National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for distribution system reliability

  1. RELIABILITY PLANNING IN DISTRIBUTED ELECTRIC ENERGY SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahn, E.

    2011-01-01

    Edward, Reliability of Wind Power from Dispersed Sites:The same is true for wind power. This Even over hundreds ofof (11) also shows how wind power output distributi.on

  2. Reliable Distributed Computing for Decision Support Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bargiela, Andrzej

    of pipes and network nodes spread over a large geographical area, calls for a control of computational system it is serv- icing. Addressing the reliability issues of dis- tributed systems involves tackling

  3. A reliability assessment methodology for distribution systems with distributed generation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duttagupta, Suchismita Sujaya

    2006-08-16

    is associated 11 Fig. 1. Sample Distribution Network with the network response to dynamic and transient failures caused from faults and other disturbances, which could result in widespread cascading outages and loss of stability [11]. This research will focus... and maintain reliable power systems because cost of interruptions and power outages can have severe economic impact on the utility and its customers. At present, the deregulated electric power utilities are being restructured and operated as distinct generation...

  4. RELIABILITY PLANNING IN DISTRIBUTED ELECTRIC ENERGY SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahn, E.

    2011-01-01

    and deal only with solar cogeneration units that are assumedand Distributed. cogeneration). These provide just underparameters. as conventional cogeneration units. technologies

  5. RELIABILITY PLANNING IN DISTRIBUTED ELECTRIC ENERGY SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahn, E.

    2011-01-01

    applied to the case of hydroelectric facilities with large3. For comparison, the hydroelectric system in California asas droughts which reduce hydroelectric energy availability,

  6. RELIABILITY PLANNING IN DISTRIBUTED ELECTRIC ENERGY SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahn, E.

    2011-01-01

    wind speed of generator v r = rated P r rated power of generator.power systems dominated by either conventional central station plants or wind generatorspower plants (coal or nuclear) in one case, and by wind generators

  7. Automated Energy Distribution and Reliability System (AEDR): Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buche, D. L.

    2008-07-01

    This report describes Northern Indiana Public Service Co. project efforts to develop an automated energy distribution and reliability system. The purpose of this project was to implement a database-driven GIS solution that would manage all of the company's gas, electric, and landbase objects.

  8. Probability distributions of some power system reliability indices 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dip, Minh

    1978-01-01

    of three renewal process Let {N.(t),t>0} denote the i t h renewal process. Thus i f N (t) i s the number of renewals ( f a i l u r e s ) in (0,t) in the pooled process, then: m N D(t) = E N.(t) . (13) " i=l 1 9 10 Khintchine and Gri g e l i o n i...PROBABILITY DISTRIBUTIONS OF SOME POWER SYSTEM RELIABILITY INDICES A Thesis by MINH DIP (DIEP) Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the requirement f o r the degree of MASTER...

  9. Reliability Improvement Programs in Steam Distribution and Power Generation Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petto, S.

    1987-01-01

    can be found in power generation. steam distribution, and in all types of durable and non-durable Industrial productions. I 300 " 0 " 200 C " ? ? ~ 'DO ?~ 50 ' .. '7. '70 '75 '50 '.2 The cost to maintain steam systems. namely...

  10. Reliability Improvement Programs in Steam Distribution and Power Generation Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atlas, R. D.

    1986-01-01

    , and the paybacks associated with instituting a program of planned and systematic maintenance manage ment of that system. Energy costs can be reduced by 10% and maintenance costs by 20%, while achieving other tan gible improvements in the reliability...-up; and 6)'software and data base management. Several case studies, in which the concept has been success fully applied, will be presented. INTRODUCTION Energy costs have been on the rise for the last 10 years and have now leveled off due to global...

  11. Identifying Transformer Incipient Events for Maintaining Distribution System Reliability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    provide information to predict failures ahead of time so that the necessary corrective actions are taken to reduce operating costs, enhance the availability of the generation, transmission and distribution provide information to predict failures ahead of time so that the necessary corrective actions are taken

  12. Optimizing Performance and Reliability in Distributed Computing Systems Through Wide Spectrum Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dongarra, Jack

    of Energy un- der grant DE-FC02-01ER25465. file system. Logistical Networking, the core of our proposalOptimizing Performance and Reliability in Distributed Computing Systems Through Wide Spectrum. 1 Introduction Over the past two decades the exponential growth in available computing resources has

  13. Automated Energy Distribution and Reliability System: Validation Integration - Results of Future Architecture Implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buche, D. L.

    2008-06-01

    This report describes Northern Indiana Public Service Co. project efforts to develop an automated energy distribution and reliability system. The purpose of this project was to implement a database-driven GIS solution that would manage all of the company's gas, electric, and landbase objects. This report is second in a series of reports detailing this effort.

  14. In Proceedings of International Conference on Distributed Systems (ICDCS 2006), Lisbon, Portugal, 2006. PRINS: Optimizing Performance of Reliable Internet Storages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Qing "Ken"

    storage systems. Examples of such systems include P2P data sharing [1,2,3,4,5,6], data grid [7, 2006. 1 PRINS: Optimizing Performance of Reliable Internet Storages Qing Yang, Weijun Xiao, and Jin Ren 5880 Fax: 401 782 6422 Email: {qyang, wjxiao,rjin}@ele.uri.edu Abstract Distributed storage systems

  15. A study of the reliability of Stirling engines for distributed receiver systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holtz, R.E.; Uherka, K.L.

    1988-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the reliability of existing and improved Stirling engine concepts for dispersed solar dish/electric applications in the 25--50 kW/sub e/ range. Five current kinematic Stirling engine designs have the capability to meet or exceed the 32% system efficiency goal of the DOE Solar Thermal Program. Experience with the Vanguard Solar-Dish/Stirling Engine module demonstrated that the 32% efficiency goal is realistic, but that improved Stirling engine reliability is necessary for successful implementation of dispersed solar power systems. A review of historical Stirling engine data illustrated that the three major reliability issues with kinematic Stirling engines are the piston-rod seals, engine hot parts and power control/drive systems. A specific kinematic engine concept that appears to have the potential for meeting the 50,000-hour operating lifetime requirement of solar power systems has a pressurized crankcase to reduce piston-rod seal problems, an indirectly heated hot-end section using heat pipes to smooth out temperature gradients in the heater tubes, and a variable-angle swashplate for power control. Further development efforts are required to establish reliability and validate performance goals of these engine concepts. 30 refs., 13 figs., 8 tabs.

  16. Distributed Generation Operational Reliability, Executive Summary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reliability, Executive Summary Report, January 2004 Distributed Generation Operational Reliability, Executive Summary Report, January 2004 This report summarizes the results of the...

  17. Distributed Generation Operational Reliability and Availability...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reliability and Availability Database, Final Report, January 2004 Distributed Generation Operational Reliability and Availability Database, Final Report, January 2004 This final...

  18. Hawaii electric system reliability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silva Monroy, Cesar Augusto; Loose, Verne William

    2012-09-01

    This report addresses Hawaii electric system reliability issues; greater emphasis is placed on short-term reliability but resource adequacy is reviewed in reference to electric consumers' views of reliability %E2%80%9Cworth%E2%80%9D and the reserve capacity required to deliver that value. The report begins with a description of the Hawaii electric system to the extent permitted by publicly available data. Electrical engineering literature in the area of electric reliability is researched and briefly reviewed. North American Electric Reliability Corporation standards and measures for generation and transmission are reviewed and identified as to their appropriateness for various portions of the electric grid and for application in Hawaii. Analysis of frequency data supplied by the State of Hawaii Public Utilities Commission is presented together with comparison and contrast of performance of each of the systems for two years, 2010 and 2011. Literature tracing the development of reliability economics is reviewed and referenced. A method is explained for integrating system cost with outage cost to determine the optimal resource adequacy given customers' views of the value contributed by reliable electric supply. The report concludes with findings and recommendations for reliability in the State of Hawaii.

  19. A continuous distribution method for reliability evaluation of interconnected power systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chintaluri, Gouri Mohana

    1993-01-01

    the interconnection effects. Several studies are reported using IEEE-RTS and EPRI System E. The indices of LOLE, EUE and LOLF are obtained and are compared with those of the recursive method for accuracy and efficiency....

  20. Improving Distribution System Reliability Through Risk-base Doptimization of Fault Management and Improved Computer-based Fault Location 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Yimai

    2013-11-07

    regulation on power quality. Optimization in fault management tasks has the potential of improving system reliability by reducing the duration and scale of outages caused by faults through fast fault isolation and service restoration. The research reported...

  1. Sandia Energy - PV Systems Reliability

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics PV Systems Reliability PV Systems ReliabilityCoryne Tasca2015-05-08T03:40:54+00:00 Sandia...

  2. Maui Smart Grid Demonstration Project Managing Distribution System Resources for Improved Service Quality and Reliability, Transmission Congestion Relief, and Grid Support Functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2014-09-30

    The Maui Smart Grid Project (MSGP) is under the leadership of the Hawaii Natural Energy Institute (HNEI) of the University of Hawaii at Manoa. The project team includes Maui Electric Company, Ltd. (MECO), Hawaiian Electric Company, Inc. (HECO), Sentech (a division of SRA International, Inc.), Silver Spring Networks (SSN), Alstom Grid, Maui Economic Development Board (MEDB), University of Hawaii-Maui College (UHMC), and the County of Maui. MSGP was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Cooperative Agreement Number DE-FC26-08NT02871, with approximately 50% co-funding supplied by MECO. The project was designed to develop and demonstrate an integrated monitoring, communications, database, applications, and decision support solution that aggregates renewable energy (RE), other distributed generation (DG), energy storage, and demand response technologies in a distribution system to achieve both distribution and transmission-level benefits. The application of these new technologies and procedures will increase MECO’s visibility into system conditions, with the expected benefits of enabling more renewable energy resources to be integrated into the grid, improving service quality, increasing overall reliability of the power system, and ultimately reducing costs to both MECO and its customers.

  3. Reliable, Low-Cost Distributed Generator/Utility System Interconnect: Final Subcontract Report, November 2001-March 2004

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Z.; Walling, R.; Miller, N.; Du, P.; Nelson, K.; Li, L.; Zhou, R.; Garces, L.; Dame, M.

    2006-03-01

    This report summarizes the detailed study and development of new GE anti-islanding controls for two classes of distributed generation. One is inverter-interfaced, while the other is synchronous machine interfaced.

  4. Sandia Energy - PV Systems Reliability

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II)Geothermal Energy &WaterNew CREWOnline AbstractsSystems Reliability

  5. Assessing reliability in energy supply systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan W.; Ogden, Joan M.; Sperling, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    various fuels and energy supply systems. Acknowledgements WeAssessing Reliability in Energy Supply Systems Ryan W.stability of many energy supply regions becomes more

  6. Assessing Reliability in Energy Supply Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan; Ogden, Joan M.; Sperling, Dan

    2008-01-01

    various fuels and energy supply systems. Acknowledgements WeAssessing Reliability in Energy Supply Systems Ryan W.stability of many energy supply regions becomes more

  7. Sandia Energy - PV Systems Reliability

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    studies such as Accelerated Life Testing (ALT) and Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA). SNL has also partnered with a utility to create a data-driven Reliability Block...

  8. FORMAL SEMANTICS AND VERIFICATION OF DYNAMIC RELIABILITY BLOCK DIAGRAMS FOR SYSTEM RELIABILITY MODELING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Haiping

    that DRBD provides a powerful tool for system reliability modeling, and our proposed verification approachFORMAL SEMANTICS AND VERIFICATION OF DYNAMIC RELIABILITY BLOCK DIAGRAMS FOR SYSTEM RELIABILITY-scale computer-based systems. KEY WORDS Reliability modeling, dynamic reliability block diagrams (DRBD), Object

  9. Reliability Results of NERSC Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mokhtarani, Akbar; Petascale Data Storage Institute (PDSI)

    2008-01-01

    on the computational and storage systems at NERSC. Componentits computational and storage systems over a six-year periodlargest computational and storage systems. PDSI is funded by

  10. Demand Response For Power System Reliability: FAQ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL

    2006-12-01

    Demand response is the most underutilized power system reliability resource in North America. Technological advances now make it possible to tap this resource to both reduce costs and improve. Misconceptions concerning response capabilities tend to force loads to provide responses that they are less able to provide and often prohibit them from providing the most valuable reliability services. Fortunately this is beginning to change with some ISOs making more extensive use of load response. This report is structured as a series of short questions and answers that address load response capabilities and power system reliability needs. Its objective is to further the use of responsive load as a bulk power system reliability resource in providing the fastest and most valuable ancillary services.

  11. System Reliability for LED-Based Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, J Lynn; Mills, Karmann; Lamvik, Michael; Yaga, Robert; Shepherd, Sarah D; Bittle, James; Baldasaro, Nick; Solano, Eric; Bobashev, Georgiy; Johnson, Cortina; Evans, Amy

    2014-04-07

    Results from accelerated life tests (ALT) on mass-produced commercially available 6” downlights are reported along with results from commercial LEDs. The luminaires capture many of the design features found in modern luminaires. In general, a systems perspective is required to understand the reliability of these devices since LED failure is rare. In contrast, components such as drivers, lenses, and reflector are more likely to impact luminaire reliability than LEDs.

  12. System Reliability Model for Solid-State Lighting Luminaires...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    System Reliability Model for Solid-State Lighting Luminaires System Reliability Model for Solid-State Lighting Luminaires Lead Performer: RTI International - Research Triangle...

  13. CHP SYSTEM AT FOOD PROCESSING PLANT INCREASES RELIABILITY AND...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CHP SYSTEM AT FOOD PROCESSING PLANT INCREASES RELIABILITY AND REDUCES EMISSIONS - CASE STUDY, 2015 CHP SYSTEM AT FOOD PROCESSING PLANT INCREASES RELIABILITY AND REDUCES EMISSIONS -...

  14. Reliability and Functional Availability of HVAC Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myrefelt, S.

    2004-01-01

    the probability that a component or a system works when no maintenance is made. A system with a high reliability thus has minimal maintenance requirements; it is a robust system. The decision capability is used to assess the organisation?s capacity to start... the system is in operation in relation to intended operating time. It mainly shows the technical capability to keep on operating while maintenance is being carried out. Systems that must be taken out of operation for longer repair works have a lower level...

  15. Subsea pipeline isolation systems: Reliability and costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Masheder, R.R.

    1996-08-01

    Since the Piper Alpha disaster, more than 80 subsea isolation systems (SSIS) have been installed in subsea gas and oil pipelines in the U.K. continental shelf at an estimated cost in the region of {Brit_pounds}500 million. The reliability and costs of these installations have now been assessed between Dec. 1992 and Oct. 1993. This assessment was based upon comprehensive reliability and cost databases which were established so that the studies could be based upon factual information in order to obtain a current status as required by the sponsoring group. The study consultants report findings have now been consolidated into a report by the UKOOA Pipeline Valve Work Group. Probabilities of failure for different types of valves and systems have been assessed and expenditures broken down and compared. The results of the studies and the conclusions drawn by UKOOA Pipeline Valve Group and the HSE Offshore Safety Division are presented in this paper.

  16. Reliability of natural gas cogeneration systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    Cogeneration systems fueled by natural gas exceed the reliability of most central station power generating units, according to a study conducted by RINC Corporation for Gas Research Institute (GRI). In the study, researchers obtained operating data from 122 natural gas cogeneration units nationwide representing 2,200 megawatts (MW) of capacity and nearly 2 million hours of operating time at 37 facilities. Units were grouped into categories reflecting size (from 60 kilowatts to 100 MW), type of system (gas engine or gas turbine technology), use of emission controls, and type of thermal application. Various types and sizes of gas systems reported average availability factors ranging from 90.0 to 95.8 versus a weighted average of 85.9 percent for fossil-fuel steam, nuclear, and gas-turbine-based central station power generating units. Comparisons are based on study data and data reported by the North American Electric Reliability Council for utility power plants. Gas cogeneration can improve utility operations because as a group the relatively small, dispersed cogeneration units are more reliable than one or more large central station units of similar capacity.

  17. Software Reliability Cases: The Bridge Between Hardware, Software and System Safety and Reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herrmann, D.S.; Peercy, D.E.

    1999-01-08

    High integrity/high consequence systems must be safe and reliable; hence it is only logical that both software safety and software reliability cases should be developed. Risk assessments in safety cases evaluate the severity of the consequences of a hazard and the likelihood of it occurring. The likelihood is directly related to system and software reliability predictions. Software reliability cases, as promoted by SAE JA 1002 and 1003, provide a practical approach to bridge the gap between hardware reliability, software reliability, and system safety and reliability by using a common methodology and information structure. They also facilitate early insight into whether or not a project is on track for meeting stated safety and reliability goals, while facilitating an informed assessment by regulatory and/or contractual authorities.

  18. Assessing Reliability in Energy Supply Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan; Ogden, Joan M.; Sperling, Dan

    2008-01-01

    total of 15 metrics. Pathway reliability General objectives Adequacy Security Functional zones Primary energy supply

  19. Assessing reliability in energy supply systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan W.; Ogden, Joan M.; Sperling, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    total of 15 metrics. Pathway reliability General objectives Adequacy Security Functional zones Primary energy supply

  20. Distributed Theorem Proving for Distributed Hybrid Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Platzer, André

    system with a varying number of arbitrarily many cars. 1 Introduction Hybrid systems with joint discrete a multi-agent system, e.g., distributed car control systems. Such systems form distributed hybrid systemsDistributed Theorem Proving for Distributed Hybrid Systems David W. Renshaw, Sarah M. Loos

  1. FRIB cryogenic distribution system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganni, V.; Dixon, K.; Laverdure, N.; Knudsen, P.; Arenius, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab), Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Barrios, M.; Jones, S.; Johnson, M.; Casagrande, F. [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    The Michigan State University Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (MSU-FRIB) helium distribution system has been revised to include bayonet/warm valve type disconnects between each cryomodule and the transfer line distribution system, similar to the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cryogenic distribution systems. The heat loads at various temperature levels and some of the features in the design of the distribution system are outlined. The present status, the plans for fabrication, and the procurement approach for the helium distribution system are also included.

  2. FRIB cryogenic distribution system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganni, Venkatarao [JLAB; Dixon, Kelly D. [JLAB; Laverdure, Nathaniel A. [JLAB; Knudsen, Peter N. [JLAB; Arenius, Dana M. [JLAB; Barrios, Matthew N. [Michigan State; Jones, S. [Michigan State; Johnson, M. [Michigan State; Casagrande, Fabio [Michigan State

    2014-01-01

    The Michigan State University Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (MSU-FRIB) helium distribution system has been revised to include bayonet/warm valve type disconnects between each cryomodule and the transfer line distribution system, similar to the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cryogenic distribution systems. The heat loads at various temperature levels and some of the features in the design of the distribution system are outlined. The present status, the plans for fabrication, and the procurement approach for the helium distribution system are also included.

  3. Information Concerning Reliability Impacts under Various System...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of sentence redacted) In addition, there is a discussion concerning the impacts of demand side response in addressing this situation. Information Concerning Reliability...

  4. Security-Constrained Adequacy Evaluation of Bulk Power System Reliability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    contingency selection, (b) effects analysis, and (c) reliability index computation. Effects analysis as an optimization problem with the objective function being the bid cost function and congestion constraints and reliability index computations. The methodology is demonstrated with the IEEE reliability test system. Index

  5. Hybrid Statistical Model Checking Technique for Reliable Safety Critical Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    @cs.kaist.ac.kr Abstract--Reliability of safety critical systems such as nuclear power plants and automobiles has become1 Hybrid Statistical Model Checking Technique for Reliable Safety Critical Systems Youngjoo Kim a significant issue to our society. As more computing systems are utilized in these safety critical systems

  6. Distributed Energy System Validation, Commissioning and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Distributed Energy System Validation, Commissioning and Qualification Test Report Prepared Agreement No. DE-FC26-06NT42847 Hawai`i Distributed Energy Resource Technologies for Energy Security Subtask for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Under Cooperative

  7. RELIABILITY PLANNING IN DISTRIBUTED ELECTRIC ENERGY SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahn, E.

    2011-01-01

    by the random forced outage rate. and_th~ varianceo~_. oni L. = random forced outage rate of unit i These expressionsApplications, Inc. , Major Outage Trends in Light Water

  8. RELIABILITY PLANNING IN DISTRIBUTED ELECTRIC ENERGY SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahn, E.

    2011-01-01

    case. This kind of hydro optimization has been called "over-Theorem The hydro design optimization problem we havesystem. such hydro re-optimization is required. Where base

  9. RELIABILITY PLANNING IN DISTRIBUTED ELECTRIC ENERGY SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahn, E.

    2011-01-01

    Wind Energy Statistics for Large Arrays of Wind Turbines (wind energy program is based on such a design Therefore Justus, for example, has found that a is cubic, wind turbine

  10. RELIABILITY PLANNING IN DISTRIBUTED ELECTRIC ENERGY SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahn, E.

    2011-01-01

    Cogeneration Geothermal Hydro Wind Energy (10 12 Btu) (l09Geothermal Hydro Central Station Energy (1012 Btu ) kWh)hydro is represented by its turbine capacity and energy An

  11. RELIABILITY PLANNING IN DISTRIBUTED ELECTRIC ENERGY SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahn, E.

    2011-01-01

    William, "Energy Storage and Solar Power: An Exaggeratedreasons solar cogeneration requires on-site storage (1, 26).that solar alternatives will require so much storage to

  12. Combined Heat and Power System Enables 100% Reliability at Leading...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    buildings on nearly 1,000 acres. Photo courtesy of Thermal Energy Corporation Combined Heat and Power System Enables 100% Reliability at Leading Medical Campus Recovery Act...

  13. Some optimization problems in power system reliability analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jirutitijaroen, Panida

    2009-05-15

    This dissertation aims to address two optimization problems involving power system reliabilty analysis, namely multi-area power system adequacy planning and transformer maintenance optimization. A new simulation method for power system reliability...

  14. Reliability-based Design of Offshore Mooring Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mousavi, Mir Emad

    2013-02-05

    This study proposes new methods for the reliability-based design of structural systems, with emphasis on offshore mooring systems. After a brief introduction to the mooring systems, two main objectives are discussed in this dissertation. The first...

  15. Cooling water distribution system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orr, Richard (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  16. A Distributed System for Cooperative MIMO Transmissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalyanaraman, Shivkumar

    a distributed system for facilitating cooperative MIMO transmissions in networks without multiple antenna diversity can be leveraged at the network, link or physical layers to provide energy efficient transmissions for reliable low-power transmissions. The rest of this paper is organized as follows: the proposed system

  17. Impact of Distributed Energy Resources on the Reliability of a Critical Telecommunications Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, D.; Atcitty, C.; Zuffranieri, J.; Arent, D.

    2006-03-01

    Telecommunications has been identified by the Department of Homeland Security as a critical infrastructure to the United States. Failures in the power systems supporting major telecommunications service nodes are a main contributor to major telecommunications outages, as documented by analyses of Federal Communications Commission (FCC) outage reports by the National Reliability Steering Committee (under auspices of the Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions). There are two major issues that are having increasing impact on the sensitivity of the power distribution to telecommunication facilities: deregulation of the power industry, and changing weather patterns. A logical approach to improve the robustness of telecommunication facilities would be to increase the depth and breadth of technologies available to restore power in the face of power outages. Distributed energy resources such as fuel cells and gas turbines could provide one more onsite electric power source to provide backup power, if batteries and diesel generators fail. But does the diversity in power sources actually increase the reliability of offered power to the office equipment, or does the complexity of installing and managing the extended power system induce more potential faults and higher failure rates? This report analyzes a system involving a telecommunications facility consisting of two switch-bays and a satellite reception system.

  18. Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Buildings Technologies Program Date: November 8, 2011 Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems Welcome to the Webinar We will start at 1:00 PM Eastern Time Be sure that you are...

  19. Demand Response as a System Reliability Resource

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joseph, Eto

    2014-01-01

    storage, combined heat and power (including both natural gas and biomass), AMI, DR capabilities, distribution, automation, electric vehicle accommodation, and microgrid

  20. Reliability of Coupled Oscillators I: Two-Oscillator Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kevin K. Lin; Eric Shea-Brown; Lai-Sang Young

    2007-08-23

    This paper concerns the reliability of a pair of coupled oscillators in response to fluctuating inputs. Reliability means that an input elicits essentially identical responses upon repeated presentations regardless of the network's initial condition. Our main result is that both reliable and unreliable behaviors occur in this network for broad ranges of coupling strengths, even though individual oscillators are always reliable when uncoupled. A new finding is that at low input amplitudes, the system is highly susceptible to unreliable responses when the feedforward and feedback couplings are roughly comparable. A geometric explanation based on shear-induced chaos at the onset of phase-locking is proposed.

  1. EE 851.3 (3L) Power System Reliability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saskatchewan, University of

    EE 851.3 (3L) Power System Reliability Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Winter and Program Catalogue) Prerequisites: EE 850 or prior knowledge of reliability engineering concepts Instructor: Rajesh Karki, Ph.D., P.Eng. Associate Professor, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Office

  2. First Assessment of Reliability Data for the LHC Accelerator and Detector Cryogenic System Components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perinic, G; Alonso-Canella, I; Balle, C; Barth, K; Bel, J F; Benda, V; Bremer, J; Brodzinski, K; Casas-Cubillos, J; Cuccuru, G; Cugnet, M; Delikaris, D; Delruelle, N; Dufay-Chanat, L; Fabre, C; Ferlin, G; Fluder, C; Gavard, E; Girardot, R; Haug, F; Herblin, L; Junker, S; Klabi , T; Knoops, S; Lamboy, J P; Legrand, D; Metselaar, J; Park, A; Perin, A; Pezzetti, M; Penacoba-Fernandez, G; Pirotte, O; Rogez, E; Suraci, A; Stewart, L; Tavian, L J; Tovar-Gonzalez, A; Van Weelderen, R; Vauthier, N; Vullierme, B; Wagner, U

    2012-01-01

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) cryogenic system comprises eight independent refrigeration and distribution systems that supply the eight 3.3 km long accelerator sectors with cryogenic refrigeration power as well as four refrigeration systems for the needs of the detectors ATLAS and CMS. In order to ensure the highest possible reliability of the installations, it is important to apply a reliability centred approach for the maintenance. Even though large scale cryogenic refrigeration exists since the mid 20th century, very little third party reliability data is available today. CERN has started to collect data with its computer aided maintenance management system (CAMMS) in 2009, when the accelerator has gone into normal operation. This paper presents the reliability observations from the operation and the maintenance side, as well as statistical data collected by the means of the CAMMS system.

  3. Analytics for Power Grid Distribution Reliability in New York City

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rudin, Cynthia

    We summarize the first major effort to use analytics for preemptive maintenance and repair of an electrical distribution network. This is a large-scale multiyear effort between scientists and students at Columbia University ...

  4. Reliability Modeling and Evaluation in Aging Power Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hag-Kwen

    2010-01-14

    Carlo simulation is introduced. Power Law Process is modeled as the failure rate function of aging components. Power system reliability analysis can be made at the generation capacity level where transmission constraints may be included. The simulation...

  5. Estimation of system reliability using a semiparametric model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Leon

    An important problem in reliability engineering is to predict the failure rate, that is, the frequency with which an engineered system or component fails. This paper presents a new method of estimating failure rate using ...

  6. Reliability assessment of electrical power systems using genetic algorithms 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samaan, Nader Amin Aziz

    2004-11-15

    The first part of this dissertation presents an innovative method for the assessment of generation system reliability. In this method, genetic algorithm (GA) is used as a search tool to truncate the probability state space ...

  7. Final Report for the Virtual Reliability Realization System LDRD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DELLIN, THEODORE A.; HENDERSON, CHRISTOPHER L.; O'TOOLE, EDWARD J.

    2000-12-01

    Current approaches to reliability are not adequate to keep pace with the need for faster, better and cheaper products and systems. This is especially true in high consequence of failure applications. The original proposal for the LDRD was to look at this challenge and see if there was a new paradigm that could make reliability predictions, along with a quantitative estimate of the risk in that prediction, in a way that was faster, better and cheaper. Such an approach would be based on the underlying science models that are the backbone of reliability predictions. The new paradigm would be implemented in two software tools: the Virtual Reliability Realization System (VRRS) and the Reliability Expert System (REX). The three-year LDRD was funded at a reduced level for the first year ($120K vs. $250K) and not renewed. Because of the reduced funding, we concentrated on the initial development of the expertise system. We developed an interactive semiconductor calculation tool needed for reliability analyses. We also were able to generate a basic functional system using Microsoft Siteserver Commerce Edition and Microsoft Sequel Server. The base system has the capability to store Office documents from multiple authors, and has the ability to track and charge for usage. The full outline of the knowledge model has been incorporated as well as examples of various types of content.

  8. A Methodology to Assess the Reliability of Hydrogen-based Transportation Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Ryan

    2004-01-01

    2. Define reliability in hydrogen energy systems 3.metrics to value reliability in hydrogen energy systems 4.Specify hydrogen energy systems to evaluate 5. Develop

  9. Avoiding Distribution System Upgrade Costs Using Distributed Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schienbein, Lawrence A.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Nguyen, Tony B.; Brown, Daryl R.; DeSteese, John G.; Speer, Gregory A.

    2004-01-20

    PNNL, in cooperation with three utilities, developed a database and methodology to analyze and characterize the avoided costs of Distributed Generation (DG) deployment as an alternative to traditional distribution system investment. After applying a number of screening criteria to the initial set of 307 cases, eighteen were selected for detailed analysis. Alternative DG investment scenarios were developed for these cases to permit capital, operation, maintenance, and fuel costs to be identified and incorporated into the analysis. The “customer-owned” backup power generator option was also investigated. The results of the analysis of the 18 cases show that none yielded cost savings under the alternative DG scenarios. However, the DG alternative systems were configured using very restrictive assumptions concerning reliability, peak rating, engine types and acceptable fuel. In particular it was assumed that the DG alternative in each case must meet the reliability required of conventional distribution systems (99.91% reliability). The analysis was further constrained by a requirement that each substation meet the demands placed upon it by a one in three weather occurrence. To determine if, by relaxing these requirements, the DG alternative might be more viable, one project was re-examined. The 99.91% reliability factor was still assumed for normal operating conditions but redundancy required to maintain reliability was relaxed for the relatively few hours every three years where extreme weather caused load to exceed present substation capacity. This resulted in the deferment of capital investment until later years and reduced the number of engines required for the project. The cost of both the conventional and DG alternative also dropped because the centralized power generation, variable O&M, and DG fuels costs were calculated based on present load requirements in combination with long-term forecasts of load growth, as opposed to load requirements plus a buffer based on predictions of extraordinary weather conditions. Application of the relaxed set of assumptions reduced the total cost of the DG alternative by roughly 57 percent from $7.0 million to $3.0 million. The reduction, however, did not change the overall result of the analysis, as the cost of the conventional distribution system upgrade alternative remained lower at $1.7 million. This paper also explores the feasibility of using a system of backup generators to defer investment in distribution system infrastructure. Rather than expanding substation capacity at substations experiencing slow load growth rates, PNNL considered a scenario where diesel generators were installed on location at customers participating in a program designed to offer additional power security and reliability to the customer and connection to the grid. The backup generators, in turn, could be used to meet peak demand for a limited number of hours each year, thus deferring distribution system investment. Data from an existing program at one of the three participating utilities was used to quantify the costs associated with the backup generator scenario. The results of the “customer owned” backup power generator analysis showed that in all cases the nominal cost of the DG scenario is more than the nominal cost of the base-case conventional distribution system upgrade scenario. However, in two of the cases the total present value costs of the alternative backup generator scenarios were between 15 and 22% less than those for the conventional scenarios. Overall, the results of the study offer considerable encouragement that the use of DG systems can defer conventional distribution system upgrades under the right conditions and when the DG configurations are intelligently designed. Using existing customer-owned DG to defer distribution system upgrades appears to be an immediate commercially-viable opportunity.

  10. Optimal Model of Distributed Energy System by Using GAMS and Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Yongwen; Gao, Weijun; Ruan, Yingjun; Xuan, Ji; Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Optimal Model of Distributed Energy System by Using GAMS andEnergy Reliability, Distributed Energy Program of the U.S.Optimal Model of Distributed Energy System by Using GAMS and

  11. Combined Heat and Power System Increases Reliability

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and govern- ment agencies to install innovative systems to ease demand on the state's power grid. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), in partnership with the Energy Solutions...

  12. Reliability Tradeoffs in Personal Storage Systems John A. Chandy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chandy, John A.

    Reliability Tradeoffs in Personal Storage Systems John A. Chandy john.chandy@uconn.edu Sumit processes. These methods are most useful in storage systems where complete data protection or availability Disk arrays have long been used to improve the performance of storage systems [5, 10]. The parallelism

  13. System Reliability Analysis of an Nversion Programming Application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyu, Michael R.

    reliability anal­ ysis of a system designed to tolerate both hardware and software faults. The system being hardware. The analysis of the system considers independent soft­ ware faults, related software faults, transient hardware faults, permanent hardware faults, and imperfect cov­ erage. The overall model

  14. Distributed Optimization System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hurtado, John E. (Albuquerque, NM); Dohrmann, Clark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Robinett, III, Rush D. (Tijeras, NM)

    2004-11-30

    A search system and method for controlling multiple agents to optimize an objective using distributed sensing and cooperative control. The search agent can be one or more physical agents, such as a robot, and can be software agents for searching cyberspace. The objective can be: chemical sources, temperature sources, radiation sources, light sources, evaders, trespassers, explosive sources, time dependent sources, time independent sources, function surfaces, maximization points, minimization points, and optimal control of a system such as a communication system, an economy, a crane, and a multi-processor computer.

  15. The Impact of Protection System Failures on Power System Reliability Evaluation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Kai

    2012-11-05

    The reliability of protection systems has emerged as an important topic because protection failures have critical influence on the reliability of power systems. The goal of this research is to develop novel approaches for ...

  16. FFTF (Fast Flux Test Facility) reactor shutdown system reliability reevaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, B.F.

    1986-07-01

    The reliability analysis of the Fast Flux Test Facility reactor shutdown system was reevaluated. Failure information based on five years of plant operating experience was used to verify original reliability numbers or to establish new ones. Also, system modifications made subsequent to performance of the original analysis were incorporated into the reevaluation. Reliability calculations and sensitivity analyses were performed using a commercially available spreadsheet on a personal computer. The spreadsheet was configured so that future failures could be tracked and compared with expected failures. A number of recommendations resulted from the reevaluation including both increased and decreased surveillance intervals. All recommendations were based on meeting or exceeding existing reliability goals. Considerable cost savings will be incurred upon implementation of the recommendations.

  17. SPEAR fuel reliability code system. General description. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, R.

    1980-03-01

    A general description is presented for the SPEAR fuel reliability code system. Included is a discussion of the methodology employed and the structure of the code system, as well as discussion of the major components: the data preparation routines, the mechanistic fuel performance model, the mechanistic cladding failure model, and the statistical failure model.

  18. Composite System based Multi-Area Reliability Evaluation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagarajan, Ramya

    2011-02-22

    and no - load loss sharing policy among the areas. The proposed method is applied to standard IEEE 24 bus Reliability Test System (RTS) and the traditional equivalent tie-line method is applied to the multi-area configuration of the same test system. The results...

  19. Quality monitored distributed voting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skogmo, D.

    1997-03-18

    A quality monitoring system can detect certain system faults and fraud attempts in a distributed voting system. The system uses decoy voters to cast predetermined check ballots. Absent check ballots can indicate system faults. Altered check ballots can indicate attempts at counterfeiting votes. The system can also cast check ballots at predetermined times to provide another check on the distributed voting system. 6 figs.

  20. Quality monitored distributed voting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skogmo, David (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01

    A quality monitoring system can detect certain system faults and fraud attempts in a distributed voting system. The system uses decoy voters to cast predetermined check ballots. Absent check ballots can indicate system faults. Altered check ballots can indicate attempts at counterfeiting votes. The system can also cast check ballots at predetermined times to provide another check on the distributed voting system.

  1. Distributed road assessment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, N. Reginald; Paglieroni, David W

    2014-03-25

    A system that detects damage on or below the surface of a paved structure or pavement is provided. A distributed road assessment system includes road assessment pods and a road assessment server. Each road assessment pod includes a ground-penetrating radar antenna array and a detection system that detects road damage from the return signals as the vehicle on which the pod is mounted travels down a road. Each road assessment pod transmits to the road assessment server occurrence information describing each occurrence of road damage that is newly detected on a current scan of a road. The road assessment server maintains a road damage database of occurrence information describing the previously detected occurrences of road damage. After the road assessment server receives occurrence information for newly detected occurrences of road damage for a portion of a road, the road assessment server determines which newly detected occurrences correspond to which previously detected occurrences of road damage.

  2. Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Spray Distribution System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-10-23

    Spray distribution systems for wastewater are much like lawn sprinkler systems, in that they spray treated wastewater over the surface of a yard. This publication explains how spray distribution systems work, what their design requirements are...

  3. IDENTIFICATION OF RELIABLE PREDICTOR MODELS FOR UNKNOWN SYSTEMS: A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Campi, Marco

    IDENTIFICATION OF RELIABLE PREDICTOR MODELS FOR UNKNOWN SYSTEMS: A DATA-CONSISTENCY APPROACH BASED mechanism ­ DGM), a selected family of models, with which we want to describe the observed data (the data, that is a statement of probability that the computed model will be consistent with future unknown data. Keywords

  4. Computing Reliability Distributions of Windowed Max-log-map (MLM) Detectors : ISI Channels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavcic, Aleksandar

    Computing Reliability Distributions of Windowed Max-log-map (MLM) Detectors : ISI Channels Fabian-log-map (MLM) detector has well-known appli- cations to the intersymbol interefence (ISI) channel [1, · · · , is trans- mitted across the ISI channel. Let the following random This work was performed when F. Lim

  5. Emergency reconfiguration and distribution system planning under the Single-Contingency Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, J.

    Emergency reconfiguration can improve distribution systems' reliability by enabling load transfer among substations. Previous studies, although present its operation strategies, seldom explore emergency reconfiguration's ...

  6. Reliability analysis of electric power systems including time dependent sources 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Younjong

    1987-01-01

    Chairman of Advisory Committee: Chanan Singh A method for reliability analysis of electric power systems with time dependent sources, such as photovoltaic and wind generation, is introduced. The fluctuating characteristic of unconventional generation... and active solar. wind, geothermal, and hydropower. Of all the renewable energy technologies that have been the focus of encouraging government and private R k D efforts, photovoltaic generation and wind turbine generation appear to be the leading...

  7. Failure and Reliability Analysis for the Master Pump Shutdown System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BEVINS, R.R.

    2000-09-05

    The Master Pump Shutdown System (MPSS) will be installed in the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site to monitor and control the transfer of liquid waste between tank farms and between the 200 West and 200 East areas through the Cross-Site Transfer Line. The Safety Function provided by the MPSS is to shutdown any waste transfer process within or between tank farms if a waste leak should occur along the selected transfer route. The MPSS, which provides this Safety Class Function, is composed of Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs), interconnecting wires, relays, Human to Machine Interfaces (HMI), and software. These components are defined as providing a Safety Class Function and will be designated in this report as MPSS/PLC. Input signals to the MPSS/PLC are provided by leak detection systems from each of the tank farm leak detector locations along the waste transfer route. The combination of the MPSS/PLC, leak detection system, and transfer pump controller system will be referred to as MPSS/SYS. The components addressed in this analysis are associated with the MPSS/SYS. The purpose of this failure and reliability analysis is to address the following design issues of the Project Development Specification (PDS) for the MPSS/SYS (HNF 2000a): (1) Single Component Failure Criterion, (2) System Status Upon Loss of Electrical Power, (3) Physical Separation of Safety Class cables, (4) Physical Isolation of Safety Class Wiring from General Service Wiring, and (5) Meeting the MPSS/PLC Option 1b (RPP 1999) Reliability estimate. The failure and reliability analysis examined the system on a component level basis and identified any hardware or software elements that could fail and/or prevent the system from performing its intended safety function.

  8. Distributed Power Electronics for PV Systems (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deline, C.

    2011-12-01

    An overview of the benefits and applications of microinverters and DC power optimizers in residential systems. Some conclusions from this report are: (1) The impact of shade is greater than just the area of shade; (2) Additional mismatch losses include panel orientation, panel distribution, inverter voltage window, soiling; (3) Per-module devices can help increase performance, 4-12% or more depending on the system; (4) Value-added benefits (safety, monitoring, reduced design constraints) are helping their adoption; and (5) The residential market is growing rapidly. Efficiency increases, cost reductions are improving market acceptance. Panel integration will further reduce price and installation cost. Reliability remains an unknown.

  9. Transmission System Expansion Plans in View Point of Deterministic, Probabilistic and Security Reliability Criteria

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Transmission System Expansion Plans in View Point of Deterministic, Probabilistic and Security reliability criterion, probabilistic reliability criterion and security criterion based on N- contingency control system as well as reasonable strength of grid originally. Because investment for power system

  10. Computing fractal dimension in supertransient systems directly, fast and reliable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romulus Breban; Helena E. Nusse

    2006-08-07

    Chaotic transients occur in many experiments including those in fluids, in simulations of the plane Couette flow, and in coupled map lattices and they are a common phenomena in dynamical systems. Superlong chaotic transients are caused by the presence of chaotic saddles whose stable sets have fractal dimensions that are close to phase-space dimension. For many physical systems chaotic saddles have a big impact on laboratory measurements, and it is important to compute the dimension of such stable sets including fractal basin boundaries through a direct method. In this work, we present a new method to compute the dimension of stable sets of chaotic saddles directly, fast, and reliable.

  11. A reliability and availability sensitivity study of a large photovoltaic system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stein, Joshua S.; Granata, Jennifer E.; Mundt, Michael Joseph; Miller, Steven P.; Quintana, Michael A.; Collins, Elmer W.; Sorensen, Neil Robert

    2010-08-01

    A reliability and availability model has been developed for a portion of the 4.6 megawatt (MWdc) photovoltaic system operated by Tucson Electric Power (TEP) at Springerville, Arizona using a commercially available software tool, GoldSim{trademark}. This reliability model has been populated with life distributions and repair distributions derived from data accumulated during five years of operation of this system. This reliability and availability model was incorporated into another model that simulated daily and seasonal solar irradiance and photovoltaic module performance. The resulting combined model allows prediction of kilowatt hour (kWh) energy output of the system based on availability of components of the system, solar irradiance, and module and inverter performance. This model was then used to study the sensitivity of energy output as a function of photovoltaic (PV) module degradation at different rates and the effect of location (solar irradiance). Plots of cumulative energy output versus time for a 30 year period are provided for each of these cases.

  12. Improving reliability in the SLC (Stanford Linear Collider) control system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heinen, N.; Spencer, N.; Tinsman, J.

    1989-10-01

    During the past year, considerable emphasis has been placed on improving the overall reliability of the SLC control system. The Errorlog Facility has proven a useful tool to diagnose hardware and software problems. By analyzing the various error messages and their correlations, one can usually determine the software component or hardware module causing faults. Daily summaries help to identify problems so that they can be remedied before they become catastrophic; thereby bringing about a considerable increase in performance. We discuss the various tools we use and our operational experience with them. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Reliability of islanded microgrids with stochastic generation and prioritized load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marden, Mirjana Milosevic

    The potential to improve distribution system reliability is a primary motivation behind the development and deployment of microgrids. Previous studies have illustrated substantial reliability benefits of dispatchable ...

  14. NLC Reliability Analysis Notes: Klystron-Modulator System (LCC-0029)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, Z.

    2004-03-23

    This paper address the reliability and availability issues to be faced in deploying and operating the klystron modulator assemblies proposed for the Next Linear Collider (NLC). The rf power sources are a major system of the NLC and require a high uptime in order to reach the goal of 0.85 availability. Since the NLC is made up of several systems, not just klystron-modulator assemblies, the availability goal for the assemblies must be higher than 0.85. Currently this goal is at least 0.95. This short paper summarizes the analysis currently under way to determine whether the design of the rf power system will meet the design availability goal.

  15. Highperformance Monitoring Architecture for Largescale Distributed Systems Using Event Filtering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yongge

    environment. So the monitoring architecture is not only to detect and collect events generated by LSD systemsHigh­performance Monitoring Architecture for Large­scale Distributed Systems Using Event Filtering Monitoring is an essential process to observe and improve the reliability and the performance of large

  16. An advanced power distribution automation model system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niwa, Shigeharu; Kanoi, Minoru; Nishijima, Kazuo; Hayami, Mitsuo

    1995-12-31

    An advanced power distribution automation (APDA) model system has been developed on the present basis of the automated distribution systems in Japan, which have been used for remote switching operations and for urgent supply restorations during faults. The increased use of electronic apparatuses sensitive to supply interruption requires very high supply reliability, and the final developed system is expected to be useful for this purpose. The developed model system adopts pole circuit breakers and remote termination units connected through 64kbps optical fibers to the computer of the automated system in the control center. Immediate switching operations for supply restorations during faults are possible through the restoration procedures, prepared beforehand, by the computer and by fast telecommunications using optical fibers. So, protection by the feeder circuit breaker in the substation can be avoided, which would otherwise cause the blackout of the whole distribution line. The test results show the effectiveness of model the system: successful fault locations and reconfiguration for supply restoration including separation of the fault sections (without blackout for the ground faults and with a short period (within 1 s) of blackout for the short-circuit faults).

  17. UNCORRECTEDPROOF The Distribution System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    to the electric energy industry as wireless telephony has been to consumer communications. An electricity market the electrical design and operation of fossil fuel and nuclear generating stations, performance optimization. Kirby, a frequent contributor to The Electricity Journal, is Director of the ORNL's Power Systems

  18. System Reliability: A Case When Fuzzy Logic Enhances Probability Theory's Ability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    . Zadeh explains that probabil­ ity theory needs an infusion of fuzzy logic to enhance its ability to deal such an infusion is indeed successful: the problem of system reliability. 1. Reliability: Brief Introduction

  19. Reliability analysis of solar photovoltaic system using hourly mean solar radiation data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moharil, Ravindra M. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Yeshwantrao Chavan College of Engineering, Nagpur, Maharashtra (India); Kulkarni, Prakash S. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology, South Ambazari Road, Nagpur 440011, Maharashtra (India)

    2010-04-15

    This paper presents the hourly mean solar radiation and standard deviation as inputs to simulate the solar radiation over a year. Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) technique is applied and MATLAB program is developed for reliability analysis of small isolated power system using solar photovoltaic (SPV). This paper is distributed in two parts. Firstly various solar radiation prediction methods along with hourly mean solar radiation (HMSR) method are compared. The comparison is carried on the basis of predicted electrical power generation with actual power generated by SPV system. Estimation of solar photovoltaic power using HMSR method is close to the actual power generated by SPV system. The deviation in monsoon months is due to the cloud cover. In later part of the paper various reliability indices are obtained by HMSR method using MCS technique. Load model used is IEEE-RTS. Reliability indices, additional load hours (ALH) and additional power (AP) reduces exponentially with increase in load indicates that a SPV source will offset maximum fuel when all of its generated energy is utilized. Fuel saving calculation is also investigated. Case studies are presented for Sagardeep Island in West Bengal state of India. (author)

  20. Tree-structured Data Regeneration with Network Coding in Distributed Storage Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Baochun

    Tree-structured Data Regeneration with Network Coding in Distributed Storage Systems Jun Li, Shuang of Toronto, Canada bli@eecg.toronto.edu Abstract--Distributed storage systems, built on peer-to-peer networks influence the data reliability and availability of distributed storage systems. It has been ac- knowledged

  1. Reliability study of an emerging fire suppression system

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Miller, David A.; Rossati, Lyric M.; Fritz, Nathan K.; Cournoyer, Michael E.; Granzow, Howard N.

    2015-02-07

    Self-contained fire extinguishers are a robust, reliable and minimally invasive means of fire suppression for gloveboxes. Plutonium gloveboxes are known to present harsh environmental conditions for polymer materials, these include radiation damage and chemical exposure, both of which tend to degrade the lifetime of engineered polymer components. The primary component of interest in self-contained fire extinguishers is the nylon 6-6 machined tube that comprises the main body of the system.Thermo-mechanical modeling and characterization of nylon 6-6 for use in plutonium glovebox applications has been carried out. Data has been generated regarding property degradation leading to poor, or reduced, engineering performancemore »of nylon 6-6 components. In this study, nylon 6-6 tensile specimens conforming to the casing of self-contained fire extinguisher systems have been exposed to hydrochloric, nitric, and sulfuric acids. This information was used to predict the performance of a load bearing engineering component comprised of nylon 6-6 and designed to operate in a consistent manner over a specified time period. The study provides a fundamental understanding of the engineering performance of the fire suppression system and the effects of environmental degradation due to acid exposure on engineering performance. Data generated help identify the limitations of self-contained fire extinguishers. No critical areas of concern for plutonium glovebox applications of nylon 6-6 have been identified when considering exposure to mineral acid.« less

  2. Water Distribution System Monitoring and Decision Support Using a Wireless Sensor Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Allen, Michael

    Water distribution systems comprise labyrinthine networks of pipes, often in poor states of repair, that are buried beneath our city streets and relatively inaccessible. Engineers who manage these systems need reliable ...

  3. INVESTIGATING THE RELIABILITY OF CORONAL EMISSION MEASURE DISTRIBUTION DIAGNOSTICS USING THREE-DIMENSIONAL RADIATIVE MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Testa, Paola [Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, 60 Garden Street, MS 58, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); De Pontieu, Bart; Martinez-Sykora, Juan [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, Org. A021S, Building 252, 3251 Hanover Street, Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Hansteen, Viggo; Carlsson, Mats, E-mail: ptesta@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway)

    2012-10-10

    Determining the temperature distribution of coronal plasmas can provide stringent constraints on coronal heating. Current observations with the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (EIS) on board Hinode and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory provide diagnostics of the emission measure distribution (EMD) of the coronal plasma. Here we test the reliability of temperature diagnostics using three-dimensional radiative MHD simulations. We produce synthetic observables from the models and apply the Monte Carlo Markov chain EMD diagnostic. By comparing the derived EMDs with the 'true' distributions from the model, we assess the limitations of the diagnostics as a function of the plasma parameters and the signal-to-noise ratio of the data. We find that EMDs derived from EIS synthetic data reproduce some general characteristics of the true distributions, but usually show differences from the true EMDs that are much larger than the estimated uncertainties suggest, especially when structures with significantly different density overlap along the line of sight. When using AIA synthetic data the derived EMDs reproduce the true EMDs much less accurately, especially for broad EMDs. The differences between the two instruments are due to the: (1) smaller number of constraints provided by AIA data and (2) broad temperature response function of the AIA channels which provide looser constraints to the temperature distribution. Our results suggest that EMDs derived from current observatories may often show significant discrepancies from the true EMDs, rendering their interpretation fraught with uncertainty. These inherent limitations to the method should be carefully considered when using these distributions to constrain coronal heating.

  4. Building America Webinar: Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems Building America Webinar: Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems This webinar was presented by research team Alliance for Residential...

  5. Enhanced distributed energy resource system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atcitty, Stanley (Albuquerque, NM); Clark, Nancy H. (Corrales, NM); Boyes, John D. (Albuquerque, NM); Ranade, Satishkumar J. (Las Cruces, NM)

    2007-07-03

    A power transmission system including a direct current power source electrically connected to a conversion device for converting direct current into alternating current, a conversion device connected to a power distribution system through a junction, an energy storage device capable of producing direct current connected to a converter, where the converter, such as an insulated gate bipolar transistor, converts direct current from an energy storage device into alternating current and supplies the current to the junction and subsequently to the power distribution system. A microprocessor controller, connected to a sampling and feedback module and the converter, determines when the current load is higher than a set threshold value, requiring triggering of the converter to supply supplemental current to the power transmission system.

  6. Reliability improvement project decision making : water cooling system redesign

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Devine, Paul (Paul S.)

    2006-01-01

    Deciding on which reliability & performance improvement projects to launch or to reject has historically been an extremely challenging responsibility of Teradyne management. Incorrect decisions can lead to major customer ...

  7. Enhanced Reliability of Photovoltaic Systems with Energy Storage and Controls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manz, D.; Schelenz, O.; Chandra, R.; Bose, S.; de Rooij, M.; Bebic, J.

    2008-02-01

    This report summarizes efforts to reconfigure loads during outages to allow individual customers the opportunity to enhance the reliability of their electric service through the management of their loads, photovoltaics, and energy storage devices.

  8. Automatic Reconfiguration for Large-Scale Reliable Storage Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodrigues, Rodrigo

    Byzantine-fault-tolerant replication enhances the availability and reliability of Internet services that store critical state and preserve it despite attacks or software errors. However, existing Byzantine-fault-tolerant ...

  9. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01

    distribution system, ground-source heat pump and ground heatdistribution systems, ground-source heat pumps and ground

  10. Distributed Termination Detection for Dynamic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dhamdhere, Dhananjay Madhav

    systems, Termination detection. \\Lambda Address all correspondence to this author. 1 #12; Distributed

  11. Distributed optimization system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hurtado, John E.; Dohrmann, Clark R.; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2003-06-10

    A search system and method for controlling multiple agents to optimize an objective using distributed sensing and cooperative control. The search agent can be one or more physical agents, such as a robot, and can be software agents for searching cyberspace. The objective can be: chemical sources, temperature sources, radiation sources, light sources, evaders, trespassers, explosive sources, time dependent sources, time independent sources, function surfaces, maximization points, minimization points, and optimal control of a system such as a communication system, an economy, a crane, and a multi-processor computer.

  12. Implementing Uniform Reliable Broadcast in Anonymous Distributed Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politécnica de Madrid, Universidad

    delivery guarantee when spreading messages among processes. Informally, URB guarantees that if a process is partially supported by the Community of Madrid, under grant CLOUD4BIGDATA (S2013/ICE-2894), the Spanish

  13. Wind energy Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) : data collection recommendations for reliability analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, Valerie A.; Ogilvie, Alistair; Veers, Paul S.

    2009-09-01

    This report addresses the general data requirements for reliability analysis of fielded wind turbines and other wind plant equipment. The report provides a list of the data needed to support reliability and availability analysis, and gives specific recommendations for a Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) to support automated analysis. This data collection recommendations report was written by Sandia National Laboratories to address the general data requirements for reliability analysis of fielded wind turbines. This report is intended to help the reader develop a basic understanding of what data are needed from a Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) and other data systems, for reliability analysis. The report provides: (1) a list of the data needed to support reliability and availability analysis; and (2) specific recommendations for a CMMS to support automated analysis. Though written for reliability analysis of wind turbines, much of the information is applicable to a wider variety of equipment and a wider variety of analysis and reporting needs.

  14. A System for Electro-Mechanical Reliability Testing of MEMS Devices Stefan Spinner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polian, Ilia

    A System for Electro-Mechanical Reliability Testing of MEMS Devices Stefan Spinner Computer and a method that enables automated analysis of mechanical stress impact on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS). In this setup both electrical and optical inspection are available. Reliability testing

  15. Automated Fault Location In Smart Distribution Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lotfifard, Saeed

    2012-10-19

    of Energy (DOE) “Grid 2030” initiatives for grid modernization by improving reliability indices of the network. Improving customer average interruption duration index (CAIDI) and system average interruption duration index (SAIDI) are direct advantages...

  16. World Class Boilers and Steam Distribution System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Portell, V. P.

    2002-01-01

    the relevant industrial profile. Some companies may question why they should upgrade their system. The most obvious answer will be found in the benefits that derive from more efficient operations. Costs are reduced, reliability is improved, and adverse...

  17. Integration of renewable energy sources: reliability-constrained power system planning and operations using computational intelligence 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Lingfeng

    2009-05-15

    studied in the dissertation include reliability evaluation of power systems with time-dependent energy sources, multi-objective design of hybrid generation systems, risk and cost tradeoff in economic dispatch with wind power penetration, optimal placement...

  18. Estimation of the reliability of space nuclear power systems by probabilistic risk assessment techniques 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gutner, Sophie Isabelle

    1996-01-01

    A successful space mission depends on the reliable operation of the spacecraft's electrical power system. For payloads requiring high power levels, various designs of space nuclear power systems (SNPS) are available. Designers have conducted limited...

  19. Measuring journey time reliability in London using automated data collection systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schil, Mickaël (Mickaël René Jerôme)

    2012-01-01

    Service reliability is critical for both users and operators of transit systems. The rapid spread of Automated Data Collection Systems, such as Automated Fare Collection (AFC) and Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL), provides ...

  20. Abstract--The issue of controlled and reliable integration of distributed energy resources into microgrids and large power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cańizares, Claudio A.

    , multi-stage optimization. I. INTRODUCTION elped by deregulation processes in the energy sector to be addressed in the process of integration is the control and management of the non-dispatchable renewable1 Abstract-- The issue of controlled and reliable integration of distributed energy resources

  1. Switchover software reliability estimate for Paducah Freezer/Sublimer computer systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flanagan, D.M.; Davis, J.N.

    1993-04-01

    K-25 Engineering Division purchased a series of redundant computer systems and developed software for the purpose of providing continuous process monitoring and control for the Freezer/Sublimer equipment in the gaseous diffusion process at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. The application software is loaded on two central processing units (CPU) so that in the event of a failure of the primary unit, the processing can switch to the backup unit and continue processing without error. It is the purpose of this document to demonstrate the reliability of this system with respect to its ability to switch properly between redundant CPU. The total reliability estimation problem -- which considers the computer hardware, the operating system software, and the application software -- has been reduced to one that considers only the application software directly involved in the switchover process. Estimates are provided for software reliability and the testing coverage. Software and hardware reliability models and reliability growth models are considered in addition to Bayesian approaches.

  2. Distributed vs. Centralized Power Systems Frequency Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimarogonas, Dimos

    Distributed vs. Centralized Power Systems Frequency Control Martin Andreasson12 , Dimos V control of electrical power systems. We propose a distributed controller which retains the reference, where their performance is compared. I. INTRODUCTION Distributed control is in many large-scale systems

  3. North American Electricity Infrastructure: System Security, Quality, Reliability, Availability, and Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amin, S. Massoud

    1 North American Electricity Infrastructure: System Security, Quality, Reliability, Availability for reliable and disturbance-free electricity. The massive power outages in the United States, Canada, UK and Italy in 2003 underscored electricity infrastructure's vulnerabilities [1-11]. This vital yet complex

  4. Distributed Energy Systems Integration Group (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-10-01

    Factsheet developed to describe the activites of the Distributed Energy Systems Integration Group within NREL's Electricity, Resources, and Buildings Systems Integration center.

  5. Report on the analysis of field data relating to the reliability of solar hot water systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menicucci, David F.

    2011-07-01

    Utilities are overseeing the installations of thousand of solar hot water (SHW) systems. Utility planners have begun to ask for quantitative measures of the expected lifetimes of these systems so that they can properly forecast their loads. This report, which augments a 2009 reliability analysis effort by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), addresses this need. Additional reliability data have been collected, added to the existing database, and analyzed. The results are presented. Additionally, formal reliability theory is described, including the bathtub curve, which is the most common model to characterize the lifetime reliability character of systems, and for predicting failures in the field. Reliability theory is used to assess the SNL reliability database. This assessment shows that the database is heavily weighted with data that describe the reliability of SHW systems early in their lives, during the warranty period. But it contains few measured data to describe the ends of SHW systems lives. End-of-life data are the most critical ones to define sufficiently the reliability of SHW systems in order to answer the questions that the utilities pose. Several ideas are presented for collecting the required data, including photometric analysis of aerial photographs of installed collectors, statistical and neural network analysis of energy bills from solar homes, and the development of simple algorithms to allow conventional SHW controllers to announce system failures and record the details of the event, similar to how aircraft black box recorders perform. Some information is also presented about public expectations for the longevity of a SHW system, information that is useful in developing reliability goals.

  6. Autonomous, Decentralized Grid Architecture: Prosumer-Based Distributed Autonomous Cyber-Physical Architecture for Ultra-Reliable Green Electricity Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-11

    GENI Project: Georgia Tech is developing a decentralized, autonomous, internet-like control architecture and control software system for the electric power grid. Georgia Tech’s new architecture is based on the emerging concept of electricity prosumers—economically motivated actors that can produce, consume, or store electricity. Under Georgia Tech’s architecture, all of the actors in an energy system are empowered to offer associated energy services based on their capabilities. The actors achieve their sustainability, efficiency, reliability, and economic objectives, while contributing to system-wide reliability and efficiency goals. This is in marked contrast to the current one-way, centralized control paradigm.

  7. Heat Distribution Systems | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Forced-air systems use ducts that can also be used for central air conditioning and heat pump systems. Radiant heating systems also have unique heat distribution systems. That...

  8. Probabilistic risk analysis of restructured electric power systems : implications for reliability analysis and policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felder, Frank Andrew

    2001-01-01

    Modem society requires reliable and safe operation of its infrastructure. Policymakers believe that, in many industries, competitive markets and regulatory incentives will result in system performance superior to that under ...

  9. Reliability Evaluation of Composite Power Systems Including the Effects of Hurricanes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Yong

    2011-02-22

    Adverse weather such as hurricanes can significantly affect the reliability of composite power systems. Predicting the impact of hurricanes can help utilities for better preparedness and make appropriate restoration arrangements...

  10. An integrated methodology for the performance and reliability evaluation of fault-tolerant systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Domínguez-García, Alejandro D. (Alejandro Dan)

    2007-01-01

    This thesis proposes a new methodology for the integrated performance and reliability evaluation of embedded fault-tolerant systems used in aircraft, space, tactical, and automotive applications. This methodology uses a ...

  11. Reliability Modeling and Simulation of Composite Power Systems with Renewable Energy Resources and Storage 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hagkwen

    2013-05-24

    This research proposes an efficient reliability modeling and simulation methodology in power systems to include photovoltaic units, wind farms and storage. Energy losses by wake effect in a wind farm are incorporated. Using the wake model, wind...

  12. Utilizing Load Response for Wind and Solar Integration and Power System Reliability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milligan, M.; Kirby, B.

    2010-07-01

    Responsive load is still the most underutilized reliability resource in North America. This paper examines the characteristics of concern to the power system, the renewables, and to the loads.

  13. The Clouds Distributed Operating System * Partha Dasgupta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeom, Heon Young

    The Clouds Distributed Operating System * Partha Dasgupta Dept. of Computer Science and Engg Ramachandran. College of Computing Georgia Tech, Atlanta, GA 30332 Keywords: Distributed Operating Systems operating system that runs on general purpose computers connected via a local­area network. The system

  14. Guest Editorial Safety, reliability and security of industrial computer systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felici, Massimo

    different stakeholders who drive the system life cycle as well as the dependability system requirements to certification, deployment, evaluation, evolution, and decommission in the system life cycle. There are two be tempted to looking for a universal model that may be used throughout the entire life cycle. A universal

  15. Wind energy Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) : data collection recommendations for reliability analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, Valerie A.; Ogilvie, Alistair B.

    2012-01-01

    This report addresses the general data requirements for reliability analysis of fielded wind turbines and other wind plant equipment. The report provides a rationale for why this data should be collected, a list of the data needed to support reliability and availability analysis, and specific data recommendations for a Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) to support automated analysis. This data collection recommendations report was written by Sandia National Laboratories to address the general data requirements for reliability analysis of operating wind turbines. This report is intended to help develop a basic understanding of the data needed for reliability analysis from a Computerized Maintenance Management System (CMMS) and other data systems. The report provides a rationale for why this data should be collected, a list of the data needed to support reliability and availability analysis, and specific recommendations for a CMMS to support automated analysis. Though written for reliability analysis of wind turbines, much of the information is applicable to a wider variety of equipment and analysis and reporting needs. The 'Motivation' section of this report provides a rationale for collecting and analyzing field data for reliability analysis. The benefits of this type of effort can include increased energy delivered, decreased operating costs, enhanced preventive maintenance schedules, solutions to issues with the largest payback, and identification of early failure indicators.

  16. Reliability Analysis of Electric Power Systems Using an Object-oriented Hybrid Modeling Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schläpfer, Markus; Kröger, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The ongoing evolution of the electric power systems brings about the need to cope with increasingly complex interactions of technical components and relevant actors. In order to integrate a more comprehensive spectrum of different aspects into a probabilistic reliability assessment and to include time-dependent effects, this paper proposes an object-oriented hybrid approach combining agent-based modeling techniques with classical methods such as Monte Carlo simulation. Objects represent both technical components such as generators and transmission lines and non-technical components such as grid operators. The approach allows the calculation of conventional reliability indices and the estimation of blackout frequencies. Furthermore, the influence of the time needed to remove line overloads on the overall system reliability can be assessed. The applicability of the approach is demonstrated by performing simulations on the IEEE Reliability Test System 1996 and on a model of the Swiss high-voltage grid.

  17. Automatic Software Upgrades for Distributed Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ajmani, Sameer

    2005-11-30

    Upgrading the software of long-lived, highly-available distributed systems is difficult. It is not possible to upgrade all the nodes in a system at once, since some nodes may be unavailable and halting the system for an ...

  18. Combined Heat and Power System Enables 100% Reliability at Leading...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Thermal Energy Corporation (TECO), in collaboration with Burns & McDonnell Engineering Co., Inc., operates the largest chilled water district energy system in the United States at...

  19. Estimation of Photovoltaic System Reliability and Performance Metrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liberzon, Daniel

    the high levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for PV systems. The LCOE is defined as the ratio of the present plants that begin operation in 2016 are expected to have an LCOE of 210 $/MWhr (by comparison, the LCOE, respectively). In order to obtain PV system LCOE, it is necessary to calculate, among other things, net annual

  20. Best Management Practice #3: Distribution System Audits, Leak...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3: Distribution System Audits, Leak Detection, and Repair Best Management Practice 3: Distribution System Audits, Leak Detection, and Repair A distribution system audit, leak...

  1. Low jitter RF distribution system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilcox, Russell; Doolittle, Lawrence; Huang, Gang

    2012-09-18

    A timing signal distribution system includes an optical frequency stabilized laser signal amplitude modulated at an rf frequency. A transmitter box transmits a first portion of the laser signal and receive a modified optical signal, and outputs a second portion of the laser signal and a portion of the modified optical signal. A first optical fiber carries the first laser signal portion and the modified optical signal, and a second optical fiber carries the second portion of the laser signal and the returned modified optical signal. A receiver box receives the first laser signal portion, shifts the frequency of the first laser signal portion outputs the modified optical signal, and outputs an electrical signal on the basis of the laser signal. A detector at the end of the second optical fiber outputs a signal based on the modified optical signal. An optical delay sensing circuit outputs a data signal based on the detected modified optical signal. An rf phase detect and correct signal circuit outputs a signal corresponding to a phase stabilized rf signal based on the data signal and the frequency received from the receiver box.

  2. WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM OPERATION: APPLICATION OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mays, Larry W.

    CHAPTER 5 WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM OPERATION: APPLICATION OF SIMULATED ANNEALING Fred E. Goldman Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 5.1 INTRODUCTION The operation of water distribution systems affects the water quality in these systems. EPA regulations require that water quality be maintained

  3. Reliability review of the remote tool delivery system locomotor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chesser, J.B.

    1999-04-01

    The locomotor being built by RedZone Robotics is designed to serve as a remote tool delivery (RID) system for waste retrieval, tank cleaning, viewing, and inspection inside the high-level waste tanks 8D-1 and 8D-2 at West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS). The RTD systm is to be deployed through a tank riser. The locomotor portion of the RTD system is designed to be inserted into the tank and is to be capable of moving around the tank by supporting itself and moving on the tank internal structural columns. The locomotor will serve as a mounting platform for a dexterous manipulator arm. The complete RTD system consists of the locomotor, dexterous manipulator arm, cameras, lights, cables, hoses, cable/hose management system, power supply, and operator control station.

  4. A System for Calibration and Reliability Testing of MEMS Devices Under Mechanical Stress

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polian, Ilia

    ), University of Freiburg, Germany Abstract Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are employed in safety Introduction Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) are em- ployed in safety-critical fields such as automotiveA System for Calibration and Reliability Testing of MEMS Devices Under Mechanical Stress S. Spinner

  5. Resource allocation for reliability of a complex system with aging components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson-cook, Christine M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Graves, Todd L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hamada, Michael S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    To assess the reliability of a complex system, many different types of data may be available. Full-system tests are the most direct measure of reliability, but may be prohibitively expensive or difficult to obtain. Other less direct measures, such as component or section level tests, may be cheaper to obtain and more readily available. Using a single Bayesian analysis, multiple sources of data can be combined to give component and system reliability estimates. Resource allocation looks to develop methods to predict which new data would most improve the precision of the estimate of system reliability, in order to maximally improve understanding. In this paper, we consider a relatively simple system with different types of data from the components and system. We present a methodology for assessing the relative improvement in system reliability estimation for additional data from the various types. Various metrics for comparing improvement and a response surface approach to modeling the relationship between improvement and the additional data are presented.

  6. Reliability sensitivity analysis based on probability distribution perturbation with application to CO2 storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    been identified, Uncertainty Analysis (UA) is focused on quanti- fying the uncertainty in the model output resulting from uncertainty in the model inputs. At the same time, Sensitivity Analysis (SA) aims analytical examples. Keywords: sensitivity analysis, reliability analysis, uncertainty analysis, failure

  7. Building a Smarter Distribution System in Pennsylvania

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Study - PPL Electric Utilities Corporation Smart Grid Investment Grant 1 Building a Smarter Distribution System in Pennsylvania PPL Electric Utilities Corporation (PPL) provides...

  8. A Report on Simulation-Driven Reliability and Failure Analysis of Large-Scale Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wan, Lipeng; Wang, Feiyi; Oral, H. Sarp; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S.; Cao, Qing

    2014-11-01

    High-performance computing (HPC) storage systems provide data availability and reliability using various hardware and software fault tolerance techniques. Usually, reliability and availability are calculated at the subsystem or component level using limited metrics such as, mean time to failure (MTTF) or mean time to data loss (MTTDL). This often means settling on simple and disconnected failure models (such as exponential failure rate) to achieve tractable and close-formed solutions. However, such models have been shown to be insufficient in assessing end-to-end storage system reliability and availability. We propose a generic simulation framework aimed at analyzing the reliability and availability of storage systems at scale, and investigating what-if scenarios. The framework is designed for an end-to-end storage system, accommodating the various components and subsystems, their interconnections, failure patterns and propagation, and performs dependency analysis to capture a wide-range of failure cases. We evaluate the framework against a large-scale storage system that is in production and analyze its failure projections toward and beyond the end of lifecycle. We also examine the potential operational impact by studying how different types of components affect the overall system reliability and availability, and present the preliminary results

  9. Design and Implementation of Ceph: A Scalable Distributed File System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weil, S A; Brandt, S A; Miller, E L; Long, D E; Maltzahn, C

    2006-04-19

    File system designers continue to look to new architectures to improve scalability. Object-based storage diverges from server-based (e.g. NFS) and SAN-based storage systems by coupling processors and memory with disk drives, delegating low-level allocation to object storage devices (OSDs) and decoupling I/O (read/write) from metadata (file open/close) operations. Even recent object-based systems inherit decades-old architectural choices going back to early UNIX file systems, however, limiting their ability to effectively scale to hundreds of petabytes. We present Ceph, a distributed file system that provides excellent performance and reliability with unprecedented scalability. Ceph maximizes the separation between data and metadata management by replacing allocation tables with a pseudo-random data distribution function (CRUSH) designed for heterogeneous and dynamic clusters of unreliable OSDs. We leverage OSD intelligence to distribute data replication, failure detection and recovery with semi-autonomous OSDs running a specialized local object storage file system (EBOFS). Finally, Ceph is built around a dynamic distributed metadata management cluster that provides extremely efficient metadata management that seamlessly adapts to a wide range of general purpose and scientific computing file system workloads. We present performance measurements under a variety of workloads that show superior I/O performance and scalable metadata management (more than a quarter million metadata ops/sec).

  10. Reliability Improvements from the Application of Distribution Automation Technologies - Initial Results

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested PartiesBuildingBudgetFinancialReliability Considerations from the Integration

  11. Lighting system with heat distribution face plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Li, Ri

    2013-09-10

    Lighting systems having a light source and a thermal management system are provided. The thermal management system includes synthetic jet devices, a heat sink and a heat distribution face plate. The synthetic jet devices are arranged in parallel to one and other and are configured to actively cool the lighting system. The heat distribution face plate is configured to radially transfer heat from the light source into the ambient air.

  12. Hybrid solar lighting distribution systems and components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muhs, Jeffrey D. (Lenoir City, TN); Earl, Dennis D. (Knoxville, TN); Beshears, David L. (Knoxville, TN); Maxey, Lonnie C. (Powell, TN); Jordan, John K. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lind, Randall F. (Lenoir City, TN)

    2011-07-05

    A hybrid solar lighting distribution system and components having at least one hybrid solar concentrator, at least one fiber receiver, at least one hybrid luminaire, and a light distribution system operably connected to each hybrid solar concentrator and each hybrid luminaire. A controller operates all components.

  13. Reliability analysis of static and dynamic fault-tolerant systems subject to probabilistic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sun, Yan Lindsay

    Reliability analysis of static and dynamic fault-tolerant systems subject to probabilistic common Dartmouth, Massachusetts, USA 2 University of Rhode Island, Kingston, Rhode Island, USA 3 Applied Materials for publication on 8 October 2009. DOI: 10.1243/1748006XJRR260 Abstract: Fault-tolerant systems designed

  14. Reliable appropriate topology design for multiple-processor systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, C.P.

    1987-01-01

    A Shift and Replace Graph which is a very appropriate candidate for the topology of a multiple-processor system is a function of two positive integers r and m, and is denoted as SRF(r,m). Pradhan and Reddy proved that the node connectivity of SRG(r,m) is at least r and also give a routing algorithm which generally requires 2m jumps if the number of node failures is no larger than r - 1. Later, Esfahanian and Hakimi proved that SRG(r,m) has maximum node connectivity 2r - 2 and give routing algorithms which require: (1) at most m + 3 + log/sub r/m jumps if 3 + log/sub r/m does not exceed m and the number of node failures is at most r - 1; (2) at most m + 5 + log/sub r/m jumps if 4 + log/sub r/m less than or equal to m and the number of node failures if less than or equal to 2r - 3; (3) all the other situations require no more than 2m jumps. By modifying the SRG(r,m), it is first proved that node connectivity of SRG(r,m) can be increased to: (1) 2r - 1 when r = 2, m = 2, and (2) 2r when (r = 2, m > 2) or (r > 2, m greater than or equal to 2, m greater than or equal to 2). The routing algorithms are also given for the modified SRG (r,m), which require at most 2m + 3 jumps when the number of node failures is less than or equal to 2r - 1.

  15. Assembly and comparison of available solar hot water system reliability databases and information.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menicucci, David F.

    2009-05-01

    Solar hot water (SHW) systems have been installed commercially for over 30 years, yet few quantitative details are known about their reliability. This report describes a comprehensive analysis of all of the known major previous research and data regarding the reliability of SHW systems and components. Some important conclusions emerged. First, based on a detailed inspection of ten-year-old systems in Florida, about half of active systems can be expected to fail within a ten-year period. Second, valves were identified as the probable cause of a majority of active SHW failures. Third, passive integral and thermosiphon SHW systems have much lower failure rates than active ones, probably due to their simple design that employs few mechanical parts. Fourth, it is probable that the existing data about reliability do not reveal the full extent of fielded system failures because most of the data were based on trouble calls. Often an SHW system owner is not aware of a failure because the backup system silently continues to produce hot water. Thus, a repair event may not be generated in a timely manner, if at all. This final report for the project provides all of the pertinent details about this study, including the source of the data, the techniques to assure their quality before analysis, the organization of the data into perhaps the most comprehensive reliability database in existence, a detailed statistical analysis, and a list of recommendations for additional critical work. Important recommendations include the inclusion of an alarm on SHW systems to identify a failed system, the need for a scientifically designed study to collect high-quality reliability data that will lead to design improvements and lower costs, and accelerated testing of components that are identified as highly problematic.

  16. Abstract Microgrids are a new concept for future energy dis-tribution systems that enable renewable energy integration and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Emmanuel

    1 Abstract ­ Microgrids are a new concept for future energy dis- tribution systems that enable renewable energy integration and improved energy management capability. Microgrids consist of multiple power quality and power distribution reliability, microgrids need to operate in both grid

  17. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY, VOL. 56, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2010 4539 Network Coding for Distributed Storage Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wainwright, Martin J.

    for Distributed Storage Systems Alexandros G. Dimakis, Member, IEEE, P. Brighten Godfrey, Student Member, IEEE Abstract--Distributed storage systems provide reliable access to data through redundancy spread over individually unreliable nodes. Application scenarios include data centers, peer-to-peer storage systems

  18. Measuring Advances in HVAC Distribution System Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franconi, E.

    1998-05-01

    Substantial commercial building energy savings have been achieved by improving the performance of the HV AC distribution system. The energy savings result from distribution system design improvements, advanced control capabilities, and use of variable-speed motors. Yet, much of the commercial building stock remains equipped with inefficient systems. Contributing to this is the absence of a definition for distribution system efficiency as well as the analysis methods for quantifying performance. This research investigates the application of performance indices to assess design advancements in commercial building thermal distribution systems. The index definitions are based on a first and second law of thermodynamics analysis of the system. The second law or availability analysis enables the determination of the true efficiency of the system. Availability analysis is a convenient way to make system efficiency comparisons since performance is evaluated relative to an ideal process. A TRNSYS simulation model is developed to analyze the performance of two distribution system types, a constant air volume system and a variable air volume system, that serve one floor of a large office building. Performance indices are calculated using the simulation results to compare the performance of the two systems types in several locations. Changes in index values are compared to changes in plant energy, costs, and carbon emissions to explore the ability of the indices to estimate these quantities.

  19. Development of an Integrated Distribution Management System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schatz, Joe E.

    2010-10-20

    This final report details the components, functionality, costs, schedule and benefits of developing an Integrated Distribution Management System (IDMS) for power distribution system operation. The Distribution Automation (DA) and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems used by electric power companies to manage the distribution of electric power to retail energy consumers are vital components of the Nation’s critical infrastructure. Providing electricity is an essential public service and a disruption in that service, if not quickly restored, could threaten the public safety and the Nation’s economic security. Our Nation’s economic prosperity and quality of life have long depended on the essential services that utilities provide; therefore, it is necessary to ensure that electric utilities are able to conduct their operations safely and efficiently. A fully integrated technology of applications is needed to link various remote sensing, communications and control devices with other information tools that help guide Power Distribution Operations personnel. A fully implemented IDMS will provide this, a seamlessly integrated set of applications to raise electric system operating intelligence. IDMS will enhance DA and SCADA through integration of applications such as Geographic Information Systems, Outage Management Systems, Switching Management and Analysis, Operator Training Simulator, and other Advanced Applications, including unbalanced load flow and fault isolation/service restoration. These apps are capable of utilizing and obtaining information from appropriately installed DER, and by integrating disparate systems, the Distribution Operators will benefit from advanced capabilities when analyzing, controlling and operating the electric system.

  20. The Recursive NanoBox Processor Grid: A Reliable System Architecture for Unreliable Nanotechnology Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    The Recursive NanoBox Processor Grid: A Reliable System Architecture for Unreliable Nanotechnology, Minneapolis, MN 55455 Telephone: 612-625-5007 Fax: 612-625-4583 Abstract Advanced molecular nanotechnology designed for fabrication with unreliable nanotechnology devices. This architecture is composed of many

  1. A Framework for Reliability and Performance Assessment of Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liberzon, Daniel

    penetration of wind-based generation. According to the U.S. Department of Energy, achieving 20% of wind power hinder the widespread penetration of wind-based power generation [2]. These are i) the impact of wind1 A Framework for Reliability and Performance Assessment of Wind Energy Conversion Systems

  2. Virtualizing Operating Systems for Seamless Distributed Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dasgupta, Partha

    Virtualizing Operating Systems for Seamless Distributed Environments 1 Tom Boyd and Partha Dasgupta. Abstract Applications and operating systems can be augmented with extra functionality by injecting bindings. This is called virtualiza- tion. We are developing a virtualizing Operating System (vOS) residing

  3. A DISTRIBUTED AUTOMATION SYSTEM FOR ELECTROPHYSICAL INSTALLATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kozak, Victor R.

    A DISTRIBUTED AUTOMATION SYSTEM FOR ELECTROPHYSICAL INSTALLATIONS V.R. Kozak Budker Institute There was designed a set of devices for automation systems of physical installations. On this basis approach. KEY WORDS Automation, systems, applications, CANBUS, embedded, controller. 1. Introduction Budker

  4. Electricity Reliability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Post, Wilfred M.

    Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability High Temperature Superconductivity (HTS) Visualization in the future because they have virtually no resistance to electric current, offering the possibility of new electric power equipment with more energy efficiency and higher capacity than today's systems

  5. Convex Models of Distribution System Reconfiguration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Joshua A.

    We derive new mixed-integer quadratic, quadratically constrained, and second-order cone programming models of distribution system reconfiguration, which are to date the first formulations of the ac problem that have convex, ...

  6. Incorporating solid state drives into distributed storage systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wacha, Rosie

    2012-01-01

    27 Low Power Storage Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Drives into Distributed Storage Systems Rosie Wacha Big dataINTO DISTRIBUTED STORAGE SYSTEMS A dissertation submitted in

  7. Performance Monitoring of Residential Hot Water Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liao, Anna; Lanzisera, Steven; Lutz, Jim; Fitting, Christian; Kloss, Margarita; Stiles, Christopher

    2014-08-11

    Current water distribution systems are designed such that users need to run the water for some time to achieve the desired temperature, wasting energy and water in the process. We developed a wireless sensor network for large-scale, long time-series monitoring of residential water end use. Our system consists of flow meters connected to wireless motes transmitting data to a central manager mote, which in turn posts data to our server via the internet. This project also demonstrates a reliable and flexible data collection system that could be configured for various other forms of end use metering in buildings. The purpose of this study was to determine water and energy use and waste in hot water distribution systems in California residences. We installed meters at every end use point and the water heater in 20 homes and collected 1s flow and temperature data over an 8 month period. For a typical shower and dishwasher events, approximately half the energy is wasted. This relatively low efficiency highlights the importance of further examining the energy and water waste in hot water distribution systems.

  8. PhD Recent Graduates with background in Distributed Systems. Virtualization, Distributed Systems, Application Servers or Operating Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plotkin, Joshua B.

    and maintenance support of the project. * Work closely with internal SAP associates, external partnersPhD Recent Graduates with background in Distributed Systems. Virtualization, Distributed Systems, Application Servers or Operating Systems Global Business Incubator Location ­ Palo Alto PURPOSE

  9. Strategy Guideline: Compact Air Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, A.

    2013-06-01

    This Strategy Guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. Traditional systems sized by 'rule of thumb' (i.e., 1 ton of cooling per 400 ft2 of floor space) that 'wash' the exterior walls with conditioned air from floor registers cannot provide appropriate air mixing and moisture removal in low-load homes. A compact air distribution system locates the HVAC equipment centrally with shorter ducts run to interior walls, and ceiling supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls along the ceiling plane; alternatively, high sidewall supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls. Potential drawbacks include resistance from installing contractors or code officials who are unfamiliar with compact air distribution systems, as well as a lack of availability of low-cost high sidewall or ceiling supply outlets to meet the low air volumes with good throw characteristics. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  10. Reliability and Geographic Trends of 50,000 Photovoltaic Systems in the USA: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents performance and reliability data from nearly 50,000 photovoltaic (PV) systems totaling 1.7 gigawatts installed capacity in the USA from 2009 to 2012 and their geographic trends. About 90% of the normal systems and about 85% of all systems, including systems with known issues, performed to within 10% or better of expected performance. Although considerable uncertainty may exist due to the nature of the data, hotter climates appear to exhibit some degradation not seen in the more moderate climates. Special causes of underperformance and their impacts are delineated by reliability category. Hardware-related issues are dominated by inverter problems (totaling less than 0.5%) and underperforming modules (totaling less than 0.1%). Furthermore, many reliability categories show a significant decrease in occurrence from year 1 to subsequent years, emphasizing the need for higher-quality installations but also the need for improved standards development. The probability of PV system damage because of hail is below 0.05%. Singular weather events can have a significant impact such as a single lightning strike to a transformer or the impact of a hurricane. However, grid outages are more likely to have a significant impact than PV system damage when extreme weather events occur.

  11. Reliability of Beam Loss Monitor Systems for the Large Hadron Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guaglio, G.; Dehning, B.; Santoni, C.

    2005-06-08

    The increase of beam energy and beam intensity, together with the use of super conducting magnets, opens new failure scenarios and brings new criticalities for the whole accelerator protection system. For the LHC beam loss protection system, the failure rate and the availability requirements have been evaluated using the Safety Integrity Level (SIL) approach. A downtime cost evaluation is used as input for the SIL approach. The most critical systems, which contribute to the final SIL value, are the dump system, the interlock system, the beam loss monitors system, and the energy monitor system. The Beam Loss Monitors System (BLMS) is critical for short and intense particles losses at 7 TeV and assisted by the Fast Beam Current Decay Monitors at 450 GeV. At medium and higher loss time it is assisted by other systems, such as the quench protection system and the cryogenic system. For BLMS, hardware and software have been evaluated in detail. The reliability input figures have been collected using historical data from the SPS, using temperature and radiation damage experimental data as well as using standard databases. All the data has been processed by reliability software (Isograph). The analysis spaces from the components data to the system configuration.

  12. Foundational Report Series. Advanced Distribution management Systems for Grid Modernization (Importance of DMS for Distribution Grid Modernization)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jianhui

    2015-09-01

    Grid modernization is transforming the operation and management of electric distribution systems from manual, paper-driven business processes to electronic, computer-assisted decisionmaking. At the center of this business transformation is the distribution management system (DMS), which provides a foundation from which optimal levels of performance can be achieved in an increasingly complex business and operating environment. Electric distribution utilities are facing many new challenges that are dramatically increasing the complexity of operating and managing the electric distribution system: growing customer expectations for service reliability and power quality, pressure to achieve better efficiency and utilization of existing distribution system assets, and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions by accommodating high penetration levels of distributed generating resources powered by renewable energy sources (wind, solar, etc.). Recent “storm of the century” events in the northeastern United States and the lengthy power outages and customer hardships that followed have greatly elevated the need to make power delivery systems more resilient to major storm events and to provide a more effective electric utility response during such regional power grid emergencies. Despite these newly emerging challenges for electric distribution system operators, only a small percentage of electric utilities have actually implemented a DMS. This paper discusses reasons why a DMS is needed and why the DMS may emerge as a mission-critical system that will soon be considered essential as electric utilities roll out their grid modernization strategies.

  13. Application of systems engineering techniques (reliability, availability, maintainability, and dollars) to the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boylan, J.G.; DeLozier, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    The systems engineering function for the Gas Centrifuge Enrichment Plant (GCEP) covers system requirements definition, analyses, verification, technical reviews, and other system efforts necessary to assure good balance of performance, safety, cost, and scheduling. The systems engineering function will support the design, installation, start-up, and operational phases of GCEP. The principal objectives of the systems engineering function are to: assure that the system requirements of the GCEP process are adequately specified and documented and that due consideration and emphasis are given to all aspects of the project; provide system analyses of the designs as they progress to assure that system requirements are met and that GCEP interfaces are compatible; assist in the definition of programs for the necessary and sufficient verification of GCEP systems; and integrate reliability, maintainability, logistics, safety, producibility, and other related specialties into a total system effort. This paper addresses the GCEP reliability, availability, maintainability, and dollars (RAM dollars) analyses which are the primary systems engineering tools for the development and implementation of trade-off studies. These studies are basic to reaching cost-effective project decisions. The steps necessary to achieve optimum cost-effective design are shown.

  14. Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions Grid of the Future White Paper on Review of Recent Reliability Issues and Systems Events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauer, John F.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    1999-12-01

    This report is one of six reports developed under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) program in Power System Integration and Reliability (PSIR). The objective of this report is to review, analyze, and evaluate critical reliability issues demonstrated by recent disturbance events in the North America power system. Eleven major disturbances are examined, most occurring in this decade. The strategic challenge is that the pattern of technical need has persisted for a long period of time. For more than a decade, anticipation of market deregulation has been a major disincentive to new investments in system capacity. It has also inspired reduced maintenance of existing assets. A massive infusion of better technology is emerging as the final option to continue reliable electrical services. If an investment in better technology will not be made in a timely manner, then North America should plan its adjustments to a very different level of electrical service. It is apparent that technical operations staff among the utilities can be very effective at marshaling their forces in the immediate aftermath of a system emergency, and that serious disturbances often lead to improved mechanisms for coordinated operation. It is not at all apparent that such efforts can be sustained through voluntary reliability organizations in which utility personnel external to those organizations do most of the technical work. The eastern interconnection shows several situations in which much of the technical support has migrated from the utilities to the Independent System Operator (ISO), and the ISO staffs or shares staff with the regional reliability council. This process may be a natural and very positive consequence of utility restructuring. If so, the process should be expedited in regions where it is less advanced.

  15. Resource allocatiion: sequential data collection for reliability analysis involving systems and component level data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson-cooke, Christine M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    In analyzing the reliability of complex systems, several types of data from full-system tests to component level tests are commonly available and are used. After a preliminary analysis, additional resources may be available to collect new data. The goal of resource allocation is to identify the best new data to collect to maximally improve the prediction of system reliability. While several possible definitions of 'maximally improve' are possible, we focus on reducing the uncertainty or the width of the uncertainty interval for the prediction of system reliability at a user-specified age(s). In this paper, we present an algorithm that allows us to estimate the anticipated improvement to the analysis with the addition of new data, based on current understanding of all of the statistical model parameters. This quantitative assessment of the anticipated improvement can be helpful to justify the benefits of collecting new data. Additionally by comparing different potential allocations, it is possible to determine what new data should be collected to improve our understanding of the response. This optimization takes into account the relative cost of different data types and can be based on flexible allocation options, or subject to logistical constraints.

  16. Energy optimization of water distribution system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    In order to analyze pump operating scenarios for the system with the computer model, information on existing pumping equipment and the distribution system was collected. The information includes the following: component description and design criteria for line booster stations, booster stations with reservoirs, and high lift pumps at the water treatment plants; daily operations data for 1988; annual reports from fiscal year 1987/1988 to fiscal year 1991/1992; and a 1985 calibrated KYPIPE computer model of DWSD`s water distribution system which included input data for the maximum hour and average day demands on the system for that year. This information has been used to produce the inventory database of the system and will be used to develop the computer program to analyze the system.

  17. A Queueing Based Scheduling Approach to Plug-In Electric Vehicle Dispatch in Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Qiao; Ilic, Marija D

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale integration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) in power systems can cause severe issues to the existing distribution system, such as branch congestions and significant voltage drops. As a consequence, smart charging strategies are crucial for the secure and reliable operation of the power system. This paper tries to achieve high penetration level of PEVs with the existing distribution system infrastructure by proposing a smart charging algorithm that can optimally utilize the distribution system capacity. Specifically, the paper proposes a max-weight PEV dispatch algorithm to control the PEV charging rates, subject to power system physical limits. The proposed max-weight PEV dispatch algorithm is proved to be throughput optimal under very mild assumptions on the stochastic dynamics in the system. This suggests that the costly distribution system infrastructure upgrade can be avoided, or failing that, at least successfully deferred. The proposed PEV dispatch algorithm is particularly attractive in ...

  18. PV Interconnection Risk Analysis through Distribution System Impact Signatures and Feeder Zones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    PV Interconnection Risk Analysis through Distribution System Impact Signatures and Feeder Zones Grid Integration Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, NM, USA Abstract-- High penetrations of PV reliability problems. In order to improve the interconnection study process, the use of feeder zones and PV

  19. Final Scientific/ Technical Report. Playas Grid Reliability and Distributed Energy Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romero, Van; Weinkauf, Don; Khan, Mushtaq; Helgeson, Wes; Weedeward, Kevin; LeClerc, Corey; Fuierer, Paul

    2012-06-30

    The future looks bright for solar and renewable energies in the United States. Recent studies claim that by 2050, solar power could supply a third of all electricity demand in the country’s western states. Technology advances, soft policy changes, and increased energy consciousness will all have to happen to achieve this goal. But the larger question is, what would it take to do more throughout the United States? The studies tie future solar and renewable growth in the United States to programs that aim to lower the soft costs of solar adoption, streamline utility interconnections, and increase technology advances through research and development. At the state and local levels, the most important steps are; Net metering: Net metering policies lets customers offset their electric bills with onsite solar and receive reliable and fair compensation for the excess electricity they provide to the grid. Not surprisingly, what utilities consider fair is not necessarily a rate that’s favorable to solar customers; Renewable portfolio standards (RPS): RPS policies require utilities to provide a certain amount of their power from renewable sources; some set specific targets for solar and other renewables. California’s aggressive RPS of 33% renewable energy by 2020 is not bankrupting the state, or its residents; Strong statewide interconnection policies: Solar projects can experience significant delays and hassles just to get connected to the grid. Streamlined feasibility and impact analysis are needed. Good interconnection policies are crucial to the success of solar or renewable energy development; Financing options: Financing is often the biggest obstacle to solar adoption. Those obstacles can be surmounted with policies that support creative financing options like third-party ownership (TPO) and property assessed clean energy (PACE). Attesting to the significance of TPO is the fact that in Arizona, it accounted for 86% of all residential photovoltaic (PV) installations in Q1 2013. Policies beyond those at the state level are also important for solar. The federal government must play a role including continuation of the federal Investment tax credit, responsible development of solar resources on public lands, and support for research and development (R&D) to reduce the cost of solar and help incorporate large amounts of solar into the grid. The local level can’t be ignored. Local governments should support: solar rights laws, feed-in tariffs (FITs), and solar-friendly zoning rules. A great example of how effective local policies can be is a city like Gainesville, Florida , whose FIT policy has put it on the map as a solar leader. This is particularly noteworthy because the Sunshine State does not appear anywhere on the list of top solar states, despite its abundant solar resource. Lancaster, California, began by streamlining the solar permitting process and now requires solar on every new home. Cities like these point to the power of local policies, and the ability of local governments to get things done. A conspicuously absent policy is Community Choice energy, also called community choice aggregation (CCA). This model allows local governments to pool residential, business, and municipal electricity loads and to purchase or generate on their behalf. It provides rate stability and savings and allows more consumer choice and local control. The model need not be focused on clean energy, but it has been in California, where Marin Clean Energy, the first CCA in California, was enabled by a state law -- highlighting the interplay of state and local action. Basic net metering8 has been getting a lot of attention. Utilities are attacking it in a number of states, claiming it’s unfair to ratepayers who don’t go solar. On the other hand, proponents of net metering say utilities’ fighting stance is driven by worries about their bottom line, not concern for their customers. Studies in California, Vermont , New York and Texas have found that the benefits of net metering (like savings on investments in infrastructure and on meeti

  20. Assessing system reliability and allocating resources: a bayesian approach that integrates multi-level data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graves, Todd L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hamada, Michael S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Good estimates of the reliability of a system make use of test data and expert knowledge at all available levels. Furthermore, by integrating all these information sources, one can determine how best to allocate scarce testing resources to reduce uncertainty. Both of these goals are facilitated by modern Bayesian computational methods. We apply these tools to examples that were previously solvable only through the use of ingenious approximations, and use genetic algorithms to guide resource allocation.

  1. Interconnecting PV on New York City's Secondary Network Distribution System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Anderson; M. Coddington; K. Burman; S. Hayter; B. Kroposki; and A. Watson

    2009-11-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has teamed with cities across the country through the Solar America Cities (SAC) partnership program to help reduce barriers and accelerate implementation of solar energy. The New York City SAC team is a partnership between the City University of New York (CUNY), the New York City Mayor s Office of Long-term Planning and Sustainability, and the New York City Economic Development Corporation (NYCEDC).The New York City SAC team is working with DOE s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Con Edison, the local utility, to develop a roadmap for photovoltaic (PV) installations in the five boroughs. The city set a goal to increase its installed PV capacity from1.1 MW in 2005 to 8.1 MW by 2015 (the maximum allowed in 2005). A key barrier to reaching this goal, however, is the complexity of the interconnection process with the local utility. Unique challenges are associated with connecting distributed PV systems to secondary network distribution systems (simplified to ���¢��������networks���¢������� in this report). Although most areas of the country use simpler radial distribution systems to distribute electricity, larger metropolitan areas like New York City typically use networks to increase reliability in large load centers. Unlike the radial distribution system, where each customer receives power through a single line, a network uses a grid of interconnected lines to deliver power to each customer through several parallel circuits and sources. This redundancy improves reliability, but it also requires more complicated coordination and protection schemes that can be disrupted by energy exported from distributed PV systems. Currently, Con Edison studies each potential PV system in New York City to evaluate the system s impact on the network, but this is time consuming for utility engineers and may delay the customer s project or add cost for larger installations. City leaders would like to streamline this process to facilitate faster, simpler, and less expensive distributed PV system interconnections. To assess ways to improve the interconnection process, NREL conducted a four-part study with support from DOE. The NREL team then compiled the final reports from each study into this report. In Section 1���¢��������PV Deployment Analysis for New York City���¢��������we analyze the technical potential for rooftop PV systems in the city. This analysis evaluates potential PV power production in ten Con Edison networks of various locations and building densities (ranging from high density apartments to lower density single family homes). Next, we compare the potential power production to network loads to determine where and when PV generation is most likely to exceed network load and disrupt network protection schemes. The results of this analysis may assist Con Edison in evaluating future PV interconnection applications and in planning future network protection system upgrades. This analysis may also assist other utilities interconnecting PV systems to networks by defining a method for assessing the technical potential of PV in the network and its impact on network loads. Section 2���¢��������A Briefing for Policy Makers on Connecting PV to a Network Grid���¢��������presents an overview intended for nontechnical stakeholders. This section describes the issues associated with interconnecting PV systems to networks, along with possible solutions. Section 3���¢��������Technical Review of Concerns and Solutions to PV Interconnection in New Y

  2. Pressure Regain Strategies for Existing Air Distribution Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pressure Regain Strategies for Existing Air Distribution Systems Arlan Burdick IBACOS, Inc. Pressure Regain Strategies for Existing Air Distribution Systems Problem Statement...

  3. Pressure Regain Strategies for Existing Air Distribution Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pressure Regain Strategies for Existing Air Distribution Systems Pressure Regain Strategies for Existing Air Distribution Systems This presentation was delivered at the U.S....

  4. Energy Efficient HVAC System for Distributed Cooling/Heating...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficient HVAC System for Distributed CoolingHeating with Thermoelectric Devices Energy Efficient HVAC System for Distributed CoolingHeating with Thermoelectric Devices 2012 DOE...

  5. Integration of HVAC System Design with Simplified Duct Distribution...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Integration of HVAC System Design with Simplified Duct Distribution - Building America Top Innovation Integration of HVAC System Design with Simplified Duct Distribution - Building...

  6. Pilot evaluation of electricity-reliability and power-quality monitoring in California's Silicon Valley with the I-Grid(R) system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eto, Joseph; Divan, Deepak; Brumsickle, William

    2004-01-01

    affect the regional power grid. January 23, 2003, AirplaneParadigm in Distribution Grid Power Quality And Reliability5 3. Description of the I-Grid Power-Quality and Reliability

  7. A Dirichlet reputation system in reliable routing of wireless ad hoc network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Dr. Li [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Cui, Xiaohui [ORNL; Cemerlic, Alma [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2010-01-01

    Ad hoc networks are very helpful in situations when no fixed network infrastructure is available, such as natural disasters and military conflicts. In such a network, all wireless nodes are equal peers simultaneously serving as both senders and routers for other nodes. Therefore, how to route packets through reliable paths becomes a fundamental problems when behaviors of certain nodes deviate from wireless ad hoc routing protocols. We proposed a novel Dirichlet reputation model based on Bayesian inference theory which evaluates reliability of each node in terms of packet delivery. Our system offers a way to predict and select a reliable path through combination of first-hand observation and second-hand reputation reports. We also proposed moving window mechanism which helps to adjust ours responsiveness of our system to changes of node behaviors. We integrated the Dirichlet reputation into routing protocol of wireless ad hoc networks. Our extensive simulation indicates that our proposed reputation system can improve good throughput of the network and reduce negative impacts caused by misbehaving nodes.

  8. Designing Safe, Reliable Systems using Scade Parosh Aziz Abdulla 1 , Johann Deneux 1 , Gunnar Stalmarck 2 , Herman Agren 2 ,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdulla, Parosh Aziz

    ways to verify that systems are reliable: -- Failure Mode and E#ect Analysis (FMEA). In this approach in order to make the system unsafe. Both FMEA and FTA are described in details in [VGRH81]. We have

  9. LVT: A Layered Verification Technique for Distributed Computing Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olsson, Ron

    LVT: A Layered Verification Technique for Distributed Computing Systems Cui Zhang ? , Brian R of distributed computing systems with multiple component layers. Each lower layer in such a system provides languages as interfaces of systems, LVT treats each layer in a distributed computing system as a distributed

  10. A Performance Comparison of Tree and Ring Topologies in Distributed System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Min Huang

    2005-12-19

    A distributed system is a collection of computers that are connected via a communication network. Distributed systems have become commonplace due to the wide availability of low-cost, high performance computers and network devices. However, the management infrastructure often does not scale well when distributed systems get very large. Some of the considerations in building a distributed system are the choice of the network topology and the method used to construct the distributed system so as to optimize the scalability and reliability of the system, lower the cost of linking nodes together and minimize the message delay in transmission, and simplify system resource management. We have developed a new distributed management system that is able to handle the dynamic increase of system size, detect and recover the unexpected failure of system services, and manage system resources. The topologies used in the system are the tree-structured network and the ring-structured network. This thesis presents the research background, system components, design, implementation, experiment results and the conclusions of our work. The thesis is organized as follows: the research background is presented in chapter 1. Chapter 2 describes the system components, including the different node types and different connection types used in the system. In chapter 3, we describe the message types and message formats in the system. We discuss the system design and implementation in chapter 4. In chapter 5, we present the test environment and results, Finally, we conclude with a summary and describe our future work in chapter 6.

  11. Distributed Energy Management for Electric Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Distributed Energy Management for Electric Power Systems Gabriela Hug, ghug@ece.cmu.edu Soummya Kar Theory Power flow control Consensus + Innovation Approach Theory Energy Management Conclusions 2 #12 line flows Tertiary Control => Energy Energy source scheduling including generator and storage

  12. Distributed Systems Group Membership and View

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guerraoui, Rachid

    Synchrony (vs). Uses: GroupMembership (gmp). TerminatingReliableBroadcast(trb). BestEffortBroadcast(beb). #12

  13. Impact of dispersed solar and wind systems on electric distribution planning and operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boardman, R.W.; Patton, R.; Curtice, D.H.

    1981-02-01

    Small-scale dispersed solar photovoltaic and wind generation (DSW) will affect the generation, transmission, and distribution systems of an electric utility. This study examines the technical and economic impacts of dispersing DSW devices within the distribution system. Dispersed intermittent generation is included. Effects of DSW devices on capital investments, reliability, operating and maintenance costs, protection requirements, and communication and control requirements are examined. A DSW operation model is developed to help determine the dependable capacity of fluctuating solar photovoltaic and wind generation as part of the distribution planning process. Specific case studies using distribution system data and renewable resource data for Southern California Edison Company and Consumers Power Company are analyzed to gain insights into the effects of interconnecting DSW devices. The DSW devices were found to offer some distribution investment savings, depending on their availability during peak loads. For a summer-peaking utility, for example, dispersing photovoltaic systems is more likely to defer distribution capital investments than dispersing wind systems. Dispersing storage devices to increase DSW's dependable capacity for distribution systems needs is not economically attractive. Substation placement of DSW and storage devices is found to be more cost effective than feeder or customer placement. Examination of the effects of DSW on distribution system operation showed that small customer-owned DSW devices are not likely to disrupt present time-current distribution protection coordination. Present maintenance work procedures, are adequate to ensure workmen's safety. Regulating voltages within appropriate limits will become more complex with intermittent generation along the distribution feeders.

  14. GDMN : An Information Management Network for Distributed Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sengupta, Raja

    GDMN : An Information Management Network for Distributed Systems Amit Mahajan {amahajan from the system. 1 Introduction There are many systems that produce and con- sume information at many sites distributed over large geographical areas. Battlefield networks, traffic management systems

  15. Data reprocessing on worldwide distributed systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diesburg, Mike; Wicke, Daniel; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    The D0 experiment faces many challenges enabling access to large datasets for physicists on 4 continents. The strategy followed is to make use of worldwide distributed computing clusters. Since the begin of Tevatron Run-II (March 2001) all Monte-Carlo simulations are produced outside of Fermilab on remote systems. For analyses a system of regional analysis centres (RACs) was established which supply the associated institutes with the data. This structure which is similar to the Tier structure foreseen for LHC was used in autumn 2003 to reprocess all D0-data with the up-to-date and much improved reconstruction software. With these achievements D0 is the first high energy physics experiment to have implemented and operated all essential computing tasks on non-dedicated, worldwide distributed systems. The experiences gained in D0 can be applied to evaluate the LHC computing model.

  16. Data reprocessing on worldwide distributed systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wicke, Daniel; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    The D0 experiment faces many challenges in terms of enabling access to large datasets for physicists on four continents. The strategy for solving these problems on worldwide distributed computing clusters is presented. Since the beginning of Run II of the Tevatron (March 2001) all Monte-Carlo simulations for the experiment have been produced at remote systems. For data analysis, a system of regional analysis centers (RACs) was established which supply the associated institutes with the data. This structure, which is similar to the tiered structure foreseen for the LHC was used in Fall 2003 to reprocess all D0 data with a much improved version of the reconstruction software. This makes D0 the first running experiment that has implemented and operated all important computing tasks of a high energy physics experiment on systems distributed worldwide.

  17. Laser spark distribution and ignition system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodruff, Steven (Morgantown, WV); McIntyre, Dustin L. (Morgantown, WV)

    2008-09-02

    A laser spark distribution and ignition system that reduces the high power optical requirements for use in a laser ignition and distribution system allowing for the use of optical fibers for delivering the low peak energy pumping pulses to a laser amplifier or laser oscillator. An optical distributor distributes and delivers optical pumping energy from an optical pumping source to multiple combustion chambers incorporating laser oscillators or laser amplifiers for inducing a laser spark within a combustion chamber. The optical distributor preferably includes a single rotating mirror or lens which deflects the optical pumping energy from the axis of rotation and into a plurality of distinct optical fibers each connected to a respective laser media or amplifier coupled to an associated combustion chamber. The laser spark generators preferably produce a high peak power laser spark, from a single low power pulse. The laser spark distribution and ignition system has application in natural gas fueled reciprocating engines, turbine combustors, explosives and laser induced breakdown spectroscopy diagnostic sensors.

  18. Distributed parallel messaging for multiprocessor systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Salapura, Valentina; Senger, Robert M; Steinmacher-Burrow, Burhard; Sugawara, Yutaka

    2013-06-04

    A method and apparatus for distributed parallel messaging in a parallel computing system. The apparatus includes, at each node of a multiprocessor network, multiple injection messaging engine units and reception messaging engine units, each implementing a DMA engine and each supporting both multiple packet injection into and multiple reception from a network, in parallel. The reception side of the messaging unit (MU) includes a switch interface enabling writing of data of a packet received from the network to the memory system. The transmission side of the messaging unit, includes switch interface for reading from the memory system when injecting packets into the network.

  19. Reliability of Beam Loss Monitor Systems for the Large Hadron Collider

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guaglio, Gianluca; Santoni, C

    2005-01-01

    The increase of beam energy and beam intensity, together with the use of super conducting magnets, opens new failure scenarios and brings new criticalities for the whole accelerator protection system. For the LHC beam loss protection system, the failure rate and the availability requirements have been evaluated using the Safety Integrity Level (SIL) approach. A downtime cost evaluation is used as input for the SIL approach. The most critical systems, which contribute to the final SIL value, are the dump system, the interlock system, the beam loss monitors system, and the energy monitor system. The Beam Loss Monitors System (BLMS) is critical for short and intense particles losses at 7 TeV and assisted by the Fast Beam Current Decay Monitors at 450 GeV. At medium and higher loss time it is assisted by other systems, such as the quench protection system and the cryogenic system. For BLMS, hardware and software have been evaluated in detail. The reliability input figures have been collected using historical data...

  20. The Reliability Investigation on ACSR Splice Connector Systems Used in Overhead Power transmission Lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL] [ORNL; Jiang, Hao [ORNL] [ORNL; Ren, Fei [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Due to material discontinuity and inherited forming mechanism from a crimped-type splice connector, the associated conductor-connector system is highly sensitive to system components aging, especially during high-temperature operations. Furthermore, due to the increase in power demand and limited investment in new infrastructure, existing overhead power transmission lines often need to operate at temperatures higher than the original designed values. This has led to the accelerated aging and degradation of conductor-connector systems. The implications of connector aging are two-fold: (1) significant increase in resistivity of the splice connector and (2) significant reduction in the connector clamping strength. Therefore, splice connectors are one of the weakest links in the electric power transmission infrastructure. In this paper we will discuss the reliability of splice connector systems, including both single stage and two stage splice connectors, used in ACSR conductor of transmission lines under high temperature operations.

  1. Distribution Effectiveness and Impacts on Equipment Sizing for Residential Thermal Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 LBNL-43724 Distribution Effectiveness and Impacts on Equipment Sizing for Residential Thermal Distribution Systems Walker, I., Sherman, M., and Siegel, J. Environmental Energy Technologies Division Energy

  2. Natural Circulation in Water Cooled Nuclear Power Plants Phenomena, models, and methodology for system reliability assessments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jose Reyes

    2005-02-14

    In recent years it has been recognized that the application of passive safety systems (i.e., those whose operation takes advantage of natural forces such as convection and gravity), can contribute to simplification and potentially to improved economics of new nuclear power plant designs. In 1991 the IAEA Conference on ''The Safety of Nuclear Power: Strategy for the Future'' noted that for new plants the use of passive safety features is a desirable method of achieving simplification and increasing the reliability of the performance of essential safety functions, and should be used wherever appropriate''.

  3. Integrated Computing, Communication, and Distributed Control of Deregulated Electric Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bajura, Richard; Feliachi, Ali

    2008-09-24

    Restructuring of the electricity market has affected all aspects of the power industry from generation to transmission, distribution, and consumption. Transmission circuits, in particular, are stressed often exceeding their stability limits because of the difficulty in building new transmission lines due to environmental concerns and financial risk. Deregulation has resulted in the need for tighter control strategies to maintain reliability even in the event of considerable structural changes, such as loss of a large generating unit or a transmission line, and changes in loading conditions due to the continuously varying power consumption. Our research efforts under the DOE EPSCoR Grant focused on Integrated Computing, Communication and Distributed Control of Deregulated Electric Power Systems. This research is applicable to operating and controlling modern electric energy systems. The controls developed by APERC provide for a more efficient, economical, reliable, and secure operation of these systems. Under this program, we developed distributed control algorithms suitable for large-scale geographically dispersed power systems and also economic tools to evaluate their effectiveness and impact on power markets. Progress was made in the development of distributed intelligent control agents for reliable and automated operation of integrated electric power systems. The methodologies employed combine information technology, control and communication, agent technology, and power systems engineering in the development of intelligent control agents for reliable and automated operation of integrated electric power systems. In the event of scheduled load changes or unforeseen disturbances, the power system is expected to minimize the effects and costs of disturbances and to maintain critical infrastructure operational.

  4. Alexandru Iosup Parallel and Distributed Systems Group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langendoen, Koen

    ­ the Netherlands ­ Europe founded 13th century pop: 100,000 pop.: 100,000 pop: 16.5 M pop: 100,000 founded 1842 pop: 13,000 pop.: 100,000 (We are here) #12;The Parallel and Distributed Systems Group at TU Delft Johan Challenges and High Quality Time ­ A. Iosup 5 #12;Online Gaming used to be art, may now be computing

  5. Advanced Non-Distributed Operating Systems Course Yair Wiseman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiseman, Yair

    1 Advanced Non-Distributed Operating Systems Course Yair Wiseman Computer Science Department Bar://www.cs.biu.ac.il/~wiseman wiseman@cs.huji.ac.il Keywords: Operating Systems, Graduate Course, Operating System Kernel, Non-Distributed Operating Systems. Abstract The use of Non-Distributed Operating Systems is very common and old. Many

  6. On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Spray Distribution (Spanish) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.; Enciso, Juan

    1999-08-12

    Spray distribution systems for wastewater treated on site are much like lawn irrigation systems. This publication explains the advantages, disadvantages, maintenance steps and estimated costs of spray distribution systems.

  7. On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Subsurface Drip Distribution 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    1999-09-06

    A subsurface drip system distributes wastewater to the lawn through a system of tubing installed below the ground. This publication explains the advantages and disadvantages of subsurface drip distribution systems, as well ...

  8. Reliability and optimization studies of nuclear and solar powered systems utilizing a Stirling engine for the space station 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmitz, Paul Charles

    1990-01-01

    RELIABILITY AND OPTIMIZATION STUDIES OF NUCLEAR AND SOLAR POWERED SYSTEMS UTILIZING A STIRLING ENGINE FOR THE SPACE STATION A Thesis by PAUL CHARLES SCHMITZ Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1990 Major Subject: Nuclear Engineering RELIABILITY AND OPTIMIZATION STUDIES OF NUCLEAR AND SOLAR POWERED SYSTEMS UTILIZING A STIRLING ENGINE FOR THE SPACE STATION A Thesis...

  9. Reliability of materials in MEMS : residual stress and adhesion in a micro power generation system.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moody, Neville Reid; Kennedy, Marian S. (Washington State University, Pullman, WA); Bahr, David F. (Washington State University, Pullman, WA)

    2007-09-01

    The reliability of thin film systems is important to the continued development of microelectronic and micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS). The reliability of these systems is often tied to the ability of the films to remain adhered to its substrate. By measuring the amount of energy to separate the film from the substrate, researchers can predicts film lifetimes. Recent work has resulted in several different testing techniques to measure this energy including spontaneous buckling, indentation induced delamination and four point bending. This report focuses on developing quantifiable adhesion measurements for multiple thin film systems used in MEMS and other thin film systems of interest to Sandia programs. First, methods of accurately assessing interfacial toughness using stressed overlayer methods are demonstrated using both the W/Si and Au/Si systems. For systems where fracture only occurs along the interface, such as Au/Si, the calculated fracture energies between different tests are identical if the energy put into the system is kept near the needed strain energy to cause delamination. When the energy in the system is greater than needed to cause delamination, calculated adhesion energies can increase by a factor of three due to plastic deformation. Dependence of calculated adhesion energies on applied energy in the system was also shown when comparisons of four point bending and stressed overlayer test methods were completed on Pt/Si systems. The fracture energies of Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2} were studied using four-point bending and compressive overlayers. Varying the thickness of the Ti film from 2 to 17 nm in a Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2} system, both test methods showed an increase of adhesion energy until the nominal Ti thickness was 12nm. Then the adhesion energy began to decrease. While the trends in toughness are similar, the magnitude of the toughness values measured between the test methods is not the same, demonstrating the difficulty in extracting mode I toughness as mixed mode loading approaches mode II conditions.

  10. Adaptive electrocardiogram feature extraction on distributed embedded systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jafari, R; Noshadi, H; Ghiasi, S; Sarrafzadeh, M

    2006-01-01

    Approach to Networked Embedded Systems,” PLDI ’03: Proc. ACMON DISTRIBUTED EMBEDDED SYSTEMS Fig. 1. ECG analysismainly interested in embedded system design and analysis and

  11. The application of Plant Reliability Data Information System (PRINS) to CANDU reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, S. W.; Lim, Y. H.; Park, H. C.

    2012-07-01

    As risk-informed applications (RIAs) are actively implanted in the nuclear industry, an issue associated with technical adequacy of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) arises in its modeling and data sourcing. In Korea, PSA for all Korean NPPs has been completed and KHNP(Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Plant Company) developed the database called the Plant Reliability Data Information System (PRinS). It has several characteristics that distinguish it from other database system such as NPRDs (INPO,1994), PRIS (IAEA), and SRDF (EdF). This database has the function of systematic data management such as automatic data-gathering, periodic data deposition and updating, statistical analysis including Bayesian method, and trend analysis of failure rate or unavailability. In recent PSA for CANDU reactor, the component failure data of EPRI ALWR URD and Component Reliability Database were preferentially used as generic data set. The error factor for most component failure data was estimated by using the information NUREG/CR-4550 and NUREG/CR-4639. Also, annual trend analysis was performed for the functional losses of components using the statistical analysis and chart module of PRinS. Furthermore, the database has been updated regularly and maintained as a living program to reflect the current status. This paper presents the failure data analysis using PRinS which provides Bayesian analysis on main components in the CANDU reactor. (authors)

  12. Distribution System Analysis Tools for Studying High Penetration of PV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Distribution System Analysis Tools for Studying High Penetration of PV with Grid Support Features Electric Energy System #12;#12;Distribution System Analysis Tools for Studying High Penetration of PV project titled "Distribution System Analysis Tools for Studying High Penetration of PV with Grid Support

  13. Distributed Sensor Coordination for Advanced Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tumer, Kagan

    2013-07-31

    The ability to collect key system level information is critical to the safe, efficient and reli- able operation of advanced energy systems. With recent advances in sensor development, it is now possible to push some level of decision making directly to computationally sophisticated sensors, rather than wait for data to arrive to a massive centralized location before a decision is made. This type of approach relies on networked sensors (called “agents” from here on) to actively collect and process data, and provide key control deci- sions to significantly improve both the quality/relevance of the collected data and the as- sociating decision making. The technological bottlenecks for such sensor networks stem from a lack of mathematics and algorithms to manage the systems, rather than difficulties associated with building and deploying them. Indeed, traditional sensor coordination strategies do not provide adequate solutions for this problem. Passive data collection methods (e.g., large sensor webs) can scale to large systems, but are generally not suited to highly dynamic environments, such as ad- vanced energy systems, where crucial decisions may need to be reached quickly and lo- cally. Approaches based on local decisions on the other hand cannot guarantee that each agent performing its task (maximize an agent objective) will lead to good network wide solution (maximize a network objective) without invoking cumbersome coordination rou- tines. There is currently a lack of algorithms that will enable self-organization and blend the efficiency of local decision making with the system level guarantees of global decision making, particularly when the systems operate in dynamic and stochastic environments. In this work we addressed this critical gap and provided a comprehensive solution to the problem of sensor coordination to ensure the safe, reliable, and robust operation of advanced energy systems. The differentiating aspect of the proposed work is in shift- ing the focus towards “what to observe” rather than “how to observe” in large sensor networks, allowing the agents to actively determine both the structure of the network and the relevance of the information they are seeking to collect. In addition to providing an implicit coordination mechanism, this approach allows the system to be reconfigured in response to changing needs (e.g., sudden external events requiring new responses) or changing sensor network characteristics (e.g., sudden changes to plant condition). Outcome Summary: All milestones associated with this project have been completed. In particular, private sensor objective functions were developed which are aligned with the global objective function, sensor effectiveness has been improved by using “sensor teams,” system efficiency has been improved by 30% using difference evaluation func- tions, we have demonstrated system reconfigurability for 20% changes in system con- ditions, we have demonstrated extreme scalability of our proposed algorithm, we have demonstrated that sensor networks can overcome disruptions of up to 20% in network conditions, and have demonstrated system reconfigurability to 20% changes in system conditions in hardware-based simulations. This final report summarizes how each of these milestones was achieved, and gives insight into future research possibilities past the work which has been completed. The following publications support these milestones [6, 8, 9, 10, 16, 18, 19].

  14. On Locality in Distributed Storage Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rawat, Ankit Singh

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the design of codes for distributed storage systems (DSS) that enable local repair in the event of node failure. This paper presents locally repairable codes based on low degree multivariate polynomials. Its code construction mechanism extends work on Noisy Interpolating Set by Dvir et al. \\cite{dvir2011}. The paper presents two classes of codes that allow node repair to be performed by contacting 2 and 3 surviving nodes respectively. It further shows that both classes are good in terms of their rate and minimum distance, and allow their rate to be bartered for greater flexibility in the repair process.

  15. Hot Water Distribution System Model Enhancements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoeschele, M.; Weitzel, E.

    2012-11-01

    This project involves enhancement of the HWSIM distribution system model to more accurately model pipe heat transfer. Recent laboratory testing efforts have indicated that the modeling of radiant heat transfer effects is needed to accurately characterize piping heat loss. An analytical methodology for integrating radiant heat transfer was implemented with HWSIM. Laboratory test data collected in another project was then used to validate the model for a variety of uninsulated and insulated pipe cases (copper, PEX, and CPVC). Results appear favorable, with typical deviations from lab results less than 8%.

  16. Quasiprobability distributions in open quantum systems: spin-qubit systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kishore Thapliyal; Subhashish Banerjee; Anirban Pathak; S. Omkar; V. Ravishankar

    2015-04-08

    Quasiprobability distributions (QDs) in open quantum systems are investigated for $SU(2)$, spin like systems, having relevance to quantum optics and information. In this work, effect of both quantum non-demolition (QND) and dissipative open quantum systems, on the evolution of a number of spin QDs are investigated. Specifically, compact analytic expressions for the $W$, $P$, $Q$, and $F$ functions are obtained for some interesting single, two and three qubit states, undergoing general open system evolutions. Further, corresponding QDs are reported for an N qubit Dicke model and a spin-1 system. The existence of nonclassical characteristics are observed in all the systems investigated here. The study leads to a clear understanding of quantum to classical transition in a host of realistic physical scenarios. Variation of the amount of nonclassicality observed in the quantum systems, studied here,are also investigated using nonclassical volume.

  17. Interconnecting PV on New York City's Secondary Network Distribution System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, K.; Coddington, M.; Burman, K.; Hayter, S.; Kroposki, B.; Watson, A.

    2009-12-01

    This study describes technical assistance provided by NREL to help New York City and Con Edison improve the interconnection of distributed PV systems on a secondary network distribution system.

  18. On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Spray Distribution 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    1999-09-06

    A spray distribution system is very similar to a lawn irrigation system. Spray heads are used to distribute treated wastewater to the surface of the yard. This publication explains the advantages and disadvantages of spray ...

  19. To appear in the International Conference on Computer Aided Design (ICCAD), Nov. 2004 The Effects of Energy Management on Reliability in Real-Time Embedded Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Dakai

    of Energy Management on Reliability in Real-Time Embedded Systems Dakai Zhu, Rami Melhem and Daniel Moss of energy management on the fault rate is too optimistic and may lead to unsatisfied system reliability. I of energy management on reliability is studied. Our analysis results show that, energy management through

  20. Distributed fiber optic moisture intrusion sensing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-06-24

    Method and system for monitoring and identifying moisture intrusion in soil such as is contained in landfills housing radioactive and/or hazardous waste. The invention utilizes the principle that moist or wet soil has a higher thermal conductance than dry soil. The invention employs optical time delay reflectometry in connection with a distributed temperature sensing system together with heating means in order to identify discrete areas within a volume of soil wherein temperature is lower. According to the invention an optical element and, optionally, a heating element may be included in a cable or other similar structure and arranged in a serpentine fashion within a volume of soil to achieve efficient temperature detection across a large area or three dimensional volume of soil. Remediation, moisture countermeasures, or other responsive action may then be coordinated based on the assumption that cooler regions within a soil volume may signal moisture intrusion where those regions are located.

  1. Physical Effects of Distributed PV Generation on California's Distribution System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Deployment of high-penetration photovoltaic (PV) power is expected to have a range of effects -- both positive and negative -- on the distribution grid. The magnitude of these effects may vary greatly depending upon feeder topology, climate, PV penetration level, and other factors. In this paper we present a simulation study of eight representative distribution feeders in three California climates at PV penetration levels up to 100\\%, supported by a unique database of distributed PV generation data that enables us to capture the impact of PV variability on feeder voltage and voltage regulating equipment. When comparing the influence of feeder location (i.e. climate) versus feeder type on outcomes, we find that location more strongly influences the incidence of reverse power flow, reductions in peak loading and the presence of voltage excursions. On the other hand, we find that feeder characteristics more strongly influence the magnitude of loss reduction and changes in voltage regulator operations. We find th...

  2. Distributed Operating Systems ANDREW S. TANENBAUM and ROBBERT VAN RENESSE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newhall, Tia

    Distributed Operating Systems ANDREW S. TANENBAUM and ROBBERT VAN RENESSE Department of Mathematics and Computer Science, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Distributed operating systems have many as an introduction to distributed operating systems, and especially to current university research about them. After

  3. Rebuilding for Array Codes in Distributed Storage Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruck, Jehoshua (Shuki)

    Rebuilding for Array Codes in Distributed Storage Systems Zhiying Wang Electrical Engineering of Technology Pasadena, CA 91125 Email: bruck@caltech.edu Abstract--In distributed storage systems that use arises. We consider the problem of repairing an erased node in a distributed storage system that uses

  4. Asymptotic Interference Alignment for Exact Repair in Distributed Storage Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jafar, Syed A.

    Asymptotic Interference Alignment for Exact Repair in Distributed Storage Systems Viveck R. Cadambe consider a distributed storage system where a file of size M is stored in n distributed storage nodes using of this paper is to repair failed nodes in the storage system, by replacing them by their replicas (exact repair

  5. 6.824 Distributed Computer Systems, Fall 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Robert Tappan

    Abstractions and implementation techniques for design of distributed systems; server design, network programming, naming, storage systems, security, and fault tolerance. Readings from current literature. 6 Engineering ...

  6. Control and regulation of modern distribution system, ForskEL...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    is to study the effects of load management sys tems and online real time electricity pricing systems in modern distribution systems and to develop the models, operation and...

  7. Cathode power distribution system and method of using the same for power distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williamson, Mark A; Wiedmeyer, Stanley G; Koehl, Eugene R; Bailey, James L; Willit, James L; Barnes, Laurel A; Blaskovitz, Robert J

    2014-11-11

    Embodiments include a cathode power distribution system and/or method of using the same for power distribution. The cathode power distribution system includes a plurality of cathode assemblies. Each cathode assembly of the plurality of cathode assemblies includes a plurality of cathode rods. The system also includes a plurality of bus bars configured to distribute current to each of the plurality of cathode assemblies. The plurality of bus bars include a first bus bar configured to distribute the current to first ends of the plurality of cathode assemblies and a second bus bar configured to distribute the current to second ends of the plurality of cathode assemblies.

  8. Energy Efficiency of Distributed Environmental Control Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalifa, H. Ezzat; Isik, Can; Dannenhoffer, John F. III

    2011-02-23

    In this report, we present an analytical evaluation of the potential of occupant-regulated distributed environmental control systems (DECS) to enhance individual occupant thermal comfort in an office building with no increase, and possibly even a decrease in annual energy consumption. To this end we developed and applied several analytical models that allowed us to optimize comfort and energy consumption in partitioned office buildings equipped with either conventional central HVAC systems or occupant-regulated DECS. Our approach involved the following interrelated components: 1. Development of a simplified lumped-parameter thermal circuit model to compute the annual energy consumption. This was necessitated by the need to perform tens of thousands of optimization calculations involving different US climatic regions, and different occupant thermal preferences of a population of ~50 office occupants. Yearly transient simulations using TRNSYS, a time-dependent building energy modeling program, were run to determine the robustness of the simplified approach against time-dependent simulations. The simplified model predicts yearly energy consumption within approximately 0.6% of an equivalent transient simulation. Simulations of building energy usage were run for a wide variety of climatic regions and control scenarios, including traditional “one-size-fits-all” (OSFA) control; providing a uniform temperature to the entire building, and occupant-selected “have-it-your-way” (HIYW) control with a thermostat at each workstation. The thermal model shows that, un-optimized, DECS would lead to an increase in building energy consumption between 3-16% compared to the conventional approach depending on the climate regional and personal preferences of building occupants. Variations in building shape had little impact in the relative energy usage. 2. Development of a gradient-based optimization method to minimize energy consumption of DECS while keeping each occupant’s thermal dissatisfaction below a given threshold. The DECS energy usage was calculated using the simplified thermal model. OSFA control; providing a uniform temperature to the entire building, and occupant-selected HIYW control with a thermostat at each workstation were implemented for 3 cities representing 3 different climatic regions and control scenarios. It is shown that optimization allows DECS to deliver a higher level of individual and population thermal comfort while achieving annual energy savings between 14 and 26% compared to OSFA. The optimization model also allowed us to study the influence of the partitions’ thermal resistance and the variability of internal loads at each office. These influences didn’t make significant changes in the optimized energy consumption relative to OSFA. The results show that it is possible to provide thermal comfort for each occupant while saving energy compared to OSFA Furthermore, to simplify the implementation of this approach, a fuzzy logic system has been developed to generalize the overall optimization strategy. Its performance was almost as good as the gradient system. The fuzzy system provided thermal comfort to each occupant and saved energy compared to OSFA. The energy savings of the fuzzy system were not as high as for the gradient-optimized system, but the fuzzy system avoided complete connectivity, and the optimization did not have to be repeated for each population. 3. We employed a detailed CFD model of adjacent occupied cubicles to extend the thermal-circuit model in three significant ways: (a) relax the “office wall” requirement by allowing energy to flow between zones via advection as well as conduction, (b) improve the comfort model to account both for radiation as well as convection heat transfer, and (c) support ventilation systems in which the temperature is stratified, such as in underfloor air distribution systems. Initially, three-dimensional CFD simulations of several cubicle configurations, with an adjoining corridor, were performed both to understand the advection between cubicles and the

  9. Clock distribution system for digital computers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyman, Robert H. (Brentwood, CA); Loomis, Jr., Herschel H. (Davis, CA)

    1981-01-01

    Apparatus for eliminating, in each clock distribution amplifier of a clock distribution system, sequential pulse catch-up error due to one pulse "overtaking" a prior clock pulse. The apparatus includes timing means to produce a periodic electromagnetic signal with a fundamental frequency having a fundamental frequency component V'.sub.01 (t); an array of N signal characteristic detector means, with detector means No. 1 receiving the timing means signal and producing a change-of-state signal V.sub.1 (t) in response to receipt of a signal above a predetermined threshold; N substantially identical filter means, one filter means being operatively associated with each detector means, for receiving the change-of-state signal V.sub.n (t) and producing a modified change-of-state signal V'.sub.n (t) (n=1, . . . , N) having a fundamental frequency component that is substantially proportional to V'.sub.01 (t-.theta..sub.n (t) with a cumulative phase shift .theta..sub.n (t) having a time derivative that may be made uniformly and arbitrarily small; and with the detector means n+1 (1.ltoreq.n

  10. Detection of contamination of municipal water distribution systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

    2012-01-17

    A system for the detection of contaminates of a fluid in a conduit. The conduit is part of a fluid distribution system. A chemical or biological sensor array is connected to the conduit. The sensor array produces an acoustic signal burst in the fluid upon detection of contaminates in the fluid. A supervisory control system connected to the fluid and operatively connected to the fluid distribution system signals the fluid distribution system upon detection of contaminates in the fluid.

  11. Reliability Modeling of Cyber-Physical Electric Power Systems: A System-Theoretic Framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liberzon, Daniel

    responsible for generation, transmission and utilization of electrical energy, and consequently, the impacts), and advanced power electronics devices for power-flow con- trol, such as flexible AC transmission systems European counterpart Electricity Networks of the Future, are truly cyber- The author is with the ECE

  12. Characterizing and Improving Distributed Intrusion Detection Systems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hurd, Steven A.; Proebstel, Elliot P.

    2007-11-01

    Due to ever-increasing quantities of information traversing networks, network administrators are developing greater reliance upon statistically sampled packet information as the source for their intrusion detection systems (IDS). Our research is aimed at understanding IDS performance when statistical packet sampling is used. Using the Snort IDS and a variety of data sets, we compared IDS results when an entire data set is used to the results when a statistically sampled subset of the data set is used. Generally speaking, IDS performance with statistically sampled information was shown to drop considerably even under fairly high sampling rates (such as 1:5). Characterizing and Improving Distributed Intrusion Detection Systems4AcknowledgementsThe authors wish to extend our gratitude to Matt Bishop and Chen-Nee Chuah of UC Davis for their guidance and support on this work. Our thanks are also extended to Jianning Mai of UC Davis and Tao Ye of Sprint Advanced Technology Labs for their generous assistance.We would also like to acknowledge our dataset sources, CRAWDAD and CAIDA, without which this work would not have been possible. Support for OC48 data collection is provided by DARPA, NSF, DHS, Cisco and CAIDA members.

  13. Managing Uncertainty in Operational Control of Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bargiela, Andrzej

    Managing Uncertainty in Operational Control of Water Distribution Systems A. Bargiela Department Operation of water distribution systems requires a variety of decisions to be made. There are system. There are system management decisions concerning the regulatory measures such as water pricing principles, effluent

  14. STATE OF CALIFORNIA DISTRIBUTED ENERGY STORAGE DX AC SYSTEMES ACCEPTANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STATE OF CALIFORNIA DISTRIBUTED ENERGY STORAGE DX AC SYSTEMES ACCEPTANCE CEC-MECH-14A (Revised 08/09) CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION CERTIFICATE OF ACCEPTANCE MECH-14A NA7.5.13 Distributed Energy Storage DX AC DISTRIBUTED ENERGY STORAGE DX AC SYSTEMES ACCEPTANCE CEC-MECH-14A (Revised 08/09) CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION

  15. A reliable control system for measurement on film thickness in copper chemical mechanical planarization system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Hongkai; Qu, Zilian; Zhao, Qian; Tian, Fangxin; Zhao, Dewen; Meng, Yonggang; Lu, Xinchun [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2013-12-15

    In recent years, a variety of film thickness measurement techniques for copper chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) are subsequently proposed. In this paper, the eddy-current technique is used. In the control system of the CMP tool developed in the State Key Laboratory of Tribology, there are in situ module and off-line module for measurement subsystem. The in situ module can get the thickness of copper film on wafer surface in real time, and accurately judge when the CMP process should stop. This is called end-point detection. The off-line module is used for multi-points measurement after CMP process, in order to know the thickness of remained copper film. The whole control system is structured with two levels, and the physical connection between the upper and the lower is achieved by the industrial Ethernet. The process flow includes calibration and measurement, and there are different algorithms for two modules. In the process of software development, C++ is chosen as the programming language, in combination with Qt OpenSource to design two modules’ GUI and OPC technology to implement the communication between the two levels. In addition, the drawing function is developed relying on Matlab, enriching the software functions of the off-line module. The result shows that the control system is running stably after repeated tests and practical operations for a long time.

  16. Harnessing metadata characteristics for efficient deduplication in distributed storage Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Matthew (Matthew S.)

    2011-01-01

    As storage capacity requirements grow, storage systems are becoming distributed, and that distribution poses a challenge for space savings processes. In this thesis, I design and implement a mechanism for storing only a ...

  17. Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) Data Loading Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. L. Smith; K. J. Kvarfordt; S. T. Wood

    2008-08-01

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) is a software application developed for performing a complete probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) using a personal computer. SAPHIRE is primarily funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and developed by the Idaho National Laboratory. This report is intended to assist the user to enter PRA data into the SAPHIRE program using the built-in MAR-D ASCII-text file data transfer process. Towards this end, a small sample database is constructed and utilized for demonstration. Where applicable, the discussion includes how the data processes for loading the sample database relate to the actual processes used to load a larger PRA models. The procedures described herein were developed for use with SAPHIRE Version 6.0 and Version 7.0. In general, the data transfer procedures for version 6 and 7 are the same, but where deviations exist, the differences are noted. The guidance specified in this document will allow a user to have sufficient knowledge to both understand the data format used by SAPHIRE and to carry out the transfer of data between different PRA projects.

  18. Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) Data Loading Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. L. Smith; K. J. Kvarfordt; S. T. Wood

    2006-07-01

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) is a software application developed for performing a complete probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) using a personal computer. SAPHIRE is primarily funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and developed by the Idaho National Laboratory. This report is intended to assist the user to enter PRA data into the SAPHIRE program using the built-in MAR-D ASCII-text file data transfer process. Towards this end, a small sample database is constructed and utilized for demonstration. Where applicable, the discussion includes how the data processes for loading the sample database relate to the actual processes used to load a larger PRA models. The procedures described herein were developed for use with SAPHIRE Version 6.0 and Version 7.0. In general, the data transfer procedures for version 6 and 7 are the same, but where deviations exist, the differences are noted. The guidance specified in this document will allow a user to have sufficient knowledge to both understand the data format used by SAPHIRE and to carry out the transfer of data between different PRA projects.

  19. Probabilistic Approach to Quantifying the Contribution of Variable Generation and Transmission to System Reliability: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ibanez, E.; Milligan, M.

    2012-09-01

    The increasing electrical load served by variable generation (VG), such as wind and solar energy, in the United States and many other countries has stimulated an interesting line of research to better quantify the capacity value of these resources. Methods applied traditionally to thermal units based on their average outage rates do not apply to VG because of their uncertain and non-dispatchable nature. The North American Electric Reliability Corporation's Integration of Variable Generation Task Force recently released a report that highlighted the need to develop and benchmark underlying loss-of-load expectation and related metrics that reasonably and fairly calculate the contribution to planning reserves, or capacity value, of solar and wind power. As the fraction of generation coming from VG becomes more significant, their estimated capacity value will have a larger impact on system planning. In this paper, we provide a method to include VG in traditional probabilistic-based adequacy methods. This method has been implemented in the Renewable Energy Probabilistic Resource Assessment tool developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Through an example based on the U.S. Western Interconnection, this method is applied to assess the effect that transmission can have on resource adequacy. We also analyze the interactions between available transmission and capacity value for VG.

  20. SUEZ: A Distributed Safe Execution Environment for System Administration Trials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Venkatakrishnan, V.N.

    SUEZ: A Distributed Safe Execution Environment for System Administration Trials Doo San Sim and V of safely and conveniently performing ``trial'' experiments in system administration tasks. System administrators often perform such trial executions that involve installing new software or experimenting

  1. As the need for data explodes with the passage of time and the increase of computing power, data storage becomes more and more important. Distributed storage, as distributed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruck, Jehoshua (Shuki)

    Ćciency in distributed storage systems. This thesis consists of two parts. The #12;rst part deals with the reliability of distributed storage systems. Reliability is achieved by computationally eĆcient MDS array codes that eliminate in distributed storage systems. The second part deals with the eĆciency of distributed storage systems. Methods

  2. Transmission Reliability Program 2015 Reliability & Markets Peer...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Transmission Reliability Program 2015 Reliability & Markets Peer Review Materials Available Transmission Reliability Program 2015 Reliability & Markets Peer Review Materials...

  3. Trading off Reliability and Power-Consumption in Ultra-Low Power Systems Atul Maheshwari, Wayne Burleson and Russell Tessier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tessier, Russell

    Trading off Reliability and Power-Consumption in Ultra-Low Power Systems Atul Maheshwari, Wayne but also for ultra-low power consumption due to limited battery life. This paper explores architecture (Binary and Gray) we show that temporal re- dundancy is best suited for these ultra-low power and low

  4. Reliability Engineering and System Safety 92 (2007) 609618 The nuclear industry's transition to risk-informed regulation and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01

    , USA b Nuclear Power Engineering, Quality and Safety Management Department, Tokyo Electric Power improvement in safety based on Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) performance indicatorsReliability Engineering and System Safety 92 (2007) 609­618 The nuclear industry's transition

  5. Laboratory testing of a displacement ventilation diffuser for underfloor air distribution systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raftery, Paul; Bauman, Fred; Schiavon, Stefano; Epp, Tom

    2015-01-01

    decay in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems: for an under floor air distribution system, Energy and of an underfloor air distribution system, Journal of Fluid 

  6. Effects of mechanical properties on the reliability of Cu/low-k metallization systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, Frank L. (Frank Lili), 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Cu and low-dielectric-constant (k) metallization schemes are critical for improved performance of integrated circuits. However, low elastic moduli, a characteristic of the low-k materials, lead to significant reliability ...

  7. Araneola: A Scalable Reliable Multicast System for Dynamic Environments Roie Melamed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keidar, Idit

    is called churn. A ma- jor design goal for our work is therefore coping efficiently with churn. Specifically service to nodes that are up despite high churn rates. We present Araneola, a scalable reliable

  8. Energy performance of underfloor air distribution systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom; Linden, Paul; Buhl, Fred

    2007-01-01

    distribution: Thermal  stratification. ” ASHRAE Journal, M.  Shi.  2002b.  “Thermal stratification performance of controlled/optimized thermal stratification is critical  to 

  9. Optimal Dispatch of Photovoltaic Inverters in Residential Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giannakis, Georgios

    Optimal Dispatch of Photovoltaic Inverters in Residential Distribution Systems Emiliano Dall. The increased penetration of roof-top photovoltaic (PV) systems has highlighted pressing needs to address power--Distribution networks, inverter control, optimal power flow (OPF), photovoltaic (PV) systems, sparsity, voltage

  10. Formal Development and Verification of a Distributed Railway Control System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peleska, Jan - Fachbereich 3

    Formal Development and Verification of a Distributed Railway Control System Anne E. Haxthausen 1@informatik.uni­bremen.de Abstract. In this article we introduce the concept for a distributed rail­ way control system and present the sys­ tem model into a domain model describing the physical system in absence of control

  11. Distributed Control of Networked Dynamical Systems: Static Feedback,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimarogonas, Dimos

    1 Distributed Control of Networked Dynamical Systems: Static Feedback, Integral Action--This paper analyzes distributed control protocols for first- and second-order networked dynamical systems. We systems. The PI controllers successfully attenuate constant disturbances in the network. We prove

  12. A Smart Energy System with Distributed Access Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shinozuka, Masanobu

    A Smart Energy System with Distributed Access Control Cheng-Ting Lee, Cheng-Hsun Yang, Chun.chou}@gmail.com Abstract--This paper presents a new smart energy (SE) system with distributed access control. Many other SE with minimal power, latency, and cost overhead. I. INTRODUCTION Smart energy (SE) systems have been one

  13. DISTRIBUTED DATABASE SYSTEMS M. Tamer zsu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Özsu, M. Tamer

    a database that is distributed across the nodes of a computer network and makes this distribution transparent of consistent and atomic execution against the database. Transparency: Extension of data independence at every site where it executes. The name comes from the fact that two rounds of messages are exchanged

  14. Effects of Home Energy Management Systems on Distribution Utilities...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Effects of Home Energy Management Systems on Distribution Utilities and Feeders under Various Market Structures Preprint Mark Ruth, Annabelle Pratt, Monte Lunacek, Saurabh Mittal,...

  15. Distributed Generation Study/Patterson Farms CHP System Using...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Patterson Farms CHP System Using Renewable Biogas < Distributed Generation Study Jump to: navigation, search Study Location Auburn, New York Site Description Agricultural Study...

  16. Sensor Networks for Monitoring and Control of Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whittle, Andrew

    Water distribution systems present a significant challenge for structural monitoring. They comprise a complex network of pipelines buried underground that are relatively inaccessible. Maintaining the integrity of these ...

  17. Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) Code Reference Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. L. Smith; K. J. Kvarfordt; S. T. Wood

    2008-08-01

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) is a software application developed for performing a complete probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) using a personal computer. SAPHIRE is funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and developed by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The INL's primary role in this project is that of software developer. However, the INL also plays an important role in technology transfer by interfacing and supporting SAPHIRE users comprised of a wide range of PRA practitioners from the NRC, national laboratories, the private sector, and foreign countries. SAPHIRE can be used to model a complex system’s response to initiating events, quantify associated damage outcome frequencies, and identify important contributors to this damage (Level 1 PRA) and to analyze containment performance during a severe accident and quantify radioactive releases (Level 2 PRA). It can be used for a PRA evaluating a variety of operating conditions, for example, for a nuclear reactor at full power, low power, or at shutdown conditions. Furthermore, SAPHIRE can be used to analyze both internal and external initiating events and has special features for transforming models built for internal event analysis to models for external event analysis. It can also be used in a limited manner to quantify risk in terms of release consequences to both the public and the environment (Level 3 PRA). SAPHIRE includes a separate module called the Graphical Evaluation Module (GEM). GEM provides a highly specialized user interface with SAPHIRE that automates SAPHIRE process steps for evaluating operational events at commercial nuclear power plants. Using GEM, an analyst can estimate the risk associated with operational events in a very efficient and expeditious manner. This reference guide will introduce the SAPHIRE Version 7.0 software. A brief discussion of the purpose and history of the software is included along with general information such as installation instructions, starting and stopping the program, and some pointers on how to get around inside the program. Next, database concepts and structure are discussed. Following that discussion are nine sections, one for each of the menu options on the SAPHIRE main menu, wherein the purpose and general capabilities for each option are furnished. Next, the capabilities and limitations of the software are provided.

  18. Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) Code Reference Manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. L. Smith; K. J. Kvarfordt; S. T. Wood

    2006-07-01

    The Systems Analysis Programs for Hands-on Integrated Reliability Evaluations (SAPHIRE) is a software application developed for performing a complete probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) using a personal computer. SAPHIRE is funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and developed by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The INL's primary role in this project is that of software developer. However, the INL also plays an important role in technology transfer by interfacing and supporting SAPHIRE users comprised of a wide range of PRA practitioners from the NRC, national laboratories, the private sector, and foreign countries. SAPHIRE can be used to model a complex system’s response to initiating events, quantify associated damage outcome frequencies, and identify important contributors to this damage (Level 1 PRA) and to analyze containment performance during a severe accident and quantify radioactive releases (Level 2 PRA). It can be used for a PRA evaluating a variety of operating conditions, for example, for a nuclear reactor at full power, low power, or at shutdown conditions. Furthermore, SAPHIRE can be used to analyze both internal and external initiating events and has special features for ansforming models built for internal event analysis to models for external event analysis. It can also be used in a limited manner to quantify risk in terms of release consequences to both the public and the environment (Level 3 PRA). SAPHIRE includes a separate module called the Graphical Evaluation Module (GEM). GEM provides a highly specialized user interface with SAPHIRE that automates SAPHIRE process steps for evaluating operational events at commercial nuclear power plants. Using GEM, an analyst can estimate the risk associated with operational events in a very efficient and expeditious manner. This reference guide will introduce the SAPHIRE Version 7.0 software. A brief discussion of the purpose and history of the software is included along with general information such as installation instructions, starting and stopping the program, and some pointers on how to get around inside the program. Next, database concepts and structure are discussed. Following that discussion are nine sections, one for each of the menu options on the SAPHIRE main menu, wherein the purpose and general capabilities for each option are furnished. Next, the capabilities and limitations of the software are provided.

  19. Century Electric Distribution System Operations Lorenzo Kristov,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    any point on the system and from any one of dozens of different types of distributed energy resources of Renewable and Distributed Energy Resources, Caltech Resnick Institute, 2012 #12;May 2014 2 and wholesale adoption of distribution energy technologies. All of this has occurred during a period of increasing

  20. Fuzzy logic based operated device identification in power distribution systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manivannan, Karthick Muthu

    2002-01-01

    Fault location in distribution systems is a challenging task because of the lack of homogeneity in the system and due to uncertainity in the data used for estimating the faulted sections. Fuzzy logic has widely been applied for handling...

  1. On-Site Wastewater Treatment Systems: Subsurface Drip Distribution (Spanish) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.; Enciso, Juan

    1999-08-12

    A subsurface drip system distributes wastewater to the lawn through a system of tubing installed below the ground surface. This publication explains the advantages, disadvantages, maintenance steps and estimated costs of ...

  2. Discovering Statistical Models of Availability in Large Distributed Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kondo, Derrick

    1 Discovering Statistical Models of Availability in Large Distributed Systems: An Empirical Study. Invariably, these systems are composed of heterogeneous hosts whose individual availability often exhibit describe an effective method for discovering subsets of hosts whose availability have similar statistical

  3. Heat Distribution Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    heat arriving in the radiators. As a result, steam systems make it difficult to implement control strategies such as a night setback system. The first central heating systems for...

  4. Dynamic Optimization for Optimal Control of Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ertin, Emre

    Dynamic Optimization for Optimal Control of Water Distribution Systems Emre Ertin, Anthony N. Dean Columbus OH 43201 ABSTRACT In this paper we consider the design of intelligent control policies for water as a controller for a water distribution system. In the example presented we obtain a 12.5 percent reduction

  5. STOCHASTIC CONTROL FOR DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS WITH APPLICATIONS TO WIRELESS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Minyi

    STOCHASTIC CONTROL FOR DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS WITH APPLICATIONS TO WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS Minyi Huang Departement of Electrical and Computer Engineering McGill University, Montr´eal June 2003 A Thesis submitted and optimization of distributed stochastic systems motivated by current wireless applications. In wireless

  6. Process Migration for Heterogeneous Distributed Systems Matt Bishop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Process Migration for Heterogeneous Distributed Systems Matt Bishop Department of Computer Science and mechanisms for migrating processes in a distributed system become more complicated in a heterogeneous the means to migrate processes to the idle resources. In this paper, we present a graph model for single

  7. On Correlated Availability in Internet-Distributed Systems Derrick Kondo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kondo, Derrick

    On Correlated Availability in Internet-Distributed Systems Derrick Kondo INRIA, France dkondo measure and characterize the time dynamics of availability in a large-scale Internet- distributed system with over 110,000 hosts. Our char- acterization focuses on identifying patterns of corre- lated availability

  8. Analysis Model for Domestic Hot Water Distribution Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, J.; Krarti, M.; Fang, X.

    2011-11-01

    A thermal model was developed to estimate the energy losses from prototypical domestic hot water (DHW) distribution systems for homes. The developed model, using the TRNSYS simulation software, allows researchers and designers to better evaluate the performance of hot water distribution systems in homes. Modeling results were compared with past experimental study results and showed good agreement.

  9. How Reliable are Parallel Disk Systems When Energy-Saving Schemes are Involved? Shu Yin, Xiaojun Ruan, Adam Manzanares, and Xiao Qin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Xiao

    How Reliable are Parallel Disk Systems When Energy-Saving Schemes are Involved? Shu Yin, Xiaojun, growing evidence shows that energy-saving schemes in disk drives usually have negative impacts on storage - called MINT - to evaluate the reliability of a parallel disk system where energy-saving mechanisms

  10. Reliability test of a RIFD system for tool management on construction sites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalla, Naresh

    2009-05-15

    technology and tests are conducted to understand the influence of these factors on the readability of the RFID tags. Number of tools and the velocity with which tools are taken across the portal are two variables that are tested for reliability of RFID. Tests...

  11. Araneola: A Scalable Reliable Multicast System for Dynamic Environments Roie Melamed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keidar, Idit

    sessions [1]; such behavior is called churn. A ma­ jor design goal for our work is therefore coping efficiently with churn. Specifically, we address the following chal­ lenges: (i) providing high reliability) providing an undisrupted service to nodes that are up despite high churn rates. We present Araneola

  12. MINT: A Reliability Modeling Framework for Energy-Efficient Parallel Disk Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Xiao

    than disks storing cold data. To study reliability impacts of energy-saving techniques on parallel disk this problem, a broad spectrum of energy-saving techniques were proposed to achieve high energy efficiency that existing energy conservation techniques in disk drives can deliver significant energy savings in large

  13. DISTRIBUTED ENERGY SYSTEMS IN CALIFORNIA'S FUTURE: A PRELIMINARY REPORT, VOLUME I

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2010-01-01

    of various distributed and renewable energy systems forto operate on renewable, largely distributed energy systems,distributed and largely renewable resources and from non-renewable energy

  14. Calibration and data collection protocols for reliable lattice parameter values in electron pair distribution function (ePDF) studies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abeykoon, A. M. Milinda; Hu, Hefei; Wu, Lijun; Zhu, Yimei; Billinge, Simon J. L.

    2015-02-01

    We explore and describe different protocols for calibrating electron pair distribution function (ePDF) measurements for quantitative studies on nano-materials. We find the most accurate approach to determine the camera-length is to use a standard calibration sample of Au nanoparticles from National Institute of Standards and Technology. Different protocols for data collection are also explored, as are possible operational errors, to find the best approaches for accurate data collection for quantitative ePDF studies.

  15. Measurement Practices for Reliability and Power Quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, JD

    2005-05-06

    This report provides a distribution reliability measurement ''toolkit'' that is intended to be an asset to regulators, utilities and power users. The metrics and standards discussed range from simple reliability, to power quality, to the new blend of reliability and power quality analysis that is now developing. This report was sponsored by the Office of Electric Transmission and Distribution, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Inconsistencies presently exist in commonly agreed-upon practices for measuring the reliability of the distribution systems. However, efforts are being made by a number of organizations to develop solutions. In addition, there is growing interest in methods or standards for measuring power quality, and in defining power quality levels that are acceptable to various industries or user groups. The problems and solutions vary widely among geographic areas and among large investor-owned utilities, rural cooperatives, and municipal utilities; but there is still a great degree of commonality. Industry organizations such as the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the American Public Power Association (APPA), and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) have made tremendous strides in preparing self-assessment templates, optimization guides, diagnostic techniques, and better definitions of reliability and power quality measures. In addition, public utility commissions have developed codes and methods for assessing performance that consider local needs. There is considerable overlap among these various organizations, and we see real opportunity and value in sharing these methods, guides, and standards in this report. This report provides a ''toolkit'' containing synopses of noteworthy reliability measurement practices. The toolkit has been developed to address the interests of three groups: electric power users, utilities, and regulators. The report will also serve to support activities to develop and share information among industry and regulatory participants about critical resources and practices. The toolkit has been developed by investigating the status of indices and definitions, surveying utility organizations on information sharing, and preparing summaries of reliability standards and monitoring requirements--the issues, needs, work under way, existing standards, practices and guidelines--for the following three classifications: (1) terms and definitions of reliability; (2) power quality standards, guidelines, and measurements; and (3) activities and organizations developing and sharing information on distribution reliability. As these synopses of reliability measurement practices are provided, it must be noted that an economic penalty may be associated with requiring too high a reliability level from the distribution system for all customers. It may be appropriate for the distribution system to supply only some base, generally accepted level of reliability. This base level would be adequate for the majority of customers. Users who need a higher level may find it economical to supply using distributed energy resources (DER) and other local solutions to reliability and power quality needs. Local solutions implemented by the customer may be the most cost-effective method for addressing the more stringent needs of a digital economy. These local solutions include energy storage, small distributed generators, and microgrids. This report also considers the market's role in addressing reliability issues and requirements. The customer's needs are discussed in view of issues such as power quality requirements of digital electronic equipment, the cost of outages, the cost of storage and new infrastructure, and natural gas prices. The market role in addressing these issues and requirements is explored. The economic considerations associated with the reliability issues are discussed, as well as the levels at which these economic decisions could be made. Finally, a discussion is provided of the role DER could play in addressing

  16. An analysis of distributed solar fuel systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, Alex, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    While solar fuel systems offer tremendous potential to address global clean energy needs, most existing analyses have focused on the feasibility of large centralized systems and applications. Not much research exists on ...

  17. Distributed naming in a factored operating system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beckmann, Nathan (Nathan Zachary)

    2010-01-01

    A factored operating system (fos) is a new operating system design for manycore and cloud computers. In fos, OS services are separated from application code and run on distinct cores. Furthermore, each service is split ...

  18. Physicomimetics Positioning Methodology for Distributed Autonomous Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    widely in type, as well as size, e.g., from nanobots or micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) to micro

  19. Minimizing Energy Consumption in a Water Distribution System: A Systems Modeling Approach 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnston, John

    2011-08-08

    In a water distribution system from groundwater supply, the bulk of energy consumption is expended at pump stations. These pumps pressurize the water and transport it from the aquifer to the distribution system and to elevated storage tanks. Each...

  20. Restoring Faith in the bulk-power system: an early assessment of mandatory reliability standards

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McAllister, Levi; Dawson, Kelly L.

    2010-03-15

    The driving force underlying creation of mandatory reliability standards was the prevention of widespread outages, such as those that occurred in 1965, 1977 and 2003. So far, no similar outage has occurred when an entity is in full compliance with the standards, and NERC and FERC have demonstrated that they will actively enforce compliance while aggressively pursuing entities alleged to be non-compliant. (author)

  1. Development of Characterization Tools for Reliability Testing of MicroElectroMechanical System Actuators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, James J.; Eaton, William P.; Smith, Norman F.; Tanner, Danelle M.

    1999-07-26

    Characterization tools have been developed to study the performance characteristics and reliability of surface micromachined actuators. These tools include (1) the ability to electrically stimulate or stress the actuator, (2) the capability to visually inspect the devices in operation, (3) a method for capturing operational information, and (4) a method to extract performance characteristics from the operational information. Additionally, a novel test structure has been developed to measure electrostatic forces developed by a comb drive actuator.

  2. Integrated Distribution Management System for Alabama Principal Investigator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schatz, Joe

    2013-03-31

    Southern Company Services, under contract with the Department of Energy, along with Alabama Power, Alstom Grid (formerly AREVA T&D) and others moved the work product developed in the first phase of the Integrated Distribution Management System (IDMS) from “Proof of Concept” to true deployment through the activity described in this Final Report. This Project – Integrated Distribution Management Systems in Alabama – advanced earlier developed proof of concept activities into actual implementation and furthermore completed additional requirements to fully realize the benefits of an IDMS. These tasks include development and implementation of a Distribution System based Model that enables data access and enterprise application integration.

  3. Reliability and Security of D2D Backup Storage Systems using SATA Drives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon F. Hughes

    2004-01-01

    of the enterprise storage systems being backed up (which getare proposed for SATA storage system designers to achievestored removed from storage systems and unpowered, perhaps

  4. Note: Reliable and non-contact 6D motion tracking system based on 2D laser scanners for cargo transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Young-Keun, E-mail: ykkim@handong.edu [Department of Mechanical and Control Engineering, Handong Global University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung-Soo [Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Maritime transportation demands an accurate measurement system to track the motion of oscillating container boxes in real time. However, it is a challenge to design a sensor system that can provide both reliable and non-contact methods of 6-DOF motion measurements of a remote object for outdoor applications. In the paper, a sensor system based on two 2D laser scanners is proposed for detecting the relative 6-DOF motion of a crane load in real time. Even without implementing a camera, the proposed system can detect the motion of a remote object using four laser beam points. Because it is a laser-based sensor, the system is expected to be highly robust to sea weather conditions.

  5. Modeling of underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, Tom; Bauman, Fred; Buhl, Fred; Daly, Allan

    2008-01-01

    P. Linden, 2008. “The EnergyPlus UFAD Module. ” ProceedingsProject: Special Version of EnergyPlus for York Test RoomSystems using the EnergyPlus Simulation Software. ” Master’s

  6. SILENCE: Distributed Adaptive Sampling for Sensor-based Autonomic Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pompili, Dario

    SILENCE: Distributed Adaptive Sampling for Sensor-based Autonomic Systems Eun Kyung Lee}@cac.rutgers.edu ABSTRACT Adaptive sampling and sleep scheduling can help realize the much needed resource efficiency phenomena. This paper presents a data-centric approach to distributed adaptive sampling aimed at minimizing

  7. Dynamic Interactions of PV units in Low Volatge Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    Dynamic Interactions of PV units in Low Volatge Distribution Systems M. J. Hossain, J. Lu Griffith. Abstract--Photovoltaic (PV) units along with other distributed energy resources (DERs) are located close, robust control, stability. I. Introduction The integration level of PV units in low and medium voltage

  8. A Smart Energy System: Distributed Resource Management, Control and Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beigl, Michael

    A Smart Energy System: Distributed Resource Management, Control and Optimization Yong Ding, Student of distributed energy resource and consumption management, which proposes to design a networked and embedded platform for realizing a dynamic energy mix and optimizing the energy consumption dy- namically. Based

  9. Ontology based chaining of distributed Geographic Information Systems Rob Lemmens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ontology based chaining of distributed Geographic Information Systems Rob Lemmens Department of Geo-information AA Enschede, The Netherlands e-mail: lemmens@itc.nl 1. Geographic Information Systems as com- ponents For the last decade, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have provided planners and geo scientists with tools

  10. Modeling the Effect of Hurricanes on Power Distribution Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chanda, Suraj

    2012-10-19

    outages and excessive delays in the reconstruction efforts. Accordingly, predicting the effects of power outages on the performance of power distribution systems is of major importance to government agencies, utilities, and customers. Unfortunately...

  11. Heat transfer pathways in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, F.; Jin, H.; Webster, T.

    2006-01-01

    air distribution: Thermal stratification. ASHRAE Journalstratification is increased and temperatures near the ceiling rise, this condition aggra- vates the thermalthermal decay can be a problem. Properly controlled UFAD systems produce temperature stratification

  12. Impact of SolarSmart Subdivisions on SMUD's Distribution System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNutt, P.; Hambrick, J.; Keesee, M.; Brown, D.

    2009-07-01

    This study analyzes the distribution impacts of high penetrations of grid-integrated renewable energy systems, specifically photovoltaic (PV) equipped SolarSmart Homes found in the Anatolia III Residential Community.

  13. A distributed boundary detection algorithm for multi-robot systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLurkin, James

    We describe a distributed boundary detection algorithm suitable for use on multi-robot systems with dynamic network topologies. We assume that each robot has access to its local network geometry, which is the combination ...

  14. Power-Demand Routing in massive geo-distributed systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qureshi, Asfandyar

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing trend toward massive, geographically distributed systems. The largest Internet companies operate hundreds of thousands of servers in multiple geographic locations, and are growing at a fast clip. A ...

  15. Evaluation of the application uniformity of subsurface drip distribution systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weynand, Vance Leo

    2004-09-30

    The goal of this research was to evaluate the application uniformity of subsurface drip distribution systems and the recovery of emitter flow rates. Emission volume in the field, and laboratory measured flow rates were ...

  16. Enabling Broad Adoption of Distributed PV-storage systems Via Supervisory Planning & Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeForest, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    of distributed PV-storage systems via supervisory planning &of distributed PV-storage systems via supervisory planning &control for PV-storage systems increases the annual energy

  17. A Technique to Utilize Smart Meter Load Information for Adapting Overcurrent Protection for Radial Distribution Systems with Distributed Generations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ituzaro, Fred Agyekum

    2012-07-16

    Smart radial distribution grids will include advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) and significant distributed generators (DGs) connected close to loads. DGs in these radial distribution systems (RDS) introduce bidirectional power flows (BPFs...

  18. Photovoltaic Systems Interconnected onto Secondary Network Distribution Systems – Success Stories

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report examines six case studies of photovoltaic (PV) systems integrated into secondary network systems. The six PV systems were chosen for evaluation because they are interconnected to secondary network systems located in four major Solar America Cities.

  19. Distributed Runtime Verification of JADE Multiagent Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mascardi, Viviana

    to a given global protocol is of paramount importance for most systems, and is mandatory for safety-critical of the verification activities. Reducing the log files dimension, re-implementing the monitor in a way independent in the JADE Homepage. FYPA (Find Your Path, Agent! [6, 7, 8]) is another industrial MAS developed in JADE

  20. Parallel and Distributed Systems Speaker: Dick Epema

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuzmanov, Georgi

    systems Online Social Netw. #12;3 M.Sc. Thesis Projects: The Supervision · We help you excel, without is international · We often organize the top international conferences in our field #12;4 M.Sc. Thesis Projects concepts and show that they work · For examples of previous MSc projects see the theses on the PDS website

  1. Distributionally robust control of constrained stochastic systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-05-01

    The proposed methods are illustrated for a wind turbine blade control design case .... function L, the severity of constraint violation in the ? percent of the worst cases ..... When choosing a control policy for the system S, we will require that it be ... as (16), even for convex loss functions L, seem hard to deal with directly when.

  2. Residential hot water distribution systems: Roundtablesession

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, James D.; Klein, Gary; Springer, David; Howard, Bion D.

    2002-08-01

    Residential building practice currently ignores the lossesof energy and water caused by the poor design of hot water systems. Theselosses include: combustion and standby losses from water heaters, thewaste of water (and energy) while waiting for hot water to get to thepoint of use; the wasted heat as water cools down in the distributionsystem after a draw; heat losses from recirculation systems and thediscarded warmth of waste water as it runs down the drain. Severaltechnologies are available that save energy (and water) by reducing theselosses or by passively recovering heat from wastewater streams and othersources. Energy savings from some individual technologies are reported tobe as much as 30 percent. Savings calculations of prototype systemsincluding bundles of technologies have been reported above 50 percent.This roundtable session will describe the current practices, summarizethe results of past and ongoing studies, discuss ways to think about hotwater system efficiency, and point to areas of future study. We will alsorecommend further steps to reduce unnecessary losses from hot waterdistribution systems.

  3. Analyzing the effects of component reliability on naval Integrated Power System quality of service

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hawbaker, Benjamin F. (Benjamin Forrest)

    2008-01-01

    The Integrated Power System (IPS) is a key enabling technology for future naval vessels and their advanced weapon systems. While conventional warship designs utilize separate power systems for propulsion and shipboard ...

  4. Reliability-Based Design Optimization for Durability of Ground Vehicle Suspension System Components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grujicic, Mica

    structures infused with impact resistant epoxy polymer systems) as well as in the integration of multifunc

  5. Structural Testing at the NWTC Helps Improve Blade Design and Increase System Reliability; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-08-01

    Since 1990, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s (NREL's) National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) has tested more than 150 wind turbine blades. NWTC researchers can test full-scale and subcomponent articles, conduct data analyses, and provide engineering expertise on best design practices. Structural testing of wind turbine blades enables designers, manufacturers, and owners to validate designs and assess structural performance to specific load conditions. Rigorous structural testing can reveal design and manufacturing problems at an early stage of development that can lead to overall improvements in design and increase system reliability.

  6. Distributed Generation Systems Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoopButtePower VenturesInformation9)ask queriesWind FarmAreaDiscussionSystems

  7. State Research, Outreach, and Technical Assistance to Imrove the Nation's Transmission & Distribution System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Fox; M. Keogh; A. Spahn

    2009-05-20

    The broad purpose of this project was to work cooperatively with the DOE to explore technology nad policy issues associated with more efficient, reliable, and affordable electric transmission and distribution use.

  8. Reliability and Safety

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE solar reliability and safety research and development (R&D) focuses on testing photovoltaic (PV) modules, inverters, and systems for long-term performance, and helping investors, consumers,...

  9. DISTRIBUTED ENERGY SYSTEMS IN CALIFORNIA'S FUTURE: A PRELIMINARY REPORT, VOLUME I

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2010-01-01

    DOCU[viENTS SECTION DISTRIBUTED ENERGY SYSTEMS STUDY GROUPIMPLICATIONS OF UTILIZING DISTRIBUTED ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES .to implement a distributed energy future. RECENT TRENDS IN

  10. A Methodology and Tool Support for the Design and Evaluation of Fault Tolerant, Distributed Embedded Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKelvin, Jr., Mark Lee

    2011-01-01

    Complexity of Embedded Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Fault Tolerant Design of Distributed Embedded Systems DesignMethodologies for Embedded Systems . . . . . . . . . . . .

  11. Short-term and long-term reliability studies in the deregulated power systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Yishan

    2006-04-12

    then investigate new ways to improve composite power system adequacy in the long-term. Specifically, we propose to use Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) such as Thyristor Controlled Series Capacitor (TCSC), Static Var Compensator (SVC) and Thyristor...

  12. Verification de proprietes quantitatives et fonctionnelles Analysis and VERification for the Reliability Of Embedded Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Systems) 1 Introduction Term rewriting has shown to be a very powerful tool in contexts where efficient shown to provide a very elegant framework for specifying concurrency models [15] and deduction systems of adding probabilities to high level models of reactive systems has also been explored for models like

  13. A Reliable Web-based System for Hurricane Analysis and Simulation*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Shu-Ching

    -related historical and simulated data. Keywords: System modeling and integration, information fusion, data management] at University of Oklahoma, the Colorado State University's Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) [9 in the literature. However, in most of these existing systems, neither database management nor warehouse techniques

  14. 134 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON RELIABILITY, VOL. 60, NO. 1, MARCH 2011 Exploring Complex Systems Aspects of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dobson, Ian

    , IEEE Abstract--Electric power transmission systems are a key infra- structure, and blackouts, complex system, electric power transmission system, infrastructure, power law, self- organized criticality transmission line joining node to node Maximum power flow through transmission line joining node to node

  15. Automated synthesis of reliable and efficient systems through game theory: a case study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Randour, Mickael

    2012-01-01

    Reactive computer systems bear inherent complexity due to continuous interactions with their environment. While this environment often proves to be uncontrollable, we still want to ensure that critical computer systems will not fail, no matter what they face. Examples are legion: railway traffic, power plants, plane navigation systems, etc. Formal verification of a system may ensure that it satisfies a given specification, but only applies to an already existing model of a system. In this work, we address the problem of synthesis: starting from a specification of the desired behavior, we show how to build a suitable system controller that will enforce this specification. In particular, we discuss recent developments of that approach for systems that must ensure Boolean behaviors (e.g., reachability, liveness) along with quantitative requirements over their execution (e.g., never drop out of fuel, ensure a suitable mean response time). We notably illustrate a powerful, practically useable algorithm for the aut...

  16. Added Value of Reliability to a Microgrid: Simulations of Three California Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marnay, Chris

    2009-01-01

    distributed generation, real options analysis of renewable energyDelivery and Energy Reliability, Renewable and Distributed

  17. Parallel Computing Environments and Methods for Power Distribution System Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning; Taylor, Zachary T.; Chassin, David P.; Guttromson, Ross T.; Studham, Scott S.

    2005-11-10

    The development of cost-effective high-performance parallel computing on multi-processor super computers makes it attractive to port excessively time consuming simulation software from personal computers (PC) to super computes. The power distribution system simulator (PDSS) takes a bottom-up approach and simulates load at appliance level, where detailed thermal models for appliances are used. This approach works well for a small power distribution system consisting of a few thousand appliances. When the number of appliances increases, the simulation uses up the PC memory and its run time increases to a point where the approach is no longer feasible to model a practical large power distribution system. This paper presents an effort made to port a PC-based power distribution system simulator (PDSS) to a 128-processor shared-memory super computer. The paper offers an overview of the parallel computing environment and a description of the modification made to the PDSS model. The performances of the PDSS running on a standalone PC and on the super computer are compared. Future research direction of utilizing parallel computing in the power distribution system simulation is also addressed.

  18. Agent-Based Simulation of Distribution Systems with High Penetration of Photovoltaic Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tesfatsion, Leigh

    1 Agent-Based Simulation of Distribution Systems with High Penetration of Photovoltaic Generation- tems, photovoltaic generation, power distribution, power system economics, smart grids. I. INTRODUCTION study of electric distribution systems with high penetration of photovoltaic (PV) panels within

  19. Fault Current Issues for Market Driven Power Systems with Distributed Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Fault Current Issues for Market Driven Power Systems with Distributed Generation Natthaphob of installing distributed generation (DG) to electric power systems. The proliferation of new generators creates Terms--Distributed / dispersed generation, power distri- bution, power system protection, fault

  20. Combined Heat and Power System Enables 100% Reliability at Leading Medical Campus - Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-03-29

    Case study of Thermal Energy Corporation (TECO) demonstrating a high-efficiency combined heat and power (CHP) system at Texas Medical Center in Houston, Texas

  1. Reliability implications of price responsive demand : a study of New England's power system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitaker, Andrew C. (Andrew Craig)

    2011-01-01

    With restructuring of the traditional, vertically integrated electricity industry come new opportunities for electricity demand to actively participate in electricity markets. Traditional definitions of power system ...

  2. NORTH AMERICAN ELECTRIC RELIABILITY COUNCIL: Preliminary Disturbance...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Report More Documents & Publications North American Electric Reliability Council Power Outage Update North American Electric Reliability Council Outage Announcement Electric System...

  3. Sandia Energy - Continuous Reliability Enhancement for Wind ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Continuous Reliability Enhancement for Wind (CREW): Project Update Home Renewable Energy Energy News Wind Energy News & Events Systems Analysis Continuous Reliability Enhancement...

  4. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Delivery and Energy Reliability, Renewable and DistributedDistributed Energy Resource Characterizations”, National Renewable EnergyDelivery and Energy Reliability’s Renewable and Distributed

  5. Manufacturing R&D for systems that will produce and distribute...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for systems that will produce and distribute hydrogen Manufacturing R&D for systems that will produce and distribute hydrogen Background paper prepared for the 2005 Hydrogen...

  6. Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System (Presentation) Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System (Presentation) Presented at the 2007...

  7. Investigation of techniques to build generation system models for reliability evaluation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gubbala, Nagalakshmi V.

    1994-01-01

    of the Proposed Method 1. Two State Unit 2. Three State Unit . 3. n State Unit B. Results and Discussion 1. Case Studies Using IEEE-RTS 2. Case Studies Using EPRI Synthetic System 3. The System Described in Reference [8] 4. CPU Times for Different Models... Transform 1. Count of Operations 3 7 10 11 12 13 16 16 17 20 24 25 27 30 33 39 39 40 43 44 46 48 50 VJn CHAPTER Page 2. Derivation D. Mathematical Comparison E. System Studies 1. IEEE-RTS 2. EPRI Synthetic 3. Results 4...

  8. Onsite Distributed Generation Systems For Laboratories, Laboratories for the 21st Century: Best Practices (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-09-01

    This guide provides general information on implementing onsite distributed generation systems in laboratory environments. Specific technology applications, general performance information, and cost data are provided to educate and encourage laboratory energy managers to consider onsite power generation or combined heat and power (CHP) systems for their facilities. After conducting an initial screening, energy managers are encouraged to conduct a detailed feasibility study with actual cost and performance data for technologies that look promising. Onsite distributed generation systems are small, modular, decentralized, grid-connected, or off-grid energy systems. These systems are located at or near the place where the energy is used. These systems are also known as distributed energy or distributed power systems. DG technologies are generally considered those that produce less than 20 megawatts (MW) of power. A number of technologies can be applied as effective onsite DG systems, including: (1) Diesel, natural gas, and dual-fuel reciprocating engines; (2) Combustion turbines and steam turbines; (3) Fuel cells; (4) Biomass heating; (5) Biomass combined heat and power; (6) Photovoltaics; and (7) Wind turbines. These systems can provide a number of potential benefits to an individual laboratory facility or campus, including: (1) High-quality, reliable, and potentially dispatchable power; (2) Low-cost energy and long-term utility cost assurance, especially where electricity and/or fuel costs are high; (3) Significantly reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Typical CHP plants reduce onsite GHG by 40 to 60 percent; (4) Peak demand shaving where demand costs are high; (5) CHP where thermal energy can be used in addition to electricity; (6) The ability to meet standby power needs, especially where utility-supplied power is interrupted frequently or for long periods and where standby power is required for safety or emergencies; and (7) Use for standalone or off-grid systems where extending the grid is too expensive or impractical. Because they are installed close to the load, DG systems avoid some of the disadvantages of large, central power plants, such as transmission and distribution losses over long electric lines.

  9. Copyright 2013 IEEE. Reprinted, with permission from: Robust Corrective Topology Control for System Reliability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of generator g. Puc g Real power supplied by generator g at bus n (solution obtained from unit commitment Unit commitment status of generator g. Variables n Voltage angle at node n. dn System demand at bus n

  10. Towards the development of a reliable reconfigurable real-time operating system on FPGAs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Chuan

    2013-11-28

    In the last two decades, Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) have been rapidly developed from simple “glue-logic” to a powerful platform capable of implementing a System on Chip (SoC). Modern FPGAs achieve not only ...

  11. Reliable GPS-Based Timing for Power Systems: A Multi-Layered Multi-Receiver Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gao, Grace Xingxin

    measurement unit (PMU), also known as synchrophasor, is a device capable of measuring power system voltage a victim receiver's reported position, time, or both. In a future scenario where PMU data play

  12. Reliability of torque and temperature feedback for an autonomous glass monitoring system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, Kaitlyn P. (Kaitlyn Patricia)

    2009-01-01

    Automated pipe turners used in glassblowing studios are limited in their application by the duration a blown glass piece can be left unattended. An autonomous monitoring system can increase the usefulness of pipe turners ...

  13. Distributed Frequency Control of Prosumer-Based Electric Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazari, MH; Costello, Z; Feizollahi, MJ; Grijalva, S; Egerstedt, M

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a distributed frequency regulation framework for prosumer-based electric energy systems, where a prosumer (producer-consumer) is defined as an intelligent agentwhich can produce, consume, and/or store electricity. Despite the frequency regulators being distributed, stability can be ensured while avoiding inter-area oscillations using a limited control effort. To achieve this, a fully distributed one-step model-predictive control protocol is proposed and analyzed, whereby each prosumer communicates solely with its neighbors in the network. The efficacy of the proposed frequency regulation framework is shown through simulations on two real-world electric energy systems of different scale and complexity. We show that prosumers can indeed bring frequency and power deviations to their desired values after small perturbations.

  14. System Verification Through Reliability, Availability, Maintainability (RAM) Analysis & Technology Readiness Levels (TRLs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emmanuel Ohene Opare, Jr.; Charles V. Park

    2011-06-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project, managed by the Idaho National Laboratory (INL), is authored by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, to research, develop, design, construct, and operate a prototype fourth generation nuclear reactor to meet the needs of the 21st Century. A section in this document proposes that the NGNP will provide heat for process heat applications. As with all large projects developing and deploying new technologies, the NGNP is expected to meet high performance and availability targets relative to current state of the art systems and technology. One requirement for the NGNP is to provide heat for the generation of hydrogen for large scale productions and this process heat application is required to be at least 90% or more available relative to other technologies currently on the market. To reach this goal, a RAM Roadmap was developed highlighting the actions to be taken to ensure that various milestones in system development and maturation concurrently meet required availability requirements. Integral to the RAM Roadmap was the use of a RAM analytical/simulation tool which was used to estimate the availability of the system when deployed based on current design configuration and the maturation level of the system.

  15. Effect of Intrusion Detection and Response on Reliability of Cyber Physical Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ing-Ray

    within radio range Na b (t) Attacker strength detected at time t in Beta(, ) in Beta(, ) Number of ranging operations per node per TIDS Et Energy for transmission per node Er Energy for reception per node Ea Energy for analyzing data per node Es Energy for sensing per node Eo Initial system energy TIDS

  16. A Distributed Facilities Automation System For IBM Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houle, W. D. Sr.

    1985-01-01

    and to provide the plant oper ator with data to allow more effi cient operations. The most widely used program, General Purpose Automation Executive (GPAX), uses the IBM Series/1 to provide moni toring, optimization, and control for facilities automation... FACILITIES AUTOMATION SYSTEM FOR IBM BUILDINGS Walter D. Houle, Sr. IBM Corporation Atlanta, Georgia INTRODUCTION Automatic building control systems have rapidly evolved from time-based on-off energy management controllers to distributed...

  17. Distributed Power Delivery for Energy Efficient and Low Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedman, Eby G.

    Distributed Power Delivery for Energy Efficient and Low Power Systems Selc¸uk K¨ose Department are needed to determine the location of these on-chip power supplies and decoupling capacitors. In this paper, the optimal location of the power supplies and decoupling capacitors is determined for different size

  18. A system of launchable mesoscale robots for distributed sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Voyles, Richard

    A system of launchable mesoscale robots for distributed sensing Kemal B. Yesina , Bradley J technologies to develop active vision modules for the mesoscale robot. A single chip CMOS video sensor is used- log video signals from the camera. Keywords: launchable, mobile, mesoscale, camera, pan-tilt 1

  19. Accountability in Cloud Computing and Distributed Computer Systems Hongda Xiao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feigenbaum, Joan

    a mechanism for holding cloud-service providers accountable but also an interesting application of secure be applicable to other aspects of data- center and cloud security. #12;Accountability in Cloud ComputingAbstract Accountability in Cloud Computing and Distributed Computer Systems Hongda Xiao 2014

  20. Topic 5: Renewable Power 1Networking and Distributed Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

    in Smart Grid 3 · We are interested in power plants with low carbon footprint: · Both CO2 and CH4 in Smart Grid 5 · Carbon footprint is also defined for power plants: · Conventional coal combustion hasTopic 5: Renewable Power 1Networking and Distributed Systems Department of Electrical & Computer

  1. SELFMONITORING DISTRIBUTED MONITORING SYSTEM FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS (PRELIMINARY VERSION)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SELF­MONITORING DISTRIBUTED MONITORING SYSTEM FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS (PRELIMINARY VERSION) Aldo and identification are extremely important activities for the safety of a nuclear power plant. In particular inside huge and complex production plants. 1 INTRODUCTION Safety in nuclear power plants requires

  2. A Robust Optimization Framework for Analyzing Distribution Systems with Transshipment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaudhuri, Sanjay

    A Robust Optimization Framework for Analyzing Distribution Systems with Transshipment Mabel Chou operations. Mabel Chou NUS Business School National University of Singapore Singapore 117592 Email: bizchoum Email: dscsimm@nus.edu.sg Kut C. So The Paul Merage School of Business University of California Irvine

  3. Application of an Energy Management System to a Distribution Center 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Warnick, T.

    1984-01-01

    such a System in its Dallas Distribution Center. In one year the electric bills were reduced by a total of $17,668.91. Electric consumption (KWH) was reduced by thirty-one percent, electrical demand (KW) was reduced by thirty-six percent while plant...

  4. Power Electronics for Distributed Energy Systems and Transmission and Distribution Applications: Assessing the Technical Needs for Utility Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tolbert, L.M.

    2005-12-21

    Power electronics can provide utilities the ability to more effectively deliver power to their customers while providing increased reliability to the bulk power system. In general, power electronics is the process of using semiconductor switching devices to control and convert electrical power flow from one form to another to meet a specific need. These conversion techniques have revolutionized modern life by streamlining manufacturing processes, increasing product efficiencies, and increasing the quality of life by enhancing many modern conveniences such as computers, and they can help to improve the delivery of reliable power from utilities. This report summarizes the technical challenges associated with utilizing power electronics devices across the entire spectrum from applications to manufacturing and materials development, and it provides recommendations for research and development (R&D) needs for power electronics systems in which the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) could make a substantial impact toward improving the reliability of the bulk power system.

  5. Sample sizes for confidence limits for reliability.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darby, John L.

    2010-02-01

    We recently performed an evaluation of the implications of a reduced stockpile of nuclear weapons for surveillance to support estimates of reliability. We found that one technique developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) under-estimates the required sample size for systems-level testing. For a large population the discrepancy is not important, but for a small population it is important. We found that another technique used by SNL provides the correct required sample size. For systems-level testing of nuclear weapons, samples are selected without replacement, and the hypergeometric probability distribution applies. Both of the SNL techniques focus on samples without defects from sampling without replacement. We generalized the second SNL technique to cases with defects in the sample. We created a computer program in Mathematica to automate the calculation of confidence for reliability. We also evaluated sampling with replacement where the binomial probability distribution applies.

  6. Commercial thermal distribution systems, Final report for CIEE/CEC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Tengfang; Bechu, Olivier; Carrie, Remi; Dickerhoff, Darryl; Fisk, William; Franconi, Ellen; Kristiansen, Oyvind; Levinson, Ronnen; McWilliams, Jennifer; Wang, Duo; Modera, Mark; Webster, Tom; Ring, Erik; Zhang, Qiang; Huizenga, Charlie; Bauman, Fred; Arens, Ed

    1999-12-01

    According to the California Energy Commission (CEC 1998a), California commercial buildings account for 35% of statewide electricity consumption, and 16% of statewide gas consumption. Space conditioning accounts for roughly 16,000 GWh of electricity and 800 million therms of natural gas annually, and the vast majority of this space conditioning energy passes through thermal distribution systems in these buildings. In addition, 8600 GWh per year is consumed by fans and pumps in commercial buildings, most of which is used to move the thermal energy through these systems. Research work at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has been ongoing over the past five years to investigate the energy efficiency of these thermal distribution systems, and to explore possibilities for improving that energy efficiency. Based upon that work, annual savings estimates of 1 kWh/ft{sup 2} for light commercial buildings, and 1-2 kWh/ft{sup 2} in large commercial buildings have been developed for the particular aspects of thermal distribution system performance being addressed by this project. Those savings estimates, combined with a distribution of the building stock based upon an extensive stock characterization study (Modera et al. 1999a), and technical penetration estimates, translate into statewide saving potentials of 2000 GWh/year and 75 million thermal/year, as well as an electricity peak reduction potential of 0.7 GW. The overall goal of this research program is to provide new technology and application knowledge that will allow the design, construction, and energy services industries to reduce the energy waste associated with thermal distribution systems in California commercial buildings. The specific goals of the LBNL efforts over the past year were: (1) to advance the state of knowledge about system performance and energy losses in commercial-building thermal distribution systems; (2) to evaluate the potential of reducing thermal losses through duct sealing, duct insulation, and improved equipment sizing; and (3) to develop and evaluate innovative techniques applicable to large buildings for sealing ducts and encapsulating internal duct insulation. In the UCB fan project, the goals were: (1) to develop a protocol for testing, analyzing and diagnosing problems in large commercial building built-up air handling systems, and (2) to develop low-cost measurement techniques to improve short term monitoring practices. To meet our stated goals and objectives, this project: (1) continued to investigate and characterize the performance of thermal distribution systems in commercial buildings; (2) performed energy analyses and evaluation for duct-performance improvements for both small and large commercial buildings; (3) developed aerosol injection technologies for both duct sealing and liner encapsulation in commercial buildings; and (4) designed energy-related diagnostic protocols based on short term measurement and used a benchmarking database to compare subject systems with other measured systems for certain performance metrics. This year's efforts consisted of the following distinct tasks: performing characterization measurements for five light commercial building systems and five large-commercial-building systems; analyzing the potential for including duct performance in California's Energy Efficiency Standards for Residential and Non-Residential Buildings (Title 24), including performing energy and equipment sizing analyses of air distribution systems using DOE 2.1E for non-residential buildings; conducting laboratory experiments, field experiments, and modeling of new aerosol injection technologies concepts for sealing and coating, including field testing aerosol-based sealing in two large commercial buildings; improving low-cost fan monitoring techniques measurements, and disseminating fan tools by working with energy practitioners directly where possible and publishing the results of this research and the tools developed on a web-site. The final report consists of five sections listed below. Each section includes its related

  7. IMPROVEMENT TO PIPELINE COMPRESSOR ENGINE RELIABILITY THROUGH RETROFIT MICRO-PILOT IGNITION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ted Bestor

    2004-06-01

    This report documents the second year's effort towards a 3-year program to develop micropilot ignition systems for existing pipeline compressor engines. In essence, all Phase II goals and objectives were met. We intend to proceed with the Phase III research plan, as set forth by the applicable Research Management Plan. The objective for Phase II was to further develop and optimize the micropilot ignition system for large bore, slow speed engines operating at low compression ratios. The primary elements of Micropilot Phase II were to evaluate the results for the 4-cylinder system prototype developed for Phase I, then optimize this system to demonstrate the technology's readiness for the field demonstration phase. In all, there were twelve (12) tasks defined and executed to support objectives in a stepwise fashion. Task-specific approaches and results are documented in this report. Research activities for Micropilot Phase II were conducted with the understanding that the efforts are expected to result in a commercial product to capture and disseminate the efficiency and environmental benefits of this new technology. Commercially-available fuel injection products were identified and applied to the program where appropriate. Modifications to existing engine components were kept to a minimum. This approach will minimize the overall time-to-market requirements, while meeting performance and cost criteria. The optimized four-cylinder system data demonstrated significant progress compared to Phase I results, as well as traditional spark ignition systems. An extensive testing program at the EECL using the GMV-4 test engine demonstrated that: (1) In general, the engine operated more stable fewer misfires and partial combustion events when using the 3-hole injectors compared to the 5-hole injectors used in Phase I. (2) The engine had, in general, a wider range of operation with the 3-hole injectors. Minimum operational boost levels were approximately 5''Hg lower and the minimum pilot quantity that the engine would operate on was roughly cut in half. (3) A successful concept demonstration of engine lube oil pilot injection was performed where the minimum operational boost was reduced by another 5''Hg to a boost level of 3''Hg; this is, depending on altitude, in the range of boost levels of many blower and piston scavenged low BMEP engines. (4) Micropilot ignition compares very favorably to other ignitions systems. The performance of micropilot ignition with mechanical gas admission valves is very similar to the performance of precombustion chamber ignition with high pressure fuel injection. Compared to spark ignition with mechanical gas admission valves the lean limit of operation is extended by about 5''Hg. These laboratory results will be enhanced, demonstrated and commercialized by others, with management and support from CSU, during Phase III of the Micropilot Ignition program.

  8. Horizontal Class Fragmentation For Advanced Object Models in a Distributed Object Based System \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ezeife, Christie

    Horizontal Class Fragmentation For Advanced Object Models in a Distributed Object Based System application performance on a Distributed Object Based System (DOBS) requires class fragmentation and vertical fragmentation of relations exist, but fragmentation techniques for class objects in a distributed

  9. Distributed Energy Systems in California's Future: A Preliminary Report Volume 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balderston, F.

    2010-01-01

    OF UTILIZING DISTRIBUTED ENERGY TECHNOLOGIES . . . . . . .DISTRIBUTED ENERGY SYSTEMS I~N CALIF RNIA/S FUTURE: UU-6831Ur'l1E:i\\i-fS SECTION DISTRIBUTED ENERGY SYSTEMS STUDY GROUP

  10. Optimal Combination of Distributed Energy System in an Eco-Campus of Japan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Yongwen; Gao, Weijun; Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris

    2006-01-01

    Optimal Combination of Distributed Energy System in an Eco-and Renewable Energy, Distributed Energy Program of the U.S.OPTIMAL COMBINATION OF DISTRIBUTED ENERGY SYSTEM IN AN ECO-

  11. Sandia Energy - Inverter Reliability Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    lifetime cost must decrease for photovoltaics to be financially viable. Currently the cost and reliability of PV modules is improving faster than the rest of the system. One...

  12. Internal electrolyte supply system for reliable transport throughout fuel cell stacks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, Maynard K. (Bethel Park, PA); Downs, Robert E. (Monroeville, PA); King, Robert B. (Westlake, OH)

    1988-01-01

    An improved internal electrolyte supply system in a fuel cell stack employs a variety of arrangements of grooves and passages in bipolar plates of the multiplicity of repeating fuel cells to route gravity-assisted flowing electrolyte throughout the stack. The grooves route electrolyte flow along series of first paths which extend horizontally through the cells between the plates thereof. The passages route electrolyte flow along series of second paths which extend vertically through the stack so as to supply electrolyte to the first paths in order to expose the electrolyte to the matrices of the cells. Five different embodiments of the supply system are disclosed. Some embodiments employ wicks in the grooves for facilitating transfer of the electrolyte to the matrices as well as providing support for the matrices. Additionally, the passages of some embodiments by-pass certain of the grooves and supply electrolyte directly to other of the grooves. Some embodiments employ single grooves and others have dual grooves. Finally, in some embodiments the passages are connected to the grooves by a step which produces a cascading electrolyte flow.

  13. Foundational Report Series: Advanced Distribution Management Systems for Grid Modernization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jianhui

    2015-09-01

    This report describes the application functions for distribution management systems (DMS). The application functions are those surveyed by the IEEE Power and Energy Society’s Task Force on Distribution Management Systems. The description of each DMS application includes functional requirements and the key features and characteristics in current and future deployments, as well as a summary of the major benefits provided by each function to stakeholders — from customers to shareholders. Due consideration is paid to the fact that the realizable benefits of each function may differ by type of utility, whether investor-owned, cooperative, or municipal. This report is sufficient to define the functional requirements of each application for system procurement (request-for-proposal [RFP]) purposes and for developing preliminary high-level use cases for those functions. However, it should not be considered a design document that will enable a vendor or software developer to design and build actual DMS applications.

  14. The Fermilab CMTF cryogenic distribution remote control system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pei, L.; Theilacker, J.; Klebaner, A.; Martinez, A.; Bossert, R.

    2014-01-29

    The Cryomodule Test Facility (CMTF) is able to provide the necessary test bed for measuring the performance of Superconducting Radio Frequency (SRF) cavities in a cryomodule (CM). The CMTF have seven 300 KW screw compressors, two liquid helium refrigerators, and two Cryomodule Test Stands (CMTS). CMTS1 is designed for 1.3 GHz cryomodule operating in a pulsed mode (PM) and CMTS2 is for cryomodule operating in Half-Wave (HW) and Continuous Wave (CW) mode. Based on the design requirement, each subsystem has to be far away from each other and be placed in distant locations. Therefore choosing Siemens Process Control System 7-400, DL205 PLC, Synoptic and Fermilab ACNET are the ideal choices for CMTF cryogenic distribution real-time remote control system. This paper presents a method which has been successfully used by many Fermilab distribution cryogenic real-time remote control systems.

  15. Econophysical Dynamics of Market-Based Electric Power Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolas Ho; David P. Chassin

    2006-02-09

    As energy markets begin clearing at sub-hourly rates, their interaction with load control systems becomes a potentially important consideration. A simple model for the control of thermal systems using market-based power distribution strategies is proposed, with particular attention to the behavior and dynamics of electric building loads and distribution-level power markets. Observations of dynamic behavior of simple numerical model are compared to that of an aggregate continuous model. The analytic solution of the continuous model suggests important deficiencies in each. The continuous model provides very valuable insights into how one might design such load control system and design the power markets they interact with. We also highlight important shortcomings of the continuous model which we believe must be addressed using discrete models.

  16. DistributedAutomata and Simple Test Tube Systems A Project Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harsha, Prahladh

    Distributed­Automata and Simple Test Tube Systems A Project Report Submitted in partial fulfillment

  17. Transmission Pricing of Distributed Multilateral Energy Transactions to Ensure System Security and Guide Economic Dispatch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ilic, Marija; Hsieh, Eric; Remanan, Prasad

    2004-06-16

    Transmission Pricing of Distributed Multilateral Energy Transactions to Ensure System Security and Guide Economic Dispatch...

  18. Hybrid Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems for Highly Reliable and Selective Characterization of Tank Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Datskos, Panos G.; Sepaniak, Michael J.

    2004-06-01

    Our multifaceted research program is aimed at the fundamental and practical development of hybrid micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) that integrates several elements of chemical selectivity and sensor function. We are developing MEMS sensors that combine chemimechanical transduction, and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) and radiation detection. One of our goals is to develop highly effective methods of immobilizing a wide variety of molecular and ionic recognition phases onto micromechanical surfaces. We have introduced fundamentally new modes of adsorbate-induced surface stress through nano-structuring of microcantilever surfaces; the responsivity for has increased by over two-orders of magnitude over previously existing technological approaches. Noble metal nanostructures similar to those that enhance chemi-mechanical transduction exhibit substantial Raman enhancement factors.

  19. IMPROVEMENT TO PIPELINE COMPRESSOR ENGINE RELIABILITY THROUGH RETROFIT MICRO-PILOT IGNITION SYSTEM-PHASE I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ted Bestor

    2003-03-04

    This report documents the first year's effort towards a 3-year program to develop micropilot ignition systems for existing pipeline compressor engines. In essence, all Phase I goals and objectives were met. We intend to proceed with the Phase II research plan, as set forth by the applicable Research Management Plan. The objective for Phase I was to demonstrate the feasibility of micropilot ignition for large bore, slow speed engines operating at low compression ratios. The primary elements of Micropilot Phase I were to develop a single-cylinder test chamber to study the injection of pilot fuel into a combustion cylinder and to develop, install and test a multi-cylinder micropilot ignition system for a 4-cylinder, natural gas test engine. In all, there were twelve (12) tasks defined and executed to support these two (2) primarily elements in a stepwise fashion. Task-specific approaches and results are documented in this report. Research activities for Micropilot Phase I were conducted with the understanding that the efforts are expected to result in a commercial product to capture and disseminate the efficiency and environmental benefits of this new technology. An extensive state-of-art review was conducted to leverage the existing body of knowledge of micropilot ignition with respect to retrofit applications. Additionally, commercially-available fuel injection products were identified and applied to the program where appropriate. This approach will minimize the overall time-to-market requirements, while meeting performance and cost criteria. The four-cylinder prototype data was encouraging for the micro-pilot ignition technology when compared to spark ignition. Initial testing results showed: (1) Brake specific fuel consumption of natural gas was improved from standard spark ignition across the map, 1% at full load and 5% at 70% load. (2) 0% misfires for all points on micropilot ignition. Fuel savings were most likely due to this percent misfire improvement. (3) THC (Total Hydrocarbon) emissions were improved significantly at light load, 38% at 70% load. (4) VOC (Volatile Organic Compounds) emissions were improved above 80% load. (5) Coefficient of Variance for the IMEP (Indicated Mean Effective Pressure) was significantly less at lower loads, 76% less at 70%. These preliminary results will be substantiated and enhanced during Phase II of the Micropilot Ignition program.

  20. The Chain-Length Distribution in Subcritical Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Douglas Nolen

    2000-06-01

    The individual fission chains that appear in any neutron multiplying system provide a means, via neutron noise analysis, to unlock a wealth of information regarding the nature of the system. This work begins by determining the probability density distributions for fission chain lengths in zero-dimensional systems over a range of prompt neutron multiplication constant (K) values. This section is followed by showing how the integral representation of the chain-length distribution can be used to obtain an estimate of the system's subcritical prompt multiplication (MP). The lifetime of the chains is then used to provide a basis for determining whether a neutron noise analysis will be successful in assessing the neutron multiplication constant, k, of the system in the presence of a strong intrinsic source. A Monte Carlo transport code, MC++, is used to model the evolution of the individual fission chains and to determine how they are influenced by spatial effects. The dissertation concludes by demonstrating how experimental validation of certain global system parameters by neutron noise analysis may be precluded in situations in which the system K is relatively low and in which realistic detector efficiencies are simulated.

  1. Parallel Breadth-First Search on Distributed Memory Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Computational Research Division; Buluc, Aydin; Madduri, Kamesh

    2011-04-15

    Data-intensive, graph-based computations are pervasive in several scientific applications, and are known to to be quite challenging to implement on distributed memory systems. In this work, we explore the design space of parallel algorithms for Breadth-First Search (BFS), a key subroutine in several graph algorithms. We present two highly-tuned par- allel approaches for BFS on large parallel systems: a level-synchronous strategy that relies on a simple vertex-based partitioning of the graph, and a two-dimensional sparse matrix- partitioning-based approach that mitigates parallel commu- nication overhead. For both approaches, we also present hybrid versions with intra-node multithreading. Our novel hybrid two-dimensional algorithm reduces communication times by up to a factor of 3.5, relative to a common vertex based approach. Our experimental study identifies execu- tion regimes in which these approaches will be competitive, and we demonstrate extremely high performance on lead- ing distributed-memory parallel systems. For instance, for a 40,000-core parallel execution on Hopper, an AMD Magny- Cours based system, we achieve a BFS performance rate of 17.8 billion edge visits per second on an undirected graph of 4.3 billion vertices and 68.7 billion edges with skewed degree distribution.

  2. SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL HYBRID SYSTEM FOR DISTRIBUTED POWER GENERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurt Montgomery; Nguyen Minh

    2003-08-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by Honeywell during the October 2001 to December 2001 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a turbogenerator. The conceptual and demonstration system designs were proposed and analyzed, and these systems have been modeled in Aspen Plus. Work has also started on the assembly of dynamic component models and the development of the top-level controls requirements for the system. SOFC stacks have been fabricated and performance mapping initiated.

  3. Compiling software for a hierarchical distributed processing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E

    2013-12-31

    Compiling software for a hierarchical distributed processing system including providing to one or more compiling nodes software to be compiled, wherein at least a portion of the software to be compiled is to be executed by one or more nodes; compiling, by the compiling node, the software; maintaining, by the compiling node, any compiled software to be executed on the compiling node; selecting, by the compiling node, one or more nodes in a next tier of the hierarchy of the distributed processing system in dependence upon whether any compiled software is for the selected node or the selected node's descendents; sending to the selected node only the compiled software to be executed by the selected node or selected node's descendent.

  4. Greening the Networks of Large-Scale Distributed Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lefčvre, Laurent

    -tier fat-tree architecture Energy savings of Green compared to No off : - 73% for a 20% workload - 68Greening the Networks of Large-Scale Distributed Systems ENS de Lyon ­ INRIA RESO ­ UCBL ­ LIP://perso.ens-lyon.fr/annececile.orgerie/networks.html HERMES : High-level Energy-awaRe Model for bandwidth reservation in End-to-end NetworkS · Unused network

  5. Feasibility Study: Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems with Fan Coil Delivery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; Backman, C.

    2012-07-01

    The primary objectives of this study are to estimate potential energy savings relative to conventional ducted air distribution, and to identify equipment requirements, costs, and barriers with a focus on ductless hydronic delivery systems that utilize water-to-air terminal units in each zone. Results indicate that annual heating and cooling energy use can be reduced by up to 27% assuming replacement of the conventional 13 SEER heat pump and coil with a similarly rated air-to-water heat pump.

  6. Multi-State Load Models for Distribution System Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Fuller, Jason C.; Chassin, David P.

    2011-11-01

    Recent work in the field of distribution system analysis has shown that the traditional method of peak load analysis is not adequate for the analysis of emerging distribution system technologies. Voltage optimization, demand response, electric vehicle charging, and energy storage are examples of technologies with characteristics having daily, seasonal, and/or annual variations. In addition to the seasonal variations, emerging technologies such as demand response and plug in electric vehicle charging have the potential to send control signals to the end use loads which will affect how they consume energy. In order to support time-series analysis over different time frames and to incorporate potential control signal inputs it is necessary to develop detailed end use load models which accurately represent the load under various conditions, and not just during the peak load period. This paper will build on previous work on detail end use load modeling in order to outline the method of general multi-state load models for distribution system analysis.

  7. Effect of Heat and Electricity Storage and Reliability on Microgrid Viability: A Study of Commercial Buildings in California and New York States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadler, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Distributed Energy Resource Characterizations”, National Renewable EnergyDelivery and Energy Reliability’s Renewable and Distributed

  8. Subsystem Interaction Analysis in Power Distribution Systems of Next Generation Airlifters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lindner, Douglas K.

    tolerant, autonomously controlled electrical power system to deliver high quality power from the sources electronics, fault tolerant electrical power distribution systems and electrically driven primary flight1 Subsystem Interaction Analysis in Power Distribution Systems of Next Generation Airlifters Sriram

  9. Embedded Sensors and Controls to Improve Component Performance and Reliability - System Dynamics Modeling and Control System Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melin, Alexander M.; Kisner, Roger A.; Fugate, David L.

    2013-10-01

    This report documents the current status of the modeling, control design, and embedded control research for the magnetic bearing canned rotor pump being used as a demonstration platform for deeply integrating instrumentation and controls (I{\\&}C) into nuclear power plant components. This pump is a highly inter-connected thermo/electro/mechanical system that requires an active control system to operate. Magnetic bearings are inherently unstable system and without active, moment by moment control, the rotor would contact fixed surfaces in the pump causing physical damage. This report details the modeling of the pump rotordynamics, fluid forces, electromagnetic properties of the protective cans, active magnetic bearings, power electronics, and interactions between different dynamical models. The system stability of the unforced and controlled rotor are investigated analytically. Additionally, controllers are designed using proportional derivative (PD) control, proportional integral derivative (PID) control, voltage control, and linear quadratic regulator (LQR) control. Finally, a design optimization problem that joins the electrical, mechanical, magnetic, and control system design into one problem to balance the opposing needs of various design criteria using the embedded system approach is presented.

  10. Modeling of Thermal Storage Systems in MILP Distributed Energy Resource Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steen, David

    2014-01-01

    in latent heat energy storage systems: A review," Renewableof thermal energy storage systems," International Journal ofModeling of Thermal Storage Systems in MILP Distributed

  11. Untappable key distribution system: a one-time-pad booster

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geraldo A. Barbosa; Jeroen van de Graaf

    2015-07-08

    One-time-pad (OTP) encryption simply cannot be cracked, even by a quantum computer. The need of sharing in a secure way supplies of symmetric random keys turned the method almost obsolete as a standing-alone method for fast and large volume telecommunication. Basically, this secure sharing of keys and their renewal, once exhausted, had to be done through couriers, in a slow and costly process. This paper presents a solution for this problem providing a fast and unlimited renewal of secure keys: An untappable key distribution system is presented and detailed. This fast key distribution system utilizes two layers of confidentially protection: 1) Physical noise intrinsic to the optical channel that turn the coded signals into stealth signals and 2) Privacy amplification using a bit pool of refreshed entropy run after run, to eliminate any residual information. The resulting level of security is rigorously calculated and demonstrates that the level of information an eavesdropper could obtain is completely negligible. The random bit sequences, fast and securely distributed, can be used to encrypt text, data or voice.

  12. Acceleration of dormant storage effects to address the reliability of silicon surface micromachined Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cox, James V.; Candelaria, Sam A.; Dugger, Michael Thomas; Duesterhaus, Michelle Ann; Tanner, Danelle Mary; Timpe, Shannon J.; Ohlhausen, James Anthony; Skousen, Troy J.; Jenkins, Mark W.; Jokiel, Bernhard, Jr.; Walraven, Jeremy Allen; Parson, Ted Blair

    2006-06-01

    Qualification of microsystems for weapon applications is critically dependent on our ability to build confidence in their performance, by predicting the evolution of their behavior over time in the stockpile. The objective of this work was to accelerate aging mechanisms operative in surface micromachined silicon microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) with contacting surfaces that are stored for many years prior to use, to determine the effects of aging on reliability, and relate those effects to changes in the behavior of interfaces. Hence the main focus was on 'dormant' storage effects on the reliability of devices having mechanical contacts, the first time they must move. A large number ({approx}1000) of modules containing prototype devices and diagnostic structures were packaged using the best available processes for simple electromechanical devices. The packaging processes evolved during the project to better protect surfaces from exposure to contaminants and water vapor. Packages were subjected to accelerated aging and stress tests to explore dormancy and operational environment effects on reliability and performance. Functional tests and quantitative measurements of adhesion and friction demonstrated that the main failure mechanism during dormant storage is change in adhesion and friction, precipitated by loss of the fluorinated monolayer applied after fabrication. The data indicate that damage to the monolayer can occur at water vapor concentrations as low as 500 ppm inside the package. The most common type of failure was attributed to surfaces that were in direct contact during aging. The application of quantitative methods for monolayer lubricant analysis showed that even though the coverage of vapor-deposited monolayers is generally very uniform, even on hidden surfaces, locations of intimate contact can be significantly depleted in initial concentration of lubricating molecules. These areas represent defects in the film prone to adsorption of water or contaminants that can cause movable structures to adhere. These analysis methods also indicated significant variability in the coverage of lubricating molecules from one coating process to another, even for identical processing conditions. The variability was due to residual molecules left in the deposition chamber after incomplete cleaning. The coating process was modified to result in improved uniformity and total coverage. Still, a direct correlation was found between the resulting static friction behavior of MEMS interfaces, and the absolute monolayer coverage. While experimental results indicated that many devices would fail to start after aging, the modeling approach used here predicted that all the devices should start. Adhesion modeling based upon values of adhesion energy from cantilever beams is therefore inadequate. Material deposition that bridged gaps was observed in some devices, and potentially inhibits start-up more than the adhesion model indicates. Advances were made in our ability to model MEMS devices, but additional combined experimental-modeling studies will be needed to advance the work to a point of providing predictive capability. The methodology developed here should prove useful in future assessments of device aging, however. Namely, it consisted of measuring interface properties, determining how they change with time, developing a model of device behavior incorporating interface behavior, and then using the age-aware interface behavior model to predict device function.

  13. A new approach to power quality and electricity reliability monitoring-case study illustrations of the capabilities of the I-GridTM system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Divan, Deepak; Brumsickle, William; Eto, Joseph

    2003-04-01

    This report describes a new approach for collecting information on power quality and reliability and making it available in the public domain. Making this information readily available in a form that is meaningful to electricity consumers is necessary for enabling more informed private and public decisions regarding electricity reliability. The system dramatically reduces the cost (and expertise) needed for customers to obtain information on the most significant power quality events, called voltage sags and interruptions. The system also offers widespread access to information on power quality collected from multiple sites and the potential for capturing information on the impacts of power quality problems, together enabling a wide variety of analysis and benchmarking to improve system reliability. Six case studies demonstrate selected functionality and capabilities of the system, including: Linking measured power quality events to process interruption and downtime; Demonstrating the ability to correlate events recorded by multiple monitors to narrow and confirm the causes of power quality events; and Benchmarking power quality and reliability on a firm and regional basis.

  14. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Deangelis; Rich Depuy; Debashis Dey; Georgia Karvountzi; Nguyen Minh; Max Peter; Faress Rahman; Pavel Sokolov; Deliang Yang

    2004-09-30

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the April to October 2004 reporting period in Task 2.3 (SOFC Scaleup for Hybrid and Fuel Cell Systems) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems for central power generation application based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by natural gas. The main objective of this task is to develop credible scale up strategies for large solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine systems. System concepts that integrate a SOFC with a gas turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 20 MW. A 25 MW plant configuration was selected with projected system efficiency of over 65% and a factory cost of under $400/kW. The plant design is modular and can be scaled to both higher and lower plant power ratings. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  15. Abstract--The distribution system provides major opportunities for smart grid concepts. One way to approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    systems, fuel cells and AC storage have an inverter to interface with the electrical distribution system the distribution system down into small clusters or microgrids, with distributed optimizing controls coordinating technologies, such as internal combustion (IC) engines, gas turbines, microturbines, photovoltaic systems, fuel

  16. Design and Evaluation of an Online Anomaly Detector for Distributed Storage Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Xubin "Ben"

    Design and Evaluation of an Online Anomaly Detector for Distributed Storage Systems Xin Chen1, and storage devices, are difficult to diagnose and isolate in distributed storage systems. In this paper, we and accurately identify the faulty sources in a system node of a distributed storage system. Our method exploits

  17. AMP: An Affinity-based Metadata Prefetching Scheme in Large-Scale Distributed Storage Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Yifeng

    1 AMP: An Affinity-based Metadata Prefetching Scheme in Large-Scale Distributed Storage Systems Lin significantly reduce access latency for I/O systems. In distributed storage systems, prefetching for metadata Prefetching (AMP) scheme is proposed for metadata servers in large-scale distributed storage systems

  18. CERTS: Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions - Research Highlights

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eto, Joseph

    2003-07-30

    Historically, the U.S. electric power industry was vertically integrated, and utilities were responsible for system planning, operations, and reliability management. As the nation moves to a competitive market structure, these functions have been disaggregated, and no single entity is responsible for reliability management. As a result, new tools, technologies, systems, and management processes are needed to manage the reliability of the electricity grid. However, a number of simultaneous trends prevent electricity market participants from pursuing development of these reliability tools: utilities are preoccupied with restructuring their businesses, research funding has declined, and the formation of Independent System Operators (ISOs) and Regional Transmission Organizations (RTOs) to operate the grid means that control of transmission assets is separate from ownership of these assets; at the same time, business uncertainty, and changing regulatory policies have created a climate in which needed investment for transmission infrastructure and tools for reliability management has dried up. To address the resulting emerging gaps in reliability R&D, CERTS has undertaken much-needed public interest research on reliability technologies for the electricity grid. CERTS' vision is to: (1) Transform the electricity grid into an intelligent network that can sense and respond automatically to changing flows of power and emerging problems; (2) Enhance reliability management through market mechanisms, including transparency of real-time information on the status of the grid; (3) Empower customers to manage their energy use and reliability needs in response to real-time market price signals; and (4) Seamlessly integrate distributed technologies--including those for generation, storage, controls, and communications--to support the reliability needs of both the grid and individual customers.

  19. Fermilab Muon Campus g-2 Cryogenic Distribution Remote Control System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pei, L; Klebaner, A; Soyars, W; Bossert, R

    2015-01-01

    The Muon Campus (MC) is able to measure Muon g-2 with high precision and comparing its value to the theoretical prediction. The MC has four 300 KW screw compressors and four liquid helium refrigerators. The centerpiece of the Muon g-2 experiment at Fermilab is a large, 50-foot-diameter superconducting muon storage ring. This one-of-a-kind ring, made of steel, aluminum and superconducting wire, was built for the previous g-2 experiment at Brookhaven. Due to each subsystem has to be far away from each other and be placed in the distant location, therefore, Siemens Process Control System PCS7-400, Automation Direct DL205 & DL05 PLC, Synoptic and Fermilab ACNET HMI are the ideal choices as the MC g-2 cryogenic distribution real-time and on-Line remote control system. This paper presents a method which has been successfully used by many Fermilab distribution cryogenic real-time and On-Line remote control systems.

  20. Photovoltaic module reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mrig, L. (ed.)

    1990-01-01

    The paper and presentations compiled in this volume form the Proceedings of the fourth in a series of Workshops sponsored by Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI/DOE) under the general theme of photovoltaic module reliability during the period 1986--1990. The reliability Photo Voltaic (PV) modules/systems is exceedingly important along with the initial cost and efficiency of modules if the PV technology has to make a major impact in the power generation market, and for it to compete with the conventional electricity producing technologies. The reliability of photovoltaic modules has progressed significantly in the last few years as evidenced by warranties available on commercial modules of as long as 12 years. However, there is still need for substantial research and testing required to improve module field reliability to levels of 30 years or more. Several small groups of researchers are involved in this research, development, and monitoring activity around the world. In the US, PV manufacturers, DOE laboratories, electric utilities and others are engaged in the photovoltaic reliability research and testing. This group of researchers and others interested in this field were brought together under SERI/DOE sponsorship to exchange the technical knowledge and field experience as related to current information in this important field. The papers presented here reflect this effort.

  1. Alternative Export - Wheat Distribution Systems for the Texas - Oklahoma Panhandle. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuller, Stephen W.; Shanmugham C.V.

    1980-01-01

    to be the most efficient of the export-wheat bility and potential cost savings of operating wheat- distribution systems. For the six-county area, this carrying unit trains between a six-county area in the would annually generate marketing-systemsavings Texas-Oklahoma... is a major source of income for U.S. and South Plains grain producers. Historically, wheat has ranked as one of the most valuable crops in Texas and Oklahoma, states that are major producers of the annual Hard Red Winter wheat national output...

  2. Robust control strategy for PV system integration in distribution systems M.J. Hossain a,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    Robust control strategy for PV system integration in distribution systems M.J. Hossain a, , T t s " Robust control provides flexible photovoltaic (PV) accommodations. " A robust PV control can significantly enhance the penetration level. " The change in volatile PV generations is considered

  3. Enabling Broad Adoption of Distributed PV-storage systems Via Supervisory Planning & Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeForest, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    impact of wide-spread PV adoption for utilities, by creatingEnabling broad adoption of distributed PV-storage systemsEnabling broad adoption of distributed PV-storage systems

  4. Aerogel-Based Insulation for Industrial Steam Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Williams

    2011-03-30

    Thermal losses in industrial steam distribution systems account for 977 trillion Btu/year in the US, more than 1% of total domestic energy consumption. Aspen Aerogels worked with Department of Energy’s Industrial Technologies Program to specify, develop, scale-up, demonstrate, and deliver Pyrogel XT®, an aerogel-based pipe insulation, to market to reduce energy losses in industrial steam systems. The product developed has become Aspen’s best selling flexible aerogel blanket insulation and has led to over 60 new jobs. Additionally, this product has delivered more than ~0.7 TBTU of domestic energy savings to date, and could produce annual energy savings of 149 TBTU by 2030. Pyrogel XT’s commercial success has been driven by it’s 2-4X better thermal performance, improved durability, greater resistance to corrosion under insulation (CUI), and faster installation times than incumbent insulation materials.

  5. Numerical Analysis of a Cold Air Distribution System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, L.; Li, R.; Yuan, D.

    2006-01-01

    non-uniform so that residents usually feel uncomfortable. The distribution of indoor airflow by cold air distribution is researched in this paper. We study indoor air distribution under different low temperature air supply conditions by numerical...

  6. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01

    Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power Systemfor Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Powerof solar combined heat and power systems . . . . . . .

  7. Underfloor air distribution systems: Benefits and when to use the system in building design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarry, B.T. [Keen Engineering Co., Ltd., Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Underfloor air distribution systems are a viable option for mechanical system building design. They are comprised of raised floor panels with a supply air plenum in the void between the raised floor and the concrete structure. Supply air grilles are flush mounted to the floor to create a flat floor and walking surface. The engineering challenge is to determine when to use underfloor air distribution systems and how to effectively apply them. The best places to use this system are in owner-occupied buildings with a high churn rate and/or frequent technology changes. The benefits of this system include fresh air at the level where building occupants are located, forgiveness for variations in internal cooling loads, easy relocation of the supply air grilles to suit revised layouts, a reduction in energy costs for the mechanical system, and an improvement in indoor air quality.

  8. Implementaion and performance of checkpointing schemes in a distributed environment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soni, Sameer

    1994-01-01

    The use of distributed systems has become increasingly popular due to increased computing power, reliability, availability, and efficiency in processing. Checkpointing and rollback recovery is a well known technique used to restore a system from...

  9. Some characteristics of emerging distribution systems considering the smart grid initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Hilary E.; Suryanarayanan, Siddharth; Heydt, Gerald T.

    2010-06-15

    Modernization of the electric power system in the United States is driven by the Smart Grid Initiative. Many changes are planned in the coming years to the distribution side of the U.S. electricity delivery infrastructure to embody the idea of ''smart distribution systems.'' However, no functional or technical definition of a smart distribution system has yet been accepted by all. (author)

  10. Mobile Sensor Networks for Leak and Backflow Detection in Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shihada, Basem

    Mobile Sensor Networks for Leak and Backflow Detection in Water Distribution Systems M. Agumbe detection are essential aspects of Water Distribution System (WDS) monitoring. Most existing solutions for leak detection in water distribution systems focus on the placement of expensive static sensors located

  11. An Extensible Framework for Annotation-based Parameter Passing in Distributed Object Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryder, Barbara G.

    An Extensible Framework for Annotation-based Parameter Passing in Distributed Object Systems Sriram Programming Copyright 2008, Sriram Gopal #12;An Extensible Framework for Annotation-based Parameter Passing in Distributed Object Systems Sriram Gopal (ABSTRACT) Modern distributed object systems pass remote parameters

  12. Aalborg Universitet Agent-based distributed hierarchical control of dc microgrid systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    Aalborg Universitet Agent-based distributed hierarchical control of dc microgrid systems Meng, J. M., & Dragicevic, T. (2014). Agent-based distributed hierarchical control of dc microgrid systems-BASED DISTRIBUTED HIERARCHICAL CONTROL OF DC MICROGRID SYSTEMS Lexuan Meng, Tomislav Dragicevic, Josep M. Guerrero

  13. The SAL Interpreter for Large-Scale Optimization in Distributed Control Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey-Kellogg, Chris

    The SAL Interpreter for Large-Scale Optimization in Distributed Control Systems Christopher Bailey sensor-rich control systems interact with spa- tially distributed physical environments. This paper interpretation and control tasks for distributed physical systems. SAL provides a set of powerful, abstract com

  14. PADS: A Policy Architecture for Distributed Storage Systems Nalini Belaramani, Jiandan Zheng, Amol Nayate, Robert Soule,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grimm, Robert

    PADS: A Policy Architecture for Distributed Storage Systems Nalini Belaramani, Jiandan Zheng§, Amol for build- ing distributed storage systems. A policy architecture has two aspects. First, a common set for how policies, them- selves, should be specified. In the case of distributed storage systems, PADS

  15. Aalborg Universitet Energy Management System with Equalization Algorithm for Distributed Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    Aalborg Universitet Energy Management System with Equalization Algorithm for Distributed Energy for Distributed Energy Storage Systems in PV-Active Generator Based Low Voltage DC Microgrids. In IEEE ICDCM 2015 for Distributed Energy Storage Systems in PV-Active Generator Based Low Voltage DC Microgrids Nelson L. D

  16. The Echo Distributed File System Andrew D. Birrell, Andy Hisgen, Chuck Jerian,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chin, Shiu-Kai

    . All rights reserved. #12;The Echo Distributed File System · 1 WHAT AND WHY? One of the holy grails systems with the virtues of distributed and personal computer systems. This grail is all the harder to capture the file system portion of this grail. We thought of the Echo file system as a crucial first piece

  17. Adaptive Techniques for Minimizing Middleware Memory Footprint for Distributed, Real-Time, Embedded Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panahi, Mark; Harmon, Trevor; Klefstad, Raymond

    2003-01-01

    Compilers and Tools for Embedded Systems, pp. 38-45, 2002.Keywords-distributed systems; embedded systems; real-timereal-time, and embedded systems, it should provide a full

  18. A DISTRIBUTED INTELLIGENT AUTOMATED DEMAND RESPONSE BUILDING MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auslander, David; Culler, David; Wright, Paul; Lu, Yan; Piette, Mary

    2013-12-30

    The goal of the 2.5 year Distributed Intelligent Automated Demand Response (DIADR) project was to reduce peak electricity load of Sutardja Dai Hall at UC Berkeley by 30% while maintaining a healthy, comfortable, and productive environment for the occupants. We sought to bring together both central and distributed control to provide “deep” demand response1 at the appliance level of the building as well as typical lighting and HVAC applications. This project brought together Siemens Corporate Research and Siemens Building Technology (the building has a Siemens Apogee Building Automation System (BAS)), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (leveraging their Open Automated Demand Response (openADR), Auto-­Demand Response, and building modeling expertise), and UC Berkeley (related demand response research including distributed wireless control, and grid-­to-­building gateway development). Sutardja Dai Hall houses the Center for Information Technology Research in the Interest of Society (CITRIS), which fosters collaboration among industry and faculty and students of four UC campuses (Berkeley, Davis, Merced, and Santa Cruz). The 141,000 square foot building, occupied in 2009, includes typical office spaces and a nanofabrication laboratory. Heating is provided by a district heating system (steam from campus as a byproduct of the campus cogeneration plant); cooling is provided by one of two chillers: a more typical electric centrifugal compressor chiller designed for the cool months (Nov-­ March) and a steam absorption chiller for use in the warm months (April-­October). Lighting in the open office areas is provided by direct-­indirect luminaries with Building Management System-­based scheduling for open areas, and occupancy sensors for private office areas. For the purposes of this project, we focused on the office portion of the building. Annual energy consumption is approximately 8053 MWh; the office portion is estimated as 1924 MWh. The maximum peak load during the study period was 1175 kW. Several new tools facilitated this work, such as the Smart Energy Box, the distributed load controller or Energy Information Gateway, the web-­based DR controller (dubbed the Central Load-­Shed Coordinator or CLSC), and the Demand Response Capacity Assessment & Operation Assistance Tool (DRCAOT). In addition, an innovative data aggregator called sMAP (simple Measurement and Actuation Profile) allowed data from different sources collected in a compact form and facilitated detailed analysis of the building systems operation. A smart phone application (RAP or Rapid Audit Protocol) facilitated an inventory of the building’s plug loads. Carbon dioxide sensors located in conference rooms and classrooms allowed demand controlled ventilation. The extensive submetering and nimble access to this data provided great insight into the details of the building operation as well as quick diagnostics and analyses of tests. For example, students discovered a short-­cycling chiller, a stuck damper, and a leaking cooling coil in the first field tests. For our final field tests, we were able to see how each zone was affected by the DR strategies (e.g., the offices on the 7th floor grew very warm quickly) and fine-­tune the strategies accordingly.

  19. Impact of Utility-Scale Distributed Wind on Transmission-Level System Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brancucci Martinez-Anido, C.; Hodge, B. M.

    2014-09-01

    This report presents a new renewable integration study that aims to assess the potential for adding distributed wind to the current power system with minimal or no upgrades to the distribution or transmission electricity systems. It investigates the impacts of integrating large amounts of utility-scale distributed wind power on bulk system operations by performing a case study on the power system of the Independent System Operator-New England (ISO-NE).

  20. A Two-Stage Distributed Architecture for Voltage Control in Power Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hadjicostis, Christoforos

    (PHEVs). These generation and storage resources are commonly referred to as distributed energy resources in distribution networks that relies on controlling reactive power injections provided by distributed energy resources (DERs). A local controller on each bus of the network monitors the bus voltage and, whenever

  1. Arnold Schwarzenegger REAL-TIME GRID RELIABILITY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Energy Research (PIER) California Energy Commission Beth Chambers Contract Manager Jamie Patterson (VSA) prototype to monitor system voltage conditions and provide real time dispatchers with reliabilityArnold Schwarzenegger Governor REAL-TIME GRID RELIABILITY MANAGEMENT California ISO Real

  2. A survey of cross-layer power-reliability tradeoffs in multi and many core systems-on-chip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01

    and EDA tools, and embedded systems design. He is a seniorcomputer engineering and embedded systems at the computerand operating systems for embedded systems Bibiche M.

  3. An Investigation of the Utilization of Smart Meter Data to Adapt Overcurrent Protection for Radial Distribution Systems with a High Penetration of Distributed Generation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Douglin, Richard Henry

    2012-07-16

    The future of electric power distribution systems (DSs) is one that incorporates extensive amounts of advanced metering, distribution automation, and distributed generation technologies. Most DSs were designed to be radial ...

  4. Cybersecurity through Real-Time Distributed Control Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kisner, Roger A; Manges, Wayne W; MacIntyre, Lawrence Paul; Nutaro, James J; Munro Jr, John K; Ewing, Paul D; Howlader, Mostofa; Kuruganti, Phani Teja; Wallace, Richard M; Olama, Mohammed M

    2010-04-01

    Critical infrastructure sites and facilities are becoming increasingly dependent on interconnected physical and cyber-based real-time distributed control systems (RTDCSs). A mounting cybersecurity threat results from the nature of these ubiquitous and sometimes unrestrained communications interconnections. Much work is under way in numerous organizations to characterize the cyber threat, determine means to minimize risk, and develop mitigation strategies to address potential consequences. While it seems natural that a simple application of cyber-protection methods derived from corporate business information technology (IT) domain would lead to an acceptable solution, the reality is that the characteristics of RTDCSs make many of those methods inadequate and unsatisfactory or even harmful. A solution lies in developing a defense-in-depth approach that ranges from protection at communications interconnect levels ultimately to the control system s functional characteristics that are designed to maintain control in the face of malicious intrusion. This paper summarizes the nature of RTDCSs from a cybersecurity perspec tive and discusses issues, vulnerabilities, candidate mitigation approaches, and metrics.

  5. Power-Aware Autonomous Distributed Storage Systems for Internet Hosting Service Platforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banbara, Mutsunori

    percentage of the total computing system's energy is used by the data storage systems, various attemptsPower-Aware Autonomous Distributed Storage Systems for Internet Hosting Service Platforms Jumpei@osss.,hasebe@,kato@}cs.tsukuba.ac.jp Abstract. We present a power-saving method for large-scale distributed storage systems of Internet hosting

  6. Continuous-time Proportional-Integral Distributed Optimization for Networked Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Egerstedt, Magnus

    Continuous-time Proportional-Integral Distributed Optimization for Networked Systems Greg Drogea1;Continuous-time Proportional-Integral Distributed Optimization for Networked Systems Greg Droge and Hiroaki these methods to develop a continuous-time proportional-integral distributed optimization method. Furthermore

  7. Distributed Solar PV for Electricity System Resiliency: Policy and Regulatory Considerations (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-11-01

    Distributed Solar PV systems have the potential of increasing the grid's resiliency to unforeseen events, such as extreme weather events and attacks. This paper presents the role that distributed PV can play in electric grid resiliency, introduces basic system design requirements and options, and discusses the regulatory and policy options for supporting the use of distributed PV for the purpose of increased electricity resiliency.

  8. Contract-Based Load Management in Federated Distributed Systems Magdalena Balazinska, Hari Balakrishnan, and Mike Stonebraker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Contract-Based Load Management in Federated Distributed Systems Magdalena Balazinska, Hari://nms.lcs.mit.edu/projects/medusa/ Abstract This paper focuses on load management in loosely- coupled federated distributed systems. We in practice. Our load management mechanism is especially well- suited for distributed stream

  9. ContractBased Load Management in Federated Distributed Systems # Magdalena Balazinska, Hari Balakrishnan, and Mike Stonebraker

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Contract­Based Load Management in Federated Distributed Systems # Magdalena Balazinska, Hari://nms.lcs.mit.edu/projects/medusa/ Abstract This paper focuses on load management in loosely­ coupled federated distributed systems. We in practice. Our load management mechanism is especially well­ suited for distributed stream

  10. Panel on Microgrids Systems International Conference on System of Systems Engineering, April 16-18, 2007 San Antonio Abstract--Application of individual distributed generators can

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panel on Microgrids Systems International Conference on System of Systems Engineering, April 16 a system approach which views generation and associated loads as a subsystem or a "microgrid". The sources verification of the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) microgrid control concepts

  11. Ceph: A Scalable, High-Performance Distributed File System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weil, Sage; Brandt, Scott A; Miller, Ethan L; Long, Darrell D. E.; Maltzahn, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    allocation ta- bles with a pseudo-random data distribution function (allocation tables and replacing them with gen- erating functions.

  12. Monitoring Workflow Applications in Large Scale Distributed Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wallach, Dan

    Monitoring, Workflow Applications, Grid Environment, Runtime Estimation, Satellite Image Processing I promise or reliability possible. In a dynamic, heterogeneous environment such as the grid, monitoring that takes into account the various possible uses in the grid environment of the monitored data is a solution

  13. Low-Cost Hydrogen Distributed Production System Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.E. Thomas, Ph.D., President Franklin D. Lomax, Ph.D, CTO & Principal Investigator, and Maxim Lyubovski, Ph.D.

    2011-03-10

    H{sub 2}Gen, with the support of the Department of Energy, successfully designed, built and field-tested two steam methane reformers with 578 kg/day capacity, which has now become a standard commercial product serving customers in the specialty metals and PV manufacturing businesses. We demonstrated that this reformer/PSA system, when combined with compression, storage and dispensing (CSD) equipment could produce hydrogen that is already cost-competitive with gasoline per mile driven in a conventional (non-hybrid) vehicle. We further showed that mass producing this 578 kg/day system in quantities of just 100 units would reduce hydrogen cost per mile approximately 13% below the cost of untaxed gasoline per mile used in a hybrid electric vehicle. If mass produced in quantities of 500 units, hydrogen cost per mile in a FCEV would be 20% below the cost of untaxed gasoline in an HEV in the 2015-2020 time period using EIA fuel cost projections for natural gas and untaxed gasoline, and 45% below the cost of untaxed gasoline in a conventional car. This 20% to 45% reduction in fuel cost per mile would accrue even though hydrogen from this 578 kg/day system would cost approximately $4.14/kg, well above the DOE hydrogen cost targets of $2.50/kg by 2010 and $2.00/kg by 2015. We also estimated the cost of a larger, 1,500 kg/day SMR/PSA fueling system based on engineering cost scaling factors derived from the two H{sub 2}Gen products, a commercial 115 kg/day system and the 578 kg/day system developed under this DOE contract. This proposed system could support 200 to 250 cars per day, similar to a medium gasoline station. We estimate that the cost per mile from this larger 1,500 kg/day hydrogen fueling system would be 26% to 40% below the cost per mile of untaxed gasoline in an HEV and ICV respectively, even without any mass production cost reductions. In quantities of 500 units, we are projecting per mile cost reductions between 45% (vs. HEVs) and 62% (vs ICVs), with hydrogen costing approximately $2.87/kg, still above the DOE's 2010 $2.50/kg target. We also began laboratory testing of reforming ethanol, which we showed is currently the least expensive approach to making renewable hydrogen. Extended testing of neat ethanol in micro-reactors was successful, and we also were able to reform E-85 acquired from a local fueling station for 2,700 hours, although some modifications were required to handle the 15% gasoline present in E-85. We began initial tests of a catalyst-coated wall reformer tube that showed some promise in reducing the propensity to coke with E-85. These coated-wall tests ran for 350 hours. Additional resources would be required to commercialize an ethanol reformer operating on E-85, but there is no market for such a product at this time, so this ethanol reformer project was moth-balled pending future government or industry support. The two main objectives of this project were: (1) to design, build and test a steam methane reformer and pressure swing adsorption system that, if scaled up and mass produced, could potentially meet the DOE 2015 cost and efficiency targets for on-site distributed hydrogen generation, and (2) to demonstrate the efficacy of a low-cost renewable hydrogen generation system based on reforming ethanol to hydrogen at the fueling station.

  14. Using ductwork to improve supply plenum temperature distribution in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasut, Wilmer

    2011-01-01

    Air Distribution: Thermal Stratification. Webster, T. ,by promoting thermal stratification. Comfort and improvedsystem(1). The thermal stratification must be controlled not

  15. Distributed Integral Action: Stability Analysis and Frequency Control of Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johansson, Karl Henrik

    Distributed Integral Action: Stability Analysis and Frequency Control of Power Systems Martin Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden. Abstract--This paper analyzes distributed proportional- integral controllers. We prove that integral action can be successfully applied to consensus algorithms, where

  16. A Multi-State Model for the Reliability Assessment of a Distributed Generation System via Universal Generating Function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    renewable technology (e.g. wind or solar, etc.) whose behavior is described by a binary state, working of the renewable generator (e.g. solar generator, wind turbine, and electrical vehicle aggregation) State value Multiplication operator of u-functions Wind speed Total number of discretized wind speed states Discretized wind

  17. Detailed End Use Load Modeling for Distribution System Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Fuller, Jason C.

    2010-04-09

    The field of distribution system analysis has made significant advances in the past ten years. It is now standard practice when performing a power flow simulation to use an algorithm that is capable of unbalanced per-phase analysis. Recent work has also focused on examining the need for time-series simulations instead of examining a single time period, i.e., peak loading. One area that still requires a significant amount of work is the proper modeling of end use loads. Currently it is common practice to use a simple load model consisting of a combination of constant power, constant impedance, and constant current elements. While this simple form of end use load modeling is sufficient for a single point in time, the exact model values are difficult to determine and it is inadequate for some time-series simulations. This paper will examine how to improve simple time invariant load models as well as develop multi-state time variant models.

  18. Simulation of energy performance of underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01

    Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc Bauman,conventional overhead (OH) air conditioning and underfloorair distribution, air conditioning, energy, peak demand,

  19. Thermal stratification performance of underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webster, T.; Bauman, Fred; Shi, M.; Reese, J.

    2002-01-01

    Distribution (UFAD): Thermal Stratification Performance,"Engineers, Inc. Thermal Stratification Performance ofSAT) on the thermal stratification in interior spaces, and

  20. Automatic Performance Visualization of Distributed Real-time systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harmon, Trevor; Klefstad, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    Automatic Performance Visualization of Distributed Real-Timepro?l- ing tools with automatic instrumentation and dataprocedure was not entirely automatic be- cause, as explained

  1. WEBCASRE: A WEBBASED TOOL FOR SOFTWARE RELIABILITY MODELING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lyu, Michael R.

    of overall system reliability. This trend makes the estimation of software reliability more and more critical to most large­scale projects in their reliability engineering aspects. Traditionally, software reliabilityWEB­CASRE: A WEB­BASED TOOL FOR SOFTWARE RELIABILITY MODELING Michael R. Lyu \\Lambda JË?urgen Sch

  2. The potential for dynamic distribution systems to create a new energy marketplace

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bohnhoff, David

    Berkeley National Laboratory and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, the price of installedJuly 2014 The potential for dynamic distribution systems to create a new energy marketplace Transforming the Grid from the Distribution System Out Part of a continuing series on energy systems

  3. The Robustness of Resource Allocation in Parallel and Distributed Computing Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maciejewski, Anthony A. "Tony"

    The Robustness of Resource Allocation in Parallel and Distributed Computing Systems Shoukat Ali on the robustness of a resource allocation in parallel and distributed computing systems. What does robustness mean." In the context of resource allocation in parallel and dis- tributed computing systems, how is the concept

  4. Highly Available Distributed Storage Systems Lihao Xu 1 and Jehoshua Bruck 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Lihao

    Highly Available Distributed Storage Systems Lihao Xu 1 and Jehoshua Bruck 2 1 Department can be met by improving storage systems at the architec- tural level, i.e., using multiple distributed structure not only can increase the capacity and speed of storage systems, but also can bring fault

  5. Distributed stability tests for large-scale systems with limited model information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ulbrich, Michael

    . While the design of distributed control laws has received a lot of attention, the distributed analysis) within the Priority Program SPP 1305 "Control Theory of Digitally Networked Dynamical Systems-scale interconnected systems have attracted a lot of research recently in the field of system and control theory

  6. A case study review of technical and technology issues for transition of a utility load management program to provide system reliability resources in restructured electricity markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weller, G.H.

    2001-07-15

    Utility load management programs--including direct load control and interruptible load programs--were employed by utilities in the past as system reliability resources. With electricity industry restructuring, the context for these programs has changed; the market that was once controlled by vertically integrated utilities has become competitive, raising the question: can existing load management programs be modified so that they can effectively participate in competitive energy markets? In the short run, modified and/or improved operation of load management programs may be the most effective form of demand-side response available to the electricity system today. However, in light of recent technological advances in metering, communication, and load control, utility load management programs must be carefully reviewed in order to determine appropriate investments to support this transition. This report investigates the feasibility of and options for modifying an existing utility load management system so that it might provide reliability services (i.e. ancillary services) in the competitive markets that have resulted from electricity industry restructuring. The report is a case study of Southern California Edison's (SCE) load management programs. SCE was chosen because it operates one of the largest load management programs in the country and it operates them within a competitive wholesale electricity market. The report describes a wide range of existing and soon-to-be-available communication, control, and metering technologies that could be used to facilitate the evolution of SCE's load management programs and systems to provision of reliability services. The fundamental finding of this report is that, with modifications, SCE's load management infrastructure could be transitioned to provide critical ancillary services in competitive electricity markets, employing currently or soon-to-be available load control technologies.

  7. Reliability in the design phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siahpush, A.S.; Hills, S.W.; Pham, H. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Majumdar, D. [USDOE Idaho Field Office, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1991-12-01

    A study was performed to determine the common methods and tools that are available to calculated or predict a system`s reliability. A literature review and software survey are included. The desired product of this developmental work is a tool for the system designer to use in the early design phase so that the final design will achieve the desired system reliability without lengthy testing and rework. Three computer programs were written which provide the first attempt at fulfilling this need. The programs are described and a case study is presented for each one. This is a continuing effort which will be furthered in FY-1992. 10 refs.

  8. Distribution network use-of-system charges under high penetration of distributed energy resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bharatkumar, Ashwini

    2015-01-01

    Growing integration of distributed energy resources (DER) presents the electric power sector with the potential for signicant changes to technical operations, business models, and industry structure. New physical components, ...

  9. Ceph: A Scalable, High-Performance Distributed File System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weil, Sage; Brandt, Scott A; Miller, Ethan L; Long, Darrell D. E.; Maltzahn, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    recovery in large-scale storage systems. In Proceedings ofConference on Mass Storage Systems and Technologies, pageslarge, high performance storage systems. In Proceedings of

  10. Optimal Load Management System for Aircraft Electric Power Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maasoumy, Mehdi; Nuzzo, Pierluigi; Iandola, Forrest; Kamgarpour, Maryam; Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, Alberto; Tomlin, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Optimal Load Management System for Aircraft Electric Poweris to develop an optimal load management system based on thescheme where a high-level load management system receives as

  11. A multiobjective, multidisciplinary design optimization methodology for the conceptual design of distributed satellite systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jilla, Cyrus D., 1974-

    2002-01-01

    A multiobjective, multidisciplinary design optimization methodology for mathematically modeling the distributed satellite system (DSS) conceptual design problem as an optimization problem has been developed to advance the ...

  12. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01

    renewable and non-renewable energy systems including its global warming potential (potential for deep market penetration of renewable distributed energy

  13. A micromanipulation system for the preparation of colloid probes to study the adhesion mechanics of Adhesion failure is one of the most important issues concerning reliability of Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A micromanipulation system for the preparation of colloid probes to study the adhesion mechanics increase the reliability of devices (4). Previous studies have also reported thin films like graphene oxide (10//, 2007). 5. S. Borini et al., Ultrafast Graphene Oxide Humidity Sensors. ACS Nano 7, 11166 (2013

  14. Aalborg Universitet Distributed Secondary Control for Islanded MicroGrids A Networked Control Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    Aalborg Universitet Distributed Secondary Control for Islanded MicroGrids ­ A Networked Control, Q., Vasquez, J. C., & Guerrero, J. M. (2012). Distributed Secondary Control for Islanded MicroGrids M.; , "Distributed secondary control for islanded MicroGrids - A networked control systems approach

  15. Impact of Renewable Distributed Generation on Power Systems M. Begovi, A. Pregelj, A. Rohatgi D. Novosel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    benefits also include loss reduction, avoided costs of energy production, generation capacity, distributionImpact of Renewable Distributed Generation on Power Systems M. Begovi, A. Pregelj, A. Rohatgi D, eliminating the unnecessary transmission and distribution costs. In addition, it can reduce fossil fuel

  16. Pilot evaluation of electricity-reliability and power-quality monitoring in California's Silicon Valley with the I-Grid(R) system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eto, Joseph; Divan, Deepak; Brumsickle, William

    2004-02-01

    Power-quality events are of increasing concern for the economy because today's equipment, particularly computers and automated manufacturing devices, is susceptible to these imperceptible voltage changes. A small variation in voltage can cause this equipment to shut down for long periods, resulting in significant business losses. Tiny variations in power quality are difficult to detect except with expensive monitoring equipment used by trained technicians, so many electricity customers are unaware of the role of power-quality events in equipment malfunctioning. This report describes the findings from a pilot study coordinated through the Silicon Valley Manufacturers Group in California to explore the capabilities of I-Grid(R), a new power-quality monitoring system. This system is designed to improve the accessibility of power-quality in formation and to increase understanding of the growing importance of electricity reliability and power quality to the economy. The study used data collected by I-Grid sensors at seven Silicon Valley firms to investigate the impacts of power quality on individual study participants as well as to explore the capabilities of the I-Grid system to detect events on the larger electricity grid by means of correlation of data from the sensors at the different sites. In addition, study participants were interviewed about the value they place on power quality, and their efforts to address electricity-reliability and power-quality problems. Issues were identified that should be taken into consideration in developing a larger, potentially nationwide, network of power-quality sensors.

  17. Assessing business models arising from the integration of distributed energy systems in the Chilean electric power system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Le Dantec, Jorge I. (Jorge Ignacio)

    2014-01-01

    Electric power systems are more than just networks of generation, transmission and distribution assets. They are socio-technical systems, involving regulation, markets and technology availability. Presently, the dynamic ...

  18. Local distributed algorithms for multi-robot systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cornejo Collado, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    The field of swarm robotics focuses on controlling large populations of simple robots to accomplish tasks more effectively than what is possible using a single robot. This thesis develops distributed algorithms tailored ...

  19. Distributed anonymous function computation in information fusion and multiagent systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hendrickx, Julien

    We propose a model for deterministic distributed function computation by a network of identical and anonymous nodes, with bounded computation and storage capabilities that do not scale with the network size. Our goal is ...

  20. Distributed fiber optic intrusion sensor system for monitoring long perimeters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juarez, Juan C.

    2009-06-02

    A distributed sensor using an optical fiber for detecting and locating intruders over long perimeters (>10 km) is described. Phase changes resulting from either the pressure of the intruder on the ground immediately above the buried fiber or from...

  1. Request for Information for Distributed Wind Energy Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department’s Wind Program is seeking feedback from the wind industry, academia, research laboratories, government agencies, and other stakeholders regarding the Energy Department’s new perspective on Distributed Wind R&D.

  2. Reliability in the design phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siahpush, A.S.; Hills, S.W.; Pham, H. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Majumdar, D. (USDOE Idaho Field Office, Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1991-12-01

    A study was performed to determine the common methods and tools that are available to calculated or predict a system's reliability. A literature review and software survey are included. The desired product of this developmental work is a tool for the system designer to use in the early design phase so that the final design will achieve the desired system reliability without lengthy testing and rework. Three computer programs were written which provide the first attempt at fulfilling this need. The programs are described and a case study is presented for each one. This is a continuing effort which will be furthered in FY-1992. 10 refs.

  3. Real Time Grid Reliability Management 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eto, Joe

    2008-01-01

    W.R. Schmus, D.C. Dawson, “Transmission Voltage RecoveryEnhancing AC-DC Power System Transmission Reliability and

  4. A Multi-Agent Solution to Distribution System Management by Considering Distributed Generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Minjie

    has both advantages and disadvantages [7]. On one hand, DGs can supply power to the network near such as solar and wind, the distribution network may perform differently from the conventionally ex- pected]. Typically, the bulk generation is the only energy resource to a DN, and the direction of the power flow

  5. Economical Analysis of the Cold Air Distribution System: A Case Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Z.; Xu, W.; Li, J.; Zhao, J.; Niu, L.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we briefly introduce the super cold air distribution technique. By comparing the schemes of two air conditioning systems, including a modified air conditioning system, this paper analyzes the technique parameters and the economics...

  6. Innovative Distributed Power Grid Interconnection and Control Systems: Final Report, December 11, 2000 - August 30, 2005

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DePodesta, K.; Birlingmair, D.; West, R.

    2006-03-01

    The contract goal was to further advance distributed generation in the marketplace by making installations more cost-effective and compatible with existing systems. This was achieved by developing innovative grid interconnection and control systems.

  7. Multiclass queueing systems in heavy traffic: an asymptotic approach based on distributional and conservation laws

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertsimas, Dimitris J.

    We propose a new approach to analyze multiclass queueing systems in heavy traffic based on what we consider as fundamental laws in queueing systems, namely distributional and conservation laws. Methodologically, we extend ...

  8. Field Test of a DHW Distribution System: Temperature and Flow Analyses (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barley, C. D.; Hendron, B.; Magnusson, L.

    2010-05-13

    This presentation discusses a field test of a DHW distribution system in an occupied townhome. It includes measured fixture flows and temperatures, a tested recirculation system, evaluated disaggregation of flow by measured temperatures, Aquacraft Trace Wizard analysis, and comparison.

  9. Integration of Electric Energy Storage into Power Systems with Renewable Energy Resources 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Yixing 1985-

    2012-10-26

    This dissertation investigates the distribution and transmission systems reliability and economic impact of energy storage and renewable energy integration. The reliability and economy evaluation framework is presented. Novel operation strategies...

  10. Commercial thermal distribution systems, Final report for CIEE/CEC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, T.

    2011-01-01

    System L3 ducts upstream and downstream of VAVboxes. Similarof System L4 ducts upstream and downstream of VAVboxes.monitored pressures upstream and downstream of mixing boxes

  11. Using a Potential Game for Power Reduction in Distributed Storage Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banbara, Mutsunori

    Using a Potential Game for Power Reduction in Distributed Storage Systems Koji Hasebe, Takumi--We present a game-theoretic approach for power reduction in large-scale distributed storage systems. The key the running time of the disks in active mode by 12.7­18.7%, with an overall average response time of 50­190 ms

  12. Switching-path distribution in multidimensional systems H. B. Chan,1,* M. I. Dykman,2,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dykman, Mark

    Switching-path distribution in multidimensional systems H. B. Chan,1,* M. I. Dykman,2, and C; published 13 November 2008 We explore the distribution of paths followed in fluctuation-induced switching demonstration of the lack of time-reversal symmetry in switching of systems far from thermal equilibrium

  13. Termination Detection in an Asynchronous Distributed System with Crash-Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mittal, Neeraj

    Termination Detection in an Asynchronous Distributed System with Crash-Recovery Failures Felix C 75083, USA 1 Termination Detection In practice, it cannot easily be detected whether a computation running in a distributed system has terminated or not. Thus, suitable observing algorithms are required

  14. Minimizing Churn in Distributed Systems P. Brighten Godfrey, Scott Shenker, and Ion Stoica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Irvine, University of

    Minimizing Churn in Distributed Systems P. Brighten Godfrey, Scott Shenker, and Ion Stoica UC of distributed systems is to deal with churn -- change in the set of participating nodes due to joins, graceful leaves, and failures. A high churn rate can increase costs or de- crease service quality. This paper

  15. Learning Price-Elasticity of Smart Consumers in Power Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gómez, Vicenç

    rely on consumers and/or loads responding to exogenous signals, typically in the form of energy pricingLearning Price-Elasticity of Smart Consumers in Power Distribution Systems Vicenc¸ G´omez1, Michael for estimating the price elasticity of many customers comprising a distribution system. We utilize a sparse

  16. Cloud Computing and Distributed Systems Laboratory DEPT. OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND SOFTWARE ENGINEERING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Melbourne, University of

    Cloud Computing and Distributed Systems Laboratory DEPT. OF COMPUTER SCIENCE AND SOFTWARE ENGINEERING THE UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE, AUSTRALIA The Cloud Computing and Distributed Systems (CLOUDS in 2008 by the CLOUDS lab at the University of Melbourne, facilitates the realization of the above vision

  17. Effect of Component Failures on Economics of Distributed Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lubin, Barry T.

    2012-02-02

    This report describes an applied research program to assess the realistic costs of grid connected photovoltaic (PV) installations. A Board of Advisors was assembled that included management from the regional electric power utilities, as well as other participants from companies that work in the electric power industry. Although the program started with the intention of addressing effective load carrying capacity (ELCC) for utility-owned photovoltaic installations, results from the literature study and recommendations from the Board of Advisors led investigators to the conclusion that obtaining effective data for this analysis would be difficult, if not impossible. The effort was then re-focused on assessing the realistic costs and economic valuations of grid-connected PV installations. The 17 kW PV installation on the University of Hartford's Lincoln Theater was used as one source of actual data. The change in objective required a more technically oriented group. The re-organized working group (changes made due to the need for more technically oriented participants) made site visits to medium-sized PV installations in Connecticut with the objective of developing sources of operating histories. An extensive literature review helped to focus efforts in several technical and economic subjects. The objective of determining the consequences of component failures on both generation and economic returns required three analyses. The first was a Monte-Carlo-based simulation model for failure occurrences and the resulting downtime. Published failure data, though limited, was used to verify the results. A second model was developed to predict the reduction in or loss of electrical generation related to the downtime due to these failures. Finally, a comprehensive economic analysis, including these failures, was developed to determine realistic net present values of installed PV arrays. Two types of societal benefits were explored, with quantitative valuations developed for both. Some societal benefits associated with financial benefits to the utility of having a distributed generation capacity that is not fossil-fuel based have been included into the economic models. Also included and quantified in the models are several benefits to society more generally: job creation and some estimates of benefits from avoiding greenhouse emissions. PV system failures result in a lowering of the economic values of a grid-connected system, but this turned out to be a surprisingly small effect on the overall economics. The most significant benefit noted resulted from including the societal benefits accrued to the utility. This provided a marked increase in the valuations of the array and made the overall value proposition a financially attractive one, in that net present values exceeded installation costs. These results indicate that the Department of Energy and state regulatory bodies should consider focusing on societal benefits that create economic value for the utility, confirm these quantitative values, and work to have them accepted by the utilities and reflected in the rate structures for power obtained from grid-connected arrays. Understanding and applying the economic benefits evident in this work can significantly improve the business case for grid-connected PV installations. This work also indicates that the societal benefits to the population are real and defensible, but not nearly as easy to justify in a business case as are the benefits that accrue directly to the utility.

  18. Distribution of Wind Power Forecasting Errors from Operational Systems (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodge, B. M.; Ela, E.; Milligan, M.

    2011-10-01

    This presentation offers new data and statistical analysis of wind power forecasting errors in operational systems.

  19. Overview of recent studies and modifications being made to RHIC to mitigate the effects of a potential failure to the helium distribution system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuozzolo, J.; Bruno, D.; DiLieto, A.; Heppner, G.; Karol, R.; Lessard,E.; Liaw, C-J; McIntyre, G; Mi, C.; Reich, J.; Sandberg, J.; Seberg, S.; Smart, L.; Tallerico, T.; Theisen, C.; Todd, R.; Zapasek R.

    2011-03-28

    In order to cool the superconducting magnets in RHIC, its helium refrigerator distributes 4.5 K helium throughout the tunnel along with helium distribution for the magnet line recoolers, the heat shield, and the associated return lines. The worse case for failure would be a release from the magnet distribution line which operates at 3.5 to 4.5 atmospheres and contains the energized magnet but with a potential energy of 70 MJoules should the insulation system fail or an electrical connection opens. Studies were done to determine release rate of the helium and the resultant reduction in O{sub 2} concentration in the RHIC tunnel and service buildings. Equipment and components were also reviewed for design and reliability and modifications were made to reduce the likelihood of failure and to reduce the volume of helium that could be released.

  20. Delft University of Technology Parallel and Distributed Systems Report Series

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of high churn and high-load scenario's. The versatility and good performance of Dispersy is shown positive rates. . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 6 Comparing the distribution of shortest paths between a random and our overlay. 13 7 Success-rate of connections between nodes in the NAT traversal experiment. . . . 15

  1. PREPRINT; TO APPEAR IN IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON RELIABILITY IN 2011 1 Exploring complex systems aspects of blackout risk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dobson, Ian

    , IEEE Abstract--Electric power transmission systems are a key in- frastructure and blackouts-organized criticality, electric power transmission system, infrastructure, power law ACRONYM IEAR Interrupted Energy Power flow through transmission line joining node i to node j Fijmax Maximum power flow through

  2. Abstract: One of the fundamental limits to high-perfor-mance, high-reliability file systems is memory's vulnerabil-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Peter M.

    's vulnerability to power outages is easy to understand and fix. A $119 uninterruptible power supply can keep data (files) because it is vulnerable to power outages and operating system crashes. Memory a system running long enough to dump memory to disk in the event of a power outage [APC96], or one can use

  3. Human Reliability Program Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bodin, Michael

    2012-09-25

    This presentation covers the high points of the Human Reliability Program, including certification/decertification, critical positions, due process, organizational structure, program components, personnel security, an overview of the US DOE reliability program, retirees and academia, and security program integration.

  4. Photovoltaic performance and reliability workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kroposki, B.

    1996-10-01

    This proceedings is the compilation of papers presented at the ninth PV Performance and Reliability Workshop held at the Sheraton Denver West Hotel on September 4--6, 1996. This years workshop included presentations from 25 speakers and had over 100 attendees. All of the presentations that were given are included in this proceedings. Topics of the papers included: defining service lifetime and developing models for PV module lifetime; examining and determining failure and degradation mechanisms in PV modules; combining IEEE/IEC/UL testing procedures; AC module performance and reliability testing; inverter reliability/qualification testing; standardization of utility interconnect requirements for PV systems; need activities to separate variables by testing individual components of PV systems (e.g. cells, modules, batteries, inverters,charge controllers) for individual reliability and then test them in actual system configurations; more results reported from field experience on modules, inverters, batteries, and charge controllers from field deployed PV systems; and system certification and standardized testing for stand-alone and grid-tied systems.

  5. A Performance Oriented Design Methodology for Large-Scale Distributed Data Intensive Information Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kerschberg, Larry

    -4444, USA Abstract The Earth Observing System (EOS) Data and In- formation System (EOSDIS) is perhaps one to the design of the EOSDIS Core System (ECS). Performance results, based on queuing network models of ECS-scale, geographically distributed, and handle very large volumes of data is the Earth Ob- serving System (EOS) Data

  6. Reliability Assessment The Reliability of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ...................................................................................................................4 SUMMER 2006 HEAT WAVE .......................6 CONSTRUCTION OF NEW TRANSMISSION IS STILL SLOW -- CONTINUES TO FACE OBSTACLES..............................................11 RELIABILITY WILL DEPEND ON CLOSE COORDINATION OF GENERATION AND TRANSMISSION PLANNING

  7. Evaluating Domestic Hot Water Distribution System Options with Validated Analysis Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weitzel, E.; Hoeschele, E.

    2014-09-01

    A developing body of work is forming that collects data on domestic hot water consumption, water use behaviors, and energy efficiency of various distribution systems. Transient System Simulation Tool (TRNSYS) is a full distribution system developed that has been validated using field monitoring data and then exercised in a number of climates to understand climate impact on performance. In this study, the Building America team built upon previous analysis modeling work to evaluate differing distribution systems and the sensitivities of water heating energy and water use efficiency to variations of climate, load, distribution type, insulation and compact plumbing practices. Overall, 124 different TRNSYS models were simulated. The results of this work are useful in informing future development of water heating best practices guides as well as more accurate (and simulation time efficient) distribution models for annual whole house simulation programs.

  8. Delivering a low-cost, reliable drip irrigation filtration system for micro-irrigation in developing countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenlee, Alison S.

    The cylindrical filters presently used in drip irrigation systems frequently clog, increasing pressure loss and lowering the flow rate through the filters. This work investigates alternative filtration strategies that ...

  9. Reliability analysis of a passive cooling system using a response surface with an application to the Flexible Conversion Ratio Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fong, Christopher J. (Christopher Joseph)

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive risk-informed methodology for passive safety system design and performance assessment is presented and demonstrated on the Flexible Conversion Ratio Reactor (FCRR). First, the methodology provides a framework ...

  10. Methods for comparative assessment of active and passive safety systems with respect to reliability, uncertainty, economy, and flexibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oh, Jiyong

    2008-01-01

    Passive cooling systems sometimes use natural circulation, and they are not dependent on emergency AC power or offsite power, which can make designs simpler through the reduction of emergency power supplying infrastructure. ...

  11. Load Modeling and State Estimation Methods for Power Distribution Systems: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tom McDermott

    2010-05-07

    The project objective was to provide robust state estimation for distribution systems, comparable to what has been available on transmission systems for decades. This project used an algorithm called Branch Current State Estimation (BCSE), which is more effective than classical methods because it decouples the three phases of a distribution system, and uses branch current instead of node voltage as a state variable, which is a better match to current measurement.

  12. Integrating wind turbines into the Orcas Island distribution system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaininger, H.W.

    1998-09-01

    This research effort consists of two years of wind data collection and analysis to investigate the possibility of strategically locating a megawatt (MW) scale wind farm near the end of an Orcas Power and light Company (OPALCO) 25-kilovolt (kV) distribution circuit to defer the need to upgrade the line to 69 kV. The results of this study support the results of previous work in which another year of wind data and collection was performed. Both this study and the previous study show that adding a MW-scale wind farm at the Mt. Constitution site is a feasible alternative to upgrading the OPALCO 25-kV distribution circuit to 69 kV.

  13. Reliability Meets Big Data: Opportunities and Challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    Reliability Meets Big Data: Opportunities and Challenges William Q. Meeker Department of Statistics maintenance operations. 1.2 Examples of systems providing big data Some examples of particular systems 1, 2013 Abstract Reliability field data such as that obtained from warranty claims and maintenance

  14. identification Distributed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schenato, Luca

    Networked Control Systems Clock Sync Channel identification in WSN Distributed control of Smart. Sandro Zampieri #12;Networked Control Systems Clock Sync Channel identification in WSN Distributed Systems Clock Sync Channel identification in WSN Distributed control of Smart Grids Conclusions Issues

  15. Carbon and Water Resource Management for Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hendrickson, Thomas Peter

    2013-01-01

    C. ; Application of the LCA methodology to water managementtreatment plant. 10th SETAC LCA Case Studies Symposium.systems by using EIO-LCA-based multiobjective optimization.

  16. Carbon and Water Resource Management for Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hendrickson, Thomas Peter

    2013-01-01

    4 April, 2013. (4) 2010 Water Use Survey Summary Estimates –State Totals; Texas Water Development Board: Austin, TX,indicators for urban water systems. Urban Water. 2004, 4,

  17. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combustion Turbine CHP System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    INDUSTRIAL TECHNOLOGIES PROGRAM Combustion Turbine CHP System for Food Processing Industry Reducing Industry's Environmental Footprint and Easing Transmission Congestion Based at a...

  18. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems. Volume 2, Utility case assessments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaininger, H.W.; Ellis, P.R.; Schaefer, J.C.

    1994-06-01

    Electric utility distribution system impacts associated with the integration of renewable energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV) and wind turbines (WT) are considered in this project. The impacts are expected to vary from site to site according to the following characteristics: (1) The local solar insolation and/or wind characteristics; (2) renewable energy source penetration level; (3) whether battery or other energy storage systems are applied; and (4) local utility distribution design standards and planning practices. Small, distributed renewable energy sources are connected to the utility distribution system like other, similar kW- and MW-scale equipment and loads. Residential applications are expected to be connected to single-phase 120/240-V secondaries. Larger kw-scale applications may be connected to three-phase secondaries, and larger hundred-kW and MW-scale applications, such as MW-scale windfarms or PV plants, may be connected to electric utility primary systems via customer-owned primary and secondary collection systems. Small, distributed renewable energy sources installed on utility distribution systems will also produce nonsite-specific utility generation system benefits such as energy and capacity displacement benefits, in addition to the local site-specific distribution system benefits. Although generation system benefits are not site-specific, they are utility-specific, and they vary significantly among utilities in different regions. In addition, transmission system benefits, environmental benefits and other benefits may apply. These benefits also vary significantly among utilities and regions. Seven utility case studies considering PV, WT, and battery storage were conducted to identify a range of potential renewable energy source distribution system applications.

  19. Air Distribution and Microenvironment Evaluation of a Desktop Task Conditioning System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheng, G.

    2006-01-01

    equation model and two equation model. At present, k-? model is mostly adopted in indoor airflow[4]. Researches[5-6] obtained reliable results from applying k-? model in numerical simulation of three dimensional airflow field of air conditioning... of the task conditioning system. Key words: task air conditioning; numerical simulation; airflow; HDG; VDG; microenvironment 1. INTRODUCTION Total-volume ventilation and air conditioning of rooms are most used at present. Rooms are used...

  20. The distribution of localization centers in some discrete random systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fumihiko Nakano

    2012-10-16

    As a supplement of our previous work, we consider the localized region of the random Schroedinger operators on $l^2({\\bf Z}^d)$ and study the point process composed of their eigenvalues and corresponding localization centers. For the Anderson model, we show that, this point process in the natural scaling limit converges in distribution to the Poisson process on the product space of energy and space. In other models with suitable Wegner-type bounds, we can at least show that any limiting point processes are infinitely divisible.

  1. Fusion barrier distributions in systems with finite excitation energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Hagino; N. Takigawa; A. B. Balantekin

    1997-06-24

    Eigen-channel approach to heavy-ion fusion reactions is exact only when the excitation energy of the intrinsic motion is zero. In order to take into account effects of finite excitation energy, we introduce an energy dependence to weight factors in the eigen-channel approximation. Using two channel problem, we show that the weight factors are slowly changing functions of incident energy. This suggests that the concept of the fusion barrier distribution still holds to a good approximation even when the excitation energy of the intrinsic motion is finite. A transition to the adiabatic tunneling, where the coupling leads to a static potential renormalization, is also discussed.

  2. Distributed Resource Energy Analysis and Management System (DREAMS)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergy Webinar:IAbout Us|of EnergySmall- ReportDistributed

  3. An Examination of Temporal Trends in Electricity Reliability Based on Reports from U.S. Electric Utilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eto, Joseph H.; LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Larsen, Peter; Todd, Annika; Fisher, Emily

    2012-01-06

    Since the 1960s, the U.S. electric power system has experienced a major blackout about once every 10 years. Each has been a vivid reminder of the importance society places on the continuous availability of electricity and has led to calls for changes to enhance reliability. At the root of these calls are judgments about what reliability is worth and how much should be paid to ensure it. In principle, comprehensive information on the actual reliability of the electric power system and on how proposed changes would affect reliability ought to help inform these judgments. Yet, comprehensive, national-scale information on the reliability of the U.S. electric power system is lacking. This report helps to address this information gap by assessing trends in U.S. electricity reliability based on information reported by electric utilities on power interruptions experienced by their customers. Our research augments prior investigations, which focused only on power interruptions originating in the bulk power system, by considering interruptions originating both from the bulk power system and from within local distribution systems. Our research also accounts for differences among utility reliability reporting practices by employing statistical techniques that remove the influence of these differences on the trends that we identify. The research analyzes up to 10 years of electricity reliability information collected from 155 U.S. electric utilities, which together account for roughly 50% of total U.S. electricity sales. The questions analyzed include: 1. Are there trends in reported electricity reliability over time? 2. How are trends in reported electricity reliability affected by the installation or upgrade of an automated outage management system? 3. How are trends in reported electricity reliability affected by the use of IEEE Standard 1366-2003?

  4. Method to improve reliability of a fuel cell system using low performance cell detection at low power operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, Tayoung; Ganapathy, Sriram; Jung, Jaehak; Savage, David R.; Lakshmanan, Balasubramanian; Vecasey, Pamela M.

    2013-04-16

    A system and method for detecting a low performing cell in a fuel cell stack using measured cell voltages. The method includes determining that the fuel cell stack is running, the stack coolant temperature is above a certain temperature and the stack current density is within a relatively low power range. The method further includes calculating the average cell voltage, and determining whether the difference between the average cell voltage and the minimum cell voltage is greater than a predetermined threshold. If the difference between the average cell voltage and the minimum cell voltage is greater than the predetermined threshold and the minimum cell voltage is less than another predetermined threshold, then the method increments a low performing cell timer. A ratio of the low performing cell timer and a system run timer is calculated to identify a low performing cell.

  5. Technical Challenges of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Impacts to the US Power System: Distribution System Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerkensmeyer, Clint; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; DeSteese, John G.

    2010-01-01

    This report documents work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Department of Energy (DOE) to address three basic questions concerning how typical existing electrical distribution systems would be impacted by the addition of PHEVs to residential loads.

  6. Impact of Distribution-Connected Large-Scale Wind Turbines on Transmission System Stability during Large Disturbances: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Y.; Allen, A.; Hodge, B. M.

    2014-02-01

    This work examines the dynamic impacts of distributed utility-scale wind power during contingency events on both the distribution system and the transmission system. It is the first step toward investigating high penetrations of distribution-connected wind power's impact on both distribution and transmission stability.

  7. The global distribution of large subaerial distributary fluvial systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gwynn, David Wilkinson

    2002-01-01

    of these features was presented by Wilkinson et al. (1997). This thesis attempts to provide a more detailed characterization and classification of these features. Fourteen systems in South America, Africa, and Asia were examined using Shuttle photography and AVHRR...

  8. Carbon and Water Resource Management for Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hendrickson, Thomas Peter

    2013-01-01

    V. D. ; Saegrov, S. ; Asset management for urban wastewater16) Parker, P. A. Asset Management Approach: Systems andFree Ride is Over: Asset Management Can Help Seminar, San

  9. Lessons learned in modeling Underfloor Air Distribution system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Kwang Ho; Schiavon, Stefano; Webster, Tom; Bauman, Fred; Feng, Jingjuan; Hoyt, Tyler

    2011-01-01

    room air stratification and thermal comfort. INTRODUCTIONsuch as thermal decay and room air stratification, properlystratification and its implications on energy performance; 5) implications of system design and operation on thermal

  10. A Distributed Wearable, Wireless Sensor System for Evaluating Professional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lapinski, Michael Tomasz

    This paper introduces a compact, wireless, wearable system that measures signals indicative of forces, torques and other descriptive and evaluative features that the human body undergoes during bursts of extreme physical ...

  11. Distributed Self-triggered Control for Multi-agent Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dimarogonas, Dimos V.

    It is desirable to limit the amount of communication and computation generated by each agent in a large multi-agent system. Event- and self-triggered control strategies have been recently proposed as alternatives to ...

  12. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: CHP and Bioenergy Systems...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    30 kW microturbines work together to produce 1.3 MW of total power - Largest microturbine power plant to run strictly on landfill gas CHP Systems for Landfills and WWTP November...

  13. Sophisticated Cooperation in FA/C Distributed Problem Solving Systems \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carver III, Norman

    Sophisticated Cooperation in FA/C Distributed Problem Solving Systems \\Lambda Norman Carver Zarko, cooperative (FA/C) distributed problem solving paradigm, agents ex­ change tentative and partial results in order to converge on correct solutions. The key questions for FA/C problem solving are: how should

  14. Understanding the Influence of Adversaries in Distributed Systems Holly P. Borowski and Jason R. Marden

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marden, Jason R.

    . Marden Abstract-- Transitioning from a centralized to a distributed decision-making strategy can create equilibria. I. INTRODUCTION Engineering and social systems often consist of many agents making decisions may use a distributed control strategy to limit communication and thus remain undetected. Social

  15. REDESIGNING A PHYSICAL DISTRIBUTION AND LOGISTICS SYSTEM: THE FEBAL CUCINE CASE STUDY 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Di Pillo, Gianni

    1 REDESIGNING A PHYSICAL DISTRIBUTION AND LOGISTICS SYSTEM: THE FEBAL CUCINE CASE STUDY 1 Fabio ABSTRACT The authors examine the questions of physical distribution and logistics management developed within the framework of an European project named ECOSELL is presented. Keywords: Logistics

  16. A distributed, graphical user interface based, computer control system for atomic physics experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    factor for jacket structures for offshore wind turbines in Rhode Island J. Renewable Sustainable Energy 4A distributed, graphical user interface based, computer control system for atomic physics OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS 84, 015105 (2013) A distributed, graphical user interface based, computer control

  17. Solid oxide fuel cell systems with hot zones having improved reactant distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poshusta, Joseph C.; Booten, Charles W.; Martin, Jerry L.

    2012-11-06

    A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system having a hot zone with a center cathode air feed tube for improved reactant distribution, a CPOX reactor attached at the anode feed end of the hot zone with a tail gas combustor at the opposing end for more uniform heat distribution, and a counter-flow heat exchanger for efficient heat retention.

  18. Solid oxide fuel cell systems with hot zones having improved reactant distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poshusta, Joseph C; Booten, Charles W; Martin, Jerry L

    2013-12-24

    A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) system having a hot zone with a center cathode air feed tube for improved reactant distribution, a CPOX reactor attached at the anode feed end of the hot zone with a tail gas combustor at the opposing end for more uniform heat distribution, and a counter-flow heat exchanger for efficient heat retention.

  19. Energy storage management system with distributed wireless sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Bandhauer, Todd M.

    2015-12-08

    An energy storage system having a multiple different types of energy storage and conversion devices. Each device is equipped with one or more sensors and RFID tags to communicate sensor information wirelessly to a central electronic management system, which is used to control the operation of each device. Each device can have multiple RFID tags and sensor types. Several energy storage and conversion devices can be combined.

  20. Creating a Transactive Energy Framework: Improving Reliability and Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melton, Ronald B.

    2013-11-01

    The use of demand response and other flexible distributed resources over the past decade for market efficiency and grid reliability has grown dramatically. Federal and state policy objectives point to an important role for customer loads, generation and storage in the management of an increasingly unpredictable power system. As we consider the need to substantially scale the use of flexible distributed energy resources, there has been growing attention to the need to address not only the economics, but also the control system implications to ensure grid reliability. This has led to a focus on an area of activity called “Transactive Energy.” Transactive Energy refers to the combination of economic and control techniques that improve grid reliability and efficiency. These techniques may also be used to optimize operations within a customer’s facility. The Department of Energy has supported the GridWise® Architecture Council (“the Council”) to develop a framework to provide opportunity for collaboration among the many stakeholders involved in the transformation of the power system.