-01-14

    Discrete-state, continuous-time Markov models are widely used in the modeling of biochemical reaction networks. Their complexity often precludes analytic solution, and we rely on stochastic simulation algorithms (SSA) to estimate system statistics. The Gillespie algorithm is exact, but computationally costly as it simulates every single reaction. As such, approximate stochastic simulation algorithms such as the tau-leap algorithm are often used. Potentially computationally more efficient, the system statistics generated suffer from significant bias unless tau is relatively small, in which case the computational time can be comparable to that of the Gillespie algorithm. The multi-level method [Anderson and Higham, Multi-level Monte Carlo for continuous time Markov chains, with applications in biochemical kinetics, SIAM Multiscale Model. Simul. 10(1), 146179 (2012)] tackles this problem. A base estimator is computed using many (cheap) sample paths at low accuracy. The bias inherent in this estimator is then reduced using a number of corrections. Each correction term is estimated using a collection of paired sample paths where one path of each pair is generated at a higher accuracy compared to the other (and so more expensive). By sharing random variables between these paired paths, the variance of each correction estimator can be reduced. This renders the multi-level method very efficient as only a relatively small number of paired paths are required to calculate each correction term. In the original multi-level method, each sample path is simulated using the tau-leap algorithm with a fixed value of ?. This approach can result in poor performance when the reaction activity of a system changes substantially over the timescale of interest. By introducing a novel adaptive time-stepping approach where ? is chosen according to the stochastic behaviour of each sample path, we extend the applicability of the multi-level method to such cases. We demonstrate the efficiency

  5. Building A Simulation Model For The Prediction Of Temperature Distribution In Pulsed Laser Spot Welding Of Dissimilar Low Carbon Steel 1020 To Aluminum Alloy 6061

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yousef, Adel K. M.; Taha, Ziad A.; Shehab, Abeer A.

    2011-01-17

    This paper describes the development of a computer model used to analyze the heat flow during pulsed Nd: YAG laser spot welding of dissimilar metal; low carbon steel (1020) to aluminum alloy (6061). The model is built using ANSYS FLUENT 3.6 software where almost all the environments simulated to be similar to the experimental environments. A simulation analysis was implemented based on conduction heat transfer out of the key hole where no melting occurs. The effect of laser power and pulse duration was studied.Three peak powers 1, 1.66 and 2.5 kW were varied during pulsed laser spot welding (keeping the energy constant), also the effect of two pulse durations 4 and 8 ms (with constant peak power), on the transient temperature distribution and weld pool dimension were predicated using the present simulation. It was found that the present simulation model can give an indication for choosing the suitable laser parameters (i.e. pulse durations, peak power and interaction time required) during pulsed laser spot welding of dissimilar metals.

  6. Experimental and Monte Carlo evaluation of Eclipse treatment planning system for effects on dose distribution of the hip prostheses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    atl?, Serap; Tan?r, Gne?

    2013-10-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of titanium, titanium alloy, and stainless steel hip prostheses on dose distribution based on the Monte Carlo simulation method, as well as the accuracy of the Eclipse treatment planning system (TPS) at 6 and 18 MV photon energies. In the present study the pencil beam convolution (PBC) method implemented in the Eclipse TPS was compared to the Monte Carlo method and ionization chamber measurements. The present findings show that if high-Z material is used in prosthesis, large dose changes can occur due to scattering. The variance in dose observed in the present study was dependent on material type, density, and atomic number, as well as photon energy; as photon energy increased back scattering decreased. The dose perturbation effect of hip prostheses was significant and could not be predicted accurately by the PBC method for hip prostheses. The findings show that for accurate dose calculation the Monte Carlo-based TPS should be used in patients with hip prostheses.

  7. A Distributed Modeling System for Short-Term to Seasonal Ensemble Streamflow Forecasting in Snowmelt Dominated Basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wigmosta, Mark S.; Gill, Muhammad K.; Coleman, Andre M.; Prasad, Rajiv; Vail, Lance W.

    2007-12-01

    This paper describes a distributed modeling system for short-term to seasonal water supply forecasts with the ability to utilize remotely-sensed snow cover products and real-time streamflow measurements. Spatial variability in basin characteristics and meteorology is represented using a raster-based computational grid. Canopy interception, snow accumulation and melt, and simplified soil water movement are simulated in each computational unit. The model is run at a daily time step with surface runoff and subsurface flow aggregated at the basin scale. This approach allows the model to be updated with spatial snow cover and measured streamflow using an Ensemble Kalman-based data assimilation strategy that accounts for uncertainty in weather forecasts, model parameters, and observations used for updating. Model inflow forecasts for the Dworshak Reservoir in northern Idaho are compared to observations and to April-July volumetric forecasts issued by the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS) for Water Years 2000 2006. October 1 volumetric forecasts are superior to those issued by the NRCS, while March 1 forecasts are comparable. The ensemble spread brackets the observed April-July volumetric inflows in all years. Short-term (one and three day) forecasts also show excellent agreement with observations.

  8. SU-E-T-58: Calculation of Dose Distribution of Accuboost Brachytherapy in Deformable Polyvinil Alcohol Breast Phantom Using Biomechanical Modeling and Monte Carlo Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohammadyari, P; Faghihi, R; Shirazi, M Mosleh; Lotfi, M; Meigooni, A

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: the accuboost is the most modern method of breast brachytherapy that is a boost method in compressed tissue by a mammography unit. the dose distribution in uncompressed tissue, as compressed tissue is important that should be characterized. Methods: In this study, the mechanical behavior of breast in mammography loading, the displacement of breast tissue and the dose distribution in compressed and uncompressed tissue, are investigated. Dosimetry was performed by two dosimeter methods of Monte Carlo simulations using MCNP5 code and thermoluminescence dosimeters. For Monte Carlo simulations, the dose values in cubical lattice were calculated using tally F6. The displacement of the breast elements was simulated by Finite element model and calculated using ABAQUS software, from which the 3D dose distribution in uncompressed tissue was determined. The geometry of the model is constructed from MR images of 6 volunteers. Experimental dosimetery was performed by placing the thermoluminescence dosimeters into the polyvinyl alcohol breast equivalent phantom and on the proximal edge of compression plates to the chest. Results: The results indicate that using the cone applicators would deliver more than 95% of dose to the depth of 5 to 17mm, while round applicator will increase the skin dose. Nodal displacement, in presence of gravity and 60N forces, i.e. in mammography compression, was determined with 43% contraction in the loading direction and 37% expansion in orthogonal orientation. Finally, in comparison of the acquired from thermoluminescence dosimeters with MCNP5, they are consistent with each other in breast phantom and in chest's skin with average different percentage of 13.7±5.7 and 7.7±2.3, respectively. Conclusion: The major advantage of this kind of dosimetry is the ability of 3D dose calculation by FE Modeling. Finally, polyvinyl alcohol is a reliable material as a breast tissue equivalent dosimetric phantom that provides the ability of TLD dosimetry

  9. Distributed and Electric Power System Aggregation Model and Field Configuration Equivalency Validation Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, M.; Costyk, D.; Narang, A.

    2003-07-01

    This study determines the magnitude of distributed resources that can be added to a distribution circuit without causing undesirable conditions or equipment damage.

  10. Power Electronics for Distributed Energy Systems and Transmission and Distribution Applications: Assessing the Technical Needs for Utility Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tolbert, L.M.

    2005-12-21

    Power electronics can provide utilities the ability to more effectively deliver power to their customers while providing increased reliability to the bulk power system. In general, power electronics is the process of using semiconductor switching devices to control and convert electrical power flow from one form to another to meet a specific need. These conversion techniques have revolutionized modern life by streamlining manufacturing processes, increasing product efficiencies, and increasing the quality of life by enhancing many modern conveniences such as computers, and they can help to improve the delivery of reliable power from utilities. This report summarizes the technical challenges associated with utilizing power electronics devices across the entire spectrum from applications to manufacturing and materials development, and it provides recommendations for research and development (R&D) needs for power electronics systems in which the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) could make a substantial impact toward improving the reliability of the bulk power system.

  11. Facilitating Co-Design for Extreme-Scale Systems Through Lightweight Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engelmann, Christian; Lauer, Frank

    2010-01-01

    This work focuses on tools for investigating algorithm performance at extreme scale with millions of concurrent threads and for evaluating the impact of future architecture choices to facilitate the co-design of high-performance computing (HPC) architectures and applications. The approach focuses on lightweight simulation of extreme-scale HPC systems with the needed amount of accuracy. The prototype presented in this paper is able to provide this capability using a parallel discrete event simulation (PDES), such that a Message Passing Interface (MPI) application can be executed at extreme scale, and its performance properties can be evaluated. The results of an initial prototype are encouraging as a simple 'hello world' MPI program could be scaled up to 1,048,576 virtual MPI processes on a four-node cluster, and the performance properties of two MPI programs could be evaluated at up to 16,384 virtual MPI processes on the same system.

  12. The role of precipitation size distributions in km-scale NWP simulations of intense precipitation: Evaluation of cloud properties and surface precipitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VanWeverberg K.; Vogelmann A.; vanLipzig, N. P. M.; Delobbec, L.

    2012-04-01

    We investigate the sensitivity of simulated cloud properties and surface precipitation to assumptions regarding the size distributions of the precipitating hydrometeors in a one-moment bulk microphysics scheme. Three sensitivity experiments were applied to two composites of 15 convective and 15 frontal stratiform intense precipitation events observed in a coastal midlatitude region (Belgium), which were evaluated against satellite-retrieved cloud properties and radar-rain-gauge derived surface precipitation. It is found that the cloud optical thickness distribution was well captured by all experiments, although a significant underestimation of cloudiness occurred in the convective composite. The cloud-top-pressure distribution was improved most by more realistic snow size distributions (including a temperature-dependent intercept parameter and non-spherical snow for the calculation of the slope parameter), due to increased snow depositional growth at high altitudes. Surface precipitation was far less sensitive to whether graupel or hail was chosen as the rimed ice species, as compared to previous idealized experiments. This smaller difference in sensitivity could be explained by the stronger updraught velocities and higher freezing levels in the idealized experiments compared to typical coastal midlatitude environmental conditions.

  13. Systems simulation of cotton gin waste as a supplemental fuel in a coal powered generating plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parnell, C.B.; Grubaugh, E.K.; Johnston, M.T.; Ladd, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    A systems simulation model of gin trash use at a Lamb County, Texas, power plant was developed. The model is being used to study gin trash supply, both quantity and transportation, fixed and variable cost, and economic benefit/costs of gin trash utilization. Preliminary results indicate the positive feasibility of using gin trash as a supplemental fuel in a coal fired power plant. (MHR)

  14. Proceedings of the Technology Roadmap Workshop on Communication and Control Systems for Distributed Energy Implementation and Testing, May 2002

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This report presents the proceedings of a technical workshop on communication and control systems for the implementation and testing of distributed energy devises such as microturbines, fuel cells, and photovoltaic arrays.

  15. The Case for Natural Gas Fueled Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power Systems for Distributed Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chick, Lawrence A.; Weimar, Mark R.; Whyatt, Greg A.; Powell, Michael R.

    2015-02-01

    Natural-gas-fueled solid oxide fuel cell (NGSOFC) power systems yield electrical conversion efficiencies exceeding 60% and may become a viable alternative for distributed generation (DG) if stack life and manufacturing economies of scale can be realized. Currently, stacks last approximately 2 years and few systems are produced each year because of the relatively high cost of electricity from the systems. If mass manufacturing (10,000 units per year) and a stack life of 15 years can be reached, the cost of electricity from an NGSOFC system is estimated to be about 7.7 ¢/kWh, well within the price of commercial and residential retail prices at the national level (9.9-10¢/kWh and 11-12 ¢/kWh, respectively). With an additional 5 ¢/kWh in estimated additional benefits from DG, NGSOFC could be well positioned to replace the forecasted 59-77 gigawatts of capacity loss resulting from coal plant closures due to stricter emissions regulations and low natural gas prices.

  16. Development of a High Resolution, Real Time, Distribution-Level Metering System and Associated Visualization, Modeling, and Data Analysis Functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bank, J.; Hambrick, J.

    2013-05-01

    NREL is developing measurement devices and a supporting data collection network specifically targeted at electrical distribution systems to support research in this area. This paper describes the measurement network which is designed to apply real-time and high speed (sub-second) measurement principles to distribution systems that are already common for the transmission level in the form of phasor measurement units and related technologies.

  17. Minimizing System Noise Effects For Extreme-Scale Scientific Simulation Through Function Delegation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dongarra, Jack J.; Bosilca, George

    2013-06-11

    The primary goal of the Minimizing System Noise Effects For Extreme-Scale Scientific Simulation through Function Delegation project is to eliminate or at best strongly minimize the impact of the noise introduced by the operating system, during large scale parallel applications runs. Collective communication operations are a basic building block for parallel programing models and scientific applications. These operations often dominate execution time of applications and tend to limit their scalability. In order to address this challenge, we evaluated different strategies to adapt the collective communications underlying topologies to the hardware architecture in order to provide increased levels of performance to the parallel applications.

  18. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator (FACS) furnace system for high temperature performance testing of VHTR fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Demkowicz; David V. Laug; Dawn M. Scates; Edward L. Reber; Lyle G. Roybal; John B. Walter; Jason M. Harp; Robert N. Morris

    2012-10-01

    The AGR-1 irradiation of TRISO-coated particle fuel specimens was recently completed and represents the most successful such irradiation in US history, reaching peak burnups of greater than 19% FIMA with zero failures out of 300,000 particles. An extensive post-irradiation examination (PIE) campaign will be conducted on the AGR-1 fuel in order to characterize the irradiated fuel properties, assess the in-pile fuel performance in terms of coating integrity and fission metals release, and determine the fission product retention behavior during high temperature safety testing. A new furnace system has been designed, built, and tested to perform high temperature accident tests. The Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system is designed to heat fuel specimens at temperatures up to 2000 degrees C in helium while monitoring the release of volatile fission metals (e.g. Cs, Ag, Sr, and Eu), iodine, and fission gases (Kr, Xe). Fission gases released from the fuel to the sweep gas are monitored in real time using dual cryogenic traps fitted with high purity germanium detectors. Condensable fission products are collected on a plate attached to a water-cooled cold finger that can be exchanged periodically without interrupting the test. Analysis of fission products on the condensation plates involves dry gamma counting followed by chemical analysis of selected isotopes. This paper will describe design and operational details of the Fuel Accident Condition Simulator furnace system and the associated fission gas monitoring system, as well as preliminary system calibration results.

  19. On computing stress in polymer systems involving multi-body potentials from molecular dynamics simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fu, Yao E-mail: jhsong@cec.sc.edu; Song, Jeong-Hoon E-mail: jhsong@cec.sc.edu

    2014-08-07

    Hardy stress definition has been restricted to pair potentials and embedded-atom method potentials due to the basic assumptions in the derivation of a symmetric microscopic stress tensor. Force decomposition required in the Hardy stress expression becomes obscure for multi-body potentials. In this work, we demonstrate the invariance of the Hardy stress expression for a polymer system modeled with multi-body interatomic potentials including up to four atoms interaction, by applying central force decomposition of the atomic force. The balance of momentum has been demonstrated to be valid theoretically and tested under various numerical simulation conditions. The validity of momentum conservation justifies the extension of Hardy stress expression to multi-body potential systems. Computed Hardy stress has been observed to converge to the virial stress of the system with increasing spatial averaging volume. This work provides a feasible and reliable linkage between the atomistic and continuum scales for multi-body potential systems.

  20. Knowledge system and method for simulating chemical controlled release device performance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cowan, Christina E.; Van Voris, Peter; Streile, Gary P.; Cataldo, Dominic A.; Burton, Frederick G.

    1991-01-01

    A knowledge system for simulating the performance of a controlled release device is provided. The system includes an input device through which the user selectively inputs one or more data parameters. The data parameters comprise first parameters including device parameters, media parameters, active chemical parameters and device release rate; and second parameters including the minimum effective inhibition zone of the device and the effective lifetime of the device. The system also includes a judgemental knowledge base which includes logic for 1) determining at least one of the second parameters from the release rate and the first parameters and 2) determining at least one of the first parameters from the other of the first parameters and the second parameters. The system further includes a device for displaying the results of the determinations to the user.

  1. Model documentation Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model of the National Energy Modeling System. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-02-26

    The Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model (NGTDM) of the National Energy Modeling System is developed and maintained by the Energy Information Administration (EIA), Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting. This report documents the archived version of the NGTDM that was used to produce the natural gas forecasts presented in the Annual Energy Outlook 1996, (DOE/EIA-0383(96)). The purpose of this report is to provide a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public that defines the objectives of the model, describes its basic approach, and provides detail on the methodology employed. Previously this report represented Volume I of a two-volume set. Volume II reported on model performance, detailing convergence criteria and properties, results of sensitivity testing, comparison of model outputs with the literature and/or other model results, and major unresolved issues.

  2. Distribution Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On September 24-26, 2012, the GTT presented a workshop on grid integration on the distribution system at the Sheraton Crystal City near Washington, DC.

  3. WASTES-II: Waste System Transportation and Economic Simulation--Release 24: User's guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ouderkirk, S.J.

    1988-12-01

    WASTES models each reactor pool and an at-reactor, out-of-pool (ex-pool) storage facility for each reactor site. Spent fuel transfers between pools can be simulated under various constraints controlled by user input. In addition to simulating each pool and ex-pool facility, WASTES can accommodate up to ten other storage facilities of four different types: federal interim storage (FIS), monitored retrievable storage (MRS), auxiliary plants, and repositories. Considerable flexibility is allowed for the user to specify system configuration and priorities for fuel receipts. In addition, the WASTES computer code simulates very detailed (assembly-specific) movements of spent fuel throughout the waste management system. Spent fuel characteristics that are tracked by WASTES for each movement are: discharge year and month, number of assemblies, weight of uranium (MTU), exposure, original enrichment, and heat generation rate (calculated from the preceding characteristics). Data for the WASTES model is based upon the DOE reactor-specific spent fuel data base, which is developed and maintained by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). In addition to the spent fuel characteristics, this data includes reactor location, type, transportation access, and historical and projected discharge data on the number of fuel assemblies. 8 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) solar systems simulation with Simulink/Matlab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    da Silva, R.M.; Fernandes, J.L.M.

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this work consists in thermodynamic modeling of hybrid photovoltaic-thermal (PV/T) solar systems, pursuing a modular strategy approach provided by Simulink/Matlab. PV/T solar systems are a recently emerging solar technology that allows for the simultaneous conversion of solar energy into both electricity and heat. This type of technology present some interesting advantages over the conventional ''side-by-side'' thermal and PV solar systems, such as higher combined electrical/thermal energy outputs per unit area, and a more uniform and aesthetical pleasant roof area. Despite the fact that early research on PV/T systems can be traced back to the seventies, only recently it has gained a renewed impetus. In this work, parametric studies and annual transient simulations of PV/T systems are undertaken in Simulink/Matlab. The obtained results show an average annual solar fraction of 67%, and a global overall efficiency of 24% (i.e. 15% thermal and 9% electrical), for a typical four-person single-family residence in Lisbon, with p-Si cells, and a collector area of 6 m{sup 2}. A sensitivity analysis performed on the PV/T collector suggests that the most important variable that should be addressed to improve thermal performance is the photovoltaic (PV) module emittance. Based on those results, some additional improvements are proposed, such as the use of vacuum, or a noble gas at low-pressure, to allow for the removal of PV cells encapsulation without air oxidation and degradation, and thus reducing the PV module emittance. Preliminary results show that this option allows for an 8% increase on optical thermal efficiency, and a substantial reduction of thermal losses, suggesting the possibility of working at higher fluid temperatures. The higher working temperatures negative effect in electrical efficiency was negligible, due to compensation by improved optical properties. The simulation results are compared with experimental data obtained from other authors

  5. Policy Strategies and Paths to promote Sustainable Energy Systems- The dynamic Invert Simulation Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadler, Michael; Kranzl, Lukas; Huber, Claus; Haas, Reinhard; Tsioliaridou, Elena

    2006-05-01

    The European Union has established a number of targetsregarding energy efficiency, Renewable Energy Sources (RES) and CO2reductions as the 'GREEN PAPER on Energy Efficiency', the Directive for'promotion of the use of bio-fuels or other renewable fuels fortransport' or 'Directive of the European Parliament of the Council on thepromotion of cogeneration based on a useful heat demand in the internalenergy market'. A lot of the according RES and RUE measures are notattractive for investors from an economic point of view. Thereforegovernmentsall over the world have to spend public money to promotethese technologies/measures to bring them into market. These expenditureshave to be adjusted to budget concerns and should be spent mostefficiently. Therefore, the spent money has to be dedicated totechnologies and efficiency measures with the best yield in CO2 reductionwithout wasting money. The core question: "How can public money - forpromoting sustainable energy systems - be spent most efficiently toreduce GHG-emissions?" has been well investigated by the European projectInvert. In course of this project a simulation tool has been designed toanswer this core question. This paper describes the modelling with theInvert simulation tool and shows the key features necessary forsimulating the energy system. A definition of 'Promotion SchemeEfficiency' is given which allows estimating the most cost effectivetechnologies and/or efficiency measures to reduce CO2 emissions.Investigations performed with the Invert simulation tool deliver anoptimum portfolio mix of technologies and efficiency measures for eachselected region. Within Invert seven European regions were simulated andfor the Austrian case study the detailed portfolio mix is shown andpolitical conclusions are derived.

  6. Simulation of Enhanced Geothermal Systems: A Benchmarking and Code Intercomparison Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheibe, Timothy D.; White, Mark D.; White, Signe K.; Sivaramakrishnan, Chandrika; Purohit, Sumit; Black, Gary D.; Podgorney, Robert; Boyd, Lauren W.; Phillips, Benjamin R.

    2013-06-30

    Numerical simulation codes have become critical tools for understanding complex geologic processes, as applied to technology assessment, system design, monitoring, and operational guidance. Recently the need for quantitatively evaluating coupled Thermodynamic, Hydrologic, geoMechanical, and geoChemical (THMC) processes has grown, driven by new applications such as geologic sequestration of greenhouse gases and development of unconventional energy sources. Here we focus on Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), which are man-made geothermal reservoirs created where hot rock exists but there is insufficient natural permeability and/or pore fluids to allow efficient energy extraction. In an EGS, carefully controlled subsurface fluid injection is performed to enhance the permeability of pre-existing fractures, which facilitates fluid circulation and heat transport. EGS technologies are relatively new, and pose significant simulation challenges. To become a trusted analytical tool for EGS, numerical simulation codes must be tested to demonstrate that they adequately represent the coupled THMC processes of concern. This presentation describes the approach and status of a benchmarking and code intercomparison effort currently underway, supported by the U. S. Department of Energys Geothermal Technologies Program. This study is being closely coordinated with a parallel international effort sponsored by the International Partnership for Geothermal Technology (IPGT). We have defined an extensive suite of benchmark problems, test cases, and challenge problems, ranging in complexity and difficulty, and a number of modeling teams are applying various simulation tools to these problems. The descriptions of the problems and modeling results are being compiled using the Velo framework, a scientific workflow and data management environment accessible through a simple web-based interface.

  7. Wireless Self-powered Visual and NDE Robotic Inspection System for Live Gas Distribution Mains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Susan Burkett; Hagen Schempf

    2006-01-31

    Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) under contract from Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (DoE/NETL) and co-funding from the Northeast Gas Association (NGA), has completed the overall system design of the next-generation Explorer-II (X-II) live gas main NDE and visual inspection robot platform. The design is based on the Explorer-I prototype which was built and field-tested under a prior (also DoE- and NGA co-funded) program, and served as the validation that self-powered robots under wireless control could access and navigate live natural gas distribution mains. The X-II system design ({approx}8 ft. and 66 lbs.) was heavily based on the X-I design, yet was substantially expanded to allow the addition of NDE sensor systems (while retaining its visual inspection capability), making it a modular system, and expanding its ability to operate at pressures up to 750 psig (high-pressure and unpiggable steel-pipe distribution mains). A new electronics architecture and on-board software kernel were added to again improve system performance. A locating sonde system was integrated to allow for absolute position-referencing during inspection (coupled with external differential GPS) and emergency-locating. The power system was upgraded to utilize lithium-based battery-cells for an increase in mission-time. The system architecture now relies on a dual set of end camera-modules to house the 32-bit processors (Single-Board Computer or SBC) as well as the imaging and wireless (off-board) and CAN-based (on-board) communication hardware and software systems (as well as the sonde-coil and -electronics). The drive-module (2 ea.) are still responsible for bracing (and centering) to drive in push/pull fashion the robot train into and through the pipes and obstacles. The steering modules and their arrangement, still allow the robot to configure itself to perform any-angle (up to 90 deg) turns in any orientation (incl. vertical), and enable the live launching and

  8. Transportable Vitrification System: Operational experience gained during vitrification of simulated mixed waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitehouse, J.C.; Burket, P.R.; Crowley, D.A.; Hansen, E.K.; Jantzen, C.M.; Smith, M.E.; Singer, R.P.; Young, S.R.; Zamecnik, J.R.; Overcamp, T.J.; Pence, I.W. Jr.

    1996-11-21

    The Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) is a large-scale, fully-integrated, transportable, vitrification system for the treatment of low-level nuclear and mixed wastes in the form of sludges, soils, incinerator ash, and similar waste streams. The TVS was built to demonstrate the vitrification of actual mixed waste at U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Currently, Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC) is working with Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES) to apply field scale vitrification to actual mixed waste at Oak Ridge Reservation`s (ORR) K-25 Site. Prior to the application of the TVS to actual mixed waste it was tested on simulated K-25 B and C Pond waste at Clemson University. This paper describes the results of that testing and preparations for the demonstration on actual mixed waste.

  9. The Earth System Grid Federation: An Open Infrastructure for Access to Distributed Geo-Spatial Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cinquini, Luca; Crichton, Daniel; Miller, Neill; Mattmann, Chris; Harney, John F; Shipman, Galen M; Wang, Feiyi; Bell, Gavin; Drach, Bob; Ananthakrishnan, Rachana; Pascoe, Stephen; Fiore, Sandro; Schweitzer, Roland; Danvil, Sebastian; Morgan, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) is a multi-agency, international collaboration that aims at developing the software infrastructure needed to facilitate and empower the study of climate change on a global scale. The ESGF s architecture employs a system of geographically distributed peer nodes, which are independently administered yet united by the adoption of common federation protocols and application programming interfaces (APIs). The cornerstones of its interoperability are the peer-to-peer messaging that is continuously exchanged among all nodes in the federation; a shared architecture and API for search and discovery; and a security infrastructure based on industry standards (OpenID, SSL, GSI and SAML). The ESGF software is developed collaboratively across institutional boundaries and made available to the community as open source. It has now been adopted by multiple Earth science projects and allows access to petabytes of geophysical data, including the entire model output used for the next international assessment report on climate change (IPCC-AR5) and a suite of satellite observations (obs4MIPs) and reanalysis data sets (ANA4MIPs).

  10. The Earth System Grid Federation: An Open Infrastructure for Access to Distributed Geospatial Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ananthakrishnan, Rachana; Bell, Gavin; Cinquini, Luca; Crichton, Daniel; Danvil, Sebastian; Drach, Bob; Fiore, Sandro; Gonzalez, Estanislao; Harney, John F; Mattmann, Chris; Kershaw, Philip; Morgan, Mark; Pascoe, Stephen; Shipman, Galen M; Wang, Feiyi

    2013-01-01

    The Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) is a multi-agency, international collaboration that aims at developing the software infrastructure needed to facilitate and empower the study of climate change on a global scale. The ESGF s architecture employs a system of geographically distributed peer nodes, which are independently administered yet united by the adoption of common federation protocols and application programming interfaces (APIs). The cornerstones of its interoperability are the peer-to-peer messaging that is continuously exchanged among all nodes in the federation; a shared architecture and API for search and discovery; and a security infrastructure based on industry standards (OpenID, SSL, GSI and SAML). The ESGF software is developed collaboratively across institutional boundaries and made available to the community as open source. It has now been adopted by multiple Earth science projects and allows access to petabytes of geophysical data, including the entire model output used for the next international assessment report on climate change (IPCC-AR5) and a suite of satellite observations (obs4MIPs) and reanalysis data sets (ANA4MIPs).

  11. Estimating Energy and Water Losses in Residential Hot WaterDistribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, James

    2005-02-26

    Residential single family building practice currently ignores the losses of energy and water caused by the poor design of hot water systems. These losses include; the waste of water while waiting for hot water to get to the point of use; the wasted heat as water cools down in the distribution system after a draw; and the energy needed to reheat water that was already heated once before. Average losses of water are estimated to be 6.35 gallons (24.0 L) per day. (This is water that is rundown the drain without being used while waiting for hot water.) The amount of wasted hot water has been calculated to be 10.9 gallons (41.3L) per day. (This is water that was heated, but either is not used or issued after it has cooled off.) A check on the reasonableness of this estimate is made by showing that total residential hot water use averages about 52.6 gallons (199 L) per day. This indicates about 20 percent of average daily hot water is wasted.

  12. Next Generation Workload Management System For Big Data on Heterogeneous Distributed Computing

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Klimentov, A.; Buncic, P.; De, K.; Jha, S.; Maeno, T.; Mount, R.; Nilsson, P.; Oleynik, D.; Panitkin, S.; Petrosyan, A.; et al

    2015-05-22

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC), operating at the international CERN Laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland, is leading Big Data driven scientific explorations. Experiments at the LHC explore the fundamental nature of matter and the basic forces that shape our universe, and were recently credited for the discovery of a Higgs boson. ATLAS and ALICE are the largest collaborations ever assembled in the sciences and are at the forefront of research at the LHC. To address an unprecedented multi-petabyte data processing challenge, both experiments rely on a heterogeneous distributed computational infrastructure. The ATLAS experiment uses PanDA (Production and Data Analysis) Workload Managementmore » System (WMS) for managing the workflow for all data processing on hundreds of data centers. Through PanDA, ATLAS physicists see a single computing facility that enables rapid scientific breakthroughs for the experiment, even though the data centers are physically scattered all over the world. The scale is demonstrated by the following numbers: PanDA manages O(102) sites, O(105) cores, O(108) jobs per year, O(103) users, and ATLAS data volume is O(1017) bytes. In 2013 we started an ambitious program to expand PanDA to all available computing resources, including opportunistic use of commercial and academic clouds and Leadership Computing Facilities (LCF). The project titled 'Next Generation Workload Management and Analysis System for Big Data' (BigPanDA) is funded by DOE ASCR and HEP. Extending PanDA to clouds and LCF presents new challenges in managing heterogeneity and supporting workflow. The BigPanDA project is underway to setup and tailor PanDA at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF) and at the National Research Center "Kurchatov Institute" together with ALICE distributed computing and ORNL computing professionals. Our approach to integration of HPC platforms at the OLCF and elsewhere is to reuse, as much as possible, existing components of the PanDA system

  13. Distributed File System Test Using Small FilesV1.1

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-04-09

    This program tests distributed filesystems using small files for lock and metadata contention. It is useful for debugging.

  14. VisIO: enabling interactive visualization of ultra-scale, time-series data via high-bandwidth distributed I/O systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell, Christopher J; Ahrens, James P; Wang, Jun

    2010-10-15

    Petascale simulations compute at resolutions ranging into billions of cells and write terabytes of data for visualization and analysis. Interactive visuaUzation of this time series is a desired step before starting a new run. The I/O subsystem and associated network often are a significant impediment to interactive visualization of time-varying data; as they are not configured or provisioned to provide necessary I/O read rates. In this paper, we propose a new I/O library for visualization applications: VisIO. Visualization applications commonly use N-to-N reads within their parallel enabled readers which provides an incentive for a shared-nothing approach to I/O, similar to other data-intensive approaches such as Hadoop. However, unlike other data-intensive applications, visualization requires: (1) interactive performance for large data volumes, (2) compatibility with MPI and POSIX file system semantics for compatibility with existing infrastructure, and (3) use of existing file formats and their stipulated data partitioning rules. VisIO, provides a mechanism for using a non-POSIX distributed file system to provide linear scaling of 110 bandwidth. In addition, we introduce a novel scheduling algorithm that helps to co-locate visualization processes on nodes with the requested data. Testing using VisIO integrated into Para View was conducted using the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) on TACC's Longhorn cluster. A representative dataset, VPIC, across 128 nodes showed a 64.4% read performance improvement compared to the provided Lustre installation. Also tested, was a dataset representing a global ocean salinity simulation that showed a 51.4% improvement in read performance over Lustre when using our VisIO system. VisIO, provides powerful high-performance I/O services to visualization applications, allowing for interactive performance with ultra-scale, time-series data.

  15. Analytical simulation of nonlinear response to seismic test excitations of HDR-VKL piping system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srinivasan, M.G.; Kot, C.A. ); Mojtahed, M. )

    1991-01-01

    Dynamic tests with simulated earthquake excitation (SHAM) were performed during April--May 1988 on the Versuchskreislauf (VKL) piping system at the Heissdampfreaktor (HDR) Test Facility in Kahl/Main, Federal Republic of Germany. The major objectives of these tests were to study the behavior of a full-scale in-plant piping system subjected to a range of seismic excitation levels (from design levels to those that might induce either failure of pipe supports or plasticity in the pipe runs) and to establish seismic margins for piping and pipe supports. Data obtained in the tests are also being used to validate analytical methods for piping response calculation. Detailed reports on the SHAM experiments are given elsewhere by Kot et al. (1990). This paper describes an effort to evaluate the computer code NONPIPE (proprietary to Nutech Engineers) with data from one of the SHAM tests. NONPIPE is a nonlinear finite-element program capable of calculating the elastic-plastic response of piping systems subjected to seismic excitation. The special characteristic of this code is the simplified or approximate approach it uses for modeling the elastic behavior which makes the calculations relatively less resource intensive than those of other nonlinear codes. The evaluation is based on a comparison of computational results of simulation of a SHAM test with corresponding test measurements. 6 refs., 10 figs.

  16. Thermal Performance Evaluation of Attic Radiant Barrier Systems Using the Large Scale Climate Simulator (LSCS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrestha, Som S; Miller, William A; Desjarlais, Andre Omer

    2013-01-01

    Application of radiant barriers and low-emittance surface coatings in residential building attics can significantly reduce conditioning loads from heat flow through attic floors. The roofing industry has been developing and using various radiant barrier systems and low-emittance surface coatings to increase energy efficiency in buildings; however, minimal data are available that quantifies the effectiveness of these technologies. This study evaluates performance of various attic radiant barrier systems under simulated summer daytime conditions and nighttime or low solar gain daytime winter conditions using the large scale climate simulator (LSCS). The four attic configurations that were evaluated are 1) no radiant barrier (control), 2) perforated low-e foil laminated oriented strand board (OSB) deck, 3) low-e foil stapled on rafters, and 4) liquid applied low-emittance coating on roof deck and rafters. All test attics used nominal RUS 13 h-ft2- F/Btu (RSI 2.29 m2-K/W) fiberglass batt insulation on attic floor. Results indicate that the three systems with radiant barriers had heat flows through the attic floor during summer daytime condition that were 33%, 50%, and 19% lower than the control, respectively.

  17. Vitrification of simulated radioactive Rocky Flats plutonium containing ash residue with a Stir Melter System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marra, J.C.; Kormanyos, K.R.; Overcamp, T.J.

    1996-10-01

    A demonstration trial has been completed in which a simulated Rocky Flats ash consisting of an industrial fly-ash material doped with cerium oxide was vitrified in an alloy tank Stir-Melter{trademark} System. The cerium oxide served as a substitute for plutonium oxide present in the actual Rocky Flats residue stream. The glass developed falls within the SiO{sub 2} + Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/{Sigma}Alkali/B{sub 2}O{sub 3} system. The glass batch contained approximately 40 wt% of ash, the ash was modified to contain {approximately} 5 wt% CeO{sub 2} to simulate plutonium chemistry in the glass. The ash simulant was mixed with water and fed to the Stir-Melter as a slurry with a 60 wt% water to 40 wt% solids ratio. Glass melting temperature was maintained at approximately 1,050 C during the melting trials. Melting rates as functions of impeller speed and slurry feed rate were determined. An optimal melting rate was established through a series of evolutionary variations of the control variables` settings. The optimal melting rate condition was used for a continuous six hour steady state run of the vitrification system. Glass mass flow rates of the melter were measured and correlated with the slurry feed mass flow. Melter off-gas was sampled for particulate and volatile species over a period of four hours during the steady state run. Glass composition and durability studies were run on samples collected during the steady state run.

  18. Advanced Power Electronic Interfaces for Distributed Energy Systems, Part 2: Modeling, Development, and Experimental Evaluation of Advanced Control Functions for Single-Phase Utility-Connected Inverter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakraborty, S.; Kroposki, B.; Kramer, W.

    2008-11-01

    Integrating renewable energy and distributed generations into the Smart Grid architecture requires power electronic (PE) for energy conversion. The key to reaching successful Smart Grid implementation is to develop interoperable, intelligent, and advanced PE technology that improves and accelerates the use of distributed energy resource systems. This report describes the simulation, design, and testing of a single-phase DC-to-AC inverter developed to operate in both islanded and utility-connected mode. It provides results on both the simulations and the experiments conducted, demonstrating the ability of the inverter to provide advanced control functions such as power flow and VAR/voltage regulation. This report also analyzes two different techniques used for digital signal processor (DSP) code generation. Initially, the DSP code was written in C programming language using Texas Instrument's Code Composer Studio. In a later stage of the research, the Simulink DSP toolbox was used to self-generate code for the DSP. The successful tests using Simulink self-generated DSP codes show promise for fast prototyping of PE controls.

  19. Design and Optimization of Large Accelerator Systems through High-Fidelity Electromagnetic Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ng, Cho; Akcelik, Volkan; Candel, Arno; Chen, Sheng; Ge, Lixin; Kabel, Andreas; Lee, Lie-Quan; Li, Zenghai; Prudencio, Ernesto; Schussman, Greg; Uplenchwar1, Ravi; Xiao1, Liling; Ko1, Kwok; Austin, T.; Cary, J.R.; Ovtchinnikov, S.; Smith, D.N.; Werner, G.R.; Bellantoni, L.; /SLAC /TechX Corp. /Fermilab

    2008-08-01

    SciDAC1, with its support for the 'Advanced Computing for 21st Century Accelerator Science and Technology' (AST) project, witnessed dramatic advances in electromagnetic (EM) simulations for the design and optimization of important accelerators across the Office of Science. In SciDAC2, EM simulations continue to play an important role in the 'Community Petascale Project for Accelerator Science and Simulation' (ComPASS), through close collaborations with SciDAC CETs/Institutes in computational science. Existing codes will be improved and new multi-physics tools will be developed to model large accelerator systems with unprecedented realism and high accuracy using computing resources at petascale. These tools aim at targeting the most challenging problems facing the ComPASS project. Supported by advances in computational science research, they have been successfully applied to the International Linear Collider (ILC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in High Energy Physics (HEP), the JLab 12-GeV Upgrade in Nuclear Physics (NP), as well as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) in Basic Energy Sciences (BES).

  20. Ecological Impacts of the Cerro Grande Fire: Predicting Elk Movement and Distribution Patterns in Response to Vegetative Recovery through Simulation Modeling October 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.P. Rupp

    2005-10-01

    In May 2000, the Cerro Grande Fire burned approximately 17,200 ha in north-central New Mexico as the result of an escaped prescribed burn initiated by Bandelier National Monument. The interaction of large-scale fires, vegetation, and elk is an important management issue, but few studies have addressed the ecological implications of vegetative succession and landscape heterogeneity on ungulate populations following large-scale disturbance events. Primary objectives of this research were to identify elk movement pathways on local and landscape scales, to determine environmental factors that influence elk movement, and to evaluate movement and distribution patterns in relation to spatial and temporal aspects of the Cerro Grande Fire. Data collection and assimilation reflect the collaborative efforts of National Park Service, U.S. Forest Service, and Department of Energy (Los Alamos National Laboratory) personnel. Geographic positioning system (GPS) collars were used to track 54 elk over a period of 3+ years and locational data were incorporated into a multi-layered geographic information system (GIS) for analysis. Preliminary tests of GPS collar accuracy indicated a strong effect of 2D fixes on position acquisition rates (PARs) depending on time of day and season of year. Slope, aspect, elevation, and land cover type affected dilution of precision (DOP) values for both 2D and 3D fixes, although significant relationships varied from positive to negative making it difficult to delineate the mechanism behind significant responses. Two-dimensional fixes accounted for 34% of all successfully acquired locations and may affect results in which those data were used. Overall position acquisition rate was 93.3% and mean DOP values were consistently in the range of 4.0 to 6.0 leading to the conclusion collar accuracy was acceptable for modeling purposes. SAVANNA, a spatially explicit, process-oriented ecosystem model, was used to simulate successional dynamics. Inputs to the